WorldWideScience

Sample records for activity levels

  1. Global physical activity levels

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years-old) ...

  2. Valuation of companies activity on sustainability level

    S. Nadolski

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Paper presents a possibilities of companies valuation due to their activity in accordance with sustainable development.Design/methodology/approach: The article describes best known methods of companies assessment (stock indices, non-financial reports and other indicators connected with sustainability. Also there is a history of indices methodology which comes from ethical, religious problems and sustainable development principles.Findings: There is still more companies interested in being (as a part of sustainability indices or other rankings. Research organizations should be concentrated on different type of rankings which contain summary report of best available techniques.Research limitations/implications: Every sustainability index or non-financial reports ranking should be important part of companies management thinking. It is important idea to create these indices for every local stock exchange. Also companies should publish true and clear non-financial reports.Originality/value: The paper concerns on existing indices and tries to make new look at sustainability problems. Important conclusions are connected with non-financial reports and possible connections between indices, rankings and best available techniques.

  3. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: A CROSS SECTIONAL SURVEY

    Roshini Rajappan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Physical inactivity levels are rising in developing countries and Malaysia is of no exception. Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003 reported that the prevalence of physical inactivity was 39.7% and the prevalence was higher for women (42.6% than men (36.7%. In Malaysia, the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2006 reported that 43.7% (5.5 million of Malaysian adults were physically inactive. These statistics show that physically inactive is an important public health concern in Malaysia. College students have been found to have poor physical activity habits. The objective of this study was to identify the physical activity level among students of Asia Metropolitan University (AMU in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: The study design was a cross sectional survey. A total of 100 participants comprising of 50 male and 50 female students were selected for the study by means of convenience sampling. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ short form was used to identify the physical activity level. Results: A greater percentage of males (56% showed high physical activity level than females (24%. In contrast, females showed high percentage of low physical activity level. Students in the age range of 22-25 years depicted more percentage (43.5% of high physical activity level. When comparison of physical activity levels were done among different races, Indian students showed greater percentage (61.8% of high physical activity level. Furthermore, students who were underweight and overweight had 50% and 46.7% of high physical activity levels respectively which are greater than the values observed in normal body weight students. Conclusion: The physical activity level among students was found satisfactory although the percentage of low level of physical activity was found higher in female students.

  4. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting.

  5. Solar Activity, Different Geomagnetic Activity Levels and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Dimitrova, Svetla; Jordanova, Malina; Stoilova, Irina; Taseva, Tatiana; Maslarov, Dimitar

    Results on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data covering the period from 1.12.1995 to 31.12.2004 and concerned daily distribution of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia region on the day of admission at the hospital. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms, those caused by Magnetic Clouds (MC) and by High Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS), on AMI morbidity. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI. ANOVA revealed that AMI number was signifi- cantly increased from the day before (-1st) till the day after (+1st) geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day.

  6. Study on the physical activity level of Turkish males

    Ramiz Arabacı

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate physical activity (PA level of the Turkish males who lived in BUrsa. A total of 365 subjects between 18 - 69 age participated to this study. To determine physical activity levels, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was applied. PA levels of subjects were categorized as inactive, minimum active and HEPA active by using MET method. The relations of parameters, such as their age, BMI, education, marital status, number of children, smoking and alcohol use were determined with PA level. The results were analyzed by using Chi - Square test. The participants have 1725 METmin/week average physical activity level, and 47.7 % of them were physically inactive, 30.4 % were physically minimum active and 21.9 % were physically hepa active. As a result, it can be said that the physical activity levels of Turkish males who lived in Bursa are not sufficient and the inactive people are very common.

  7. Ferromagnetic interaction model of activity level in workplace communication

    Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Yano, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    The nature of human-human interaction, specifically, how people synchronize with each other in multiple-participant conversations, is described by a ferromagnetic interaction model of people’s activity levels. We found two microscopic human interaction characteristics from a real-environment face-to-face conversation. The first characteristic is that people quite regularly synchronize their activity level with that of the other participants in a conversation. The second characteristic is that the degree of synchronization increases as the number of participants increases. Based on these microscopic ferromagnetic characteristics, a “conversation activity level” was modeled according to the Ising model. The results of a simulation of activity level based on this model well reproduce macroscopic experimental measurements of activity level. This model will give a new insight into how people interact with each other in a conversation.

  8. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male...

  9. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1 has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p<0.001. Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP, containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons’ active ageing level in Thailand.

  10. Murine erythrocytes contain high levels of lysophospholipase activity

    Kamp, J.A.F. op den; Roelofsen, B.; Sanderink, G.; Middelkoop, E.; Hamer, R.

    1984-01-01

    Murine erythrocytes were found to be unique in the high levels of lysophospholipase activity in the cytosol of these cells. The specific activity of the enzyme in the cytosol of the murine cells is 10-times higher than in the cytosol of rabbit erythrocytes and approximately three orders of magnitude

  11. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  12. Active Crohn's disease is associated with low vitamin D levels

    Jørgensen, Søren Peter; Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Agnholt, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Crohn's disease prevalence increases with increasing latitude. Because most vitamin D comes from sunlight exposure and murine models of intestinal inflammation have demonstrated beneficial effects of 1,25-(OH)(2) vitamin D treatment, we hypothesised that Crohn's disease...... activity is associated with low vitamin D levels. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 182 CD patients and 62 healthy controls, we measured serum 25-OH vitamin D. Stratified analysis was used to compare 25-OH vitamin D levels with Crohn's disease activity index, C-reactive protein, smoking status, intake...... of oral vitamin D supplements and seasonal variation in CD patients and healthy controls. RESULTS: Serum 25-OH vitamin D was inversely associated with disease activity: Median 25-OH vitamin D levels of Crohn's disease in remission, mildly, and moderately active diseases evaluated by Crohn's disease...

  13. Systemic lupus erythematosus activity and beta two microglobulin levels

    Thelma Larocca Skare

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease with a cyclical clinical course. Evaluation of the clinical activity of this disease is important for choosing the correct treatment. The objective of this study was to analyze the value of beta-2 microglobulin (β2M serum levels in determining SLE clinical activity.DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study conducted at the rheumatology outpatient clinic of a private university hospital.METHODS: 129 SLE patients were studied regarding disease activity using SLEDAI (SLE Disease Activity Index and cumulative damage using SLICC ACR (SLE International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index for SLE. At the same time, the β2M serum level, ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, anti-dsDNA (anti-double-stranded DNA and C3 and C4 complement fractions were determined.RESULTS: β2M levels correlated positively with SLEDAI (P = 0.02 and ESR (P = 0.0009 and negatively with C3 (P = 0.007. Patients who were positive for anti-dsDNA had higher β2M serum levels (P = 0.009.CONCLUSION: β2M levels are elevated in SLE patients with active disease.

  14. Oxidative stress level and tyrosinase activity in vitiligo patients

    Eskandani M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary disorder of the skin. Genetic factors, oxidative stress, autoimmunity, and neurochemical agents might be contributing factors for the development of the disease. Aims: To evaluate the oxidative stress level and tyrosinase activity in vitiligo patients and to compare them with healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: We used Comet assay to evaluate DNA strand breaks in peripheral blood cells of active vitiligo patients. We then extracted total protein from lesional and nonlesional skin of ten selected patients. Tyrosinase activity was found to play a crucial role in melanogenesis. Results: The basal level of systemic oxidative DNA strand breaks in leukocytes increased in vitiligo patients compared to healthy participants. We observed that tyrosinase activity in lesional skin was lower than in nonlesional skin. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that increased levels of oxidative stress might impact tyrosinase activity and eumelanin synthesis via anabolism pathway of melanin synthesis. In sum, we observed a negative correlation between levels of systemic oxidative stress and of tyrosinase activity.

  15. Serum Renalase Levels Correlate with Disease Activity in Lupus Nephritis.

    Chaojun Qi

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis (LN is among the most serious complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Renalase is a novel, kidney-secreted cytokine-like protein that promotes cell survival. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship of serum renalase levels with LN and its role in the disease progression of LN.For this cross-sectional study, 67 LN patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Seventeen active LN patients who received standard therapies were followed up for six months. Disease activity was determined by the SLE Disease Activity-2000 (SLEDAI-2K scoring system and serum renalase amounts were determined by ELISA. Predictive value of renalase for disease activity was assessed. Furthermore, the expression of renalase in the kidneys of patients and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry.Serum renalase amounts were significantly higher in LN patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, patients with proliferative LN had more elevated serum renalase levels than Class V LN patients. In proliferative LN patients, serum renalase levels were significantly higher in patients with active LN than those with inactive LN. Serum renalase levels were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K, 24-h urine protein excretion, ds-DNA and ESR but inversely correlated with serum albumin and C3. Renalase amounts decreased significantly after six-months of standard therapy. The performance of renalase as a marker for diagnosis of active LN was 0.906 with a cutoff value of 66.67 μg/ml. We also observed that the amount of renalase was significantly higher in glomerular of proliferative LN along with the co-expression of macrophages.Serum renalase levels were correlated with disease activity in LN. Serum renalase might serve as a potential indicator for disease activity in LN. The marked increase of glomerular renalase and its association with macrophages suggest that it might play an

  16. Levels of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in Japanese people

    Ueda,Kazuko

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Levels of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD activitiy in a sample of Japanese people were determined. Blood samples were taken from new-born infants, preschool children, young and old people who had no apparent diseases and also from three anemic patients. Erythrocyte SOD activities in different age groups had a nearly normal distribution. Females had slightly lower activities than males, although the difference was statistically insignificant. The distributions of SOD activities were 12.6 +/- 2.7 (m +/- SD unit/mg Hb in young people and 11.4 +/- 3.0 in old people, indicating that erythrocyte SOD activity falls with aging. Because of low concentration of hemoglobin, SOD activities of old people expressed as unit/ml blood were much lower than in young people. Three anemic patients had slightly lower SOD activity.

  17. Classroom Management to Support Active Middle Level Classrooms

    Bryan Lloyd McCoy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This article presents a discussion of connections between middle level concepts of teaching and learning and managing a classroom through creating opportunities for active and engaged learning. The article argues and concludes that classroom management is more about managing learning than managing behavior and that one effective way to manage student behavior is to create an environment where students continuously engage in active learning (Haydon, Borders, Embury, & Clarke, 2009.

  18. Classroom Management to Support Active Middle Level Classrooms

    Bryan Lloyd McCoy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a discussion of connections between middle level concepts of teaching and learning and managing a classroom through creating opportunities for active and engaged learning. The article argues and concludes that classroom management is more about managing learning than managing behavior and that one effective way to manage student behavior is to create an environment where students continuously engage in active learning (Haydon, Borders, Embury, & Clarke, 2009.

  19. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other State-level activities. 300.814 Section 300.814 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  20. Can nursing students' confidence levels increase with repeated simulation activities?

    Cummings, Cynthia L; Connelly, Linda K

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, nursing faculty conducted a study with undergraduate nursing students on their satisfaction, confidence, and educational practice levels, as it related to simulation activities throughout the curriculum. The study was a voluntary survey conducted on junior and senior year nursing students. It consisted of 30 items based on the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning and the Educational Practices Questionnaire (Jeffries, 2012). Mean averages were obtained for each of the 30 items from both groups and were compared using T scores for unpaired means. The results showed that 8 of the items had a 95% confidence level and when combined the items were significant for p confidence and active learning. Based on these findings, it can be assumed that repeated simulation experiences can lead to an increase in student confidence and active learning.

  1. Effects of Curricular Activity on Students' Situational Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students' situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve…

  2. Relationship between gastric levels and antiulcerogenic activity of zinc.

    Navarro, C; Ramis, A; Sendrós, S; Bulbena, O; Ferrer, L; Escolar, G

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the absorption of an organic zinc salt, zinc acexamate, and its antiulcerogenic activity in a model of cold-restraint stress was studied. Serum and gastric levels of zinc, as well as its antiulcerogenic effect, were determined after oral or intravenous administration of zinc acexamate. Cytochemical and X-ray microanalysis techniques were also applied. In the rats subjected to cold-restraint stress, gastric levels of zinc correlated with the antiulcerogenic effect observed after administration of zinc acexamate. However, it was not possible to establish a relationship between serum levels and the pharmacologic effect of zinc. Our results in animals subjected to regular diet indicate that the antiulcerogenic effect exhibited by zinc compounds could be associated with the presence of zinc at different levels of gastric tissue.

  3. Determinants affecting physical activity levels in animal models

    Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  4. Low level laser therapy reduces inflammation in activated Achilles tendinitis

    Bjordal, Jan M.; Iversen, Vegard; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.

    2006-02-01

    Objective: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been forwarded as therapy for osteoarthritis and tendinopathy. Results in animal and cell studies suggest that LLLT may act through a biological mechanism of inflammatory modulation. The current study was designed to investigate if LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated tendinitis of the Achilles tendon. Methods: Seven patients with bilateral Achilles tendonitis (14 tendons) who had aggravated symptoms by pain-inducing activity immediately prior to the study. LLLT (1.8 Joules for each of three points along the Achilles tendon with 904nm infrared laser) and placebo LLLT were administered to either Achilles tendons in a random order to which patients and therapist were blinded. Inflammation was examined by 1) mini-invasive microdialysis for measuring the concentration of inflammatory marker PGE II in the peritendinous tissue, 2) ultrasound with Doppler measurement of peri- and intratendinous blood flow, 3) pressure pain algometry and 4) single hop test. Results: PGE 2- levels were significantly reduced at 75, 90 and 105 minutes after active LLLT compared both to pre-treatment levels (p=0.026) and to placebo LLLT (p=0.009). Changes in pressure pain threshold (PPT) were significantly different (P=0.012) between groups. PPT increased by a mean value of 0.19 kg/cm2 [95%CI:0.04 to 0.34] after treatment in the active LLLT group, while pressure pain threshold was reduced by -0.20 kg/cm2 [95%CI:-0.45 to 0.05] after placebo LLLT. Conclusion: LLLT can be used to reduce inflammatory musculskeletal pain as it reduces inflammation and increases pressure pain threshold levels in activity-induced pain episodes of Achilles tendinopathy.

  5. Anthropogenic noise alters bat activity levels and echolocation calls

    Jessie P. Bunkley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative impacts from anthropogenic noise are well documented for many wildlife taxa. Investigations of the effects of noise on bats however, have not been conducted outside of the laboratory. Bats that hunt arthropods rely on auditory information to forage. Part of this acoustic information can fall within the spectrum of anthropogenic noise, which can potentially interfere with signal reception and processing. Compressor stations associated with natural gas extraction produce broadband noise 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. With over half a million producing gas wells in the U.S. this infrastructure is a major source of noise pollution across the landscape. We conducted a ‘natural experiment’ in the second largest gas extraction field in the U.S. to investigate the potential effects of gas compressor station noise on the activity levels of the local bat assemblage. We used acoustic monitoring to compare the activity level (number of minutes in a night with a bat call of the bat assemblage at sites with compressor stations to sites lacking this infrastructure. We found that activity levels for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis were 40% lower at loud compressor sites compared to quieter well pads, whereas the activity levels of four other species (Myotis californicus, M. cillolabrum, M. lucifugus, Parastrellus hesperus were not affected by noise. Furthermore, our results reveal that the assemblage of bat species emitting low frequency (35 kHz echolocation did not exhibit altered activity levels in noise. Lower activity levels of Brazilian free-tailed bats at loud sites indicate a potential reduction in habitat for this species. Additionally, a comparison of echolocation search calls produced by free-tailed bats at sites with and without compressor stations reveal that this species modifies its echolocation search calls in noise—producing longer calls with a narrower bandwidth. Call alterations might affect prey

  6. The relationship between postnatal depression, sociodemographic factors, levels of partner support, and levels of physical activity

    Maryam eSaligeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: postnatal depression (PND is defined as a psychological mood disorder that occurs in a mother within six weeks of her giving birth. It refers to an episode that causes mood disturbance and it could begin in, or extend into, the postpartum period. It is thought to have a high impact upon the mother’s health as well as the family’s functioning and the child’s development. Socio-demographic, psych-social, and physical activity factors may all contribute to postpartum mood and ability to cope with responsibilities. The primary aim of this study was to determine which of these factors predicted PND in postpartum women. A secondary aim was to identify the socio-demographic and psycho-social predictors of physical activity in postpartum women . Methods: The study used a cross-sectional correlational design. A sample of 150 postpartum women was sent a package of six standardised questionnaires. Results: There was no association between physical activity and PND; however, older mothers, mothers of younger children, mothers who are less reluctant to ask for help, and mothers who are more satisfied with the help they get experience lower levels of PND. Mothers of older babies, mothers with more children, and less educated mothers are more likely to engage in caregiving activities, whereas mothers with fewer children and higher levels of partner support are more likely to engage in occupational activities. None of the socio-demographic factors or any of the parenting factors predicted levels of sporting activity.

  7. Secular trends in storm-level geomagnetic activity

    Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis is made of K-index data from groups of ground-based geomagnetic observatories in Germany, Britain, and Australia, 1868.0-2009.0, solar cycles 11-23. Methods include nonparametric measures of trends and statistical significance used by the hydrological and climatological research communities. Among the three observatory groups, German K data systematically record the highest disturbance levels, followed by the British and, then, the Australian data. Signals consistently seen in K data from all three observatory groups can be reasonably interpreted as physically meaninginful: (1) geomagnetic activity has generally increased over the past 141 years. However, the detailed secular evolution of geomagnetic activity is not well characterized by either a linear trend nor, even, a monotonic trend. Therefore, simple, phenomenological extrapolations of past trends in solar and geomagnetic activity levels are unlikely to be useful for making quantitative predictions of future trends lasting longer than a solar cycle or so. (2) The well-known tendency for magnetic storms to occur during the declining phase of a sunspot-solar cycles is clearly seen for cycles 14-23; it is not, however, clearly seen for cycles 11-13. Therefore, in addition to an increase in geomagnetic activity, the nature of solar-terrestrial interaction has also apparently changed over the past 141 years. ?? Author(s) 2011.

  8. Associations between personality traits, physical activity level, and muscle strength.

    Tolea, Magdalena I; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Metter, E Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway.

  9. Diagnostic value of plasminogen activity level in acute mesenteric ischemia

    Yusuf Gunerhan; Neset Koksal; Munire Kayahan; Yavuz Eryavuz; Hilal Sekban

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the changes in plasminogen activity level during mesenteric ischemia.METHODS: We performed laparotomy in 90 female Wistar-Albino rats (average weight 230 g).In sham groups (SL) (Groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ) the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and vein (SMV) were explored, but not tied.In SIA groups (Groups Ⅲ and Ⅳ) the SMA was ligated,and in SMV groups (Groups Ⅴ and Ⅵ) the SMV was ligated.On re-laparatomy 2 mL of blood was drawn at 1h in groups Ⅰ,Ⅲ and Ⅴ, and at 3 h in groups Ⅱ, Ⅳ and Ⅵ.Plasminogen levels were assessed and comparisons were made between groups and within each group.RESULTS: The mean plasminogen activity in the SL group was significantly higher than SMA (25.1±10.8 vs 11.8±4.6, P < 0.001) or SMV (25.1±10.8 vs 13.7 ±4.4,P< 0.001) groups both at 1 h and at 3 h (29.8±8.9 vs 15.1±5.7, P< 0.0001; 29.8±8.9 vs 14.2± 2.9, P<0.0001).There were no significant differences between the values of SMA and SMV groups at 1 h (P = 0.28) and at 3 h (P = 0.71).In each group, plasminogen activity levels did not change significantly between the two measurements performed at 1 h and 3 h.CONCLUSION: We conclude that blood plasminogen activities decrease during early phases of both arterial and venous mesenteric ischemia which may be a useful marker for early diagnosis.

  10. The Effect of Gender and Level of Vision on the Physical Activity Level of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairment

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakci; Kitis, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between…

  11. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during

  12. Systems-Level Smoking Cessation Activities by Private Health Plans

    Sharon Reif, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe US Public Health Service urges providers to screen patients for smoking and advise smokers to quit. Yet, these practices are not widely implemented in clinical practice. This study provides national estimates of systems-level strategies used by private health insurance plans to influence provider delivery of smoking cessation activities.MethodsData are from a nationally representative survey of health plans for benefit year 2003, across product types offered by insurers, including health maintenance organizations (HMOs, preferred provider organizations, and point-of-service products, regarding alcohol, tobacco, drug, and mental health services. Executive directors of 368 health plans responded to the administrative module (83% response rate. Medical directors of 347 of those health plans, representing 771 products, completed the clinical module in which health plan respondents were asked about screening for smoking, guideline distribution, and incentives for guideline adherence.ResultsOnly 9% of products require, and 12% verify, that primary care providers (PCPs screen for smoking. HMOs are more likely than other product types to require screening. Only 17% of products distribute smoking cessation guidelines to PCPs, and HMOs are more likely to do this. Feedback to PCPs was most frequently used to encourage guideline adherence; financial incentives were rarely used. Furthermore, health plans that did require screening often conducted other cessation activities.ConclusionFew private health plans have adopted techniques to encourage the use of smoking cessation activities by their providers. Increasing health plan involvement is necessary to reduce tobacco use and concomitant disease in the United States.

  13. Effects of a Classroom-Based Physical Activity Program on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    Goh, Tan Leng; Hannon, James; Webster, Collin Andrew; Podlog, Leslie William; Brusseau, Timothy; Newton, Maria

    2014-01-01

    High levels of physical inactivity are evident among many American children. To address this problem, providing physical activity (PA) during the school day within the CSPAP framework, is one strategy to increase children's PA. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a classroom-based PA program on children's PA. Two hundred…

  14. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  15. Paired galaxies with different activity levels and their supernovae

    Nazaryan, T A; Hakobyan, A A; Adibekyan, V Zh; Kunth, D; Mamon, G A; Turatto, M; Aramyan, L S

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the influence of close neighbor galaxies on the properties of supernovae (SNe) and their host galaxies using 56 SNe located in pairs of galaxies with different levels of star formation (SF) and nuclear activity. The statistical study of SN hosts shows that there is no significant difference between morphologies of hosts in our sample and the larger general sample of SN hosts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). The mean distance of type II SNe from nuclei of hosts is greater by about a factor of 2 than that of type Ibc SNe. The distributions and mean distances of SNe are consistent with previous results compiled with the larger sample. For the first time it is shown that SNe Ibc are located in pairs with significantly smaller difference of radial velocities between components than pairs containing SNe Ia and II. We consider this as a result of higher star formation rate (SFR) of these closer systems of galaxies. SN types are not correlated with the luminosity ratio of ho...

  16. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    Ohkawara Kazunori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  17. An elevated level of physical activity is associated with normal lipoprotein(a) levels in individuals from Maracaibo, Venezuela.

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Aparicio, Daniel; Rojas, Edward; Peñaranda, Lianny; Finol, Freddy; Acosta, Luis; Mengual, Edgardo; Rojas, Joselyn; Arráiz, Nailet; Toledo, Alexandra; Colmenares, Carlos; Urribarí, Jesica; Sanchez, Wireynis; Pineda, Carlos; Rodriguez, Dalia; Faria, Judith; Añez, Roberto; Cano, Raquel; Cano, Clímaco; Sorell, Luis; Velasco, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the main cause of death worldwide. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in which concentrations are genetically regulated. Contradictory results have been published about physical activity influence on Lp(a) concentration. This research aimed to determine associations between different physical activity levels and Lp(a) concentration. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was made in 1340 randomly selected subjects (males = 598; females = 712) to whom a complete clinical history, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Lp(a) level determination were made. Statistical analysis was carried out to assess qualitative variables relationship by chi2 and differences between means by one-way analysis of variance considering a P value <0.05 as statistically significant. Results are shown as absolute frequencies, percentages, and mean +/- standard deviation according to case. Physical activity levels were ordinal classified as follows: low activity with 24.3% (n = 318), moderate activity with 35.0% (n = 458), and high physical activity with 40.8% (n = 534). Lp(a) concentration in the studied sample was 26.28 +/- 12.64 (IC: 25.59-26.96) mg/dL. Lp(a) concentration according to low, moderate, and high physical activity levels were 29.22 +/- 13.74, 26.27 +/- 12.91, and 24.53 +/- 11.35 mg/dL, respectively, observing statistically significant differences between low and moderate level (P = 0.004) and low and high level (P < 0.001). A strong association (chi2 = 9.771; P = 0.002) was observed among a high physical activity level and a normal concentration of Lp(a) (less than 30 mg/dL). A lifestyle characterized by high physical activity is associated with normal Lp(a) levels.

  18. Firm-level innovation activity, employee turnover and HRM practices

    Eriksson, Tor; Qin, Zhihua; Wang, Wenjing

    2014-01-01

    ' innovation activities. Innovation is measured both by the number of ongoing projects and new commercialized products. The results show that higher R&D employee turnover is associated with a higher probability of being innovative, but decreases the intensity of innovation activities in innovating firms...

  19. Tritium activity levels in environmental water samples from different origins

    Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Edifici CTT-FURV, Av. Paisos Catalans 18, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Borrull, F. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Edifici CTT-FURV, Av. Paisos Catalans 18, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)], E-mail: francesc.borrull@urv.cat

    2007-09-15

    Tritium activity was determined in environmental waters from different areas of Catalonia, using a distillation procedure before liquid scintillation counting. The developed method was validated by analysing two samples from proficiency tests. In most of water samples (from rivers, rain, mineral bottled waters and tap waters) analysed, the activity values were lower or close to the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for our method which has a value of 0.6 Bq/l. However, the Ebro river samples had a mean activity around 3.6{+-}0.6Bq/l. The nuclear power station of Asco, which is located on the banks of this river, can be a source of tritium production and introduction into the environment, so a more exhaustive study of these waters was carried out. Tritium activities in this river were a long way above the normative limit in Spain for waters intended for human consumption, which is 100 Bq/l.

  20. The prediction of induced activity levels in and around NIMROD

    Hack, R C

    1973-01-01

    Comparisons are reported between measured and predicted levels of induced radioactivity for a number of irradiation conditions. Good agreement was found between experimental measurements and fairly simple methods of prediction developed at CERN.

  1. Dislocation Pile-Ups, Material Strength Levels, and Thermal Activation

    Armstrong, Ronald W.

    2016-12-01

    A review dedicated to James C.M. Li is given of dislocation pile-ups and their connection to the Hall-Petch dependence of polycrystalline strength and fracture mechanics properties on an inverse square root of grain size basis, with such grain size dependence now very importantly extended to nanopolycrystalline material behaviors. An analogous H-P dependence is described for the inverse activation volume parameter obtained from the strain rate (and thermal) dependencies contained in the model dislocation thermal activation-strain rate analysis, also relating to pioneering contributions of Li to the topic of thermally activated dislocation dynamics.

  2. Are children's activity levels determined by their genes or environment? A systematic review of twin studies

    Abigail Fisher

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Although genetic influences may be expressed when children have brief opportunities for autonomous activity, activity levels in daily-life are predominantly explained by environmental factors. Future research should aim to identify key environmental drivers of childhood activity.

  3. Activity levels of gamma-emitters in Brazil nuts

    Armelin, M. J.A.; Maihara, V.A.; Silva, P.S.C.; Saiki, M., E-mail: marmelin@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisas. Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Cozzolino, S.M.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2016-11-01

    Activity concentrations of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra were determined in Brazil nuts acquired at points of sale between 2010 and 2013. Results indicated that the estimated annual effective radioactive dose due to ingestion of Brazil nuts is 27% of the annual dose limit of 1 mSv y{sup -1} for public exposure, according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To estimate this dose the highest activity concentration obtained for each radionuclide was considered, assuming an annual consumption of 1.5 kg y{sup -1} per individual. (author)

  4. Mid-level Features Improve Recognition of Interactive Activities

    2012-11-14

    Recognizing action as clouds of space-time interest points. In CVPR, 2009. [5] W. Brendel, A. Fern , and S. Todorovic. Probabilistic event logic for interval...context. In CVPR, 2009. [27] R. Messing, C. Pal, and H. Kautz. Activity recognition using the velocity histories of tracked keypoints. In ICCV, 2009

  5. New data sources to indicate levels of active citizenship

    Rosales Sanchez, C.; Craglia, M.; Bregt, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    Data availability is a general constraint in the generation of indicators for decision-making processes. Web 2.0 technologies offer new potentials of data sources (also considered as big data sources) that needs to be investigated. In our research we focus on indicators of active citizenship as a re

  6. Active Radiation Level Measurement on New Laboratory Instrument for Evaluating the Antibacterial Activity of Radioisotope

    Joh, Eunha; Park, Jang Guen [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. However, it is difficult to measure the antibacterial effect of radioisotopes using a disc method. A disc method is a method for diffusing a drug by placing the drug containing disc on the medium. In this method, radioisotopes are diffused on the medium and it is difficult to measure the exact effect by radiation. Thus, new laboratory equipment needs to evaluate the antibacterial activity by the radioisotopes. In this study, we measured the radiation level of radioisotopes on a new laboratory instrument using a MCNP. A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. This method uses a drug diffusion system for the measurement of anti-bacterial antibiotics. To measure the antimicrobial activity of a radioisotope, a new type of laboratory instrument is necessary to prevent the drug from spreading. The radioisotopes are used to diagnose and treat cancer. However, studies for anti-biotical use have not progressed. The radiation of radioisotopes has the effect of killing bacteria. Before this study proceeds further, it is necessary to be able to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope easily in the laboratory. However, in this study, it was possible to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope in the laboratory using a new laboratory instrument. We intend to start evaluation studies of the antibacterial activity of specific radioisotopes. In addition, it will be possible to develop research to overcome diseases caused by bacteria in the future.

  7. Correlation between High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL) Level and Aerobic Activity Level.

    1987-04-01

    over a 40 day period for HDtJICholesteroll and Total Choleis- added with the "reverse" technique, This technique is only poai- tarot . The results are...Stand- tarot and Total Cholestero levels, it is beat that eet laoatr ard and a control Serum were each analyzed 10 times giving the * determinle its

  8. Objectively-Measured Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education among Homeschool Children

    Swenson, Sarah; Pope, Zachary; Zeng, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Despite a growing population of homeschool children in the United States, little is known regarding their physical activity (PA) levels. Without access to physical education, homeschool children may engage in inadequate PA levels. The purpose of this study was to objectively examine the activity levels of homeschool students participating in a…

  9. A two-layered approach to recognize high-level human activities

    N. Hu; G. Englebienne; B. Kröse

    2014-01-01

    Automated human activity recognition is an essential task for Human Robot Interaction (HRI). A successful activity recognition system enables an assistant robot to provide precise services. In this paper, we present a two-layered approach that can recognize sub-level activities and high-level activi

  10. Use and activity levels on newly built bicycle playgrounds

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Hansen, Christine Kier; Rask, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the use of urban green space (UGS) as well as increasing cycling could potentially help address the growing inactivity problem. Three bicycle playgrounds were designed based on a participatory process and afterwards constructed in the UGS along a cycle-route on the historic outer defence...... circle around the City of Copenhagen, the Copenhagen Fortifications. The concept of a bicycle playground is new, and to examine how the three areas were used, and explore how users experience the areas, this study was designed as a combination of systematic observations, using the System for Observing...... Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC), and short on-site interviews with ‘typical users’. Based on the structural observations and 12 short interviews it became clear that 63% of the users were active during their use. The bicycle playgrounds main users were teenagers and children, especially...

  11. The contribution of former work-related activity levels to predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement: moderating role of educational level and physical functioning.

    Delfien Van Dyck

    Full Text Available The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined.In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models.More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal.Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during retirement, so this is an

  12. Dietary fiber stabilizes blood glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in sows (Sus scrofa)

    Leeuw, de J.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a diet with a high level of fermentable dietary fiber can stabilize interprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, prevent declines below basal levels, and reduce physical activity in limited-fed breeding sows. Stable levels of glucose and insulin may preve

  13. Comparison of fatal motor vehicle accidents at passive and active railway level crossings in Finland

    Sirkku Laapotti

    2016-01-01

    The study compares accidents at passive and active railway level crossings, and both immediate and background risk factors are considered. Passive railway level crossings have no warning devices, although there might be a static warning sign. Active level crossings are equipped with automatic devices warning road users of approaching trains. The data covers all fatal motor vehicle accidents at level crossings in Finland during the years 1991 to 2011 (n = 142). All these accidents have previou...

  14. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Relationships among Physical Activity Levels, Psychomotor, Psychosocial, and Cognitive Development of Primary Education Students.

    Isler, Ayse Kin; Asci, F. Hulya; Kosar, S. Nazan

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationships of physical activity levels and psychomotor, psychosocial, and cognitive development among Turkish elementary school students. Student evaluations indicated that physical activity level was an important factor in determining student psychomotor development, but it was not important in determining psychosocial and…

  16. High-resolution genetic mapping of mammalian motor activity levels in mice

    Kas, M J H; de Mooij-van Malsen, J G; de Krom, M; van Gassen, K L I; van Lith, H A; Olivier, B; Oppelaar, H; Hendriks, J; de Wit, M; Groot Koerkamp, M J A; Holstege, F C P; van Oost, B A; de Graan, P N E

    2009-01-01

    The generation of motor activity levels is under tight neural control to execute essential behaviors, such as movement toward food or for social interaction. To identify novel neurobiological mechanisms underlying motor activity levels, we studied a panel of chromosome substitution (CS) strains deri

  17. Correlation between the Physical Activity Level and Grade Point Averages of Faculty of Education Students

    Imdat, Yarim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find the correlation that exists between physical activity level and grade point averages of faculty of education students. The subjects consist of 359 (172 females and 187 males) under graduate students To determine the physical activity levels of the students in this research, International Physical Activity…

  18. Bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) activity and pollination levels in commercial tomato greenhouses.

    Morandin, L A; Laverty, T M; Kevan, P G

    2001-04-01

    Commercial greenhouse studies were conducted to assess levels of pollination of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) flowers in relation to bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson) colony activity and colony densities. For the assessment of pollination levels of tomato flowers, five categories were defined based on bruising levels caused by bumble bee pollination. Colony activity was measured as bee trips per ha/d using electric powered photodiode monitors inserted into the hive entrance. Levels of pollination were positively correlated with bee activity levels, up to a mean of approximately 400 pollen grains per stigma per day, after which greater activity did not result in further increases in daily pollination levels. Densities of colonies in the commercial greenhouses studied ranged from 7.6 to 19.8 colonies per hectare with a mean of 11.6 +/- 0.9. We found that an average activity of 2,000 bee trips per hectare per day was more than adequate to ensure sufficient pollination, and that this level of activity could be achieved with 7-15 colonies per hectare, depending on greenhouse conditions. Greenhouses requiring >15 colonies per hectare to achieve this level of pollination may be able to increase bee activity through alteration of greenhouse conditions. Across 50-m rows of tomato plants, levels of pollination decreased with increasing distance from bee colonies, suggesting that colonies should be evenly distributed throughout the greenhouses.

  19. Attempting to be active: Self-efficacy and barrier limitation differentiate activity levels of working mothers.

    Gierc, Madelaine; Locke, Sean; Jung, Mary; Brawley, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    Working mothers are less physically active than working women without children and mothers who do not work. The purpose of this study was to examine concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and barriers to physical activity in a sample of working mothers. Women completed a mixed-methods survey which included measures of physical activity, concurrent self-regulatory efficacy, and barriers. Sufficiently active women experienced significantly greater concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and significantly less barrier limitation and frequency. No significant group differences were found for age, domestic duties performed, and children's extracurricular activities. Thematic analysis of barriers revealed six themes of common and unique factors, including limited time and family activities.

  20. Serum paraoxonase activity, total thiols levels, and oxidative status in patients with acute brucellosis.

    Esen, Ramazan; Aslan, Mehmet; Kucukoglu, Mehmet Emin; Cıkman, Aytekin; Yakan, Umit; Sunnetcioglu, Mahmut; Selek, Sahbettin

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity may decrease during the course of infection and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate serum PON1 activity, oxidative status, and thiols levels in patients with acute brucellosis. In addition, we investigated the PON1 phenotype in patients with acute brucellosis. Thirty patients with acute brucellosis and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, thiols levels, lipid hydroperoxide levels, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) were determined. Serum basal and salt-stimulated paraoxonase-arylesterase activities, TAC levels and thiols levels were significantly lower in patients with acute brucellosis than controls (for all, p brucellosis. These results indicate that lower PON1 activity is associated with oxidant-antioxidant imbalance.

  1. Union Activities to promote cooperative activities at enterprise level: workplace assesment

    Jensen, Per Langå; Høy, Jette

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of the information activities on workplace assessment from a major Danish confederation......An analysis of the information activities on workplace assessment from a major Danish confederation...

  2. Hierarchical Model-Based Activity Recognition With Automatic Low-Level State Discovery

    Justin Muncaster

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Activity recognition in video streams is increasingly important for both the computer vision and artificial intelligence communities. Activity recognition has many applications in security and video surveillance. Ultimately in such applications one wishes to recognize complex activities, which can be viewed as combination of simple activities. In this paper, we present a general framework of a Dlevel dynamic Bayesian network to perform complex activity recognition. The levels of the network are constrained to enforce state hierarchy while the Dth level models the duration of simplest event. Moreover, in this paper we propose to use the deterministic annealing clustering method to automatically define the simple activities, which corresponds to the low level states of observable levels in a Dynamic Bayesian Networks. We used real data sets for experiments. The experimental results show the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  3. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  4. Comparison of fatal motor vehicle accidents at passive and active railway level crossings in Finland

    Sirkku Laapotti

    2016-07-01

    Active warning devices are effective in preventing accidents due to road user errors. Equipping the most dangerous passive level crossings with warning devices – low cost or conventional – would increase safety. Alternatively, some level crossings could be removed altogether. A minimum requirement is that the environmental factors at passive level crossings support safe crossing.

  5. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    Mariola Saulicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581, Psychological Domain (r = –0.451, and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577. Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434 has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598 has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507. Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity.

  6. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    Bitencourt, C.S. [Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I. [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-03-02

    Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production.

  7. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    C.S. Bitencourt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3, propylthiouracil (PTU or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4 levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg. Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01. In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32% were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production.

  8. Electromyography Activation Levels of the 3 Gluteus Medius Subdivisions During Manual Strength Testing

    Otten, Roald; Tol, Johannes L; Holmich, Per;

    2015-01-01

    deficits and guide specific rehabilitation programs. However, the optimal positions for assessing the strength and activation of these subdivisions are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The first aim was to establish which strength-testing positions produce the highest surface electromyography (sEMG) activation levels...... of the individual GM subdivisions. The second aim was to evaluate differences in sEMG activation levels between the tested and contralateral (stabilizing) leg. METHOD: Twenty healthy physically active male subjects participated in this study. Muscle activity using sEMG was recorded for the GM subdivisions in 8...

  9. Leisure activity associated with cognitive ability level, but not cognitive change

    Gow, Alan John; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik L

    2014-01-01

    with higher cognitive ability (significant correlations ranged from 0.15 to 0.31, p cognitive ability declined significantly. Growth curve models, which provided latent variables for level of and 10-year change in both leisure activity......Although activity participation is promoted as cognitively protective, critical questions of causality remain. In a cohort followed every 5 years from age 75 to 85 years, potential reciprocal associations between level and change in leisure activity participation and level and change in cognitive...... abilities were examined. Participants in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort, a longitudinal study of aging, completed standardized cognitive ability tests and reported their leisure activity participation (11 activities defined a leisure activity score) at ages 75, 80, and 85. Higher leisure activity was associated...

  10. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  11. Gender-specific correlations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator levels with cardiovascular disease-related traits

    Asselbergs, F. W.; Williams, S. M.; Hebert, P. R.; Coffey, C. S.; Hillege, H. L.; Navis, G.; Vaughan, D. E.; Van Gilst, W. H.; Moore, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the correlations between plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and cardiovascular disease-related traits in a general population and whether these correlations differed between females a

  12. Serum interleukin-18 levels are associated with physical activity in Japanese men.

    Kanae Oda

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the link between serum interleukin-18 (IL-18 levels and physical activity in Japanese men. METHODS: A total of 81 men (45.7±17.6 years old was enrolled in this cross-sectional investigation study. We assessed anthropometric and body composition parameters. Serum IL-18 levels, physical activity by uniaxial accelerometers, peak oxygen uptake and metabolic risk parameters were also evaluated. RESULTS: Serum IL-18 levels were 179.4±84.7 pg/mL. Physical activity evaluated by Σ[metabolic equivalents × h per week (METs⋅h/w]was significantly and negatively correlated with serum IL-18 levels (r = -0.252, p = 0.0235. These associations remained even after adjusting for age, peak oxygen uptake and other confounding factors. CONCLUSION: Serum IL-18 levels were closely associated with physical activity independent of peak oxygen uptake in Japanese men.

  13. The relation between leisure activities and glycemic levels from deaf adults

    Inacia Sátiro Xavier de França

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim has been to check the association among leisure activities and glycemic levels from deaf adults. Transversal study made with 36 deaf adults in an Audiocomunicação school, making use of a semi-structured questionnaire. Chi-square, Fisher and Contingency Coefficient tests were made. Unfed capillary glycemic average showed up close to values considered usual, however, there are participants with risky glycemic level. Participants with altered glycemic levels totalized 11,1%. We checked association among deaf glycemic people having leisure activities, go shopping (p=0,034 and visiting relatives (p=0,012. Leisure activities may have influence over glycemic levels of deaf people, and nurses are supposed to consider stimuli and orientation of leisure activities in nurse processes, as a potential intervention to promote health of those people, and prevent implications caused by altered glycemic levels.

  14. Recommended level of physical activity and health-related quality of life among Japanese adults

    Nakamura Yoshio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of a recommended level of physical activity on physiological health indicators such as morbidity and mortality are well-accepted, but less research has addressed whether or not the association between the recommended level of physical activity and a health-related quality of life (HRQOL exists in the Japanese population. Thus, the present study examined whether the recommended physical activity would be associated with HRQOL in the general Japanese middle-aged population. Methods Data were obtained from 1211 male and female respondents (39.4 ± 10.9 year, mean ± SD from an Internet-based survey of registrants of an Internet research service. Physical activity level was estimated from the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. HRQOL was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-8 questionnaire (SF-8. Based on the current national guidelines for exercise in Japan, respondents were divided into a recommended group, an insufficient group, and an inactive group according to their estimated weekly physical activity level. Multivariate analyses of covariance were utilized. Results Across both genders, the recommended group had significantly higher physical functioning (PF scores than the inactive group (p Conclusion Individuals who attained the recommended level of physical activity had better scores on some dimensions of HRQOL than those who did not, suggesting that the recommended level of physical activity may be applicable not only to the physiological objective outcomes but also to some dimensions in both the physical and mental aspects of HRQOL.

  15. Age-associated changes in the level of physical activity in elderly adults

    Takagi, Daisuke; Nishida, Yuusuke; Fujita, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify how light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity in older adults changes with age, subdividing physical activity according to intensity levels, by using an accelerometer. [Subjects] Older adults living independently in the community were included (n = 106, age: 65–85 years). [Methods] A triaxial accelerometer was used to measure the amount of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity (1–2.9, 3–5.9, and ≥6 metabolic equivalents, respectively) and inactive time over 7 days. Light- and moderate-intensity physical activity levels were further subdivided into 1–1.9, 2–2.9, 3–3.9, and 4–5.9 metabolic equivalents, respectively. [Results] The amount of moderate-intensity physical activity at both sub-levels showed significant inverse correlations with age (r = −0.34, −0.33, respectively), but this was not seen with other levels. Both levels of moderate-intensity physical activity were independently predicted by age using multiple regression analysis adjusted for gender and body mass index. [Conclusion] These results suggest that understanding the reduction in moderate-intensity physical activity with age in older adults, subdivided according to intensity level, could be a useful index to increase the amount of higher intensity physical activity in stages, considering individual health conditions. PMID:26834332

  16. Objective assessment of levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children

    Brasholt, Martin; Chawes, Bo; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil

    2013-01-01

    profiles throughout the year were unique for each sex with boys being overall more active than girls except for winter months. Preschool children also showed distinct patterns of physical activity during weekdays compared to weekends, and were most active in weekdays. Preschool children in the highest......Background:To study in detail levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children and the effect of gender and body mass index on this activity.Methods:Two hundred and fifty-three children aged 5 years participating in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2000......) wore an accelerometer day and night over a 4-weekperiod. The main outcome measure was level of physical activity using the raw data.A secondary measure was time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. A Fourier series analysis was applied to study in detail patterns over time.Results:Activity...

  17. Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels among adolescents: The HELENA study

    Le Donne Cinzia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. Therefore it is important to investigate associations between dietary and physical activity behavior, the two most important lifestyle behaviors influencing our energy balance and body composition. The objective of the present study is to describe the relationship between energy, nutrient and food intake and the physical activity level among a large group of European adolescents. Methods The study comprised a total of 2176 adolescents (46.2% male from ten European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using validated 24-h dietary recalls and self-reported questionnaires respectively. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were used to compare the energy and nutrient intake and the food consumption between groups of adolescents with different physical activity levels (1st to 3rd tertile. Results In both sexes no differences were found in energy intake between the levels of physical activity. The most active males showed a higher intake of polysaccharides, protein, water and vitamin C and a lower intake of saccharides compared to less active males. Females with the highest physical activity level consumed more polysaccharides compared to their least active peers. Male and female adolescents with the highest physical activity levels, consumed more fruit and milk products and less cheese compared to the least active adolescents. The most active males showed higher intakes of vegetables and meat, fish, eggs, meat substitutes and vegetarian products compared to the least active ones. The least active males reported the highest consumption of grain products and potatoes. Within the female group, significantly lower intakes of bread and cereal products and spreads were found for those reporting to

  18. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active.

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-06-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=-0.539; PActive older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index.

  19. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=−0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=−0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  20. Endogenous testosterone levels are associated with neural activity in men with schizophrenia during facial emotion processing.

    Ji, Ellen; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Catts, Stanley V; Vercammen, Ans; White, Christopher; Gur, Raquel E; Weickert, Thomas W

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that testosterone may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia given that testosterone has been linked to cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Here, we determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels are related to neural activity in affective processing circuitry in men with schizophrenia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal changes as 32 healthy controls and 26 people with schizophrenia performed a facial emotion identification task. Whole brain analyses were performed to determine regions of differential activity between groups during processing of angry versus non-threatening faces. A follow-up ROI analysis using a regression model in a subset of 16 healthy men and 16 men with schizophrenia was used to determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels were related to neural activity. Healthy controls displayed significantly greater activation than people with schizophrenia in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). There was no significant difference in circulating testosterone levels between healthy men and men with schizophrenia. Regression analyses between activation in the IFG and circulating testosterone levels revealed a significant positive correlation in men with schizophrenia (r=.63, p=.01) and no significant relationship in healthy men. This study provides the first evidence that circulating serum testosterone levels are related to IFG activation during emotion face processing in men with schizophrenia but not in healthy men, which suggests that testosterone levels modulate neural processes relevant to facial emotion processing that may interfere with social functioning in men with schizophrenia.

  1. The relationship between physical activity levels and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers.

    Ko, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Eon-Ho; Baek, Un-Hyo; Gang, Zhao; Kang, Seol-Jung

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity is important for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. White-collar workers can be inherently predisposed to chronic diseases, as their jobs are primarily sedentary. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers. [Subjects and Methods] Physical activity and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in 331 male public office workers. Physical activity was classified as high (N=101), moderate (N=115), or low (N=111) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. To diagnose metabolic syndrome, the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program's standard was used. [Results] Waist circumference and triglyceride levels, factors of metabolic syndrome, were significantly higher in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. Waist circumference and fasting glucose were negatively correlated with physical activity level, and HDL cholesterol showed a positive correlation with waist circumference. The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome were 2.03 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.01-4.09) in the low physical activity group than in the high physical activity group. [Conclusion] Low physical activity was a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. Therefore, increasing physical activity in daily life may prevent metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers.

  2. Measurement error of self-reported physical activity levels in New York City: assessment and correction.

    Lim, Sungwoo; Wyker, Brett; Bartley, Katherine; Eisenhower, Donna

    2015-05-01

    Because it is difficult to objectively measure population-level physical activity levels, self-reported measures have been used as a surveillance tool. However, little is known about their validity in populations living in dense urban areas. We aimed to assess the validity of self-reported physical activity data against accelerometer-based measurements among adults living in New York City and to apply a practical tool to adjust for measurement error in complex sample data using a regression calibration method. We used 2 components of data: 1) dual-frame random digit dialing telephone survey data from 3,806 adults in 2010-2011 and 2) accelerometer data from a subsample of 679 survey participants. Self-reported physical activity levels were measured using a version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, whereas data on weekly moderate-equivalent minutes of activity were collected using accelerometers. Two self-reported health measures (obesity and diabetes) were included as outcomes. Participants with higher accelerometer values were more likely to underreport the actual levels. (Accelerometer values were considered to be the reference values.) After correcting for measurement errors, we found that associations between outcomes and physical activity levels were substantially deattenuated. Despite difficulties in accurately monitoring physical activity levels in dense urban areas using self-reported data, our findings show the importance of performing a well-designed validation study because it allows for understanding and correcting measurement errors.

  3. Effects of physical activity and training programs on plasma homocysteine levels: a systematic review.

    e Silva, Alexandre de Souza; da Mota, Maria Paula Gonçalves

    2014-08-01

    Homocysteine is an amino acid produced in the liver that, when present in high concentrations, is thought to contribute to plaque formation and, consequently, increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, daily physical activity and training programs may contribute to controlling atherosclerosis. Given that physical exercise induces changes in protein and amino acid metabolism, it is important to understand whether homocysteine levels are also affected by exercise and to determine possible underlying mechanisms. Moreover, regarding the possible characteristics of different training programs (intensity, duration, repetition, volume), it becomes prudent to determine which types of exercise reduce homocysteine levels. To these ends, a systematic review was conducted to examine the effects of daily physical activity and different training programs on homocysteine levels. EndNote(®) was used to locate articles on the PubMed database from 2002 to 2013 with the keyword combinations "physical activity and homocysteine", "training and homocysteine", and/or "exercise and homocysteine". After 34 studies were identified, correlative and comparative studies of homocysteine levels revealed lower levels in patients engaged in greater quantities of daily physical activity. Regarding the acute effects of exercise, all studies reported increased homocysteine levels. Concerning intervention studies with training programs, aerobic training programs used different methods and analyses that complicate making any conclusion, though resistance training programs induced decreased homocysteine levels. In conclusion, this review suggests that greater daily physical activity is associated with lower homocysteine levels and that exercise programs could positively affect homocysteine control.

  4. A case control study of premorbid and currently reported physical activity levels in chronic fatigue syndrome

    Buchwald Dedra

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome typically report high levels of physical activity before becoming ill. Few studies have examined premorbid and current activity levels in chronically fatigued patients. Methods In a case-control study, 33 patients with chronic, unexplained, disabling fatigue attending a university-based clinic specializing in fatigue were compared to 33 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. Patients rated their activity levels before their illness and currently, using scales designed for this purpose. Controls reported their level of activity of 2 years previously and currently. Chi-square analyses, Student's t tests, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used in pair matched analyses. Results Compared to healthy controls, patients with chronic, unexplained fatigue rated themselves as more active before their illness (p ≤ 0.001 and less active currently (p ≤ 0.001. The patients also reported they currently stood or walked less than the controls (median [inter-quartile range] = 4 2345 versus 9 [7.5–12] hours, p ≤ 0.001, and spent more time reclining (median [inter-quartile range] = 12 10111213141516 versus 8 [8–9.5] hours, p ≤ 0.001. These differences remained significant for the subset of patients who met strict criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia. Conclusion Patients with chronic, unexplained, disabling fatigue reported being more active before becoming ill than healthy controls. This finding could be explained by greater premorbid activity levels that could predispose to illness, or by an overestimation of previous activity. Either possibility could influence patients' perceptions of their current activity levels and their judgments of recovery. Perceived activity should be addressed as part of management of the illness.

  5. The types and levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour of Senior Phase learners in Potchefstroom

    Johanna C.W. De Vos

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Strategies need to be implemented to raise the physical activity levels of Senior Phase learners, especially during weekdays, and to decrease sedentary behaviour. With this view in mind, recommendations are made for Physical Education teachers.

  6. Serum fucosyl transferase activity and serum fucose levels as diagnostic tools in malignancy.

    Sen,Umi

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycoproteins play a significant role in neoplastic transformations. Both the levels of fucose and the activity of fucosyl transferase, which mediates the assembly of the oligosaccharide moieties of the glycoprotein chains, have been found to be elevated in neoplastic conditions. Since these elevations are common features of a variety of neoplastic cells, these two have been designated as non-specific markers of malignancy. In the present study, the fucose level and fucosyl transferase activity were determined in the sera of cancer patients and an attempt was made to establish a relationship between the two. It was found that both the fucose levels and fucosyl transferase activities showed considerable elevation in the five cancer groups studied, establishing them as useful diagnostic parameters. However, it was also observed that the rate of increased fucosyl transferase activity was not fully reflected in the resulting serum fucose levels in a few cases.

  7. Self-reported activity level and knee function in amateur football players

    Frobell, R B; Svensson, E; Göthrick, M;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if self-reported activity level or knee functions are influenced by subject characteristics, level of competition and history of knee injury. Cross-Sectional study using questionnaires distributed at a personal visit. One hundred and eighty-eight (65 women......) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are the main outcome measures. Older age, female gender and lower level of competition (football...... is recommended. We suggest that self-reported Tegner Activity Scale scores should be adjusted for age, gender and level of competition. In amateur football players, KOOS scores do not need adjustment for age and gender....

  8. The Use of Twitter to Predict the Level of Influenza Activity in the United States

    2014-09-01

    forecast the level of influenza activity. The rise in the popularity of social media websites such as Flickr, Twitter and Facebook has transformed...The CDC requires a tool that can forecast the level of influenza activity. The rise in the popularity of social media websites such as Flickr... impacted world societies, economies and tourism . In order to prevent such influenza pandemics, U.S. health agencies need to be alerted of the danger

  9. Low levels of physical activity in patients with severe mental illness

    Nyboe, Lene; Lund, H

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes, both being highly prevalent in patients with severe mental illness. Though physical activity has become an important issue in psychiatric treatment and rehabilitation in the past decade......, systematic evaluations of physical activity level in psychiatric populations could be more disseminated. Aim: The primary aim of the study was to investigate the physical activity level of psychiatric patients in comparison with healthy controls. Methods: Patients with severe mental illness (n =47......) and a group of healthy controls (n =28) matched on sex and age reported their physical activity level using the Physical Activity Scale (PAS). PAS was administered as an interview in relation to patients and as a questionnaire in relation to healthy controls. Results: Patients had statistically significant...

  10. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage.

    Murador, Daniella Carisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; pkale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity.

  11. Early androgens, activity levels and toy choices of children in the second year of life.

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Saenz, Janet

    2012-09-01

    The hypothesis that stronger preferences for active play styles contribute to stronger preferences for male-typical toys was examined in 47 boys and 37 girls at 19-months of age using ambulatory monitoring technology (i.e., actigraphy) to measure activity levels during contact with male-typical, female-typical, and gender-neutral toys. Digit ratios and salivary testosterone levels were measured earlier in children at 3-4 months of age. There were no significant sex differences in digit ratios, salivary testosterone levels, or overall activity levels during toy play. In contrast, contact times showed large sex differences in infants' toy preferences. The within-sex comparisons showed that infant girls had significant preferences for female-typical toys over male-typical toys, whereas infant boys showed only a small preference for male-typical toys over female-typical toys. More male-typical digit ratios in early infancy predicted higher activity counts during toy play and less female-typical toy preferences in girls. However, in both sexes, activity levels were unrelated to toy preferences suggesting that factors other than activity level preferences contribute to the early emergence of gender-linked toy preferences.

  12. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  13. An Evaluation of the Correlation between Hepcidin Serum Levels and Disease Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Zehra Betül Paköz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. While there are many well-defined serological markers for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, there is limited evidence that they positively affect clinical outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between hepcidin serum levels and disease activity in IBD. Materials and Methods. Eighty-five consecutive IBD patients were enrolled in the study. Hepcidin serum levels were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and were compared with disease activity as well as the interleukin-6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP levels. Results. The mean hepcidin serum levels in Crohn’s disease (CD patients in remission and in the active phase were 3837±1436 and 3752±1274 pg/mL, respectively P=0.613. The mean hepcidin serum levels in ulcerative colitis (UC patients in remission and in the active phase were 4285±8623 and 3727±1176 pg/mL, respectively P=0.241. Correlation analysis between inflammatory markers and hepcidin serum levels indicated that there was no correlation between hepcidin levels and IL-6 P=0.582 or CRP P=0.783. Conclusion. As an acute-phase protein, hepcidin seems to have a lower efficacy than other parameters in the detection of activation in IBD.

  14. Long-Term Exposure to High Corticosterone Levels Inducing a Decrease of Adenylate Kinase 1 Activity

    ZHAO Yu'nan; SHEN Jia; SU Hui; HUANG Yufang; XING Dongming; DU Lijun

    2009-01-01

    Corticosterone, a principal glucocorticoid synthesized in the rodent adrenal cortex, can be cumula-tively toxic to hippocampal neurons, the cause of which is not known. The present study determined whether the cytosol adenylate kinase (AK) system was involved in the neuronal damage induced by long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels. We investigated the effects of long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels on AK1 activity, AK1 mRNA expression, and energy levels in cultured hippocampal neurons. The results show that long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels induces a reduction of the cultured hippocampal neuron viability, significantly reduces energy levels, and causes a time-dependant re-duction of the AK1 activity. These findings indicate that changes in the AK system might be the mechanism underlying neuronal damage induced by long-term exposure to high corticosterone levels.

  15. Participatory development activities at local level: case studies in villages of Central Thailand.

    Pongquan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Participatory development activities at local level in a sub-district located in the Central Plain of Thailand were studied employing the theoretical concept of the "linking loops" to analyze the related interactions among target group members and between the local level and superordinated organizat

  16. Participation levels of physical activity programs for community-dwelling older adults: A systematic review

    M. Van Der Deijl (Marielle); A. Etman (Astrid); C.B.M. Kamphuis (Carlijn); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Although many physical activity (PA) programs have been implemented and tested for effectiveness, high participation levels are needed in order to achieve public health impact. This study aimed to determine participation levels of PA programs aimed to improve PA among communi

  17. Five-Level Active-Neutral-Point-Clamped DC/DC Converter

    Liu, Dong; Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    Multi-level converters are getting more and more attentions because of their obvious merits such as lower voltage stress and harmonic, smaller size of output filters, and so on. In this paper, a five-level active-neutral-point-clamped (5L-ANPC) dc/dc converter is proposed for power transfer...

  18. The relation between leisure activities and glycemic levels from deaf adults

    2014-01-01

    The aim has been to check the association among leisure activities and glycemic levels from deaf adults. Transversal study made with 36 deaf adults in an Audiocomunicação school, making use of a semi-structured questionnaire. Chi-square, Fisher and Contingency Coefficient tests were made. Unfed capillary glycemic average showed up close to values considered usual, however, there are participants with risky glycemic level. Participants with altered glycemic levels totalized 11,1%. We checked a...

  19. The Effect of Gambling Activities on Happiness Levels of Nursing Home Residents

    Dixon, Mark R.; Nastally, Becky L.; Waterman, Amber

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of participating in simulated gambling activities on happiness levels of 3 nursing home residents. A 4-component analysis was used to measure objective responses associated with happiness during baseline, varying durations of engagement in simulated gambling activities, and 2 follow-up periods. Results…

  20. Very low levels of physical activity in older patients during hospitalization at an acute geriatric ward

    Villumsen, Morten; Jørgensen, Martin; Andreasen, Jane;

    2015-01-01

    Lack of activity during hospitalization may contribute to functional decline. The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) the time spent walking during hospitalization by geriatric patients referred to physical and/or occupational therapy and (2) the development in time spent walking during......; nonetheless, the physical activity level increased significantly during hospitalization....

  1. IL-18 Serum Level in Adult Onset Still’s Disease: A Marker of Disease Activity

    Serena Colafrancesco

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions. Higher levels of IL-18 are detected in active AODS patients and correlate with disease activity and inflammatory laboratory features. ROC-AUC analysis of the serum concentration of IL-18 suggests that it can be considered a diagnostic marker of AOSD. This paper supports the targeting of this cytokine as a possible therapeutic option in AOSD.

  2. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  3. Children's Activity Levels and Lesson Context during Third-Grade Physical Education.

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In this study, researchers observed third graders' physical activity levels and associated variables in physical education classes in four Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health centers nationwide. Results found significant differences among centers for physical activity and lesson context variables. During free play, boys were more…

  4. Design and Simulation of a Shunt Active Filter in Application for Control of Harmonic Levels

    Adrian, Gligor

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, the active filters represent a viable alternative for controlling harmonic levels in industrial consumers electrical installations. It must be noted the availability of many different types of filter configurations that can be used but there is no standard method for rating the active filters. This paper focuses on describing the shunt active filter structure and design. The theoretical concepts underlying the design of shunt active filters are presented. To validate and highlight the performance of shunt active filters a Matlab-Simulink model was developed. Simulation results are also presented.

  5. Metal Ion Adsorption by Activated Carbons Made from Pecan Shells: Effect of Oxygen Level During Activation

    Agricultural by-products represent a considerable quantity of harvested commodity crops. The use of by-products as precursors for the production of widely used adsorbents, such as activated carbons, may impart a value-added component of the overall biomass harvested. Our objective in this presenta...

  6. Copper (II) Adsorption by Activated Carbons from Pecan Shells: Effect of Oxygen Level During Activation

    Agricultural by-products represent a considerable quantity of harvested commodity crops. The use of by-products as precursors for the production of widely used adsorbents, such as activated carbons, may impart a value-added component of the overall biomass harvested. Our objective in this paper is...

  7. Children with cerebral palsy do not achieve healthy physical activity levels

    Bratteby Tollerz, L. U.; Forslund, A. H.; Olsson, R. M.; Lidström, Helene; Holmback, U.

    2015-01-01

    AimThis study compared daily activity energy expenditure (AEE) in children with cerebral palsy with a control group and investigated whether the children achieved healthy levels of physical activity. MethodsWe enrolled eight children with bilateral cerebral palsy, from eight to 10years of age, and a group of controls matched for age and gender. For three days, physical activity was simultaneously measured by accelerometers and self-reports using a diary. The daily AEE results were compared be...

  8. Cortisol level decreases natural killer cell activity among women with aircraft noise

    Hartono Hartono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the impacts of exposure to noise is stress. Natural killer (NK cells are one of the leukocyte subsets that are responsive to physiological and psychological stress. The objective of the present research was to determine the relationship between cortisol levels and NK cell activity among women with aircraft noise stress in the area of Adi Sumarmo Airport, Solo. This study was an analytical survey with a cross sectional design. The number of subjects was 39, who were divided into 3 groups of 13 subjects each. Groups 1 to 3 were exposed to noise levels of 92.29 dB, 71.79 dB and 52.17 dB, respectively. The sample was taken using simple random sampling. The data were analyzed by Pearson correlation test and Anova followed by post hoc test using LSD test. The Anova test showed that there were significant differences in circulating cortisol levels among all groups (p = 0.018. The Pearson correlation test showed that there was a positive association between circulating cortisol levels and the number of NK cells (r = 0.547; p< 0.05 and a negative association between circulating cortisol levels and NK cell activity (r = - 0.578; p < 0.05. This study indicated that cortisol levels decreased NK cell activity among women with exposure to aircraft noise. Women who experienced aircraft noise stress showed increased cortisol levels and decreased NK cells activity.

  9. Levels of occupational stress and stressful activities for nurses working in emergency

    José Ricardo Ferreira da Fonseca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to identify stress levels, areas and their activities identified as stressful by nurses working in the emergence in Manaus, AM, Brazil. It is an epidemiological, cross-sectional design, with 36 emergency nurses from December 2010 to January 2011. The Bianchi Stress Scale with 57 questions was used. The nurses were at risk for high levels of stress. The most stressful areas were the operation of the unit, conditions of work and personnel administration, and the most stressful activity was the request for equipment review and repair. The difference by Friedman test between the areas was significant (p <0.05, Dunn post-test significant (p <0.05 when compared by peers. The accumulation of management activities with the assistance activities can generate higher levels of stress, it is necessary to invest in improving the work environment and management support to minimize the stress experienced at work.

  10. Instructions, feedback, and reinforcement in reducing activity levels in the classroom.

    Schulman, J L; Suran, B G; Stevens, T M; Kupst, M J

    1979-01-01

    The biomotometer, an electronic device which simultaneously measures motor activity and provides auditory feedback, was used in combination with material reinforcers in an experiment to reduce children's activity level in a classroom setting. Subjects were nine boys and two girls, aged 9--13, from a day hospital program for emotionally disturbed children. After five baseline trials, each child had five contingent reinforcement trials in which he/she received feedback "beeps" from the biomotometer and was given toy or candy rewards after each trial in which activity fell at least 20% below mean baseline level. Then five noncontingent reinforcement trials were run in which children received rewards for wearing the apparatus without the feedback attachment. Results indicated that the intervention "package," including instructions, feedback, and contingent reinforcement, was successful in all five trials for 8 of 11 children. Activity levels increased during the final noncontingent phase.

  11. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    Semsang, Nuananong, E-mail: nsemsang@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, LiangDeng [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: ► Ion beam bombarded rice seeds in vacuum. ► Studied seed survival from the ion bombardment. ► Determined various antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level. ► Discussed vacuum, ion species and ion energy effects. ► Attributed the changes to free radical formation due to ion bombardment. -- Abstract: Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29–60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup −2}. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  12. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  13. Is the low level of physical activity a public policy issue?

    Kalman Michal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies and scientific evidence confirm a positive effect of physical activity on the quality of life and human health. Physical activity, which is also one of the key factors preventing mass non-communicable diseases, is decreasing in Europe, including the Czech Republic, both in children and adults. Serious health consequences for the population and economy of the countries are a reason for a discussion about including the low level of physical activity among public policy issues and a higher allocation of public sources into the area of physical activity promotion. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the paper is to determine whether the low level of physical activity is a public policy issue. An issue that should by systematically addressed by national, regional as well as local policy. METHODS: Through the policy analysis approach we conducted a content analysis of 25 systematically selected foreign national strategies aimed at the issue of physical activity promotion. The data source was an internal database of the World Health Organization - the International Inventory of Documents on Physical Activity Promotion. The content analysis of the strategies was performed using the Atlas.ti software tool. RESULTS: During a content analysis of 25 foreign strategies a total of 411 text segments (quotations relating to the low level of physical activity were selected. These text segments showed five basic features of a public policy issue according to a conceptual framework developed by Bardach (2000 and Patton and Sawicky (1993 - 1 affects the lives of a significant number of people of a society; 2 is analysable; 3 can be solved through public policy tools; 4 the primary cause or problem can be defined; 5 cannot be solved easily and quickly. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the low level of physical activity is a public policy issue that must be systematically addressed at national level.

  14. Decreased levels of serum platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase in patients with rheumatic diseases

    P. Vergne

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available PAF is a potent inflammatory compound known to stimulate the release of various cytokines involved in rheumatic diseases. Elevated blood PAF levels are reported in these patients. We report that serum PAF acetylhydrolase activity (AHA levels are decreased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis as compared to healthy controls. Serum and synovial fluid AHA levels were correlated in these patients. The present study suggests the potential role of AHA in controling systemic and/or local PAF levels in patients with rheumatic diseases.

  15. Carbonic anhydrase activity in the red blood cells of sea level and high altitude natives.

    Gamboa, J; Caceda, R; Gamboa, A; Monge-C, C

    2000-01-01

    Red blood cell carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity has not been studied in high altitude natives. Because CA is an intraerythocytic enzyme and high altitude natives are polycythemic, it is important to know if the activity of CA per red cell volume is different from that of their sea level counterparts. Blood was collected from healthy subjects living in Lima (150m) and from twelve subjects from Cerro de Pasco (4330m), and hematocrit and carbonic anhydrase activity were measured. As expected, the high altitude natives had significantly higher hematocrits than the sea level controls (p = 0.0002). No difference in the CA activity per milliliter of red cells was found between the two populations. There was no correlation between the hematocrit and CA activity.

  16. Accuracy of Self-Reported Physical Activity Levels in Obese Adolescents

    Sarah A. Elliott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Self-reported measures of habitual physical activity rely completely on the respondent’s ability to provide accurate information on their own physical activity behaviours. Our aim was to investigate if obese adolescents could accurately report their physical activity levels (PAL using self-reported diaries. Methods. Total energy expenditure (TEE was measured using doubly labelled water (DLW and resting energy expenditure (REE was measured via indirect calorimetry. Activity energy expenditure (AEE and PAL values were derived from measured TEE and REE. Self-reported, four-day activity diaries were used to calculate daily MET values and averaged to give an estimated PAL value (ePAL. Results. Twenty-two obese adolescents, mean age 13.2±1.8 years, mean BMI 31.3±4.6 kg/m2, completed the study. No significant differences between mean measured and estimated PAL values were observed (1.37±0.13 versus 1.40±0.34, P=0.74. Bland Altman analysis illustrated a significant relationship (r=-0.76, P<0.05 between the two methods; thus the bias was not consistent across a range of physical activity levels, with the more inactive overreporting their physical activity. Conclusion. At an individual level, obese adolescents are unlikely to be able to provide an accurate estimation of their own activity.

  17. Accuracy of self-reported physical activity levels in obese adolescents.

    Elliott, Sarah A; Baxter, Kimberley A; Davies, Peter S W; Truby, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Self-reported measures of habitual physical activity rely completely on the respondent's ability to provide accurate information on their own physical activity behaviours. Our aim was to investigate if obese adolescents could accurately report their physical activity levels (PAL) using self-reported diaries. Methods. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labelled water (DLW) and resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured via indirect calorimetry. Activity energy expenditure (AEE) and PAL values were derived from measured TEE and REE. Self-reported, four-day activity diaries were used to calculate daily MET values and averaged to give an estimated PAL value (ePAL). Results. Twenty-two obese adolescents, mean age 13.2 ± 1.8 years, mean BMI 31.3 ± 4.6 kg/m(2), completed the study. No significant differences between mean measured and estimated PAL values were observed (1.37 ± 0.13 versus 1.40 ± 0.34, P = 0.74). Bland Altman analysis illustrated a significant relationship (r = -0.76, P < 0.05) between the two methods; thus the bias was not consistent across a range of physical activity levels, with the more inactive overreporting their physical activity. Conclusion. At an individual level, obese adolescents are unlikely to be able to provide an accurate estimation of their own activity.

  18. Can exergaming contribute to improving physical activity levels and health outcomes in children?

    Daley, Amanda J

    2009-08-01

    Physical inactivity among children is a serious public health problem. It has been suggested that high levels of screen time are contributory factors that encourage sedentary lifestyles in young people. As physical inactivity and obesity levels continue to rise in young people, it has been proposed that new-generation active computer- and video-console games (otherwise known as "exergaming") may offer the opportunity to contribute to young people's energy expenditure during their free time. Although studies have produced some encouraging results regarding the energy costs involved in playing active video-console games, the energy costs of playing the authentic versions of activity-based video games are substantially larger, highlighting that active gaming is no substitute for real sports and activities. A small number of exergaming activities engage children in moderate-intensity activity, but most do not. Only 3 very small trials have considered the effects of exergaming on physical activity levels and/or other health outcomes in children. Evidence from these trials has been mixed; positive trends for improvements in some health outcomes in the intervention groups were noted in 2 trials. No adequately powered randomized, controlled trial has been published to date, and no trial has assessed the long-term impact of exergaming on children's health. We now need high-quality randomized, controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of exergaming, as well as its clinical relevance; until such studies take place, we should remain cautious about its ability to positively affect children's health.

  19. AN ASSOCIATION OF CYTOKINE LEVELS WITH DISEASE ACTIVITY, AUTOANTIBODY LEVELS, AND JOINT DESTRUCTIVE CHANGES IN EARLY RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    A. S. Avdeeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the association of cytokine profile measures with disease activity, autoantibody levels, and joint destructive changes in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA.Subjects and methods. Forty-five patients, including 35 women, with early RA were examined. Their median age was 53.5 [46; 59.5] years; the duration of the disease – 7.0 [4.0; 11.5] months; DAS28 – 5.8 [4.9; 6.4]; 91 and 96% of the patents were positive for rheumatoid factor (RF and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, respectively. Serum cytokine concentrations were estimated using the xMAP multiplex technology. The modified Sharp method was employed to quantify radiographic changes.Results and discussion. A group of 30 patients with high disease activity (DAS28 >5.1 had higher levels of interleukin (IL-6 (62.3 [36.1; 127.5] pg/ml and IP-10 (6367.8 [3682.7; 10691.3] pg/ml than 15 patients with moderate/low disease activity (DAS28 ≤5.1 (35.8 [13.4; 64.2] and 3222.6 [1881.0; 5671.9] pg/ml, respectively, p < 0.05. The patients highly positive for IgM RF had higher levels (pg/ml of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IL-15, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α; the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and the growth factors IL-7 and vascular endothelial growth factor (4.8 [2.8; 19.3], 23.0 [7.1; 55.8], 64.2 [41.6; 170.5], 52.2 [30.9; 126.9], 2.4 [0.2; 11.2], 210.8 [119.9; 584.2], 90.7 [42.7; 307/9], 57.5 [26.1; 93.8], 54.9 [37.1; 123.7], and 143.3 [70.6; 249.6] pg/ml than those who were negative/lowly positive for IgM RF (2.3 [1.9; 3.1], 4.9 [2.9; 16.8], 24.9 [20.4; 45.4], 25.6 [19.9; 57.1], 0.2 [0.01; 1.65], 94.4 [86.3; 138.9], 37.3 [23.6; 47.7], 20.9 [12.3; 33.9], 32.6 [28.1; 37.8], 74.2 [53.5; 147.6], respectively (p < 0.05.Conclusion. There are significant differences in cytokine profile measures in patients with early RA in relation to disease activity and serum autoantibody levels.

  20. Does activity space size influence physical activity levels of adolescents?—A GPS study of an urban environment

    Lee, Nolan C.; Voss, Christine; Frazer, Amanda D.; Hirsch, Jana A.; McKay, Heather A.; Winters, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is closely linked with child and youth health, and active travel may be a solution to enhancing PA levels. Activity spaces depict the geographic coverage of one's travel. Little is known about activity spaces and PA in adolescents. Objective To explore the relation between adolescent travel (using a spatial measure of activity space size) and daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), with a focus on school days. Methods We used Global Positioning Systems to manually identify trips and generate activity spaces for each person-day; quantified by area for 39 students (13.8 ± 0.6 years, 38% female) attending high school in urban Downtown Vancouver, Canada. We assessed the association between activity space area and MVPA using multi-level regression. We calculated total, school-day and trip-based MVPA for each valid person-day (accelerometry; ≥ 600 min wear time). Results On school days, students accrued 68.2 min/day (95% CI 60.4–76.0) of MVPA. Daily activity spaces averaged 2.2 km2 (95% CI 1.3–3.0). There was no association between activity space size and school-day MVPA. Students accrued 21.8 min/day (95% CI 19.2–24.4) of MVPA during school hours, 19.4 min/day (95% CI 15.1–23.7) during travel, and 28.3 min/day (95% CI 22.3–34.3) elsewhere. Conclusion School and school travel are important sources of PA in Vancouver adolescents, irrespective of activity space area covered. PMID:26807349

  1. Elevated serum interleukin-23 levels in ankylosing spondylitis patients and the relationship with disease activity.

    Ugur, Mahir; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Melikoglu, Meltem Alkan; Baygutalp, Fatih; Altas, Elif Umay; Seferoglu, Buminhan

    2015-11-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum interleukin-23 (IL-23) levels and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).Twenty male patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis according to the 1984 modified New York criteria for AS and twenty male healthy controls were included in this study.The demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings of the patients were recorded. Serum IL-23 levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured in both the AS and control groups. The Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity ındex (BASDAI), the Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), and the Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) were evaluated as disease activity parameters. The AS patients were divided into two subgroups as active and inactive in respect of CRP, ESR levels and BASDAI scores. The mean serum IL-23 levels of the AS and control groups were 334.45±176.54 pg/ml and 166.49±177.50 pg/ml respectively, and there was a significant difference between the groups. Correlation analysis of serum IL-23 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters showed that there were positive correlations between serum IL-23 levels and the BASDAI, BASFI scores in total, active and inactive patients and the BASMI scores in total and inactive patients and negative correlations between serum IL-23 levels and ESR in inactive patients. It was shown that altered serum IL-23 levels were related to AS disease activity. Further studies in large patient series are necessary to investigate the role of IL-23 protein in etiopathogenesis of AS.

  2. Self-assessment analysis of health and physical activity level of military personnel

    Plavina L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sport and physical activity is important and compulsory for military staff. They determine the execution of service duties and tasks. Respondents with low level of physical activity have difficulties achieving required fitness level and pass the annual physical tests. Staff officers aged 28 to 40 years completed questionnaires in 2009 (n=22, 2010 (n=30 and 2012 (n=39. Each questionnaire included twenty one questions which were then evaluated in points. The answers allowed us to collect information regarding their physical activity during service hours as well as after the working day. Questionnaires included also issues on harmful habits – sleep duration, smoking and use of alcohol; self-esteem of body mass as well. The respondents were divided into four groups according to the level of physical activity: low, moderate, good, high. The percentage of respondents with a high and good level of physical activity has increased from 22.7% to 68.9% during the analysed time period. Morning exercises and hardening (fitness procedures were not popular for military personnel. However, physical activities during the working hours have slightly increased: 31.8%, 43.3% and 48.9.3% respectively. In study years, it was found that respondents try to follow healthy eating habits and sleep regime. There is a slight decrease of respondents with obese and there is a slight increase of 22.7% to 27.6% of the respondents who are regular smokers .

  3. Relationship between serum leptin level and disease activity in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Budulgan, Mahmut; Dilek, Banu; Dağ, Şevin Buluttekin; Batmaz, Ibrahim; Yıldız, İsmail; Sarıyıldız, Mustafa Akif; Çevik, Remzi; Nas, Kemal

    2014-03-01

    To determine the relationship between serum leptin levels and disease activity in systemic sclerosis (SSc). A total of 60 subjects (30 controls and 30 patients) were included. The inflammatory markers and leptin levels were evaluated and body mass index (BMI) was measured for both groups. The assessment of the skin involvement was performed based on the modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS). Disease activity was evaluated according to the Valentini scleroderma disease activity index. There was a significant difference between the patient and control groups in terms of BMI (p 0.05). Valentini scores and mRSS were determined to be significantly higher in active patients (n = 14) than in inactive patients (n = 16) (p 0.05). However, leptin levels were significantly lower in active patients than in inactive patients (p < 0.05). We found a significant positive correlation between serum leptin and BMI (p < 0.05), and leptin and serum C3 levels (p < 0.05); no relationship was detected between leptin and other parameters. Leptin can be used as an activity marker in SSc. Further studies, including larger series, should be carried out to clarify this relationship.

  4. Judging disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis by serum free kappa and lambda light chain levels.

    Ye, Yun; Li, Su-Liang; Xie, Ming; Jiang, Ping; Liu, Kai-Ge; Li, Ya-Jun

    2013-10-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the levels of serum free kappa (κ) and lambda (λ) light chains in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as exploring the association between serum free κ and λ light chains and activity of RA. For this purpose, healthy individuals and patients with active RA and RA in remission were enrolled, and their serum levels of free κ and λ light chains were measured using rate nephelometry. The diagnostic accuracy of serum free κ and λ light chains was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves and 95% confidence intervals for areas under the curve (AUC). The results obtained indicated that the levels of serum free κ and λ light chains in patients with active RA were significantly higher than those of patients in remission and of healthy controls (p light chain and 0.781 for free λ light chain. When the optimal cut-off point for serum κ light chain was 8.02 g/L, the maximum sensitivity and specificity were 82.5% and 82.5%, respectively, and when the optimal cut-off point for serum λ light chain was 3.57 g/L, the maximum sensitivity and specificity were 80% and 82.5%, respectively. It was thus found that serum levels of free κ and λ light chains were positively correlated with disease activity in RA, the Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), and values for C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), platelet count (PLT), rheumatoid factor (RF), and anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) (p light chains in patients with active RA are closely correlated with disease activity parameters including DAS28, CRP, ESR, PLT, RF, and ACPA. Thus, the above-mentioned levels of serum free κ and λ light chains may be used as important indicators of activity of RA.

  5. Physical Activity Levels and Domains Assessed by Accelerometry in German Adolescents from GINIplus and LISAplus.

    Maia P Smith

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA is a well-known and underused protective factor for numerous health outcomes, and interventions are hampered by lack of objective data. We combined accelerometers with diaries to estimate the contributions to total activity from different domains throughout the day and week in adolescents.Accelerometric and diary data from 1403 adolescents (45% male, mean age 15.6 ± 0.5 years were combined to evaluate daily levels and domains of sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA during a typical week. Freedson's cutoff points were applied to determine levels of activity. Total activity was broken down into school physical education (PE, school outside PE, transportation to school, sport, and other time.About 2/3 of adolescents' time was spent sedentary, 1/3 in light activity, and about 5% in MVPA. Boys and girls averaged 46 (SD 22 and 38 (23 minutes MVPA per day. Adolescents were most active during leisure sport, spending about 30% of it in MVPA, followed by PE (about 20% transport to school (14% and either school class time or other time (3%. PE provided 5% of total MVPA, while leisure sport provided 16% and transportation to school 8%. School was the most sedentary part of the day with over 75% of time outside PE spent sedentary.These German adolescents were typical of Europeans in showing low levels of physical activity, with significant contributions from leisure sport, transportation and school PE. Leisure sport was the most active part of the day, and participation did not vary significantly by sex, study center (region of Germany or BMI. Transportation to school was frequent and thus accounted for a significant fraction of total MVPA. This indicates that even in a population with good access to dedicated sporting activities, frequent active transportation can add significantly to total MVPA.

  6. Low Amount of Salinomycin Greatly Increases Akt Activation, but Reduces Activated p70S6K Levels

    Sungpil Yoon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study identified a novel salinomycin (Sal-sensitization mechanism in cancer cells. We analyzed the signal proteins Akt, Jnk, p38, Jak, and Erk1/2 in cancer cell lines that had arrested growth following low amounts of Sal treatment. We also tested the signal molecules PI3K, PDK1, GSK3β, p70S6K, mTOR, and PTEN to analyze the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The results showed that Sal sensitization positively correlates with large reductions in p70S6K activation. Interestingly, Akt was the only signal protein to be significantly activated by Sal treatment. The Akt activation appeared to require the PI3K pathway as its activation was abolished by the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin. The Akt activation by Sal was conserved in the other cell lines analyzed, which originated from other organs. Both Akt activation and C-PARP production were proportionally increased with increased doses of Sal. In addition, the increased levels of pAkt were not reduced over the time course of the experiment. Co-treatment with Akt inhibitors sensitized the Sal-treated cancer cells. The results thereby suggest that Akt activation is increased in cells that survive Sal treatment and resist the cytotoxic effect of Sal. Taken together; these results indicate that Akt activation may promote the resistance of cancer cells to Sal.

  7. Trainability of muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction: comparison between bodybuilders and nonathletes.

    Sumiaki Maeo

    Full Text Available Antagonistic muscle pairs cannot be fully activated simultaneously, even with maximal effort, under conditions of voluntary co-contraction, and their muscular activity levels are always below those during agonist contraction with maximal voluntary effort (MVE. Whether the muscular activity level during the task has trainability remains unclear. The present study examined this issue by comparing the muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction for highly experienced bodybuilders, who frequently perform voluntary co-contraction in their training programs, with that for untrained individuals (nonathletes. The electromyograms (EMGs of biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles during maximal voluntary co-contraction of elbow flexors and extensors were recorded in 11 male bodybuilders and 10 nonathletes, and normalized to the values obtained during the MVE of agonist contraction for each of the corresponding muscles (% EMGMVE. The involuntary coactivation level in antagonist muscle during the MVE of agonist contraction was also calculated. In both muscles, % EMGMVE values during the co-contraction task for bodybuilders were significantly higher (P<0.01 than those for nonathletes (biceps brachii: 66±14% in bodybuilders vs. 46±13% in nonathletes, triceps brachii: 74±16% vs. 57±9%. There was a significant positive correlation between a length of bodybuilding experience and muscular activity level during the co-contraction task (r = 0.653, P = 0.03. Involuntary antagonist coactivation level during MVE of agonist contraction was not different between the two groups. The current result indicates that long-term participation in voluntary co-contraction training progressively enhances muscular activity during maximal voluntary co-contraction.

  8. Comparing Levels of Depression in Healthy Active and Inactive Elders versus Those with Knee Osteoarthritis Disease

    Amir Shams

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Knee osteoarthritis can have negative effects on the physical and mental conditions, social and family relations, general health and positive feelings of elders. For example, severe limitation of motion and increased depression, which are results of this disease, can have negative impacts on elders. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of depression in healthy active and inactive elders versus those with knee osteoarthritis disease. Two hundred and twenty (220 elders with knee osteoarthritis disease (110 active and 110 inactive patients and 220 healthy elders (110 active and 110 inactive were voluntarily selected, and they filled the questionnaire about elders’ personal characteristics, physical activity and depression levels. Four groups had differences with respect to education, age and gender. The results of chi-square test revealed that women with knee osteoarthritis disease had increased levels of depression compared to men with the same condition (p<0.05. Older patients had increased levels of depression and educated elders reported lower levels of depression. The results of the one way analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed that there exist a significant difference in depression scores of healthy active and healthy inactive elders and those with knee osteoarthritis disease. The results of Tukey’s test revealed that healthy active elder had lower depression scores compared to inactive elders with knee osteoarthritis disease. Carrying out exercises and physical activities can help improve the health state of patients with knee osteoarthritis problem and can also improve the elders’ mental condition and thus decrease their pain and depression.

  9. Sub-chronic exposure to methylmercury at low levels decreases butyrylcholinesterase activity in rats.

    Valentini, Juliana; Vicentini, Juliana; Grotto, Denise; Tonello, Raquel; Garcia, Solange C; Barbosa, Fernando

    2010-02-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of low levels and sub-chronic exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) on butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity in rats. Moreover, we examined the relationship between BuChE activity and oxidative stress biomarkers [delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALA-D) and malondialdehyde levels (MDA)] in the same animals. Rats were separated into three groups (eight animals per group): (Group I) received water by gavage; (Group II) received MeHg (30 microg/kg/day) by gavage; (Group III) received MeHg (100 microg/kg/day). The time of exposure was 90 days. BuChE and ALA-D activities were measured in serum and blood, respectively; whereas MDA levels were measured in plasma. We found BuChE and ALA-D activities decreased in groups II and III compared to the control group. Moreover, we found an interesting negative correlation between plasmatic BuChE activity and MDA (r = -0.85; p < 0.01) and a positive correlation between plasmatic BuChE activity and ALA-D activities (r = 0.78; p < 0.01), thus suggesting a possible relationship between oxidative damage promoted by MeHg exposure and the decrease of BuChE activity. In conclusion, long-term exposure to low doses of MeHg decreases plasmatic BuChE activity. Moreover, the decrease in the enzyme is strongly correlated with the oxidative stress promoted by the metal exposure. This preliminary finding highlights a possible mechanism for MeHg to reduce BuChE activity in plasma. Additionally, this enzyme could be an auxiliary biomarker on the evaluation of MeHg exposure.

  10. Organism activity levels predict marine invertebrate survival during ancient global change extinctions.

    Clapham, Matthew E

    2017-04-01

    Multistressor global change, the combined influence of ocean warming, acidification, and deoxygenation, poses a serious threat to marine organisms. Experimental studies imply that organisms with higher levels of activity should be more resilient, but testing this prediction and understanding organism vulnerability at a global scale, over evolutionary timescales, and in natural ecosystems remain challenging. The fossil record, which contains multiple extinctions triggered by multistressor global change, is ideally suited for testing hypotheses at broad geographic, taxonomic, and temporal scales. Here, I assess the importance of activity level for survival of well-skeletonized benthic marine invertebrates over a 100-million-year-long interval (Permian to Jurassic periods) containing four global change extinctions, including the end-Permian and end-Triassic mass extinctions. More active organisms, based on a semiquantitative score incorporating feeding and motility, were significantly more likely to survive during three of the four extinction events (Guadalupian, end-Permian, and end-Triassic). In contrast, activity was not an important control on survival during nonextinction intervals. Both the end-Permian and end-Triassic mass extinctions also triggered abrupt shifts to increased dominance by more active organisms. Although mean activity gradually returned toward pre-extinction values, the net result was a permanent ratcheting of ecosystem-wide activity to higher levels. Selectivity patterns during ancient global change extinctions confirm the hypothesis that higher activity, a proxy for respiratory physiology, is a fundamental control on survival, although the roles of specific physiological traits (such as extracellular pCO2 or aerobic scope) cannot be distinguished. Modern marine ecosystems are dominated by more active organisms, in part because of selectivity ratcheting during these ancient extinctions, so on average may be less vulnerable to global change

  11. Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia

    Hjorth Mads F

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women, and their association with demographic characteristics and anthropometric measures. Methods Physical activity was measured for seven consecutive days in 304 women using a combined uniaxial accelerometer and heart rate sensor. Activity energy expenditure was determined using a group calibration in a branched equation model framework. Type and duration of activities were reported using a 24-hour physical activity recall and grip strength was assessed using a dynamometer. Results Median (interquartile-range, IQR activity energy expenditure was 31.1 (23.7-42.0 kJ/kg/day corresponding to a median (IQR physical activity level of 1.46 (1.39-1.58. Median (IQR time in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity was 1100 (999–1175, 303 (223–374 and 40 (22–69 min/day, respectively. Mean (standard deviation sleeping heart rate was 73.6 (8.0 beats/min and grip strength was 21.6 (4.5 kg. Activity energy expenditure was 14% higher for every 10 cm2 difference in arm muscle area and 10% lower for every 10 cm2 difference in arm fat area and 10-week difference in gestational age. Conclusion The level and intensity of physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia is low compared to non-pregnant women from other low income countries as well as pregnant European women from high-income countries.

  12. First results on enzymatic activities in two salt marsh soils under different hydromorphic level and vegetation

    Carmen Trasar-Cepeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt-marsh soils are soils characterized by non-permanent hydric saturation that, depending on factors like duration of submersion periods, are dominated by different salt-tolerant plant species. The composition of microbial communities is an essential component in trophic dynamics and biogeochemical processes in salt marshes, and determines the level of enzymatic activities, which catalyze the conversion of complex molecules into simpler ones. Despite of this, the enzymatic activities in marsh-soils has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the enzymatic activities in two soil profiles of marsh-soils under different water saturation level and dominated by different plant species [Juncus maritimus Lam and Spartina maritima (Curtis Fernald (Sp]. In both soils, the enzymatic activities were much lower than the levels typically found in terrestrial ecosystems. The enzymatic activities were measured both in air-dried and in re-moistened and incubated soil samples. In air-dried samples, the enzymatic activities were higher in Juncus than in Spartina soil and tended to decrease with depth, being sharper the decrease in Juncus than in Spartina soil. Re-moistened and pre-incubated soils showed a general increase in all the enzymatic activities and throughout the whole soil profile, especially in Spartina soils. Hydrolase activities showed a strong and positive relationship with organic matter content both in air-dried and in re-moistened soil samples, higher in these latter. In general, oxidoreductase activities only showed this relationship in re-moistened soil samples. More studies, preferably using freshly collected soil samples, are needed to understand the relationship between enzymatic activities and these environmental conditions.

  13. Anterior cruciate ligament injury after more than 20 years: I. Physical activity level and knee function.

    Tengman, E; Brax Olofsson, L; Nilsson, K G; Tegner, Y; Lundgren, L; Häger, C K

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about physical activity level and knee function including jump capacity and fear of movement/reinjury more than 20 years after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Seventy persons with unilateral ACL injury participated (23 ± 2 years post-injury): 33 treated with physiotherapy in combination with surgical reconstruction (ACLR ), and 37 treated with physiotherapy alone (ACLPT ). These were compared with 33 age- and gender-matched controls. Assessment included knee-specific and general physical activity level [Tegner activity scale, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)], knee function [Lysholm score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)], jump capacity (one-leg hop, vertical jump, side hops), and fear of movement/reinjury [Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK)]. Outcomes were related to degree of osteoarthritis (OA). ACL-injured had lower Lysholm, KOOS, and Tegner scores than controls (P knee-related effects of ACL injury more than 20 years later.

  14. Effect of recreational physical activity on insulin levels in Mexican/Hispanic children.

    Macias-Cervantes, Maciste H; Malacara, Juan M; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia; Díaz-Cisneros, Francisco J

    2009-10-01

    The effect of increased recreational physical activity in children on insulin levels has not yet been studied. We carried out a randomized controlled trial in 76 children 6-9 years old, 32 of them increased their physical activity and 30 maintained the same level. In the intervention group, after a week of baseline, recreational activity three times/week was programmed for 12 weeks. We compared insulin, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index, glucose, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, and body mass index in both groups. Thereafter, we compared groups of normal weight, overweight, and with obesity in the experimental group. The group of recreational activity increased their median daily steps (15,329 to 19,910) and decreased insulin (p < 0.001) and HOMA index (4.36 vs. 2.39, p < 0.001). The diminution of insulin levels was more significant in the overweight group (p < 0.007). In conclusion, in our group, children who increased physical activity during 12 weeks decrease insulin levels and insulin resistance without change in other metabolic and anthropometric variables.

  15. Cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone against human breast and cervical cancers are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor {gamma} activation

    Lee, Eunjung; Shin, Soyoung; Lee, Jeeyoung; Lee, So Jung; Kim, Jinkyoung; Yoon, Doyoung; Kim, Yangmee [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Eunrhan [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Human peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor gamma (hPPAR{gamma}) has been implicated in numerous pathologies, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer. Previously, we verified that amentoflavone is an activator of hPPAR{gamma} and probed the molecular basis of its action. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of action of amentoflavone in cancer cells and demonstrated that amentoflavone showed strong cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cell lines. We showed that hPPAR{gamma} expression in MCF-7 and HeLa cells is specifically stimulated by amentoflavone, and suggested that amentoflavone-induced cytotoxic activities are mediated by activation of hPPAR{gamma} in these two cancer cell lines. Moreover, amentoflavone increased PTEN levels in these two cancer cell lines, indicating that the cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to hPPAR{gamma} activation.

  16. Assessing Causality in the Association between Child Adiposity and Physical Activity Levels : A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

    Rebecca C Richmond; George Davey Smith; Ness, Andy R; Marcel den Hoed; George McMahon; Nicholas J Timpson

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundCross-sectional studies have shown that objectively measured physical activity is associated with childhood adiposity, and a strong inverse dose-response association with body mass index (BMI) has been found. However, few studies have explored the extent to which this association reflects reverse causation. We aimed to determine whether childhood adiposity causally influences levels of physical activity using genetic variants reliably associated with adiposity to estimate causal eff...

  17. Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition of Adult Premenopausal Women with Three Levels of Physical Activity

    Fernando D. Saraví

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight-bearing and resistance physical activities are recommended for osteoporosis prevention, but it is unclear whether an intensity level above current recommendations has a positive effect on adult premenopausal women. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD by DXA were compared in three groups of women as follows: Sedentary, Maintenance exercise, and federated Sport Team (n=16 for each group. Physical activity was estimated from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. The groups did not differ in age, height, weight, or body mass index. Bone mineral content and non-fat soft tissue mass were higher and fat mass was lower in the Sport Team group than in the other groups. The same was true for BMD of total skeleton, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. A test for linear trend of body composition and BMD showed significant results when including all three groups. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between physical activity level (or alternatively, years of participation in programmed physical activity and bone mass measures at all sites except for the middle third of radius. It is concluded that a level of physical activity higher than that usually recommended benefits bone health in adult premenopausal women.

  18. Glucose regulates diacylglycerol intracellular levels and protein kinase C activity by modulating diacylglycerol kinase subcellular localization.

    Miele, Claudia; Paturzo, Flora; Teperino, Raffaele; Sakane, Fumio; Fiory, Francesca; Oriente, Francesco; Ungaro, Paola; Valentino, Rossella; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro

    2007-11-02

    Although chronic hyperglycemia reduces insulin sensitivity and leads to impaired glucose utilization, short term exposure to high glucose causes cellular responses positively regulating its own metabolism. We show that exposure of L6 myotubes overexpressing human insulin receptors to 25 mm glucose for 5 min decreased the intracellular levels of diacylglycerol (DAG). This was paralleled by transient activation of diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) and of insulin receptor signaling. Following 30-min exposure, however, both DAG levels and DGK activity returned close to basal levels. Moreover, the acute effect of glucose on DAG removal was inhibited by >85% by the DGK inhibitor R59949. DGK inhibition was also accompanied by increased protein kinase C-alpha (PKCalpha) activity, reduced glucose-induced insulin receptor activation, and GLUT4 translocation. Glucose exposure transiently redistributed DGK isoforms alpha and delta, from the prevalent cytosolic localization to the plasma membrane fraction. However, antisense silencing of DGKdelta, but not of DGKalpha expression, was sufficient to prevent the effect of high glucose on PKCalpha activity, insulin receptor signaling, and glucose uptake. Thus, the short term exposure of skeletal muscle cells to glucose causes a rapid induction of DGK, followed by a reduction of PKCalpha activity and transactivation of the insulin receptor signaling. The latter may mediate, at least in part, glucose induction of its own metabolism.

  19. [Comparison of eating habits among students according to sex and level of physical activity].

    Łagowska, Karolina; Woźniewicz, Małgorzata; Jeszka, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate nutritional habits of high school students, depending on their sex and physical activity. The investigated population included 147 students in age of 17.5 +/- 1.5 y (girls DZ = 98, boys CH = 49) with different level of physical activity (athletes SPO, moderate physical activity UAF, low physical activity NAF). Nutritional data were obtained by FFQ and calculated for selected food-groups and generally as young healthy eating index YHEI. International IPAQ was used to determine the level of physical activity and anthropometric measured were conducted to estimated BMI and body fat status. It was indicated the YHEI in athletes was significantly higher (p students. Moreover, a significant difference (p consumption of red meat, vegetable oil and sweetned drinks was revealed between DZ and CH adolescents. The frequency of consumption of vegetable oil, fast - foods, sweets, alcoholic drinks, energy drinks and isotonic drinks varied with the level of physical activity. Frequency of consumption of sweets negatively correlated with skinfold thickness in DZ, whereas positive correlation between consumption frequency of energy drinks, BMI and skinfold thickness was found in CH. The results show, that nutritional habits of the athletes was most approached to nutritional guidelines. CH, nutritional habits may predicted to overweight and obesity in CH group more distinctly than in DZ group.

  20. Social, environmental and psychological factors associated with objective physical activity levels in the over 65s.

    Marion E T McMurdo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess physical activity levels objectively using accelerometers in community dwelling over 65 s and to examine associations with health, social, environmental and psychological factors. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING: 17 general practices in Scotland, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Random sampling of over 65 s registered with the practices in four strata young-old (65-80 years, old-old (over 80 years, more affluent and less affluent groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Accelerometry counts of activity per day. Associations between activity and Theory of Planned Behaviour variables, the physical environment, health, wellbeing and demographic variables were examined with multiple regression analysis and multilevel modelling. RESULTS: 547 older people (mean (SD age 79(8 years, 54% female were analysed representing 94% of those surveyed. Accelerometry counts were highest in the affluent younger group, followed by the deprived younger group, with lowest levels in the deprived over 80 s group. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower age, higher perceived behavioural control, the physical function subscale of SF-36, and having someone nearby to turn to were all independently associated with higher physical activity levels (R(2 = 0.32. In addition, hours of sunshine were independently significantly associated with greater physical activity in a multilevel model. CONCLUSIONS: Other than age and hours of sunlight, the variables identified are modifiable, and provide a strong basis for the future development of novel multidimensional interventions aimed at increasing activity participation in later life.

  1. Is the activity level of HD 80606 influenced by its eccentric planet?

    Figueira, P; da Silva, J Gomes; Abe, L; Adibekyan, V Zh; Bendjoya, P; Correia, A C M; Delgado-Mena, E; Faria, J P; Hebrard, G; Lovis, C; Oshagh, M; Rivet, J -P; Santos, N C; Suarez, O; Vidotto, A A

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Several studies suggest that the activity level of a planet-host star can be influenced by the presence of a close-by orbiting planet. Moreover, the interaction mechanisms that have been proposed, magnetic interaction and tidal interaction, exhibit a very different dependence on orbital separation between the star and the planet. A detection of activity enhancement and characterization of its dependence on planetary orbital distance can, in principle, allow us to characterize the physical mechanism behind the activity enhancement. Methods: We used the HARPS-N spectrograph to measure the stellar activity level of HD 80606 during the planetary periastron passage and compared the activity measured to that close to apastron. Being characterized by an eccentricity of 0.93 and an orbital period of 111 days, the system's extreme variation in orbital separation makes it a perfect target to test our hypothesis. Results: We find no evidence for a variation in the activity level of the star as a function of planet...

  2. Analysis of enzyme activity and the level of malondialdehyde in the saliva of children with gingivitis

    Tričković-Janjić Olivera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim. By analyzing activity of some of the enzymes normally present in the saliva and the level of malondialdehyde in gingivitis, it is possible to estimate the functional condition of parodontium, and the examined parameters can be considered as biochemical markers of its functional condition. The aim of this paper was to examine activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase and the level of malondialdehyde in the saliva of children affected with gingivitis, as well as the values of the mentioned parameters in relation to the level of the inflammation of gingiva. Methods. The research included 120 children at the age of 12.2 with permanent dentition. Löe and Silness gingival index was used to estimate the condition of gingiva, based on which the children were classified into four groups: the children with healthy gingiva (the control groups, the children with mild, moderate and severe inflammation of gingiva (the study group. Enzymes of the saliva were determined by the use of original tests and measured by the autoanalyser (Bio Systems A25, Spain. A modified method with tiobarbituric acid was used to determine malondialdehyde in nonstimulated mixed saliva. Results. The results of the examined enzyme activity and the level of malondialdehyde in the saliva of the study groups showed statistically considerably higher values for the level of malondialdehyde (p < 0.001, for the activity of aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase (p < 0.01, as well as for alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.05 in comparison with the control group, whereas the activity of lactate dehydrogenase did not show a statistically significant increase. In relation to the level of the inflammation of gingiva, the results of the examination of the enzyme activity in the study groups showed statistically significantly higher values in the group with severe inflammation in comparison

  3. Five-Level Active-Neutral-Point-Clamped DC/DC Converter

    Liu, Dong; Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    reliability. Furthermore, a capacitor voltage control strategy by alternating two operation modes of the proposed modulation strategy is proposed to balance the voltage of the flying capacitor, which ensures multi-level voltages producing. Finally, the performance of the proposed converter and control......Multi-level converters are getting more and more attentions because of their obvious merits such as lower voltage stress and harmonic, smaller size of output filters, and so on. In this paper, a five-level active-neutral-point-clamped (5L-ANPC) dc/dc converter is proposed for power transfer...

  4. Caries-free subjects have high levels of urease and arginine deiminase activity

    Evelyn REYES

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study investigated the relationship between urease and arginine deiminase system (ADS activities and dental caries through a cross-sectional study. Material and Methods: Urease and ADS activities were measured in saliva and plaque samples from 10 caries-free subjects and 13 caries-active. Urease activity was obtained from the ammonia produced by incubation of plaque and saliva samples in urea. ADS activity was obtained from the ammonia generated by the arginine-HCl and Tris-maleate buffer. Specific activity was defined as micromoles of ammonia per minute per milligram of protein. Shapiro-Wilk statistical test was used to analyze the distribution of the data, and Mann-Whitney test was used to determine the significance of the data. Results: The specific urease activity in saliva and plaque was significantly higher in individuals with low DMFT scores. ADS activity in saliva (6.050 vs 1.350, p=0.0154 and plaque (8.830 vs 1.210, p=0.025 was also higher in individuals with low DMFT scores. Conclusions: Caries-free subjects had a higher ammonia generation activity by urease and arginine deiminase system for both saliva and plaque samples than low caries-active subjects. High levels of alkali production in oral environment were related to caries-free subjects.

  5. Effectiveness of sensory processing strategies on activity level in inclusive preschool classrooms

    Lin CL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chien-Lin Lin,1,2 Yu-Fan Min,3 Li-Wei Chou,1,2,* Chin-Kai Lin,4,* 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 2School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 3Faith, Hope and Love, Center for Children and Adults With Disabilities, Taichung, Taiwan; 4Program of Early Intervention, Department of Early Childhood Education, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of sensory processing strategies in improving the activity level of children with sensory integration dysfunction.Methods: The study used a matching-only pretest–posttest control group design, which requires random matching of sensory integration dysfunction to the corresponding intervention group (n = 18 and control group (n = 18. The intervention group comprised 3–6-year-old children who received an 8-week school-day intervention during implementation of the theme curriculum.Results: The 8-week treatment significantly reduced the activity level and foot-swinging episodes in children with sensory integration dysfunction, and obtained a medium-effect size. However, the level of improvement in the control group did not show any statistically significant change.Conclusion: Sensory processing strategies could improve activity levels in children with sensory integration dysfunction. However, this study was unable to exclude a developmental effect. The social validity results show that sensory processing strategies can be integrated into the theme curriculum and improve activity levels in children.Keywords: activity level, preschool inclusive classroom, sensory integration dysfunction, sensory processing strategy

  6. Relationship between Bone Mineral Density and Physical Activity Level in the Elderly

    Ali Monemi Amiri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study purposed to investigate the relationship between physical activity level and bone mineral density (BMD in the elderly of Amirkola in northern Iran. This cross-sectional study was part of a proposal to assess the situation of the elderly in Amirkola (AHAP (Amirkola Health and Ageing Project conducted on 1113 elderly individuals (616 males and 497 females in Amirkola city. Physical activity was measured using a standard questionnaire of physical activity in the elderly (Physical Activity Scale for Elderly. Mineral bone mass was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in the femur neck and lumbar spines, and vitamin D levels were measured in morning blood samples. T-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and linear regression tests were used to analyze data. The mean physical activity of women (118.6±55.5 was higher than that of men (110.3±71.1 (p=0.035. This study found a significant positive relationship between total physical activity and femur bone mineral density (p=0.001 and r=0.101, but this association was not significant in lumbar spines (p=0.597 and r=0.016, though bone mineral density increased in both areas with increased physical activity (p=0.098. A significant inverse relationship between age and physical activity (p=0.001 and between age and bone mineral density (p=0.001 was observed. Analyzing the influencing variables using the linear regression model indicated physical activity, age, and BMI had significant relationships with bone mineral density in the femur, but neither vitamin D nor calcium played a role. Given the positive correlation between bone mineral density and physical activity, it can be concluded that low intensity weight-bearing activities carried out in compliance with safety rules may be suitable for the elderly.

  7. Efficacy of interventions to improve physical activity levels in individuals with stroke: a systematic review protocol

    Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Martins, Júlia Caetano; Nadeau, Sylvie; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F; Faria, Christina D C M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Stroke is a leading health problem worldwide and an important cause of disability. Stroke survivors show low levels of physical activity, and increases in physical activity levels may improve function and health status. Therefore, the aims are to identify which interventions that have been employed to increase physical activity levels with stroke survivors, to verify their efficacy and to identify the gaps in the literature. Methods and analysis A systematic review of randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of interventions aiming at increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in the MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Excerpta Medica (EMBASE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO) databases. Hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies or relevant reviews will also be employed. Two independent reviewers will screen all the retrieved titles, abstracts and full texts. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreements. The quality of the included studies will be assessed by the PEDro Rating Scale. This systematic review will also include a qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses will be performed, if the studies are sufficiently homogeneous. This review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The quality of the evidence regarding physical activity will be assessed, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Discussion This systematic review will provide information on which interventions are effective for increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors. This evidence may be important for clinical decision-making and will allow the identification of gaps in the literature that may be useful for the definition of future research

  8. The contribution of different adipose tissue depots to plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels.

    Barnard, Sunelle A; Pieters, Marlien; De Lange, Zelda

    2016-11-01

    Increased plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) level is considered a mechanistic pathway through which obesity contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Abdominal adipose tissue specifically, is a major PAI-1 source with visceral adipose tissue (VAT), an ectopic fat depot, generally considered to produce more PAI-1 than subcutaneous adipose tissue. However, this does not necessarily lead to increased plasma PAI-1 levels. This review provides an overview of studies investigating the association between body fat distribution and plasma PAI-1 levels. It discusses factors that influence this relationship and also considers the contribution of other tissue to plasma PAI-1 levels, placing the relative contribution of adipose tissue into perspective. In conclusion, the relationship between VAT and plasma PAI-1 levels is not fixed but can be modulated by a number of factors such as the size of the subcutaneous adipose tissue depot, ethnicity, possibly genetics and other obesity-related metabolic abnormalities.

  9. Hydrogen sulfide diminishes the levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin in activated mast cells.

    Han, Na-Ra; Moon, Phil-Dong; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2016-03-01

    Bamboo salt (BS) is a Korean traditional type of salt and has been reported to have therapeutic effects on allergic inflammation. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) aggravates inflammation in the pathogenesis of allergic reactions, such as allergic rhinitis (AR). To confirm an active compound of BS, we investigated the effect of sulfur, a compound of BS, on the levels of TSLP in a human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells and a mouse model of AR using hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH). We treated NaSH or BS in HMC-1 cells and activated the HMC-1 cells with phorbol myristate acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI). ELISA for the production measurement of TSLP, PCR for the mRNA expression measurement of TSLP, and western blot analysis for the expression measurement of upstream mediators were performed. Mice were treated with NaSH and sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA). The levels of TSLP were measured in serum and nasal mucosa tissue in an OVA-induced AR mouse model. NaSH or BS diminished the production and mRNA expression of TSLP as well as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. NaSH or BS diminished the level of intracellular calcium in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. NaSH or BS reduced the expression and activity of caspase-1 in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. And NaSH or BS inhibited the expression of receptor interacting protein-2 and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. The translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus as well as the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα in the cytoplasm were diminished by NaSH or BS in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. Furthermore, NaSH inhibited the production of TSLP, IL-6, and IL-8 in TNF-α-activated HMC-1 cells. Finally, the administration of NaSH showed a decrease in number of rubs on mice with OVA-induced AR. And the levels of immunoglobulin E and TSLP in the serum and the level of TSLP in the

  10. A 5-yr change in Norwegian 9-yr-olds' objectively assessed physical activity level

    Kolle, Elin; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Klasson-Heggebø, Lena;

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe changes in objectively assessed physical activity by socioeconomic status (SES) between 1999-2000 and 2005 in 9-yr-old children living in Oslo, Norway. METHODS: Two cross-sectional studies were conducted in 1999-2000 and 2005. The participation rate was 70.9% in 1999-2000 and......PURPOSE: To describe changes in objectively assessed physical activity by socioeconomic status (SES) between 1999-2000 and 2005 in 9-yr-old children living in Oslo, Norway. METHODS: Two cross-sectional studies were conducted in 1999-2000 and 2005. The participation rate was 70.9% in 1999...... activity assessments that met all inclusion criteria. General linear models were used to assess the changes in physical activity between 1999-2000 and 2005. RESULTS: A significant increase in mean physical activity level and physical activity during weekends was observed between the two study periods (P...... = 0.02 and level and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among children from low-SES groups showed no change...

  11. EFFECTS OF DISTINCT PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND MEDITATION PROGRAMS ON QUALITY OF LIFE AND DEPRESSION LEVELS IN ACTIVE ELDERLY WOMEN

    J. Corrêa; Cunha, F.A.; T. H. Pires; Giani T.; FERREIRA, M. de A.; Dantas, E.

    2010-01-01

     

    ABSTRACT

    Sedentary aging can evolve to depression which interferes both qualitatively and quantitatively on elderly’s quality of life. The present study compared quality of life and depression levels between sedentary and active elderly women. For this, a correlational ex post facto study was employed, the sample...

  12. Visual-Somatosensory Integration is Linked to Physical Activity Level in Older Adults.

    Mahoney, Jeannette R; Dumas, Kristina; Holtzer, Roee

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining multisensory integration (MSI) in aging consistently demonstrate greater reaction time (RT) facilitation in old compared to young adults, but often fail to determine the utility of MSI. The aim of the current experiment was to further elucidate the utility of MSI in aging by determining its relationship to physical activity level. 147 non-demented older adults (mean age 77 years; 57% female) participated. Participants were instructed to make speeded responses to visual, somatosensory, and visual-somatosensory (VS) stimuli. Depending on the magnitude of the individuals' RT facilitation, participants were classified into a MSI or NO MSI group. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity scale. As predicted, RTs to VS stimuli were significantly shorter than those elicited to constituent unisensory conditions. Multisensory RT facilitation was a significant predictor of total number of physical activity days per month, with individuals in the NO MSI group reporting greater engagement in physical activities compared to those requiring greater RT facilitation.

  13. Physical activity levels of adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities during physical education and recess.

    Pan, Chien-Yu; Liu, Chin-Wen; Chung, I Chiao; Hsu, Po-Jen

    2014-11-16

    To compare physical activity levels in adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities during physical education and recess. Forty adolescents diagnosed with intellectual disabilities (inclusive classrooms, n=20; self-contained classrooms, n=20) and 40 age-matched typically developing peers (general classrooms) participated. All participants wore an Actigraph GT1M accelerometer for 5 consecutive weekdays during school hours. Three groups of adolescents were similarly active during physical education; however, adolescents with intellectual disabilities in self-contained classrooms were less active during recess than did the other two groups. In addition, they spent less percentage of time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during recess than did the typically developing adolescents. An inclusive, structured, and supportive environment promotes physical activity engagement in adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

  14. Physical Activity Levels in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Are Extremely Low

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Reis, Debora; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    This study measures physical activity levels in a representative population-based sample of older adults (aged [greater than or equal to]50 years) with intellectual disabilities. For this, the steps/day of all 1050 participants of the Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disabilities study (HA-ID; a study conducted among three Dutch healthcare…

  15. Effects of Varying Team Sizes on Physical Activity Levels of College Students

    Gaudreault, Karen Lux; Cluphf, David; Russell, Jared; Lecheminant, James

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine physical activity levels among various team sizes for basketball and soccer in a C/UIPAP setting. Twenty-eight university physical education majors participated in the study. Participants engaged in three-on-three and five-on-five basketball and five-on-five and 11-on-11 soccer games. All games…

  16. Characteristics of monsoon low level jet (MLLJ) as an index of monsoon activity

    N V Sam; K P R Vittal Murty

    2002-12-01

    Temperature and wind data are used to describe variation in the strength of the Monsoon Low Level Jet (MLLJ) from an active phase of the monsoon to a break phase. Also estimated are the characteristics of turbulence above and below MLLJ.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS ACTIVITIES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION LEVELS OF CHILDREN

    Erkan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine whether regular application of physical education and sports activities was effective on psychological adaptation levels of children or not. The research group was constituted of 80 students in the range of 10-11 years old who take education in Ankara Keçioren Hacı Sabancı Secondary School. The research was designed as a test-module with pretest-posttest control group. Physical education and sports activities were performed with application group as 2 hours a day, 4 days a week throughout 20 weeks. The data were collected by Hacettepe Psychological Adaptation Scale. For the statistical evaluation of the data, SPSS 15.0 statistical software program was used and significance was tested at levels of 0.05 and 0.01. In accordance with findings of the research, while psychological adaptation levels of application and control groups showed similarity before physical education and sports activity program, significant differences in favour of application group were determined positively after 20-week program. In the light of findings, it can be significantly resulted from this research that physical education and sports activities might have positive effect on psychological adaptation levels of children.

  18. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and juvenile idiopathic arthritis: is there an association with disease activity?

    To examine the association between serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), to determine the prevalence of vitamin D (VD) deficiency [25(OH)D=19 ng/ml] and insufficiency [25(OH)D 20-29 ng/ml], and to determine factors associated with ...

  19. Physical activity levels in older adults with intellectual disabilities are extremely low

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Reis, Debora; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    This study measures physical activity levels in a representative population-based sample of older adults (aged >= 50 years) with intellectual disabilities. For this, the steps/day of all 1050 participants of the Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disabilities study (HA-ID; a study conducted among three

  20. Determining Intensity Levels of Selected Wii Fit Activities in College Aged Individuals

    Grieser, Joshua D.; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda; Simonson, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the intensity of Nintendo Wii Fit games using indirect calorimetry. Twenty-five college students completed Wii Fit activity sessions at two difficulty levels within aerobics, strength, and yoga categories. Resting metabolic rate and exercise oxygen uptake were measured, and metabolic equivalents were…

  1. The Influence of Activation Level on Belief Bias in Relational Reasoning

    Banks, Adrian P.

    2013-01-01

    A novel explanation of belief bias in relational reasoning is presented based on the role of working memory and retrieval in deductive reasoning, and the influence of prior knowledge on this process. It is proposed that belief bias is caused by the believability of a conclusion in working memory which influences its activation level, determining…

  2. Physical Activity Levels of Non-Overweight, Overweight, and Obese Children during Physical Education

    Pathare, Neeti; Piche, Kelly; Nicosia, Andrea; Haskvitz, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) levels of young children classified by body mass index (BMI) (non-overweight, overweight, and obese) during physical education classes. Method: Participants included 82 children (45 boys, 37 girls; 7.5 ± 1.2 years). PA was determined by the number of steps measured with…

  3. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Distance Education Students

    Özkan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between physical activity levels and healthy life-style behaviors in distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University. In total, 526 distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University participated in this study voluntarily. The short form of International Physical…

  4. Associations between Adolescents' Situational Motivation and Objectively-Determined Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education

    Ning, Weihong; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the predictive strength of adolescents' situational motivation to their physical activity levels in physical education. Method: A total of 259 middle school students ranging from 11 to 14 years old participated in the study. Participants completed the Situational Motivation Scale in one class. Their PA levels…

  5. No Easy Answers: Helping Children with Attention and Activity Level Differences.

    Aldridge, Jerry; Eddowes, E. Anne; Kuby, Patricia

    Recent developments have increased the need for both theoretical and practical dialogues concerning children's attention and activity levels. This book explores the complex issues and concerns in helping children with attention deficit disorder. The book is organized in three major sections. The first section describes current issues about…

  6. Living in a Global Age. A Simulation Activity for Upper Elementary and Secondary Level Students.

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    Designed to introduce concepts in international trade and global economics to upper elementary and secondary level students, this simulation activity engages students in the group task of assembling flashlights. A variety of topics can be explored, such as energy shortages, international crises, relationships between rich and poor nations, foreign…

  7. Effect of low-level laser therapy on the modulation of the mitochondrial activity of macrophages

    Souza, Nadhia H. C.; Ferrari, Raquel A. M.; Silva, Daniela F. T.; Nunes, Fabio D.; Bussadori, Sandra K.; Fernandes, Kristianne P. S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Macrophages play a major role among the inflammatory cells that invade muscle tissue following an injury. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has long been used in clinical practice to accelerate the muscle repair process. However, little is known regarding its effect on macrophages. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of LLLT on the mitochondrial activity (MA) of macrophages. METHOD: J774 macrophages were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon - gamma (IFN-γ) (activation) for 24 h to simulate an inflammatory process, then irradiated with LLLT using two sets of parameters (780 nm; 70 mW; 3 J/cm2 and 660 nm; 15 mW; 7.5 J/cm2). Non-activated/non-irradiated cells composed the control group. MA was evaluated by the cell mitochondrial activity (MTT) assay (after 1, 3 and 5 days) in three independent experiments. The data were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: After 1 day of culture, activated and 780 nm irradiated macrophages showed lower MA than activated macrophages, but activated and 660 nm irradiated macrophages showed MA similar to activated cells. After 3 days, activated and irradiated (660 nm and 780 nm) macrophages showed greater MA than activated macrophages, and after 5 days, the activated and irradiated (660 nm and 780 nm) macrophages showed similar MA to the activated macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that 660 nm and 780 nm LLLT can modulate the cellular activation status of macrophages in inflammation, highlighting the importance of this resource and of the correct determination of its parameters in the repair process of skeletal muscle. PMID:25076002

  8. Effect of low-level laser therapy on the modulation of the mitochondrial activity of macrophages

    Nadhia H. C. Souza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Macrophages play a major role among the inflammatory cells that invade muscle tissue following an injury. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT has long been used in clinical practice to accelerate the muscle repair process. However, little is known regarding its effect on macrophages. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of LLLT on the mitochondrial activity (MA of macrophages. METHOD: J774 macrophages were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS and interferon - gamma (IFN-γ (activation for 24 h to simulate an inflammatory process, then irradiated with LLLT using two sets of parameters (780 nm; 70 mW; 3 J/cm2 and 660 nm; 15 mW; 7.5 J/cm2. Non-activated/non-irradiated cells composed the control group. MA was evaluated by the cell mitochondrial activity (MTT assay (after 1, 3 and 5 days in three independent experiments. The data were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: After 1 day of culture, activated and 780 nm irradiated macrophages showed lower MA than activated macrophages, but activated and 660 nm irradiated macrophages showed MA similar to activated cells. After 3 days, activated and irradiated (660 nm and 780 nm macrophages showed greater MA than activated macrophages, and after 5 days, the activated and irradiated (660 nm and 780 nm macrophages showed similar MA to the activated macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that 660 nm and 780 nm LLLT can modulate the cellular activation status of macrophages in inflammation, highlighting the importance of this resource and of the correct determination of its parameters in the repair process of skeletal muscle.

  9. Assessing causality in the association between child adiposity and physical activity levels: a Mendelian randomization analysis.

    Rebecca C Richmond

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional studies have shown that objectively measured physical activity is associated with childhood adiposity, and a strong inverse dose-response association with body mass index (BMI has been found. However, few studies have explored the extent to which this association reflects reverse causation. We aimed to determine whether childhood adiposity causally influences levels of physical activity using genetic variants reliably associated with adiposity to estimate causal effects.The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children collected data on objectively assessed activity levels of 4,296 children at age 11 y with recorded BMI and genotypic data. We used 32 established genetic correlates of BMI combined in a weighted allelic score as an instrumental variable for adiposity to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on activity. In observational analysis, a 3.3 kg/m² (one standard deviation higher BMI was associated with 22.3 (95% CI, 17.0, 27.6 movement counts/min less total physical activity (p = 1.6×10⁻¹⁶, 2.6 (2.1, 3.1 min/d less moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity (p = 3.7×10⁻²⁹, and 3.5 (1.5, 5.5 min/d more sedentary time (p = 5.0×10⁻⁴. In Mendelian randomization analyses, the same difference in BMI was associated with 32.4 (0.9, 63.9 movement counts/min less total physical activity (p = 0.04 (∼5.3% of the mean counts/minute, 2.8 (0.1, 5.5 min/d less moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity (p = 0.04, and 13.2 (1.3, 25.2 min/d more sedentary time (p = 0.03. There was no strong evidence for a difference between variable estimates from observational estimates. Similar results were obtained using fat mass index. Low power and poor instrumentation of activity limited causal analysis of the influence of physical activity on BMI.Our results suggest that increased adiposity causes a reduction in physical activity in children and support research into the targeting of BMI in efforts to

  10. High levels of LDL-C combined with low levels of HDL-C further increase platelet activation in hypercholesterolemic patients.

    Chan, L W; Luo, X P; Ni, H C; Shi, H M; Liu, L; Wen, Z C; Gu, X Y; Qiao, J; Li, J

    2015-02-01

    High levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) enhance platelet activation, whereas high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) exert a cardioprotective effect. However, the effects on platelet activation of high levels of LDL-C combined with low levels of HDL-C (HLC) have not yet been reported. We aimed to evaluate the platelet activation marker of HLC patients and investigate the antiplatelet effect of atorvastatin on this population. Forty-eight patients with high levels of LDL-C were enrolled. Among these, 23 had HLC and the other 25 had high levels of LDL-C combined with normal levels of HDL-C (HNC). A total of 35 normocholesterolemic (NOMC) volunteers were included as controls. Whole blood flow cytometry and platelet aggregation measurements were performed on all participants to detect the following platelet activation markers: CD62p (P-selectin), PAC-1 (GPIIb/IIIa), and maximal platelet aggregation (MPAG). A daily dose of 20 mg atorvastatin was administered to patients with high levels of LDL-C, and the above assessments were obtained at baseline and after 1 and 2 months of treatment. The expression of platelets CD62p and PAC-1 was increased in HNC patients compared to NOMC volunteers (PHDL-C further increased platelet activation in patients with high levels of LDL-C. Platelet activation remained higher among HLC patients regardless of atorvastatin treatment.

  11. Tissue plasminogen activator inhibits NMDA-receptor-mediated increases in calcium levels in cultured hippocampal neurons

    Samuel D Robinson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available NMDA receptors (NMDARs play a critical role in neurotransmission, acting as essential mediators of many forms of synaptic plasticity, and also modulating aspects of development, synaptic transmission and cell death. NMDAR-induced responses are dependent on a range of factors including subunit composition and receptor location. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA is a serine protease that has been reported to interact with NMDARs and modulate NMDAR activity. In this study we report that tPA inhibits NMDAR-mediated changes in intracellular calcium levels in cultures of primary hippocampal neurons stimulated by low (5 μM but not high (50 μM concentrations of NMDA. tPA also inhibited changes in calcium levels stimulated by presynaptic release of glutamate following treatment with bicucculine/4-AP. Inhibition was dependent on the proteolytic activity of tPA but was unaffected by α2-antiplasmin, an inhibitor of the tPA substrate plasmin, and RAP, a pan-ligand blocker of the low-density lipoprotein receptor, two proteins previously reported to modulate NMDAR activity. These findings suggest that tPA can modulate changes in intracellular calcium levels in a subset of NMDARs expressed in cultured embryonic hippocampal neurons through a mechanism that involves the proteolytic activity of tPA and synaptic NMDARs.

  12. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: Education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity

    Cai Lian eTam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011, estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3% to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviours. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term.

  13. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity.

    Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term.

  14. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2.

    Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  15. Multi-level Control Framework for Enhanced Flexibility of Active Distribution Network

    Nainar, Karthikeyan; Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the control objectives of future active distribution networks with high penetration of renewables and flexible loads are analyzed and reviewed. From a state of the art review, the important control objectives seen from the perspective of a distribution system operator are identified...... to be hosting capacity improvement, high reliable operation and cost effective network management. Based on this review and a state of the art review concerning future distribution network control methods, a multi-level control architecture is constructed for an active distribution network, which satisfies...... the selected control objectives and provides enhanced flexibility. The control architecture is supported by generation/load forecasting and distribution state estimation techniques to improve the controllability of the network. The multi-level control architecture consists of three levels of hierarchical...

  16. Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Levels in Patients With Schizophrenia

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Røge, Rasmus; Pristed, Sofie Gry;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiology of schizophrenia remains largely unknown but alterations in the immune system may be involved. In addition to the psychiatric symptoms, schizophrenia is also associated with up to 20 years reduction in life span. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (su......PAR) is a protein that can be measured in blood samples and reflects the levels of inflammatory activity. It has been associated with mortality and the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. METHODS: suPAR levels in patients with schizophrenia were compared to healthy controls from the Danish...... Blood Donor Study. SuPAR levels were dichotomized at >4.0 ng/ml, which is considered the threshold for low grade inflammation. A multiple logistic regression model was used and adjusted for age, sex, and current smoking. RESULTS: In total we included 1009 subjects, 105 cases with schizophrenia (10...

  17. Influence of Different Genotypes on Trypsin Inhibitor Levels and Activity in Soybeans

    Viktor A. Nedovic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the relationship between the two major trypsin inhibitors (TI in soybean, i.e., the Kunitz (KTI and Bowman-Birk (BBI trypsin inhibitors, as well as between them and the corresponding trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA. Twelve investigated soybean genotypes showed significant differences in TI levels and TIA. A very strong positive correlation was found between the levels of KTI and total BBI (r = 0.94, P < 0.05. No relationship was found between KTI, BBI or total TI and TIA. Based on this data, it appears that the levels of major TI in soybean are related. Understanding the relationship between trypsin inhibitors and their activities could be useful for further improvement of the health impacts of soy proteins.

  18. Investigation of environmental activity levels of bone-coal mining area in five provinces

    YE Ji-Da; KONG Ling-Li; LI Ying; JIANG Shan; ZHANG Liang; SHI Jin-Hua; WU Zong-Mei

    2005-01-01

    During 1991-1993,the activity levels of the bone-coal mines were investigated in Zhejiang,Hubei,Hunan,Jiangxi and Anhui Province,respectively,where the reserve of bone-coal is about 90% of our country's total reserve.The average of γ radiation doserate level measured for bone-coal, bone-coal cinder (BCC)and bone-coal cinder brick (BCCB) in these provinces is about 500 nGy/h,400 nGy/h and 700 nGy/h respectively, while that for fields,roads and houses made of BCCB in corresponding regions of these provinces is about 200 nGy/h, 260 nGy/h and 300nGy/h respectively.It is shown that the environmental activity level of bone-coal mining area is about 3 times higher than the reference spots.

  19. Genetic variants in ABCA1 promoter affect transcription activity and plasma HDL level in pigs.

    Dang, Xiao-yong; Chu, Wei-wei; Shi, Heng-chuan; Yu, Shi-gang; Han, Hai-yin; Gu, Shu-Hua; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-25

    Excess accumulation of cholesterol in plasma may result in coronary artery disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated that ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids to apolipoproteins, a process necessary for plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation. Higher plasma levels of HDL are associated with lower risk for cardiovascular disease. Studies of human disease and animal models had shown that an increased hepatic ABCA1 activity relates to an enhanced plasma HDL level. In this study, we hypothesized that functional mutations in the ABCA1 promoter in pigs may affect gene transcription activity, and consequently the HDL level in plasma. The promoter region of ABCA1 was comparatively scanned by direct sequencing with pool DNA of high- and low-HDL groups (n=30 for each group). Two polymorphisms, c. - 608A>G and c. - 418T>A, were revealed with reverse allele distribution in the two groups. The two polymorphisms were completely linked and formed only G-A or A-T haplotypes when genotyped in a larger population (n=526). Furthermore, we found that the G-A/G-A genotype was associated with higher HDL and ABCA1 mRNA level than A-T/A-T genotype. Luciferase assay also revealed that G-A haplotype promoter had higher activity than A-T haplotype. Single-nucleotide mutant assay showed that c.-418T>A was the causal mutation for ABCA1 transcription activity alteration. Conclusively, we identified two completely linked SNPs in porcine ABCA1 promoter region which have influence on the plasma HDL level by altering ABCA1 gene transcriptional activity.

  20. Elevated Platelet Activating Factor Level in Ischemia-Related Arrhythmia and Its Electrophysiological Effect on Myocardium

    TAO Yong Kang; ZHAO Shui Ping; YU Pu Lin; SHI Jing; GU Cheng Dong; SUN Hong Tao; ZHANG Guo Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective The mechanism through which platelet activating factor (PAF) induces cardiac electrical activity and arrhythmia is not well understood and previous studies have suggested a potential involvement of ion channels in its action. The present study was aimed to clarify the role of PAF in fatal arrhythmias following acute myocardia infarction (AMI) and the underlying mechanism. Methods (1) Blood PAF levels were measured among 72 AMI patients at the time of diagnosis with AMI and 48 h later, and their electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded continuously. (2) Ischemia simulation and surface electrocardiogram were conducted in 20 pigs and their PAF levels were measured. (3) PAF perfusion and standard microelectrode recording were performed on guinea pig papillary muscles. Results In both humans and pigs, elevated PAF levels were detected in AMI and simulated ischemia, respectively, and even higher PAF levels were found when fatal arrhythmias occurred. In guinea pig myocardium, PAF induced a shortening of action potential duration at 90% level of repolarization (APD90)under non-ischemic conditions and a more pronounced shortening under early simulated ischemic conditions. Conclusion AMI and ischemia are associated with increased PAF levels in humans and pigs, which are further raised when fatal arrhythmia follows. The effects of PAF on the myocardium may be mediated by multiple ion channels.

  1. Influence of anthropogenic activities on microbial and nutrient levels along the Mara River tributaries, Kenya

    Douglas Nyambane Anyona

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of factors have a negative impact on natural surface water resources across the world. Although sources of surface water pollution are numerous, anthropogenic activities have been singled out as among the most important and of great concern. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of anthropogenic activities on nutrients and microbial levels along the Amala and Nyangores tributaries of the Mara River in Kenya. Materials and Methods: Four sampling sites along each tributary were specifically selected from which water samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients by use of spectrophotometric techniques, and coliform bacterial presence by a multiple tube fermentation technique. Results: Higher levels of total phosphorus were recorded along the Nyangores than the Amala tributary (P= 0.02. Significant differences in phosphorus levels were recorded between different sites along the Nyangores tributary (P=<0.001 and also along the Amala tributary (P= 0.0036. However, total nitrogen levels varied only within sites along the Nyangores tributary (P<0.0001 but not along the Amala tributary. Similarly, Escherichia coli and total coliform levels varied significantly within Nyangores tributary sites. Sites with frequent and direct human and livestock contact had higher microbial and nutrient levels, indicative of a localized pollution effect. Conclusion: The findings imply that the health of local communities who depend on this water for domestic use might be compromised. As such, regular monitoring, strict enforcement of environmental protection laws, public education and proper sewage disposal is recommended.

  2. Circulating ADAM17 Level Reflects Disease Activity in Proteinase-3 ANCA-Associated Vasculitis

    Bertram, Anna; Lovric, Svjetlana; Engel, Alissa; Beese, Michaela; Wyss, Kristin; Hertel, Barbara; Park, Joon-Keun; Becker, Jan U.; Kegel, Johanna; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion

    2015-01-01

    ANCA-associated vasculitides are characterized by inflammatory destruction of small vessels accompanied by enhanced cleavage of membrane-bound proteins. One of the main proteases responsible for ectodomain shedding is disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17). Given its potential role in aggravating vascular dysfunction, we examined the role of ADAM17 in active proteinase-3 (PR3)-positive ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). ADAM17 concentration was significantly increased in plasma samples from patients with active PR3-AAV compared with samples from patients in remission or from other controls with renal nonvascular diseases. Comparably, plasma levels of the ADAM17 substrate syndecan-1 were significantly enhanced in active AAV. We also observed that plasma-derived ADAM17 retained its specific proteolytic activity and was partly located on extracellular microparticles. Transcript levels of ADAM17 were increased in blood samples of patients with active AAV, but those of ADAM10 or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3, which inhibits ADAMs, were not. We also performed a microRNA (miR) screen and identified miR-634 as significantly upregulated in blood samples from patients with active AAV. In vitro, miR-634 mimics induced a proinflammatory phenotype in monocyte-derived macrophages, with enhanced expression and release of ADAM17 and IL-6. These data suggest that ADAM17 has a prominent role in AAV and might account for the vascular complications associated with this disease. PMID:25788529

  3. Depression and physical activity in a sample of nigerian adolescents: levels, relationships and predictors

    Okafor Nkechi C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is related to many morbidities but the evidence of its link with depression in adolescents needs further investigation in view of the existing conflicting reports. Methods The data for this cross-sectional study were collected from 1,100 Nigerian adolescents aged 12-17 years. Depressive symptomatology and physical activity were assessed using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI and the Physical Activity Questionnaire-Adolescent version (PAQ-A respectively. Independent t tests, Pearson's Moment Correlation and Multi-level logistic regression analyses for individual and school area influences were carried out on the data at p Results The mean age of the participants was 15.20 ± 1.435 years. The prevalence of mild to moderate depression was 23.8%, definite depression was 5.7% and low physical activity was 53.8%. More severe depressive symptoms were linked with lower levels of physical activity (r = -0.82, p Conclusions A sizable burden of depression and low physical activity existed among the studied adolescents and these were linked to both individual and school factors. Future studies should examine the effects of physical activity among clinical samples of adolescents with depression.

  4. Physical activity levels, duration pattern and adherence to WHO recommendations in German adults

    Luzak, Agnes; Heier, Margit; Thorand, Barbara; Laxy, Michael; Nowak, Dennis; Peters, Annette; Schulz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Background Intensity and duration of physical activity are associated with the achievement of health benefits. Our aim was to characterize physical activity behavior in terms of intensity, duration pattern, and adherence to the WHO physical activity recommendations in a population-based sample of adults from southern Germany. Further, we investigated associations between physical activity and sex, age, and body mass index (BMI), considering also common chronic diseases. Methods We analyzed 475 subjects (47% males, mean age 58 years, range 48–68 years) who wore ActiGraph accelerometers for up to seven days. Measured accelerations per minute obtained from the vertical axis (uniaxial) and the vector magnitude of all three axes (triaxial) were classified as sedentary, light or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) according to predefined acceleration count cut-offs. The average minutes/day spent in each activity level per subject served as outcome. Associations of sex, age, BMI, and seven chronic diseases or health limitations, with the activity levels were analyzed by negative binomial regression. Results Most of the wear time was spent in sedentarism (median 61%/day), whereas the median time spent in MVPA was only 3%, with men achieving more MVPA than women (35 vs. 28 minutes/day, pdiabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anxiety/depression, pain or walking difficulties was observed in regression analyses with MVPA as outcome. Conclusions Activity behavior among middle-aged German adults was highly insufficient, indicating a further need for physical activity promotion in order to gain health benefits. PMID:28245253

  5. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels reflect organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Enocsson, Helena; Wetterö, Jonas; Skogh, Thomas; Sjöwall, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    Assessments of disease activity and organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remain challenging because of the lack of reliable biomarkers and disease heterogeneity. Ongoing inflammation can be difficult to distinguish from permanent organ damage caused by previous flare-ups or medication side effects. Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has emerged as a potential marker of inflammation and disease severity, and an outcome predictor in several disparate conditions. This study was done to evaluate suPAR as a marker of disease activity and organ damage in SLE. Sera from 100 healthy donors and 198 patients with SLE fulfilling the 1982 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria and/or the Fries criteria were analyzed for suPAR by enzyme immunoassay. Eighteen patients with varying degree of disease activity were monitored longitudinally. Disease activity was assessed by the SLE disease activity index 2000 and the physician's global assessment. Organ damage was evaluated by the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index (SDI). Compared with healthy control subjects, serum suPAR levels were elevated significantly in patients with SLE. No association was recorded regarding suPAR levels and SLE disease activity in cross-sectional or consecutive samples. However, a strong association was observed between suPAR and SDI (P < 0.0005). Considering distinct SDI domains, renal, neuropsychiatric, ocular, skin, and peripheral vascular damage had a significant effect on suPAR levels. This study is the first to demonstrate an association between serum suPAR and irreversible organ damage in SLE. Further studies are warranted to evaluate suPAR and other biomarkers as predictors of evolving organ damage.

  6. Benchmark dose approach for low-level lead induced haematogenesis inhibition and associations of childhood intelligences with ALAD activity and ALA levels.

    Wang, Q; Ye, L X; Zhao, H H; Chen, J W; Zhou, Y K

    2011-04-15

    Lead (Pb) levels, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activities, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in blood, and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and coproporphyrin (CP) concentrations were measured for 318 environmental Pb exposed children recruited from an area of southeast China. The mean of blood lead (PbB) levels was 75.0μg/L among all subjects. Benchmark dose (BMD) method was conducted to present a lower PbB BMD (lower bound of BMD) of 32.4μg/L (22.7) based on ALAD activity than those based on the other three haematological indices, corresponding to a benchmark response of 1%. Childhood intelligence degrees were not associated significantly with ALAD activities or ALA levels. It was concluded that blood ALAD activity is a sensitive indicator of early haematological damage due to low-level Pb exposures for children.

  7. Environmental variation of arsenic levels in human blood determined by neutron activation analysis

    Heydorn, Kaj

    1970-01-01

    Arsenic levels in blood plasma and red cells from patients with Blackfoot disease, a peripheral arteriosclerosis endemic to a small area in Taiwan, were studied in relation to healthy individuals from the same and other parts of Taiwan and compared with arsenic levels in a control group from...... Denmark. Arsenic was determined by neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation and re-irradiation yield determination. The precision and accuracy of the results have been carefully evaluated in order to permit quantitative tests for the significance of the observed differences. The results...... from Taiwan followed a logarithmic normal distribution, and no difference was found between Blackfoot patients and their healthy family members. However, their overall arsenic levels were higher than the Taiwan average, presumably because of arsenic in their drinking water. Much lower levels were found...

  8. Activation of glucocorticoid receptors increases 5-HT2A receptor levels

    Trajkovska, Viktorija; Kirkegaard, Lisbeth; Krey, Gesa;

    2009-01-01

    Major depression is associated with both dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and serotonergic deficiency, not the least of the 5-HT2A receptor. However, how these phenomena are linked to each other, and whether a low 5-HT2A receptor level is a state or a trait marker...... of depression is unknown. In mice with altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression we investigated 5-HT2A receptor levels by Western blot and 3H-MDL100907 receptor binding. Serotonin fibre density was analyzed by stereological quantification of serotonin transporter immunopositive fibers. To establish...... an effect of GR activation on 5-HT2A levels, mature organotypic hippocampal cultures were exposed to corticosterone with or without GR antagonist mifepristone and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist spironolactone. In GR under-expressing mice, hippocampal 5-HT2A receptor protein levels were decreased...

  9. Children's physical activity levels during school recess: a quasi-experimental intervention study

    Fairclough Stuart J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recess provides a daily opportunity for children to engage in moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA and vigorous physical activity (VPA. Limited research has investigated the effects of recess-based interventions on physical activity using large sample sizes whilst investigating variables that may influence the intervention effect. The aim of the study was to investigate the short-term effects of a playground markings and physical structures intervention on recess physical activity. A secondary aim was to investigate the effects of covariates on the intervention. Methods 150 boys and 147 girls were randomly selected from 26 elementary schools to wear uni-axial accelerometers that quantified physical activity every 5 seconds during recess. Fifteen schools located in deprived areas in one large urban city in England received funding through a national initiative to redesign the playground environment. Eleven schools served as matched socioeconomic controls. Data were collected at baseline and 6-weeks following playground intervention. Recess MVPA and VPA levels adjusted for pupil- and school-level covariates (baseline physical activity, age, gender, recess length, body mass index were analysed using multilevel analyses. Results Positive but non-significant intervention effects were found for MVPA and VPA when confounding variables were added to the model. Gender was a significant predictor of recess physical activity, with boys engaging in more MVPA and VPA than girls. Significant interactions for MVPA revealed that the intervention effect was stronger for younger elementary aged school children compared to older children, and the intervention effect increased as daily recess duration increased. Conclusion The playground redesign intervention resulted in small but non-significant increases in children's recess physical activity when school and pupil level variables were added to the analyses. Changing the playground environment produced a

  10. Beta-Carotene, Vitamin E, MDA, Glutathione Reductase and Arylesterase Activity Levels in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis

    N Aryaeian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Many studies have investigated the possible role of reactive oxygen species in the etiology and patho­gene­sis of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA. The aim of this study was to investigate the activities of some antioxidants in RA patients."nMethods: In this case-control study, 59 RA patients and 60 healthy sex and age-matched controls were selected. Vitamin E and Beta-carotene were determined using HPLC. Erythrocytes glutathione reductase (GR activity was meas­ured spec­trophotometrically, and malondialdehyde (MDA was determined by colorimetric method. Aryles­terase activity (AEA was measured by Phenylacetate. The clinical data were determined by a rheumatologist, medical history and filling the questionnaire by interview. Statistical analyses were carried out using the SPSS software."nResults: In patients with RA, serum MDA level was significantly higher and plasma concentration of vitamin E, Beta-carotene and GR activity, were significantly lower than healthy control (P<0.001. AEA activity differences between two groups were non-significant."nConclusions: Oxidative stress may play an important role in the inflammation and pathogenesis of RA.  

  11. Estradiol levels modulate brain activity and negative responses to psychosocial stress across the menstrual cycle.

    Albert, Kimberly; Pruessner, Jens; Newhouse, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Although ovarian hormones are thought to have a potential role in the well-known sex difference in mood and anxiety disorders, the mechanisms through which ovarian hormone changes contribute to stress regulation are not well understood. One mechanism by which ovarian hormones might impact mood regulation is by mediating the effect of psychosocial stress, which often precedes depressive episodes and may have mood consequences that are particularly relevant in women. In the current study, brain activity and mood response to psychosocial stress was examined in healthy, normally cycling women at either the high or low estradiol phase of the menstrual cycle. Twenty eight women were exposed to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), with brain activity determined through functional magnetic resonance imaging, and behavioral response assessed with subjective mood and stress measures. Brain activity responses to psychosocial stress differed between women in the low versus high estrogen phase of the menstrual cycle: women with high estradiol levels showed significantly less deactivation in limbic regions during psychosocial stress compared to women with low estradiol levels. Additionally, women with higher estradiol levels also had less subjective distress in response to the MIST than women with lower estradiol levels. The results of this study suggest that, in normally cycling premenopausal women, high estradiol levels attenuate the brain activation changes and negative mood response to psychosocial stress. Normal ovarian hormone fluctuations may alter the impact of psychosocially stressful events by presenting periods of increased vulnerability to psychosocial stress during low estradiol phases of the menstrual cycle. This menstrual cycle-related fluctuation in stress vulnerability may be relevant to the greater risk for affective disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder in women.

  12. [Physical activity level and home blood pressure measurement: Pilot study "Acti-HTA"].

    Sosner, P; Ott, J; Steichen, O; Bally, S; Krummel, T; Brucker, M; Lequeux, B; Dourmap, C; Llaty, P; Le Coz, S; Baguet, S; Miranne, A; Labrunée, M; Gremeaux, V; Lopez-Sublet, M

    2015-06-01

    While physical activity (PA) is recommended for high blood pressure management, the level of PA practice of hypertensive patients remains unclear. We aimed to assess the association between the level of both PA and blood pressure of individuals consulting in 9 hypertension specialist centres. Eighty-five hypertensive patients were included (59 ± 14 years, 61% men, 12% smokers, 29% with diabetes). Following their consultation, they performed home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) over 7 days (2 in the morning+2 in the evening), they wrote in a dedicated form their daily activities to estimate the additional caloric expenditure using Acti-MET device (built from International physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ]). Thus, patients completed a self-administered questionnaire "score of Dijon" (distinguishing active subjects with a score>20/30, from sedentary<10/30). Subjects with normal HBPM value (<135/85 mm Hg) (55% of them) compared to those with high HBPM were older, had a non-significant trend towards higher weekly caloric expenditure (4959 ± 5045 kcal/week vs. 4048 ± 4199 kcal/week, P=0.3755) and score of Dijon (19.44 ± 5.81 vs. 18.00 ± 4.32, P=0.2094) with a higher proportion of "active" subjects (48.9% vs. 34.2%, P=0.1773). In conclusion, our results demonstrate a "tendency" to a higher level of reported PA for subjects whose hypertension was controlled. This encourages us to continue with a study that would include more subjects, which would assess PA level using an objective method such as wearing an accelerometer sensor.

  13. Effect ofwater level lfuctuations ontemporal-spatial patterns offoraging activities bythe wintering Hooded Crane (Grus monacha)

    Dongmei Zhang; Lizhi Zhou; Yunwei Song

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Yangtze River lfoodplain provides important wintering habitats for Hooded Cranes (Grus monacha) in China. Fluctuations in the water level change foraging habitat and food availability, affecting their temporal-spatial patterns of foraging activities. It is of considerable importance to investigate the effect of these lfuctuations on food availability for wintering Hooded Cranes and their foraging response to these changes. Understanding their behavior patterns is beneifcial in protecting the wintering crane population and restoring their wintering habitats. Methods: A ifeld survey of the winter behavior of cranes was carried out at Shengjin Lake from November in 2013 to April in 2014. Habitat variables, as well as the spatial distribution and behavior patterns of wintering cranes at their foraging sites during ifve stages of water level lfuctuation were collected. Based on this data we analyzed the relation-ship of foraging behavior relative to water level lfuctuations and habitat types. Results: The foraging habitats used by Hooded Cranes varied at the different water level stages. As the water level decreased, the use of meadows and mudlfats increased. When the water dropped to its lowest level, the use by the Hooded Crane in the mudlfats reached a peak. There were statistically signiifcant differences in time budget in the three types of habitats over the ifve stages of the water level. In the mudlfats, the foraging behavior and maintenance behavior varied signiifcantly with the water level, while the alert behavior showed little variation. Analysis of a general-ized linear model showed that the ifve water level stages and three habitat types had a signiifcant effect on forag-ing behavior, while the combined effect of these two variables was signiifcant on the foraging time budget and the length of foraging activity of the Hooded Crane. Conclusions: With the decrease in the water level, the use of mudlfats by Hooded Cranes increased

  14. Physical activity level of urban pregnant women in Tianjin, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available To determine the physical activity level and factors influencing physical activity among pregnant urban Chinese women.This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 1056 pregnant women (18-44 years of age in Tianjin, China. Their socio-demographic characteristics were recorded, and the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess their physical activity during pregnancy. The data were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders.Median total energy expenditure of pregnant women in each of the three trimesters ranged from 18.50 to 21.90 metabolic equivalents of task (METs h/day. They expended 1.76-1.85 MET h/day on moderate and vigorous activities and 0.11 MET h/day on exercise. Only 117 of the women (11.1% met the international guideline for physical activity in pregnancy (≥150 min moderate intensity exercise per week. The most frequent reason given for not being more physically active was the fear of miscarriage. Higher education level (OR: 4.11, 95% CI: 1.59-10.62, habitual exercise before pregnancy (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.39-3.28, and husbands who exercised regularly (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.33-3.67 significantly increased the odds of meeting the guideline (p<0.001. A low pre gravid body mass index (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.20-0.87 significantly decreased the odds (p<0.001.Few urban Chinese pregnant women met the recommended physical activity guideline. They also expended little energy exercising. Future interventions should be based on the clinic environment and targeting family members as well as the subjects. All pregnant women should be targeted, not just those in high-risk groups.

  15. Physical Activity Level of Urban Pregnant Women in Tianjin, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Zhang, Yan; Dong, Shengwen; Zuo, Jianhua; Hu, Xiangqin; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the physical activity level and factors influencing physical activity among pregnant urban Chinese women. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 1056 pregnant women (18–44 years of age) in Tianjin, China. Their socio-demographic characteristics were recorded, and the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess their physical activity during pregnancy. The data were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Median total energy expenditure of pregnant women in each of the three trimesters ranged from 18.50 to 21.90 metabolic equivalents of task (METs) h/day. They expended 1.76–1.85 MET h/day on moderate and vigorous activities and 0.11 MET h/day on exercise. Only 117 of the women (11.1%) met the international guideline for physical activity in pregnancy (≥150 min moderate intensity exercise per week). The most frequent reason given for not being more physically active was the fear of miscarriage. Higher education level (OR: 4.11, 95% CI: 1.59–10.62), habitual exercise before pregnancy (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.39–3.28), and husbands who exercised regularly (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.33–3.67) significantly increased the odds of meeting the guideline (p<0.001). A low pre gravid body mass index (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.20–0.87) significantly decreased the odds (p<0.001). Conclusions Few urban Chinese pregnant women met the recommended physical activity guideline. They also expended little energy exercising. Future interventions should be based on the clinic environment and targeting family members as well as the subjects. All pregnant women should be targeted, not just those in high-risk groups. PMID:25286237

  16. At High Levels, Constitutively Activated STAT3 Induces Apoptosis of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells.

    Rozovski, Uri; Harris, David M; Li, Ping; Liu, Zhiming; Wu, Ji Yuan; Grgurevic, Srdana; Faderl, Stefan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Wierda, William G; Martinez, Matthew; Verstovsek, Srdan; Keating, Michael J; Estrov, Zeev

    2016-05-15

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the increment in PBLs is slower than the expected increment calculated from the cells' proliferation rate, suggesting that cellular proliferation and apoptosis are concurrent. Exploring this phenomenon, we found overexpression of caspase-3, higher cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase levels (p < 0.007), and a higher apoptosis rate in cells from patients with high counts compared with cells from patients with low counts. Although we previously found that STAT3 protects CLL cells from apoptosis, STAT3 levels were significantly higher in cells from patients with high counts than in cells from patients with low counts. Furthermore, overexpression of STAT3 did not protect the cells. Rather, it upregulated caspase-3 and induced apoptosis. Remarkably, putative STAT3 binding sites were identified in the caspase-3 promoter, and a luciferase assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and an EMSA revealed that STAT3 activated caspase-3 However, caspase-3 levels increased only when STAT3 levels were sufficiently high. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and EMSA, we found that STAT3 binds with low affinity to the caspase-3 promoter, suggesting that at high levels, STAT3 activates proapoptotic mechanisms and induces apoptosis in CLL cells.

  17. Effect of nitrate on activities and transcript levels of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase in rice

    CAO Yun; FAN Xiao-Rong; SUN Shu-Bin; XU Guo-Hua; HU Jiang; SHEN Qi-Rong

    2008-01-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to compare the effect of NO-3 on the activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS),and the transcript levels of two NR genes,OsNia1 and OsNia2,two cytceolic GS1 genes,OsGln1;1 and OsGln1;2,and one plastid GS2 gene OsGln2,in two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars Nanguang (NG) and Yunjing (YJ).Both cultivars achieved greater biomass and higher total N concentration when grown in a mixed N supply than in sole NH+ nutrition.Supply of NO-3 increased NR activity in both leaves and roots.Expression of both NR genes was also substantially enhanced and transcript levels of OsNia2 were significantly higher than those of OsNia1.NO-3 also caused an increase in GS activity,but had a complex effect on the expression of the three GS genes.In roots,the OsGln1;1 transcript increased,but OsGln1;2 decreased.In leaves,NO-3 had no effect on the GS1 expression,but the transcript for OsGln2 increased both in the leaves and roots of rice with a mixed supply of N.These results suggested that the increase in GS activity might be a result of the complicated regulation of the various GS genes.In addition,the NO-3 induced increase of biomass,NR activity,GS activity,and the transcript levels of NR and GS genes were proportionally higher in NG than in YJ,indicating a stronger response of NG to NO-3 nutrition than YJ.

  18. Mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer patients display different levels of redox-active CSF iron.

    Lavados, Manuel; Guillón, Marta; Mujica, María Cristina; Rojo, Leonel E; Fuentes, Patricio; Maccioni, Ricardo B

    2008-03-01

    Oxidative stress constitutes a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies also point to redox active metals such as iron, copper and zinc in mediating oxidative stress in AD pathogenesis. However, the reactivity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) iron and its possible correlation with the severity of cognitive decline in both Alzheimer's patients and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is still unknown. Here we show that different stages of cognitive and functional impairment are associated with changes in CSF reactive iron. In this work, we compared CSF samples from 56 elders, classified into 4 groups according to their scores on the Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR). Total CSF iron was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Redox-active iron was analyzed by a novel fluorimetric assay. One-way ANOVA was used to test differences in mean values, and Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison Test was used for multi group comparisons. No difference in total CSF iron was found between different groups. Significant amounts of redox-active iron were found in CSF and their levels correlated with the extent of cognitive impairment. Redox-active CSF iron levels increased with the degree of cognitive impairment from normal to MCI subjects, while AD patients showed an abrupt decrease to levels close to zero. Given the relevance of oxidative damage in neurodegeneration, it might be possible to associate the development of cognitive and functional decline with the presence of redox-active iron in the CSF. The decrease in redox-active iron found in AD patients may represent a terminal situation, whereby the central nervous system attempts to minimize iron-associated toxicity.

  19. Negative relationships between erythrocyte Ca-pump activity and lead levels in mothers and newborns.

    Campagna, D; Huel, G; Hellier, G; Girard, F; Sahuquillo, J; Fagot-Campagna, A; Godin, J; Blot, P

    2000-12-01

    Lead poisoning induces hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological dysfunctions. One of the potential mechanisms is the inhibition of calcium-pump (Ca-pump), a transport protein. We investigated the effects of an environmental low lead exposure on Ca-pump activity in 247 mothers and their newborns. Maternal and cord blood, and newborn and mother hair, were sampled at delivery. Geometric means for mother and cord blood lead (Pb-B), and for mother and newborn hair lead (Pb-H), were 6.3 and 4.8 microg/dl, and 1.7 and 1.1 microg/g. Means for mother and cord basal Ca-pump activities were 2,442 and 2,675 nM/mg/hr. Mother enzymatic activity was negatively related to her Pb-B and Pb-H and to the cord Pb-B and newborn Pb-H levels. Newborn enzymatic activity was negatively related to his Pb-H level only. Adjustment for gestational age, child's sex, mother's age at delivery, alcohol, coffee and tea consumption, and smoking habits during pregnancy did not modify these relationships. Our findings support the hypothesis that lead toxicity could be in part mediated by a reduction of Ca-pump activity. This effect could be observed at low environmental exposure, in mothers and newborns.

  20. Determination of the activation level in the decommissioning inventory of the NPP Krsko

    Jaag, S.; Graebner, G.; Keck, B. [NIS Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Alzenau (Germany); Glaser, B. [Nuklearna Elektrarna Krsko (Slovenia)

    2010-05-15

    In support of a plant specific preliminary decommissioning plan the MCNP 5 code system /1/ was used to model the Krsko-reactor core and its external components relevant for activation analysis and decommissioning in 3D-geometry. By MCNP neutron transport calculations transfer functions for the space-dependent total neutron flux and the space-dependent rates (1-group cross sections) of the most relevant nuclear reactions were generated. These transfer functions were combined with the reactor operational data, and ORIGEN-2.1 /2/ irradiation calculations were performed to provide the activation levels of the individual reactor components. The results are presented and the uncertainties are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Amylolytic activity and carbohydrate levels in relation to coleoptile anoxic elongation in Oryza sativa genotypes.

    Pompeiano, Antonio; Fanucchi, Francesca; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo

    2013-11-01

    Among starchy seeds, rice has the unique capacity to germinate successfully under complete anaerobiosis. In this conditions, starch degradation is supported by a complete set of starch-degrading enzymes that are absent or inactive in cereals except rice. A characterization of carbohydrate metabolism and starch-degrading enzyme activity across twenty-nine genotypes of Oryza sativa L. is presented here. The zymogram of amylolytic activities present in rice embryos and endosperms under anaerobic conditions seven days after sowing (DAS) revealed marked differences among cultivars. Coleoptile elongation was positively correlated with total amylolytic activities and α-amylase activity in embryos, and negatively correlated with α-amylase activity in endosperm. Moreover, carbohydrate content in embryos was found to be positively correlated with total amylolytic activities under anaerobic conditions, while a negative relationship was recorded in the endosperm. Carbohydrate status in rice seedlings has a primary importance in sustaining coleoptile elongation towards the surface. The relationship between carbohydrate level in embryo and anoxic germination, as well as with total amylolytic activities present in rice embryo under anaerobic condition 7 DAS, is consistent with the role of sugar metabolism to support rice germination under oxygen-deprived environment.

  2. Irisin levels are not affected by physical activity in patients with anorexia nervosa

    Tobias eHofmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Irisin was recently identified as muscle-derived hormone that increases energy expenditure. Studies in normal weight and obese subjects reported an increased irisin expression following physical activity, although inconsistent results were observed. Increased physical activity in a subgroup of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN complicates the course of the disease. Since irisin could account for differences in clinical outcomes, we investigated irisin levels in anorexic patients with high and moderate physical activity to evaluate whether irisin differs with increasing physical activity. Hospitalized female anorexic patients (n=39 were included. Plasma irisin measured by ELISA and locomotor activity were assessed at the same time. Patients were separated into two groups (n=19/group; median excluded: moderate and high activity (6331±423 vs. 13743±1047 steps/day, p0.05, whereas body weight-adjusted total energy expenditure (46.0±1.4 vs. 41.1±1.1 kcal/kg/d, metabolic equivalents (METs, 1.9±0.1 vs. 1.7±0.1 METs/d, body weight-adjusted exercise activity thermogenesis (EAT, 1.8±0.5 vs. 0.6±0.3 kcal/kg/d, duration of exercise (18.6±4.7 vs. 6.2±3.1 min/d and body weight-adjusted non-exercise activity thermogenesis (21.6±1.0 vs. 18.8±0.8 kcal/kg/d were higher in the high activity compared to the moderate activity group (p0.05. In conclusion, the current data do not support the concept of irisin being induced by exercise, at least not under conditions of severely reduced body weight like AN.

  3. Association of day length and weather conditions with physical activity levels in older community dwelling people.

    Miles D Witham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Weather is a potentially important determinant of physical activity. Little work has been done examining the relationship between weather and physical activity, and potential modifiers of any relationship in older people. We therefore examined the relationship between weather and physical activity in a cohort of older community-dwelling people. METHODS: We analysed prospectively collected cross-sectional activity data from community-dwelling people aged 65 and over in the Physical Activity Cohort Scotland. We correlated seven day triaxial accelerometry data with daily weather data (temperature, day length, sunshine, snow, rain, and a series of potential effect modifiers were tested in mixed models: environmental variables (urban vs rural dwelling, percentage of green space, psychological variables (anxiety, depression, perceived behavioural control, social variables (number of close contacts and health status measured using the SF-36 questionnaire. RESULTS: 547 participants, mean age 78.5 years, were included in this analysis. Higher minimum daily temperature and longer day length were associated with higher activity levels; these associations remained robust to adjustment for other significant associates of activity: age, perceived behavioural control, number of social contacts and physical function. Of the potential effect modifier variables, only urban vs rural dwelling and the SF-36 measure of social functioning enhanced the association between day length and activity; no variable modified the association between minimum temperature and activity. CONCLUSIONS: In older community dwelling people, minimum temperature and day length were associated with objectively measured activity. There was little evidence for moderation of these associations through potentially modifiable health, environmental, social or psychological variables.

  4. Assessing adrenocortical activity by determining levels of urinary free cortisol and urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol.

    Nakamura, J; Yakata, M

    1989-03-01

    A comparative study of urinary free cortisol and urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol levels as a diagnostic test for hypercortisolemic states was carried out by measuring the excretion in 24-h specimens from 289 apparently healthy subjects and 10 Cushing patients. The diurnal variations of both variables were examined in normal subjects and subjects with altered adrenal activities. Two of the 289 apparently normal subjects had high values of urinary free cortisol; one had a high, the other a normal 6 beta-hydroxycortisol level; they were later diagnosed as having Cushing's syndrome and infertility, respectively. Three other subjects had high values of the urinary variables, but during 5 years of follow-up did not show any clinical evidence of hypercortisolism. The two urinary variables gave no false-negative results in the Cushing patients. The diurnal variation revealed that levels of 6 beta-hydroxycortisol change in parallel with those of free cortisol in normal subjects and in subjects with altered adrenal activities. However, the ratio of 6 beta-hydroxycortisol to free cortisol during the diurnal variation varied from low values when free cortisol levels were high to high values when free cortisol levels were low. In normal subjects, 1 mg of dexamethasone taken orally at 23.00 h completely suppressed the levels of both variables on the following day. It is concluded that urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol is correlated to urinary free cortisol so that measurement of urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol levels can be used as a diagnostic test for hypercortisolism in a way comparable to the method using urinary free cortisol.

  5. Dietary habits and physical activity levels in Jordanian adolescents attending private versus public schools.

    Tayyem, R F; Al-Hazzaa, H M; Abu-Mweis, S S; Bawadi, H A; Hammad, S S; Musaiger, A O

    2014-07-08

    The present study examined differences in dietary habits and physical activity levels between students attending private and public high schools in Jordan. A total of 386 secondary-school males and 349 females aged 14-18 years were randomly recruited using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling technique. Dietary habits and physical activity level were self-reported in a validated questionnaire. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among adolescents in private (26.0%) than in public schools (16.7%). The frequency of breakfast intake was significantly higher among adolescents in private schools, whereas French fries and sweets intake was significantly higher in public schools. Television viewing showed a significant interaction with school type by sex. A higher rate of inactivity was found among students attending private schools. Despite a slightly better overall dietary profile for students in private schools, they had a higher rate of overweight and obesity compared with those in public schools.

  6. Serum Adenosine deaminase activity and C-reactive protein levels in unstable angina

    Rani Surekha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In unstable angina (USA patients, immunological responses contributing to inflammation play a vital role in plaque rupture and thrombosis causing stroke. In the present study an attempt is made to estimate the levels of adenosine deaminase activity, an immunoenzyme marker and C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation in USA patients. 45 patients presenting USA and 50 age and sex matched healthy controls were included in the study. Serum ADA activity was measured spectrophotometrically at 630nm and serum C-reactive protein was detected using Avitex CRP kit, which is a rapid latex agglutination test. The Mean ADA levels were 41.15 ± 11.04 in patients and 20.71±5.63 in controls and 66.6% of patients and none of the controls were positive to CRP. The present study observed the importance of ADA as a serum marker in addition to CRP for assessing the immune response in USA patients.

  7. Expression levels of microRNAs are not associated with their regulatory activities

    Wu Jiarui

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate their targets by triggering mRNA degradation or translational repression. The negative relationship between miRNAs and their targets suggests that the regulatory effect of a miRNA could be determined from the expression levels of its targets. Here, we investigated the relationship between miRNA activities determined by computational programs and miRNA expression levels by using data in which both mRNA and miRNA expression from the same samples were measured. We found that different from the intuitive expectation one might have, miRNA activity shows very weak correlation with miRNA expression, which indicates complex regulating mechanisms between miRNAs and their target genes. Reviewers This manuscript was reviewed by an anonymous reviewer and Dr Yuriy Gusev.

  8. An investigation into the relationship between political activity levels and political market orientation

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The key objective of this research is to investigate the relationship between party member activity-levels and perceptions of their party's political market orientation. Specifically, it aims to scrutinise the differences in the interplay of attitudinal and behavioural aspects...... of political market orientation. Design/methodology/approach - Using a wide variety of respondent groups within the party, the research draws on an existing conceptualisation of political market orientation and empirically test its relationship with party member activity levels. Three models, plus a baseline...... model, are developed and data from 1,156 questionnaires are used to investigate a structural equation model using the partial least square method. Findings - While the baseline model exhibits a robust pattern of positive relationships between the attitudinal and behavioural constructs, the comparative...

  9. Intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) leaves by lambs using different levels of activated charcoal

    A 24-day feeding trial was conducted to assess the effect of feeding four levels of activated charcoal (0.0, 0.33, 0.67 and 1.00 g/kg of body weight) on intake of honey mesquite leaves (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) by 20 wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) that were randomly assigned to treatments. Lambs wer...

  10. PECULIARITIES OF BRAIN ELECTRIC ACTIVITY IN YOUNG MALES AND FEMALES OF DIFFERENT CREATIVITY LEVELS

    2013-01-01

    This article shows that the peculiarities of divergent and convergent thinking in young males and females of various creativity levels are stipulated by a definite EEG frequency-and-spa-tial arrangement. Young males and females of mixed and left lateral arrangement profiles demonstrate an expressed activity of occipital, central, and temporal areas of both cerebral hemispheres. In young males and females of right LAP (lateral arrangement profile), connections are clearly localized in case of ...

  11. Active Contours and Mumford-Shah Segmentation Based on Level Sets

    NASSIR H.SALMAN; LIU Chong-qing(刘重庆)

    2003-01-01

    This paper is to detect regions (objects) boundaries, also to isolate and extract individual componentsfrom a medical image. This can be done using an active contours to detect regions in a given image, based on tech-niques of curve evolution, Mumford-Shah functional for segmentation and level sets. The paper classified the im-ages into different intensity regions based on Markov random field, then detected regions whose boundaries are notnecessarily defined by gradient by minimizing an energy of Mumford-Shah functional for segmentation which can beseen as a particular case of the minimal partition problem. In the level set formulation, the problem becomes amean-curvature flow like evolving the active contour, which will stop on the desired boundary. The stopping termdoes not depend on the gradient of the image, as in the classical active contour and the initial curve of level set canbe anywhere in the image, and interior contours are automatically detected. The final image segmentation is oneclosed boundary per actual region in the image.

  12. MUSCLE ACTIVATION DURING LOW-INTENSITY MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS WITH VARYING LEVELS OF EXTERNAL LIMB COMPRESSION

    Tomohiro Yasuda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to investigate muscle activation during low- intensity muscle contractions with various levels of external limb compression to reduce muscle perfusion/outflow. A series of unilateral elbow flexion muscle contractions (30 repetitive contractions followed by 3 sets x 15 contractions was performed at 20% of 1RM with varying levels of external compression (0 (without compression, 98, 121, and 147 mmHg external compression around the upper arm. Electromyography (EMG signals were recorded from surface electrodes placed on the biceps brachii muscle and analyzed for integrated EMG (iEMG. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC decreased similarly during the control (0 mmHg and 98 mmHg external compression bout (~18%; the decline in MVC with 121 and 147 mmHg external compression was significantly greater (~37%. Muscle activation increased progressively throughout the contraction bout with each level of external compression, but iEMG was significantly greater during 147 mmHg external compression. In conclusion, low-intensity muscle contractions performed with external compression of 147 mmHg appears to alter muscle perfusion/outflow leading to increased muscle activation without decrements in work performed during the contraction bout

  13. Associations between students' situational interest, mastery experiences, and physical activity levels in an interactive dance game.

    Huang, Chaoqun; Gao, Zan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of previous experiences on students' situational interest and physical activity (PA) levels, as well as the relationships between situational interest and PA levels in Dance Dance Revolution (DDR). A total of 135 seventh through ninth graders participated in DDR unit for two weeks, and reported their previous DDR experiences. Students' PA levels were measured by ActiGraph accelerometers for three classes with percentages of time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) as the outcome variable. They also responded to the Situational Interest Scale (including novelty, challenge, attention demand, exploration intention, and instant enjoyment) at the end of each class. The multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) yielded a significant main effect for experience. Follow-up tests revealed that students with DDR experiences scored significantly higher than those without experiences at following dimensions: challenge; exploration intention; instant enjoyment; and attention demand. Regression analysis yielded that novelty emerged as the only significant predictor for MVPA. The findings suggested that four dimensions of situational interest differed between students with and without previous experiences. Novelty emerged as the only predictor for MVPA, suggesting that students would have higher PA when they feel the activity provides new information.

  14. Level of Presence in Team-Building Activities: Gaming Component in Virtual Environments

    De Leo, Gianluca; Radici, Elena; Secrhist, Scott R; Mastaglio, Thomas W

    2011-01-01

    Historically the training of teams has been implemented using a face-to-face approach. In the past decade, on-line multiuser virtual environments have offered a solution for training teams whose members are geographically dispersed. In order to develop on effective team training activity, a high sense of presence among the participant needs to be reached. Previous research studies reported being able to reach a high level of presence even when using inexpensive technology such as laptop and headset. This study evaluates the level of presence of ten subjects who have to perform a team-building activity in a multi-user virtual environment using a laptop computer and a headset. The authors are interested in determining which user characterizes, such as gender, age and knowledge of computers, have a strong correlation with the level of sense of presence. The results of this study showed that female participants were more likely to engage in the activity and perceived fewer negative effects. Participants who repor...

  15. Influence Determination of Social Responsibility to the Productivity Enterprise Activity Level

    Sergii Kavun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a scientific and methodical approach for determination of the comprehensive social responsibility indicator in this paper based on estimation of influence degree for the economical, ecological, social and labour, standard and legal components. There is allowance for determining of some level of enterprise social responsibility. In addition, there is a basis for development some ways of their increasing. The essence of the used approach is clotting of the individual indicators set to four intermediate indicators of the economic, ecological, social and labor, standard and legal components, which can be boiled down to the generalizing activity productivity indicator based on the matrix and range approach. An economical and mathematical model of the social responsibility influence level to the enterprise activity productivity level, which is based on enterprise propose harmonization with the participants’ interests, was being built. The paper proposes the mathematical model, which allows detecting a necessary time period for enterprise activity productivity ensuring due to social responsibility implementation.

  16. Impact assessment of climate change and human activities on annual highest water level of Taihu Lake

    Qing-fang HU; Yin-tang WANG

    2009-01-01

    The annual highest water level of Taihu Lake (Zm) is very significant for flood management in the Taihu Basin. This paper first describes the inter-annual and intra-annual traits of Zm from 1956 to 2000. Then, using the Mann-Kenall (MK) and Spearman (SP) nonparametric tests, the long-term change trends of area precipitation and pan evaporation in the Taihu Basin are determined. Meanwhile, using the Morlet wavelet transformation, the fluctuation patterns and change points of precipitation and pan evaporation are analyzed. Also, human activities in the Taihu Basin are described, including land use change and hydraulic project construction. Finally, the relationship between Zm, the water level of Taihu Lake 30 days prior to the day of Zm (Z0), and the 30-day total precipitation and pan evaporation prior to the day of Zm (P and E0, respectively) is described based on multi-linear regression equations. The relative influence of climate change and human activities on the change of Zm is quantitatively ascertained. The results demonstrate that: (1) Zm was distinctly higher during the 1980-2000 period than during the 1956-1979 period, and the 30 days prior to the day of Zm are the key phase influencing Zm every year; (2) P increased significantly at a confidence level of 95% during the 1956-2000 period, while the reverse was true for E0; (3) The relationship between Zm, P and E0 distinctly changed after 1980; (4) Climate change and human activities together caused frequent occurrences of high Zm after 1980; (5) Climate change caused a substantially greater Zm difference between the 1956-1979 and 1980-2000 periods than human activities. Climate change, as represented by P and E0, was the dominant factor raising Zm, with a relative influence ratio of 83.6%, while human activities had a smaller influence ratio of 16.4%.

  17. Plasma levels of M-CSF are increased in ANCA-associated vasculitides with active nephritis

    Giuseppe A. Ramirez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies (ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV are characterized by small vessel injury and in some cases granulomatous lesions and glomerular inflammation. The pathogenic bases of these clinical phenotypes are incompletely understood, but evidence from patients with AAV and other inflammatory diseases suggest a role for monocyte/macrophages in the perpetuation of tissue injury. Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF is a promoter of monocyte recruitment and macrophage proliferation, involved in mesangial cell proliferation and experimental nephritis development. Serum concentrations of M-CSF mark and herald the onset of lupus nephritis. Plasma samples from 29 patients with AAV (18 granulomatosis with polyangiitis, GPA, 6 eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, EGPA, and 5 microscopic polyangiitis, MPA and from 10 healthy controls were collected together with clinical data. Patients with AAV had higher levels of M-CSF when compared to controls. M-CSF levels correlated positively with the BVAS, serum C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, while haemoglobin correlated inversely with M-CSF. Patients with active renal disease had significantly higher levels of M-CSF when compared to the other subgroups. M-CSF levels did not differ between ANCA subserotypes and were not associated with the involvement of other organs. In conclusion, M-CSF is higher in patients with AAV and active nephritis and could contribute to the pathogenesis of these diseases. In addition, M-CSF could behave as a useful marker of renal involvement in AAV.

  18. Catalytic decomposition of low level ozone with gold nanoparticles supported on activated carbon

    Pengyi ZHANG; Bo ZHANG; Rui SHI

    2009-01-01

    Highly dispersed gold nanoparticles were supported on coal-based activated carbon (AC) by a sol immobilization method and were used to investigate their catalytic activity for low-level ozone decomposition at ambient temperature. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption,scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the catalysts before and after ozone decomposition. The results showed that the supported gold nanoparticles prepared with microwave heating were much smaller and more uniformly dispersed on the activated carbon than those prepared with traditional conduction heating, exhibiting higher catalytic activity for ozone decomposition. The pH values of gold precursor solution significantly influenced the catalytic activity of supported gold for ozone decomposition, and the best pH value was 8. In the case of space velocity of 120000 h-1, inlet ozone concentration of 50mg/m3, and relative humidity of 45%, the Au/AC catalyst maintained the ozone removal ratio at 90.7% after 2500 min. After being used for ozone decomposition, the surface carbon of the catalyst was partly oxidized and the oxygen content increased accordingly, while its specific surface area and pore volume only decreased a little.Ozone was mainly catalytically decomposed by the gold nanoparticles supported on the activated carbon.

  19. Knowledge, attitude, and level of physical activity among medical undergraduate students in Delhi

    Tanu Anand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical inactivity has been implicated as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The healthy lifestyle of medical students could facilitate the formation of healthy physicians who is more likely to give effective preventive counseling to their patients. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess the knowledge, attitude, and pattern of the physical activity among the medical students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 161 eligible sixth semester medical undergraduate students. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect the data. Anthropometric measurements were also taken. The data were fed and coded in Microsoft Excel 2007 and analyzed using SPSS 17.0 and Epi Info software of World Health Organization. Results: Knowledge regarding different types of exercise and anthropometric variables was fairly low among the study participants. Only 9.3% of the students were aware of the recommended level of the physical activity but nearly all (96.27% were aware of the benefits of it. The attitude of the participants toward the physical activity was favorable, yet only one-third (32.3% subjects adhered to recommended guidelines. Boys (39.8% were found to be significantly more active than girls (20.6% (P = 0.01. Conclusion: The knowledge and practices regarding the physical activity was found to be low amongst the medical students. There is a need to provide an enabling environment for promoting the physical activity amongst them so that can inculcate the same in their patients.

  20. Activation of vagus nerve by semapimod alters substance P levels and decreases breast cancer metastasis.

    Erin, Nuray; Duymuş, Ozlem; Oztürk, Saffet; Demir, Necdet

    2012-11-10

    Chronic inflammation is involved in initiation as well as in progression of cancer. Semapimod, a tetravalent guanylhydrazon and formerly known as CNI-1493, inhibits the release of inflammatory cytokines from activated macrophages and this effect is partly mediated by the vagus nerve. Our previous findings demonstrated that inactivation of vagus nerve activity as well sensory neurons enhanced visceral metastasis of 4THM breast carcinoma. Hence semapimod by activating vagus nerve may inhibit breast cancer metastasis. Here, effects of semapimod on breast cancer metastasis, the role of vagal sensory neurons on this effect and changes in mediators of the neuroimmune connection, such as substance P (SP) as well as neprilysin-like activity, were examined. Vagotomy was performed on half of the control animals that were treated with semapimod following orthotopic injection of 4THM breast carcinoma cells. Semapimod decreased lung and liver metastases in control but not in vagotomized animals with an associated increased SP levels in sensory nerve endings. Semapimod also increased neprilysin-like activity in lung tissue of control animals but not in tumor-bearing animals. This is the first report demonstrating that semapimod enhances vagal sensory nerve activity and may have anti-tumoral effects under in-vivo conditions. Further studies, however, are required to elucidate the conditions and the mechanisms involved in anti-tumoral effects of semapimod.

  1. Iso standardization of theoretical activity evaluation method for low and intermediate level activated waste generated at nuclear power plants

    Makoto Kashiwagi [JGC, Yokohama, 220-6001 (Japan); Garamszeghy, Mike [NWMO, Toronto, Ontario, M4T 2S3 (Canada); Lantes, Bertrand; Bonne, Sebastien [EDF UTO, 93192 Noisy le Grand (France); Pillette-Cousin, Lucien [AREVA TA, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Leganes, Jose Luis [ENRESA, 28043 Madrid (Spain); Volmert, Ben [NAGRA, CH-5430 Wettingen (Switzerland); James, David W. [DW James Consulting, North Oaks, MN 55127 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Disposal of low-and intermediate-level activated waste generated at nuclear power plants is being planned or carried out in many countries. The radioactivity concentrations and/or total quantities of long-lived, difficult-to-measure nuclides (DTM nuclides), such as C-14, Ni-63, Nb-94, α emitting nuclides etc., are often restricted by the safety case for a final repository as determined by each country's safety regulations, and these concentrations or amounts are required to be known and declared. With respect to waste contaminated by contact with process water, the Scaling Factor method (SF method), which is empirically based on sampling and analysis data, has been applied as an important method for determining concentrations of DTM nuclides. This method was standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and published in 2007 as ISO21238 'Scaling factor method to determine the radioactivity of low and intermediate-level radioactive waste packages generated at nuclear power plants' [1]. However, for activated metal waste with comparatively high concentrations of radioactivity, such as may be found in reactor control rods and internal structures, direct sampling and radiochemical analysis methods to evaluate the DTM nuclides are limited by access to the material and potentially high personnel radiation exposure. In this case, theoretical calculation methods in combination with empirical methods based on remote radiation surveys need to be used to best advantage for determining the disposal inventory of DTM nuclides while minimizing exposure to radiation workers. Pursuant to this objective a standard for the theoretical evaluation of the radioactivity concentration of DTM nuclides in activated waste, is in process through ISO TC85/SC5 (ISO Technical Committee 85: Nuclear energy, nuclear technologies, and radiological protection; Subcommittee 5: Nuclear fuel cycle). The project team for this ISO standard was formed in 2011 and

  2. Comparison of the level of residual coagulant activity in different cheese varieties.

    Bansal, Nidhi; Fox, Patrick F; McSweeney, Paul L H

    2009-08-01

    The coagulant retained in cheese curd is a major contributor to proteolysis during ripening. The objective of this study was to quantify residual coagulant in 9 cheese varieties by measuring its activity on a synthetic heptapeptide (Pro-Thr-Glu-Phe-[NO2-Phe]-Arg-Leu) assayed using reversed-phase HPLC. The level of residual coagulant activity was highest in Camembert cheese, probably due to its low pH at whey drainage and the high moisture content of the cheese, followed in order by Feta=Port du Salut=Cheddar>Gouda>Emmental=Parmigiano Reggiano=low-moisture part-skim Mozzarella=Mozzarella di Bufala Campana. The high cooking temperature (50-54 degrees C) used during the manufacture of Emmental and Parmigiano Reggiano cheeses and the cooking and stretching step in hot water during the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese may be the reasons for the lowest residual coagulant activity in these cheeses. The level of residual coagulant activity was higher in Feta cheese made from milk concentrated by ultrafiltration than in conventional Feta.

  3. Taxonomy matters: Cognitive levels and types of mathematical activities in mathematics examinations

    Margot Berger

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We argue that there are intrinsic difficulties in using the Subject Assessment Guidelines for Mathematics (SAGM for evaluating the standard of a South African matriculation mathematics examination and for determining how it aligns with the curriculum. Our argument has two prongs. First, the SAGM taxonomy conflates cognitive level with type of mathematical activity; we contend that such a conflation leads to problems in assessing the complexity of the examination item. Second, the SAGM taxonomy provides no space for important mathematical activities such as justification and conjecturing despite the promotion of these activities in key curriculum documents (Department of Education, 2003. This absence may obscure weak alignment of the examination and the curriculum. These arguments are illustrated through examples taken from the 2008 Department of Education (DOE and Independent Examination Board (IEB Grade 12 Mathematics examination papers. We also examine other well‐known taxonomies in order to discern those aspects of a taxonomy which may be useful for evaluation and alignment. We conclude with the construction of a matrix that could provide an appropriate taxonomy for the South African matriculation Mathematics examination. It has activities on one axis and levels of complexity on the other.

  4. Main determinants of physical activity levels in individuals with Parkinson’s disease

    Raquel de Carvalho Lana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study analyzed the relationship between patient characteristics, factors associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD, and physical activity level of individuals affected by the disease. Forty-six volunteers with mild-to-moderate idiopathic PD were assessed using sections II/III of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale and their motor functions were classified according to the modified Hoehn and Yahr (HY scale. Data such as age, disease duration, the Human Activity Profile (HAP, the Fatigue Severity Scale were collected. Lower limb bradykinesia and clinical subtypes of PD were defined. Two models that explained 76% of the variance of the HAP were used. The first comprised age, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL, and the HY scale; the second comprised age, ability to perform ADL, and lower limb bradykinesia. Possible modifiable factors such as the ability to perform ADL and lower limb bradykinesia were identified as predictors of physical activity level of individuals with PD.

  5. Developmental coordination disorder and level of physical activity in children: systematic literature review

    Renata Capistrano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children with DCD may have difficulty in performing leisure activities, sports, in addition to problems in social interactions. Objective: To investigate the relationship between DCD and physical activity, as well as evaluate the research quality in the area. Method: It was conducted a search on four databases (PubMed, Bireme, Web of Science and Scopus, with the descriptors, in Portuguese and English languages: “motor activity” (“atividade motora”, “disorder of motor skills” (“transtorno das habilidades motoras”, “developmental coordination disorder” (“transtorno do desenvolvimento da coordenação”, “physical activity” (“atividade física” and “children” (“crianças”. Results: The analysis processes included the reading of titles, abstracts and full texts. The initial electronic search found 3303 manuscripts, of which 22 met the criteria for inclusion in the review. Regarding the level of physical activity in children with DCD only eleven studies approached the theme, while others used it as a mediating variable. Conclusion: Children with DCD showed a lower level of physical activity compared to their pairs, which makes the disorder, during the childhood, a risk factor for physical inactivity in adolescence .

  6. Gross β activity level of fallout in the environment around Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    YE Ji-Da; CHEN Bin; WU Zong-Mei

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the measurement results of gross β activities in fallout samples collected from the environment around Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) during 1993-2002. The gross β activity of 191 samples collected at five monitoring spots were (0.11~3.64) Bq · m-2 · d-1, with an average of (0.91 ±0.49) Bq · m-2 · d-1. This value was lower than (1.02±0.35) Bq·m-2·d-1 , the average of the samples collected at the reference spot in Hangzhou.It indicated that no obvious rise in the gross β activity level of fallout was observed in ambience of Qinshan NPP.

  7. Determination of the Timing and Level of Activities of Lumbopelvic Muscles in Response to Postural Perturbations

    S Ebrahimi Takamjani

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most important concerns in orthopedic medicine is the low back. Considering the importance of muscle function in preventing LBT by controlling too much load and stress applied on the spinal joints and ligaments. Materials and Methods: The aim of this research was to determine the timing and level of activities of lumbopelvic muscles in response to postural perturbations caused by unexpected loading of the upper limbs in standing on three different supporting surfaces (neutral, positive slope, negative slope in 20 healthy females 18 to 30 years old ( = 23.20 SD = 2.55 . The electromyographic signals were recorded from the deltoid, gluteus maximus, internal oblique abdominis and lumbar paraspinal muscles of the dominant side of the body to evaluate the onset time, end time, level of muscle activity (RMS and duration of different muscles in one task and one muscle in different tasks. Results: The results showed that the agonists (posterior muscles activated at first to compensate the flexor torque caused by loading and then the antagonists (anterior muscles switched-on to compensate the reaction forces caused by agonist activities. With regards to continuous activity of internal oblique and its attachments via thoracalumbar fascia to the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae, it can be considered as one of the major stabilizer muscles of the trunk . Conclusion: Finally the results indicated that supporting surface type didn’t have any effect on timing and scaling of muscle activities in different tasks suggesting that probably spinal and trunk priprioceptors are just responsible for triggering postural responses and they don’t have any role in determining timing and scaling.

  8. The level of cholinergic nucleus basalis activation controls the specificity of auditory associative memory.

    Weinberger, Norman M; Miasnikov, Alexandre A; Chen, Jemmy C

    2006-11-01

    Learning involves not only the establishment of memory per se, but also the specific details of its contents. In classical conditioning, the former concerns whether an association was learned while the latter discloses what was learned. The neural bases of associativity have been studied extensively while neural mechanisms of memory specificity have been neglected. Stimulation of the cholinergic nucleus basalis (NBs) paired with a preceding tone induces CS-specific associative memory. As different levels of acetylcholine may be released naturally during different learning situations, we asked whether the level of activation of the cholinergic neuromodulatory system can control the degree of detail that is encoded and retrieved. Adult male rats were tested pre- and post-training for behavioral responses (interruption of ongoing respiration) to tones of various frequencies (1-15 kHz, 70 dB, 2 s). Training consisted of 200 trials/day of tone (8.0 kHz, 70 dB, 2 s) either paired or unpaired with NBs (CS-NBs = 1.8 s) at moderate (65.7+/-9.0 microA, one day) or weak (46.7+/-12.1 microA, three training days) levels of stimulation, under conditions of controlled behavioral state (pre-trial stable respiration rate). Post-training (24 h) responses to tones revealed that moderate activation induced both associative and CS-specific behavioral memory, whereas weak activation produced associative memory lacking frequency specificity. The degree of memory specificity 24 h after training was positively correlated with the magnitude of CS-elicited increase in gamma activity within the EEG during training, but only in the moderate NBs group. Thus, a low level of acetylcholine released by the nucleus basalis during learning is sufficient to induce associativity whereas a higher level of release enables the storage of greater experiential detail. gamma waves, which are thought to reflect the coordinated activity of cortical cells, appear to index the encoding of CS detail. The findings

  9. The role of level of functioning, life satisfaction and leisure activities in elderly depressive symptomatology

    George Kleftaras

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Today's elderly people make up a large part of the population and depressive symptoms they show requires specialized intervention health professionals. Purpose: The purpose of the present research was to study the phenomenon of elderly depressive symptomatology and its relationship with their quality of life as judged by the performance of daily life activities, perceived life satisfaction and leisure activities. Method and material: The studied sample consisted of107 elderly, 62 men and 45 women, who lived in the community, members of Open Care Centres for the Elderly (K.A.P.I. and the Friendship Club of the wider area of Attica. They completed the Questionnaire of Depressive Symptomatology, the Life Satisfaction Index, the Satisfaction with Performance Scale Questionnaire and the Leisure Time Activities Questionnaire. The statistical analysis of the results was done with SPSS-v. 20,and more specifically with the method of correlation. Results: The results showed that there is a statistically significant negative correlation between the level of life satisfaction of the elderly and depressive symptomatology. They also showed a statistically significant negative correlation between the ability to solve social problems and depressive symptomatology. Not statistically significant relationship between the capacity to manage the home and depressive symptomatology was recorded. Of the areas related to leisure, only activities relaxing the person, social and personal hobbiesrelated negatively with depressive symptomatology but not the physical activities, a finding which supports previous results regarding the efficiency in managing the home. Conclusions: Thus, according to the results of the present study the health professionals working with older people with depressive symptomatology should, in their interventions initially encourage activities that give life satisfaction and then focus their program on strengthening the individual to perform

  10. Levels of gingival tissue platelet activating factor after conventional and regenerative periodontal surgery.

    Keles, Gonca Cayir; Cetinkaya, Burcu Ozkan; Ayas, Bulent; Isildak, Ibrahim; Diraman, Emine; Koprulu, Hulya; Acikgoz, Gokhan

    2007-12-01

    The hypothesis, a relationship between gingival tissue platelet activating factor (PAF) levels and healing after periodontal surgery, was tested by measuring PAF levels in gingival tissues collected from sites that had undergone flap surgery and guided tissue regeneration (GTR) or flap surgery alone. Using a split-mouth design, 20 intrabony defects were randomly assigned to treatment with flap surgery and GTR (group 1) or with flap surgery alone (group 2). Gingival tissue samples were obtained at surgery (baseline) and at 6-month follow-up evaluation visit. One half of each sample was used for analysis of PAF levels by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the other half of the sample was used for histomorphometric analysis that included measurements of number and diameter of blood vessels. PAF levels and diameter of blood vessels were significantly decreased (p 0.05). Based on the reported results, it is suggested that a decrease in gingival PAF levels might be found after conventional and regenerative periodontal surgery.

  11. Effects of chlordiazepoxide, diazepam and oxazepam on the antitumor activity, the lethality and the blood level of active metabolites of cyclophosphamide and cyclophosphamide oxidase activity in mice.

    Sasaki, K; Furusawa, S; Takayanagi, G

    1983-10-01

    Effects of chlordiazepoxide, diazepam and oxazepam on the antitumor activity and acute toxicity of cyclophosphamide and the level of its active metabolites in the plasma were investigated in mice. Cyclophosphamide was administered 24 h after the final injection of chlordiazepoxide, diazepam or oxazepam (100 mg/kg/d for 3 d, i.p.). Pretreatment with these drugs increased the acute toxicity of cyclophosphamide (300 or 450 mg/kg, i.p.), whereas drugs had no effect on the antitumor activity of cyclophosphamide (100 mg/kg, i.p.) against Ehrlich solid carcinoma. A high level of active metabolites of cyclophosphamide in the plasma after the administration of cyclophosphamide (300 or 450 mg/kg, i.p.) was observed in chlordiazepoxide-, diazepam- or oxazepam-treated mice. On the other hand, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam or oxazepam enhanced significantly the activity of cyclophosphamide oxidase in hepatic microsomes. It is concluded that potentiation of the acute toxicity at a high dose of cyclophosphamide by chlordiazepoxide, diazepam and oxazepam is due to an induction of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme which are responsible for the in vivo activation of cyclophosphamide.

  12. A College-Level Inquiry-Based Laboratory Activity on Transiting Planets

    McConnell, Nicholas J; Strubbe, Linda E; Moth, Pimol; Montgomery, Ryan M; Raschke, Lynne M; Hunter, Lisa; Goza, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    We have designed an inquiry-based laboratory activity on transiting extrasolar planets for an introductory college-level astronomy class. The activity was designed with the intent of simultaneously teaching science process skills and factual content about transits and light curves. In the activity, groups of two to four students each formulate a specific science question and design and carry out an investigation using a table-top model of a star and orbiting planet. Each group then presents their findings to other students in their class. In a final presentation, the instructors integrate students' findings with a summary of how measured light curves indicate properties of planetary systems. The activity debuted at Hartnell College in November 2009 and has also been adapted for a lecture-based astronomy course at U.C. Santa Cruz. We present the results of student surveys before and after the astronomy course at Hartnell and discuss how well our activity promotes students' confidence and identity as scientists...

  13. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Hellsten, Ylva

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension...... performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes...... plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension. This effect may explain some of the beneficial effects of training on the cardiovascular system in older and hypertensive subjects....

  14. Decrease of physical activity level in adolescents with limb fractures: an accelerometry-based activity monitor study

    Delhumeau Cécile

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immobilization and associated periods of inactivity can cause osteopenia, the physiological response of the bone to disuse. Mechanical loading plays an essential role in maintaining bone integrity. Skeletal fractures represent one cause of reduction of the physical activity (PA level in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to quantify the reduction of PA in adolescents with limb fractures during the cast immobilization period compared with healthy controls. Methods Two hundred twenty adolescents were divided into three groups: those with upper limb fractures (50 cases; lower limb fractures (50 cases; and healthy cases (120 cases. Patients and their healthy peers were matched for gender, age, and seasonal assessment of PA. PA level was assessed during cast immobilization by accelerometer. Time spent in PA in each of the different intensity levels - sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous - was determined for each participant and expressed in minutes and as a percentage of total valid time. Results Reduction in PA during cast immobilization was statistically significant in patients with limb fractures compared to healthy controls. The total PA count (total number of counts/min was significantly lower in those with upper and lower limb fractures (-30.1% and -62.4%, respectively compared with healthy controls (p p = 0.0003 and 76.6% (p p = 0.0008 and 84.4% (p Conclusions PA measured by accelerometer is a useful and valid tool to assess the decrease of PA level in adolescents with limb fractures. As cast immobilization and reduced PA are known to induce bone mineral loss, this study provides important information to quantify the decrease of skeletal loading in this patient population. The observed reduction of high intensity skeletal loading due to the decrease in vigorous PA may explain osteopenia due to disuse, and these data should be kept in mind by trauma practitioners to avoid any unnecessary prolongation of the cast

  15. Few differences found in the typical eating and physical activity habits of lower-level and upper-level university students.

    Driskell, Judy A; Kim, Young-Nam; Goebel, Kelly J

    2005-05-01

    Typical eating and exercise habits of a group of lower-level (freshmen/sophomores, n=144) and upper-level (juniors/seniors, n=114) students, 19 to 25 years of age, attending a midwestern university were compared. Both groups reported similar snacking practices, nonalcoholic beverage consumption, places of meal consumption, factors influencing food choices, duration and frequency of various types of physical activity, and places of physical performance, with few exceptions. Significant differences between groups were observed for typical afternoon snack consumption, frequency of eating in university cafeterias, typical time spent walking, typical frequency of performing other aerobic activities, and factors that most influenced their physical activity habits. Few differences existed in typical eating and physical activity habits of lower- and upper-level students.

  16. Fe and Mn levels regulated by agricultural activities in alluvial groundwaters underneath a flooded paddy field

    Kim, Kangjoo [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University, Jeonbuk 573-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kangjoo@kunsan.ac.kr; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Choi, Byoung-Young; Kim, Seok-Hwi; Park, Ki-hoon [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University, Jeonbuk 573-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Eungyu [Department of Geology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Dong-Chan [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Seong-Taek [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    Iron and Mn concentrations in fresh groundwaters of alluvial aquifers are generally high in reducing conditions reflecting low SO{sub 4} concentrations. The mass balance and isotopic approaches of this study demonstrate that reduction of SO{sub 4}, supplied from agricultural activities such as fertilization and irrigation, is important in lowering Fe and Mn levels in alluvial groundwaters underneath a paddy field. This study was performed to investigate the processes regulating Fe and Mn levels in groundwaters of a point bar area, which has been intensively used for flood cultivation. Four multilevel-groundwater samplers were installed to examine the relationship between geology and the vertical changes in water chemistry. The results show that Fe and Mn levels are regulated by the presence of NO{sub 3} at shallow depths and by SO{sub 4} reduction at the greater depths. Isotopic and mass balance analyses revealed that NO{sub 3} and SO{sub 4} in groundwater are mostly supplied from the paddy field, suggesting that the Fe-and Mn-rich zone of the study area is confined by the agricultural activities. For this reason, the geologic conditions controlling the infiltration of agrochemicals are also important for the occurrence of Fe/Mn-rich groundwaters in the paddy field area.

  17. Histidine tag fusion increases expression levels of active recombinant amelogenin in Escherichia coli.

    Svensson, Johan; Andersson, Christer; Reseland, Janne E; Lyngstadaas, Petter; Bülow, Leif

    2006-07-01

    Amelogenin is a dental enamel matrix protein involved in formation of dental enamel. In this study, we have expressed two different recombinant murine amelogenins in Escherichia coli: the untagged rM179, and the histidine tagged rp(H)M180, identical to rM179 except that it carries the additional N-terminal sequence MRGSHHHHHHGS. The effects of the histidine tag on expression levels, and on growth properties of the amelogenin expressing cells were studied. Purification of a crude protein extract containing rp(H)M180 was also carried out using IMAC and reverse-phase HPLC. The results of this study showed clearly that both growth properties and amelogenin expression levels were improved for E. coli cells expressing the histidine tagged amelogenin rp(H)M180, compared to cells expressing the untagged amelogenin rM179. The positive effect of the histidine tag on amelogenin expression is proposed to be due to the hydrophilic nature of the histidine tag, generating a more hydrophilic amelogenin, which is more compatible with the host cell. Human osteoblasts treated with the purified rp(H)M180 showed increased levels of secreted osteocalcin, compared to untreated cells. This response was similar to cells treated with enamel matrix derivate, mainly composed by amelogenin, suggesting that the recombinant protein is biologically active. Thus, the histidine tag favors expression and purification of biologically active recombinant amelogenin.

  18. Memory based active contour algorithm using pixel-level classified images for colon crypt segmentation.

    Cohen, Assaf; Rivlin, Ehud; Shimshoni, Ilan; Sabo, Edmond

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel method for detection and segmentation of crypts in colon biopsies. Most of the approaches proposed in the literature try to segment the crypts using only the biopsy image without understanding the meaning of each pixel. The proposed method differs in that we segment the crypts using an automatically generated pixel-level classification image of the original biopsy image and handle the artifacts due to the sectioning process and variance in color, shape and size of the crypts. The biopsy image pixels are classified to nuclei, immune system, lumen, cytoplasm, stroma and goblet cells. The crypts are then segmented using a novel active contour approach, where the external force is determined by the semantics of each pixel and the model of the crypt. The active contour is applied for every lumen candidate detected using the pixel-level classification. Finally, a false positive crypt elimination process is performed to remove segmentation errors. This is done by measuring their adherence to the crypt model using the pixel level classification results. The method was tested on 54 biopsy images containing 4944 healthy and 2236 cancerous crypts, resulting in 87% detection of the crypts with 9% of false positive segments (segments that do not represent a crypt). The segmentation accuracy of the true positive segments is 96%.

  19. Locomotor activity, ultrasonic vocalization and oxytocin levels in infant CD38 knockout mice.

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lopatina, Olga; Higashida, Chiharu; Tsuji, Takahiro; Kato, Ichiro; Takasawa, Shin; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2008-12-19

    Oxytocin (OT), a neurohormone involved in reproduction, plays a critical role in social behavior in a wide range of mammalian species from rodents to humans. The role of CD38 in regulating OT secretion for social behavior has been demonstrated in adult mice, but has not been examined in pups or during development. Separation from the dam induces stress in 7-day-old mouse pups. During such isolation, locomotor activity was higher in CD38 knockout (CD38(-/-)) pups than in wild-type (CD38(+/+)) or heterozygous (CD38(+/-)) controls. The number of ultrasonic vocalizations was lower in CD38(-/-) pups than in CD38(+/+) pups. However, the difference between the two genotypes was less severe than that in OT knockout or OT receptor knockout mice. To explain this, we measured plasma OT levels. The level was not lower in CD38(-/-) pups during the period 1-3 weeks after birth, but was significantly reduced after weaning (>3 weeks). ADP-ribosyl cyclase activities in the hypothalamus and pituitary were markedly lower from 1 week after birth in CD38(-/-) mice and were consistently lower thereafter to the adult stage (2 months old). These results showed that the reduced severity of behavioral abnormalities in CD38(-/-) pups was due to partial compensation by the high level of plasma OT.

  20. Insecticidal activity of residual Bt protein at the second trophic level

    2006-01-01

    Measurements were taken of Bt protein expressed in the leaves of transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) transformed with a synthesized Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cry1A gene and its persistent level in larval bodies and faeces of a non-targeted insect pest, beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua). We performed enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and bioassays using neonate larvae of cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) to detect the insecticidal activity of residual Bt protein at the second trophic level. The results showed that Bt protein content in functional leaves was different at various developmental stages and was different among plants at the same stage. Even though Bt protein concentration in the larval bodies and faeces decreased 97.5%-99% compared to that found in cotton leaves subsequently fed to beet armyworm larvae, it still had a lethal effect on neonate cotton bollworm larvae. Therefore, Bt protein present at the second trophic level had insecticidal activity. This result is important in understanding and predicting the effect of transgenic plants on nontarget organisms.

  1. Meta-analysis of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity levels

    Davies Cally A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many internet-delivered physical activity behaviour change programs have been developed and evaluated. However, further evidence is required to ascertain the overall effectiveness of such interventions. The objective of the present review was to evaluate the effectiveness of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity, whilst also examining the effect of intervention moderators. A systematic search strategy identified relevant studies published in the English-language from Pubmed, Proquest, Scopus, PsychINFO, CINHAL, and Sport Discuss (January 1990 – June 2011. Eligible studies were required to include an internet-delivered intervention, target an adult population, measure and target physical activity as an outcome variable, and include a comparison group that did not receive internet-delivered materials. Studies were coded independently by two investigators. Overall effect sizes were combined based on the fixed effect model. Homogeneity and subsequent exploratory moderator analysis was undertaken. A total of 34 articles were identified for inclusion. The overall mean effect of internet-delivered interventions on physical activity was d = 0.14 (p = 0.00. Fixed-effect analysis revealed significant heterogeneity across studies (Q = 73.75; p = 0.00. Moderating variables such as larger sample size, screening for baseline physical activity levels and the inclusion of educational components significantly increased intervention effectiveness. Results of the meta-analysis support the delivery of internet-delivered interventions in producing positive changes in physical activity, however effect sizes were small. The ability of internet-delivered interventions to produce meaningful change in long-term physical activity remains unclear.

  2. Relationships between levels of motor coordination, attention and physical activity in children: The mediation model

    Jakub Kokštejn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current findings suggest that physical activity of children with developmental difficulties may be limited by low level of motor coordination. Motor difficulties are often connected with children suffering from attention deficit disorder. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to find out the level of physical activity (PA in older school-age children with motor difficulties (MD in comparison with children without MD and to reveal possible mediate impact on attention between the level of motor skills and PA in children of this age. METHODS: Participants were divided into two groups: 15 children with MD (age 13.7 ± 1.6 years and 27 children without MD (age 13.3 ± 1.4 years. Motor functions were assessed by means of test battery MABC-2, weekly physical activity by means of Actigraph accelerometer and attention by both d2 and numeric square tests. To estimate the mediation of the attention level we have used Baron's & Kenny's (1986 analysis. RESULTS: In most of the indicators of PA, children with MD reached lower value than those without MD. The differences of statistical significance were found in the number of steps per week and weekdays (d = 0.50 and 0.64 respectively and in PA of a very high intensity (d =2 .00 in boys with and without MD. In girls with MD we have found out significantly less time spent in vigorous intensity PA (d = 0.86. The study results support the hypothesis of developmental motor deficits to be a risk factor for PA in older school-age children. Significant mediation effect of concentration of attention in the relationship between the level of motor skills and PA was observed in three cases - in the relationship between gross motor skills on the one hand, and energy expenditure per week and weekdays, and vigorous intensity PA per week on the other. The amount of mediation effect of attention concentration ranged between 12-22%. CONCLUSION: The study has indicated that children's participation in PA can be

  3. Changes in cortisol level in saliva following relaxation-activation autoregulative intervention.

    Machac, M; Machacová, H; Stárka, L; Hampl, R

    1987-09-01

    The relaxation-activation autoregulative method (RAM) is a psychoregulative procedure characterized by typical autonomic patterns of relaxation and activation phases (blood pressure, electric skin resistance, heart beat, EEG, etc.). They are used as feedback information in the training of autoregulative abilities. RAM has a multidimensional (non-specific) tuning effect which is manifested by changes in the psychophysiological state (emotional tuning, physiological functioning and performance). It has a therapeutical effect on disorders with a psychic pathogenic component, e.g., essential hypertension. The increased production of adrenaline following the application of RAM was found in previous experiments.--The present experiment with a sample of six persons well mastering RAM has shown that the cortisol level following this psychoregulative intervention also rises significantly and that this rise has been recorded over three days, i.e., over the whole period of saliva sampling. It may be said that RAM has a non-specific, ergotropic (activating) subsequent effect and that this effect has the character of stress, more accurately eustress. Autogenic training, on the other hand, reduces the cortisol level.

  4. In vitro antibacterial activity of seven Indian spices against high level gentamicin resistant strains of enterococci

    Bipin, Chapagain; Chitra, Pai (Bhat); Minakshi, Bhattacharjee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of seven ethanolic extracts of spices against high level gentamicin resistant (HLGR) enterococci isolated from human clinical samples. Material and methods Two hundred and fifteen enterococcal strains were isolated from clinical samples. High level gentamicin resistance in ethanolic extracts of cumin (Cuminum cyminum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) and black pepper (Piper nigrum) were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. The antibacterial effect of the extracts was studied using the well diffusion method. Statistical analysis was carried out by χ2 test using SPSS 17 software. Results Only cinnamon and ginger were found to have activity against all the isolates, whereas cumin and cloves had a variable effect on the strains. Fenugreek, black pepper and cardamom did not show any effect on the isolates. The zone diameter of inhibition obtained for cinnamon, ginger, cloves and cumin was in the range 31–34 mm, 27–30 mm, 25–26 mm and 19–20 mm respectively. Conclusions Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Z. officinale showed the maximum antibacterial activity against the enterococcal isolates followed by S. aromaticum and C. cyminum. The findings of the study show that spices used in the study can contribute to the development of potential antimicrobial agents for inclusion in the anti-enterococcal treatment regimen. PMID:26322099

  5. The role of galactic cold gas in low-level supermassive black hole activity

    Alfvin, Erik D; Haynes, Martha P; Gallo, Elena; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Koopmann, Rebecca A; Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Cannon, John M

    2016-01-01

    The nature of the relationship between low-level supermassive black hole (SMBH) activity and galactic cold gas, if any, is currently unclear. Here, we test whether central black holes may feed at higher rates in gas-rich galaxies, probing SMBH activity well below the active regime down to Eddington ratios of ~1e-7. We use a combination of radio data from the ALFALFA survey and from the literature, along with archival X-ray flux measurements from the Chandra X-ray observatory, to investigate this potential relationship. We construct a sample of 129 late-type galaxies, with MB<-18 out to 50 Mpc, that have both HI masses and sensitive X-ray coverage. Of these, 75 host a nuclear X-ray source, a 58% detection fraction. There is a highly significant correlation between nuclear X-ray luminosity LX and galaxy stellar mass Mstar with a slope of 1.7+/-0.3, and a tentative correlation (significant at the 2.8 sigma level) between LX and HI gas mass MHI. However, a joint fit to LX as a function of both Mstar and MHI fi...

  6. Insulin signaling regulates fatty acid catabolism at the level of CoA activation.

    Xiaojun Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The insulin/IGF signaling pathway is a highly conserved regulator of metabolism in flies and mammals, regulating multiple physiological functions including lipid metabolism. Although insulin signaling is known to regulate the activity of a number of enzymes in metabolic pathways, a comprehensive understanding of how the insulin signaling pathway regulates metabolic pathways is still lacking. Accepted knowledge suggests the key regulated step in triglyceride (TAG catabolism is the release of fatty acids from TAG via the action of lipases. We show here that an additional, important regulated step is the activation of fatty acids for beta-oxidation via Acyl Co-A synthetases (ACS. We identify pudgy as an ACS that is transcriptionally regulated by direct FOXO action in Drosophila. Increasing or reducing pudgy expression in vivo causes a decrease or increase in organismal TAG levels respectively, indicating that pudgy expression levels are important for proper lipid homeostasis. We show that multiple ACSs are also transcriptionally regulated by insulin signaling in mammalian cells. In sum, we identify fatty acid activation onto CoA as an important, regulated step in triglyceride catabolism, and we identify a mechanistic link through which insulin regulates lipid homeostasis.

  7. Community Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP, Characterization and Microbial Activity of Soil Amended with Dairy Sewage Sludge

    Jerzy Lipiec

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to assess the influence of organic amendment applications compared to mineral fertilization on soil microbial activity and functional diversity. The field experiment was set up on a soil classified as an Eutric Cambisol developed from loess (South-East Poland. Two doses of both dairy sewage sludge (20 Mg·ha−1 and 26 Mg·ha−1 and of mineral fertilizers containing the same amount of nutrients were applied. The same soil without any amendment was used as a control. The soil under undisturbed native vegetation was also included in the study as a representative background sample. The functional diversity (catabolic potential was assessed using such indices as Average Well Color Development (AWCD, Richness (R and Shannon–Weaver index (H. These indices were calculated, following the community level physiological profiling (CLPP using Biolog Eco Plates. Soil dehydrogenase and respiratory activity were also evaluated. The indices were sensitive enough to reveal changes in community level physiological profiles due to treatment effects. It was shown that dairy sewage amended soil was characterized by greater AWCD, R, H and dehydrogenase and respiratory activity as compared to control or mineral fertilized soil. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and principal component analysis (PCA were used to depict the differences of the soil bacterial functional diversity between the treatments.

  8. Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Physical Activity Level

    Silva, Carlos; Annamalai, Kalyan

    2008-06-01

    The first and second laws of thermodynamics were applied to biochemical reactions typical of human metabolism. An open-system model was used for a human body. Energy conservation, availability and entropy balances were performed to obtain the entropy generated for the main food components. Quantitative results for entropy generation were obtained as a function of age using the databases from the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which provide energy requirements and food intake composition as a function of age, weight and stature. Numerical integration was performed through human lifespan for different levels of physical activity. Results were presented and analyzed. Entropy generated over the lifespan of average individuals (natural death) was found to be 11,404 kJ/ºK per kg of body mass with a rate of generation three times higher on infants than on the elderly. The entropy generated predicts a life span of 73.78 and 81.61 years for the average U.S. male and female individuals respectively, which are values that closely match the average lifespan from statistics (74.63 and 80.36 years). From the analysis of the effect of different activity levels, it is shown that entropy generated increases with physical activity, suggesting that exercise should be kept to a “healthy minimum” if entropy generation is to be minimized.

  9. The unrealised potential of bike share schemes to influence population physical activity levels - A narrative review.

    Bauman, Adrian; Crane, Melanie; Drayton, Bradley Alan; Titze, Sylvia

    2017-02-20

    The recent proliferation of bike share schemes (BSS, also known as public bicycle use programs) in many cities has focused attention on their potential for reducing motorised traffic congestion, improving air quality and reducing car use. Since 2005, hundreds of bike share schemes have been implemented in many cities, with bike share usage patterns monitored in many of them. This paper assesses the development of BSS and provides a rationale for their potential health benefits. The key research question, as yet unanswered, is whether BSS themselves can contribute to improving population health, particularly through increasing population cycling, which would increase population levels of health-enhancing physical activity. This paper presents a framework for evaluating the contribution of BSS to population physical activity, and uses examples of new data analyses to indicate the challenges in answering this question. These illustrative analyses examine cycling in Australia, and [i] compares rates of cycling to work in BSS cities compared to the rest of Australia over time, and [ii] modelling trends in bike counts in Central Melbourne before and after introduction of the BSS in 2010, and compared to adjacent regions in nearby suburbs unexposed to a BSS. These indicative examples point to difficulties in attributing causal increases in cycling for transport to the introduction of a BSS alone. There is an evidence gap, and a need to identify opportunities to improve the health-related components of BSS evaluations, to answer the question whether they have any impact on population physical activity levels.

  10. Energy Conservation Analysis and Control of Hybrid Active Semiactive Suspension with Three Regulating Damping Levels

    Long Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active suspension has not been popularized for high energy consumption. To address this issue, this paper introduces the concept of a new kind of suspension. The linear motor is considered to be integrated into an adjustable shock absorber to form the hybrid active semiactive suspension (HASAS. To realize the superiority of HASAS, its energy consumption and regeneration mechanisms are revealed. And the system controller which is composed of linear quadratic regulator (LQR controller, mode decision and switch controller, and the sliding mode control based thrust controller is developed. LQR controller is designed to maintain the suspension control objectives, while mode decision and switch controller decides the optimal damping level to tune motor thrust. The thrust controller ensures motor thrust tracking. An adjustable shock absorber with three regulating levels to be used in HASAS is trial produced and tested to obtain its working characteristics. Finally, simulation analysis is made with the experimental three damping characteristics. The impacts of adjustable damping on the motor force and energy consumption are investigated. Simulation results demonstrate the advantages of HASAS in energy conservation with various suspension control objectives. Even self-powered active control and energy regenerated to the power source can be realized.

  11. Effects of individually tailored physical and daily activities in nursing home residents on activities of daily living, physical performance and physical activity level

    Andresen, Mette; Frändin, Kerstin; Bergland, Astrid;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nursing home residents are extremely inactive and deterioration in health and an increasing dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) are common. Physical activity and exercise play a major role in the preservation of physical function and quality of life late in life. However......, evidence for the benefit of rehabilitation in nursing home residents is conflicting and inconclusive. Objective: To evaluate the effect of an individually tailored intervention program of 3 months, for nursing home residents, on ADL, balance, physical activity level, mobility and muscle strength. Methods......: In this single-blind randomized clinical trial with parallel groups, nursing home residents 1 64 years of age from three Nordic countries were included. The intervention group (IG) was assigned to individually tailored physical and daily activities, while the control group (CG) received ordinary care. Primary...

  12. Embedded Real-Time Architecture for Level-Set-Based Active Contours

    Dejnožková Eva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods described by partial differential equations have gained a considerable interest because of undoubtful advantages such as an easy mathematical description of the underlying physics phenomena, subpixel precision, isotropy, or direct extension to higher dimensions. Though their implementation within the level set framework offers other interesting advantages, their vast industrial deployment on embedded systems is slowed down by their considerable computational effort. This paper exploits the high parallelization potential of the operators from the level set framework and proposes a scalable, asynchronous, multiprocessor platform suitable for system-on-chip solutions. We concentrate on obtaining real-time execution capabilities. The performance is evaluated on a continuous watershed and an object-tracking application based on a simple gradient-based attraction force driving the active countour. The proposed architecture can be realized on commercially available FPGAs. It is built around general-purpose processor cores, and can run code developed with usual tools.

  13. Peculiarities of brain electric activity in young males and females of different creativity levels

    Ermakov, Pavel N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that the peculiarities of divergent and convergent thinking in young males and females of various creativity levels are stipulated by a definite EEG frequency-and-spatial arrangement. Young males and females of mixed and left lateral arrangement profiles demonstrate an expressed activity of occipital, central, and temporal areas of both cerebral hemispheres. In young males and females of right LAP (lateral arrangement profile, connections are clearly localized in case of solution of both convergent and divergent tasks. Solution of divergent and convergent tasks may condition certain frequency-and-spatial arrangement of EEG in young males and females with different levels of academic progress and a different lateral arrangement profile (LAP.

  14. Knowledge Level Assessment in e-Learning Systems Using Machine Learning and User Activity Analysis

    Nazeeh Ghatasheh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Learning has been one of the foremost trends in education so far. Such importance draws the attention to an important shift in the educational paradigm. Due to the complexity of the evolving paradigm, the prospective dynamics of learning require an evolution of knowledge delivery and evaluation. This research work tries to put in hand a futuristic design of an autonomous and intelligent e-Learning system. In which machine learning and user activity analysis play the role of an automatic evaluator for the knowledge level. It is important to assess the knowledge level in order to adapt content presentation and to have more realistic evaluation of online learners. Several classification algorithms are applied to predict the knowledge level of the learners and the corresponding results are reported. Furthermore, this research proposes a modern design of a dynamic learning environment that goes along the most recent trends in e-Learning. The experimental results illustrate an overall performance superiority of a support vector machine model in evaluating the knowledge levels; having 98.6%of correctly classified instances with 0.0069 mean absolute error.

  15. Loneliness in elderly individuals, level of dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) and influential factors.

    Hacihasanoğlu, Rabia; Yildirim, Arzu; Karakurt, Papatya

    2012-01-01

    This study has been carried out to investigate the level of loneliness, determine the level of dependence in the ADL and influential factors in the elderly people. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 Family Healthcare Centers (FHC) located in central Erzincan, Turkey between March and June 2010. The data of the research was collected using a questionnaire that determined the descriptive and UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS). Mean score of the UCLA-LS was determined as 51.59 ± 4.44. It was determined that 2% of the elderly ADL were completely dependent, 14.5% were semi-dependent. Factors such as being old, a widow/divorced, having a lower level of education and/or income, living alone, having a chronic disease, poor self-perceived health, lack of visits by relatives or acquaintances, dissatisfaction with the place of living, and being fully dependent while performing daily activities were determined as factors which increased the level of loneliness. Furthermore, factors such as being old, a female, a widow/divorced, living together with a daughter/son, having a chronic disease and poor self-perceived health were found to be influential in dependency. Elderly people who are alone and dependent in fulfilling their ADL should be monitored more closely.

  16. Segmentation of hand radiographs by using multi-level connected active appearance models

    Kauffman, Joost A.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Bernelot Moens, Hein J.

    2005-04-01

    Robust and accurate segmentation methods are important for the computerized evaluation of medical images. For treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, joint damage assessment in radiographs of hands is frequently used for monitoring disease progression. Current clinical scoring methods are based on visual measurements that are time-consuming and subject to intra and inter-reader variance. A solution may be found in the development of partially automated assessment procedures. This requires reliable segmentation algorithms. Our work demonstrates a segmentation method based on multiple connected active appearance models (AAM) with multiple search steps using different quality levels. The quality level can be regulated by setting the image resolution and the number of landmarks in the AAMs. We performed experiments using two models of different quality levels for shape and texture information. Both models included AAMs for the carpal region, the metacarpals, and all phalanges. By starting an iterative search with the faster, low-quality model, we were able to determine the initial parameters of the second, high-quality model. After the second search, the results showed successful segmentation for 22 of 30 test images. For these images, 70% of the landmarks were found within 1.3 mm difference from manual placement by an expert. The multi-level search approach resulted in a reduction of 50% in calculation time compared to a search using a single model. Results are expected to improve when the model is refined by increasing the number of training examples and the resolution of the models.

  17. Availability verification of information for human system interface in automatic SG level control using activity diagram

    Nuraslinda, Anuar; Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Jong Hyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Uljugun (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Steam Generator (SG) level control system in OPR 1000 is one of representative automatic systems that falls under the Supervisory Control level in Endsley's taxonomy. Supervisory control of automated systems is classified as a form of out of the loop (OOTL) performance due to passive involvement in the systems operation, which could lead to loss of situation awareness (SA). There was a reported event, which was caused by inadequate human automation communication that contributed to an unexpected reactor trip in July 2005. A high SG level trip occurred in Yeonggwang (YGN) Unit 6 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) due to human operator failure to recognize the need to change the control mode of the economizer valve controller (EVC) to manual mode during swap over (the transition from low power mode to high power mode) after the loss of offsite power (LOOP) event was recovered. This paper models the human system interaction in NPP SG level control system using Unified Modeling Language (UML) Activity Diagram. Then, it identifies the missing information for operators in the OPR1000 Main Control Room (MCR) and suggests some means of improving the human system interaction.

  18. Effects of portable computing devices on posture, muscle activation levels and efficiency.

    Werth, Abigail; Babski-Reeves, Kari

    2014-11-01

    Very little research exists on ergonomic exposures when using portable computing devices. This study quantified muscle activity (forearm and neck), posture (wrist, forearm and neck), and performance (gross typing speed and error rates) differences across three portable computing devices (laptop, netbook, and slate computer) and two work settings (desk and computer) during data entry tasks. Twelve participants completed test sessions on a single computer using a test-rest-test protocol (30min of work at one work setting, 15min of rest, 30min of work at the other work setting). The slate computer resulted in significantly more non-neutral wrist, elbow and neck postures, particularly when working on the sofa. Performance on the slate computer was four times less than that of the other computers, though lower muscle activity levels were also found. Potential or injury or illness may be elevated when working on smaller, portable computers in non-traditional work settings.

  19. The Repercussions of the Accountancy System at the Level of the SMEs Activity

    I.Moţ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the economical activity of the SMEs, the interference of accountancy is reflected by respecting some principles and compulsory rules according to the current laws. Ever since the antiquity the accountancy was manifested at the level of SMEs through the activity of some professionals recognized for their competency to produce, explore and authenticate economical data which were quantified, presented according to the regulated conventions. The professional accountant, abiding by the professional rules, goes through a cyclic and determined route to obtain, filter, measure and expose the precise information of the business. Thus can be observed the significant importance in the business environment of the object of study of accountancy - the economical patrimony based on which it is reflected the patrimonial situation of the company.

  20. Is HOMO Energy Level a Good Parameter to Characterize Antioxidant Activity

    2000-01-01

    Semiempirical quantum chemical method AM1 was employed to calculate the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels (EHOMO) for various types of antioxidants. It was verified that the correlation between logarithm of free radical scavenging rate constants (lgks) and EHOMO substantially arises from the correlation between EHOMO and O-H bond dissociation energies (BDE) of antioxidants. Furthermore, EHOMO were poorly correlated with the logarithm of relative free radical scavenging rate constants (lgk3/k1) for various types of antioxidants that possess complex structures (r = 0.5602). So in a broad sense, EHOMO was not an appropriate parameter to characterize the free radical scavenging activity of antioxidants.

  1. The "Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale" and its application to health research

    Grimby, G; Börjesson, M; Jonsdottir, I H;

    2015-01-01

    The use of a four-level questionnaire to assess leisure time physical activity (PA) and its validation is reviewed in this paper. This questionnaire was first published in 1968 and has then been used by more than 600 000 subjects, especially in different population studies in the Nordic countries....... The concurrent validity, with respect to aerobic capacity and movement analysis using objective measurements has been shown to be good, as has the predictive validity with respect to various risk factors for health conditions and for morbidity and mortality....

  2. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Level 4 Carbon (L4_C) Product Specification Document

    Glassy, Joe; Kimball, John S.; Jones, Lucas; Reichle, Rolf H.; Ardizzone, Joseph V.; Kim, Gi-Kong; Lucchesi, Robert A.; Smith, Edmond B.; Weiss, Barry H.

    2015-01-01

    This is the Product Specification Document (PSD) for Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) data for the Science Data System (SDS) of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) project. The L4_SM data product provides estimates of land surface conditions based on the assimilation of SMAP observations into a customized version of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) land data assimilation system (LDAS). This document applies to any standard L4_SM data product generated by the SMAP Project.

  3. Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Activation of the Primary Visual Cortex Predicts Size Adaptation Illusion

    Pooresmaeili, Arezoo; Arrighi, Roberto; Biagi, Laura; Morrone, Maria Concetta

    2016-01-01

    In natural scenes, objects rarely occur in isolation but appear within a spatiotemporal context. Here, we show that the perceived size of a stimulus is significantly affected by the context of the scene: brief previous presentation of larger or smaller adapting stimuli at the same region of space changes the perceived size of a test stimulus, with larger adapting stimuli causing the test to appear smaller than veridical and vice versa. In a human fMRI study, we measured the blood oxygen level-dependent activation (BOLD) responses of the primary visual cortex (V1) to the contours of large-diameter stimuli and found that activation closely matched the perceptual rather than the retinal stimulus size: the activated area of V1 increased or decreased, depending on the size of the preceding stimulus. A model based on local inhibitory V1 mechanisms simulated the inward or outward shifts of the stimulus contours and hence the perceptual effects. Our findings suggest that area V1 is actively involved in reshaping our perception to match the short-term statistics of the visual scene. PMID:24089504

  4. Assessment of objectively measured physical activity levels in individuals with intellectual disabilities with and without Down's syndrome.

    Alexander C Phillips

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate, using accelerometers, the levels of physical activity being undertaken by individuals with intellectual disabilities with and without Down's syndrome. METHODS: One hundred and fifty two individuals with intellectual disabilities aged 12-70 years from East and South-East England. Physical activity levels in counts per minute (counts/min, steps per day (steps/day, and minutes of sedentary, light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA measured with a uni-axial accelerometer (Actigraph GT1M for seven days. RESULTS: No individuals with intellectual disabilities met current physical activity recommendations. Males were more active than females. There was a trend for physical activity to decline and sedentary behaviour to increase with age, and for those with more severe levels of intellectual disability to be more sedentary and less physically active, however any relationship was not significant when adjusted for confounding variables. Participants with Down's syndrome engaged in significantly less physical activity than those with intellectual disabilities without Down's syndrome and levels of activity declined significantly with age. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with intellectual disabilities, especially those with Down's syndrome may be at risk of developing diseases associated with physical inactivity. There is a need for well-designed, accessible, preventive health promotion strategies and interventions designed to raise the levels of physical activity for individuals with intellectual disabilities. We propose that there are physiological reasons why individuals with Down's syndrome have particularly low levels of physical activity that also decline markedly with age.

  5. Low Levels of Physical Activity Are Associated with Increased Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in Korean Adults

    Dong Hoon Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLow levels of physical activity (PA are strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS and chronic diseases. However, few studies have examined this association in Koreans. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the associations between PA and MetS risks in Korean adults.MethodsA total of 1,016 Korean adults (494 males and 522 females participated in this study. PA levels were assessed using the International PA Questionnaire. MetS risk factors were determined using clinically established diagnostic criteria.ResultsCompared with the highest PA group, the group with the lowest level of PA was at greater risk of high triglyceride (TG in males (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 3.24 and of hemoglobin A1c ≥5.5% in females (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.00 to 3.04 after adjusting for age and body mass index. Compared with subjects who met the PA guidelines, those who did not meet the guidelines were more likely to have low high density lipoprotein cholesterol in both males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.58, and females (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.77. Furthermore, those who did not meet the PA guidelines were at increased risk of high TG levels in males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.86 and abnormal fasting glucose (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.20 and MetS (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.15 to 3.84 in females.ConclusionIncreased levels of PA are significantly associated with a decreased risk of abnormal MetS components.

  6. [Effect of fertilization levels on soil microorganism amount and soil enzyme activities].

    Wang, Wei-Ling; Du, Jun-Bo; Xu, Fu-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hu

    2013-11-01

    Field experiments were conducted in Shangluo pharmaceutical base in Shaanxi province to study the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in different fertilization levels on Platycodon grandiflorum soil microorganism and activities of soil enzyme, using three-factor D-saturation optimal design with random block design. The results showed that N0P2K2, N2P2K0, N3P1K3 and N3P3K1 increased the amount of bacteria in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0 by 144.34%, 39.25%, 37.17%, 53.58%, respectively. The amount of bacteria in 2040 cm of soil of N3P1K3 increased by 163.77%, N0P0K3 increased the amount of soil actinomycetes significantly by 192.11%, while other treatments had no significant effect. N2P0K2 and N3P1K3 increased the amounts of fungus significantly in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0, increased by 35.27% and 92.21%, respectively. N3P0K0 increased the amounts of fungus significantly in 20-40 cm of soil by 165.35%, while other treatments had no significant effect. All treatments decrease soil catalase activity significantly in 0-20 cm of soil except for N2P0K2, and while N2P2K0 and NPK increased catalase activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil. Fertilization regime increased invertase activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil, and decreased phosphatase activity inordinately in 0-20 cm of soil, while increased phosphatase activity in 2040 cm of soil other than N1P3K3. N3P0K0, N0P0K3, N2P0K2, N2P2K0 and NPK increased soil urease activity significantly in 0-20 cm of soil compared with N0P0K0 by 18.22%, 14.87%,17.84%, 27.88%, 24.54%, respectively. Fertilization regime increased soil urease activity significantly in 2040 cm of soil other than N0P2K2.

  7. Seismic activations of different level in Altay-Sayan mounting area

    Emanov, Dr.; Emanov, A. A.; Leskova, E. V.

    2009-04-01

    example of non-stationary seismic regime of local area. For the short time (two months) here the number of events with Ms=2÷3.5, considerably exceeded the background regime were recorded. Detail research of this activation showed that earthquakes occurred in inside part of Earth's crust block, and the largest deep faults, bounding this block, were aseismatic in this period. Seismic activations of small level are investigated for the purpose of understanding of rise conditions and interrelation with large earthquakes of region. Distinctions of rise conditions of small activations in geological structures are studied where large earthquakes happened or not.

  8. Interevent time distributions of human multi-level activity in a virtual world

    Mryglod, O.; Fuchs, B.; Szell, M.; Holovatch, Yu.; Thurner, S.

    2015-02-01

    Studying human behavior in virtual environments provides extraordinary opportunities for a quantitative analysis of social phenomena with levels of accuracy that approach those of the natural sciences. In this paper we use records of player activities in the massive multiplayer online game Pardus over 1238 consecutive days, and analyze dynamical features of sequences of actions of players. We build on previous work where temporal structures of human actions of the same type were quantified, and provide an empirical understanding of human actions of different types. This study of multi-level human activity can be seen as a dynamic counterpart of static multiplex network analysis. We show that the interevent time distributions of actions in the Pardus universe follow highly non-trivial distribution functions, from which we extract action-type specific characteristic 'decay constants'. We discuss characteristic features of interevent time distributions, including periodic patterns on different time scales, bursty dynamics, and various functional forms on different time scales. We comment on gender differences of players in emotional actions, and find that while males and females act similarly when performing some positive actions, females are slightly faster for negative actions. We also observe effects on the age of players: more experienced players are generally faster in making decisions about engaging in and terminating enmity and friendship, respectively.

  9. Effects of simvastatin on lipid levels and platelet activation in elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia

    Zhe Chen; Yuanping Hou; Miaobin Liu

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objective To investigate the effects of simvastatin on lipid lowering therapy and platelet activation in elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia. Methods Fasting serum lipids, CD63, CD41a, serum glucose, hepatic and renal function, routine urine analysis (UA) were measured in 50 healthy subjects, and in 50 elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia before and after 4 weeks treatment with simvastatin (20mg daily for 4 weeks). Results 1. After simvastatin treatment for 4 weeks, the fasting serum level of lipids in elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia was significantly lower than before treatment (P<0.01). 2. CD63 and CD41a were decreased after treatment compared with before, respectively (1.36 0.34) vs (4.26 1.06), (P<0.01) and (123.54 19.73) vs (253.78 16.75), (P<0.01).3. Changes in serum lipid level tended to be positively correlated with the declines in CD63 and CD41a, but there was no statistical significance (P>0.05). Conclusions The results suggested that lipid lowering therapy with simvastatin inhibit platelet activity.

  10. Sea Level Changes and Active Tectonics of the Guerrero Coast, Mexico

    Ramirez-Herrera, M.; Cundy, A. B.; Sedor, M.; Kostoglodov, V.

    2003-12-01

    Understanding the interaction between sea-level changes and tectonic activity during the Holocene is essential in determining long-term tectonic deformation rates and in identifying prehistorical earthquake events along active margins. The Guerrero coast extends along the active Pacific margin of southwest Mexico and parallels the trench where the Cocos Plate subducts beneath the North American Plate. The last major earthquakes occurred in Guerrero in 1899, 1907, 1909, 1911, and 1957, but none have occurred since the major 1911 (Ms=7.6) earthquake in the northwest segment of the Guerrero seismic gap. The Guerrero gap is currently considered to be matured for a severe earthquake of estimated Mw= 8.1 to 8.4. We present preliminary results of geomorphic field surveying, sediment coring, and geochemical and microfaunal analyses of cored sediments on the Guerrero coast. The Coyuca lagoon strip of the Guerrero coast consists of long barrier beaches, behind which extends a lagoon, beach ridges, extensive swamps, mangrove swamps, salt pans, floodplains, alluvial plains, fluvial terraces, and abandoned meanders. Abandoned meanders and fluvial terraces indicate that the Coyuca River has migrated to the southeast. This migration, and changes in hill elevations near the coast, suggest a southeast tilting of this coastal segment. The morphology of the Guerrero coast has no evidence of long-term coastal uplift. This is consistent with short- term tide gauge measurements (1953-1999) and GPS data (1992-2000) indicative of subsidence rates of ~3 mm/yr (Kostoglodov et al., 2001) in this area. Five cores up to 5.5 m depth were taken nearby the Mitla, Coyuca, Tres Palos and Tecomate lagoons. Core stratigraphies show clear sequences of interbedded peats and clays, interspersed with sand units. The peat-clay sequences are similar to those observed along active margins elsewhere, and indicate fluctuations between marine and brackish/freshwater conditions. Two cores included sediments

  11. STUDY OF SERUM HAPTOGLOBIN LEVEL AND ITS RELATION TO ERYTHROPOIETIC ACTIVITY IN BETA THALASSEMIA CHILDREN .

    Seham Ragab

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background  :Serum haptoglobin (Hp is a reliable marker for hemolysis regardless the inflammatory state.  Objective: We investigated the possible relation between Hp depletion and hemolysis severity, hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and iron load in β-thalassemia children. Methods: Twenty  two β-thalassemia major (TM ,20 β-thalassemia  intermedia (TI children with 20 age and sex matched healthy controls were involved. Pre-transfusion hemoglobin level was considered . Serum ferritin , Hp  and transferrin receptor  levels (sTfR  (by ELISA , alanine aminotransferase (ALT and  aspartate aminotransferase (AST  (by colorimetric method were assayed. Markers of hepatitis C virus  (HCV  were done by PCR. Results:  The mean Hp levels among the studied groups were as follows; 8.02 ± 0.93 (mg/dl , 8.6 ±0.72 (mg/dl  and 122  ± 18.5(mg/dl   for TM ,TI and the controls respectively . Both patient groups had significantly lower Hp level compared to the controls (P<0.0001  with significant lower level in TM compared to TI  children ( P= 0.034  .Significant inverse correlations were  found between serum Hp and sTfR levels in thalassemia children combined and in each group (TM and TI as well as among HCV infected children. STfR   was the only significant independent predictor for  serum Hp level (t= -5.585 , P<0.0001 . Among  HCV infected patients , no significant correlation was found between serum Hp and serum transaminases  .Conclusion:  Serum Hp depletion in thalassemia had significant relation to disease severity and correlated   well with their erythropoietic activity, as assessed by the measurement of  sTfR without significant relation  HCV infection . Large sample  multicenter studies are  recommended.

  12. Association of higher resistin levels with inflammatory activation and endothelial dysfunction in patients with essential hypertension

    FANG Chang; LEI Juan; ZHOU Shu-xian; ZHANG Yu-ling; YUAN Gui-yi; WANG Jing-feng

    2013-01-01

    Background Some studies have shown that serum resistin levels increase in hypertensive patients.Whether the increase of resistin is related to inflammatory or vascular endothelial function is still unknown.We investigated the relationship of increased resistin levels to inflammatory factors and circulating biomarkers of vascular endothelial function in hypertensive patients.Methods One hundred and forty-four nondiabetic patients with new onset,hypertension were recruited.Blood pressure,blood glucose,insulin,resistin,tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),interleukin-6 (IL-6),von Willebrand factor (vWF),endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO)were measured.The homeostasis model assessment,insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was calculated.Patients were divided into two groups according to the median level of resistin.Cytokine levels and indicators of vascular endothelial function were compared.Multiple linear regression was used to determine factors influencing resistin.Results Serum resistin ranged from 2.57 ng/ml to 20.18 ng/ml in hypertensive patients.High resistin group (>8.36 ng/ml) had higher levels of TNF-α,IL-6,vWF and ET-1 but lower level of NO compared with low resistin group (P <0.01).Resistin was positively correlated with body mass index,systolic blood pressure,HOMA-IR,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol,TNF-α and ET-1 but negatively correlated with NO (all P <0.05).Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that HOMA-IR,TNF-α,NO and ET-1 are independent predictors of resistin with standardized regression coefficients of 0.625,0.368,-0.260 and 0.222,respectively (all P <0.01).Conclusions We conclude that higher resistin levels are associated with inflammatory activation and endothelial dysfunction,because patients with essential hypertension have increased TNF-α,IL-6,vWF and ET-1 and decreased NO.Moreover,the statistical association of resistin with TNF-α,NO and ET-1 suggests involvement of resistin in the progression of hypertension by

  13. Activation of p53 in Human and Murine Cells by DNA-Damaging Agents Differentially Regulates Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Levels.

    Panchanathan, Ravichandran; Liu, Hongzhu; Choubey, Divaker

    2015-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates multiple cellular processes. The anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) can activate AhR-mediated transcription of target genes. Because DOX in cells activates a DNA damage response involving ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-mediated activation of p53, we investigated whether the activation of the p53 in cells by DNA-damaging agents such as DOX or bleomycin could regulate the AhR levels. Here we report that activation of p53 by DNA-damaging agents in human cells increased levels of AhR through a posttranscriptional mechanism. Accordingly, fibroblasts from ATM patients, which are defective in p53 activation, expressed reduced constitutive levels of AhR and treatment of cells with bleomycin did not appreciably increase the AhR levels. Further, activation of p53 in cells stimulated the expression of AhR target genes. In murine cells, activation of p53 reduced the levels of AhR messenger RNA and protein and reduced the expression of AhR target genes. Our observations revealed that activation of p53 in human and murine cells differentially regulates AhR levels.

  14. Investigation of PON1 activity and MDA levels in patients with epilepsy not receiving antiepileptic treatment

    Dönmezdil N

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nilüfer Dönmezdil, Mehmet Uğur Çevik, Hasan Hüseyin Özdemir, Muhterem Taşin Department of Neurology, Dicle University, Diyarbakır, Turkey Purpose: There are many studies dedicated to researching the etiopathogenesis of epilepsy. In such research, oxidative and antioxidant indicators of etiopathogenesis have also been examined under the scope. Drawing on a group of patients with epilepsy who were receiving no treatment, we have tried to evaluate whether or not an increase in oxidative indicators is linked directly with the disorder, independent of epileptic medicaments.Methods: Thirty people in good health and 30 newly diagnosed with epilepsy and who received ambulatory treatment in the polyclinic of the Neurology Department took part in the study. The tests relating to serum malondialdehyde (MDA levels and paraoxonase 1 (PON1 activity were carried out in the biochemistry laboratory.Results: Even though the levels of MDA in the patient group (14.34±3.59 nmol/mL were found to be high compared to those of the control group, which consisted of people in good health (13.53±3.56 nmol/mL, there was no statistically significant difference. PON1 activity in the serum taken from people in the patient group (0.65±0.17 was lower in comparison to that observed in the serum of the control group (0.71±0.17 U/L. Nonetheless, it was not so low as to have significance from a statistical point of view.Conclusion: We conclude that such a high level of oxidative parameters should have been related to the disease and that statistically significant findings that emerged in some other studies could have been related to an antiepileptic treatment. Keywords: epilepsy, paraoxonase 1, malondialdehyde, oxidative stress, epilepsy, biochemical marker

  15. Serum activities of liver enzymes in workers exposed to sub-TLV levels of dimethylformamide

    Jinjiang He

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study has been to investigate serum activities of liver enzymes in workers exposed to sub-TLV levels of dimethylformamide (DMF. Material and Methods: Seventy-two workers and 72 healthy controls participated in the study. All subjects underwent complete physical examinations and abdominal ultrasound examination. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and c-glutamyl transpeptidase (c-GT were determined by an auto-chemistry analyzer. The data of airborne concentrations of DMF was obtained from the local Center of Disease Control and Prevention. The level of urine N-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoylcysteine (AMCC was measured by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: Time weighted average (TWA concentration of the DMF in workplace was 18.6 (range: 9.8–36.2 mg/m3. The concentration of the AMCC in workers’ urine was 28.32 (range: 1.8–58.6 mg/l and 9 workers’ AMCC exceeded the biological exposure index (40 mg/l. Thirty-one workers reported gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, nausea, anorexia and 10 workers reported headache, dizziness and/or palpitation in the exposed group. Serum analysis revealed that both the mean of serum activities of liver enzymes (ALT, AST and c-GT and the percentage of workers with abnormal liver function were significantly higher in the exposed group as compared to the controls. Conclusions: Dimethylformamide can cause liver damage even if air concentration is in the sub-threshold limit value (sub-TLV level. The protection of skin contact against the exposure to the DMF might be a critical issue as far as the occupational health is concerned.

  16. Increased levels of BAFF and APRIL related to human active pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Kai Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite great efforts to improve diagnosis and treatment, tuberculosis (TB remains a major health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Lack of concrete immune markers is still the obstacle to properly evaluate active TB. Therefore, identification of more validated biomarkers and phenotypic signatures is imperative. In particular, T cell-related biomarkers are more significant. METHODOLOGY: To understand the nature of CD4(+ T cell-derived signatures involved in infection and disease development, we examined and analyzed whole genome expression profiles of purified CD4(+ T cells from healthy individuals (HD, two distinct populations with latent infection (with low or high IFN-γ levels, LTB(L/LTB(H and untreated TB patients. Following, we validated the expression profiles of genes in the peripheral CD4(+ T cells from each group and examined secretion levels of distinct cytokines in serum and pleural effusion. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our bio-informatic analyses indicate that the two latent populations and clinical TB patients possess distinct CD4(+ T cell gene expression profiles. Furthermore, The mRNA and protein expression levels of B cell activating factor (BAFF, which belongs to the TNF family, and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL were markedly up-regulated at the disease stage. In particular, the dramatic enhancement of BAFF and APRIL in the pleural effusion of patients with tuberculosis pleurisy suggests that these proteins may present disease status. In addition, we found that the BAFF/APRIL system was closely related to the Th1 immune response. Our study delineates previously unreported roles of BAFF and APRIL in the development of tuberculosis, and these findings have implications for the diagnosis of the disease. Our study also identifies a number of transcriptional signatures in CD4(+ T cells that have the potential to be utilized as diagnostic and prognostic tools to combat the tuberculosis epidemic.

  17. Serum Vitamin D Level and Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity: Review and Meta-Analysis

    Lin, Jin; Liu, Jian; Davies, Michael L.; Chen, Weiqian

    2016-01-01

    Background The evidence from epidemiological studies concerning the relationship between serum vitamin D concentrations and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is inconsistent. This meta-analysis is aimed at determining the magnitude of the correlation between this common autoimmune disease and vitamin D, an important nutrient known to dampen adaptive immune responses. Methods Through multiple search strategies, relevant literature was identified and evaluated for quality before May 16 2015. Data extracted from eligible studies was synthesized to calculate pooled correlation coefficient (r), mean difference (MD) and odds ratio (OR). The Venice criteria were applied to assess the credibility of the evidence for each statistically significant association. Results A total of 24 reports involving 3489 patients were selected for analysis. RA patients had lower vitamin D levels than healthy controls (MD:-16.52 nmol/L, 95% confidence intervals [CI]:-18.85 to -14.19 nmol/L). There existed a negative relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) level and disease activity index, e.g. 25OHD vs. Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28): r = -0.13, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.09; 25OHD vs. C-reactive protein: r = -0.12, 95% CI -0.23 to -0.00. Additionally, latitude-stratified subgroup analysis yielded a relatively stronger negative correlation between 25OHD and DAS28 in low-latitude areas. This inverse relationship also appeared more significant in developing countries than in developed countries. No publication bias was detected. Conclusion RA patients had lower vitamin D values than healthy controls. There was a negative association between serum vitamin D and RA disease activity. However, more strictly controlled studies are needed to validate these findings. PMID:26751969

  18. Vitamin D Levels Are Associated with Cardiac Autonomic Activity in Healthy Humans

    Linda Ellis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency (≤50nmol/L 25-hydroxy vitamin D is a cardiovascular (CV risk factor that affects approximately one billion people worldwide, particularly those affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD. Individuals with CKD demonstrate abnormal cardiac autonomic nervous system activity, which has been linked to the significant rates of CV-related mortality in this population. Whether vitamin D deficiency has a direct association with regulation of cardiac autonomic activity has never been explored in humans. Methods: Thirty-four (34 healthy, normotensive subjects were studied and categorized based on 25-hydroxy vitamin D deficiency (deficient vs. non-deficient, n = 7 vs. 27, as well as 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D levels (above vs. below 25th percentile, n = 8 vs. 26. Power spectral analysis of electrocardiogram recordings provided measures of cardiac autonomic activity across low frequency (LF and high frequency (HF, representative of vagal contribution bands, representative of the sympathetic and vagal limbs of the autonomic nervous system when transformed to normalized units (nu, respectively, as well as overall cardiosympathovagal balance (LF:HF during graded angiotensin II (AngII challenge (3 ng/kg/min × 30 min, 6 ng/kg/min × 30 min. Results: At baseline, significant suppression of sympathovagal balance was observed in the 25-hydroxy vitamin D-deficient participants (LF:HF, p = 0.02 vs. non-deficient, although no other differences were observed throughout AngII challenge. Participants in the lowest 1,25-dihydroxy VD quartile experienced significant withdrawal of inhibitory vagal control, as well as altered overall sympathovagal balance throughout AngII challenge (HF, mean difference = −6.98 ± 3 nu, p = 0.05; LF:HF, mean difference = 0.34 ± 0.1, p = 0.043 vs. above 25th percentile. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with suppression of resting cardiac autonomic activity, while low 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D levels are

  19. Antioxidant levels and activities of selected seeds of malaysian tropical fruits.

    Norshazila, S; Syed Zahir, I; Mustapha Suleiman, K; Aisyah, M R; Kamarul Rahim, K

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study are to determine and compare the antioxidant levels and activities (i.e. primary and secondary) between selected seeds of Malaysian tropical fruits - guava (Psidium guajava), mango (Mangifera indica L.) and papaya (Carica papaya L.). Seeds are among byproducts from the processing of fruitsbased products. Instead of discarding seeds as waste, seeds with high potential as antioxidants could be utilised for commercial purposes. Accordingly, the selected seeds of Malaysian tropical fruits were tested in this study for total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging activity by 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and metal ion chelating effect by ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assay. Extraction of antioxidant compounds from sample was done with 70% ethanol. TPCs of the seeds were expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) in mg per 100 g fresh seed weight. TPC assay showed that mango seeds had the highest TPC (i.e. 32 ± 0.001 mg GAE) followed by guava seeds (i.e. 20 ± 0.001 mg GAE) and papaya seeds (8 ± 0.003 mg GAE). For DPPH assay, IC50 data showed that mango seed extract scavenged 50% DPPH radicals at the lowest concentration (0.11 ± 0.01 mg/mL) followed by the positive control BHA (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL), guava seed extract (0.26 ± 0.01 mg/mL) and papaya seed extract (0.34 ± 0.01 mg/mL). Interestingly, all seed extracts showed higher free radical scavenging activities than BHA after sample concentration of 0.60 mg/mL. However, FIC assay indicated that metal ion chelating effects of all seed extracts were weaker than BHA suggesting that the fruit seeds are not sources of good metal ion chelators. Overall, present results suggest that TPC of the seeds show strong negative correlation with their primary antioxidant activity (r= -0.985, R2= 0.970), and not all compounds in extracts which could scavenge DPPH radicals are good metal ion chelators. Mango seeds relatively showed the highest antioxidant level and primary antioxidant

  20. Increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression levels in visceral adipose tissue, and serum CCL2 and interleukin-6 levels during visceral adipose tissue accumulation.

    Yogarajah, Thaneswary; Bee, Yvonne-Tee Get; Noordin, Rahmah; Yin, Khoo Boon

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in visceral adipose tissue, as well as serum adipokine levels, in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were fed either a normal (control rats) or excessive (experimental rats) intake of food for 8 or 16 weeks, then sacrificed, at which time visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, as well as blood samples, were collected. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PPARs in the visceral adipose tissues were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. In addition, the levels of adipokines in the serum samples were determined using commercial ELISA kits. The results revealed that at 8 weeks, the mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue was higher than that of the visceral adipose tissue in the experimental rats, but the reverse occurred at 16 weeks. Furthermore, at 16 weeks the experimental rats exhibited an upregulation of PPARγ mRNA and protein expression levels in the visceral adipose tissues, and significant increases in the serum levels of CCL2 and interleukin (IL)-6 were observed, compared with those measured at 8 weeks. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the PPARγ expression level was likely correlated with serum levels of CCL2 and IL-6, molecules that may facilitate visceral adipose tissue accumulation. In addition, the levels of the two adipokines in the serum may be useful as surrogate biomarkers for the expression levels of PPARγ in accumulated visceral adipose tissues.

  1. Association between cognitive performance, physical fitness, and physical activity level in women with chronic fatigue syndrome

    Kelly Ickmans, PT, MSc

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Limited scientific evidence suggests that physical activity is directly related to cognitive performance in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. To date, no other study has examined the direct relationship between cognitive performance and physical fitness in these patients. This study examined whether cognitive performance and physical fitness are associated in female patients with CFS and investigated the association between cognitive performance and physical activity level (PAL in the same study sample. We hypothesized that patients who performed better on cognitive tasks would show increased PALs and better performance on physical tests. The study included 31 women with CFS and 13 healthy inactive women. Participants first completed three cognitive tests. Afterward, they undertook a test to determine their maximal handgrip strength, performed a bicycle ergometer test, and were provided with an activity monitor. In patients with CFS, lower peak oxygen uptake and peak heart rate were associated with slower psychomotor speed (p < 0.05. Maximal handgrip strength was correlated with working memory performance (p < 0.05. Both choice and simple reaction time were lower in patients with CFS relative to healthy controls (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively. In conclusion, physical fitness, but not PAL, is associated with cognitive performance in female patients with CFS.

  2. Investigation of the activity level and radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in blast furnace slag.

    Uğur, F A; Turhan, S; Sahan, H; Sahan, M; Gören, E; Gezer, F; Yeğingil, Z

    2013-01-01

    The activity level and possible radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on the health of workers and members of the public, as a result of utilisation of blast furnace slag (BFS) samples as a substitute for aggregate in road construction were investigated by using a gamma-ray spectrometer and potential exposure scenarios given in Radiation Protection 122. The mean activity concentrations of the (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in BFS samples were found to be 152.4, 54.9 and 183.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These values are compared with typical values measured in BFS samples from the European Union countries, which are 270, 70 and 240 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The values of radium equivalent activity index calculated for BFS samples were within the recommended safety limits. The highest total annual effective doses evaluated as 0.9 and 0.4 mSv y(-1) for members of the public and workers, respectively, were lower than the annual limit of 1 mSv y(-1).

  3. Bacteriophages of wastewater foaming-associated filamentous Gordonia reduce host levels in raw activated sludge

    Liu, Mei; Gill, Jason J.; Young, Ry; Summer, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous bacteria are a normal and necessary component of the activated sludge wastewater treatment process, but the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria results in foaming and bulking associated disruptions. Bacteriophages, or phages, were investigated for their potential to reduce the titer of foaming bacteria in a mixed-microbial activated sludge matrix. Foaming-associated filamentous bacteria were isolated from activated sludge of a commercial wastewater treatment plan and identified as Gordonia species by 16S rDNA sequencing. Four representative phages were isolated that target G. malaquae and two un-named Gordonia species isolates. Electron microscopy revealed the phages to be siphophages with long tails. Three of the phages - GordTnk2, Gmala1, and GordDuk1 - had very similar ~76 kb genomes, with >93% DNA identity. These genomes shared limited synteny with Rhodococcus equi phage ReqiDocB7 and Gordonia phage GTE7. In contrast, the genome of phage Gsput1 was smaller (43 kb) and was not similar enough to any known phage to be placed within an established phage type. Application of these four phages at MOIs of 5–15 significantly reduced Gordonia host levels in a wastewater sludge model by approximately 10-fold as compared to non-phage treated reactors. Phage control was observed for nine days after treatment. PMID:26349678

  4. Bacteriophages of wastewater foaming-associated filamentous Gordonia reduce host levels in raw activated sludge.

    Liu, Mei; Gill, Jason J; Young, Ry; Summer, Elizabeth J

    2015-09-09

    Filamentous bacteria are a normal and necessary component of the activated sludge wastewater treatment process, but the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria results in foaming and bulking associated disruptions. Bacteriophages, or phages, were investigated for their potential to reduce the titer of foaming bacteria in a mixed-microbial activated sludge matrix. Foaming-associated filamentous bacteria were isolated from activated sludge of a commercial wastewater treatment plan and identified as Gordonia species by 16S rDNA sequencing. Four representative phages were isolated that target G. malaquae and two un-named Gordonia species isolates. Electron microscopy revealed the phages to be siphophages with long tails. Three of the phages--GordTnk2, Gmala1, and GordDuk1--had very similar ~76 kb genomes, with >93% DNA identity. These genomes shared limited synteny with Rhodococcus equi phage ReqiDocB7 and Gordonia phage GTE7. In contrast, the genome of phage Gsput1 was smaller (43 kb) and was not similar enough to any known phage to be placed within an established phage type. Application of these four phages at MOIs of 5-15 significantly reduced Gordonia host levels in a wastewater sludge model by approximately 10-fold as compared to non-phage treated reactors. Phage control was observed for nine days after treatment.

  5. No interactions between previously associated 2-hour glucose gene variants and physical activity or BMI on 2-hour glucose levels

    Scott, Robert A; Chu, Audrey Y; Grarup, Niels;

    2012-01-01

    to determine 2-h glucose levels is unknown. We meta-analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) × BMI and SNP × physical activity (PA) interaction regression models for five SNPs previously associated with 2-h glucose levels from up to 22 studies comprising 54,884 individuals without diabetes. PA levels were...

  6. Contribution of individual and environmental factors to physical activity level among Spanish adults.

    José Antonio Serrano-Sanchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lack of physical activity (PA is a major risk for chronic disease and obesity. The main aims of the present study were to identify individual and environmental factors independently associated with PA and examine the relative contribution of these factors to PA level in Spanish adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A population-based cross-sectional sample of 3,000 adults (18-75 years old from Gran Canaria (Spain was selected using a multistage stratified random sampling method. The participants were interviewed at home using a validated questionnaire to assess PA as well as individual and environmental factors. The data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. One demographic variable (education, two cognitive (self-efficacy and perceived barriers, and one social environmental (organized format were independently associated with PA in both genders. Odds ratios ranged between 1.76-2.07 in men and 1.35-2.50 in women (both p<0.05. Individual and environmental factors explained about one-third of the variance in PA level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Self-efficacy and perceived barriers were the most significant factors to meet an adequate level of PA. The risk of insufficient PA was twofold greater in men with primary or lesser studies and who are employed. In women, living in rural environments increased the risk of insufficient PA. The promotion of organized PA may be an efficient way to increase the level of PA in the general population. Improvement in the access to sport facilities and places for PA is a prerequisite that may be insufficient and should be combined with strategies to improve self-efficacy and overcome perceived barriers in adulthood.

  7. Physical activity levels and determinants of change in young adults: a longitudinal panel study

    Zimmermann Erwin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing concern about physical inactivity in adolescents and young adults. Identifying determinants that are associated with low levels of physical activity and with changes in physical activity levels will help to develop specific prevention strategies. The present study describes the prevalence and potential determinants of physical activity behavior and behavior changes of young adults. The study is based on the Swiss Household Panel (SHP, a longitudinal study assessing social changes in a representative sample of Swiss households since 1999. Methods Data is collected yearly using computer-assisted telephone interviews. Information is obtained from each household member over 14 years of age. Participants between 14 and 24 years entering the SHP between 1999 and 2006 were included (N = 3,068. "Inactive" was defined as less than 1 day/week of at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity, "no sport" as exercising less than once a week. Age, gender, nationality, linguistic region, household income, education, membership in a sport club, reading, and Internet use were included as potential determinants of physical activity behavior and behavior change. Results In both young men and young women, the prevalence of inactivity, "no sport", and non-membership in a sport club was increasing with age. Women were less active than men of the same age. From one wave to the following, 11.1% of young men and 12.1% of young women became active, and 11.9% of men and 13.7% of women became inactive, respectively (pooled data over all eight waves. Non-membership in a sport club was the strongest predictor for "no sport" (ORmen 6.7 [4.9-8.9]; ORwomen 8.1 [5.7-11.4], but also for being inactive (OR 4.6 [3.5-6.0]; 4.6 [3.3-6.4]. Leaving a sport club (OR 7.8 [4.4-14.0]; 11.9 [5.9-24.1] and remaining non-member (OR 7.8 [4.7-12.9]; 12.4 [6.4-24.1] were the strongest predictors of becoming "no sport". Effects for becoming inactive were

  8. A new classification paradigm of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in activated sludge: separation and characterization of exopolymers between floc level and microcolony level.

    Wang, Bin-Bin; Chang, Qing; Peng, Dang-Cong; Hou, Yin-Ping; Li, Hui-Juan; Pei, Li-Ying

    2014-11-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) play a crucial role in the formation of activated sludge flocs. However, until now, the EPS are rather classified by the method used for extraction than by a theoretical consideration of their function and composition. In this paper, a new classification paradigm of EPS was proposed, which offered a novel approach to identify the role of EPS in the formation of activated sludge flocs. The current study gave an exploration to distinguish the EPS in the floc level (extra-microcolony polymers, EMPS) and in the microcolony level (extra-cellular polymers, ECPS). It was found that cation exchange resin treatment is efficient to disintegrate the flocs for EMPS extraction, however, inefficient to disaggregate the microcolonies for ECPS harvesting. A two-steps extraction strategy (cation exchange resin treatment followed by ultrasonication-high speed centrifugation treatment) was suggested to separate these two types of EPS in activated sludge flocs and the physicochemical characteristics of EMPS and ECPS were compared. The protein/polysaccharide ratio of ECPS was higher than that of EMPS and the molecular weight of proteins in EMPS and ECPS were found to be different. The ECPS contained higher molecular weight proteins and more hydrophobic substances than the EMPS contained. The result of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy analysis also showed that the EMPS and the ECPS have different fluorescent expressions and the components of EMPS were more diverse than that of ECPS. All results reported herein demonstrated that two different types of exopolymers exist in the activated sludge flocs and the inter-particle forces for aggregation of activated sludge flocs are not identical between the floc level and the microcolony level. It suggested that cation bridging interactions are more crucial in floc level flocculation, while the entanglement and hydrophobic interactions are more important in microcolony level cohesion.

  9. Arthroscopic-Assisted Fixation of Tibial Plateau Fractures: Patient-Reported Postoperative Activity Levels.

    Kampa, John; Dunlay, Ryan; Sikka, Robby; Swiontkowski, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Tibial plateau fractures may result in significant limitations postoperatively. Studies have described outcomes of arthroscopic-assisted percutaneous fixation (AAPF) of these injuries but have rarely reported postoperative activity levels. Between 2009 and 2013, patients who sustained a lateral split, split depression, or pure depression type tibial plateau fracture (Schatzker types I-III fractures) and underwent outpatient AAPF were eligible for the study. Outcomes were assessed using Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Evaluation Form, Lysholm score, and Marx activity score. Twenty-five consecutive patients were eligible for the study, and 22 (88%) were included in the final analysis, with average follow-up of 2.5 years (range, 1-5.2 years). Thirteen women and 9 men with an average age of 48.3 years (range, 23-65 years) comprised the study population. Average number of screws used for fixation was 2 (range, 1-4). The average depression was 8 mm preoperatively and 0.9 mm (range, 0-3 mm) postoperatively. Four patients (18%) had complications: 2 with hardware removal and 2 with postoperative deep venous thrombosis. Average postoperative Marx activity score was 5.7. Average postoperative KOOS Symptoms, Sports, and Quality of Life scores were 88 (range, 68-100), 85 (range, 45-100), and 77 (range, 50-100), respectively. Average IKDC and Lysholm scores were 81 (range, 55-97) and 87 (range, 54-100), respectively. The AAPF surgical technique, which was performed in an outpatient setting, facilitated excellent postoperative range of motion, outcomes, and activity scores with minimal complications. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e486-e491.].

  10. Activation of VEGF and FGF induced angiogenesis under influence of low level laser radiation in vitro

    Gasparyan, Levon; Brill, Grigory; Makela, Anu

    2006-02-01

    One of the feasible explanations for long-term treatment effects of laser therapy of diseases connected with tissue ischemia and altered blood circulation is activation of angiogenesis after low level laser irradiation. The aim of the current study was to investigate if laser irradiation can enhance vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF) induced angiogenesis in vitro. The study was conducted on rat thoracic aortal rings. Samples of group 1 served as control, samples of groups 2 and 3 were incubated with VEGF or FGF, group 4 samples were irradiated with laser (660 nm, 20 mW) during 10 min, samples of groups 5 and 6 were incubated with VEGF or FGF accordingly and received 10 min of laser irradiation. In the control group no noticeable angiogenesis occurred. The application of VEGF activated angiogenesis: the area covered by new vessels was 1,3+/-0,24 mm2 and the maximal length of vessels was 0,93+/-0,11 mm. Laser light irradiation (group 4) activated angiogenesis (1,9+/-0,29 mm2 and 0,75+/-0,10 mm). The combined influence of laser light and VEGF on angiogenesis (group 5) was significantly stronger (p FGF also activated angiogenesis: the area covered by new vessels was 2,76+/-0,22 mm2 and the maximal length of vessels was 1,19+/-0,12 mm. Combined influence of laser light and FGF on angiogenesis (group 6) was again significantly stronger (p <0,001), than each of the factors separately (5,43+/-0,28 mm2 and 1,99+/-0,10 mm). Studies show that laser irradiation can intensify effects of growth factors in vitro.

  11. Rules rule! Brain activity dissociates the representations of stimulus contingencies with varying levels of complexity.

    Tse, Chun-Yu; Low, Kathy A; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele

    2012-09-01

    The significance of stimuli is linked not only to their nature but also to the sequential structure in which they are embedded, which gives rise to contingency rules. Humans have an extraordinary ability to extract and exploit these rules, as exemplified by the role of grammar and syntax in language. To study the brain representations of contingency rules, we recorded ERPs and event-related optical signal (EROS; which uses near-infrared light to measure the optical changes associated with neuronal responses). We used sequences of high- and low-frequency tones varying according to three contingency rules, which were orthogonally manipulated and differed in processing requirements: A Single Repetition rule required only template matching, a Local Probability rule required relating a stimulus to its context, and a Global Probability rule could be derived through template matching or with reference to the global sequence context. ERP activity at 200-300 msec was related to the Single Repetition and Global Probability rules (reflecting access to representations based on template matching), whereas longer-latency activity (300-450 msec) was related to the Local Probability and Global Probability rules (reflecting access to representations incorporating contextual information). EROS responses with corresponding latencies indicated that the earlier activity involved the superior temporal gyrus, whereas later responses involved a fronto-parietal network. This suggests that the brain can simultaneously hold different models of stimulus contingencies at different levels of the information processing system according to their processing requirements, as indicated by the latency and location of the corresponding brain activity.

  12. The Antibacterial Activity of Australian Leptospermum Honey Correlates with Methylglyoxal Levels

    Campbell, Leona T.; Brooks, Peter; Carter, Dee A.; Blair, Shona E.

    2016-01-01

    Most commercially available therapeutic honey is derived from flowering Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) plants from New Zealand. Australia has more than 80 Leptospermum species, and limited research to date has found at least some produce honey with high non-peroxide antibacterial activity (NPA) similar to New Zealand manuka, suggesting Australia may have a ready supply of medical-grade honey. The activity of manuka honey is largely due to the presence of methylglyoxal (MGO), which is produced non-enzymatically from dihydroxyacetone (DHA) present in manuka nectar. The aims of the current study were to chemically quantify the compounds contributing to antibacterial activity in a collection of Australian Leptospermum honeys, to assess the relationship between MGO and NPA in these samples, and to determine whether NPA changes during honey storage. Eighty different Leptospermum honey samples were analysed, and therapeutically useful NPA was seen in samples derived from species including L. liversidgei and L. polygalifolium. Exceptionally high levels of up to 1100 mg/kg MGO were present in L. polygalifolium honey samples sourced from the Northern Rivers region in NSW and Byfield, QLD, with considerable diversity among samples. There was a strong positive relationship between NPA and MGO concentration, and DHA was present in all of the active honey samples, indicating a potential for ongoing conversion to MGO. NPA was stable, with most samples showing little change following seven years of storage in the dark at 4°C. This study demonstrates the potential for Australian Leptospermum honey as a wound care product, and argues for an extension of this analysis to other Leptospermum species. PMID:28030589

  13. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  14. Activity of ceftobiprole against Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates exhibiting high-level resistance to ceftriaxone.

    Davies, Todd A; Flamm, Robert K; Lynch, A Simon

    2012-06-01

    Tracking Resistance in the US Today (TRUST) 2008 surveillance data showed that 6% of Streptococcus pneumoniae were non-susceptible to ceftriaxone [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥ 2 μg/mL] and that 8% of the ceftriaxone-non-susceptible isolates exhibited high-level resistance (MIC ≥ 8 μg/mL). Here we describe the activity of ceftobiprole against ceftriaxone-resistant isolates and characterise the genotypic traits associated with resistance. Thirty isolates with ceftriaxone MICs ≥ 8 μg/mL were analysed by sequencing of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) and murM genes. Sequencing of pbp1a, pbp2b and pbp2x showed nine PBP patterns, with the most common (n=17) being: PBP1a T371S (STMK motif), P432T (SRNVP motif); PBP2b T446A (SSNT motif), A619G (KTGTA motif); and PBP2x T338A and M339F (STMK motif), L364F, I371T, R384G, M400T, L546V (LKSGT motif); six isolates had the same pattern without the PBP2b A619G change. For these 23 isolates, MICs were 8 μg/mL for ceftriaxone, 4-8 μg/mL for penicillin and 0.5-2 μg/mL for ceftobiprole. The remaining seven isolates with higher MICs (ceftriaxone 8-32 μg/mL, penicillin 4-32 μg/mL and ceftobiprole 2-4 μg/mL) had fewer PBP active-site motif substitutions. The majority of isolates (17/30) had murM alleles similar to the wild-type, whilst the rest had alleles reflecting a mosaic structure. No murM alleles were associated with higher MICs. Against these 30 isolates, ceftobiprole was 4-16-fold more active than ceftriaxone. Widely described PBP and MurM substitutions probably account for the high ceftriaxone MICs (8 μg/mL) in the majority of isolates. However, seven isolates with ceftriaxone MICs of 8-32 μg/mL had fewer PBP substitutions in active-site motifs, suggesting either that there is another resistance mechanism or that unique PBP mutations may contribute to high-level β-lactam resistance.

  15. SEVEN LEVEL CONTROL OF SHUNT ACTIVE POWER FILTER FOR POWER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT

    G. JAYAKRISHNA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF is one of the controllers to enhance power quality (PQ. This paper presents Hybrid Cascaded Seven-Level Inverter (HCSLI used in SAPF to compensate reactive power, improve the power factor and to suppress the total harmonic distortion (THD in supply current due to linear load and Non- Linear Diode Rectifier Loads (NLDRLs.In this paper d-q reference frame theory for reference current computation, Constant Switching Frequency Multicarrier Sub-Harmonic Pulse Width Modulation (CSFMSHPWM technique for controlling the switches of HCSLI, Fuzzy logic controller (FLC for regulating dc side capacitor voltage are proposed. The results are validated through simulation using Mat Lab/simulink with and without SAPF for linear and nonlinear loads.

  16. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Status and Physical Activity Level in Children Admitted with Severe Acute Malnutrition

    Babirekere-Iriso, Esther

    of blood cells. Despite advances in the management of SAM, current therapeutic feeds do not correct whole-blood LCPUFA composition, particularly n-3 LCPUFA, in children with SAM. The level of physical activity at discharge among children with SAM is very low perhaps indicating inadequate recovery from SAM.......Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a worldwide problem although it commonly occurs in children living in low-income countries. SAM may be associated with reduced relative contribution of whole-blood polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) yet PUFA play very important roles in the body such as immune...... modulation, growth and development as well as maintenance of skin water barrier among others. The reduced relative contribution of PUFA may be linked to some of the clinical presentations in children with SAM. Treatment of SAM may be improved by better understanding of most of the nutritional deficiencies...

  17. Influence of physical education on the level of adaptation of students to educational activity.

    Korolinska S.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Examined and summarized problems of adaptation of students to educational activity. 100 students took part in research. Found out a row socially psychological factors which determine efficiency of process of adaptation of students to the scientific process. Practical recommendations are developed on organization of educational process of students. It is recommended widely to utillize a physical culture as mean of reduction of adaptation period and increase of level of physical and mental capacity. It is marked that almost 90% students have rejections in a health. Also over 50% - unsatisfactory physical preparedness. It is set that for the students of the II course the indexes of low situation anxiety prevail as compared to the I course. It is set that the characteristic feature of the psychological state during an examination session is emotionally volitional instability.

  18. ASTATINE-211 RADIOCHEMISTRY: THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGIES FOR HIGH ACTIVITY LEVEL RADIOSYNTHESIS

    MICHAEL R. ZALUTSKY

    2012-08-08

    -labeled targeted radiotherapeutics currently is a daunting task. Our central hypothesis is that improvements in 211At radiochemistry are critically dependent on gaining an understanding of and compensating for the effects of radiolysis induced by 211At {alpha}-particles. Because of the widespread interest in labeling antibodies, antibody fragments and peptides with 211At, our proposed work plan will initially focus on reagents that we have developed for this purpose. Part of our strategy is the use of synthetic precursors immobilized on polymeric resins or perfluorous and triarylphosphonium supports. Their use could eliminate the need for a purification step to separate unreacted tin precursor from labeled product and hopefully provide a simple kit technology that could be utilized at other institutions. The specific aims of this project are: (1) To optimze methods for 211At production and isolation of 211At from cyclotron targets; (2) To develop convenient and reproducible methodologies for high activity level and high specific activity radiohalogenation of biomolecules with 211At; (3) to develop a procedure for extending the shelf-life of 211At beyond a few hours so that this radionuclide can be utilized at centers remote from its site of production; and (4) to work out high activity level synthesis methods for utilizing support immobilized tin precursors for 211At labeling. If we are successful in achieving our goals, the radiochemical methodologies that are developed could greatly facilitate the use of 211At-labeled targeted cancer therapeutics in patients, even at institutions that are distant from the few sites currently available for 211At production.

  19. Using the decision ladder to understand road user decision making at actively controlled rail level crossings.

    Mulvihill, Christine M; Salmon, Paul M; Beanland, Vanessa; Lenné, Michael G; Read, Gemma J M; Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-09-01

    Rail level crossings (RLXs) represent a key strategic risk for railways worldwide. Despite enforcement and engineering countermeasures, user behaviour at RLXs can often confound expectations and erode safety. Research in this area is limited by a relative absence of insights into actual decision making processes and a focus on only a subset of road user types. One-hundred and sixty-six road users (drivers, motorcyclists, cyclists and pedestrians) completed a diary entry for each of 457 naturalistic encounters with RLXs when a train was approaching. The final eligible sample comprised 94 participants and 248 encounters at actively controlled crossings where a violation of the active warnings was possible. The diary incorporated Critical Decision Method probe questions, which enabled user responses to be mapped onto Rasmussen's decision ladder. Twelve percent of crossing events were non-compliant. The underlying decision making was compared to compliant events and a reference decision model to reveal important differences in the structure and type of decision making within and between road user groups. The findings show that engineering countermeasures intended to improve decision making (e.g. flashing lights), may have the opposite effect for some users because the system permits a high level of flexibility for circumvention. Non-motorised users were more likely to access information outside of the warning signals because of their ability to achieve greater proximity to the train tracks and the train itself. The major conundrum in resolving these issues is whether to restrict the amount of time and information available to users so that it cannot be used for circumventing the system or provide more information to help users make safe decisions.

  20. Abdominal strengthening using the AbVice machine as measured by surface electromyographic activation levels.

    Avedisian, Lori; Kowalsky, Don S; Albro, Richard C; Goldner, Daniel; Gill, Robert C

    2005-08-01

    Twenty-four college students served as subjects in a study that examined the effect of a prototypical abdominal muscle strengthening device (AbVice) compared with other devices currently on the market. The purpose of the present study was to investigate a prototypical device (AbVice) that incorporates contraction of the hamstring and gluteal musculature in conjunction with the abdominals, which may assist in decreasing activation of the hip flexors by allowing greater activity levels of the abdominal musculature via the theory of reflex inhibition, compared with other devices currently available on the market (AbRoller and AbRocker). The repeated-measures study included 17 women and 7 men who ranged in age from 20-23 years (mean +/- SD age, 21.3 +/- 1.5 years). Each subject underwent a single session of data collection during which they completed 10 repetitions of abdominal crunches per device. Subjects completed 4 different crunch sets (AbRocker, AbRoller, standard crunch, AbVice). Counterbalancing of the device was used to negate the effect of fatigue. Speed of repetitions was ensured via use of a metronome set at 40 b.min(-1) to permit similar contraction times and rest periods between repetitions. Rest between conditions was 3 minutes. Mean activation levels of surface electromyography (EMG) were recorded for each condition at the following locations on the right side of the body: rectus abdominis 2.5 cm superior to the umbilicus, rectus abdominis 2.5 cm inferior to the umbilicus, external oblique abdominis 1.0 cm medial to the anterior superior iliac spine, and external oblique abdominis less than 1.0 cm superior to the inguinal ligament. Mean (SD) activation was 1,165.21 mV (634.60 mV) with the AbVice, 242.92 mV (263.03 mV) with the AbRocker, 753.29 mV (514.80 mV) with the standard crunch, and 757.67 mV (542.85 mV) with the AbRoller. Broken down by sex, women had the following mean (SD) EMG values: 1,079.76 mV (705.02 mV) with the AbVice, 680.35 mV (535.35 m

  1. Wnt secretion is required to maintain high levels of Wnt activity in colon cancer cells.

    Voloshanenko, Oksana; Erdmann, Gerrit; Dubash, Taronish D; Augustin, Iris; Metzig, Marie; Moffa, Giusi; Hundsrucker, Christian; Kerr, Grainne; Sandmann, Thomas; Anchang, Benedikt; Demir, Kubilay; Boehm, Christina; Leible, Svenja; Ball, Claudia R; Glimm, Hanno; Spang, Rainer; Boutros, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway has an important role during the onset and progression of colorectal cancer, with over 90% of cases of sporadic colon cancer featuring mutations in APC or β-catenin. However, it has remained a point of controversy whether these mutations are sufficient to activate the pathway or require additional upstream signals. Here we show that colorectal tumours express elevated levels of Wnt3 and Evi/Wls/GPR177. We found that in colon cancer cells, even in the presence of mutations in APC or β-catenin, downstream signalling remains responsive to Wnt ligands and receptor proximal signalling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that truncated APC proteins bind β-catenin and key components of the destruction complex. These results indicate that cells with mutations in APC or β-catenin depend on Wnt ligands and their secretion for a sufficient level of β-catenin signalling, which potentially opens new avenues for therapeutic interventions by targeting Wnt secretion via Evi/Wls.

  2. Objectively Measured Physical Activity Is Negatively Associated with Plasma Adiponectin Levels in Minority Female Youth

    B. Adar Emken

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the relationship between adiponectin and physical activity (PA in minority female youth. Methods. Plasma adiponectin was measured in 39 females (mean age 9.2±0.9 years; 30 Latina, 9 African-American; 56% overweight. PA was assessed by accelerometry. Mean minutes per day spent in daily PA (DPA (≥3 metabolic equivalents (METs, moderate PA (MPA(4–7 METs, vigorous PA (VPA(≥7 METs, and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA(≥4 METs were calculated. The association between adiponectin and PA, controlling for age, fat weight, lean weight, and insulin sensitivity (SI was analyzed using linear regression. Results. Adiponectin correlated with fat weight (r=-0.43, P<.01 and SI (r=0.52, P<.01. Minutes spent in DPA (β=-0.40, P=.02, MPA (β=-0.36, P=.04, or MVPA (β=-0.37, P=.03 were predictors of adiponectin in the adjusted model. Conclusions. Higher PA levels were related to lower adiponectin levels. Potential mechanisms include upregulation of adiponectin receptors or an increase in high-molecular weight adiponectin with increasing PA.

  3. Activation of gastric afferents increases noradrenaline release in the paraventricular nucleus and plasma oxytocin level.

    Ueta, Y; Kannan, H; Higuchi, T; Negoro, H; Yamaguchi, K; Yamashita, H

    2000-01-14

    Effects of electrical stimulation of the gastric vagal nerves on plasma levels of oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) were examined in rats anesthetized with urethane. Electrical stimulation of the gastric vagal nerves increased the plasma levels of OXT, but not AVP. The concentrations of extracellular noradrenaline (NA) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were measured by in vivo microdialysis in rats anesthetized with urethane. Electrical stimulation of the gastric vagal nerves evoked an increase followed by a slight decrease in the concentrations of NA. The responses of spontaneous firing magnocellular neurosecretory neurons in the PVN to both electrical stimulation of the gastric vagal nerves and intravenous (i.v.) administration of CCK-8 were examined. Most of the putative OXT-secreting cells recorded were excited by both electrical stimulation of gastric vagal nerves and i.v. administration of CCK-8. These results suggest that gastric vagal afferents activate the central noradrenergic system from the brainstem to the PVN and secretion of OXT.

  4. Fission product activity ratios measured at trace level over France during the Fukushima accident.

    de Vismes Ott, A; Gurriaran, R; Cagnat, X; Masson, O

    2013-11-01

    The nuclear accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi (Japan) which occurred after the tsunami that impacted the northeast coasts of Japan on March 11th, 2011 led to significant releases of radionuclides into the atmosphere and resulted in the detection of those radionuclides at a global scale. In order to track airborne radionuclides from the damaged reactors and to survey their potential impact on the French territory, the French Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire IRSN) set up an enhanced surveillance system to give quick results as needed and later give quality trace level measurements. Radionuclides usually measured at trace levels such as (137)Cs and in a very sporadic way (131)I were reported. Radionuclides that we had never measured in air since the Chernobyl accident: (134)Cs, (136)Cs, the mother/daughter pairs (129m)Te-(129)Te and (132)Te-(132)I, and (140)La (from the mother-daughter pair (140)Ba- (140)La) were also reported. Except the (131)I/(137)Cs ratio, activity concentration ratios were constant. These ratios could be used to help source term assessment, or as data for transfer studies realized after the passage of contaminated air masses, typically using the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio.

  5. 137Cs activity concentration in wild boar meat may still exceed the permitted levels

    Rachubik J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The radiocaesium activity concentration may still remain high in natural products such as game meat, wild mushrooms, and forest berries even more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident. The results of regular control studies of game meat conducted in Poland showed wild boars as the most contaminated game animals. It is well documented that some mushrooms, readily consumed by animals, show high ability to accumulate caesium radioisotopes. Bay bolete, one of the most wide-spread mushroom species in Poland, reveals a unique radiocaesium accumulation feature. Moreover, deer truffle, containing also particularly high levels of radiocaesium, could be another radionu-clide source for wild boars. Furthermore, animals consuming deer truffles could digest contaminated soil components. Among 94 wild boar meat samples analysed in 2008–2009, two exceeded the permitted level. Hence, some precautions should be taken in the population with an elevated intake of wild boar meat. Moreover, since each hunted wild boar is examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae, regular measurements of radiocaesium concentrations in these animals may be advisable for enhancing consumer safety.

  6. Survey of plutonium and uranium atom ratios and activity levels in Mortandad Canyon

    Gallaher, B.M.; Benjamin, T.M.; Rokop, D.J.; Stoker, A.K.

    1997-09-22

    For more than three decades Mortandad Canyon has been the primary release area of treated liquid radioactive waste from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory). In this survey, six water samples and seven stream sediment samples collected in Mortandad Canyon were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) to determine the plutonium and uranium activity levels and atom ratios. Be measuring the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, the Laboratory plutonium component was evaluated relative to that from global fallout. Measurements of the relative abundance of {sup 235}U and {sup 236}U were also used to identify non-natural components. The survey results indicate the Laboratory plutonium and uranium concentrations in waters and sediments decrease relatively rapidly with distance downstream from the major industrial sources. Plutonium concentrations in shallow alluvial groundwater decrease by approximately 1000 fold along a 3000 ft distance. At the Laboratory downstream boundary, total plutonium and uranium concentrations were generally within regional background ranges previously reported. Laboratory derived plutonium is readily distinguished from global fallout in on-site waters and sediments. The isotopic ratio data indicates off-site migration of trace levels of Laboratory plutonium in stream sediments to distances approximately two miles downstream of the Laboratory boundary.

  7. Removal of trace level amounts of twelve sulfonamides from drinking water by UV-activated peroxymonosulfate.

    Cui, Changzheng; Jin, Lei; Jiang, Lei; Han, Qi; Lin, Kuangfei; Lu, Shuguang; Zhang, Dong; Cao, Guomin

    2016-12-01

    Trace levels of residual antibiotics in drinking water may threaten public health and become a serious problem in modern society. In this work, we investigated the degradation of twelve sulfonamides (SAs) at environmentally relevant trace level concentrations by three different methods: ultraviolet (UV) photolysis, peroxymonosulfate (PMS) oxidation, and UV-activated PMS (UV/PMS). Sulfaguanidine, sulfadiazine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethoxydiazine, and sulfadimethoxine were be effectively removed by direct UV photolysis and PMS oxidation. However, sulfanilamide, sulfamethizole, sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, and sulfachloropyridazine were not completely degraded, despite prolonging the UV irradiation time to 30min or increasing the PMS concentration to 5.0mg·L(-1). UV/PMS provided more thorough elimination of SAs, as demonstrated by the complete removal of 200ng·L(-1) of all SAs within 5min at an initial PMS concentration of 1.0mg·L(-1). UV/PMS promoted SA decomposition more efficiently than UV photolysis or PMS oxidation alone. Bicarbonate concentration and pH had a negligible effect on SA degradation by UV/PMS. However, humic acid retarded the process. Removal of 200ng·L(-1) of each SA from a sample of sand-filtered effluent from a drinking water treatment plant (DWTPs) was quickly and completely achieved by UV/PMS. Meanwhile, about 41% of the total organic carbon (TOC) was eliminated. Scavenging experiments showed that sulfate radical (SO4(-)) was the predominant species involved in the degradation. It is concluded that UV/PMS is a rapid and efficient method for removing trace-level SAs from drinking water.

  8. Patient satisfaction´s level with the nursing activities timetable.

    Laura Carretero Cortes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of patient satisfaction allows one the one hand to identify deficient areas from the point of view of the patient and on the other hand to evaluate the care outcomes.Patient´s opinion is an essential component in the assessment of the service. If patients are dissatisfied, care is far away from what it should be, no matter how high quality can be assesed through clinical indicators.The objective was to determine the patient satisfaction´s level with the schedule established in the hospital. Thus, a descriptive study that using simple random sampling the elements of the random sample were chosen directly in one step, assign each person hospitalized in a hospital in Toledo BZH a number and through a mechanical means (balls in a bag we get random items that will be part of the sample (50 patients in the Hospital of Toledo BZH, so that each element in the population had an equal chance of being selected. The survey provides a closed, compilation, anonymous and voluntary.Results points to a certain degree of dissatisfaction among users, strict schedules and adapted to the "rotation" of health personnel, not patients.Analyzing the results in the development of activity schedules nursing activities: hygiene, feeding, etc ... we can see a big difference being a high percentage of patients who would prefer to change some schedules.

  9. Correlation of Glypican-4 Level with Basal Active Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Koh, Gwanpyo; Cho, Suk Ju; Yoo, So-Yeon; Chin, Sang Ouk

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported that glypican-4 (GPC4) regulates insulin signaling by interacting with insulin receptor and through adipocyte differentiation. However, GPC4 has not been studied with regard to its effects on clinical factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to identify factors associated with GPC4 level in T2DM. Methods Between January 2010 and December 2013, we selected 152 subjects with T2DM and collected serum and plasma into tubes pretreated with aprotinin and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor to preserve active gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). GPC4, active GLP-1, active GIP, and other factors were measured in these plasma samples. We performed a linear regression analysis to identify factors associated with GPC4 level. Results The subjects had a mean age of 58.1 years, were mildly obese (mean body mass index [BMI], 26.1 kg/m2), had T2DM of long-duration (mean, 101.3 months), glycated hemoglobin 7.5%, low insulin secretion, and low insulin resistance (mean homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], 1.2). Their mean GPC4 was 2.0±0.2 ng/mL. In multivariate analysis, GPC4 was independently associated with age (β=0.224, P=0.009), and levels of active GLP-1 (β=0.171, P=0.049) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; β=–0.176, P=0.043) after being adjusted for other clinical factors. Conclusion GPC4 was independently associated with age, active GLP-1, and AST in T2DM patients, but was not associated with HOMA-IR and BMI, which are well known factors related to GPC4. Further study is needed to identify the mechanisms of the association between GPC4 and basal active GLP-1 levels. PMID:27704740

  10. Are Parental Perceptions of Child Activity Levels and Overall Health More Important than Perceptions of Weight?

    Vangeepuram, Nita; Ramos, Michelle A.; Fei, Kezhen; Fox, Ashley M.; Horowitz, Carol R.; Kleinman, Lawrence C.; Galvez, Maida P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine relationships between parental perceptions of child weight and overall health, reported lifestyle behaviors and measured body mass index (BMI). Methods Using community-partnered methods, we surveyed families residing in a two census tract area identified for targeted interventions to decrease diabetes related disparities. The survey included demographics, child dietary and physical activity behaviors, and parental perception of child’s health and weight. We measured child BMI using a standardized protocol. Results We surveyed parents of 116 children with a mean age of 7 years (range 3–15) with 51 % boys, 74 % Hispanic, and 26 % Black. Over half of the children (55 %) were overweight or obese. Half (50 %) of the parents underestimated their children’s weight. Reported daily hours of walking and/or running trended higher (3.6 vs. 2.6 h, p = 0.08) for children perceived to be of normal weight. Parents who correctly estimated their child’s weight status reported more hours of daily walking/running than parents who underestimated child weight status, 4.5 versus 2.4 h, p = 0.0002. Parents of healthy weight children were more likely to report that children were in excellent or very good health compared to parents of overweight/obese children, 75 versus 56 % respectively (p = 0.04). We found significant racial/ethnic differences in reported diet and physical activity behaviors and perception of overall health. Conclusions for Practice Parental perceptions of child health and physical activity level may be related to perceptions of their child’s weight status. Study findings informed community-based initiatives for reducing diabetes risk among children. PMID:27010551

  11. QR-codes as a tool to increase physical activity level among school children during class hours

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Kristensen, Allan; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    QR-codes as a tool to increase physical activity level among school children during class hours Introduction: Danish students are no longer fulfilling recommendations for everyday physical activity. Since August 2014, Danish students in public schools are therefore required to be physically active...... for 45 minutes a day during school hours. An experiment implementing QR-codes as a method to increase physical activity during school hours has been tried. The purpose of this study was to examine if the use of QR-codes as a tool for teaching older classes in Danish public schools could increase...... the students physical activity level during class hours. Methods: A before-after study was used to examine 12 students physical activity level, measured with pedometers for six lessons. Three lessons of traditional teaching and three lessons, where QR-codes were used to make orienteering in school area...

  12. Investigation of electrically-active deep levels in single-crystalline diamond by particle-induced charge transient spectroscopy

    Kada, W.; Kambayashi, Y.; Ando, Y.; Onoda, S.; Umezawa, H.; Mokuno, Y.; Shikata, S.; Makino, T.; Koka, M.; Hanaizumi, O.; Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T.

    2016-04-01

    To investigate electrically-active deep levels in high-resistivity single-crystalline diamond, particle-induced charge transient spectroscopy (QTS) techniques were performed using 5.5 MeV alpha particles and 9 MeV carbon focused microprobes. For unintentionally-doped (UID) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond, deep levels with activation energies of 0.35 eV and 0.43 eV were detected which correspond to the activation energy of boron acceptors in diamond. The results suggested that alpha particle and heavy ion induced QTS techniques are the promising candidate for in-situ investigation of deep levels in high-resistivity semiconductors.

  13. Physical activity, fatness, educational level and snuff consumption as determinants of semen quality: findings of the ActiART study.

    Pärn, Triin; Grau Ruiz, Raúl; Kunovac Kallak, Theodora; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Davey, Eva; Hreinsson, Julius; Wånggren, Kjell; Salumets, Andres; Sjöström, Michael; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli; Ortega, Francisco B; Altmäe, Signe

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the association between physical activity and other potential determinants, objectively measured by accelerometry, was examined. Sixty-two men attending an infertility clinic participated in the study. Obese men (body mass index ≥ 30) and those with a waist circumference 102 cm or more had lower semen volume than the other men (P quality than those who engaged in low or high numbers of bouts of activity (P quality than men who engage in low or high levels of such activity. Similarly, high levels of total and central adiposity, low educational level and snuff consumption are negatively related to semen quality.

  14. CORRELATION BETWEEN SERUM PARAOXONASE ACTIVITY AND HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN LEVELS IN TYPE2 DIABETES PREDISPOSING TO ATEROSCLEROSIS

    SK.Deepthi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human serum paraoxonase is physically associated with HDL and has been implicated in the detoxification of organophosphates and possibly in the prevention of LDL lipid peroxidation and therefore retards atherosclerosis. HDL levels are inversely related to the risk of developing atherosclerosis. We investigated the serum activity and concentration of paraoxonase and HDL levels in 104 subjects (42 diabetic patients without complications, 42 controls, 20 diabetic patients with complications.. Paraoxonase activity was found to be lower in diabetic patients than in controls. Similarly there was reduction in HDL levels in cases suggesting a positive correlation between HDL and paraoxonase levels.

  15. Decreased Glutathione Peroxidase Activities with Concomitant Increased Oxidized Glutathione Levels among Residents in an Arsenic Contaminated Community of Southern Thailand

    Warangkana CHUNGLOK

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione are important antioxidants responsible for the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS. It has been shown that changes in GPx activities and glutathione levels are associated with various diseases including toxic chemical related diseases and cancers. The study aimed to determine the levels of GPx activity and glutathione among residents in Ron Phibun district, an arsenic-exposed area. Blood samples were obtained from 32 volunteers in the Thasala group, a nearby nonarsenic-exposed area and 36 residents in the Ron Phibun group. Red cell lysates were subjected to analysis of GPx activity and glutathione. The results showed that GPx activities were significantly decreased among study subjects from Ron Phibun (p < 0.05. Interestingly, oxidized glutathione (GSSG levels were significantly increased compared with those from Thasala (p < 0.05. Total glutathione and reduced glutathione (GSH levels were not different among the two groups. Mean values of GPx activities, total glutathione and GSH tended to decrease among high-exposure subjects compared to low-exposure subjects. This was concomitant with a slight increase in GSSG levels among high-exposure subjects. The levels of GPx activities and GSSG may be early biomarkers for low levels of oxidative stress in a mining area affected with arsenic poisoning.

  16. Assessing Acoustic Sound Levels Associated with Active Source Seismic Surveys in Shallow Marine Environments

    Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Tolstoy, M.; Thode, A.; Diebold, J. B.; Webb, S. C.

    2004-12-01

    The potential effect of active source seismic research on marine mammal populations is a topic of increasing concern, and controversy surrounding such operations has begun to impact the planning and permitting of academic surveys [e.g., Malakoff, 2002 Science]. Although no causal relationship between marine mammal strandings and seismic exploration has been proven, any circumstantial evidence must be thoroughly investigated. A 2002 stranding of two beaked whales in the Gulf of California within 50 km of a R/V Ewing seismic survey has been a subject of concern for both marine seismologists and environmentalists. In order to better understand possible received levels for whales in the vicinity of these operations, modeling is combined with ground-truth calibration measurements. A wide-angle parabolic equation model, which is capable of including shear within the sediment and basement layers, is used to generate predictive models of low-frequency transmission loss within the Gulf of California. This work incorporates range-dependent bathymetry, sediment thickness, sound velocity structure and sub-bottom properties. Oceanic sounds speed profiles are derived from the U.S. Navy's seasonal GDEM model and sediment thicknesses are taken from NOAA's worldwide database. The spectral content of the Ewing's 20-airgun seismic array is constrained by field calibration in the spring of 2003 [Tolstoy et al., 2004 GRL], indicating peak energies at frequencies below a few hundred Hz, with energy spectral density showing an approximate power-law decrease at higher frequencies (being ~40 dB below peak at 1 kHz). Transmission loss is estimated along a series of radials extending from multiple positions along the ship's track, with the directivity of the array accounted for by phase-shifting point sources that are scaled by the cube root of the individual airgun volumes. This allows the time-space history of low-frequency received levels to be reconstructed within the Gulf of California

  17. Physical activity levels and supportive care needs for physical activity among breast cancer survivors with different psychosocial profiles: a cluster-analytical approach.

    Charlier, C; Pauwels, E; Lechner, L; Spittaels, H; Bourgois, J; DE Bourdeaudhuij, I; VAN Hoof, E

    2012-11-01

    The transition from breast cancer patient to survivor is associated with many treatment-related and psychosocial factors, which can influence health behaviour and associated needs. First, this study aimed to identify clusters of treatment-related and psychosocial factors among breast cancer survivors. Second, clusters' physical activity levels and care needs for physical activity were evaluated. Breast cancer survivors (n= 440; 52 ± 8 years) (3 weeks to 6 months post treatment) completed self-reports on physical and psychological symptoms; illness representations; social support and coping; physical activity and care needs for physical activity. Analyses identified four clusters: (1) a low distress-active approach group; (2) a low distress-resigned approach group; (3) a high distress-active approach group; and (4) a high distress-emotional approach group. Physical activity levels were higher in the low distress groups than in the high distress-emotional approach group. However, women with low distress and an active approach reported equal care needs for physical activity than women with high distress and an emotional approach. These findings suggest that care needs for physical activity are unrelated to distress and actual physical activity levels. The results emphasise the importance of screening for needs and provide a framework supporting the referral of breast cancer survivors to tailored interventions.

  18. Magnetic cycles of Sun-like stars with different levels of coronal and chromospheric activity — comparison with the Sun

    Shimanovskaya, Elena; Bruevich, Vasiliy; Bruevich, Elena

    2016-09-01

    The atmospheric activity of the Sun and Sun-like stars is analyzed involving observations from the HK-project at the Mount Wilson Observatory, the California and Carnegie Planet Search Program at the Keck and Lick Observatories and the Magellan Planet Search Program at the Las Campanas Observatory. We show that for stars of F, G and K spectral classes, the cyclic activity, similar to the 11-yr solar cycle, is different: it becomes more prominent in K-stars. Comparative study of Sun-like stars with different levels of chromospheric and coronal activity confirms that the Sun belongs to stars with a low level of chromospheric activity and stands apart among these stars by its minimum level of coronal radiation and minimum level of variations in photospheric flux.

  19. Magnetic cycles of Sun-like stars with different levels of coronal and chromospheric activity -- comparison with the Sun

    Bruevich, E A; Shimanovskaya, E V

    2016-01-01

    The atmospheric activity of the Sun and Sun-like stars is analyzed involving observations from HK-project at the Mount Wilson Observatory, the California and Carnegie Planet Search Program at the Keck and Lick Observatories and the Magellan Planet Search Program at the Las Campanas Observatory. We show that for stars of F, G and K spectral classes, the cyclic activity, similar to the 11-yr solar cycles, is different: it becomes more prominent in K-stars. Comparative study of Sun-like stars with different levels of the chromospheric and coronal activity confirms that the Sun belongs to stars with the low level of the chromospheric activity and stands apart among these stars by the minimum level of its coronal radiation and the minimum level of its variations of the photospheric flux.

  20. Cuff pressure pain detection is associated with both sex and physical activity level in nonathletic healthy subjects

    Lemming, Dag; Börsbo, Björn; Sjörs, Anna

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE : The aim of this study was to evaluate pressure pain sensitivity on leg and arm in 98 healthy persons (50 women) using cuff algometry. Furthermore, associations with sex and physical activity level were investigated. METHOD:  Normal physical activity level was defined as Godin Leisure...... is associated both with male sex and physical activity level.......-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) score ≤ 45 and high activity level as GLTEQ > 45. A pneumatic double-chamber cuff was placed around the arm or leg where a single chamber was inflated. The cuff inflation rate (1 kPa/s) was constant, and pain intensity was registered continuously on a 10 cm electronic visual...

  1. Antifactor Xa levels versus activated partial thromboplastin time for monitoring unfractionated heparin.

    Vandiver, Jeremy W; Vondracek, Thomas G

    2012-06-01

    Intravenous unfractionated heparin (UFH) remains an important therapeutic agent, particularly in the inpatient setting, for anticoagulation. Historically, the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) has been the primary laboratory test used to monitor and adjust UFH. The aPTT test has evolved since the 1950s, and the historical goal range of 1.5-2.5 times the control aPTT, which first gained favor in the 1970s, has fallen out of favor due to a high degree of variability in aPTT readings from one laboratory to another, and even from one reagent to another. As a result, it is now recommended that the aPTT goal range be based on a corresponding heparin concentration of 0.2-0.4 unit/ml by protamine titration or 0.3-0.7 unit/ml by antifactor Xa assay. Given that several biologic factors can influence the aPTT independent of the effects of UFH, many institutions have transitioned to monitoring heparin with antifactor Xa levels, rather than the aPTT. Clinical data from the last 10-20 years have begun to show that a conversion from aPTT to antifactor Xa monitoring may offer a smoother dose-response curve, such that levels remain more stable, requiring fewer blood samples and dosage adjustments. Given the minimal increased acquisition cost of the antifactor Xa reagents, it can be argued that the antifactor Xa is a cost-effective method for monitoring UFH. In this review, we discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of the aPTT, antifactor Xa, and protamine titration tests, and provide a clinical framework to guide practitioners who are seeking to optimize UFH monitoring within their own institutions.

  2. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    Rawl, Richard R [ORNL; Scofield, Patricia A [ORNL; Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low-level

  3. Voluntary activation level and muscle fiber recruitment of human quadriceps during lengthening contractions.

    Beltman, J G M; Sargeant, A J; van Mechelen, W; de Haan, A

    2004-08-01

    Voluntary activation levels during lengthening, isometric, and shortening contractions (angular velocity 60 degrees/s) were investigated by using electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve (triplet, 300 Hz) superimposed on maximal efforts. Recruitment of fiber populations was investigated by using the phosphocreatine-to-creatine ratio (PCr/Cr) of single characterized muscle fibers obtained from needle biopsies at rest and immediately after a series of 10 lengthening, isometric, and shortening contractions (1 s on/1 s off). Maximal voluntary torque was significantly higher during lengthening (270 +/- 55 N.m) compared with shortening contractions (199 +/- 47 N.m, P < 0.05) but was not different from isometric contractions (252 +/- 47 N.m). Isometric torque was higher than torque during shortening (P < 0.05). Voluntary activation level during maximal attempted lengthening contractions (79 +/- 8%) was significantly lower compared with isometric (93 +/- 5%) and shortening contractions (92 +/- 3%, P < 0.05). Mean PCr/Cr values of all fibers from all subjects at rest were 2.5 +/- 0.6, 2.0 +/- 0.7, and 2.0 +/- 0.7, respectively, for type I, IIa, and IIax fibers. After 10 contractions, the mean PCr/Cr values for grouped fiber populations (regardless of fiber type) were all significantly different from rest (1.3 +/- 0.2, 0.7 +/- 0.3, and 0.8 +/- 0.6 for lengthening, isometric, and shortening contractions, respectively; P < 0.05). The cumulative distributions of individual fiber populations after either contraction mode were significantly different from rest (P < 0.05). Curves after lengthening contractions were less shifted compared with curves from isometric and shortening contractions (P < 0.05), with a smaller shift for the type IIax compared with type I fibers in the lengthening contractions. The results indicate a reduced voluntary drive during lengthening contractions. PCr/Cr values of single fibers indicated a hierarchical order of recruitment of all fiber

  4. Quality of life perception of basketball master athletes: association with physical activity level and sports injuries.

    Moreira, Natália Boneti; Mazzardo, Oldemar; Vagetti, Gislaine Cristina; De Oliveira, Valdomiro; De Campos, Wagner

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the prevalence and characteristics of sports injuries (SI) and determine the association between the physical activity level (PA) and SI with perception of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Brazilian basketball master athletes. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 410 male master athletes, between 35 and 85 years of age (mean 52.26, SD ±11.83). The HRQoL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study - Short Form-36. The PA was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Information regarding SI was collected using the Reported Morbidity Survey. Poisson regression, as estimated by the prevalence ratio (PR), was used as a measure of the association of PA and SI with HRQoL. The majority of athletes showed a high SI prevalence (58.3%) and reported one injury (67.8%) that occurred during training (61.1%) and primarily affected a lower limb (74.6%). The adjusted regression models showed a positive association of PA with the Functional Capacity (PR = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-1.90) and Physical Component (PR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.03-1.70) of HRQoL. Furthermore, the SI were negatively associated with HRQoL in Functional Capacity (PR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.51-2.27), Physical Aspects (PR = 3.99, 95% CI = 3.08-5.18), Pain (PR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.26-2.16), Social Functioning (PR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.41-2.27), Emotional Aspects (PR = 4.40, 95% CI = 3.35-5.78), Mental Health domains (PR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.06-1.68), Physical Component (PR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.90-2.90) and Mental Component (PR = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.14-3.29). These results highlighted that master athletes showed a high SI prevalence, primarily in the lower limbs. PA positively correlates with the physical HRQoL domain, whereas SI may decrease the HRQoL levels of both physical and mental domains.

  5. Levels of physical activity, barriers, and stage of change in an urban population from a municipality in Colombia

    Mónica María Arenas; Elkin Fernando Arango; Fredy Alonso Patiño; Mario Andrés Quintero

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the levels of physical activity, barriers, and stage of change in an urban population 25 to 50 yearsof age from the Municipality of Santa Rosa de Osos, department of Antioquia.Materials and methods: A prevalence study was conducted, with a two-stage random sampling among 357 individualsnot suffering from any known cardiovascular disease. A pre-designed survey was conducted to assess the levels of physicalactivity, the stage of change, and physical activity barriers.Result...

  6. Serum testosterone and progesterone levels and ovarian activity as indicators for seasonal breeding in dromedary camels in Sudan

    Babiker, E. A,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work was done to investigate the effect of season on level of testosterone, progesterone hormone and ovarian activity in Arabian dromedary camels. Over a period of one year (July 2009–June 2010, jugular blood samples were collected monthly from 7 mature male camels and 12 females at late pregnancy to detect the levels of testosterone and progesterone hormones. A total of 900 ovarian follicles were measured in the slaughterhouses of Tamboul and Um-Elgura to define the effect of season on ovarian activity. The obtained results showed that plasma testosterone levels greatly varied among months of the year. It increased during July and August and decreased during the period from September to February. The level started to increase again during March and remained high until the end of the study in June. Plasma progesterone level was high during July, while it dropped at parturition during August. The level of progesterone remained low during the period from September to February, before it started to rise again in March and remained high until the end of the study in June. The rise of progesterone level in females coincided with the rise of testosterone in males. Ovarian activity was observed throughout the different seasons with a maximum activity during autumn. According to the hormonal findings and ovarian activity, there is a clear breeding season in Arabian dromedary camel in the Butana area, northeast of Sudan extending throughout summer (March – June and autumn (July–October.

  7. Presenilin 2 influences miR146 level and activity in microglia.

    Jayadev, Suman; Case, Amanda; Alajajian, Betty; Eastman, Alison J; Möller, Thomas; Garden, Gwenn A

    2013-12-01

    Microglia, the resident innate immune cells of the CNS, are the primary defenders against microbes and critical to CNS remodeling. Dysregulation of microglial behavior can lead to unchecked pro-inflammatory activity and subsequent neurodegeneration. The molecular mechanisms leading to chronic inflammation and microglial dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases are not well-understood. It is known that patients with Presenilin 2 (PS2) mutations develop autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease. We have shown that a lack of normal PS2 function is associated with exaggerated microglia pro-inflammatory responses in vitro. To identify pathways by which PS2 regulates microglia and determine how PS2 dysfunction may lead to altered inflammatory pathways, we pursued an unbiased array approach to assess differential expression of microRNAs between murine PS2 knockout (KO) and wild-type microglia. We identified miR146, a negative regulator of monocyte pro-inflammatory response, as constitutively down-regulated in PS2 KO microglia. Consistent with a state of miR146 suppression, we found that PS2 KO microglia express higher levels of the miR146 target protein interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1, and have increased NFκB transcriptional activity. We hypothesize that PS2 impacts microglial responses through modulation of miR146a. PS2 dysfunction, through aging or mutation, may contribute to neurodegeneration by influencing the pro-inflammatory behavior of microglia. Presenilin 2 (PS2), a membrane associated protease, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. We have previously shown that PS2 plays an important role in curbing the proinflammatory response in microglia. Here, we report the novel finding that PS2 participates in maintaining the basal and cytokine induced expression of the innate immunity regulating microRNA, miR146. These data suggest one mechanism by which PS2 works to reign in proinflammatory microglial behavior and that PS2 dysfunction or

  8. The Devon Active Villages Evaluation (DAVE trial: Study protocol of a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a community-level physical activity intervention in rural southwest England

    Solomon Emma

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical inactivity has been linked with numerous chronic health conditions and overall mortality, the majority of English adults report doing insufficient physical activity. To increase population physical activity levels, researchers have called for more community-level interventions. To evaluate these complex public health interventions, innovative study designs are required. This study protocol describes Devon Active Villages, a community-level intervention providing physical activity opportunities to 128 rural villages in southwest England, and the methods used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing physical activity levels. Methods/Design A stepped wedge cluster randomised trial will be used to evaluate whether Devon Active Villages leads to increased physical activity levels in rural communities. Community engagement will help tailor activity programmes for each village; communities will then be supported for a further twelve months. The intervention will be delivered over four periods, each lasting twelve weeks. Data collection consists of a postal survey of a random sample of adults aged 18 years and over, at baseline and after each of the four intervention periods. The questionnaire includes questions on participant demographics, physical activity behaviour, local environment characteristics, awareness of local activity programmes, and psychosocial factors. Based on detecting an increase in the proportion of people who meet physical activity guidelines (from 25% to 30%, at least ten respondents are needed from each of the 128 villages at each stage (80% power at the 5% level of significance. Anticipating a 20% response rate, 6,400 questionnaires will be sent out at each stage (i.e., 50 surveys to each village. Using data from all five periods, a comparison of study outcomes between intervention and control arms will be performed, allowing for time period (as a fixed effect and the random effect

  9. A Comparison of the Fitness, Obesity, and Physical Activity Levels of High School Physical Education Students across Race and Gender

    Davis, Kathryn L.; Wojcik, Janet R.; DeWaele, Christi S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the physical fitness, obesity, and physical activity (PA) levels of high school students in physical education classes when comparing racial and gender groups. Purpose: To compare the fitness, obesity, and PA levels of female and male students of different racial groups in 6 high schools in the southeastern…

  10. Physical Education Lesson Content and Teacher Style and Elementary Students' Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    Erwin, Heather E.; Stellino, Megan Babkes; Beets, Michael W.; Beighle, Aaron; Johnson, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity levels among American children are increasing at an alarming rate, due in part to a lack of regular physical activity (PA). Physical education (PE) is one way to facilitate student PA. The overarching PA goal for physical educators is 50% PA for students. Self-determination theory suggests that PA levels in PE and a variety of other…

  11. What Are Special About Ground-Level Events? Flares, CMEs, Active Regions And Magnetic Field Connection

    Nitta, N V; DeRosa, M L; Nightingale, R W

    2012-01-01

    Ground level events (GLEs) occupy the high-energy end of gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events. They are associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares, but we still do not clearly understand the special conditions that produce these rare events. During Solar Cycle 23, a total of 16 GLEs were registered, using ground-based neutron monitor data. We first ask if these GLEs are clearly distinguishable from other SEP events observed from space. Setting aside possible difficulties in identifying all GLEs consistently, we then try to find observables which may unmistakably isolate these GLEs by studying the basic properties of the associated eruptions and the active regions (ARs) that produced them. It is found that neither the magnitudes of the CMEs and flares nor the complexities of the ARs give sufficient conditions for GLEs. It is possible to find CMEs, flares or ARs that are not associated with GLEs but that have more extreme properties than those associated with GLEs. We also try to ev...

  12. Ground level photosynthetically active radiation dynamics in stands of Acacia mearnsii De Wild.

    Péllico Netto, Sylvio; Sanquetta, Carlos R; Caron, Braulio O; Behling, Alexandre; Simon, Augusto A; Corte, Ana Paula D; Bamberg, Rogério

    2015-09-01

    The objective is to study the dynamics of photosynthetic radiation reaching the soil surface in stands of Acacia mearnsii De Wild and its influence on height growth in stands. This fact gives rise to the formulation of the following hypothesis for this study: "The reduction of the incidence of light inside the stand of black wattle will cause the inflection point in its height growth when this reaches 4 to 5 m in height, i.e. when the stand is between 2 and 3 years of age". The study was conducted in stands in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, where diameters at breast height, total height and photosynthetically active radiation available at ground level were measured. The frequency tended to be more intense when the age of the stands increases. It was evident that a reduction of light incidence inside the forest occurred, caused by canopy closure. Consequently, closed canopy propitiated the competition of plants. This has affected the conditions for growth in diameter and height of this species, reason why it becomes possible to conceive the occurrence of an inflection point in the growth of these two variables, confirming the formulated hypothesis.

  13. Classification of muscle activity based on effort level during constant pace running.

    Stirling, Lisa M; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Kugler, Patrick F; Nigg, Benno M

    2011-08-01

    During running, psychologic and physiologic changes are manifested in the perception of effort, muscle properties and movement strategies. The latter two aspects are expressed as changes in electromyographic (EMG) activity. This paper tests the hypothesis that the EMG signals change in a systematic way during a run and that these changes are related to the effort level of the runner. Fifteen female recreational runners performed 1-h treadmill runs at a constant speed (95% of speed at ventilatory threshold). EMG signals were recorded from four muscles (tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius medialis, vastus lateralis, and semitendinosus). The wavelet transformed EMG data were used to discriminate between different effort phases of running using a support vector machine (SVM) approach. The effect of the penalty parameter, C, and cross validation folds, n, used were evaluated and found to have little influence on the outcome. Recognition rates of >80% were achieved for all C and n values across all muscles. Average recognition rates were: TA - 89.2, GM - 88.3%, VL - 84.6% and ST - 94.0%. These results suggest that selected lower extremity EMG signals using wavelet-based methods contained highly systematic differences that could be used by the SVM to discriminate between the low- and high-effort stages of prolonged running.

  14. Mediators of Physical Activity on Neurocognitive Function: A Review at Multiple Levels of Analysis

    Chelsea M. Stillman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA is known to maintain and improve neurocognitive health. However, there is still a poor understanding of the mechanisms by which PA exerts its effects on the brain and cognition in humans. Many of the most widely discussed mechanisms of PA are molecular and cellular and arise from animal models. While information about basic cellular and molecular mechanisms is an important foundation from which to build our understanding of how PA promotes cognitive health in humans, there are other pathways that could play a role in this relationship. For example, PA-induced changes to cellular and molecular pathways likely initiate changes to macroscopic properties of the brain and/or to behavior that in turn influence cognition. The present review uses a more macroscopic lens to identify potential brain and behavioral/socioemotional mediators of the association between PA and cognitive function. We first summarize what is known regarding cellular and molecular mechanisms, and then devote the remainder of the review to discussing evidence for brain systems and behavioral/socioemotional pathways by which PA influences cognition. It is our hope that discussing mechanisms at multiple levels of analysis will stimulate the field to examine both brain and behavioral mediators. Doing so is important, as it could lead to a more complete characterization of the processes by which PA influences neurocognitive function, as well as a greater variety of targets for modifying neurocognitive function in clinical contexts.

  15. Multi-Level Discourse Analysis in a Physics Teaching Methods Course from the Psychological Perspective of Activity Theory

    Vieira, Rodrigo Drumond; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present and apply a multi-level method for discourse analysis in science classrooms. This method is based on the structure of human activity (activity, actions, and operations) and it was applied to study a pre-service physics teacher methods course. We argue that such an approach, based on a cultural psychological perspective,…

  16. Low-level activity of the trunk extensor muscles causes electromyographic manifestations of fatigue in absence of decreased oxygenation

    Dieën, J.H. van; Westebring van der; Putten, E.P.; Kingma, I.; Looze, M.P. de

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether trunk extensor fatigue occurs during low-level activity and whether this is associated with a drop in muscle tissue oxygenation. Electromyography (EMG) feedback was used to impose constant activity in a part of the trunk extensor muscles. We hypothesized

  17. Levels of patient activation among adults with schizophrenia: associations with hope, symptoms, medication adherence, and recovery attitudes.

    Kukla, Marina; Salyers, Michelle P; Lysaker, Paul H

    2013-04-01

    Patient activation, defined as one's attitudes and confidence toward managing illness, has been not been thoroughly studied in consumers with schizophrenia. The current study sought to understand the relationship between patient activation and symptoms, medication adherence, recovery attitudes, and hope in a sample of 119 adults with schizophrenia. The participants were enrolled in an 18-month randomized controlled study of the Illness Management and Recovery program. Data were collected at baseline; correlations and stepwise multiple regressions were used to examine the relationships and determine the unique contribution of variables. Higher patient activation was most strongly associated with positive recovery attitudes, higher levels of hope, and fewer emotional discomfort symptoms. Patient activation was significantly related to a broad measure of illness self-management, providing evidence for the construct validity of the patient activation measure. Our findings emphasize the importance of recovery-based mental health services that recognize level of patient activation as a potential factor in consumer outcomes.

  18. Urinary levels of high mobility group box-1 are associated with disease activity in antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis.

    Tian-Tian Ma

    Full Text Available High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1, a kind of pro-inflammatory mediator, is associated with inflammatory conditions and tissue damage. Our previous study demonstrated that the circulating levels of HMGB1 correlated with disease activity of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV. In the current study, we aimed to measure urinary levels of HMGB1 in AAV patients, correlated them to clinical activity index and analysed the immunohistochemical HMGB1 staining in kidney specimens.50 patients with AAV in active stage and 56 patients with AAV in remission were recruited. The urinary levels of HMGB1 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, renal biopsy specimens from 27 patients with active AAV were randomly collected to evaluate the deposition of HMGB1.Urinary HMGB1 levels in AAV patients in active stage were significantly higher than those in AAV patients in remission and healthy controls (1.46 [0.56-3.43] versus 0.38 [0.10-1.35] mg/μmolCr, P=0.001; 1.46 [0.56-3.43] versus 0.48 [0.40-0.60] mg/μmolCr, P=0.000, respectively. Further analysis found that urinary levels of HMGB1 correlated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r=0.354, p=0.012, C-reactive protein (r=0.289, p=0.042, and Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (r=0.350, p=0.013. Renal tissue of active AAV patients showed HMGB1 was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm and the extracellular space. The percentage of HMGB1-negative nuclei in renal tissue of patients with active AAV was significantly higher than that in normal controls (60.6±20.2 % versus 2.7±0.6 %, p<0.01.Urinary levels of HMGB1 may be associated with the disease activity in AAV patients.

  19. Association between the physical activity level and the quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Çolak, Tuğba Kuru; Acar, Gönül; Dereli, E. Elçin; Özgül, Bahar; Demirbüken, İlkşan; Alkaç, Çiğdem; Polat, M. Gülden

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity and regular exercise play an important role in glycemic control, which is considered an important part of the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study evaluated physical activity level and its relationship with quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] We evaluated 129 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus through a face-to-face interview using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire a...

  20. Are children's activity levels determined by their genes or environment? A systematic review of twin studies ☆

    Abigail Fisher; Lee Smith; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H. M.; Alexia Sawyer; Jane Wardle

    2015-01-01

    Context: The importance of physical activity to paediatric health warrants investigation into its determinants. Objective measurement allows a robust examination of genetic and environmental influences on physical activity. Objective: To systematically review the evidence on the extent of genetic and environmental influence on children's objectively-measured activity levels from twin studies. Data sources and search terms: Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Health and Psychosocial Instruments a...

  1. Low-level and high-level modulations of fixational saccades and high frequency oscillatory brain activity in a visual object classification task

    Maciej eKosilo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently induced gamma-band activity (GBA was considered a neural marker of cortical object representation. However induced GBA in the electroencephalogram (EEG is susceptible to artifacts caused by miniature fixational saccades. Recent studies have demonstrated that fixational saccades also reflect high-level representational processes. Do high-level as opposed to low-level factors influence fixational saccades? What is the effect of these factors on artifact-free GBA? To investigate this, we conducted separate eye tracking and EEG experiments using identical designs. Participants classified line drawings as objects or non-objects. To introduce low-level differences, contours were defined along different directions in cardinal colour space: S-cone-isolating, intermediate isoluminant, or a full-colour stimulus, the latter containing an additional achromatic component. Prior to the classification task, object discrimination thresholds were measured and stimuli were scaled to matching suprathreshold levels for each participant. In both experiments, behavioural performance was best for full-colour stimuli and worst for S-cone isolating stimuli. Saccade rates 200-700 ms after stimulus onset were modulated independently by low and high-level factors, being higher for full-colour stimuli than for S-cone isolating stimuli and higher for objects. Low-amplitude evoked GBA and total GBA were observed in very few conditions, showing that paradigms with isoluminant stimuli may not be ideal for eliciting such responses. We conclude that cortical loops involved in the processing of objects are preferentially excited by stimuli that contain achromatic information. Their activation can lead to relatively early exploratory eye movements even for foveally-presented stimuli.

  2. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study.

    Abdulnour, Joseph; Razmjou, Sahar; Doucet, Éric; Boulay, Pierre; Brochu, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Prud'homme, Denis

    2016-12-01

    To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter "fitness") and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa) on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB) and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥ 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) compared to women with a fitness fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition.

  3. Relation of hepatic EROD activity and CYP1A level in Sebastiscus marmoratus exposed to benzo[a]pyrene

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and its correlation with cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) protein levels in Sebastiscus marmoratus, which were exposed through a water column to BaP (10, 100, 1000 ng/L, respectively) or were treated with intraperitoneal injections of BaP (0.5, 1, 5, 10 mg/kg, respectively) every 7 d. The results showed that after 25 d of waterborne exposure to 1000 ng/L BaP, fish hepatic CYP1A levels and EROD activity were significantly induced. In contrast, EROD activity was not altered 7 d after second ip injections, whereas, CYP1A protein levels were increased. Dose-dependent increase of biliary BaP metabolites demonstrated that the catalytic activity of CYP1A was induced by treatment with BaP. The lowest observable effect concentration with regard to biliary BaP metabolites (100 ng/L) was much lower than that with reference to EROD activity (1000 ng/L). The results suggest that biliary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites were shown to better reflect the contamination gradients of PAHs than EROD activity. It appeared to be necessary to measure CYP1A protein levels to complement the EROD activity in relevant toxicological assessments.

  4. Participation in Complex and Social Everyday Activities Six Years after Stroke: Predictors for Return to Pre-Stroke Level.

    Avvai Singam

    Full Text Available Long-term disability following stroke can lead to participation restrictions in complex and social everyday activities, yet information is lacking on to what extent stroke survivors return to their pre-stroke levels of participation.The objectives of this study were to investigate the level of participation in complex and social everyday activities 6 years after stroke, to compare this with pre-stroke participation and to identify predictors of returning to pre-stroke levels of participation.All patients admitted to Karolinska University Hospital's stroke units during a 1-year period were eligible to participate and 349 patients were recruited. Assessments were made at base-line, 3 months and 6 years using self-reported outcome measures. Participation was assessed using the Frenchay Activities Index (FAI. The 6-year score for each participant was compared to the pre-stroke score, both for the total score and for each domain (domestic chores, leisure/work and outdoor activities. Predictors of having the same or better level of participation at 6 years were identified using logistic regression.At 6 years, 121 participants were followed up, 166 were deceased, 44 declined to take part and 18 could not be traced. At 6 years 84% could be described as active (FAI≥15. The same level of participation or better than pre-stroke was found in 35% of participants, in 65% the level was lower. Similar predictors were identified for achieving the same or better level of participation at 6 years for FAI total and the three domains; ability to walk without aids and a lower age at stroke onset, and perceived mobility, participation and recovery at 3 months.Six years after stroke, 35% of participants had the same or better level of participation as pre-stroke. Rehabilitation after stroke to improve walking ability and participation might improve long-term participation in complex and social everyday activities.

  5. Noise levels in the learning-teaching activities in a dental medicine school

    Paula Andreia Matos; Carvalho, A.; João C. Sampaio Fernandes

    2002-01-01

    The noise levels made by clinical handpieces and laboratory engines are the main descriptors of acoustical comfort in learning spaces in a dental medicine school. Sound levels were measured in five types of classrooms and teaching laboratories at the University of Porto Dental Medicine School. Handpiece noise measurements were made while instruments were running free and during operations with cutting tools (tooth, metal and acrylic). Noise levels were determined using a precision sound level...

  6. Influence of different levels of sports activities on the quality of life after the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament

    Ninković Srđan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The goal of this study was to examine the nature and presence of influence of different levels of sports activity on the life quality of the patients a year after the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament. Material and Methods. The study included 185 patients operated at the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology of the Clinical Centre of Vojvodina, who were followed for twelve months. Data were collected using the modified Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score questionnaire which included the Lysholm scale. Results. This study included 146 male and 39 female subjects. The reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament was equally successful in both gender groups. In relation to different types of sports activity, there were no differences in the overall life quality measured by the questionnaire and its subscales, regardless of the level (professional or recreational. However, regarding the level of sports activities, there were differences among the subjects engaged in sports activities at the national level as compared with those going in for sports activities at the recreational level, and particularly in comparison with physically inactive population. A significant correlation was not found by examining the aforementioned relationship between sports activities. Conclusions. This study has shown that the overall life quality a year after the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament does not differ in relation to either the gender of the subjects or the type of sports activity, while the level of sports activity does have some influence on the quality of life. Professional athletes have proved to train significantly more intensively after this reconstruction than those going in for sports recreationally.

  7. Introducing B2B Service Level Measures via a Poker-Card Activity

    Chen, Chun-Miin; Bailey, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the appropriate level of product availability, most operations management textbooks introduce and define service level measures in a Business-to-Customer context. In other words, a retailer that wants to measure product availability in their store calculates the fill rate (FR) or cycle service level over an infinite review horizon.…

  8. Recovery of physical activity levels in adolescents after lower limb fractures: a longitudinal, accelerometry-based activity monitor study

    Ceroni Dimitri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In adolescents, loss of bone mineral mass usually occurs during phases of reduced physical activity (PA, such as when an injured extremity spends several weeks in a cast. We recorded the PA of adolescents with lower limb fractures during the cast immobilization, at 6 and at 18 months after the fracture, and we compared these values with those of healthy controls. Methods Fifty adolescents with a first episode of limb fracture and a control group of 50 healthy cases were recruited for the study through an advertisement placed at the University Children’s Hospital of Geneva, Switzerland. PA was assessed during cast immobilization and at 6- and 18-month follow-up by accelerometer measurement (Actigraph® 7164, MTI, Fort Walton Beach, FL, USA. Patients and their healthy peers were matched for gender and age. Time spent in PA at each level of intensity was determined for each participant and expressed in minutes and as a percentage of total valid time. Results From the 50 initial teenagers with fractures, 44 sustained functional evaluations at 6 months follow-up, whereas only 38 patients were studied at 18 months. The total PA count (total number of counts/min was lower in patients with lower limb fractures (-62.4% compared with healthy controls (ppp Importantly, we observed that time spent in vigorous PA, which reflects high-intensity forces beneficial to skeletal health, returned to similar values between both groups from the six month follow-up in adolescents who sustained a fracture. However, a definitive reduction in time spent in moderate PA was observed among patients with a lower limb fracture at 18 months, when comparing with healthy controls values (p = 0.0174. Conclusions As cast immobilization and reduced PA are known to induce bone mineral loss, this study provides important information to quantify the decrease of skeletal loading in adolescents with limb fractures. The results of this study demonstrate

  9. Restrictive pattern on spirometry: association with cardiovascular risk and level of physical activity in asymptomatic adults

    Evandro Fornias Sperandio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To determine whether a restrictive pattern on spirometry is associated with the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL, as well as with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, in asymptomatic adults. Methods : A total of 374 participants (mean age, 41 ± 14 years underwent spirometry, which included the determination of FVC and FEV1. A restrictive pattern on spirometry was defined as an FEV1/FVC ratio > 0.7 and an FVC < 80% of the predicted value. After conducting demographic, anthropometric, and CVD risk assessments, we evaluated body composition, muscle function, and postural balance, as well as performing cardiopulmonary exercise testing and administering the six-minute walk test. The PADL was quantified with a triaxial accelerometer. Results : A restrictive pattern on spirometry was found in 10% of the subjects. After multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for confounders (PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness, the following variables retained significance (OR; 95% CI as predictors of a restrictive pattern: systemic arterial hypertension (17.5; 1.65-184.8, smoking (11.6; 1.56-87.5, physical inactivity (8.1; 1.43-46.4, larger center-of-pressure area while standing on a force platform (1.34; 1.05-1.71; and dyslipidemia (1.89; 1.12-1.98. Conclusions : A restrictive pattern on spirometry appears to be common in asymptomatic adults. We found that CVD risk factors, especially systemic arterial hypertension, smoking, and physical inactivity, were directly associated with a restrictive pattern, even when the analysis was adjusted for PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness. Longitudinal studies are needed in order to improve understanding of the etiology of a restrictive pattern as well as to aid in the design of preventive strategies.

  10. HLA-G expression levels influence the tolerogenic activity of human DC-10

    Amodio, Giada; Comi, Michela; Tomasoni, Daniela; Gianolini, Monica Emma; Rizzo, Roberta; LeMaoult, Joël; Roncarolo, Maria-Grazia; Gregori, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G is a non-classical HLA class I molecule with known immune-modulatory functions. Our group identified a subset of human dendritic cells, named DC-10, that induce adaptive interleukin-10-producing T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells via the interleukin-10-dependent HLA-G/ILT4 pathway. In this study we aimed at defining the role of HLA-G in DC-10-mediated Tr1 cell differentiation. We analyzed phenotype, functions, and genetic variations in the 3′ untranslated region of the HLA-G locus of in vitro-differentiated DC-10 from 67 healthy donors. We showed that HLA-G expression on DC-10 is donor-dependent. Functional studies demonstrated that DC-10, independently of HLA-G expression, secrete interleukin-10 and negligible levels of interleukin-12. Interestingly, DC-10 with high HLA-G promote allo-specific anergic T cells that contain a significantly higher frequency of Tr1 cells, defined as interleukin-10-producing (P=0.0121) or CD49b+LAG-3+ (P=0.0031) T cells, compared to DC-10 with low HLA-G. We found that the HLA-G expression on DC-10 is genetically imprinted, being associated with specific variations in the 3′ untranslated region of the gene, and it may be finely tuned by microRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation. These data highlight the important role of HLA-G in boosting DC-10 tolerogenic activity and confirm that interleukin-10 production by DC-10 is necessary but not sufficient to promote Tr1 cells at high frequency. These new insights into the role of HLA-G in DC-10-mediated induction of Tr1 cells provide additional information for clinical use in Tr1- or DC-10-based cell therapy approaches. PMID:25661445

  11. Levels of toxic arsenic species in native terrestrial plants from soils polluted by former mining activities.

    García-Salgado, Sara; Quijano, M Ángeles

    2014-03-01

    Ten native terrestrial plants from soils polluted by former mining activities (Mónica mine, NW Madrid, Spain), with high total arsenic concentration levels (up to 3500 μg g(-1)), have been studied to determine the fraction of arsenic present as toxic forms (inorganic and methylated species), which present a higher mobility and therefore the potential risk associated with their reintegration into the environment is high. Roots and aboveground parts were analyzed separately to assess possible transformations from translocation processes. Extractions were carried out with deionized water by microwave-assisted extraction at a temperature of 90 °C and three extraction steps of 7.5 min each. Total extracted arsenic concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, showing extraction percentages from 9 to 39% (calculated as the ratio between total extracted arsenic (Asext) and total arsenic (AsT) concentrations in plants). Speciation studies, performed by high performance liquid chromatography-photo-oxidation-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry, showed the main presence of arsenate (As(v)) (up to 350 μg g(-1)), followed by arsenite (As(iii)), in both plant parts. Monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) were also found only in some plants. On the other hand, the use of 0.5 mol L(-1) acetic acid as an extractant led to higher extraction percentages (33-87%), but lower column recoveries, probably due to the extraction of arsenic compounds different to the toxic free ions studied, which may come from biotransformation mechanisms carried out by plants to reduce arsenic toxicity. However, As(v) concentrations increased up to 800 μg g(-1) in acid medium, indicating the probable release of As(v) from organoarsenic compounds and therefore a higher potential risk for the environment.

  12. Effect of season and high ambient temperature on activity levels and patterns of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos.

    Michelle L McLellan

    Full Text Available Understanding factors that influence daily and annual activity patterns of a species provides insights to challenges facing individuals, particularly when climate shifts, and thus is important in conservation. Using GPS collars with dual-axis motion sensors that recorded the number of switches every 5 minutes we tested the hypotheses: 1. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos increase daily activity levels and active bout lengths when they forage on berries, the major high-energy food in this ecosystem, and 2. Grizzly bears become less active and more nocturnal when ambient temperature exceeds 20°C. We found support for hypothesis 1 with both male and female bears being active from 0.7 to 2.8 h longer in the berry season than in other seasons. Our prediction under hypothesis 2 was not supported. When bears foraged on berries on a dry, open mountainside, there was no relationship between daily maximum temperature (which varied from 20.4 to 40.1°C and the total amount of time bears were active, and no difference in activity levels during day or night between warm (20.4-27.3°C and hot (27.9-40.1°C days. Our results highlight the strong influence that food acquisition has on activity levels and patterns of grizzly bears and is a challenge to the heat dissipation limitation theory.

  13. Effect of season and high ambient temperature on activity levels and patterns of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos).

    McLellan, Michelle L; McLellan, Bruce N

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence daily and annual activity patterns of a species provides insights to challenges facing individuals, particularly when climate shifts, and thus is important in conservation. Using GPS collars with dual-axis motion sensors that recorded the number of switches every 5 minutes we tested the hypotheses: 1. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) increase daily activity levels and active bout lengths when they forage on berries, the major high-energy food in this ecosystem, and 2. Grizzly bears become less active and more nocturnal when ambient temperature exceeds 20°C. We found support for hypothesis 1 with both male and female bears being active from 0.7 to 2.8 h longer in the berry season than in other seasons. Our prediction under hypothesis 2 was not supported. When bears foraged on berries on a dry, open mountainside, there was no relationship between daily maximum temperature (which varied from 20.4 to 40.1°C) and the total amount of time bears were active, and no difference in activity levels during day or night between warm (20.4-27.3°C) and hot (27.9-40.1°C) days. Our results highlight the strong influence that food acquisition has on activity levels and patterns of grizzly bears and is a challenge to the heat dissipation limitation theory.

  14. Lipidic profile and the level of physical activity of adolescent scholars - doi:10.5020/18061230.2011.p384

    Renato Canevari Dutra da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the relationship between lipid profile and physical activity level of adolescent students in Rio Verde-GO, Brazil. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study, conducted in 2006, with a population comprised by 1,229 adolescent students of both genders, aged 15 to 17 years (X = 15.9 years, SD + 0.81, from public and private schools. The level of physical activity was assessed through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Later, 48 teenagers underwent a lipidogram (lipid profile. Lipid concentrations of total cholesterol (TC, HDL-c (high density lipoprotein and LDL (low density lipoprotein and triglycerides (TGL were determined and assessed according to cutoff points proposed by the III Brazilian Guidelines on dyslipidemias and Guideline of Atherosclerosis, Department of Atherosclerosis of Brazilian Society of Cardiology. Statistical analysis was performed by binomial test for proportions and Pearson’s correlation test, adopting p <0.05. Results: Applying IPAQ we found apercentage of 77.7% active adolescents and 22.3% of insufficiently active adolescents, with the highest percentage of active teens in males (p = 0.0000. Adolescents of both sexes from public network were considered more active than teens from private schools. The lipid profile of the studied adolescents was within normal range. Conclusion: There was no relationship between physical activity level and lipid profile of the adolescents assessed.

  15. Factors Associated with High Levels of Physical Activity among Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Temple, Viviene A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to identify factors associated with physical activity participation among active (i.e. more than or equal to 10 000 steps per day) individuals with intellectual disability. Staff at day program and supported employment organizations were asked to identify individuals they believed were physically active. To verify participants were…

  16. Behaviors of extreme water level in the Pearl River Delta and possible impacts from human activities

    Y. D. Chen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Trends and variations of the extreme water levels defined as exceeding/falling below certain thresholds (mean ± std across the Pearl River Delta (PRD are systematically explored using the linear regression method. Research results indicate that: 1 The upper PRD is dominated by the significant decreasing low water level, and significant increasing low water level can be identified in the lower PRD. The variations of the relative frequency of the high water level are characterized by the decreasing variability in the middle PRD. However more stations show significant changes of the relative frequency of the low water level across the PRD. No confirmative changing patterns of the relative frequency of the low water level can be detected in the middle PRD; 2 When it comes to the seasonal variations of the high/low water level in JJA (high flow periods in the PRD, stations located closer to the estuary tend to exhibit increasing high/low water level. However stations located closer to the upper PRD tend to show decreasing high/low water level. Similar patterns can be identified in the high/low water level in DJF (low flow periods in the PRD; 3 The changes of the water level in the PRD are heavily affected by human interferences, e.g. in-channel dredging, sand mining and the construction of levees. The stations dominated by decreasing water level are mostly located along the river channels featured by highly-intensive dredging. The stations along the coastal regions show significant increasing extreme high/low water level. The coastal regions are not influenced by in-channel dredging, and furthermore, sediment loads from upper and middle PRD are deposited in the river mouths and which will tend to raise the water level in the estuary of the PRD. The findings of this paper may be helpful for local water resource management.

  17. Multi-level examination of correlates of active transportation to school among youth living within 1 mile of their school

    Gropp Kathleen M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active transportation to school is a method by which youth can build physical activity into their daily routines. We examined correlates of active transportation to school at both individual- (characteristics of the individual and family and area- (school and neighborhood levels amongst youth living within 1 mile (1.6 km of their school. Methods Using the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC survey, we selected records of students (n = 3 997 from 161 schools that resided in an urban setting and lived within 1 mile from their school. Student records were compiled from: (1 individual-level HBSC student questionnaires; (2 area-level administrator (school questionnaires; and (3 area-level geographic information system data sources. The outcome, active transportation to school, was determined via a questionnaire item describing the method of transportation that individual students normally use to get to school. Analyses focused on factors at multiple levels that potentially contribute to student decisions to engage in active transportation. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were employed. Results Approximately 18% of the variance in active transportation was accounted for at the area-level. Several individual and family characteristics were associated with engagement in active transportation to school including female gender (RR vs. males = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.80-0.91, having ≥2 cars in the household (RR vs. no cars = 0.87, 0.74-0.97, and family socioeconomic status (RR for ‘not well off’ vs. ‘very well off’ = 1.14, 1.01-1.26. Neighborhood characteristics most strongly related to active transportation were: the length of roads in the 1 km buffer (RR in quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 1.23, 1.00-1.42, the amount of litter in the neighborhood (RR for ‘major problem’ vs. ‘no problem’ = 1.47, 1.16-1.57, and relatively hot climates (RR in quartile 4 vs. quartile 1

  18. Ceruloplasmin levels and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in small preterm infants during the early anemia of prematurity.

    Hågå, P

    1981-11-01

    Ceruloplasmin plasma levels and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were studied in appropriate for gestational age preterm infants (birth weights less than or equal to 1500 g) during the first 10 weeks of life. Preterm infants had significantly lower ceruloplasmin concentrations in cord blood than term infants, the mean level in the preterm infants being 0.07 g/l. At 1 week of age ceruloplasmin levels had risen significantly, whereupon a fall occurred at 2 weeks of age. Ceruloplasmin concentrations increased slowly and progressively from 4 weeks of age. The low ceruloplasmin concentration during the early anemia of prematurity seems not to interfere with iron mobilization. The superoxide dismutase activity per gram hemoglobin in cord blood erythrocytes from normal term infants was significantly lower than that of red blood cells from adults. When the activity was expressed per erythrocyte no difference was found. The normochromic macrocytic red blood cells of the neonate most likely explain this discrepancy. The erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity of the preterm infants did not change from birth until 10 weeks of age, and the levels seemed adequate judged from the levels found in red blood cells from adults and cord blood from term infants. Neither ceruloplasmin nor erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity seem to play a role in the etiology of the early anemia of prematurity.

  19. [Soil enzyme activities under two forest types as affected by different levels of nitrogen deposition].

    Zhao, Yu-tao; Li, Xue-feng; Han, Shi-jie; Hu, Yan-ling

    2008-12-01

    A simulation test was conducted to study the change trends of soil cellulase, polyphenol oxidase, and sucrase activities under natural broadleaf-Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) and secondary poplar (Populus davidiana) -birch (Betula platyphylla) mixed forests as affected by 0, 25, and 50 kg x hm(-2) x a(-1) of N deposition. The results showed that the effects of elevated N deposition on test enzyme activities varied with forest type, and short-term nitrogen addition could significantly affect the test enzyme activities. High N deposition decreased soil polyphyneol oxidase activity, and correspondingly, soil cellulase and sucrase activities also had a trend of decrease.

  20. Analysis of the epidermal growth factor receptor specific transcriptome: effect of receptor expression level and an activating mutation

    Pedersen, Mikkel W; Pedersen, Nina; Damstrup, Lars;

    2005-01-01

    moderately expressed or overexpressed at an in-itself transforming level. These changes were compared to those induced by the naturally occurring constitutively active variant EGFRvIII. This study provides novel insight on the activities and mechanisms of EGFRvIII and EGFR mediated transformation, as genes...... by interferons. Expression of this module was absent in the EGFRvIII-expressing cell line and the parental cell line. Treatment with the specific EGFR inhibitor AG1478 indicated that the regulations were primary, receptor-mediated events. Furthermore, activation of this module correlated with activation of STAT1...

  1. Neuropeptide Y level in paraventricular nucleus of experimental diabetic rats: correlation with sympathetic activity and body weight

    Pallab K Ganguly

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pallab K GangulyCollege of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Neuropeptide Y (NPY, colocalized with norepinephrine neuron, is known to modulate sympathetic activity and feeding behavior. Although experimental type 1 diabetes has increased sympathetic activity at the early part of the disease process, little effort was made so far to understand the correlation between NPY level in the hypothalamus and sympathetic activity in diabetes. Male Sprague Dawley rats were made diabetic by a single injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg body weight, IV. The animals were then studied after 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Control animals received only citrate vehicle. In an effort to clarify the modulatory effect of NPY at the early stage of diabetes, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN of hypothalamus was sampled by microdialysis for NPY and norepinephrine level. While NPY level was increased immediately within 2 weeks (along with feeding behavior, norepinephrine level was increased only after 8 weeks following injection of streptozotocin. The animals lost significant weight. These results are interpreted to mean that a strong correlation exists between the feeding behavior and NPY level in PVN. Since NPY is known to inhibit sympathetic activity it is possible that NPY receptors are down-regulated following diabetes. The higher level of norepinephrine indicating higher sympathetic activity did not allow the animals to gain weight. In addition, controversy exists regarding pleiotropic activities of NPY related to the feeding behavior of these animals.Keywords: streptozotocin-induced diabetes, increased sympathetic activity, feeding behavior, down-regulation of NPY receptors

  2. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study

    Joseph Abdulnour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter “fitness” and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥30.0 mlO2 kg−1 min−1 compared to women with a fitness <30.0 mlO2 kg−1 min−1 (P < 0.05. However, only fasting triglycerides was lower in women with physical activity levels ≥770.0 Kcal/day (P < 0.05. Between fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition.

  3. Increases in c-Yes expression level and activity promote motility but not proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells.

    Barraclough, Jane; Hodgkinson, Cassandra; Hogg, Alison; Dive, Caroline; Welman, Arkadiusz

    2007-09-01

    Increases in the levels and/or activity of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases c-Src and c-Yes are often associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. The physiological consequences of increased c-Yes activity during the early and late stages of tumorigenesis, in addition to the degree of redundancy between c-Yes and c-Src in colorectal cancer cells, remain elusive. To study the consequences of increases in c-Yes levels and activity in later stages of colorectal carcinogenesis, we developed human colorectal cancer cell lines in which c-Yes levels and activity can be inducibly increased by a tightly controlled expression of wild-type c-Yes or by constitutively active mutants of c-Yes, c-YesY537F, and c-Yes Delta t6aa. c-Yes induction resulted in increased cell motility but did not promote proliferation either in vitro or in vivo. These results suggest that in later stages of colorectal carcinogenesis, elevations in c-Yes levels/activity may promote cancer spread and metastasis rather than tumor growth.

  4. Physical activity levels and patterns in older adults: the influence of a DVD-based exercise program.

    Gothe, Neha P; Wójcicki, Thomas R; Olson, Erin A; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Chung, H David; Zuniga, Krystle E; Mackenzie, Michael J; Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward

    2015-02-01

    The use of multimedia to influence health behaviors offers unique advantages over more traditional center-based programs, however, little is known about the effectiveness of such approaches in improving physical activity levels over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a progressive and age-appropriate, DVD-delivered exercise program in promoting physical activity levels among older adult cohorts. Community dwelling older adults (N = 307, Mean age = 71 years) were randomized to one of two groups: a 6-month home-based DVD-delivered exercise (i.e., FlexToBa™) intervention group or a healthy aging DVD control group. Physical activity was assessed objectively using a standard 7-day accelerometer wear period and subjectively using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, at baseline and follow-up. Analysis of covariances indicated a statistically significant treatment effect for subjectively [F(1,250) = 8.42, P = .004, η(2) = .03] and objectively [F(1,240) = 3.77, P = .05, η(2) = .02] measured physical activity. The older cohort (>70) in the FlexToBa condition further had significantly larger improvements in physical activity levels compared to their younger counterparts. From a public health perspective, media-delivered interventions such as the FlexToBa program might prove to be cost-effective, have a broader reach and at the same time be effective in improving physical activity levels in older adults.

  5. Decreased modulation by the risk level on the brain activation during decision making in adolescents with internet gaming disorder

    Xin eQi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Greater impulse and risk-taking and reduced decision-making ability were reported as the main behavioral impairments in individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD, which has become a serious mental health issue worldwide. However, it is not clear to date how the risk level modulates brain activity during the decision-making process in IGD individuals. In this study, 23 adolescents with IGD and 24 healthy controls (HCs without IGD were recruited, and the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART was used in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment to evaluate the modulation of the risk level (the probability of balloon explosion on brain activity during risky decisionmaking in IGD adolescents. Reduced modulation of the risk level on the activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC during the active BART was found in IGD group compared to the HCs. In the IGD group, there was a significant negative correlation between the risk-related DLPFC activation during the active BART and the Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS-11 scores, which were significantly higher in IGD group compared with the HCs. Our study demonstrated that, as a critical decision-making-related brain region, the right DLPFC is less sensitive to risk in IGD adolescents compared with the HCs, which may contribute to the higher impulsivity level in IGD adolescents.

  6. Relationship of plasma levels of LP-PLA2, GMP, LPA and platelet activation markers with transient ischemic attack

    Hang Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationship of plasma levels of LP-PLA2, GMP, LPA and platelet activation markers with transient ischemic attack(TIA).Methods:A total of 87 cases with TIA were collected, and all patients were treated with ozagrel (120mg/times/day for 2 weeks). Fasting blood were collected in 24 h after attack and 7d, 14 days after treatment respectively, then flow cytometry was used to detect indicators of platelet activation, such as CD63, PAC-1, GPⅡb /Ⅲa, and the plasma levels of LP-PLA2, GMP, LPA. The dynamic changes of the such indexes and the differences between different populations were analyzed.Results:The plasma levels of LP-PLA2, GMP, LPA and the platelet activation indexes including CD63, PAC-1, GPⅡb/Ⅲa of patients with TIA were all significantly higher than control group (allP<0.05). One day after treatment of sodium Ozagrel, the plasma levels of LP-PLA2, GMP, LPA and the platelet activation indexes such as CD63, PAC-1, GPⅡb/Ⅲa of patients with TIA began to decline, and returned to normal in the treatment of 7 d or 14 d.Conclusions:Platelet activation plays an important role in the occurrence of TIA, and antiplatelet therapy can effectively inhibit platelet activation, which has positive significance in the treatment of TIA.

  7. Decreased modulation by the risk level on the brain activation during decision making in adolescents with internet gaming disorder.

    Qi, Xin; Du, Xin; Yang, Yongxin; Du, Guijin; Gao, Peihong; Zhang, Yang; Qin, Wen; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Greater impulse and risk-taking and reduced decision-making ability were reported as the main behavioral impairments in individuals with internet gaming disorder (IGD), which has become a serious mental health issue worldwide. However, it is not clear to date how the risk level modulates brain activity during the decision-making process in IGD individuals. In this study, 23 adolescents with IGD and 24 healthy controls (HCs) without IGD were recruited, and the balloon analog risk task (BART) was used in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment to evaluate the modulation of the risk level (the probability of balloon explosion) on brain activity during risky decision making in IGD adolescents. Reduced modulation of the risk level on the activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the active BART was found in IGD group compared to the HCs. In the IGD group, there was a significant negative correlation between the risk-related DLPFC activation during the active BART and the Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS-11) scores, which were significantly higher in IGD group compared with the HCs. Our study demonstrated that, as a critical decision-making-related brain region, the right DLPFC is less sensitive to risk in IGD adolescents compared with the HCs, which may contribute to the higher impulsivity level in IGD adolescents.

  8. Activity and mRNA Levels of Enzymes Involved in Hepatic Fatty Acid Synthesis in Rats Fed Naringenin.

    Hashimoto, Toru; Ide, Takashi

    2015-11-04

    We investigated the physiological activity of naringenin in affecting hepatic lipogenesis and serum and liver lipid levels in rats. Rats were fed diets containing 0, 1, or 2.5 g/kg naringenin for 15 d. Naringenin at a dietary level of 2.5 g/kg significantly decreased the activities and the mRNA levels of various lipogenic enzymes and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA level. The activities and the mRNA levels were also 9-22% and 12-38% lower, respectively, in rats fed a 1 g/kg naringenin diet than in the animals fed a naringenin-free diet, although the differences were not significant in many cases. Naringenin at 2.5 g/kg significantly lowered serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, and phospholipid and hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol. This flavonoid at 1.0 g/kg also significantly lowered these parameters except for serum triacylglycerol. Naringenin levels in serum and liver dose-dependently increased, and hepatic concentrations reached levels that can affect various signaling pathways.

  9. Inter-level Scaffolding and Sequences of Representational Activities in Teaching a Chemical System with Graphical Simulations

    Li, Na; Black, John B.

    2016-10-01

    Chemistry knowledge can be represented at macro-, micro- and symbolic levels, and learning a chemistry topic requires students to engage in multiple representational activities. This study focused on scaffolding for inter-level connection-making in learning chemistry knowledge with graphical simulations. We also tested whether different sequences of representational activities produced different student learning outcomes in learning a chemistry topic. A sample of 129 seventh graders participated in this study. In a simulation-based environment, participants completed three representational activities to learn several ideal gas law concepts. We conducted a 2 × 3 factorial design experiment. We compared two scaffolding conditions: (1) the inter- level scaffolding condition in which participants received inter-level questions and experienced the dynamic link function in the simulation-based environment and (2) the intra- level scaffolding condition in which participants received intra-level questions and did not experience the dynamic link function. We also compared three different sequences of representational activities: macro-symbolic-micro, micro-symbolic-macro and symbolic-micro-macro. For the scaffolding variable, we found that the inter- level scaffolding condition produced significantly better performance in both knowledge comprehension and application, compared to the intra- level scaffolding condition. For the sequence variable, we found that the macro-symbolic-micro sequence produced significantly better knowledge comprehension performance than the other two sequences; however, it did not benefit knowledge application performance. There was a trend that the treatment group who experienced inter- level scaffolding and the micro-symbolic-macro sequence achieved the best knowledge application performance.

  10. Settings for Physical Activity – Developing a Site-specific Physical Activity Behavior Model based on Multi-level Intervention Studies

    Troelsen, Jens; Klinker, Charlotte Demant; Breum, Lars

    Settings for Physical Activity – Developing a Site-specific Physical Activity Behavior Model based on Multi-level Intervention Studies Introduction: Ecological models of health behavior have potential as theoretical framework to comprehend the multiple levels of factors influencing physical...... of new established outdoor facilities for PA among 12 – 85 years old citizens (N=10,434). The SPACE and the WCMC study used objective measurements of PA combined with e-surveys, the VDPA study is based on self-reported e-survey data. Results: Merging the data from the three intervention studies clarifies...... activity (PA). The potential is shown by the fact that there has been a dramatic increase in application of ecological models in research and practice. One proposed core principle is that an ecological model is most powerful if the model is behavior-specific. However, based on multi-level interventions...

  11. A survey of engagement and competence levels in interventions and activities in a community mental health workforce in England

    Lang Linda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National Health Service (NHS mental health workforce configuration is at the heart of successful delivery, and providers are advised to produce professional development strategies. Recent policy changes in England have sharpened the focus on competency based role development. We determined levels of intervention activities, engagement and competence and their influencing factors in a community-setting mental health workforce. Methods Using a modified questionnaire based on the Yorkshire Care Pathways Model we investigated 153 mental health staff working in Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust. A median score of competence was computed across 10 cluster activities. Low engagement and competence levels were examined in a logistic regression model. Results In 220 activities, Monitoring risk was the highest rate of engagement (97.6% and Group psychological therapy/Art/Drama therapy was the lowest engagement (3.6%. The median competence level based on all activities was 3.95 (proficient. There were significant differences in the competence level among professional groups; non-qualified support group (3.00 for competent, Counsellor/Psychologist/Therapist (3.38, Occupational therapists (3.76, Nurses (4.01, Medical staff (4.05, Social workers (4.25 and Psychologists (4.62 for proficient/expert. These levels varied with activity clusters; the lowest level was for Counsellor/Psychologist/Therapist in the accommodation activity (1.44 novice/advance beginner and the highest for Occupational therapists in personal activity (4.94 expert. In a multivariate analysis, low competence was significantly related to non-qualified community support professions, late time of obtaining first qualification, more frequencies of clinical training, and training of cognitive behavioural therapy. The associations were similar in the analysis for 10 activity clusters respectively. Conclusions There was a reasonable competence level in the community

  12. EFFECTS OF CHRONIC STRESS ON THE ACTIVITIES OF SOD, GSH-Px AND MDA LEVEL IN FEMALE RATS' BRAIN

    王莹; 杨东伟; 谢雯; 庞炜; 蒋马莉; 韩太真

    2002-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of chronic emotional stress on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malonialdehyde (MDA) level in female rats' brain. Methods The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group (group N), emotional stress group (group E), emotional stress + pregnancy group (group E+P) and regularly drinking group (group R). Emotional stress in rats was induced by training rats with empty drinking bottles. Having been finished the stress procedure, the brain was taken out and homogenized. Then the activities of SOD, GSH-Px and MDA level were measured. Results Compared to group N, both the activities of SOD in brain tissues of group E and group E+P were significantly decreased (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively) while the MDA level increased (P<0.05). However, the extent of changes in group E+P was more obvious than that in E. GSH-Px activities in E+P and E were significantly changed. However, the GSH-Px activity in E+P was decreased (P<0.05) while the activity in E increased (P<0.05).Conclusion The chronic emotional stress can reduce the antioxidative system by decreasing the antioxidative enzyme activity and potentiating the lipid peroxidation in the brain. It is also suggested that the combination of emotional stress and pregnancy can augment the oxidative damage in rats' brain.

  13. Children's physical activity levels during school recess: a quasi-experimental intervention study

    Fairclough Stuart J; Stratton Gareth; Ridgers Nicola D; Twisk Jos WR

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Recess provides a daily opportunity for children to engage in moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA). Limited research has investigated the effects of recess-based interventions on physical activity using large sample sizes whilst investigating variables that may influence the intervention effect. The aim of the study was to investigate the short-term effects of a playground markings and physical structures intervention on recess physical activity...

  14. Memory B cells from older people express normal levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and produce higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10 upon in vitro activation.

    Bancos, Simona; Phipps, Richard P

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide the elderly population is increasing. The elderly show deficiencies in immune function. B lymphocytes are essential elements of the immune system responsible for antibody production. This laboratory previously showed that activated human B cells isolated from young adults express cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and that Cox-2 is essential for optimal antibody responses. Recent data suggests that Cox-2 expression decreases with age in mouse bone tissue. There is no information regarding Cox-2 expression in B cells from older human subjects. We investigated the expression and activity of Cox-2 in naïve and memory B cells from older people. We show that B cells from older subjects show similar Cox-2 protein expression and activity, antibody production and proliferation compared to younger people. However, we found that activated memory B cells from older people produce higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10 compared to young adults. Therefore, the dysregulated cytokine production could contribute to immune senescence in the elderly.

  15. High Source Levels and Small Active Space of High-Pitched Song in Bowhead Whales (Balaena mysticetus)

    Tervo, Outi M.; Christoffersen, Mads F.; Simon, Malene

    2012-01-01

    The low frequency, powerful vocalizations of blue and fin whales may potentially be detected by conspecifics across entire ocean basins. In contrast, humpback and bowhead whales produce equally loud, but more complex broadband vocalizations composed of higher frequencies that suffer from higher...... attenuation. Here we evaluate the active space of high-pitched song notes of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in Western Greenland using measurements of song source levels and ambient noise. Four independent GPS-synchronized hydrophones were deployed through holes in the ice to localize vocalizing bowhead...... whales, estimate source levels and measure ambient noise. The song had a mean apparent source level of 185 ± 2 dB rms re 1µPa and a high mean centroid frequency of 444 ± 48 Hz. Using measured ambient noise levels in the area and Arctic sound spreading models, the estimated active space of these song...

  16. Noise levels in the learning-teaching activities in a dental medicine school

    Matos, Andreia; Carvalho, Antonio P. O.; Fernandes, Joao C. S.

    2002-11-01

    The noise levels made by different clinical handpieces and laboratory engines are considered to be the main descriptors of acoustical comfort in learning spaces in a dental medicine school. Sound levels were measured in five types of classrooms and teaching laboratories at the University of Porto Dental Medicine School. Handpiece noise measurements were made while instruments were running free and during operations with cutting tools (tooth, metal, and acrylic). Noise levels were determined using a precision sound level meter, which was positioned at ear level and also at one-meter distance from the operator. Some of the handpieces were brand new and the others had a few years of use. The sound levels encountered were between 60 and 99 dB(A) and were compared with the noise limits in A-weighted sound pressure level for mechanical equipments installed in educational buildings included in the Portuguese Noise Code and in other European countries codes. The daily personal noise exposure levels (LEP,d) of the students and professors were calculated to be between 85 and 90 dB(A) and were compared with the European legal limits. Some noise limits for this type of environment are proposed and suggestions for the improvement of the acoustical environment are given.

  17. Potential for population-level disturbance by active sonar in herring

    Sivle, L.D.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Ainslie, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    For conservation purposes, it is important to evaluate potential population consequences of noise disturbance. Based on maximum reported sound levels of no response to sonar, a mathematical model is used to predict the potential risk to the population of herring (Clupea harengus) when these levels a

  18. Effects of Managers’ Work Motivation and Networking Activity on Their Reported Levels of External Red Tape

    Torenvlied, R.; Akkerman, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study brings together two perspectives on managers’ reported levels of red tape. The work motivation perspective explains how managers’ characteristics, such as work engagement (alienation) or commitment, affect their reported levels of red tape. The external control perspective explains how ma

  19. Increased Salivary Levels of 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine May Be a Marker for Disease Activity for Periodontitis

    Ufuk Sezer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG is commonly used as a marker to evaluate oxidative DNA damage in disorders including chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory periodontal pathologies. In the current study we hypothesized that the level of 8-OHdG in saliva increases by the periodontal destruction severity determined by clinical parameters as clinical attachment level (CAL.

  20. Are plasma oxytocin and vasopressin levels reflective of amygdala activation during the processing of negative emotions? A preliminary study

    Kosuke eMotoki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasma oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP are associated with individual differences in emotional responses and behaviors. The amygdala is considered to be an important brain region for regulating emotion-based behavior, with OT and AVP modulating activity in the amygdala during the processing of negative emotions. In particular, increased OT levels may diminish amygdala activation (anxiolytic effects and enhanced AVP levels may augment amygdala activation (anxiogenic effects when negative emotions are processed. A growing body of research has shown that the effects of OT and AVP are modulated by sex: the aforementioned anxiolytic effects of OT and the anxiogenic effects of AVP occur in men, but not in women. However, we have little knowledge regarding the biological mechanisms underlying OT and AVP plasma levels or their respective anxiogenic and anxiolytic effects; similarly, little is known about the causes and nature of sex differences related to these neuropeptides and their effects on emotional processing. In the current study, we focused on the neural functions associated with the biological mechanisms underlying such effects. We hypothesized that amygdala activation would correlate with plasma OT (anxiolytic effects and AVP (anxiogenic effects levels because the amygdala is thought to affect the coordinated release of these neuropeptides following affective experiences. We further hypothesized that the effects would be modulated by sex. We assessed 51 participants (male and female using a paradigm involving negative emotion in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging and measurements of plasma OT and AVP levels. We determined that increased plasma AVP levels were positively associated with amygdala activation (anxiogenic effects in men, but not in women. These findings highlight the potential underlying neural mechanisms of plasma AVP levels in men.

  1. Elevated serum level of IL-27 and VEGF in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and associate with disease activity.

    Lin, Tian-Tian; Lu, Jing; Qi, Chen-Yue; Yuan, Lin; Li, Xiao-Lin; Xia, Li-Ping; Shen, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Interleukin (IL)-27 is an IL-12 family cytokine and exerts a critical role in immune regulation in the context of infection, autoimmunity, and angiogenesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible pathophysiological role of IL-27 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). One hundred and forty AS patients and 90 healthy controls were included in the current study. The levels of IL-27 and VEGF in serum and synovial fluid (SF) samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 were measured by standard laboratory techniques. Disease activity in AS was scored with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Hip involvement, peripheral arthritis, and eye involvement were also recorded. The serum levels of IL-27 were remarkably higher in AS patients than healthy groups and significantly correlated with serum levels of VEGF. Furthermore, the serum levels of IL-27 were correlated with BASDAI independent of other markers of inflammation. Elevated serum levels of IL-27 and VEGF were detected in AS patients with peripheral arthritis and HLA-B27 positive. The SF levels of IL-27 and VEGF were significantly higher than serum levels in AS patients with peripheral arthritis. By contrast, levels of IL-27 and VEGF were not increased in AS patients with hip involvement and eye involvement. IL-27 may regulate the immunological or inflammatory process of AS.

  2. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: Education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity

    Cai Lian eTam; Gregory eBonn; Si Han eYeoh; Chee Piau eWong

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3% to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviours. This was do...

  3. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity

    Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done...

  4. Enzymatic Activity of Glutathione S-Transferase and Dental Fluorosis Among Children Receiving Two Different Levels of Naturally Fluoridated Water.

    Bonola-Gallardo, Irvin; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Vera-Robles, Liliana; Campero, Antonio; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to measure the activity of the enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) in saliva and to compare the activity of this enzyme in children with and without dental fluorosis in communities with different concentrations of naturally fluoridated water. A total of 141 schoolchildren participated in this cross-sectional study. Children were selected from two communities: one with a low (0.4 ppm) and the other with a high (1.8 ppm) water fluoride concentration. Dental fluorosis was evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerskov Index (TFI) criteria. Stimulated saliva was obtained, and fluoride concentration and GST activity were measured. The GST activity was compared among children with different levels of dental fluorosis using multinomial logistic regression models and odds ratios (OR). The mean age of the children was 10.6 (±1.03) years. Approximately half of the children showed dental fluorosis (52.5 %). The average GST activity was 0.5678 (±0.1959) nmol/min/μg. A higher concentration of fluoride in the saliva was detected in children with a higher GST activity (p = 0.039). A multinomial logistic regression model used to evaluate the GST activity and the dental fluorosis score identified a strong association between TFI = 2-3 (OR = 15.44, p = 0.007) and TFI ≥ 4 (OR = 55.40, p = 0.026) and the GST activity level, compared with children showing TFI = 0-1, adjusted for age and sex. Schoolchildren with higher levels of dental fluorosis and a higher fluoride concentration in the saliva showed greater GST activity. The increased GST activity most likely was the result of the body's need to inactivate free radicals produced by exposure to fluoride.

  5. Analysis of the factors influencing the process of attracting adults to regular physical activity at the local level

    Shlepakov L.N.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study - the optimization of system performance sport for all and the establishment of effective organizational relationships between the various entities at the municipal level. Conducted a survey of the ordinary citizens of working age (610 persons, 100 specialists, 2 expert groups (15 and 18 respectively. The factors influencing the process of attracting people to the motor activity: individual, social, economic, infrastructure. Classified factors comprehensively assessed the extent and consequences of the influence of each process on the system at the level of local communities. A set of actions to minimize the impact of constraints and maximizing the manifestations of factors conducive to attracting people to regular physical training and sports. The basic directions of activity: access of the general public to low cost sports facilities, tools, equipment, creation of environmentally safe and comfortable environment for practicing physical activity, overcoming the deficit of public awareness of the organization of motor activity.

  6. Low temperature activation of Au/Ti getter film for application to wafer-level vacuum packaging

    Wu, Ming; Moulin, Johan; Lani, Sébastien; Hallais, Géraldine; Renard, Charles; Bosseboeuf, Alain

    2015-03-01

    Non-evaporable getter (NEG) thin films based on alloys of transition metals have been studied by various authors for vacuum control in wafer-level packages of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). These materials have typically a relatively high activation temperature (300-450 °C) which is incompatible with some temperature sensitive MEMS devices. In this work we investigate the potential of Au/Ti system with a thin or ultrathin non oxidizable Au layer as a low activation temperature getter material. In this bilayer system, gettering activation is produced by thermal outdiffusion of titanium atoms through the gold film. The outdiffusion kinetics of titanium was modelled and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) at various temperatures. Results confirm that Au/Ti bilayer is a promising getter material for wafer-level packaging with an activation temperature below 300 °C for 1 h annealing time.

  7. Plasma levels of thrombomodulin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and fibrinogen in elderly, diabetic patients with depressive symptoms

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes, depression and aging have been associated with pro-inflammatory and prothrombotic state. Aim The aim of the study was to determine the plasma levels of thrombomodulin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and fibrinogen in elderly diabetic patients with and without depressive symptoms and to examine factors (including thrombomodulin, PAI-1, fibrinogen levels) associated with depressive symptoms in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods A total of 276 T...

  8. Hair cortisol levels as a retrospective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary axis activity throughout pregnancy: Comparison to salivary cortisol

    D’Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L.; ROSS, RANDAL G .; Natvig, Crystal L.; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal/child outcomes. One potential biomarker of the maternal stress response is cortisol, a product of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study evaluated cortisol levels in hair throughout pregnancy as a marker of total cortisol release. Cortisol levels in hair have been shown to be easily quantifiable and may be representative of total cortisol release more than single saliva or serum measures. Hair corti...

  9. Effectiveness of competitive activity of high class hockey players accounting a level of their self-esteem

    Mikhnov A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : study the effect of increasing the level of self-esteem on the efficiency of competitive activity of high class players. Material : the study involved sixteen athletes (Atlanta, Moscow region. - Continental Hockey League). Results : it was found that the application of special training self-esteem increases the level of implementation of technical and tactical action games. Number of goals increased by 8.92%, assists - 21.5%, the total number of shots on goal - to 20.02%. Conclusion...

  10. Drug levels, immunogenicity and assessment of active sacroiliitis in patients with axial spondyloarthritis under biologic tapering strategy.

    Almirall, Miriam; Gimeno, Ramón; Salman-Monte, Tarek Carlos; Iniesta, Silvia; Lisbona, Maria Pilar; Maymó, Joan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess drug levels, immunogenicity and sacroiliitis on MRI in patients with axial spondyloarthritis under biologic tapering strategy. Consecutive patients with axial spondyloarthritis who remained in low disease activity more than 1 year after dose tapering of infliximab and adalimumab were included. Plasma drug concentrations of TNF inhibitors and anti-drug antibodies were determined, and MRI of sacroiliac joints was evaluated. Of twenty patients included, eighteen had therapeutic drug levels, no patient had anti-drug antibodies, and no patient had active sacroiliitis on MRI. These data could support the biologic tapering strategy and their maintenance over time.

  11. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study

    Moloko Matshipi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i the level of physical activity; (ii the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05 relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777. The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels.

  12. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study.

    Matshipi, Moloko; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel; Kemper, Han

    2017-02-16

    Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA) and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs) may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the level of physical activity; (ii) the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii) the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females) who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05) relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777). The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels.

  13. Kinesiology Tape does not Affect Serum Creatine Kinase Level and Quadriceps Activity during Recovery from Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

    Naoko Aminaka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS causes muscle damage and edema that can hinder performance and increase risks for secondary injuries. Kinesiology Tape (KT may be an effective modality for aiding in recovery, however, no study has investigated the effects of KT on the physiological biomarkers such as serum creatine kinase (CK level, concurrently with measures of performance and function, during recovery from DOMS. Objective: Investigate the effects of KT on serum CK level, electromyographic (EMG activity of the quadriceps muscles, and performances of countermovement jump (CMJ and triple single-leg hop for distance (HopD during recovery from DOMS. Method: Fifty-eight healthy college-age participants were randomly assigned to KT (n=15, placebo (n=19, and control (n=24 groups. Serum CK level and quadriceps EMG activity and performance during CMJ and HopD were collected at baseline, immediately after repetitive eccentric quadriceps exercise, 48 hours, and 72 hours post-exercise. The EMG recording of rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis during the CMJ and HopD were normalized to the baseline maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Results: A significant main effect of time on the serum CK level, EMG activity, and performance (p0.05. Conclusion: Taping interventions did not improve the serum CK level or muscle activity and performance during recovery from DOMS. Kinesiology tape may not be the first choice of method for enhancing recovery from DOMS in otherwise healthy individuals.

  14. The relationship between particulate pollution levels in Australian cities, meteorology, and landscape fire activity detected from MODIS hotspots.

    Price, Owen F; Williamson, Grant J; Henderson, Sarah B; Johnston, Fay; Bowman, David M J S

    2012-01-01

    Smoke from bushfires is an emerging issue for fire managers because of increasing evidence for its public health effects. Development of forecasting models to predict future pollution levels based on the relationship between bushfire activity and current pollution levels would be a useful management tool. As a first step, we use daily thermal anomalies detected by the MODIS Active Fire Product (referred to as "hotspots"), pollution concentrations, and meteorological data for the years 2002 to 2008, to examine the statistical relationship between fire activity in the landscapes and pollution levels around Perth and Sydney, two large Australian cities. Resultant models were statistically significant, but differed in their goodness of fit and the distance at which the strength of the relationship was strongest. For Sydney, a univariate model for hotspot activity within 100 km explained 24% of variation in pollution levels, and the best model including atmospheric variables explained 56% of variation. For Perth, the best radius was 400 km, explaining only 7% of variation, while the model including atmospheric variables explained 31% of the variation. Pollution was higher when the atmosphere was more stable and in the presence of on-shore winds, whereas there was no effect of wind blowing from the fires toward the pollution monitors. Our analysis shows there is a good prospect for developing region-specific forecasting tools combining hotspot fire activity with meteorological data.

  15. A specific phospholipase C activity regulates phosphatidylinositol levels in lung surfactant of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Spyridakis, Spyros; Leondaritis, George; Nakos, George; Lekka, Marilena E; Galanopoulou, Dia

    2010-03-01

    Lung surfactant (LS) is a lipid-rich material lining the inside of the lungs. It reduces surface tension at the liquid/air interface and thus, it confers protection of the alveoli from collapsing. The surface-active component of LS is dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine, while anionic phospholipids such as phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) and primarily phosphatidylglycerol are involved in the stabilization of the LS monolayer. The exact role of PtdIns in this system is not well-understood; however, PtdIns levels change dramatically during the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) evolution. In this report we present evidence of a phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) activity in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, which may regulate PtdIns levels. Characterization of this extracellular activity showed specificity for PtdIns and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, sharing the typical substrate concentration-, pH-, and calcium-dependencies with mammalian PI-PLCs. Fractionation of BAL fluid showed that PI-PLC did not co-fractionate with large surfactant aggregates, but it was found mainly in the soluble fraction. Importantly, analysis of BAL samples from control subjects and from patients with ARDS showed that the PI-PLC specific activity was decreased by 4-fold in ARDS samples concurrently with the increase in BAL PtdIns levels. Thus, we have identified for the first time an extracellular PI-PLC enzyme activity that may be acutely involved in the regulation of PtdIns levels in LS.

  16. Changes in Plasma Copeptin Levels during Hemodialysis: Are the Physiological Stimuli Active in Hemodialysis Patients?

    Esmée M Ettema

    Full Text Available Plasma levels of copeptin, a surrogate marker for the vasoconstrictor hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP, are increased in hemodialysis patients. Presently, it is unknown what drives copeptin levels in hemodialysis patients. We investigated whether the established physiological stimuli for copeptin release, i.e. plasma osmolality, blood volume and mean arterial pressure (MAP, are operational in hemodialysis patients.One hundred and eight prevalent, stable hemodialysis patients on a thrice-weekly dialysis schedule were studied during hemodialysis with constant ultrafiltration rate and dialysate conductivity in this observational study. Plasma levels of copeptin, sodium, MAP, and blood volume were measured before, during and after hemodialysis. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the association between copeptin (dependent variable and the physiological stimuli plasma sodium, MAP, excess weight as well as NT-pro-BNP immediately prior to dialysis and between copeptin and changes of plasma sodium, MAP and blood volume with correction for age, sex and diabetes during dialysis treatment.Patients were 63 ± 15.6 years old and 65% were male. Median dialysis vintage was 1.6 years (IQR 0.7-4.0. Twenty-three percent of the patients had diabetes and 82% had hypertension. Median predialysis copeptin levels were 141.5 pmol/L (IQR 91.0-244.8 pmol/L. Neither predialysis plasma sodium levels, nor NT-proBNP levels, nor MAP were associated with predialysis copeptin levels. During hemodialysis, copeptin levels rose significantly (p<0.01 to 163.0 pmol/L (96.0-296.0 pmol/L. Decreases in blood volume and MAP were associated with increases in copeptin levels during dialysis, whereas there was no significant association between the change in plasma sodium levels and the change in copeptin levels.Plasma copeptin levels are elevated predialysis and increase further during hemodialysis. Volume stimuli, i.e. decreases in MAP and blood volume, rather than osmotic

  17. Student Perception of Metacognitive Activities in Entry-Level Science Courses

    Sandall, Leah; Mamo, Martha; Speth, Carol; Lee, Don; Kettler, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    A research study investigated student perception of the use of metacognitive activities in the classroom. The courses were large enrollment (n greater than 100) introductory Plant and Soil Sciences courses taught in the fall semester. The courses implemented activities such as concept sketches or conceptual modeling to help students develop their…

  18. Instructions, Feedback, and Reinforcement in Reducing Activity Levels in the Classroom.

    Schulman, Jerome L.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Results indicated that the intervention package--including instructions, feedback from an electronic device that measures motor activity, and contingent reinforcement--was successful in reducing activity in the classroom for 8 of the 11 emotionally disturbed Ss (ages 9 to 13 years). (Author/DLS)

  19. Engaging in Dramatic Activities in English as a Foreign Language Classes at the University Level

    Algarra Carrasco, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we discuss how, through dramatic activities, fiction and reality can work together to help the English as a Foreign language learner communicate in a more personal and meaningful way. The kind of activities proposed are designed to help engender a space where students can personally engage with each other in an atmosphere that is…

  20. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  1. Low-level electrical currents and brain indicators of behavioral activation

    F. Lolas

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Distinguishing between slow brain potential correlates of arousal and activation on the basis of their functional role and temporal involvement during a reaction-time task, data are presented which suggest that weak electrical polarizing currents applied to the head in human subjects modify predominantly activation indicators rather than arousal ones.

  2. Decision-making in trauma team activation at a Dutch level 1 trauma centre

    Egberink, Rolf; Hesselink, Danique; IJzerman, Maarten J.; Vugt, van Arie; Doggen, Carine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Trauma team activation is a kind of triage the staff of an Emergency Department (ED) exerts to determine whether a trauma team needs to be activated for severely injured patients and in what composition the team needs to be deployed. It is a difficult decision-making process which is o

  3. Effect of level of autonomy on the amount of physical activity in young children

    BACKGROUND: Emerging research has indicated that providing choice of exercise options increases the amount of physical activity children perform. However, these studies have not yet assessed this effect using physical activities children typically have access to in a naturalistic setting. PURPOSE...

  4. Increased MMP-2 activity during intervertebral disc degeneration is correlated to MMP-14 levels

    Rutges, J. P. H. J.; Kummer, J. A.; Oner, F. C.; Verbout, A. J.; Roestenburg, H. J. A.; Dhert, W. J. A.; Creemers, L. B.

    2008-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is associated with the increased expression of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particular MMP-2. However, little is known about the actual activity of MMP-2 in healthy and degenerated discs, or what mechanisms are involved in its activation. A majo

  5. The effects of individual, family and environmental factors on physical activity levels in children: a cross-sectional study

    Cadogan, Sharon L; Keane, Eimear; Kearney, Patricia M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity plays an important role in optimising physical and mental health during childhood, adolescence, and throughout adult life. This study aims to identify individual, family and environmental factors that determine physical activity levels in a population sample of children in Ireland. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of the first wave (2008) of the nationally representative Growing Up in Ireland study. A two-stage clustered sampling method was used where national s...

  6. The Contribution of Active Journey to School to overall Physical Activity Level of Children and Adolescents: Review Article

    Tanja Jerina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Daily active journey (AJ to/from school can be an important source of physical activity (PA of children and adolescents, necessary for their overall development and health preservation. Yet, the relation between AJ to/from school and PA of children and adolescents is still not clear. The purpose of this article is to find out whether the AJ to/from school influences the rise of PA. Systematic examination of electronic databases such as MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Springerlink, in May 2012 helped us find relevant articles of which 18 met the criteria for inclusion in our review. Studies include children and adolescents aged 5 to 16 years and quantitatively analyse the relationship between AJ and PA. Fourteen out of eighteen studies report that children and adolescents who practice AJ accumulate more PA compared to those who are driven to/from school. At the same time 8 studies report a positive correlation between AJ to/from school and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA. More longitudinal studies would be necessary to get a deeper insight into the link between AJ and PA. Establishing uniformed criteria for monitoring AJ and PA and monitoring factors that influence the decision for the AJ would contribute to comparability of the results of individual studies and would at the same time make the development of effective intervention programmes for encouraging AJ among children and adolescents possible.

  7. Associations between initial change in physical activity level and subsequent change in regional body fat distributions

    Ezekwe, Kelechi A; Adegboye, Amanda R A; Gamborg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined which lifestyle factors relate to the development of fat distribution. Therefore, the identification of the determinants of changes in fat deposition is highly relevant. METHODS: The association between the change in physical activity (PA) and the subsequent...... examination, while waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured at both follow-ups. RESULTS: Among men, WC increased in the constant active group to a lesser extent than in the non-constant active group (3.4 vs. 4.1 cm; p = 0.03) concerning leisure time physical activities (LTPA......). A similar pattern was observed for both WC and HC in relation to occupational physical activities (OPA) (p = 0.02). Among women, the results went in the same direction for LTPA, whereas the associations with OPA were in the opposite direction (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: LTPA and OPA were associated...

  8. What do mothers want to know about teens' activities? Levels, trajectories, and correlates.

    Smetana, Judith G; Rote, Wendy M

    2015-01-01

    Middle class mothers (n = 169) of middle adolescents (M = 15.69 years old) in the U.S. rated how much they want to know and responded qualitatively about what they "always" and "never" want to know about adolescents' risky prudential (e.g., drinking alcohol, using illegal drugs), personal (e.g., teens' private conversations), and multifaceted (involving overlapping prudential and personal concerns) activities. Latent growth curve modeling over one year showed that mothers wanted to know most about prudential, less about multifaceted, and least about personal activities; wanting to know declined over time for each type of activity, but less for prudential than for other activities. With teen problem behavior controlled, psychologically controlling parenting, supportive and negative interactions with teens, knowledge of adolescents' activities, and teens' age were associated with individual differences in mothers' initial ratings and trajectories of wanting to know, although results varied by domain and were moderated by teen gender.

  9. Estrogen alters baseline and inflammatory-induced cytokine levels independent from hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity.

    Shivers, Kai-Yvonne; Amador, Nicole; Abrams, Lisa; Hunter, Deirtra; Jenab, Shirzad; Quiñones-Jenab, Vanya

    2015-04-01

    Although estrogen reduces inflammatory-mediated pain responses, the mechanisms behind its effects are unclear. This study investigated if estrogen modulates inflammatory signaling by reducing baseline or inflammation-induced cytokine levels in the injury-site, serum, dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and/or spinal cord. We further tested whether estrogen effects on cytokine levels are in part mediated through hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation. Lumbar DRG, spinal cord, serum, and hind paw tissue were analyzed for cytokine levels in 17β-estradiol-(20%) or vehicle-(100% cholesterol) treated female rats following ovariectomy/sham adrenalectomy (OVX), adrenalectomy/sham ovariectomy (ADX) or ADX+OVX operation at baseline and post formalin injection. Formalin significantly increased pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 levels in the paw, as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in the DRG, spinal cord and serum in comparison to naïve conditions. Estrogen replacement significantly increased anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels in the DRG. Centrally, estradiol significantly decreased pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1β levels, as well as IL-10 levels, in the spinal cord in comparison to cholesterol treatment. At both sites, most estradiol modulatory effects occurred irrespective of pain or surgical condition. Estradiol alone had no influence on cytokine release in the paw or serum, indicating that estrogen effects were site-specific. Although cytokine levels were altered between surgical conditions at baseline and following formalin administration, ADX operation did not significantly reverse estradiol's modulation of cytokine levels. These results suggest that estrogen directly regulates cytokines independent of HPA axis activity in vivo, in part by reducing cytokine levels in the spinal cord.

  10. Levels of physical activity, barriers, and stage of change in an urban population from a municipality in Colombia

    Mónica María Arenas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the levels of physical activity, barriers, and stage of change in an urban population 25 to 50 yearsof age from the Municipality of Santa Rosa de Osos, department of Antioquia.Materials and methods: A prevalence study was conducted, with a two-stage random sampling among 357 individualsnot suffering from any known cardiovascular disease. A pre-designed survey was conducted to assess the levels of physicalactivity, the stage of change, and physical activity barriers.Results: The total low physical activity was 9%, and by domains: work 66.9%, transport 60.8%, household and garden(yard work 44.8%, and leisure-time 76.2%. The most important physical activity barriers were «lack of willpower» (70%and «lack of time» (46.2%. The most prevalent stages of change were «contemplation» (40.3% and «preparation» (17.1%.Conclusion: low physical activity levels were found in different domains of daily life, together with a high prevalenceof barriers and stages prior to physical activity practice, mainly among women and obese subjects.

  11. Effects of Iron Supplementation and Activity on Serum Iron Depletion and Hemoglobin Levels in Female Athletes

    Cooter, G. Rankin; Mowbray, Kathy W.

    1978-01-01

    Research revealed that a four-month basketball training program did not significantly alter serum iron, total iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, and percent saturation levels in female basketball athletes. (JD)

  12. Analysis of vibration reduction level in an 8/6 switched reluctance machine by active vibration cancellation

    Xu LIU; Zai-ping PAN; Z.Q. ZHU

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an analytical model for predicting the maximum vibration reduction level in a four-phase 8/6switched reluctance machine(SRM)by employing active vibration cancellation(AVC),one of the most effective and convenient methods for reducing the vibration and acoustic noise produced by SRMs.Based on the proposed method,the factors that influence the vibration reduction level are analyzed in detail.The relationships between vibration and noise reduction levels at resonance frequency and rotor speed are presented.Moreover,it is shown that a large damping factor will lead to smaller vibration reduction level with AVC while,in contrast,a large resonance frequency will increase the vibration reduction level.Both finite element analyses and experiments were carried out on a prototype 8/6 SRM to validate the proposed method.

  13. Correlation of systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity with classical complement (CH50 function and related protein levels

    Salesi M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The components of the classical complement pathway play an important role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and are reportedly useful biomarkers of disease activity. In this study, we evaluate disease activity, complement function (total hemolytic complement, CH50 and complement protein levels (C3, C4, C3d, C4d, SC5b-9, comparing the results of patients with active disease versus those with inactive disease."n"nMethods: This cross-sectional study included 78 hospitalized women with SLE, 24 of whom were in the active group, with SLE disease activity indexes (SLEDAI.2K of >6, and 54 in the inactive group, with SLEDAI.2K of ≤6. Serum CH50 was measured using a red blood cell hemolytic assay. C3 and C4 levels were determined by nephlometry and plasma levels of C3d, C4d, SC5b-9 by ELISA. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS."n"nResults: The mean (±standard error C4d levels of the inactive group were significantly higher than those of the active group (23.39±1.1µg/ml and 16.9±1.6µg/ml, respectively; p=0.003. There was also a significant correlation between C3 and C4 levels (p=0.807. The mean values of the other proteins (C3, C4, CH50, SC5b-9, and C3d circulating immune complex concentrations were not significantly different between the inactive group vs. the active group: 89.35±6.8 vs. 85.54±7.6mg/dl, 18.33±2.3 vs. 20.45±2.4mg/dl, 149.03±4.3 vs. 157±4.3U, 1414.4±114.94 vs. 1471.1±216.9ng/ml, 9.43±0.96 vs. 13.31±3.16µgEq/ml, respectively (p>0.05."n"nConclusions: According to our results, C4d levels may be used as a biomarker of disease activity. The significant correlation between C3 and C4 may confirm the activity of the classical pathway in SLE patients."n"nKeywords: Systemic lupus erythematosus, CH50, C3, C4, C3d, C4d, SC5b-9, inactive, flare.

  14. Enhanced levels of urokinase plasminogen activator and its soluble receptor in common variable immunodeficiency

    Fevang, Børre; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Yndestad, Arne;

    2009-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by defective immunoglobulin production and high frequency of bacterial infections, autoimmunity and manifestations of chronic inflammation. The urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), its cell bound and soluble recep...

  15. Factors That Influence Exercise Among Adults With Arthritis in Three Activity Levels

    Der Ananian, Cheryl; Wilcox, Sara; Saunders, Ruth; Watkins, Ken; Evans, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Recent public health objectives emphasize the importance of exercise for reducing disability among people with arthritis. Despite the documented benefits of exercise, people with arthritis are less active than those without arthritis. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that influence exercise participation among insufficiently active individuals with arthritis and to compare these factors with those identified by nonexercisers and regular exercisers with arthrit...

  16. Antiepileptic activity of lobeline isolated from the leaf of Lobelia nicotianaefolia and its effect on brain GABA level in mice

    Abrar M Tamboli; Rukhsana A Rub; Pinaki Ghosh; SL Bodhankar

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the anticonvulsant activity of the lobeline isolated from the Lobelia nicotianaefolia in chemoconvulsant-induced seizures and its biochemical mechanism by investigating relationship between seizure activities and altered gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) in brain of mice in Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure models. Methods:The anticonvulsant activity of the isolated lobeline (5, 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) was investigated in PTZ and strychnine induced seizures in mice and the effect of isolated lobeline on brain GABA level in seizures induced by PTZ. Diazepam was used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for comparison. Results:Isolated lobeline (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly delayed and antagonized (P<0.050–0.001) the onset of PTZ-induced seizures. It also antagonized strychnine induced seizures. The mortality was also prevented in the test group of animals. In biochemical evaluation, isolated lobeline (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased the brain GABA level. And at dose of 30 mg/kg GABA level showed slight decrease in PTZ model. Conclusions:In our findings, isolated lobeline (20mg/kg) exhibited potent anticonvulsant activity against PTZ induced seizures. Also a biochemical evaluation suggested significant increase in barain GABA level at 20 mg/kg i.p. of isolated lobeline. Hence, we may propose that lobeline reduces epileptic seizures by enhancing the GABA release supporting the GABAergic mechanism.

  17. Effects of exercise in polluted air on the aerobic power, serum lactate level and cell blood count of active individuals

    Mehdi Kargarfard

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Exercise in high-polluted air resulted in a significant reduction in the performance at submaximal levels of physical exertion. Therefore, the acute exposure to polluted air may cause a significant reduction in the performance of active individuals. The clinical importance of these findings should be assessed in longitudinal studies.

  18. The Influence of the Level of Free-Choice Learning Activities on the Use of an Educational Computer Game

    Barendregt, Wolmet; Bekker, Tilde M.

    2011-01-01

    Employing a mixed-method explorative approach, this study examined the in situ use of and opinions about an educational computer game for learning English introduced in three schools offering different levels of freedom to choose school activities. The results indicated that the general behaviour of the children with the game was very different…

  19. Mapping Research Activities and Technologies for Sustainability and Environmental Studies--A Case Study at University Level

    Hara, Keishiro; Uwasu, Michinori; Kurimoto, Shuji; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Umeda, Yasushi; Shimoda, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Systemic understanding of potential research activities and available technology seeds at university level is an essential condition to promote interdisciplinary and vision-driven collaboration in an attempt to cope with complex sustainability and environmental problems. Nonetheless, any such practices have been hardly conducted at universities…

  20. A comparison of the levels of oil, carotenoids, and lipolytic enzyme activities in modern lines and hybrids of grain sorghum

    Thirteen modern commercial grain sorghum hybrids and five sorghum lines were extracted and the levels of oil and carotenoids were analyzed and compared. The same samples were also evaluated for lipolytic enzyme activity. The oil content in all eighteen samples ranged from 3.21 to 4.29 wt%. Beta c...

  1. The Acid Sphingomyelinase Sequence Variant p.A487V Is Not Associated With Decreased Levels of Enzymatic Activity.

    Rhein, Cosima; Naumann, Julia; Mühle, Christiane; Zill, Peter; Adli, Mazda; Hegerl, Ulrich; Hiemke, Christoph; Mergl, Roland; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Reichel, Martin; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Rare loss-of-function mutations in the sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) gene are known to dramatically decrease the catalytic activity of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), resulting in an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder known as Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A and B. In contrast to the general low frequency of those deleterious mutations, we found a relatively high frequency for the proposed type B NPD variant c.1460C>T (p.A487V) in our sample of 58 patients suffering from Major Depressive Disorder. We therefore investigated the biochemical consequences of this variant more closely. Our in vivo data derived from blood cell analyses indicated cellular ASM activity levels in the normal range. The secreted ASM activity levels in blood plasma were slightly lower, but still above those levels reported for type B NPD patients. In vitro expression studies of this ASM variant in different cell lines confirmed these results, showing cellular and secreted enzymatic activities equivalent to those of wild-type ASM and similar expression levels. Thus, we conclude that the ASM variant c.1460C>T (p.A487V) is not a rare missense mutation but an SMPD1 sequence variant that yields a protein with functional catalytic characteristics.

  2. The Effect of Recreational Activities on the Self-Esteem and Loneliness Level of the Prisoners as an Alternative Education

    Basaran, Zekiye

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of recreational activities on the self-esteem and loneliness level of prisoners as an alternative education. Method: The sample of this research consisted of 23 female prisoners who were randomly selected in Kandira prison and detention house. As preliminary and final tests, these…

  3. Modified atmosphere packaging for prevention of mold spoilage of bakery products with different pH and water activity levels.

    Guynot, M E; Marín, S; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J

    2003-10-01

    A sponge cake analog was used to study the influence of pH, water activity (aw), and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on the growth of seven fungal species commonly causing bakery product spoilage (Eurotium amstelodami, Eurotium herbariorum, Eurotium repens, Eurotium rubrum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium corylophilum). A full factorial design was used. Water activity, CO2, and their interaction were the main factors significantly affecting fungal growth. Water activity at levels of 0.80 to 0.90 had a significant influence on fungal growth and determined the concentration of CO2 needed to prevent cake analog spoilage. At an aw level of 0.85, lag phases increased twofold when the level of CO2 in the headspace increased from 0 to 70%. In general, no fungal growth was observed for up to 28 days of incubation at 25 degrees C when samples were packaged with 100% CO2, regardless of the aw level. Partial least squares projection to latent structures regression was used to build a polynomial model to predict sponge cake shelf life on the basis of the lag phases of all seven species tested. The model developed explained quite well (R2 = 79%) the growth of almost all species, which responded similarly to changes in tested factors. The results of this study emphasize the importance of combining several hurdles, such as modified atmosphere packaging, aw, and pH, that have synergistic or additive effects on the inhibition of mold growth.

  4. Female University Students’ Physical Activity Levels and Associated Factors—A Cross-Sectional Study in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Atika Khalaf

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high prevalence of physical inactivity in Saudi Arabia is a growing challenge to public health. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of physical activity (PA and associated factors among female university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who completed the Arab Teens Life Style questionnaire. Data included measurements of anthropometric, socioeconomic and environmental factors, as well as self-reported PA. Ordinal regression was used to identify associated factors with low, moderate and high PA levels. Results: The mean age of participants was 20.4 years (SD 1.5. Mean BMI of the students in relation to PA were 23.0, 22.9, 22.1 for high, moderate and low levels of activity, respectively. The analysis revealed significantly higher PA levels among married students, those with high educated mothers, and those who lived far from parks, and lower activity levels among underweight students. Conclusions: This study raises four important determinants for female university students’ PA levels. These factors could be of great importance in the endeavor to prevent the health-threatening increase in physical inactivity patterns and thus non-communicable diseases and obesity where the focus should be on the specific situation and needs of women in Saudi Arabia.

  5. Pathological findings following radical prostatectomy in patients who are candidates for active surveillance: impact of varying PSA levels

    Dong Il Kang; Thomas L.Jang; Jeongyun Jeong; Eun Young Choi; Kelly Johnson; Dong Hyeon Lee; Wun-Jae Kim; Isaac Yi Kim1

    2011-01-01

    Active surveillance is an acceptable treatment option in men with a low-risk prostate cancer.In the present study,we have retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of 509 men who fit the criteria for active surveillance but selected radical prostatectomy.Then,the impact of varying prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels on the risk of upstaging and upgrading in these patients was assessed.Pathological characteristics of patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria under three active surveillance criteria-those of the University of California-San Francisco,the National Cancer Institute and the European Association of Urology-were examined.The proportion of men who were deemed candidates for active surveillance but were subsequently upstaged or upgraded was determined.Of 509 patients,186 (36.5%),132 (25.9%) and 88 (17.3%) men fulfilled the active surveillance criteria,respectively.Upgrading (Gleason scores 7-10) ranged from 32.8% to 38.6%,while upstaging ( ≥ pT3) ranged from 10.2% to 12.5%,depending on the three active surveillance criteria.After a median follow-up of 24 months,three patients developed a biochemical recurrence.When the impact of varying PSA levels was examined using a test for trend analysis in the context of PSA for each protocol,rates of upstaging were lower in men with PSA <4 ng ml-1.However,there was no impact of varying PSA levels on upgrading.In conclusion,commonly used active surveillance protocols carry the risks of upgrading and upstaging.More reliable and accurate markers are needed to better stratify the risks of men who are appropriate candidates for active surveillance.

  6. THE STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARENTING STYLES OF MOTHERS WITH PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS AND OVERWEIGHT AMONG FEMALE STUDENTS

    Nooshin Benar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective - the purpose of the present study was to determine whether mothers parenting styles are associated with physical activity levels and Overweight in 14- to 17-years old female students lived city of Rasht. Study would focus on that mothers influence their children by what ways and which were the most effective. Methods - the target population consisted entirely of female students of Rasht City. Then, according to Odineski table 360 females, 80 ninth graders, 148 tenth graders 132 eleventh graders with mean age of 15.59±1.1 years, height 164.23±6.94 cm, weight 57.32±11.71 kg and body mass index 21.19±3.81 kg.m2 respectively volunteered to participation in this study. The study used questionnaire to collect data on parenting styles and children's physical activity. Purpose and necessity of study for every experiment have been explained. For data analysis, the descriptive (mean and standard deviation, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used. Results- the result showed that there were no significant correlation between the indices of physical activity levels and Authoritarian (r=0.083, Authoritative (r=0.104 and Permissive (r=-0.031 in Mother. Conclusions- Future studies should include longitudinal data and/or they should use the information from this study to design studies that will examine the effects of intervention activities on a child's attraction to physical activity and to promote physical activity, public health professionals could encourage Mothers to increase logistic support for their Girls physical activity. Also Strategies to promote physical activity among adolescents should focus on increasing levels of family cohesion, parental engagement, parent-child communication and adolescent self-esteem.

  7. Sleep duration and activity levels in Estonian and Swedish children and adolescents.

    Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Labayen, Idoia; Kwak, Lydia; Harro, Jaanus; Oja, Leila; Veidebaum, Toomas; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-10-01

    We aimed to examine the associations of sleep duration with time spent on sedentary, moderate and vigorous activities in children and adolescents. The sample consisted of 2,241 (53.5% girls) Estonian and Swedish children (9-10 years) and adolescents (15-16 years), from the European Youth Heart Study, in 1998-1999. Sleep duration was calculated by the difference between self-reported bedtime and time for getting up on a normal weekday. Sedentary time/physical activity was measured by accelerometry (valid data on 1,462 participants). Adolescents had lower odds than children, and Swedish higher odds than Estonian, of meeting the sleep recommendations (>9 h) (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.17-0.27; and 1.32, 1.07-1.61, respectively). Participants sleeping longer than 10 h spent more time on physical activities (all intensities) and less time on sedentary activities than those sleeping shorter durations (all P < 0.001). The associations with physical activity became non-significant after additional adjustment for age or sexual maturation (Tanner stages), whereas the associations with sedentary time became borderline significant (P = 0.09/0.03, for age and Tanner, respectively). In conclusion, these results do not suggest a link between sleep durations and activity in a relatively large sample of children and adolescents from two European countries. Consequently, the common assumption that physical activity is a mediator in the relationship between short sleep durations and obesity is not supported by our findings.

  8. Low-level laser therapy activates NF-kB via generation of reactive oxygen species in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Aaron C-H Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite over forty years of investigation on low-level light therapy (LLLT, the fundamental mechanisms underlying photobiomodulation at a cellular level remain unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we isolated murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF from transgenic NF-kB luciferase reporter mice and studied their response to 810 nm laser radiation. Significant activation of NF-kB was observed at fluences higher than 0.003 J/cm(2 and was confirmed by Western blot analysis. NF-kB was activated earlier (1 hour by LLLT compared to conventional lipopolysaccharide treatment. We also observed that LLLT induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production similar to mitochondrial inhibitors, such as antimycin A, rotenone and paraquat. Furthermore, we observed similar NF-kB activation with these mitochondrial inhibitors. These results, together with inhibition of laser induced NF-kB activation by antioxidants, suggests that ROS play an important role in the laser induced NF-kB signaling pathways. However, LLLT, unlike mitochondrial inhibitors, induced increased cellular ATP levels, which indicates that LLLT also upregulates mitochondrial respiration. CONCLUSION: We conclude that LLLT not only enhances mitochondrial respiration, but also activates the redox-sensitive NFkB signaling via generation of ROS. Expression of anti-apoptosis and pro-survival genes responsive to NFkB could explain many clinical effects of LLLT.

  9. Association between the physical activity level and the quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Çolak, Tuğba Kuru; Acar, Gönül; Dereli, E Elçin; Özgül, Bahar; Demirbüken, İlkşan; Alkaç, Çiğdem; Polat, M Gülden

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity and regular exercise play an important role in glycemic control, which is considered an important part of the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study evaluated physical activity level and its relationship with quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] We evaluated 129 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus through a face-to-face interview using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Diabetes-39. Demographic data, diabetes symptoms, time of initial diagnosis, and treatment procedure/approaches were recorded. [Results] Of the study subjects, 51 (39.5%) had low, 67 had moderate (51.9%), and 11 (8.5%) had high activity levels. The mean weekly sitting duration was 302 minutes. The mean weekly walking time was 231.7 minutes. Except for the "diabetes control" domain, scores for all the subgroups and the total score in the quality-of-life assessment had a statistically significant negative correlation with physical activity level. [Discussion] Physical inactivity negatively affects the quality of life of diabetic patients. A planned exercise education program and incorporation of exercise into the lifestyle can improve the quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  10. Geospatial Relationships between Awareness and Utilization of Community Exercise Resources and Physical Activity Levels in Older Adults

    Christopher J. Dondzila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is unclear if community-based fitness resources (CBFR translate to heightened activity levels within neighboring areas. The purpose of this study was to determine whether awareness and utilization of fitness resources and physical activity differed depending on residential distance from CBFR. Methods. Four hundred and seventeen older adults (72.9±7.7 years were randomly recruited from three spatial tiers (≤1.6, >1.6 to ≤3.2, and >3.2 to 8.0 km surrounding seven senior centers, which housed CBFR. Participants completed questionnaires on health history, CBFR, and physical activity, gathering data on CBFR awareness, utilization, and barriers, overall levels, and predictors to engagement in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Results. Across spatial tiers, there were no differences in positive awareness rates of CBFR or CBFR utilization. Engagement in MVPA differed across spatial tiers P3.2 to 8.0 km radius having the highest mean energy expenditure. Across all sites, age and income level P<0.05 were significant predictors of low and high amounts of MVPA, respectively, and current health status and lack of interest represented barriers to CBFR utilization P<0.05. Conclusion. Closer proximity to CBFR did not impact awareness or utilization rates and had an inverse relationship with physical activity.

  11. Effectiveness of competitive activity of high class hockey players accounting a level of their self-esteem

    Mikhnov A.P.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : study the effect of increasing the level of self-esteem on the efficiency of competitive activity of high class players. Material : the study involved sixteen athletes (Atlanta, Moscow region. - Continental Hockey League. Results : it was found that the application of special training self-esteem increases the level of implementation of technical and tactical action games. Number of goals increased by 8.92%, assists - 21.5%, the total number of shots on goal - to 20.02%. Conclusions : it is recommended specialized program correction level of self-esteem from 10 separate studies. Classes have different target setting: habit forming positive attitudes towards themselves, develop skills of active life position, securing high self-esteem. The program is used for two weeks in the preparatory period of training.

  12. Changes in plasma catecholamine and neuropeptide Y levels after sympathetic activation in dogs.

    Poncet, M. F.; Damase-Michel, C.; Tavernier, G.; Tran, M. A.; Berlan, M.; Montastruc, J. L.; Montastruc, P.

    1992-01-01

    1. Plasma levels of noradrenaline (NA) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were evaluated in two experimental models associated with an increase in sympathetic tone: conscious dogs which were subject to either sinoaortic denervation or acute administration of the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine. 2. Dogs that had undergone sinoaortic denervation exhibited a two fold increase in plasma NA without any change in NPY levels. 3. Yohimbine (0.05 mg kg-1 i.v. as a bolus) produced similar effects. A higher dose of yohimbine (0.5 mg kg-1 i.v.) increased both plasma NA (7 fold) and NPY (6.5 fold) levels. 4. The present results indicate that changes in plasma catecholamines and NPY are not always concomitant. They suggest that the simultaneous release of NA and NPY is only observed under in vivo conditions for a marked increase in sympathetic tone. PMID:1596679

  13. Minocycline treatment inhibits microglial activation and alters spinal levels of endocannabinoids in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    Guasti, Leonardo; Richardson, Denise; Jhaveri, Maulik; Eldeeb, Khalil; Barrett, David; Elphick, Maurice R; Alexander, Stephen P H; Kendall, David; Michael, Gregory J; Chapman, Victoria

    2009-07-01

    Activation of spinal microglia contributes to aberrant pain responses associated with neuropathic pain states. Endocannabinoids (ECs) are present in the spinal cord, and inhibit nociceptive processing; levels of ECs may be altered by microglia which modulate the turnover of endocannabinoids in vitro. Here, we investigate the effect of minocycline, an inhibitor of activated microglia, on levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and the related compound N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA), in neuropathic spinal cord. Selective spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in rats resulted in mechanical allodynia and the presence of activated microglia in the ipsilateral spinal cord. Chronic daily treatment with minocycline (30 mg/kg, ip for 14 days) significantly reduced the development of mechanical allodynia at days 5, 10 and 14 post-SNL surgery, compared to vehicle-treated SNL rats (P pain states.

  14. Minocycline treatment inhibits microglial activation and alters spinal levels of endocannabinoids in a rat model of neuropathic pain

    Elphick Maurice R

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Activation of spinal microglia contributes to aberrant pain responses associated with neuropathic pain states. Endocannabinoids (ECs are present in the spinal cord, and inhibit nociceptive processing; levels of ECs may be altered by microglia which modulate the turnover of endocannabinoids in vitro. Here, we investigate the effect of minocycline, an inhibitor of activated microglia, on levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, and the related compound N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA, in neuropathic spinal cord. Selective spinal nerve ligation (SNL in rats resulted in mechanical allodynia and the presence of activated microglia in the ipsilateral spinal cord. Chronic daily treatment with minocycline (30 mg/kg, ip for 14 days significantly reduced the development of mechanical allodynia at days 5, 10 and 14 post-SNL surgery, compared to vehicle-treated SNL rats (P P P P P

  15. Teaching for Active Learning in Two Primary-Level Islamic Schools (Madrasahs in North Sumatra

    [None] Suprayetno W.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching for active learning is an instructional strategy that has been promoted for some time in Indonesia through various government educational reform initiatives and international development efforts. These efforts, however, have tended to target teachers in public primary schools (SD: sekolah dasar or public junior high schools (SMP: sekolah menengah pertama rather than equivalent schools in the Islamic education sector (madrasah ibtidâ’iyah and madrasah tsanawiyah. Utilizing data gathered from focus group discussions, individual interviews, and classroom discussions, this action research study examined the specific challenges faced by Islamic Studies teachers in teaching for active learning in two public Islamic primary schools (MIN: madrasah ibtidâ’iyah negeri in the district of Deli Serdang, North Sumatra. Our article goes on to describe the difficulties Islamic Studies teachers have in applying active learning teaching strategies learned in demonstrations of teaching for active learning in science, mathematics and other secular subjects to Islamic Studies. Key Words: Islamic Education, Active Learning, Religious Studies, Indonesia

  16. Short term exposure to elevated levels of leptin reduces proximal tubule cell metabolic activity.

    Briffa, Jessica F; Grinfeld, Esther; McAinch, Andrew J; Poronnik, Philip; Hryciw, Deanne H

    2014-01-25

    Leptin plays a pathophysiological role in the kidney, however, its acute effects on the proximal tubule cells (PTCs) are unknown. In opossum kidney (OK) cells in vitro, Western blot analysis identified that exposure to leptin increases the phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p44/42 and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Importantly leptin (0.05, 0.10, 0.25 and 0.50 μg/ml) significantly reduced the metabolic activity of PTCs, and significantly decreased protein content per cell. Investigation of the role of p44/42 and mTOR on metabolic activity and protein content per cell, demonstrated that in the presence of MAPK inhibitor U0126 and mTOR inhibitor Ku-63794, that the mTOR pathway is responsible for the reduction in PTC metabolic activity in response to leptin. However, p44/42 and mTOR play no role the reduced protein content per cell in OKs exposed to leptin. Therefore, leptin modulates metabolic activity in PTCs via an mTOR regulated pathway.

  17. Restoring physiological levels of ascorbate slows tumor growth and moderates HIF-1 pathway activity in Gulo(-/-) mice.

    Campbell, Elizabeth J; Vissers, Margreet C M; Bozonet, Stephanie; Dyer, Arron; Robinson, Bridget A; Dachs, Gabi U

    2015-02-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) governs cellular adaption to the hypoxic microenvironment and is associated with a proliferative, metastatic, and treatment-resistant tumor phenotype. HIF-1 levels and transcriptional activity are regulated by proline and asparagine hydroxylases, which require ascorbate as cofactor. Ascorbate supplementation reduced HIF-1 activation in vitro, but only limited data are available in relevant animal models. There is no information of the effect of physiological levels of ascorbate on HIF activity and tumor growth, which was measured in this study. C57BL/6 Gulo(-/-) mice (a model of the human ascorbate dependency condition) were supplemented with 3300 mg/L, 330 mg/L, or 33 mg/L of ascorbate in their drinking water before and during subcutaneous tumor growth of B16-F10 melanoma or Lewis lung carcinoma (LL/2). Ascorbate levels in tumors increased significantly with elevated ascorbate intake and restoration of wild-type ascorbate levels led to a reduction in growth of B16-F10 (log phase P ascorbate supplementation increased for both tumor models (P ascorbate was inversely correlated with levels of the HIF-1 target proteins CA-IX, GLUT-1, and VEGF in both B16-F10 and LL/2 tumors (P ascorbate groups but varied between models (30% for B16-F10 and 21% for LL/2), indicating that ascorbate did not affect tumor hypoxia. Our data support the hypothesis that restoration of optimal intracellular ascorbate levels reduces tumor growth via moderation of HIF-1 pathway activity.

  18. Cysteine peptidase and its inhibitor activity levels and vitamin E concentration in normal human serum and colorectal carcinomas

    Robert Szwed; Zygmunt Grzebieniak; Yousif Saleh; Godwin Bwire Ekonjo; Maciej Siewinski

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Cysteine peptidase (CP) and its inhibitor (CPI) are a matrix protease that may be associated with colorectal carcinoma invasion and progression, and vitamin E is also a stimulator of the immunological system. Our purpose was to determine the correlation between the expression of cysteine peptidases and their endogenous inhibitors,and the level of vitamin E in sera of patients with colorectal cancer in comparison with healthy individuals.METHODS: The levels of cysteine peptidases and their inhibitors were determined in the sera of patients with primary and metastatic colorectal carcinoma and healthy individuals using fluorogenic substrate, and the level of vitamin E was determined by HPLC.RESULTS: The levels of cysteine peptidases and their inhibitors were significantly higher in the metastatic colorectal cancer patients than that in the healthy controls (P<0.05).The activity of CP increased 2.2-fold, CPI 2.8-fold and vitamin E decreased 3.4-fold in sera of patients with metastasis in comparison with controls. The level of vitamin E in healthy individuals was higher, whereas the activity of cysteine peptidases and their inhibitors associated with complexes was lower than that in patients with cancer of the digestive tract.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the serum levels of CP and their inhibitors could be an indicator of the prognosis for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Vitamin E can be administered prophylactically to prevent digestive tract neoplasmas.

  19. Correlation between vitamin D levels and muscle fatigue risk factors based on physical activity in healthy older adults

    Al-Eisa ES

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Einas S Al-Eisa,1 Ahmad H Alghadir,1 Sami A Gabr1,2 1Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of serum vitamin D levels with physical activity, obesity, muscle fatigue biomarkers, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in healthy older adults.Methods: A total of 85 healthy older subjects aged 64–96 years were recruited in this study. Based on estimated energy expenditure scores, the participants were classified into three groups: inactive (n=25, moderate (n=20, and physically active (n=35. Serum 25(OHD (25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, metabolic syndrome parameters, TAC activity, muscle fatigue biomarkers (Ca, creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline, physical activity, body fatness, and fatigue score (visual analog scale were estimated using immunoassay techniques and prevalidated questionnaires, respectively.Results: Physical activity was estimated in 64.6% of the participants. Males showed higher physical activity (42.5% compared to females (26.25%. Compared to participants with lower activity, significant reduction in body mass index, waist circumference, hips, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were observed in moderate and physically active participants. Also, significant increase in the levels of serum 25(OHD concentrations, calcium, and TAC activity along with reduction in the levels of muscle fatigue biomarkers: creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline, and fatigue scores (visual analog scale were reported in physically active participants compared to those of lower physical activity. In all participants, serum 25(OHD concentrations correlated positively with Ca, TAC, physical activity scores

  20. Are associations between electronic media use and BMI different across levels of physical activity?

    Melkevik, Ole; Haug, Ellen; Rasmussen, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    and electronic media use are additive or interactive in predicting BMI and risk for overweight among adolescents. METHODS: The data used in this study stem from the 2009/2010 survey of "Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: A WHO Cross-National Survey. The sample consisted of 107184 13 and 15......BACKGROUND: The use of electronic media has been found to be a risk factor for higher BMI and for being overweight. Physical activity has been found to be associated with lower BMI and lower risk for being overweight. Little is known about whether the associations between physical activity...

  1. Intestinal morphology and enzymatic activity in newly weaned piglets fed contrasting fiber levels and fiber properties

    Eskildsen, Maria

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The main objective of this study was to determinetheeffectoffibersourceandconcentrationon morphological characteristics, mucin staining pattern, and mucosal enzyme activities in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. The experiment included 50 pigs from 10 litters weaned at 4 wk of age (BW ...... the small intestine, indicating that the pigs fed the pectinKey words: digestive enzyme, fiber, gut morphology, mucin, pig ......ABSTRACT: The main objective of this study was to determinetheeffectoffibersourceandconcentrationon morphological characteristics, mucin staining pattern, and mucosal enzyme activities in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. The experiment included 50 pigs from 10 litters weaned at 4 wk of age (BW 8...

  2. Individual variability in esterase activity and CYP1A levels in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exposed to esfenvalerate and chlorpyrifos

    Wheelock, C.E.; Eder, K.J.; Werner, I.; Huang, H.; Jones, P.D.; Brammell, B.F.; Elskus, A.A.; Hammock, B.D.

    2005-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity has traditionally been monitored as a biomarker of organophosphate (OP) and/or carbamate exposure. However, AChE activity may not be the most sensitive endpoint for these agrochemicals, because OPs can cause adverse physiological effects at concentrations that do not affect AChE activity. Carboxylesterases are a related family of enzymes that have higher affinity than AChE for some OPs and carbamates and may be more sensitive indicators of environmental exposure to these pesticides. In this study, carboxylesterase and AChE activity, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein levels, and mortality were measured in individual juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) following exposure to an OP (chlorpyrifos) and a pyrethroid (esfenvalerate). As expected, high doses of chlorpyrifos and esfenvalerate were acutely toxic, with nominal concentrations (100 and 1 ??g/l, respectively) causing 100% mortality within 96 h. Exposure to chlorpyrifos at a high dose (7.3 ??g/l), but not a low dose (1.2 ??g/l), significantly inhibited AChE activity in both brain and muscle tissue (85% and 92% inhibition, respectively), while esfenvalerate exposure had no effect. In contrast, liver carboxylesterase activity was significantly inhibited at both the low and high chlorpyrifos dose exposure (56% and 79% inhibition, respectively), while esfenvalerate exposure still had little effect. The inhibition of carboxylesterase activity at levels of chlorpyrifos that did not affect AChE activity suggests that some salmon carboxylesterase isozymes may be more sensitive than AChE to inhibition by OPs. CYP1A protein levels were ???30% suppressed by chlorpyrifos exposure at the high dose, but esfenvalerate had no effect. Three teleost species, Chinook salmon, medaka (Oryzias latipes) and Sacramento splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus), were examined for their ability to hydrolyze a series of pyrethroid surrogate substrates and in all cases hydrolysis activity was

  3. Brain Activity Associated with Logical Inferences in Geometry: Focusing on Students with Different Levels of Ability

    Waisman, Ilana; Leikin, Mark; Leikin, Roza

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical processing associated with solving short geometry problems requiring logical inference was examined among students who differ in their levels of general giftedness (G) and excellence in mathematics (EM) using ERP research methodology. Sixty-seven male adolescents formed four major research groups designed according to various…

  4. Platelet Activation Determines Angiopoietin-1 and VEGF Levels in Malaria : Implications for Their Use as Biomarkers

    Brouwers, Judith; Noviyanti, Rintis; Fijnheer, Rob; de Groot, Philip G.; Trianty, Leily; Mudaliana, Siti; Roest, Mark; Syafruddin, Din; van der Ven, Andre; de Mast, Quirijn

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The angiogenic proteins angiopoietin (Ang)-1, Ang-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are regulators of endothelial inflammation and integrity. Since platelets store large amounts of Ang-1 and VEGF, measurement of circulation levels of these proteins is sensitive to platele

  5. Studies on porcine pancreatic elastase activity. II. Immunoreactive elastase level during acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis in pigs.

    Nakajima, Y; Matsuno, S; Noto, N; Saitoh, Y; Sato, T

    1980-06-01

    Acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis was produced in pig to study serum concentration of elastase and its physiological role. Pancreatitis was induced in two groups of young pigs by the injection of autologous bile. One group was injected with autologous bile (0.5 ml/kg) at high pressure, and the second group was injected as low pressure (100 cm H2O). Then femoral blood, portal blood and thoracic lymph were sampled at scheduled time intervals. The control level of immunoreactive elastase was around 90 ng/ml in each site, which significantly increased beginning 15 min after bile injection; the level of immunoreactive elastase was higher in the thoracic lymph duct than in the femoral and portal vein. The total and free elastase of both groups in pancreatic tissue were significantly decreased in pancreatitis, and an abundance of immunoreactive elastase was found in the ascites. The increasing pattern of immunoreactive elastase and amylase after bile injection was very similar. Therefore, the level of immunoreactive elastase was considered to be inadequate to determine the grade of severity of pancreatitis as well as the level of amylase which is already known.

  6. Effect of Massage Therapy on Labor Progress and Plasma Levels of Cortisol in the Active Stage of First Labor

    Ebrahim Hosseini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety and stress during labor increase plasma level of cortisol hormone and slow down the progress of delivery. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of massage therapy on the progress of labor and plasma level of cortisol in nulliparous women in labor.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 subjects were selected voluntarily among nulliparous women aged 20 to 30 years in active labor phase. They, then, divided into two equal experimental and control groups randomly. The experimental group in the active phase (dilated 3-4 cm to transitional phase (dilated 8-10 cm received massage therapy. The massage was done for 10 minutes with 10 minutes rest in between sets. Meanwhile, control group received no intervention. Next, labor duration and plasma level of cortisol hormone were evaluated by drawing blood of parturient women. Results were analyzed using independent t-test and paired t-test.Results: The mean age of control and experimental groups were, 23.9±30 and 23.6±4.0 years, respectively. In terms of educational level, 10% in both groups were under diploma, 23.3% and 24.3% of subjects in control and experimental groups, in turn, had diploma, and 16.7% and 15.7% in control and experimental groups possessed bachelor degree, respectively. The results from statistical analysis showed that labor duration and level of cortisol hormone had significant reduction in experimental group than control group (p≤0.05.Conclusion: According to the results from comparison between two groups, massage therapy decreases labor duration and the level of cortisol hormone. The probable reason is that massage may reduce stress and cortisol level, and increase uterine activity by decreasing anxiety.

  7. Ambulatory monitoring of activity levels of individuals in the sub-acute stage following stroke: a case series

    Zabjek Karl F

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an important need to better understand the activities of individual patients with stroke outside of structured therapy since this activity is likely to have a profound influence on recovery. A case-study approach was used to examine the activity levels and associated physiological load of patients with stroke throughout a day. Methods Activities and physiologic measures were recorded during a continuous 8 hour period from 4 individuals in the sub-acute stage following stroke (ranging from 49 to 80 years old; 4 to 8 weeks post-stroke in an in-patient rehabilitation hospital. Results Both heart rate (p = 0.0207 and ventilation rate (p Conclusion Activity levels of individuals with stroke during the day were generally low, though task-related changes in physiologic measures were observed. Large variability in the physiological response to even the activities deemed to be greatest intensity suggests that inclusion of such extended measurement of physiologic measures may improve understanding of physiological profile that could guide elements of the physical therapy prescription.

  8. Socio-Economic Statues and Physical Activity Levels of 3th Grade Students: A Case Study in Istanbul Beykoz Province

    Pinar Salih

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The children and adolescent period is critical time to acquire positive lifestyle habits. The aim of this study is to investigate the physical activity level of children aged between 9-10 accordance with their BMI’s and socio-economic level of their school environments. This study also reviewed the articles about physical activity level of children, its relation to their socio-economic status and some other related tasks. Inactive life style sustained together with bad eating habits brings many healthy problems such as obesity and cardiovascular disease Approach: Technological development brings with it improving life style causing sedentary life for the public in developed and also developing Country. Physical activity can be viewed as a form of healthy life because it predicts functioning and adaptation and offers capabilities that enable people to live healthy. In this purposed three different socio-economic levels of six schools were determined accordance with declaration of National Education Department in Beykoz province. Each couple of school reflected one’s Socio-Economic Status (SES. Totally 250 students from three different SES were participated (low-SES, n = 92; middle-SES, n = 73; high-SES, n = 85. Student’s height and weight were measured and their Body Mass Index (BMI was determined. BMIs were classified according to Cole’s BMI tables which were underweight, normal, overweight and obese. Children Physical Activity Questionnaire (CPAQ, which is proposed by World Health Organization, was used for assessment of their Physical Activity Level (PAL. Data from the questionnaires was collected in a suitable relational database and analyzed with SPSS statistical package. Logit log linear analysis was applied to understand the trend of qualitative variables (SES, BMIs and PALs. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the physical activity level of children aged between 9-10 accordance

  9. Serum levels of P-glycoprotein and persistence of disease activity despite treatment in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Perez-Guerrero, Edsaul Emilio; Gamez-Nava, Jorge Ivan; Muñoz-Valle, Jose Francisco; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto German; Bonilla-Lara, David; Fajardo-Robledo, Nicte Selene; Nava-Zavala, Arnulfo Hernan; Garcia-Cobian, Teresa Arcelia; Rincón-Sánchez, Ana Rosa; Murillo-Vazquez, Jessica Daniela; Cardona-Müller, David; Vazquez-Villegas, Maria Luisa; Totsuka-Sutto, Sylvia Elena; Gonzalez-Lopez, Laura

    2017-02-27

    Around 25% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) could be refractory to conventional therapies. P-glycoprotein expression on cell surface has been implied on drug resistance, however, to date, it is unknown if P-gp serum levels are associated with SLE disease activity. Evaluate the association of serum P-gp levels and SLE with disease activity despite treatment. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 93 female SLE patients, all receiving glucocorticoids at stable doses for the previous 6 months before to baseline. SLE patients were classified into two groups: (a) patients with active disease [SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) ≥ 3] despite treatment, and (b) patients with inactive disease (SLEDAI P-gp, anti-DNA, and both anti-nucleosome antibody levels were measured using ELISA. Active-SLE patients despite treatment had higher P-gp levels compared with inactive-SLE after treatment (78.02 ng/mL ± 114.11 vs. 33.75 ng/mL ± 41.11; p = 0.018) or versus reference group subjects (30.56 ng/mL ± 28.92; p = 0.011). P-gp levels correlated with the scores of SLEDAI (r = 0.26; p = 0.01), Mexican-SLEDAI (MEX-SLEDAI) (r = 0.32; p = 0.002), SLICC/ACR damage index (r = 0.47; p p = 0.001). In the multivariate model, the high P-gp levels were associated with SLICC/ACR score (p = 0.001), and SLEDAI score (p = 0.014). Our findings support a relationship between serum P-gp levels and SLE with disease activity despite treatment, but it requires further validation in longitudinal studies.

  10. Acute plasma biomarkers of T cell activation set-point levels and of disease progression in HIV-1 infection.

    Anne-Sophie Liovat

    Full Text Available T cell activation levels, viral load and CD4(+ T cell counts at early stages of HIV-1 infection are predictive of the rate of progression towards AIDS. We evaluated whether the inflammatory profile during primary HIV-1 infection is predictive of the virological and immunological set-points and of disease progression. We quantified 28 plasma proteins during acute and post-acute HIV-1 infection in individuals with known disease progression profiles. Forty-six untreated patients, enrolled during primary HIV-1 infection, were categorized into rapid progressors, progressors and slow progressors according to their spontaneous progression profile over 42 months of follow-up. Already during primary infection, rapid progressors showed a higher number of increased plasma proteins than progressors or slow progressors. The plasma levels of TGF-β1 and IL-18 in primary HIV-1 infection were both positively associated with T cell activation level at set-point (6 months after acute infection and together able to predict 74% of the T cell activation variation at set-point. Plasma IP-10 was positively and negatively associated with, respectively, T cell activation and CD4(+ T cell counts at set-point and capable to predict 30% of the CD4(+ T cell count variation at set-point. Moreover, plasma IP-10 levels during primary infection were predictive of rapid progression. In primary infection, IP-10 was an even better predictor of rapid disease progression than viremia or CD4(+ T cell levels at this time point. The superior predictive capacity of IP-10 was confirmed in an independent group of 88 HIV-1 infected individuals. Altogether, this study shows that the inflammatory profile in primary HIV-1 infection is associated with T cell activation levels and CD4(+ T cell counts at set-point. Plasma IP-10 levels were of strong predictive value for rapid disease progression. The data suggest IP-10 being an earlier marker of disease progression than CD4(+ T cell counts or

  11. Physical Activity, Energy Expenditure, Nutritional Habits, Quality of Sleep and Stress Levels in Shift-Working Health Care Personnel

    Vogt, Lena Johanna; Gärtner, Simone; Hannich, Hans Joachim; Steveling, Antje; Lerch, Markus M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Among health care personnel working regular hours or rotating shifts can affect parameters of general health and nutrition. We have investigated physical activity, sleep quality, metabolic activity and stress levels in health care workers from both groups. Methods We prospectively recruited 46 volunteer participants from the workforce of a University Medical Department of which 23 worked in rotating shifts (all nursing) and 21 non-shift regular hours (10 nursing, 13 clerical staff). All were investigated over 7 days by multisensory accelerometer (SenseWear Bodymedia® armband) and kept a detailed food diary. Physical activity and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured in metabolic equivalents of task (METs). Quality of sleep was assessed as Pittsburgh Sleeping Quality Index and stress load using the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress questionnaire (TICS). Results No significant differences were found for overall physical activity, steps per minute, time of exceeding the 3 METs level or sleep quality. A significant difference for physical activity during working hours was found between shift-workers vs. non-shift-workers (ppersonnel (median = 1.5 METs SE = 0.07, p<0.05). Non-shift-working nurses had a significantly lower REE than the other groups (p<0.05). The proportion of fat in the diet was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the office worker group (median = 42% SE = 1.2) whereas shift-working nurses consumed significantly more carbohydrates (median = 46% SE = 1.4) than clerical staff (median = 41% SE = 1.7). Stress assessment by TICS confirmed a significantly higher level of social overload in the shift working group (p<0.05). Conclusion In this prospective cohort study shift-working had no influence on overall physical activity. Lower physical activity during working hours appears to be compensated for during off-hours. Differences in nutritional habits and stress load warrant larger scale trials to determine the effect on implicit health

  12. Effects of active shock avoidance learning on hippocampal neurogenesis and plasma levels of corticosterone

    van der Borght, Karin; Meerlo, Peter; Luiten, Paul G.M.; Eggen, Bart J.L.; van der Zee, Eddy A.

    2005-01-01

    Hippocampal granule neurons that are newly formed during adulthood might be involved in learning and memory processes. Experimental data suggest that only hippocampus-dependent learning tasks stimulate neurogenesis. To further address this issue, the effects of active shock avoidance (ASA) learning

  13. Fashion Design: Designing a Learner-Active, Multi-Level High School Course

    Nelson, Diane

    2009-01-01

    A high school fashion design teacher has much in common with the ringmaster of a three-ring circus. The challenges of teaching a hands-on course are to facilitate the entire class and to meet the needs of individual students. When teaching family and consumer sciences, the goal is to have a learner-active classroom. Revamping the high school's…

  14. Physical activity energy expenditure vs cardiorespiratory fitness level in impaired glucose metabolism

    Lidegaard, Lærke P; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Johansen, Nanna B

    2015-01-01

    AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Little is known about the relative roles of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) as determinants of glucose regulation. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of PAEE and CRF with markers of glucose metabolism, and to test...

  15. Neutron-Activation Analysis of Biological Material with High Radiation Levels

    Samsahl, K.

    1966-09-15

    A method has been developed for the chemical separation and subsequent gamma-spectrometric analysis of the alkali metals, the alkaline earths, the rare earths, chromium, hafnium, lanthanum, manganese, phosphorus, scandium and silver in neutron-activated biological material. The separation steps, being fully automatic, are based on a combination of ion-exchange and partition chromatography and require 40 min.

  16. Phosphoprotein levels, MAPK activities and NF kappa B expression are affected by fisetin

    De Sousa, Roberta R. Ruela; Souza Queiroz, Karla Cristiana; Santos Souza, Ana Carolina; Gurgueira, Sonia A.; Augusto, Amanda Cavallari; Miranda, Marcio Andre; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Ferreira, Carmen Verissima; Aoyama, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Flavonoids, polyphenolic phytochemicals, are ubiquitous in plants and are commonly present in the human diet. They may exert diverse beneficial effects, including antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activities. The present study was designed to evaluate three biomolecules that play important roles in t

  17. Comparison of the Electromyographic Activation Level and Unilateral Selectivity of Erector Spinae during Different Selected Movements

    Guo, Lan-Yuen; Wang, Yu-Lin; Huang, Yu-Han; Yang, Chich-Haung; Hou, Yi-You; Harn, Hans I-Chen; You, Yu-Lin

    2012-01-01

    For patients with scoliosis, core stabilization exercises may be beneficial in improving muscle strength and trunk dynamic control. However, few studies have examined whether the erector spinae (ES) activation status during unilateral spinal extensor strengthening meets the guideline for patients with spinal scoliosis. To determine ES activation…

  18. Bias in the assessment of regulation activities in studying at the level of higher education

    Minnaert, A; Janssen, PJ

    1997-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparison between two questionnaires about regulation activities related to studying in higher education. The questionnaire developed within a different educational setting appears to be less discriminative and predictive than an equally developed local versio

  19. Lower Serum Paraoxonase-1 Activity Is Related to Higher Serum Amyloid A Levels in Metabolic Syndrome

    Kappelle, Paul Jan Willem Herman; Bijzet, Johan; Hazenberg, Bouke Pier; Dullaart, Robin Pieter Frank

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) contain the anti-oxidative enzyme, paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), which is important for atheroprotection. The acute phase reactant, serum amyloid A (SAA), an HDL-associated apolipoprotein, may impair PON-1 activity, whereas SAA and PON-1 are reciprocally

  20. State-related differences in the level of psychomotor activity in patients with bipolar disorder

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj;

    2016-01-01

    Measuring changes in psychomotor activity is a potential tool in the monitoring of the course of affective states in bipolar disorder. Previous studies have been cross-sectional and only some have used objective measures. The aim was to investigate state-related differences in objectively...

  1. Math Trivial Pursuit: Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Math Activity Book for Grades 4-6.

    Dunn, Pat

    The purpose of this activity book is to provide fun while learning and reinforcing mathematics in the following categories: (1) mathematical concepts and applications; (2) mathematical computations; (3) geometry; and (4) mathematics for daily living. A gameboard and playing cards are provided in this book. A die, pawns, and a container for the…

  2. Association and Diffusion of Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies on the State and District Level

    Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: School district wellness policies designed to reduce obesity and promote student health and well-being often lack specific requirements or any mandate that schools comply with the policy. Researchers, educators, and policymakers have called for states to take an active role in shaping district policies. The objective of this study was…

  3. The efficiency of three-level Active NPC converter for different PWM strategies

    Floricau, D.; Gateau, G.; Leredde, A.;

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of power conversion is an important factor to design static converters. The paper is focused on the calculus of total losses of 3L-NPC and 3L-Active-NPC converters for different PWM strategies. The calculus was made in the most critical operating points when certain switches have...

  4. Tissue levels of active matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in colorectal cancer.

    Waas, E.T.; Lomme, R.M.L.M.; Groot, J. de; Wobbes, Th.; Hendriks, T.

    2002-01-01

    The bioactivity of matrix metalloproteinases was studied in tissues from colorectal cancer patients by means of both quantitative gelatin zymography and a fluorometric activity assay. Next to paired samples of tumour tissue and distant normal mucosa (n=73), transitional tissue was analysed from a li

  5. Plasma kisspeptin and ghrelin levels are independently correlated with physical activity in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Hofmann, Tobias; Elbelt, Ulf; Haas, Verena; Ahnis, Anne; Klapp, Burghard F; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    While physical hyperactivity represents a frequent symptom of anorexia nervosa and may have a deleterious impact on the course of the disease, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Since several food intake-regulatory hormones affect physical activity, the aim of the study was to investigate the association of physical activity with novel candidate hormones (kisspeptin, ghrelin, oxyntomodulin, orexin-A, FGF-21, R-spondin-1) possibly involved in patients with anorexia nervosa. Associations with psychometric parameters and body composition were also assessed. We included 38 female anorexia nervosa inpatients (body mass index, BMI, mean ± SD: 14.8 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)). Physical activity was evaluated using portable armband devices, body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Blood withdrawal (hormones measured by ELISA) and psychometric assessment of depressiveness (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), perceived stress (PSQ-20) and disordered eating (EDI-2) were performed at the same time. Patients displayed a broad spectrum of physical activity (2479-26,047 steps/day) which showed a negative correlation with kisspeptin (r = -0.41, p = 0.01) and a positive association with ghrelin (r = 0.42, p = 0.01). The negative correlation with oxyntomodulin (r = -0.37, p = 0.03) was lost after consideration of potential confounders by regression analysis. No correlations were observed between physical activity and orexin-A, FGF-21 and R-spondin-1 (p > 0.05). Kisspeptin was positively correlated with BMI and body fat mass and negatively associated with the interpersonal distrust subscale of the EDI-2 (p  0.05). In conclusion, kisspeptin is inversely and ghrelin positively associated with physical activity as measured by daily step counts in anorexia nervosa patients suggesting an implication of these peptide hormones in the regulation of physical activity in anorexia nervosa.

  6. Atomic-level characterization of the activation mechanism of SERCA by calcium.

    L Michel Espinoza-Fonseca

    Full Text Available We have performed molecular dynamics (MD simulations to elucidate, in atomic detail, the mechanism by which the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+-ATPase (SERCA is activated by Ca(2+. Crystal structures suggest that activation of SERCA occurs when the cytoplasmic head-piece, in an open (E1 conformation stabilized by Ca(2+, undergoes a large-scale open-to-closed (E1 to E2 transition that is induced by ATP binding. However, spectroscopic measurements in solution suggest that these structural states (E1 and E2 are not tightly coupled to biochemical states (defined by bound ligands; the closed E2 state predominates even in the absence of ATP, in both the presence and absence of Ca(2+. How is this loose coupling consistent with the high efficiency of energy transduction in the Ca(2+-ATPase? To provide insight into this question, we performed long (500 ns all-atom MD simulations starting from the open crystal structure, including a lipid bilayer and water. In both the presence and absence of Ca(2+, we observed a large-scale open-to-closed conformational transition within 400 ns, supporting the weak coupling between structural and biochemical states. However, upon closer inspection, it is clear that Ca(2+ is necessary and sufficient for SERCA to reach the precise geometrical arrangement necessary for activation of ATP hydrolysis. Contrary to suggestions from crystal structures, but in agreement with solution spectroscopy, the presence of ATP is not required for this activating transition. Principal component analysis showed that Ca(2+ reshapes the free energy landscape of SERCA to create a path between the open conformation and the activated closed conformation. Thus the malleability of the free energy landscape is essential for SERCA efficiency, ensuring that ATP hydrolysis is tightly coupled to Ca(2+ transport. These results demonstrate the importance of real-time dynamics in the formation of catalytically competent conformations of SERCA, with broad

  7. Soluble CD163, a product of monocyte/macrophage activation, is inversely associated with haemoglobin levels in placental malaria.

    Caroline Lin Lin Chua

    Full Text Available In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, activation of monocytes and macrophages (monocytes/macrophages can result in the production of various inflammatory mediators that contribute to immunopathology. Soluble CD163 (sCD163 is a specific marker of monocyte/macrophage activation typically found at increased levels during various inflammatory conditions and can be associated with poor clinical outcomes. To better understand the relationships between levels of sCD163 and clinical parameters in women with placental malaria, we measured plasma sCD163 levels in maternal peripheral and placental blood compartments at delivery and determined their correlations with birth weight and maternal haemoglobin concentrations. sCD163 levels were negatively correlated with birth weight only in the placental compartment (r = -0.145, p = 0.03 and were inversely correlated with maternal haemoglobin concentrations, both in peripheral blood (r = -0.238, p = 0.0004 and in placental blood (r = -0.259, p = 0.0001. These inverse relationships suggest a potential role for monocyte/macrophage activation in the pathogenesis of malaria in pregnancy, particularly in relation to malaria-associated anaemia.

  8. Pharmacological activities of clobazam and diazepam in the rat: relation to drug brain levels.

    Caccia, S; Carli, M; Garattini, S; Poggesi, E; Rech, R; Samanin, R

    1980-02-01

    Brain distribution and various pharmacological effects of clobazam and diazepam were studied in rats. When given at 10 mg/kg i.p. the compounds reached peak brain levels 15 min after injection, and showed similar half lives. At peak time brain levels were proportional to the dose administered. Very little of the N-desmethylmetabolite of each compound was found in the brain. Clobazam was less effective than diazepam in protecting rats from pentetrazol convulsions. Disrupting rota-rod performance and increasing punished responses in a "conflict" test, the relative potencies ranging from 4 to 8 in the various tests. The results are discussed in relation to the importance of animal species selection for predicting favourable therapeutic effects in humans.

  9. Physical activity levels in adults with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review

    Yetunde Marion Dairo

    2016-12-01

    Fifteen studies were included consisting of 3159 awID, aged 16–81 years, 54% male and 46% female. Only 9% of participants achieved minimum PA guidelines. PA levels were measured using objective and subjective methods. ID severity, living in care, gender, and age were independently significantly correlated with the number of participants achieving PA guidelines with the strongest predictor being ID severity (Beta 0.631, p < 0.001. Findings should be in the context that most of the participants were in the mild/moderate range of ID severity and none of the studies objectively measured PA in people with profound ID. To inform measurement and intervention design for improved PA, we recommend that there is an urgent need for future PA studies in awID population to include all disability severity levels. PROSPERO registration number CRD42015016675.

  10. Study of Serum Haptoglobin Level and its Relation to Erythropoietic Activity in Beta Thalassemia Children

    Seham M. Ragab; Safan, Manal A.; Badr, Eman A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Serum haptoglobin (Hp) is a reliable marker for hemolysis regardless the inflammatory state. Objective We investigated the possible relation between Hp depletion and hemolysis severity, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and iron load in β-thalassemia children. Methods Twenty two β-thalassemia major (TM),20 β-thalassemia intermedia (TI) children with 20 age and sex matched healthy controls were involved. Pre-transfusion hemoglobin level was considered. Serum ferritin, Hp and transfe...

  11. CERTIFICATION - THE ACTIVITY WHICH INFLUENCES THE DEVELOPMENT LEVEL OF HUMAN SOCIETY

    Constanta RADULESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presenteds the national, European and international institutional existingrelationships of the standardisation and certification bodies. Furthermore, is analyzed the connection betweencertification and standardisation and their influence on the level of the society from Romania and namely fromthe European Union countries. Certification process is very complex as it requires a radical change in workmode of society requires rules and principles and requires the ability to learn and assimilate new knowledge

  12. Plasma zinc antioxidant vitamins, glutathione levels and total antioxidant activity in oral leukoplakia

    Subhash Chandra Bose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukoplakia is a common, potentially premalignant lesion with malignant transformation rate from 1 to 17% with highest transformation rate for the lesions on the floor of the mouth, soft palate and tongue. One of the main etiological factors is consuming areca nut and its commercial preparations which generate high levels of reactive oxygen species during their metabolism. So the aim of this present study is to evaluate the plasma levels of antioxidant vitamins, antioxidant mineral zinc, glutathione and total antioxidant status (TAS in leukoplakia patients. Materials and Methods: For this cross-sectional study, we selected 23 newly diagnosed oral leukoplakia patients of both sexes within the age group 28-40 years and the same number of age and sex matched healthy individuals without having history of any systemic illness were selected as control group. In both the groups, we measured plasma antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, antioxidant mineral zinc, GSH and TAS. Student′s t test was applied and the P value <0.001 was considered as statistically significant. Results: We observed very low levels of antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, antioxidant mineral zinc and antioxidant metabolite GSH (P<0.001 and at the same time we also observed very poor (TAS (P<0.001 in leukoplakia patients when compared to patients in control group. Conclusion: The consumption of tobacco or areca quid which contains high copper levels creates an oxidative stress like environment during their metabolism, might play a major role in causation and propagation of oral leukoplakia.

  13. Match activities of elite women soccer players at different performance levels

    Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter; Andersson, Helena;

    2008-01-01

    by high intensity running in a 5-minute interval was 33% longer (P 5 minutes immediately after the peak interval top-class players covered 17% less (P ... intensity running in the final 15 minutes compared with the first four 15-minutes intervals, whereas the high-level group performed less (P minutes of each half in comparison with the 2 previous 15-minute periods in the respective half. Peak distance covered...

  14. Effect of different levels of physical activity upon anatomical and histologic changes related to renal aging

    Benjamin Wancjer, MD

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Title: Effects of Different Grades of PhysicalActivity in the Presentation of Anathomic andHistologic Changes Related with Renal Aging.Objective:With the purpose of determininganatomical changes of exercise in renal aging.Methodology: we carried out an experimentallongitudinal study during 54 weeks. 120 swiss malemice were used, which were divided into threegroups depending on their activity: sedentary,normal and active. The exercise was modulatedwith room space and food acces. three animals weresacrificed per group from the ninth week of age,each nine weeks. All animals with less than 27weeks of age were considered young animals, andold animals were more than 36 weeks old. all miceand kidneys were weighted, establishing a kidneyweight/mouse weight relation. The cortex of eachanimal´s left kidney was measured. And ahistological estudy with classical colorations wascarried out. Such cuts were analyzed by 2pathologist who did not know the purpose of thisstudy; they described glomerular changes andinterstitial tubulus, classifying them from null tosevere. Glomerular areas, as well as light/arterialwall relation were measured. Results: maximum renal growing was detected 18 weeks later. At the54th week, the sedentary mice had less corticalthickness (2288,65 ± 552,75 than the animals ofthe normal group (2502,7 ± 163,81 and the activegroup (2609,46 ± 273,28, with n=3 for allgroups. The glomerular area was significantly less(p=0,035 in sedentary animals (8657,33 ±1954,38 compared to the active animals(10318,64 ± 2425,14, but significant differenceswere not found among the normal animals(9791,52 ± 2211,63 and the other to groups,n=18 for each group. tubular atrophy in oldanimals was 55,5% in sedentary animals, higherthan in normal and active animals, in which itwas 44,4%, not significant. Interstitial nephritiswas less in normal animals (55,5% compared tosedentary and active groups (77,7%, notsignificant. Conclusions: We could conclede thatthe

  15. Joint positioning sense, perceived force level and two-point discrimination tests of young and active elderly adults

    Priscila G. Franco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Changes in the proprioceptive system are associated with aging. Proprioception is important to maintaining and/or recovering balance and to reducing the risk of falls.Objective:To compare the performance of young and active elderly adults in three proprioceptive tests.Method:Twenty-one active elderly participants (66.9±5.5 years and 21 healthy young participants (24.6±3.9 years were evaluated in the following tests: perception of position of the ankle and hip joints, perceived force level of the ankle joint, and two-point discrimination of the sole of the foot.Results:No differences (p>0.05 were found between groups for the joint position and perceived force level. On the other hand, the elderly participants showed lower sensitivity in the two-point discrimination (higher threshold when compared to the young participants (p < 0.01.Conclusion:Except for the cutaneous plantar sensitivity, the active elderly participants had maintained proprioception. Their physical activity status may explain similarities between groups for the joint position sense and perceived force level, however it may not be sufficient to prevent sensory degeneration with aging.

  16. Activity levels and expression of antioxidant enzymes in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in artificially aged rice seed.

    Yin, Guangkun; Xin, Xia; Song, Chao; Chen, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jinmei; Wu, Shuhua; Li, Ruifang; Liu, Xu; Lu, Xinxiong

    2014-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species are the main contributors to seed deterioration. In order to study scavenging systems for reactive oxygen species in aged seed, we performed analyses using western blotting, real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, high-performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant enzyme activity analyses in artificially aged rice seeds (Oryza sativa L. cv. wanhua no.11). Aging seeds by storing them at 50 °C for 1, 9, or 17 months increased the superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide levels and reduced the germination percentage from 99% to 92%, 55%, and 2%, respectively. The activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) did not change in aged seeds. In contrast, the activity levels of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) were significantly decreased in aged seeds, as were the expression of catalase and cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase protein. Transcript accumulation analysis showed that specific expression patterns were complex for each of the antioxidant enzyme types in the rice embryos. Overall, the expression of most genes was down-regulated, along with their protein expression. In addition, the reduction in the amount of ascorbate and glutathione was associated with the reduction in scavenging enzymes activity in aged rice embryos. Our data suggest that the depression of the antioxidant system, especially the reduction in the expression of CAT1, APX1 and MDHAR1, may be responsible for the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in artificially aged seed embryos, leading to a loss of seed vigor.

  17. CHANGES IN LEVELS OF ACTIVITY OF SERINE PROTEASES ACCOMPANY THE EXPOSURE OF COMMON BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. TO WATER DEFICIT

    M. Budič

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of proteolytic enzymes exist in plants. On their levels depends protein turnover, a fundamental component in plant development and adaptation to environmental conditions. Cysteine proteases have frequently been reported to be influenced by drought, but only a few serine proteases (SP, among them the trypsin-like enzyme and two aminopeptidases from bean leaves (Bartels and Sunkar, 2005; Hieng et al., 2004. Our starting point was to identify proteolytic activities assigned to SPs that change with drought and then to characterize the corresponding proteases. A quantitative, analytical one-step method was used to separate endopeptidases and aminopeptidases active against a range of substrates in leaf extracts of plants grown in the field (FC. The influence of drought was determined for those of these activities which were confirmed as SPs, based on their inhibition by specific inhibitors. Under water deficit in plants grown under controlled conditions (CC their levels changed in different ways. The levels of SP activities in FC plants, observed during a period of relative drought, were similar to those measured in mildly stressed CC plants. The partial characterisations of some of these SPs will be presented. Our results point to a number of roles for different SPs in the plant response to water stress, which could range from enhanced protein turnover to limited proteolysis at specific sites.

  18. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL EIGHTH GRADE STUDENTS' PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL AND VARIOUS ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS WITH THEIR ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

    Halil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between elementary school eight grade students' physical activity level, their various anthropometric characteristics and their academic achievement. The participants of the study includes randomly chosen 324 volunteer eight grade students (n=168 female, n=156 male from 12 different elementary schools located in the central towns of the city, Konya (Selçuklu, Meram, Karatay in 2011-2012 Academic Year. The students' physical activity levels were assessed through the Turkish adaptation version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C 4-8 developed and tested in terms of validity and reliability by Crocker et al (1997. To determine the students' anthropometric characteristics, measurement of length and weight as well as bioelectiric impedence analysis (BIA were utilized. As an indicator of the students' academic achievement, the students' results in The National Placement Exam in 2012 were used. It was observed that there is no significant relationship between the students' physical activity level, their various anthropometric characteristics (their length and their academic achievement (r=.11 ve .13; p.05. It was observed that in male students, there is a low relationship between their length and academic achievement (r=.21; p.05 respectively.

  19. Regulatory T cell levels and cytokine production in active non-infectious uveitis: in-vitro effects of pharmacological treatment.

    Molins, B; Mesquida, M; Lee, R W J; Llorenç, V; Pelegrín, L; Adán, A

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of regulatory T cells (Treg ) and cytokine expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with active non-infectious uveitis, and to evaluate the effect of in-vitro treatment with infliximab, dexamethasone and cyclosporin A on Treg levels and cytokine production in PBMCs from uveitis patients and healthy subjects. We included a group of 21 patients with active non-infectious uveitis and 18 age-matched healthy subjects. The proportion of forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)(+) Treg cells and intracellular tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression in CD4(+) T cells was determined by flow cytometry. PBMCs were also either rested or activated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 and cultured in the presence or absence of dexamethasone, cyclosporin A and infliximab. Supernatants of cultured PBMCs were collected and TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17 and interferon (IFN)-γ levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No significant differences were observed in nTreg levels between uveitis patients and healthy subjects. However, PBMCs from uveitis patients produced significantly higher amounts of TNF-α and lower amounts of IL-10. Dexamethasone treatment in vitro significantly reduced FoxP3(+) Treg levels in PBMCs from both healthy subjects and uveitis patients, and all tested drugs significantly reduced TNF-α production in PBMCs. Dexamethasone and cyclosporin A significantly reduced IL-17 and IFN-γ production in PBMCs and dexamethasone up-regulated IL-10 production in activated PBMCs from healthy subjects. Our results suggest that PBMCs from patients with uveitis express more TNF-α and less IL-10 than healthy subjects, and this is independent of FoxP3(+) Treg levels. Treatment with infliximab, dexamethasone and cyclosporin A in vitro modulates cytokine production, but does not increase the proportion of FoxP3(+) Treg cells.

  20. Effect of zinc supplementation on E-ADA activity, seric zinc, and cytokines levels of Trypanosoma evansi infected Wistar rats.

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Baldissera, Matheus D; Oliveira, Camila B; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta M M F; Leal, Marta L R; Thomé, Gustavo R; Zanini, Daniela; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Nunes, Matheus A G; Dressler, Valderi L; Monteiro, Silvia G; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on the ecto-adenosine deaminase activity (E-ADA), zinc seric levels and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and IL -10) on rats experimentally infected by Trypanosoma evansi. Four groups with 10 rats each were used as negative controls (groups A and B), while the animals from the groups C and D were infected intraperitoneally with 0.1 mL of cryopreserved blood containing 1.4 × 10(4) of trypanosomes. Animals of groups B and D received two doses of Zinc (Zn) at 5 mg kg(-1), subcutaneously, on the 2nd and 7th day post-infection (PI). Blood samples were collected on days 5 (n = 5) and 15 PI (n = 5). Zn supplementation was able to increase the rat's longevity and to reduce their parasitemia. It was observed that seric Zn levels were increased on infected animals under Zn supplementation. Animals that were infected and supplemented with Zn showed changes in E-ADA activity and in cytokine levels (P < 0.05). Zn supplementation of healthy animals (Group B), increased the E-ADA activity, as well as reduced the concentration of cytokines. Infected animals from groups C and D showed increased levels of cytokines. Finally, we observed that Zn supplementation led to a modulation on cytokine's level in rats infected by T. evansi, as well as in E-ADA activity.

  1. Effect of water level lfuctuations on temporal-spatial patterns of foraging activities by the wintering Hooded Crane (Grus monacha)

    Dongmei Zhang; Lizhi Zhou; Yunwei Song

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Yangtze River lfoodplain provides important wintering habitats for Hooded Cranes (Grus monacha) in China. Fluctuations in the water level change foraging habitat and food availability, affecting their temporal-spatial patterns of foraging activities. It is of considerable importance to investigate the effect of these lfuctuations on food availability for wintering Hooded Cranes and their foraging response to these changes. Understanding their behavior patterns is beneifcial in protecting the wintering crane population and restoring their wintering habitats. Methods: A ifeld survey of the winter behavior of cranes was carried out at Shengjin Lake from November in 2013 to April in 2014. Habitat variables, as well as the spatial distribution and behavior patterns of wintering cranes at their foraging sites during ifve stages of water level lfuctuation were collected. Based on this data we analyzed the relation-ship of foraging behavior relative to water level lfuctuations and habitat types. Results: The foraging habitats used by Hooded Cranes varied at the different water level stages. As the water level decreased, the use of meadows and mudlfats increased. When the water dropped to its lowest level, the use by the Hooded Crane in the mudlfats reached a peak. There were statistically signiifcant differences in time budget in the three types of habitats over the ifve stages of the water level. In the mudlfats, the foraging behavior and maintenance behavior varied signiifcantly with the water level, while the alert behavior showed little variation. Analysis of a general-ized linear model showed that the ifve water level stages and three habitat types had a signiifcant effect on forag- ing behavior, while the combined effect of these two variables was signiifcant on the foraging time budget and the length of foraging activity of the Hooded Crane. Conclusions: With the decrease in the water level, the use of mudlfats by Hooded Cranes increased

  2. [Evaluation of exploratory activity and anxiety in rats with different levels of impulsive behavior].

    Levandovskaia, A A; Zaĭchenko, M I; Merzhanova, G H; Salozhin, S V

    2013-01-01

    Rats were divided into 3 groups according to their preference for reinforcements of different values. Animals that preferred valuable but delayed reinforcement in more than 70% of cases formed as self-controlled group, less than 30% of cases formed an impulsive group, the rest formed an ambivalent group. Behavior of animals of different groups was scored for exploratory activity and anxiety in x-maze, fear-conditioning and novelty suppressed feeding. The least active and the most anxious in all procedures used were self-controlled rats. Ambivalent animals as compared to self-controlled and impulsive rats were the least anxious in x-maze and had more successful trials in novelty suppressed feeding test. Impulsive animals demonstrated greater percent of freezing response during acquisition of conditioned fear and they were quicker in finding food in novel environment.

  3. Effects of pesticides on community composition and activity of sediment microbes - responses at various levels of microbial community organization

    Widenfalk, Anneli [Department of Environmental Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7050, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: anneli.widenfalk@kemi.se; Bertilsson, Stefan [Limnology/Department of Ecology and Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 20, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Sundh, Ingvar [Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7025, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Goedkoop, Willem [Department of Environmental Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7050, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-04-15

    A freshwater sediment was exposed to the pesticides captan, glyphosate, isoproturon, and pirimicarb at environmentally relevant and high concentrations. Effects on sediment microorganisms were studied by measuring bacterial activity, fungal and total microbial biomass as community-level endpoints. At the sub-community level, microbial community structure was analysed (PLFA composition and bacterial 16S rRNA genotyping, T-RFLP). Community-level endpoints were not affected by pesticide exposure. At lower levels of microbial community organization, however, molecular methods revealed treatment-induced changes in community composition. Captan and glyphosate exposure caused significant shifts in bacterial community composition (as T-RFLP) at environmentally relevant concentrations. Furthermore, differences in microbial community composition among pesticide treatments were found, indicating that test compounds and exposure concentrations induced multidirectional shifts. Our study showed that community-level end points failed to detect these changes, underpinning the need for application of molecular techniques in aquatic ecotoxicology. - Molecular techniques revealed pesticide-induced changes at lower levels of microbial community organization that were not detected by community-level end points.

  4. [Corticosterone level in testes of rats in varying adrenal functional activity].

    Khokha, A M; Doroshkevich, N A; Voronov, P P; Antsulevich, S N; Kashko, M F

    1992-01-01

    The presence of corticosterone in rat testes was demonstrated by combining HPLC and RIA techniques. The presence of the hormone was also taken into account. The testicular corticosterone content was shown to depend upon the functional activity of the adrenals and to diminish acutely after adrenalectomy. Analysis of correlation between the concentration of the hormones in the plasma and testes has shown corticosterone to be formed by testicular cells.

  5. The influence of motivational involvement in physical activity level improving using formative evaluation procedures

    Gonçalves, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The current work was planned to build up an original motivational involvement, based on Self-Determination Theory and Social Cognitive Theory, to improving physical activity in disadvantaged adolescents. The theoretical structure has three main issues: social context (perceived independence, perceived social sustain, input and enjoyment); cognitive mediators (perceived option and self-efficacy); and motivational course (intrinsic motivation, commitment and positive self-concept). ...

  6. Paraoxonase 1 activity in subchronic low-level inorganic arsenic exposure through drinking water.

    Afolabi, Olusegun K; Wusu, Adedoja D; Ogunrinola, Olufunmilayo O; Abam, Esther O; Babayemi, David O; Dosumu, Oluwatosin A; Onunkwor, Okechukwu B; Balogun, Elizabeth A; Odukoya, Olusegun O; Ademuyiwa, Oladipo

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological evidences indicate close association between inorganic arsenic exposure via drinking water and cardiovascular diseases. While the exact mechanism of this arsenic-mediated increase in cardiovascular risk factors remains enigmatic, epidemiological studies indicate a role for paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in cardiovascular diseases. To investigate the association between inorganic arsenic exposure and cardiovascular diseases, rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (trivalent; 50, 100, and 150 ppm As) and sodium arsenate (pentavalent; 100, 150, and 200 ppm As) in their drinking water for 12 weeks. PON1 activity towards paraoxon (PONase) and phenylacetate (AREase) in plasma, lipoproteins, hepatic, and brain microsomal fractions were determined. Inhibition of PONase and AREase in plasma and HDL characterized the effects of the two arsenicals. While the trivalent arsenite inhibited PONase by 33% (plasma) and 46% (HDL), respectively, the pentavalent arsenate inhibited the enzyme by 41 and 34%, respectively. AREase activity was inhibited by 52 and 48% by arsenite, whereas the inhibition amounted to 72 and 67%, respectively by arsenate. The pattern of inhibition in plasma and HDL indicates that arsenite induced a dose-dependent inhibition of PONase whereas arsenate induced a dose-dependent inhibition of AREase. In the VLDL + LDL, arsenate inhibited PONase and AREase while arsenite inhibited PONase. In the hepatic and brain microsomal fractions, only the PONase enzyme was inhibited by the two arsenicals. The inhibition was more pronounced in the hepatic microsomes where a 70% inhibition was observed at the highest dose of pentavalent arsenic. Microsomal cholesterol was increased by the two arsenicals resulting in increased cholesterol/phospholipid ratios. Our findings indicate that decreased PON1 activity observed in arsenic exposure may be an incipient biochemical event in the cardiovascular effects of arsenic. Modulation of PON1 activity by arsenic may also be

  7. Physical Activity Level and Sport Participation in Relation to Musculoskeletal Pain in a Population-Based Study of Adolescents

    Guddal, Maren Hjelle; Stensland, Synne Øien; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Johnsen, Marianne Bakke; Zwart, John-Anker; Storheim, Kjersti

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among adolescents is high, and pain in adolescence increases the risk of chronic pain in adulthood. Studies have shown conflicting evidence regarding associations between physical activity and musculoskeletal pain, and few have evaluated the potential impact of sport participation on musculoskeletal pain in adolescent population samples. Purpose: To examine the associations between physical activity level, sport participation, and musculoskeletal pain in the neck and shoulders, low back, and lower extremities in a population-based sample of adolescents. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence 4. Methods: Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (Young-HUNT3) were used. All 10,464 adolescents in the Nord-Trøndelag county of Norway were invited, of whom 74% participated. Participants were asked how often they had experienced pain, unrelated to any known disease or acute injury, in the neck and shoulders, low back, and lower extremities in the past 3 months. The associations between (1) physical activity level (low [reference], medium or high) or (2) sport participation (weekly compared with no/infrequent participation) and pain were evaluated using logistic regression analyses, stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, socioeconomic status, and psychological distress. Results: The analyses included 7596 adolescents (mean age, 15.8 years; SD, 1.7). Neck and shoulder pain was most prevalent (17%). A moderate level of physical activity was associated with reduced odds of neck and shoulder pain (OR = 0.79 [95% CI, 0.66-0.94]) and low back pain (OR = 0.75 [95% CI, 0.62-0.91]), whereas a high level of activity increased the odds of lower extremity pain (OR = 1.60 [95% CI, 1.29-1.99]). Participation in endurance sports was associated with lower odds of neck and shoulder pain (OR = 0.79 [95% CI, 0.68-0.92]) and low back pain (OR = 0.77 [95% CI, 0.65-0.92]), especially among girls. Participation in technical

  8. Natural radioactivity levels of geothermal waters and their influence on soil and agricultural activities.

    Murat Saç, Müslim; Aydemir, Sercan; Içhedef, Mutlu; Kumru, Mehmet N; Bolca, Mustafa; Ozen, Fulsen

    2014-01-01

    All over the world geothermal sources are used for different purposes. The contents of these waters are important to understand positive/negative effects on human life. In this study, natural radioactivity concentrations of geothermal waters were investigated to evaluate the effect on soils and agricultural activities. Geothermal water samples were collected from the Seferihisar Geothermal Region, and the radon and radium concentrations of these waters were analysed using a collector chamber method. Also soil samples, which are irrigated with geothermal waters, were collected from the surroundings of geothermal areas, and natural radioactivity concentrations of collected samples (U, Th and K) were determined using an NaI(Tl) detector system. The activity concentrations of radon and radium were found to be 0.6-6.0 and 0.1-1.0 Bq l(-1), respectively. Generally, the obtained results are not higher compared with the geothermal waters of the world. The activity concentrations in soils were found to be in the range of 3.3-120.3 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra (eU), 0.3-108.5 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th (eTh), 116.0-850.0 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K (% K).

  9. Muscle shortening velocity depends on tissue inertia and level of activation during submaximal contractions.

    Ross, Stephanie A; Wakeling, James M

    2016-06-01

    In order to perform external work, muscles must do additional internal work to deform their tissue, and in particular, to overcome the inertia due to their internal mass. However, the contribution of the internal mass within a muscle to the mechanical output of that muscle has only rarely been studied. Here, we use a dynamic, multi-element Hill-type muscle model to examine the effects of the inertial mass within muscle on its contractile performance. We find that the maximum strain-rate of muscle is slower for lower activations and larger muscle sizes. As muscle size increases, the ability of the muscle to overcome its inertial load will decrease, as muscle tension is proportional to cross-sectional area and inertial load is proportional to mass. Thus, muscles that are larger in size will have a higher inertial cost to contraction. Similarly, when muscle size and inertial load are held constant, decreasing muscle activation will increase inertial cost to contraction by reducing muscle tension. These results show that inertial loads within muscle contribute to a slowing of muscle contractile velocities (strain-rates), particularly at the submaximal activations that are typical during animal locomotion.

  10. Activity level of gross α and gross β in airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP

    CHEN Bin; YE Jida; CHEN Qianyuan; WU Xiaofei; SONG Weili; WANG Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring results of gross α and gross β activity from 2001 to 2005 for environmental airborne aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base are presented in this paper. A total of 170 aerosol samples were collected from monitoring sites of Caichenmen village, Qinlian village, Xiajiawan village and Yangliucun village around the Qinshan NPP base. The measured specific activity of gross α and gross β are in the range of 0.02 ~ 0.38 mBq/m3 and 0.10 ~ 1.81 mBq/m3, respectively, with an average of 0.11 mBq/m3 and 0.45mBq/m3, respectively. They are lower than the average of 0.15 mBq/m3 and 0.52mBq/m3, of reference site at Hangzhou City. It is indicated that the specific activity of gross α and gross β for environmental aerosol samples around the Qinshan NPP base had not been increased in normal operating conditions of the NPP.

  11. A computational method for the detection of activation/deactivation patterns in biological signals with three levels of electric intensity.

    Guerrero, J A; Macías-Díaz, J E

    2014-02-01

    In the present work, we develop a computational technique to approximate the changes of phase in temporal series associated to electric signals of muscles which perform activities at three different levels of intensity. We suppose that the temporal series are samples of independent, normally distributed random variables with mean equal to zero, and variance equal to one of three possible values, each of them associated to a certain degree of electric intensity. For example, these intensity levels may represent a leg muscle at rest, or active during a light activity (walking), or active during a highly demanding performance (jogging). The model is presented as a maximum likelihood problem involving discrete variables. In turn, this problem is transformed into a continuous one via the introduction of continuous variables with penalization parameters, and it is solved recursively through an iterative numerical method. An a posteriori treatment of the results is used in order to avoid the detection of relatively short periods of silence or activity. We perform simulations with synthetic data in order to assess the validity of our technique. Our computational results show that the method approximates well the occurrence of the change points in synthetic temporal series, even in the presence of autocorrelated sequences. In the way, we show that a generalization of a computational technique for the change-point detection of electric signals with two phases of activity (Esquivel-Frausto et al., 2010 [40]), may be inapplicable in cases of temporal series with three levels of intensity. In this sense, the method proposed in the present manuscript improves previous efforts of the authors.

  12. Serum soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor levels in male patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia.

    Genc, Abdullah; Kalelioglu, Tevfik; Karamustafalioglu, Nesrin; Tasdemir, Akif; Genc, Esra Sena; Akkus, Mustafa; Emul, Murat

    2016-02-28

    Inflammatory abnormalities have been shown in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a protein that is measurable in the circulating blood and reflects the inflammation in the body. We aimed to investigate serum suPAR levels in patients with schizophrenia who were in acute state and to compare with healthy controls. Forty five patients and 43 healthy controls were included in the study. We found no significant difference in suPAR levels between patients and controls, suggesting that suPAR as an inflammatory marker does not have a role in the inflammatory process of acute schizophrenia.

  13. Detection of Low-Level Activities in Solar-Analog Stars from the Emission Strengths of Ca II 3934 Line

    Takeda, Yoichi; Honda, Satoshi; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Ando, Hiroyasu; Sakurai, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Activity studies of solar-type stars, especially with reference to the status of our current Sun among them, have exposed the importance of (1) homogeneously selecting the sample stars and (2) reliably evaluating their activities down to a considerably low level. Motivated by these requirements, we conducted an extensive study on the activities of 118 solar-analog stars (of sufficiently similar properties to each other) by measuring the emission strength at the core of Ca II 3933.663 line (K line) on the high-dispersion spectrogram obtained by Subaru/HDS, where special attention was paid to correctly detecting the chromospheric emission by removing the wing-fitted photospheric profile calculated from the classical solar model atmosphere. This enabled us to detect low-level activities down to log R' ~ -5.4 (R' is the ratio of the chromospheric core emission flux to the total bolometric flux), by which we could detect subtle activity differences which were indiscernible in previous studies. Regarding the Sun, w...

  14. Predictive Value of Nuclear Factor κB Activity and Plasma Cytokine Levels in Patients with Sepsis

    Arnalich, Francisco; Garcia-Palomero, Esther; López, Julia; Jiménez, Manuel; Madero, Rosario; Renart, Jaime; Vázquez, Juan José; Montiel, Carmen

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between fluctuating cytokine concentrations in plasma and the outcome of sepsis is complex. We postulated that early measurement of the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), a transcriptional regulatory protein involved in proinflammatory cytokine expression, may help to predict the outcome of sepsis. We determined NF-κB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 34 patients with severe sepsis (23 survivors and 11 nonsurvivors) and serial concentrations of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, interleukin-1, and tumor necrosis factor) and various endogenous antagonists in plasma. NF-κB activity was significantly higher in nonsurvivors and correlated strongly with the severity of illness (APACHE II score), although neither was related to the cytokine levels. Apart from NF-κB activity, the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist was the only cytokine tested whose level in plasma was of value in predicting mortality by logistic regression analysis. These results underscore the prognostic value of early measurement of NF-κB activity in patients with severe sepsis. PMID:10722586

  15. Regulation of Smoothened Phosphorylation and High-Level Hedgehog Signaling Activity by a Plasma Membrane Associated Kinase.

    Shuangxi Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh signaling controls embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis through the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR-family protein Smoothened (Smo. Upon stimulation, Smo accumulates on the cell surface in Drosophila or primary cilia in vertebrates, which is thought to be essential for its activation and function, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show that Hh stimulates the binding of Smo to a plasma membrane-associated kinase Gilgamesh (Gish/CK1γ and that Gish fine-tunes Hh pathway activity by phosphorylating a Ser/Thr cluster (CL-II in the juxtamembrane region of Smo carboxyl-terminal intracellular tail (C-tail. We find that CL-II phosphorylation is promoted by protein kinase A (PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Smo C-tail and depends on cell surface localization of both Gish and Smo. Consistent with CL-II being critical for high-threshold Hh target gene expression, its phosphorylation appears to require higher levels of Hh or longer exposure to the same level of Hh than PKA-site phosphorylation on Smo. Furthermore, we find that vertebrate CK1γ is localized at the primary cilium to promote Smo phosphorylation and Sonic hedgehog (Shh pathway activation. Our study reveals a conserved mechanism whereby Hh induces a change in Smo subcellular localization to promote its association with and activation by a plasma membrane localized kinase, and provides new insight into how Hh morphogen progressively activates Smo.

  16. Regulation of Smoothened Phosphorylation and High-Level Hedgehog Signaling Activity by a Plasma Membrane Associated Kinase.

    Li, Shuangxi; Li, Shuang; Han, Yuhong; Tong, Chao; Wang, Bing; Chen, Yongbin; Jiang, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling controls embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis through the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-family protein Smoothened (Smo). Upon stimulation, Smo accumulates on the cell surface in Drosophila or primary cilia in vertebrates, which is thought to be essential for its activation and function, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show that Hh stimulates the binding of Smo to a plasma membrane-associated kinase Gilgamesh (Gish)/CK1γ and that Gish fine-tunes Hh pathway activity by phosphorylating a Ser/Thr cluster (CL-II) in the juxtamembrane region of Smo carboxyl-terminal intracellular tail (C-tail). We find that CL-II phosphorylation is promoted by protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of Smo C-tail and depends on cell surface localization of both Gish and Smo. Consistent with CL-II being critical for high-threshold Hh target gene expression, its phosphorylation appears to require higher levels of Hh or longer exposure to the same level of Hh than PKA-site phosphorylation on Smo. Furthermore, we find that vertebrate CK1γ is localized at the primary cilium to promote Smo phosphorylation and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway activation. Our study reveals a conserved mechanism whereby Hh induces a change in Smo subcellular localization to promote its association with and activation by a plasma membrane localized kinase, and provides new insight into how Hh morphogen progressively activates Smo.

  17. Late Post-glacial Sea Level Rise and Its Effects On Human Activity In Asia

    Oppenheimer, S. J.

    Three rapid post-glacial sea-level rises flooded coastlines with large continental shelves. The last of these, shortly before the interglacial optimum c.7,500BP, not only changed coastal Neolithic societies, but may also have stimulated maritime skills. Two Asian examples explore these aspects. First, during the Mid-Holocene, the Arabian Gulf transgressed as far inland as Ur probably laying down Woolley's famous Ur Flood silt layer between 7,000-5,500 BP. Stratigraphy and dating suggests the phase of rapid sea level rise immediately preceded the start of the 'Ubaid pottery period. Red-slipped Uruk pottery and copper items then appear from about 6,000BP, but above Woolley's silt layer. The Sumerian King Lists also record a major upheaval and dynastic change after 'the Flood'. Second, the final flooding of the Sunda shelf in Southeast Asia was followed by a maritime extension of human occupation from Northern Melanesia south into the Solomon Islands 6,000 years ago. Simultaneously, further west on the north coast of New Guinea, new archaeological assemblages ap- pear beneath a silt layer left by a pro-grading 6,000 year-old inland sea. The presence of arboriculture items such as betel nuts and the contemporary arrival of dogs and pigs in the same region suggests intrusion from Southeast Asia. This supports Solheim's suggestion that rapid sea-level rise on the eastern edge of the Sunda Shelf stimulated maritime skills and invention in Southeast Asia. This may have provided the initial stimulus to the first maritime expansion that was later to colonise the whole Pacific.

  18. The levels of forming at students of general school operating mobility as executive component of arbitrary management of moving activity.

    Artyushenko A.A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of researches is to determine concept «Personality mobility» in the light of pictures of arbitrary management conduct and activity of man In the article is considered question of diagnostics of forming operating mobility for the students of general school as activity of constituent of arbitrary management. It is certain four levels of formed operating mobility for lower boys, for teenagers and for senior pupils. It is well-proven that for period of studies at general school the indexes of operating mobility of students are not change substantially.

  19. Two discrete components of the 20 Hz steady-state response are distinguished through the modulation of activation level

    Griskova, Inga; Mørup, Morten; Parnas, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the modulation of amplitude and phase precision of the auditory steady-state response (SSR) to 20 Hz stimulation in two conditions varying in the level of activation. Methods: Click stimuli (20 Hz) were applied while subjects were sitting upright silently reading a book......-negative multi-way factorization (NMWF). Results: The NMWF decomposition of amplitude and phase precision measures resulted in the observation of two distinct components: a component at the frequency of stimulation – 20 Hz SSR and a component emerging at 40 Hz – 20 Hz SSR-related 40 Hz activity. Modulation...

  20. A Colorimetric Method for the Determination of the Exhaustion Level of Granular Activated Carbons Used in Rum Production

    Harold Crespo Sariol

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Spectrophotometric measurement applied on saturated granular activated carbon (GAC is not yet explored. A colorimetric method in the visible range has been developed in order to determine the exhaustion level of GAC used in rum production. Aqueous ammonia solution has been used as an indicative agent to determine the extraction rate of taste compounds within the rum production process and the exhaustion degree of the GAC. The colorimetric results showed excellent correlation with the iodine number and the contact pH. The proposed colorimetric method opens possibilities for rum producers to improve the management and economical use of the activated carbon at the industrial scale.