Sample records for activity levels measured

  1. Active Radiation Level Measurement on New Laboratory Instrument for Evaluating the Antibacterial Activity of Radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Eunha; Park, Jang Guen [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. However, it is difficult to measure the antibacterial effect of radioisotopes using a disc method. A disc method is a method for diffusing a drug by placing the drug containing disc on the medium. In this method, radioisotopes are diffused on the medium and it is difficult to measure the exact effect by radiation. Thus, new laboratory equipment needs to evaluate the antibacterial activity by the radioisotopes. In this study, we measured the radiation level of radioisotopes on a new laboratory instrument using a MCNP. A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. This method uses a drug diffusion system for the measurement of anti-bacterial antibiotics. To measure the antimicrobial activity of a radioisotope, a new type of laboratory instrument is necessary to prevent the drug from spreading. The radioisotopes are used to diagnose and treat cancer. However, studies for anti-biotical use have not progressed. The radiation of radioisotopes has the effect of killing bacteria. Before this study proceeds further, it is necessary to be able to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope easily in the laboratory. However, in this study, it was possible to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope in the laboratory using a new laboratory instrument. We intend to start evaluation studies of the antibacterial activity of specific radioisotopes. In addition, it will be possible to develop research to overcome diseases caused by bacteria in the future.

  2. Measurement error of self-reported physical activity levels in New York City: assessment and correction. (United States)

    Lim, Sungwoo; Wyker, Brett; Bartley, Katherine; Eisenhower, Donna


    Because it is difficult to objectively measure population-level physical activity levels, self-reported measures have been used as a surveillance tool. However, little is known about their validity in populations living in dense urban areas. We aimed to assess the validity of self-reported physical activity data against accelerometer-based measurements among adults living in New York City and to apply a practical tool to adjust for measurement error in complex sample data using a regression calibration method. We used 2 components of data: 1) dual-frame random digit dialing telephone survey data from 3,806 adults in 2010-2011 and 2) accelerometer data from a subsample of 679 survey participants. Self-reported physical activity levels were measured using a version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, whereas data on weekly moderate-equivalent minutes of activity were collected using accelerometers. Two self-reported health measures (obesity and diabetes) were included as outcomes. Participants with higher accelerometer values were more likely to underreport the actual levels. (Accelerometer values were considered to be the reference values.) After correcting for measurement errors, we found that associations between outcomes and physical activity levels were substantially deattenuated. Despite difficulties in accurately monitoring physical activity levels in dense urban areas using self-reported data, our findings show the importance of performing a well-designed validation study because it allows for understanding and correcting measurement errors.

  3. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities (United States)

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.


    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  4. [Physical activity level and home blood pressure measurement: Pilot study "Acti-HTA"]. (United States)

    Sosner, P; Ott, J; Steichen, O; Bally, S; Krummel, T; Brucker, M; Lequeux, B; Dourmap, C; Llaty, P; Le Coz, S; Baguet, S; Miranne, A; Labrunée, M; Gremeaux, V; Lopez-Sublet, M


    While physical activity (PA) is recommended for high blood pressure management, the level of PA practice of hypertensive patients remains unclear. We aimed to assess the association between the level of both PA and blood pressure of individuals consulting in 9 hypertension specialist centres. Eighty-five hypertensive patients were included (59 ± 14 years, 61% men, 12% smokers, 29% with diabetes). Following their consultation, they performed home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) over 7 days (2 in the morning+2 in the evening), they wrote in a dedicated form their daily activities to estimate the additional caloric expenditure using Acti-MET device (built from International physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ]). Thus, patients completed a self-administered questionnaire "score of Dijon" (distinguishing active subjects with a score>20/30, from sedentary<10/30). Subjects with normal HBPM value (<135/85 mm Hg) (55% of them) compared to those with high HBPM were older, had a non-significant trend towards higher weekly caloric expenditure (4959 ± 5045 kcal/week vs. 4048 ± 4199 kcal/week, P=0.3755) and score of Dijon (19.44 ± 5.81 vs. 18.00 ± 4.32, P=0.2094) with a higher proportion of "active" subjects (48.9% vs. 34.2%, P=0.1773). In conclusion, our results demonstrate a "tendency" to a higher level of reported PA for subjects whose hypertension was controlled. This encourages us to continue with a study that would include more subjects, which would assess PA level using an objective method such as wearing an accelerometer sensor.

  5. Objectively-Measured Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education among Homeschool Children (United States)

    Swenson, Sarah; Pope, Zachary; Zeng, Nan


    Despite a growing population of homeschool children in the United States, little is known regarding their physical activity (PA) levels. Without access to physical education, homeschool children may engage in inadequate PA levels. The purpose of this study was to objectively examine the activity levels of homeschool students participating in a…

  6. Introducing B2B Service Level Measures via a Poker-Card Activity (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Miin; Bailey, Matthew D.


    To determine the appropriate level of product availability, most operations management textbooks introduce and define service level measures in a Business-to-Customer context. In other words, a retailer that wants to measure product availability in their store calculates the fill rate (FR) or cycle service level over an infinite review horizon.…

  7. Fission product activity ratios measured at trace level over France during the Fukushima accident. (United States)

    de Vismes Ott, A; Gurriaran, R; Cagnat, X; Masson, O


    The nuclear accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi (Japan) which occurred after the tsunami that impacted the northeast coasts of Japan on March 11th, 2011 led to significant releases of radionuclides into the atmosphere and resulted in the detection of those radionuclides at a global scale. In order to track airborne radionuclides from the damaged reactors and to survey their potential impact on the French territory, the French Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire IRSN) set up an enhanced surveillance system to give quick results as needed and later give quality trace level measurements. Radionuclides usually measured at trace levels such as (137)Cs and in a very sporadic way (131)I were reported. Radionuclides that we had never measured in air since the Chernobyl accident: (134)Cs, (136)Cs, the mother/daughter pairs (129m)Te-(129)Te and (132)Te-(132)I, and (140)La (from the mother-daughter pair (140)Ba- (140)La) were also reported. Except the (131)I/(137)Cs ratio, activity concentration ratios were constant. These ratios could be used to help source term assessment, or as data for transfer studies realized after the passage of contaminated air masses, typically using the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio.

  8. Objectively Measured Physical Activity Is Negatively Associated with Plasma Adiponectin Levels in Minority Female Youth

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    B. Adar Emken


    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the relationship between adiponectin and physical activity (PA in minority female youth. Methods. Plasma adiponectin was measured in 39 females (mean age 9.2±0.9 years; 30 Latina, 9 African-American; 56% overweight. PA was assessed by accelerometry. Mean minutes per day spent in daily PA (DPA (≥3 metabolic equivalents (METs, moderate PA (MPA(4–7 METs, vigorous PA (VPA(≥7 METs, and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA(≥4 METs were calculated. The association between adiponectin and PA, controlling for age, fat weight, lean weight, and insulin sensitivity (SI was analyzed using linear regression. Results. Adiponectin correlated with fat weight (r=-0.43, P<.01 and SI (r=0.52, P<.01. Minutes spent in DPA (β=-0.40, P=.02, MPA (β=-0.36, P=.04, or MVPA (β=-0.37, P=.03 were predictors of adiponectin in the adjusted model. Conclusions. Higher PA levels were related to lower adiponectin levels. Potential mechanisms include upregulation of adiponectin receptors or an increase in high-molecular weight adiponectin with increasing PA.

  9. A measurement error model for physical activity level as measured by a questionnaire with application to the 1999-2006 NHANES questionnaire. (United States)

    Tooze, Janet A; Troiano, Richard P; Carroll, Raymond J; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Freedman, Laurence S


    Systematic investigations into the structure of measurement error of physical activity questionnaires are lacking. We propose a measurement error model for a physical activity questionnaire that uses physical activity level (the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal energy expenditure) to relate questionnaire-based reports of physical activity level to true physical activity levels. The 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey physical activity questionnaire was administered to 433 participants aged 40-69 years in the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study (Maryland, 1999-2000). Valid estimates of participants' total energy expenditure were also available from doubly labeled water, and basal energy expenditure was estimated from an equation; the ratio of those measures estimated true physical activity level ("truth"). We present a measurement error model that accommodates the mixture of errors that arise from assuming a classical measurement error model for doubly labeled water and a Berkson error model for the equation used to estimate basal energy expenditure. The method was then applied to the OPEN Study. Correlations between the questionnaire-based physical activity level and truth were modest (r = 0.32-0.41); attenuation factors (0.43-0.73) indicate that the use of questionnaire-based physical activity level would lead to attenuated estimates of effect size. Results suggest that sample sizes for estimating relationships between physical activity level and disease should be inflated, and that regression calibration can be used to provide measurement error-adjusted estimates of relationships between physical activity and disease.

  10. Abdominal strengthening using the AbVice machine as measured by surface electromyographic activation levels. (United States)

    Avedisian, Lori; Kowalsky, Don S; Albro, Richard C; Goldner, Daniel; Gill, Robert C


    Twenty-four college students served as subjects in a study that examined the effect of a prototypical abdominal muscle strengthening device (AbVice) compared with other devices currently on the market. The purpose of the present study was to investigate a prototypical device (AbVice) that incorporates contraction of the hamstring and gluteal musculature in conjunction with the abdominals, which may assist in decreasing activation of the hip flexors by allowing greater activity levels of the abdominal musculature via the theory of reflex inhibition, compared with other devices currently available on the market (AbRoller and AbRocker). The repeated-measures study included 17 women and 7 men who ranged in age from 20-23 years (mean +/- SD age, 21.3 +/- 1.5 years). Each subject underwent a single session of data collection during which they completed 10 repetitions of abdominal crunches per device. Subjects completed 4 different crunch sets (AbRocker, AbRoller, standard crunch, AbVice). Counterbalancing of the device was used to negate the effect of fatigue. Speed of repetitions was ensured via use of a metronome set at 40 b.min(-1) to permit similar contraction times and rest periods between repetitions. Rest between conditions was 3 minutes. Mean activation levels of surface electromyography (EMG) were recorded for each condition at the following locations on the right side of the body: rectus abdominis 2.5 cm superior to the umbilicus, rectus abdominis 2.5 cm inferior to the umbilicus, external oblique abdominis 1.0 cm medial to the anterior superior iliac spine, and external oblique abdominis less than 1.0 cm superior to the inguinal ligament. Mean (SD) activation was 1,165.21 mV (634.60 mV) with the AbVice, 242.92 mV (263.03 mV) with the AbRocker, 753.29 mV (514.80 mV) with the standard crunch, and 757.67 mV (542.85 mV) with the AbRoller. Broken down by sex, women had the following mean (SD) EMG values: 1,079.76 mV (705.02 mV) with the AbVice, 680.35 mV (535.35 m

  11. Assessment of objectively measured physical activity levels in individuals with intellectual disabilities with and without Down's syndrome.

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    Alexander C Phillips

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate, using accelerometers, the levels of physical activity being undertaken by individuals with intellectual disabilities with and without Down's syndrome. METHODS: One hundred and fifty two individuals with intellectual disabilities aged 12-70 years from East and South-East England. Physical activity levels in counts per minute (counts/min, steps per day (steps/day, and minutes of sedentary, light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA measured with a uni-axial accelerometer (Actigraph GT1M for seven days. RESULTS: No individuals with intellectual disabilities met current physical activity recommendations. Males were more active than females. There was a trend for physical activity to decline and sedentary behaviour to increase with age, and for those with more severe levels of intellectual disability to be more sedentary and less physically active, however any relationship was not significant when adjusted for confounding variables. Participants with Down's syndrome engaged in significantly less physical activity than those with intellectual disabilities without Down's syndrome and levels of activity declined significantly with age. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with intellectual disabilities, especially those with Down's syndrome may be at risk of developing diseases associated with physical inactivity. There is a need for well-designed, accessible, preventive health promotion strategies and interventions designed to raise the levels of physical activity for individuals with intellectual disabilities. We propose that there are physiological reasons why individuals with Down's syndrome have particularly low levels of physical activity that also decline markedly with age.

  12. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C


    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years-old) ...

  13. Effect of physical activity intervention based on a pedometer on physical activity level and anthropometric measures after childbirth: a randomized controlled trial

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    Maturi Masumeh S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy and childbirth are associated with weight gain in women, and retention of weight gained during pregnancy can lead to obesity in later life. Diet and physical activity are factors that can influence the loss of retained pregnancy weight after birth. Exercise guidelines exist for pregnancy, but recommendations for exercise after childbirth are virtually nonexistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of physical activity intervention based on pedometer on physical activity level and anthropometric measures of women after childbirth. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial in which 66 women who had given birth 6 weeks to 6 months prior were randomly assigned to receive either a 12 week tailored program encouraging increased walking using a pedometer (intervention group, n = 32 or routine postpartum care (control group, n = 34. During the 12-week study period, each woman in the intervention group wore a pedometer and recorded her daily step count. The women were advised to increase their steps by 500 per week until they achieved the first target of 5000 steps per day and then continued to increase it to minimum of 10,000 steps per day by the end of 12th week. Assessed outcomes included anthropometric measures, physical activity level, and energy expenditure per week. Data were analyzed using the paired t-test, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney, chi-square, Wilcoxon, covariance analysis, and the general linear model repeated measures procedure as appropriate. Results After 12 weeks, women in the intervention group had significantly increased their physical activity and energy expenditure per week (4394 vs. 1651 calorie, p P = 0.001, Body Mass Index (P = 0.001, waist circumference (P = 0.001, hip circumference (P = 0.032 and waist-hip ratio (P = 0.02 were presented after the intervention. The intervention group significantly increased their mean daily step count over the study period (from 3249

  14. Helium II level measurement techniques (United States)

    Celik, D.; Hilton, D. K.; Zhang, T.; Van Sciver, S. W.


    In this paper, a survey of cryogenic liquid level measurement techniques applicable to superfluid helium (He II) is given. The survey includes both continuous and discrete measurement techniques. A number of different probes and controlling circuits for this purpose have been described in the literature. They fall into one of the following categories: capacitive liquid level gauges, superconducting wire liquid level gauges, thermodynamic (heat transfer-based) liquid level gauges, resistive gauges, ultrasound and transmission line-based level detectors. The present paper reviews these techniques and their suitability for He II service. In addition to these methods, techniques for measuring the total liquid volume and mass gauging are also discussed.

  15. Symmetry and Asymmetry Level Measures

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    Angel Garrido


    Full Text Available Usually, Symmetry and Asymmetry are considered as two opposite sides of a coin: an object is either totally symmetric, or totally asymmetric, relative to pattern objects. Intermediate situations of partial symmetry or partial asymmetry are not considered. But this dichotomy on the classification lacks of a necessary and realistic gradation. For this reason, it is convenient to introduce "shade regions", modulating the degree of Symmetry (a fuzzy concept. Here, we will analyze the Asymmetry problem by successive attempts of description and by the introduction of the Asymmetry Level Function, as a new Normal Fuzzy Measure. Our results (both Theorems and Corollaries suppose to be some new and original contributions to such very active and interesting field of research. Previously, we proceed to the analysis of the state of art.

  16. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtgen, C


    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advice the nuclear and non-nuclear industry in matters concerning radioactive contamination and/or low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain the quality assurance system according to the EN45001/ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are reported.

  17. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtgen, C


    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination and low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain and improve the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are reported.

  18. Physical Activity Level and Sedentary Behaviors among Public School Children in Dakar (Senegal Measured by PAQ-C and Accelerometer: Preliminary Results

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    Adama Diouf


    Full Text Available Background: Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles are major risk factors of childhood obesity. This study aimed to measure physical activity (PA levels by accelerometer and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C among Senegalese school children and the relation with Body Mass Index (BMI and body composition. Methodology: 156 pupils 8–11 years old were randomly selected in four elementary public schools of Dakar. BMI z-score was used to categorize children according to their weight status. PA was measured by PAQ-C in the 156 pupils and by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+, Pensacola, FL, USA in a subsample of 42 children. Body composition was determined by deuterium dilution method. Results: PAQ-C results were comparable in the 156 and 42 pupils. The 42 pupils presented a light activity measured by accelerometer, while PAQ-C classified the majority of them (57%; n = 24 in the moderate PA level. Children spent most of their time (min/day in sedentary activities and light activities than in moderate and intense activity levels. Accumulation of 60 min/day Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA was achieved by 54.8% (n = 23 of the pupils. MVPA decreased in girls in relation to their body fatness. There was a significant difference in MVPA between boys and girls. Similarly, overweight/obese (45 ± 16 min/day children had lower MVPA than their normal and underweight peers (88 ± 34 and 74 ± 36 min/day, respectively; p = 0.004. Conclusions: The two methods are inconsistent for measuring light and moderate PA levels. Although PAQ-C is an uncomplicated routine method, various activities were not adapted for genuine activities in Senegalese children and therefore needs to be validated in African children.

  19. Accelerometer Measured Level of Physical Activity Indoors and Outdoors During Preschool Time in Sweden and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raustorp, A.; Pagels, P.; Boldemann, C.


    BACKGROUND: It is important to understand the correlates of physical activity in order to influence policy and create environments that promote physical activity among preschool children. We compared preschoolers' physical activity in Swedish and in US settings and objectively examined differences...

  20. Levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor in non-small cell lung cancer as measured by quantitative ELISA and semiquantitative immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pappot, Helle; Skov, Birgit Guldhammer; Pyke, Charles;


    , results in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) studies obtained by quantitative ELISA and semiquantitative immunohistochemistry differ. If the prognostic value of the components of the plasminogen activation system is to be exploited clinically in the future, it is important to choose an easy and valid......PAR with the aim of predicting prognosis. In conclusion, a larger comparative study is needed to clarify the relationship between ELISA and immunohistochemical results, before a methodology for clinical use can be chosen in non-small cell lung cancer....... methodology. In the present study we investigated levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-I) and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), as quantitated by ELISA in tumour extracts from 64 NSCLC patients (38 squamous cell carcinomas, 26 adenocarcinomas), and compared them to staining...

  1. Accelerometer measured level of physical activity indoors and outdoors during preschool time in Sweden and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raustorp, Anders; Pagels, Peter; Boldemann, Cecilia


    It is important to understand the correlates of physical activity (PA) to influence policy and create environments that promote PA among preschool children. We compared preschoolers' PA in Swedish and in US settings and objectively examined differences boys' and girls' indoor and outdoor PA...

  2. A neural measure of behavioral engagement: task-residual low-frequency blood oxygenation level-dependent activity in the precuneus. (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Li, Chiang-Shan Ray


    Brain imaging has provided a useful tool to examine the neural processes underlying human cognition. A critical question is whether and how task engagement influences the observed regional brain activations. Here we highlighted this issue and derived a neural measure of task engagement from the task-residual low-frequency blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activity in the precuneus. Using independent component analysis, we identified brain regions in the default circuit - including the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) - showing greater activation during resting as compared to task residuals in 33 individuals. Time series correlations with the posterior cingulate cortex as the seed region showed that connectivity with the precuneus was significantly stronger during resting as compared to task residuals. We hypothesized that if the task-residual BOLD activity in the precuneus reflects engagement, it should account for a certain amount of variance in task-related regional brain activation. In an additional experiment of 59 individuals performing a stop signal task, we observed that the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) of the precuneus but not the mPFC accounted for approximately 10% of the variance in prefrontal activation related to attentional monitoring and response inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that task-residual fALFF in the precuneus may be a potential indicator of task engagement. This measurement may serve as a useful covariate in identifying motivation-independent neural processes that underlie the pathogenesis of a psychiatric or neurological condition.

  3. Personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurements in The Netherlands: exposure level and variability for everyday activities, times of day and types of area. (United States)

    Bolte, John F B; Eikelboom, Tessa


    Knowledge of the exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields is necessary for epidemiological studies on possible health effects. The main goal of this study is to determine the exposure level and spatial and temporal variances during 39 everyday activities in 12 frequency bands used in mobile telecommunication and broadcasting. Therefore, 24 h measurements were gathered from 98 volunteers living in or near Amsterdam and Purmerend, The Netherlands. They carried an activity diary to be kept to the minute, a GPS logger sampling at an interval of 1 s, and an EME Spy exposimeter with a detection limit of 0.0066 mW/m(2) sampling at an interval of 10s in 12 frequency bands. The mean exposure over 24 h, excluding own mobile phone use, was 0.180 mW/m(2). During daytime exposure was about the same, but during night it was about half, and in the evening it was about twice as high. The main contribution to environmental exposure (calling by participant not included) is from calling with mobile phones (37.5%), from cordless DECT phones and their docking stations (31.7%), and from the base stations (12.7%). The exposure to mobile phone base stations increases with the percentage of urban ground use, which is an indication for high people density. In agreement, the highest mean exposure relates to the activities with high people density, such as travelling by public transport, visiting social events, pubs or shopping malls. Exposure at home depends mainly on exposure from people calling in the neighbourhood of the participant and thus on the number of persons in a household. In addition just the possession of DECT docking stations leads to exposure as most models transmit continuously in stand-by. Also wireless internet routers continuously transmit in the WiFi band. Though the highest exposure peaks in the WiFi band, up to 0.265 W/m(2), come from stray radiation of microwave ovens. The mean total exposure largely depends on phone calls of a high exposure level and short

  4. Computer-aided measurement of liver volumes in CT by means of geodesic active contour segmentation coupled with level-set algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Kohlbrenner, Ryan; Epstein, Mark L.; Obajuluwa, Ademola M.; Xu Jianwu; Hori, Masatoshi [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)


    Purpose: Computerized liver extraction from hepatic CT images is challenging because the liver often abuts other organs of a similar density. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided measurement of liver volumes in hepatic CT. Methods: The authors developed a computerized liver extraction scheme based on geodesic active contour segmentation coupled with level-set contour evolution. First, an anisotropic diffusion filter was applied to portal-venous-phase CT images for noise reduction while preserving the liver structure, followed by a scale-specific gradient magnitude filter to enhance the liver boundaries. Then, a nonlinear grayscale converter enhanced the contrast of the liver parenchyma. By using the liver-parenchyma-enhanced image as a speed function, a fast-marching level-set algorithm generated an initial contour that roughly estimated the liver shape. A geodesic active contour segmentation algorithm coupled with level-set contour evolution refined the initial contour to define the liver boundaries more precisely. The liver volume was then calculated using these refined boundaries. Hepatic CT scans of 15 prospective liver donors were obtained under a liver transplant protocol with a multidetector CT system. The liver volumes extracted by the computerized scheme were compared to those traced manually by a radiologist, used as ''gold standard.''Results: The mean liver volume obtained with our scheme was 1504 cc, whereas the mean gold standard manual volume was 1457 cc, resulting in a mean absolute difference of 105 cc (7.2%). The computer-estimated liver volumetrics agreed excellently with the gold-standard manual volumetrics (intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.95) with no statistically significant difference (F=0.77; p(F{<=}f)=0.32). The average accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and percent volume error were 98.4%, 91.1%, 99.1%, and 7.2%, respectively. Computerized CT liver volumetry would require substantially less

  5. Field methods and quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities and water-level measurements, U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Maimer, Neil V.; Wehnke, Amy J.


    Water-quality activities and water-level measurements by the personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Project Office coincide with the USGS mission of appraising the quantity and quality of the Nation’s water resources. The activities are carried out in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operations Office. Results of the water-quality and hydraulic head investigations are presented in various USGS publications or in refereed scientific journals and the data are stored in the National Water Information System (NWIS) database. The results of the studies are used by researchers, regulatory and managerial agencies, and interested civic groups. In the broadest sense, quality assurance refers to doing the job right the first time. It includes the functions of planning for products, review and acceptance of the products, and an audit designed to evaluate the system that produces the products. Quality control and quality assurance differ in that quality control ensures that things are done correctly given the “state-of-the-art” technology, and quality assurance ensures that quality control is maintained within specified limits.

  6. 环境样品低水平γ放射性的活度测量%Low levels of radioactivity in environmental samples γactivity measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隗莲; 沈明启; 刘春雨


    There are a variety of radionuclides in the soil , including higher levels of nuclear 40 K, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 238 U.These four standard sources was used as a basis for measure-ment, and the calculations of the branching ratio and detection efficiency of full -energy peaks were performed , so as to calculate the activity of these radionuclides .The detection ef-ficiencies of energy scale of experimental apparatus , and the standard soil source such as 40 K, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 238 U were measured using BH1936 multichannel gamma spectrometer with low background as a laboratory instrument , and the mixture of 60 Co and 137 Cs radiation source as the known energy source .The energy spectrum analysis of environmental samples mainly included radioactivity of soil samples and samples of building materials .Therefore, the specific activity of standard sources representative ( 40 K,226 Ra, 232 Th and 238 U) was ob-tained.%土壤中含有多种放射性核素,其中含量较高的核素有40 K、226 Ra、232 Th和238 U,以这四种的标准源为基础进行实验测量,计算各种能量所对应的全能峰的分支比和探测效率,从而计算出这些放射性核素的活度。通过实验的方法,用BH1936型低本底多道γ能谱仪作为实验仪器,把60 Co和137 Cs的混合放射源作为能量刻度的已知能量源,对实验仪器能量刻度,以及对标准土壤源40 K、226 Ra、232 Th和238 U的探测效率进行实验测量。以此为基础对环境样品进行了能谱分析,主要是测量和分析了环境土壤样品和建材样品的放射性活度,得到了标准源(40 K、226 Ra、232 Th和238 U)为代表的核素的比活度。

  7. Measurement of Physical Activity. (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.


    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  8. Sound level measurements using smartphone "apps": Useful or inaccurate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Nast


    Full Text Available Many recreational activities are accompanied by loud concurrent sounds and decisions regarding the hearing hazards associated with these activities depend on accurate sound measurements. Sound level meters (SLMs are designed for this purpose, but these are technical instruments that are not typically available in recreational settings and require training to use properly. Mobile technology has made such sound level measurements more feasible for even inexperienced users. Here, we assessed the accuracy of sound level measurements made using five mobile phone applications or "apps" on an Apple iPhone 4S, one of the most widely used mobile phones. Accuracy was assessed by comparing application-based measurements to measurements made using a calibrated SLM. Whereas most apps erred by reporting higher sound levels, one application measured levels within 5 dB of a calibrated SLM across all frequencies tested.

  9. Measuring children's physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen


    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...... on the thigh (n=903) and one on the lower back (n= 856), for up to ten consecutive days. Participants were instructed not to reattach an accelerometer should it fall off. Simple and multiple linear regression were used to determine associations between accelerometer wear time and age, sex, BMI percentiles...

  10. Torsional ultrasonic wave based level measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kisner, Roger A. (Knoxville, TN)


    A level measurement system suitable for use in a high temperature and pressure environment to measure the level of coolant fluid within the environment, the system including a volume of coolant fluid located in a coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment and having a level therein; an ultrasonic waveguide blade that is positioned within the desired coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment; a magnetostrictive electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment and configured to operate in the environment and cooperate with the waveguide blade to launch and receive ultrasonic waves; and an external signal processing system located outside of the high temperature and pressure environment and configured for communicating with the electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment.

  11. Students' objectively measured physical activity levels and engagement as a function of between-class and between-student differences in motivation toward physical education. (United States)

    Aelterman, Nathalie; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Van Keer, Hilde; Van den Berghe, Lynn; De Meyer, Jotie; Haerens, Leen


    Despite evidence for the utility of self-determination theory in physical education, few studies used objective indicators of physical activity and mapped out between-class, relative to between-student, differences in physical activity. This study investigated whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and rated collective engagement in physical education were associated with autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation at the between-class and between-student levels. Participants were 739 pupils (46.3% boys, Mage = 14.36 ±1.94) from 46 secondary school classes in Flanders (Belgium). Multilevel analyses indicated that 37% and 63% of the variance in MVPA was explained by between-student and between-class differences, respectively. Students' personal autonomous motivation related positively to MVPA. Average autonomous class motivation was positively related to between-class variation in MVPA and collective engagement. Average controlled class motivation and average class amotivation were negatively associated with collective engagement. The findings are discussed in light of self-determination theory's emphasis on quality of motivation.

  12. Measuring physical activity during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teede Helena J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, little is known about physical activity patterns in pregnancy with prior estimates predominantly based on subjective assessment measures that are prone to error. Given the increasing obesity rates and the importance of physical activity in pregnancy, we evaluated the relationship and agreement between subjective and objective physical activity assessment tools to inform researchers and clinicians on optimal assessment of physical activity in pregnancy. Methods 48 pregnant women between 26-28 weeks gestation were recruited. The Yamax pedometer and Actigraph accelerometer were worn for 5-7 days under free living conditions and thereafter the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was completed. IPAQ and pedometer estimates of activity were compared to the more robust and accurate accelerometer data. Results Of 48 women recruited, 30 women completed the study (mean age: 33.6 ± 4.7 years; mean BMI: 31.2 ± 5.1 kg/m2 and 18 were excluded (failure to wear [n = 8] and incomplete data [n = 10]. The accelerometer and pedometer correlated significantly on estimation of daily steps (ρ = 0.69, p -1 day-1 were not significantly correlated and there was poor absolute agreement. Relative to the accelerometer, the IPAQ under predicted daily total METs (105.76 ± 259.13 min-1 day-1 and light METs (255.55 ± 128.41 min-1 day-1 and over predicted moderate METs (-112.25 ± 166.41 min-1 day-1. Conclusion Compared with the accelerometer, the pedometer appears to provide a reliable estimate of physical activity in pregnancy, whereas the subjective IPAQ measure performed less accurately in this setting. Future research measuring activity in pregnancy should optimally encompass objective measures of physical activity. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry Number: ACTRN12608000233325. Registered 7/5/2008.

  13. Measuring receptive collocational competence across proficiency levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déogratias Nizonkiza


    Full Text Available The present study investigates, (i English as Foreign Language (EFL learners’ receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as proficiency develops; and (iii the extent to which receptive knowledge of collocations of EFL learners varies across word frequency bands. A proficiency measure and a collocation test were administered to English majors at the University of Burundi. Results of the study suggest that receptive collocational competence develops alongside EFL learners’ linguistic proficiency; which lends empirical support to Gyllstad (2007, 2009 and Author (2011 among others, who reported similar findings. Furthermore, EFL learners’ collocations growth seems to be quantifiable wherein both linguistic proficiency level and word frequency occupy a crucial role. While more gains in terms of collocations that EFL learners could potentially add as a result of change in proficiency are found at lower levels of proficiency; collocations of words from more frequent word bands seem to be mastered first, and more gains are found at more frequent word bands. These results confirm earlier findings on the non-linearity nature of vocabulary growth (cf. Meara 1996 and the fundamental role played by frequency in word knowledge for vocabulary in general (Nation 1983, 1990, Nation and Beglar 2007, which are extended here to collocations knowledge.

  14. Measurements of extremely low radioactivity levels in BOREXINO

    CERN Document Server

    Arpesella, C


    The techniques researched, developed and applied towards the measurement of radioisotope concentrations at ultra-low levels in the real-time solar neutrino experiment BOREXINO at Gran Sasso are presented and illustrated with specific results of widespread interest. We report the use of low-level germanium gamma spectrometry, low-level miniaturized gas proportional counters and low background scintillation detectors developed in solar neutrino research. Each now sets records in its field. We additionally describe our techniques of radiochemical ultra-pure, few atom manipulations and extractions. Forefront measurements also result from the powerful combination of neutron activation and low-level counting. Finally, with our techniques and commercially available mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy, new low-level detection limits for isotopes of interest are obtained.

  15. Evapotranspiration Modeling and Measurements at Ecosystem Level (United States)

    Sirca, C.; Snyder, R. L.; Mereu, S.; Kovács-Láng, E.; Ónodi, G.; Spano, D.


    In recent years, the availability of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) data is greatly increased. ETo, in conjunction with coefficients accounting for the difference between the vegetation and the reference surface, provides estimation of the actual evapotranspiration (ETa). The coefficients approach was applied in the past mainly for crops, due the lack of experimental data and difficulties to account for terrain and vegetation variability in natural ecosystems. Moreover, the assessment of ETa over large spatial scale by measurements is often time consuming, and requires several measurement points with relatively expensive and sophisticated instrumentation and techniques (e.g. eddy covariance). The Ecosystem Water Program (ECOWAT) was recently developed to help estimates of ETa of ecosystems by accounting for microclimate, vegetation type, plant density, and water stress. ETa on natural and semi-natural ecosystems has several applications, e.g. water status assessment, fire danger estimation, and ecosystem management practices. In this work, results obtained using ECOWAT to assess ETa of a forest ecosystem located in Hungary are reported. The site is a part of the EU-FP7 INCREASE project, which aims to study the effects of climate change on European shrubland ecosystems. In the site, a climate manipulation experiment was setted up to have a warming and a drought treatment (besides the control). Each treatment was replicated three times We show how the ECOWAT model performed when the predicted actual evapotranspiration is compared with actual evapotranspiration obtained from Surface Renewal method and with soil moisture measurements. ECOWAT was able to capture the differences in the water balance at treatment level, confirming its potential as a tool for water status assessment. For the Surface Renewal method, high frequency temperature data were collected to estimate the sensible heat flux (H'). The net radiation (Rn) and soil heat flux density (G) were also

  16. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.


    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  17. Ferromagnetic interaction model of activity level in workplace communication (United States)

    Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Yano, Kazuo


    The nature of human-human interaction, specifically, how people synchronize with each other in multiple-participant conversations, is described by a ferromagnetic interaction model of people’s activity levels. We found two microscopic human interaction characteristics from a real-environment face-to-face conversation. The first characteristic is that people quite regularly synchronize their activity level with that of the other participants in a conversation. The second characteristic is that the degree of synchronization increases as the number of participants increases. Based on these microscopic ferromagnetic characteristics, a “conversation activity level” was modeled according to the Ising model. The results of a simulation of activity level based on this model well reproduce macroscopic experimental measurements of activity level. This model will give a new insight into how people interact with each other in a conversation.

  18. Measurements of sea level off Tikkavanipalem - Coast India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desai, R.G.P.; Peshwe, V.B.; Desa, E.; VijayKumar, K.; Desa, E.S.; Mehra, P.; Nagvekar, S.

    Sea level and meteorological measurements have been made, off Tikkavanipalem coast in Andhra Pradesh, India in 1997-98. Sea level measurements were made in four temporal segments of one-month duration each during a one-year period...

  19. Measuring segregation: an activity space approach. (United States)

    Wong, David W S; Shaw, Shih-Lung


    While the literature clearly acknowledges that individuals may experience different levels of segregation across their various socio-geographical spaces, most measures of segregation are intended to be used in the residential space. Using spatially aggregated data to evaluate segregation in the residential space has been the norm and thus individual's segregation experiences in other socio-geographical spaces are often de-emphasized or ignored. This paper attempts to provide a more comprehensive approach in evaluating segregation beyond the residential space. The entire activity spaces of individuals are taken into account with individuals serving as the building blocks of the analysis. The measurement principle is based upon the exposure dimension of segregation. The proposed measure reflects the exposure of individuals of a referenced group in a neighborhood to the populations of other groups that are found within the activity spaces of individuals in the referenced group. Using the travel diary data collected from the tri-county area in southeast Florida and the imputed racial-ethnic data, this paper demonstrates how the proposed segregation measurement approach goes beyond just measuring population distribution patterns in the residential space and can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of segregation by considering various socio-geographical spaces.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Annunziato


    Full Text Available A new mareograph device has been designed at the Joint Research Centre (JRC of the European Commission (EC in order improve the sea level network in use for the Tsunami Hazard monitoring in the Mediterranean Sea and in the North Atlantic area (NEAMTWS area of UNESCO. The instrument has the characteristic to be cheap and very effective but its reliability, duration and quality need to be determined and qualified. For this reason a number of experimental campaigns are being conducted, whose first results are presented here. In collaboration with the UNESCO/IOC (Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, responsible of the definition of the Tsunami Warning System of this geographical area, a set of 20 devices has been offered by JRC for a period of 1 year of testing of the devices; the surveys for the installation of the devices is under way and the installation should be completed by the end of 2015.

  1. Experiences on pollution level measurement in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya-Tena, Gerardo; Hernandez-Corona, Ramiro; Ramirez-Vazquez, Isaias [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Reforma 113 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico)


    The pollution on overhead insulators is influenced by the pollutant type as well as by the climate of the site. In Mexico, due to its orography and diversity of lands, there are several areas where the failures on the overhead insulation are mainly caused by the pollution. Since the decade of 1980s, various studies have been performed to solve or at least alleviate such transmission and distribution power line pollution-related problems. This paper presents a description of several studies conducted by the Mexican Electrical Research Institute 'Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas' (IIE) together with the Mexican electrical utility 'Comision Federal de Electricidad' (CFE), from the elaboration of a contamination map to the development of a system for measuring leakage current, which is used as a tool for the in-service diagnostic of insulators installed on lines of transmission. (author)

  2. Physical activity in preschoolers: understanding prevalence and measurement issues. (United States)

    Oliver, Melody; Schofield, Grant M; Kolt, Gregory S


    Accurate physical activity quantification in preschoolers is essential to establish physical activity prevalence, dose-response relationships between activity and health outcomes, and intervention effectiveness. To date, best practice approaches for physical activity measurement in preschool-aged children have been relatively understudied. This article provides a review of physical activity measurement tools for preschoolers, an overview of measurement of preschoolers' physical activity, and directions for further research. Electronic and manual literature searches were used to identify 49 studies that measured young children's physical activity, and 32 studies that assessed the validity and/or reliability of physical activity measures with preschool-aged children. While no prevalence data exist, measurement studies indicate that preschool children exhibit low levels of vigorous activity and high levels of inactivity, boys are more active than girls, and activity patterns tend to be sporadic and omnidirectional. As such, measures capable of capturing differing activity intensities in very short timeframes and over multiple planes are likely to have the most utility with this population. Accelerometers are well suited for this purpose, and a number of models have been used to objectively quantify preschoolers' physical activity. Only one model of pedometer has been investigated for validity with preschool-aged children, showing equivocal results. Direct observation of physical activity can provide detailed contextual information on preschoolers' physical activity, but is subjective and impractical for understanding daily physical activity. Proxy-report questionnaires are unlikely to be useful for determining actual physical activity levels of young children, and instead may be useful for identifying potential correlates of activity. Establishing validity is challenging due to the absence of a precise physical activity measure, or 'criterion', for young children

  3. Active Crohn's disease is associated with low vitamin D levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren Peter; Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Agnholt, Jørgen


    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Crohn's disease prevalence increases with increasing latitude. Because most vitamin D comes from sunlight exposure and murine models of intestinal inflammation have demonstrated beneficial effects of 1,25-(OH)(2) vitamin D treatment, we hypothesised that Crohn's disease...... activity is associated with low vitamin D levels. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 182 CD patients and 62 healthy controls, we measured serum 25-OH vitamin D. Stratified analysis was used to compare 25-OH vitamin D levels with Crohn's disease activity index, C-reactive protein, smoking status, intake...... of oral vitamin D supplements and seasonal variation in CD patients and healthy controls. RESULTS: Serum 25-OH vitamin D was inversely associated with disease activity: Median 25-OH vitamin D levels of Crohn's disease in remission, mildly, and moderately active diseases evaluated by Crohn's disease...

  4. Particle fluence measurements by activation technique for radiation damage studies

    CERN Document Server

    León-Florián, E; Furetta, C; Leroy, Claude


    High-level radiation environment can produce radiation damage in detectors and their associate electronic components. The establishment of a correlation between damage, irradiation level and absorbed dose requires a precise measurement of the fluence of particles causing the damage. The activation technique is frequently used for performing particle fluence measurements. A review of this technique is presented.

  5. Selecting Level-Specific Specialized Vocabulary Using Statistical Measures (United States)

    Chujo, Kiyomi; Utiyama, Masao


    To find an easy-to-use, automated tool to identify technical vocabulary applicable to learners at various levels, nine statistical measures were applied to the 7.3-million-word "commerce and finance" component of the British National Corpus. The resulting word lists showed that each statistical measure extracted a different level of specialized…

  6. The measurement of carbon dioxide levels in a city canyon (United States)

    Boyd, Jenny; Budinov, Daniel; Robinson, Iain; Jack, James


    Cities today have two major environmental concerns - carbon emissions and air quality. Global carbon levels are increasing and cities require to show plans to tackle and reduce the amount of carbon which they are emitting. At present carbon emissions in urban areas are calculated rather than measured. In some cities where industrial activity is not carbon intensive, the major contributors are the burning of fuel for heating and the emissions from vehicles. Air quality levels have a direct impact on human health and cities are under increased pressure to demonstrate plans to control and reduce levels of air pollution. Of great importance is the way in which emissions, both carbon rich emissions and pollutants, disperse in a city environment. Little work has been reported on the movement of CO2 in the urban environment and the effect the structure of the environment exerts on the movement and dispersion. This paper describes an investigation into the dispersion of CO2 within an urban environment in the Old Town of the City of Edinburgh, using a hand carried low cost portable CO2 sensor.

  7. Ultra Low Level Environmental Neutron Measurements Using Superheated Droplet Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, A.C. [Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa. Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649- 003 Lisboa (Portugal); Felizardo, M.; Girard, T.A.; Kling, A.; Ramos, A.R. [Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa. Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649- 003 Lisboa (Portugal); Marques, J.G.; Prudencio, M.I.; Marques, R.; Carvalho, F.P. [Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)


    Through the application of superheated droplet detectors (SDDs), the SIMPLE project for the direct search for dark matter (DM) reached the most restrictive limits on the spin-dependent sector to date. The experiment is based on the detection of recoils following WIMP-nuclei interaction, mimicking those from neutron scattering. The thermodynamic operation conditions yield the SDDs intrinsically insensitive to radiations with linear energy transfer below ∼150 keVμm{sup -1} such as photons, electrons, muons and neutrons with energies below ∼40 keV. Underground facilities are increasingly employed for measurements in a low-level radiation background (DM search, gamma-spectroscopy, intrinsic soft-error rate measurements, etc.), where the rock overburden shields against cosmic radiation. In this environment the SDDs are sensitive only to α-particles and neutrons naturally emitted from the surrounding materials. Recently developed signal analysis techniques allow discrimination between neutron and α-induced signals. SDDs are therefore a promising instrument for low-level neutron and α measurements, namely environmental neutron measurements and α-contamination assays. In this work neutron measurements performed in the challenging conditions of the latest SIMPLE experiment (1500 mwe depth with 50-75 cm water shield) are reported. The results are compared with those obtained by detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the neutron background induced by {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th traces in the facility, shielding and detector materials. Calculations of the neutron energy distribution yield the following neutron fluence rates (in 10{sup -8} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}): thermal (<0.5 eV): 2.5; epithermal (0.5 eV-100 keV): 2.2; fast (>1 MeV): 3.9. Signal rates were derived using standard cross sections and codes routinely employed in reactor dosimetry. The measured and calculated neutron count rates per unit of active mass were 0.15 ct/kgd and 0.33 ct/kg-d respectively. As the major

  8. Photocatalytic Active Radiation Measurements and Use (United States)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Underwood, Lauren W.


    Photocatalytic materials are being used to purify air, to kill microbes, and to keep surfaces clean. A wide variety of materials are being developed, many of which have different abilities to absorb various wavelengths of light. Material variability, combined with both spectral illumination intensity and spectral distribution variability, will produce a wide range of performance results. The proposed technology estimates photocatalytic active radiation (PcAR), a unit of radiation that normalizes the amount of light based on its spectral distribution and on the ability of the material to absorb that radiation. Photocatalytic reactions depend upon the number of electron-hole pairs generated at the photocatalytic surface. The number of electron-hole pairs produced depends on the number of photons per unit area per second striking the surface that can be absorbed and whose energy exceeds the bandgap of the photocatalytic material. A convenient parameter to describe the number of useful photons is the number of moles of photons striking the surface per unit area per second. The unit of micro-einsteins (or micromoles) of photons per m2 per sec is commonly used for photochemical and photoelectric-like phenomena. This type of parameter is used in photochemistry, such as in the conversion of light energy for photosynthesis. Photosynthetic response correlates with the number of photons rather than by energy because, in this photochemical process, each molecule is activated by the absorption of one photon. In photosynthesis, the number of photons absorbed in the 400 700 nm spectral range is estimated and is referred to as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). PAR is defined in terms of the photosynthetic photon flux density measured in micro-einsteins of photons per m2 per sec. PcAR is an equivalent, similarly modeled parameter that has been defined for the photocatalytic processes. Two methods to measure the PcAR level are being proposed. In the first method, a calibrated

  9. Objectively measured physical activity in Danish after-school cares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Møller, Niels Christian; Støckel, Jan Toftegaard;


    Inactivity and more sedentary time predominate the daily activity level of many of today's children. In Denmark, certified sport after-school cares have been established in order to increase children's daily physical activity (PA) level. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the activity......+ activity monitors worn by the children for at least 8 consecutive days. Anthropometry and cardiorespiratory fitness were measured as well. A multivariate regression analysis was carried out to check for the differences in the PA level across the two care systems. However, there did not appear to be any...

  10. System for water level measurement based on pressure transducer (United States)

    Paczesny, Daniel; Marzecki, Michał; Woyke, Michał; Tarapata, Grzegorz


    The paper reports system for water level measurement, which is designed to be used for measuring liquid levels in the tanks of an autonomous industrial cleaning robot. The selected method of measurement utilized by the designed system is based on pressure measurement. Such system is insensitive on vibrations, foams presence and liquid impurities. The influences of variable pressure on the measurements were eliminated by utilizing the differential method and as well as the system design. The system is capable of measuring water level in tanks up to 400 mm of height with accuracy of about 2,5%. The system was tested in a container during filling and emptying with various liquids. Performed tests exhibited the linearity of the sensor characteristic and the lack of hysteresis. Obtained sensitivity of the sensor prototype was approximately 6,2 mV/mm H2O.

  11. Low level laser therapy reduces inflammation in activated Achilles tendinitis (United States)

    Bjordal, Jan M.; Iversen, Vegard; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.


    Objective: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been forwarded as therapy for osteoarthritis and tendinopathy. Results in animal and cell studies suggest that LLLT may act through a biological mechanism of inflammatory modulation. The current study was designed to investigate if LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated tendinitis of the Achilles tendon. Methods: Seven patients with bilateral Achilles tendonitis (14 tendons) who had aggravated symptoms by pain-inducing activity immediately prior to the study. LLLT (1.8 Joules for each of three points along the Achilles tendon with 904nm infrared laser) and placebo LLLT were administered to either Achilles tendons in a random order to which patients and therapist were blinded. Inflammation was examined by 1) mini-invasive microdialysis for measuring the concentration of inflammatory marker PGE II in the peritendinous tissue, 2) ultrasound with Doppler measurement of peri- and intratendinous blood flow, 3) pressure pain algometry and 4) single hop test. Results: PGE 2- levels were significantly reduced at 75, 90 and 105 minutes after active LLLT compared both to pre-treatment levels (p=0.026) and to placebo LLLT (p=0.009). Changes in pressure pain threshold (PPT) were significantly different (P=0.012) between groups. PPT increased by a mean value of 0.19 kg/cm2 [95%CI:0.04 to 0.34] after treatment in the active LLLT group, while pressure pain threshold was reduced by -0.20 kg/cm2 [95%CI:-0.45 to 0.05] after placebo LLLT. Conclusion: LLLT can be used to reduce inflammatory musculskeletal pain as it reduces inflammation and increases pressure pain threshold levels in activity-induced pain episodes of Achilles tendinopathy.

  12. Youth Physical Activity Resource Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry (United States)

    Maslow, Andra L.; Colabianchi, Natalie


    Objectives: To examine whether use of physical activity resources (e.g., parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods: One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1 resources). The main…

  13. Comparison of self-reported measure of sitting time (IPAQ) with objective measurement (activPAL). (United States)

    Chastin, S F M; Culhane, B; Dall, P M


    This study compared sitting time measured by a questionnaire (International Physical Activity Questionnaire; IPAQ) with concurrently measured objective sitting time from an accelerometer-based measure of thigh inclination (activPAL).Adults (n = 69), wore an activPAL for a week, and then completed the long-form 7 d recall IPAQ questionnaire. IPAQ reported sitting time (including and excluding transportation sitting) for the week, weekdays and weekend days were compared to activPAL (criterion measure) sitting time using intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland Altman plots.Confidence intervals between the IPAQ and the activPAL were wide, while correlations between the two measures were low and non-significant (0.112-0.275). Compared to a direct measure of postural sitting (activPAL), the IPAQ underestimated sitting time across the group for the whole week, both when including (mean 2.2 h d(-1)) and excluding (mean 3.4 h d(-1)) transportation sitting. Sitting was less accurately reported on weekend days than weekdays, and at lower levels of sitting on weekdays.Agreement between the IPAQ and the activPAL, a direct measure of sitting, in this study was poor. The direction of group agreement was different to comparisons using a measure of low accelerometer counts (Actigraph) as the criterion measure in previous research. Future studies should use a direct measure of sitting as a criterion measure to validate subjective measurement tools.

  14. Global positioning system: a new opportunity in physical activity measurement. (United States)

    Maddison, Ralph; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona


    Accurate measurement of physical activity is a pre-requisite to monitor population physical activity levels and design effective interventions. Global Positioning System (GPS) technology offers potential to improve the measurement of physical activity. This paper 1) reviews the extant literature on the application of GPS to monitor human movement, with a particular emphasis on free-living physical activity, 2) discusses issues associated with GPS use, and 3) provides recommendations for future research. Overall findings show that GPS is a useful tool to augment our understanding of physical activity by providing the context (location) of the activity and used together with Geographical Information Systems can provide some insight into how people interact with the environment. However, no studies have shown that GPS alone is a reliable and valid measure of physical activity.

  15. Measuring Homework Completion in Behavioral Activation (United States)

    Busch, Andrew M.; Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W.


    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities…

  16. Associations between personality traits, physical activity level, and muscle strength. (United States)

    Tolea, Magdalena I; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Metter, E Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T; Ferrucci, Luigi


    Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway.

  17. Active cell mechanics: Measurement and theory. (United States)

    Ahmed, Wylie W; Fodor, Étienne; Betz, Timo


    Living cells are active mechanical systems that are able to generate forces. Their structure and shape are primarily determined by biopolymer filaments and molecular motors that form the cytoskeleton. Active force generation requires constant consumption of energy to maintain the nonequilibrium activity to drive organization and transport processes necessary for their function. To understand this activity it is necessary to develop new approaches to probe the underlying physical processes. Active cell mechanics incorporates active molecular-scale force generation into the traditional framework of mechanics of materials. This review highlights recent experimental and theoretical developments towards understanding active cell mechanics. We focus primarily on intracellular mechanical measurements and theoretical advances utilizing the Langevin framework. These developing approaches allow a quantitative understanding of nonequilibrium mechanical activity in living cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology.

  18. Determinants affecting physical activity levels in animal models (United States)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.


    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  19. Measurement of absorbed dose and proposed radiation exposure level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Takayuki; Koizumi, Masayuki; Furukawa, Tomo [Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). Hospital


    Absorbed dose was measured in clinical X-ray examinations using thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD). Moreover, we distributed the levels of radiation exposure into 3 classes. The presumed dose of the internal organs, e.g., uterus dose, was computed to depth doses with a surface dose. This information provides a prediction of the influence of radiation, and the examination can be performed with the informed consent of the patient. Moreover, we examined the distribution of the level of absorbed dose. We proposed two kinds of radiation exposure level, one to the fetus in a pregnant woman and a general level of radiation exposure that is not applied to pregnant women. The levels were as follows: 0.5 mGy and 100 mGy were considered the boundaries for fetal radiation exposure in a pregnant woman, and 200 mGy and 3 Gy were considered the boundaries for the general level of radiation exposure (excluding pregnant women). (author)

  20. Mathematical model of radon activity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Zambianchi, Pedro, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)


    Present work describes a mathematical model that quantifies the time dependent amount of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn altogether and their activities within an ionization chamber as, for example, AlphaGUARD, which is used to measure activity concentration of Rn in soil gas. The differential equations take into account tree main processes, namely: the injection of Rn into the cavity of detector by the air pump including the effect of the traveling time Rn takes to reach the chamber; Rn release by the air exiting the chamber; and radioactive decay of Rn within the chamber. Developed code quantifies the activity of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn isotopes separately. Following the standard methodology to measure Rn activity in soil gas, the air pump usually is turned off over a period of time in order to avoid the influx of Rn into the chamber. Since {sup 220}Rn has a short half-life time, approximately 56s, the model shows that after 7 minutes the activity concentration of this isotope is null. Consequently, the measured activity refers to {sup 222}Rn, only. Furthermore, the model also addresses the activity of {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn progeny, which being metals represent potential risk of ionization chamber contamination that could increase the background of further measurements. Some preliminary comparison of experimental data and theoretical calculations is presented. Obtained transient and steady-state solutions could be used for planning of Rn in soil gas measurements as well as for accuracy assessment of obtained results together with efficiency evaluation of chosen measurements procedure. (author)

  1. Going the distance solids level measurement with radar

    CERN Document Server

    Little, Tim


    From industry newcomers to experienced veterans in the field of process instrumentation, this book offers a comprehensive guide to radar level measurement for solids that is both detailed and approachable. Beginning with a brief history of solids level measurement, the book covers topics such as frequency and performance, installation of radar devices, and connection to communication networks. Also included is a helpful guide on process intelligence troubleshooting. Explanatory diagrams accompany the text, along with a collection of interesting - and often humorous - anecdotes gathered over au

  2. Development of Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Metrics and Risk Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.; Anderson, K. K.; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Lansing, Carina


    This is an internal project milestone report to document the CCSI Element 7 team's progress on developing Technology Readiness Level (TRL) metrics and risk measures. In this report, we provide a brief overview of the current technology readiness assessment research, document the development of technology readiness levels (TRLs) specific to carbon capture technologies, describe the risk measures and uncertainty quantification approaches used in our research, and conclude by discussing the next steps that the CCSI Task 7 team aims to accomplish.

  3. Measurement of Noise Level in Enumeration Station in Rubber Industry (United States)

    Rizkya, I.; Syahputri, K.; Sari, R. M.; Siregar, I.


    This research was conducted in companies engaged in the production of crumb rubber. In the rubber industry, the potential noise occurs in the enumeration station. Stations enumeration use machine and equipment that potentially generated noise. Noise can be defined as an unwanted sound because it does not fit the context of space and time so that may interfere with the comfort and human health. The noise level measured at random during the initial observation station enumeration is 101.8 dB. This value has exceeded the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) Kep-51 / MEN / 1999 and SNI No. 16-7063-2004 so research must be done to measure the level of noise in the enumeration station. Quantitative methods used in the study. Observations made with the calculation method of equivalent noise level. Observations were made on six measurement points for one shift for three days. The results showed the noise level over the Threshold Limit Value is equal to 85 dBA/8 hours. Based on the measurement results, the whole point of observation was far above the threshold Limit Value (TLV). The highest noise level equivalent is in the observation point 6 with a value of 102, 21 dB.

  4. Secular trends in storm-level geomagnetic activity (United States)

    Love, J.J.


    Analysis is made of K-index data from groups of ground-based geomagnetic observatories in Germany, Britain, and Australia, 1868.0-2009.0, solar cycles 11-23. Methods include nonparametric measures of trends and statistical significance used by the hydrological and climatological research communities. Among the three observatory groups, German K data systematically record the highest disturbance levels, followed by the British and, then, the Australian data. Signals consistently seen in K data from all three observatory groups can be reasonably interpreted as physically meaninginful: (1) geomagnetic activity has generally increased over the past 141 years. However, the detailed secular evolution of geomagnetic activity is not well characterized by either a linear trend nor, even, a monotonic trend. Therefore, simple, phenomenological extrapolations of past trends in solar and geomagnetic activity levels are unlikely to be useful for making quantitative predictions of future trends lasting longer than a solar cycle or so. (2) The well-known tendency for magnetic storms to occur during the declining phase of a sunspot-solar cycles is clearly seen for cycles 14-23; it is not, however, clearly seen for cycles 11-13. Therefore, in addition to an increase in geomagnetic activity, the nature of solar-terrestrial interaction has also apparently changed over the past 141 years. ?? Author(s) 2011.

  5. Measuring Developmental Levels of Understanding of Ability and Effort. (United States)

    Miller, Arden T.; Nicholls, John G.

    Discussed are research methods used to measure developmental changes in children's reasoning about ability. While adults generally differentiate ability, effort, luck, and task difficulty as causes for success and failure, children progressively think that effort or outcome is ability (level 1), that effort is the cause of performance outcomes…

  6. Authentication Assurance Level Application to the Inventory Sampling Measurement System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaney, Mike M.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Hansen, Randy R.; Geelhood, Bruce D.


    This document concentrates on the identification of a standardized assessment approach for the verification of security functionality in specific equipment, the Inspection Sampling Measurement System (ISMS) being developed for MAYAK. Specifically, an Authentication Assurance Level 3 is proposed to be reached in authenticating the ISMS.

  7. Process Analysis and Level Measurement of Textbooks Use by Teachers (United States)

    Kong, Fanzhe; Shi, Ningzhong


    Teachers and textbooks are two important elements in curriculum implementation. Based on Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM), a curriculum implementation measurement model designed by G. Hall and S. M. Hord, this paper analyzes the general process of curriculum implementation in terms of textbook use, establishes a model that gauges the level of…

  8. Creating Classroom-Level Measures of Citizenship Education Climate (United States)

    Barber, Carolyn; Sweetwood, Sachiko Ogata; King, Makini


    Optimal classroom climates for civic education encourage the development of knowledge, skills and dispositions necessary for students to become involved citizens. One of the simplest and most common ways of measuring classroom climate in this field is to aggregate individual students' perceptions of classroom climate to the group level; however,…

  9. Measuring Resistance to Change at the Within-Session Level (United States)

    Tonneau, Francois; Rios, Americo; Cabrera, Felipe


    Resistance to change is often studied by measuring response rate in various components of a multiple schedule. Response rate in each component is normalized (that is, divided by its baseline level) and then log-transformed. Differential resistance to change is demonstrated if the normalized, log-transformed response rate in one component decreases…

  10. Integrating detector for measuring low levels of gamma rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, D.M.; Bos, A.J.J.


    Abstract of NL 1001913 (C2) The integrating detector (1) for measuring low levels of ~c-rays, added (9) to the natural background radiation, is provided with a screen (4) placed between at least two thermo-luminescent dosimeters (5-7). It is covered with a housing. Also claimed is the measuremen

  11. Measuring free thyroxine levels in neonatal heel-prick samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, A.; Veen, M. van; Verkerk, P.H.; Diependaal, G.; Loeber, G.; Elvers, B.; Endert, E.


    The Dutch neonatal screening scheme for Congenital Hypothyroidism (CH) is primarily based on the determination of thyroxine (T4) in filter paper blood spots. In the lowest 5% of T4 values, thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) is measured in order to be able to correct for occasional low TBG levels. Howe

  12. Measuring higher cognitive levels by multiple choice questions: a myth? (United States)

    Ferland, J J; Dorval, J; Levasseur, L


    Available evidence is inconclusive as to the ability of multiple choice items to measure different taxonomic levels of the cognitive domain. The present study analysed the tests of the Examen de Synthèse for the years 1982, 1983 and 1984. Items used in the study were those for which a consensus was reached between three judges and committees for a given taxonomic level. The initial part of the study showed that judges do not classify items at random but according to a mental representation which is individual, personal and relatively stable. In examining results obtained by students, the study failed to show any significant difference in item difficulty or discrimination for items classified as measuring memorization, interpretation of data and problem-solving. Correlations between results (scores and ranks) obtained for items involving memorization and those obtained for items involving higher cognitive levels fail to show that different traits are measured. If further studies corroborate these results, then future efforts should be directed at developing other instruments to measure higher cognitive levels.

  13. Measurement of indoor radon concentration levels in Islamabad, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, S.U.; Anwar, J. [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Matiullah [PD, PINSTECH Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail:


    Indoor radon measurement survey has been carried out in properly selected houses of the city of Islamabad. In this regard, CR-39-based NRPB radon dosimeters were used. The dosimeters were installed at head heights in bedroom and living room of each house. For intercomparison purpose, houses having basements were also selected. In such houses, dosimeters were installed in basements, ground floor and first floor. All the dosimeters were exposed to radon for a period of three months. After exposure, CR-39 detectors were etched for 16 h in 6 M NaOH at 80{sup 0}C and were counted under an optical microscope. The observed track densities were then related to radon concentration levels using a calibration factor of 2.7trackscm{sup -2}h{sup -1}(kBqm{sup -3}){sup -1}. Measured indoor radon concentration levels were found to vary from 11 to 78Bqm{sup -3}. The average radon concentration levels in bedrooms and sitting/living rooms in basements were found to be 40 and 32Bqm{sup -3}, respectively. In bedrooms and living rooms, on ground floor, the average radon concentration levels were found to be 30 and 27Bqm{sup -3}, whereas on first floor the average values were 29 and 27Bqm{sup -3}, respectively. The radon concentration levels found in this study are below the action level recommended by the ICRP.

  14. Diagnostic value of plasminogen activity level in acute mesenteric ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yusuf Gunerhan; Neset Koksal; Munire Kayahan; Yavuz Eryavuz; Hilal Sekban


    AIM: To investigate the changes in plasminogen activity level during mesenteric ischemia.METHODS: We performed laparotomy in 90 female Wistar-Albino rats (average weight 230 g).In sham groups (SL) (Groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ) the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and vein (SMV) were explored, but not tied.In SIA groups (Groups Ⅲ and Ⅳ) the SMA was ligated,and in SMV groups (Groups Ⅴ and Ⅵ) the SMV was ligated.On re-laparatomy 2 mL of blood was drawn at 1h in groups Ⅰ,Ⅲ and Ⅴ, and at 3 h in groups Ⅱ, Ⅳ and Ⅵ.Plasminogen levels were assessed and comparisons were made between groups and within each group.RESULTS: The mean plasminogen activity in the SL group was significantly higher than SMA (25.1±10.8 vs 11.8±4.6, P < 0.001) or SMV (25.1±10.8 vs 13.7 ±4.4,P< 0.001) groups both at 1 h and at 3 h (29.8±8.9 vs 15.1±5.7, P< 0.0001; 29.8±8.9 vs 14.2± 2.9, P<0.0001).There were no significant differences between the values of SMA and SMV groups at 1 h (P = 0.28) and at 3 h (P = 0.71).In each group, plasminogen activity levels did not change significantly between the two measurements performed at 1 h and 3 h.CONCLUSION: We conclude that blood plasminogen activities decrease during early phases of both arterial and venous mesenteric ischemia which may be a useful marker for early diagnosis.

  15. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohkawara Kazunori


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  16. Valuation of companies activity on sustainability level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nadolski


    Full Text Available Purpose: Paper presents a possibilities of companies valuation due to their activity in accordance with sustainable development.Design/methodology/approach: The article describes best known methods of companies assessment (stock indices, non-financial reports and other indicators connected with sustainability. Also there is a history of indices methodology which comes from ethical, religious problems and sustainable development principles.Findings: There is still more companies interested in being (as a part of sustainability indices or other rankings. Research organizations should be concentrated on different type of rankings which contain summary report of best available techniques.Research limitations/implications: Every sustainability index or non-financial reports ranking should be important part of companies management thinking. It is important idea to create these indices for every local stock exchange. Also companies should publish true and clear non-financial reports.Originality/value: The paper concerns on existing indices and tries to make new look at sustainability problems. Important conclusions are connected with non-financial reports and possible connections between indices, rankings and best available techniques.

  17. Physical activity in Ontario preschoolers: prevalence and measurement issues. (United States)

    Obeid, Joyce; Nguyen, Thanh; Gabel, Leigh; Timmons, Brian W


    Early childhood is a critical period for the development of active living behaviours; however, very little is known about the physical activity levels of preschoolers from Canada. The objectives of this study were to (i) examine physical activity in a sample of Ontario preschoolers by using high-frequency accelerometry to determine activity and step counts; (ii) assess the relationship between step counts and physical activity; (iii) examine the influence of epoch length or sampling interval on physical activity; and (iv) compare measured physical activity to existing recommendations. Thirty 3- to 5-year-old children wore accelerometers to monitor habitual physical activity in 3-s epochs over a 7-day period. Preschoolers engaged in an average of 220 min of daily physical activity, 75 min of which were spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and they accumulated 7529 ± 1539 steps·day(-1). Preschoolers who engaged in more MVPA also took more steps on a daily basis (r = 0.81, p physical activity per day for preschool-age children. Our data highlight important methodological considerations when measuring physical activity in preschoolers and the need for preschool-specific physical activity guidelines for Canadian children.

  18. The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment: A Measure of Engagement in Personally Valued Activities (United States)

    Eakman, Aaron M.; Carlson, Mike E.; Clark, Florence A.


    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction…

  19. The prediction of induced activity levels in and around NIMROD

    CERN Document Server

    Hack, R C


    Comparisons are reported between measured and predicted levels of induced radioactivity for a number of irradiation conditions. Good agreement was found between experimental measurements and fairly simple methods of prediction developed at CERN.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshini Rajappan


    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Physical inactivity levels are rising in developing countries and Malaysia is of no exception. Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003 reported that the prevalence of physical inactivity was 39.7% and the prevalence was higher for women (42.6% than men (36.7%. In Malaysia, the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2006 reported that 43.7% (5.5 million of Malaysian adults were physically inactive. These statistics show that physically inactive is an important public health concern in Malaysia. College students have been found to have poor physical activity habits. The objective of this study was to identify the physical activity level among students of Asia Metropolitan University (AMU in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: The study design was a cross sectional survey. A total of 100 participants comprising of 50 male and 50 female students were selected for the study by means of convenience sampling. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ short form was used to identify the physical activity level. Results: A greater percentage of males (56% showed high physical activity level than females (24%. In contrast, females showed high percentage of low physical activity level. Students in the age range of 22-25 years depicted more percentage (43.5% of high physical activity level. When comparison of physical activity levels were done among different races, Indian students showed greater percentage (61.8% of high physical activity level. Furthermore, students who were underweight and overweight had 50% and 46.7% of high physical activity levels respectively which are greater than the values observed in normal body weight students. Conclusion: The physical activity level among students was found satisfactory although the percentage of low level of physical activity was found higher in female students.

  1. Measuring Moisture Levels in Graphite Epoxy Composite Sandwich Structures (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Youngquist, Robert; Starr, Stanley


    Graphite epoxy composite (GEC) materials are used in the construction of rocket fairings, nose cones, interstage adapters, and heat shields due to their high strength and light weight. However, they absorb moisture depending on the environmental conditions they are exposed to prior to launch. Too much moisture absorption can become a problem when temperature and pressure changes experienced during launch cause the water to vaporize. The rapid state change of the water can result in structural failure of the material. In addition, heat and moisture combine to weaken GEC structures. Diffusion models that predict the total accumulated moisture content based on the environmental conditions are one accepted method of determining if the material strength has been reduced to an unacceptable level. However, there currently doesn t exist any field measurement technique to estimate the actual moisture content of a composite structure. A multi-layer diffusion model was constructed with Mathematica to predict moisture absorption and desorption from the GEC sandwich structure. This model is used in conjunction with relative humidity/temperature sensors both on the inside and outside of the material to determine the moisture levels in the structure. Because the core materials have much higher diffusivity than the face sheets, a single relative humidity measurement will accurately reflect the moisture levels in the core. When combined with an external relative humidity measurement, the model can be used to determine the moisture levels in the face sheets. Since diffusion is temperaturedependent, the temperature measurements are used to determine the diffusivity of the face sheets for the model computations.

  2. DLTS measurement of energetic levels, generated in silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosetti, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy); Croitoru, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy); Furetta, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy); Leroy, C. [Universite de Montreal, Montreal, PQ H3C 3J7 (Canada); Pensotti, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy); Rancoita, P.G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy); Rattaggi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy); Redaelli, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy); Rizzatti, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy); Seidman, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy)


    DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) measurements were performed on irradiated Si detectors to record data on the energetic levels traps generated by neutrons. For moderate fluences ({phi}) of neutrons ({phi}<10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2}) electron and hole trap levels have been detected. Four electron trap levels were found for both FZ (float zone) and MCZ (magnetic Czochralsky) types of Si detectors but only two hole trap levels in FZ and one in MCZ detectors. This indicates that the type of silicon has an influence on the traps generated by irradiation. From the values obtained for the relative concentration of E1 centers in MCZ and FZ detectors, it results that the E1 centers are oxygen and not vacancy limited. Since the concentration of the E2, E3, and E4 levels are larger in FZ than in MCZ detectors, it may be assumed that the ``gettering effect`` can control the formation of deeper traps. Filling pulses were applied for various voltages and at the flat band filling voltage, maximum ratio of N{sub t}/N of the E1 center was achieved. This may indicate that the concentration of E1 centers, near the p{sup +}-n interface, can be larger than in the rest of the junction. (orig.).

  3. A Pilot Study on Measuring Customer’s Satisfaction Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vide Boltez


    Full Text Available RQ: Determine the level of customer satisfaction of a company’s products and services to obtain information on needed improvements.Purpose: The purpose of measuring customer’s satisfaction level is to obtain information directly from the final buyer that bought our product. The next step is to analyze the information obtained and to take the results into consideration to improve the working process in production and in other departments of the company.Method: The method used for the pilot study to measure customer satisfaction was a short questionnaire that was given to 10 customers of our product and 10 completed questionnaires were obtained.Results: The results showed the level of satisfaction of final buyers of roof tiles and roofs that the company has achieved through their products and services. The results facilitate the production, logistics, purchasing and sales department to obtain information on positive satisfaction levels and areas that need change. At the same time, the final buyer was identified (i.e., name, surname, address, and so forth, which up until now had not been.Organization: The organization will save time and money in the future, because it will continuously measure customer satisfaction to improve production and other departments in the organization towards creating satisfied customers.Society: Final buyers of roofs are, and will be, more satisfied with their decisions, because the organization carries out after-sales satisfaction levels.Originality: The research was original, because up to this date the organization has not conducted research in such a manner.Limitations: The pilot study used 10 completed questionnaires that represent a very small sample to make any generalizations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Pricing models for social efficiency focuses on assessing the quality, namely the comparison of the desired product to the consumer and the product received, the level of consumer satisfaction on the products and / or services will be therefore a very important component in measuring the effectiveness social. Between the two concepts there is a relationship of mutual interdependence: the level of consumer satisfaction is the result of the quality performance of products and services and high quality products and services is reflected in consumer satisfaction. From the theoretical point of view, according to the marketing strategy, it is necessary to bring to a common level of perceived benefit to consumer expectations. Customer satisfaction is actually the result of a complex information processing.

  5. Laser triangulation measurement of the level in a coal silo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jiping; Jiang Jing


    Laser triangulation theory was used to develop a novel contact-free method for measuring the coal level in a silo under harsh environmental conditions found in coal mines,such as the presence of dense dust,high humidity,and low illumination.A laser source and a camera were mounted at the top of the silo.The laser spot projected into the silo was imaged by the camera.The pinhole imaging principle allows the level to be found from the lateral shift of the spot image on the sensor.A pre-calibrated look-up table of the coal depth versus spot position was used to obtain the depth.The measurement accuracy depends on the step size used during pre-calibration.The actual application of a device designed according to these principles shows that it is easy to implement.The detection of the coal level in a silo at the low illumination level found in coal mines is demonstrated.

  6. Population-Level Quality Measures for Behavioral Screening and Intervention. (United States)

    Brown, Richard L; Smith, Mindy A


    Delivered routinely in general health care settings, smoking, alcohol, depression, and obesity screening and intervention (behavioral screening and intervention [BSI]) could substantially improve population health and reduce health care costs. Yet BSI is seldom delivered in an evidence-based manner. This article assesses the adequacy of quality measures for BSI. Online searches of the National Quality Forum's Quality Positioning System and the National Clearinghouse for Quality Measures databases were conducted using the keywords smoking, tobacco, alcohol, depression, and obesity The types and focuses of each measure were classified, and differences between the metrics and evidence-based practice were identified. Most measures indicate whether BSI components are delivered, not how well. Clinicians can perform well on most metrics without delivering evidence-based services. More rigorous quality measures are needed. A new kind of measure is proposed, whereby separate terms representing the reach and effectiveness of key BSI components are multiplied to produce a single indicator of population-level impact for each behavioral topic.

  7. Inferring brain-computational mechanisms with models of activity measurements. (United States)

    Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Diedrichsen, Jörn


    High-resolution functional imaging is providing increasingly rich measurements of brain activity in animals and humans. A major challenge is to leverage such data to gain insight into the brain's computational mechanisms. The first step is to define candidate brain-computational models (BCMs) that can perform the behavioural task in question. We would then like to infer which of the candidate BCMs best accounts for measured brain-activity data. Here we describe a method that complements each BCM by a measurement model (MM), which simulates the way the brain-activity measurements reflect neuronal activity (e.g. local averaging in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) voxels or sparse sampling in array recordings). The resulting generative model (BCM-MM) produces simulated measurements. To avoid having to fit the MM to predict each individual measurement channel of the brain-activity data, we compare the measured and predicted data at the level of summary statistics. We describe a novel particular implementation of this approach, called probabilistic representational similarity analysis (pRSA) with MMs, which uses representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) as the summary statistics. We validate this method by simulations of fMRI measurements (locally averaging voxels) based on a deep convolutional neural network for visual object recognition. Results indicate that the way the measurements sample the activity patterns strongly affects the apparent representational dissimilarities. However, modelling of the measurement process can account for these effects, and different BCMs remain distinguishable even under substantial noise. The pRSA method enables us to perform Bayesian inference on the set of BCMs and to recognize the data-generating model in each case.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'.

  8. Inferring brain-computational mechanisms with models of activity measurements (United States)

    Diedrichsen, Jörn


    High-resolution functional imaging is providing increasingly rich measurements of brain activity in animals and humans. A major challenge is to leverage such data to gain insight into the brain's computational mechanisms. The first step is to define candidate brain-computational models (BCMs) that can perform the behavioural task in question. We would then like to infer which of the candidate BCMs best accounts for measured brain-activity data. Here we describe a method that complements each BCM by a measurement model (MM), which simulates the way the brain-activity measurements reflect neuronal activity (e.g. local averaging in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) voxels or sparse sampling in array recordings). The resulting generative model (BCM-MM) produces simulated measurements. To avoid having to fit the MM to predict each individual measurement channel of the brain-activity data, we compare the measured and predicted data at the level of summary statistics. We describe a novel particular implementation of this approach, called probabilistic representational similarity analysis (pRSA) with MMs, which uses representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) as the summary statistics. We validate this method by simulations of fMRI measurements (locally averaging voxels) based on a deep convolutional neural network for visual object recognition. Results indicate that the way the measurements sample the activity patterns strongly affects the apparent representational dissimilarities. However, modelling of the measurement process can account for these effects, and different BCMs remain distinguishable even under substantial noise. The pRSA method enables us to perform Bayesian inference on the set of BCMs and to recognize the data-generating model in each case. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience’. PMID:27574316

  9. Measuring Cognitive Translation Effort with Activity Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael; Lacruz, Isabel;


    and complementarities of both partners. This paper traces cognitive approaches in machine translation back to the mid-1980s and argues that we now have the technologies available that will allow us to eventually arrive at an in-depth understanding of the human translation processes. It illustrates some of the research...... methods in empirical translation process research and suggests ngrams of Activity Units for measuring the translation process....

  10. Measuring psychological engagement in youth activity involvement. (United States)

    Ramey, Heather L; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Busseri, Michael A; Gadbois, Shannon; Bowker, Anne; Findlay, Leanne


    Although psychological engagement (e.g., enjoyment, concentration) may be critical in fostering positive outcomes of youth activity participation, too few studies have been conducted to establish its role in development. Furthermore, an established measurement tool is lacking. In the current study, we evaluated a brief engagement measure with two Canadian samples of youth (Sample 1, N = 290, mean age = 16.9 years, 62% female; Sample 2, N = 1827, mean age = 13.1 years, 54% female). We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis with structural equation modeling to examine the hypothesized structure of the model. We also assessed the measure's validity by testing relations between engagement and both perceived outcomes and positive features of activity settings. Psychological engagement was best captured by three latent cognitive, affective, and relational/spiritual factors and a second-order latent factor. Also, as anticipated, psychological engagement was associated with features of the activity setting and perceived impact.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium, strontium-90, and uranium discharges into the Columbia River along approximately 16 km (10 mi) of the shoreline. Various treatment systems have and will continue to be implemented to eliminate the impact of Hanford Site contamination to the river. To optimize the various remediation strategies, it is important to understand interactions between groundwater and the surface water of the Columbia River. An automated system to record water levels in aquifer sampling tubes installed in the hyporheic zone was designed and tested to (1) gain a more complete understanding of groundwater/river water interactions based on gaining and losing conditions ofthe Columbia River, (2) record and interpret data for consistent and defensible groundwater/surface water conceptual models that may be used to better predict subsurface contaminant fate and transport, and (3) evaluate the hydrodynamic influence of extraction wells in an expanded pump-and-treat system to optimize the treatment system. A system to measure water levels in small-diameter aquifer tubes was designed and tested in the laboratory and field. The system was configured to allow manual measurements to periodically calibrate the instrument and to permit aquifer tube sampling without removing the transducer tube. Manual measurements were collected with an e-tape designed and fabricated especially for this test. Results indicate that the transducer system accurately records groundwater levels in aquifer tubes. These data are being used to refine the conceptual and numeric models to better understand interactions in the hyporheic zone of the Columbia River and the adjacent river water and groundwater, and changes in hydrochemistry relative to groundwater flux as river water recharges the aquifer and then drains back out in response to changes in the river level.

  12. Image-based Water Level Measurement Method under Stained Ruler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae-do KIM; Young-joon HAN; Hern-soo HAHN


    This paper proposes the water level measuring method based on the image,while the ruler used to indicate the water level is stained.The contamination of the ruler weakens or eliminates many features which are required for the image processing.However,the feature of the color difference between the ruler and the water surface are firmer on the environmental change compare to the other features.As the color differences are embossed,only the region of the ruler is limited to eliminate the noise,and the average image is produced by using several continuous frames.A histogram is then produced based on the height axis of the produced intensity average image.Local peaks and local valleys are detected,and the section between the peak and valley which have the greatest change is looked for.The valley point at this very moment is used to detect the water level.The detected water level is then converted to the actual water level by using the mapping table.The proposed method is compared to the ultrasonic based method to evaluate its accuracy and efficiency on the various contaminated environments.

  13. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting. (United States)

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P


    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting.

  14. Solar Activity, Different Geomagnetic Activity Levels and Acute Myocardial Infarction (United States)

    Dimitrova, Svetla; Jordanova, Malina; Stoilova, Irina; Taseva, Tatiana; Maslarov, Dimitar

    Results on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data covering the period from 1.12.1995 to 31.12.2004 and concerned daily distribution of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia region on the day of admission at the hospital. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms, those caused by Magnetic Clouds (MC) and by High Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS), on AMI morbidity. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI. ANOVA revealed that AMI number was signifi- cantly increased from the day before (-1st) till the day after (+1st) geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day.

  15. GPS water level measurements for Indonesia's Tsunami Early Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schöne


    Full Text Available On Boxing Day 2004, a severe tsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Northern Sumatra causing a large number of casualties. At this time, neither an offshore buoy network was in place to measure tsunami waves, nor a system to disseminate tsunami warnings to local governmental entities. Since then, buoys have been developed by Indonesia and Germany, complemented by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART buoys, and have been moored offshore Sumatra and Java. The suite of sensors for offshore tsunami detection in Indonesia has been advanced by adding GPS technology for water level measurements.

    The usage of GPS buoys in tsunami warning systems is a relatively new approach. The concept of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS (Rudloff et al., 2009 combines GPS technology and ocean bottom pressure (OBP measurements. Especially for near-field installations where the seismic noise may deteriorate the OBP data, GPS-derived sea level heights provide additional information.

    The GPS buoy technology is precise enough to detect medium to large tsunamis of amplitudes larger than 10 cm. The analysis presented here suggests that for about 68% of the time, tsunamis larger than 5 cm may be detectable.

  16. GPS water level measurements for Indonesia's Tsunami Early Warning System (United States)

    Schöne, T.; Pandoe, W.; Mudita, I.; Roemer, S.; Illigner, J.; Zech, C.; Galas, R.


    On Boxing Day 2004, a severe tsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Northern Sumatra causing a large number of casualties. At this time, neither an offshore buoy network was in place to measure tsunami waves, nor a system to disseminate tsunami warnings to local governmental entities. Since then, buoys have been developed by Indonesia and Germany, complemented by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) buoys, and have been moored offshore Sumatra and Java. The suite of sensors for offshore tsunami detection in Indonesia has been advanced by adding GPS technology for water level measurements. The usage of GPS buoys in tsunami warning systems is a relatively new approach. The concept of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) (Rudloff et al., 2009) combines GPS technology and ocean bottom pressure (OBP) measurements. Especially for near-field installations where the seismic noise may deteriorate the OBP data, GPS-derived sea level heights provide additional information. The GPS buoy technology is precise enough to detect medium to large tsunamis of amplitudes larger than 10 cm. The analysis presented here suggests that for about 68% of the time, tsunamis larger than 5 cm may be detectable.

  17. Study on the physical activity level of Turkish males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiz Arabacı


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate physical activity (PA level of the Turkish males who lived in BUrsa. A total of 365 subjects between 18 - 69 age participated to this study. To determine physical activity levels, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was applied. PA levels of subjects were categorized as inactive, minimum active and HEPA active by using MET method. The relations of parameters, such as their age, BMI, education, marital status, number of children, smoking and alcohol use were determined with PA level. The results were analyzed by using Chi - Square test. The participants have 1725 METmin/week average physical activity level, and 47.7 % of them were physically inactive, 30.4 % were physically minimum active and 21.9 % were physically hepa active. As a result, it can be said that the physical activity levels of Turkish males who lived in Bursa are not sufficient and the inactive people are very common.

  18. Atom-interferometric measurement of Stark level splittings

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Limei; Zhang, Linjie; Raithel, Georg; Zhao, Jianming; Jia, Suotang


    Multiple adiabatic/diabatic passages through avoided crossings in the Stark map of cesium Rydberg atoms are employed as beam splitters and recombiners in an atom-interferometric measurement of energy-level splittings. We subject cold cesium atoms to laser-excitation, electric-field and detection sequences that constitute an (internal-state) atom interferometer. For the read-out of the interferometer we utilize state-dependent collisions, which selectively remove atoms of one kind from the detected signal. We investigate the dependence of the interferometric signal on timing and field parameters, and find good agreement with time-dependent quantum simulations of the interferometer. Fourier analysis of the interferometric signals yield coherence frequencies that agree with corresponding energy-level differences in calculated Stark maps. The method enables spectroscopy of states that are inaccessible to direct laser-spectroscopic observation, due to selection rules, and has applications in field metrology.

  19. Apparatus to measure low level helium for neutron dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, Shuji; Takao, Yoshiyuki; Muramasu, Masatomo; Hida, Tomoya; Sou, Hirofumi; Nakashima, Hideki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Kanda, Yukinori


    An apparatus to measure low level helium in a solid sample for neutron dosimetry in the practical use such as area monitoring in the long-term and reactor surveillance was reported. In our previous work, the helium atoms measurement system (HAMS) was developed. A sample was evaporated in the furnace and the released gas from the sample was analyzed with the mass spectrometer of the system to determine the amount of helium contained in it. The system has been improved to advance the lower helium measurement limit in a solid sample for its application to an area monitoring system. The mass of a solid is up to 100mg. Two important points should be considered to advance the lower limit. One was to produce a high quality vacuum in the system chamber for suppressing background gases during the sample measurement. The other important point was to detect very small output from the mass spectrometer. A pulse counting system was used to get high sensitivity in the mass 4 analyzing. (author)

  20. How should we measure online learning activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim O'Riordan


    Full Text Available The proliferation of Web-based learning objects makes finding and evaluating resources a considerable hurdle for learners to overcome. While established learning analytics methods provide feedback that can aid learner evaluation of learning resources, the adequacy and reliability of these methods is questioned. Because engagement with online learning is different from other Web activity, it is important to establish pedagogically relevant measures that can aid the development of distinct, automated analysis systems. Content analysis is often used to examine online discussion in educational settings, but these instruments are rarely compared with each other which leads to uncertainty regarding their validity and reliability. In this study, participation in Massive Open Online Course (MOOC comment forums was evaluated using four different analytical approaches: the Digital Artefacts for Learning Engagement (DiAL-e framework, Bloom's Taxonomy, Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO and Community of Inquiry (CoI. Results from this study indicate that different approaches to measuring cognitive activity are closely correlated and are distinct from typical interaction measures. This suggests that computational approaches to pedagogical analysis may provide useful insights into learning processes.

  1. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand


    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque


    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male...

  2. Air radioactivity levels following the Fukushima reactor accident measured at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, France. (United States)

    Loaiza, P; Brudanin, V; Piquemal, F; Reyss, J-L; Stekl, I; Warot, G; Zampaolo, M


    The radioactivity levels in the air of the radionuclides released by the Fukushima accident were measured at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, in the South-East of France, during the period 25 March-18 April 2011. Air-filters from the ventilation system exposed for one or two days were measured using low-background gamma-ray spectrometry. In this paper we present the activity concentrations obtained for the radionuclides (131)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (95)Nb, (95)Zr, (106)Ru, (140)Ba/La and (103)Ru. The activity concentration of (131)I was of the order of 100 μBq/m(3), more than 100 times higher than the activities of other fission products. The highest activities of (131)I were measured as a first peak on 30 March and a second peak on 3-4 April. The activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs varied from 5 to 30 μBq/m(3). The highest activity concentration recorded for Cs corresponded to the same period as for (131)I, with a peak on 2-3 April. The results of the radioactivity concentration levels in grass and mushrooms exposed to the air in the Modane region were also measured. Activity concentrations of (131)I of about 100 mBq/m(2) were found in grass.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Ying; PU Ying-xia; YAO Shi-mou


    Agglomeration economies are the important factors for the regional development. However, the common indicators to measure them, such as Gini Coefficients neglect the spatial ingredient of data, leading to a-spatial estimates. In order to assess spatial neighbor effects of agglomeration economies, this study makes the new attempts by applying a series of techniques of spatial autocorrelation analysis, specifically, measuring the economies of urbanization and localization at the county level in the secondary and tertiary industries of Jiangsu Province in 1999 and 2002. The conclusions in this study reveal that on the whole, the localization effects on the economies of the secondary industry might be stronger than urbanization effects for that period, and highly agglomerative economies were limited within the southern Jiangsu and parts of middle along the Changjiang (Yangtze) River. Moreover, the tertiary industry has been strong urbanization rather than localization economies in the whole Jiangsu. Unlike the secondary industry, the tertiary industry held the high levels of agglomeration economies can be also found in the poor northern Jiangsu, and then the spatial clusters of trade and services might be basically seen in each of urban districts in 13 cities. All in all, spatial autocorrelation analysis is a better method to test agglomeration economies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Researches in the field of the labour market has allowed the identification of certain specific mechanisms for employment promotion; at present, on the Romanian labour market we find passive policies, concretised in financial aids paid to the unemployed, along with active policies, constituting the most efficient social protection activity addressed to the unemployed (they aim at counterbalancing the inefficiencies determined by the granting of financial allowances, help population to find a job by actions of information, professional training and contributing to the encouragement of the labour force mobility. The paper refers to some theoretical considerations related to the influence factors of employment stimulation, as well as to the unemployment – correlated adequate measures synapse. The applied research comprises the analysis of statistic documents; the method used is the case study, i.e. the activity of employment stimulation carried on by the County Agency for Employment Caraş-Severin, in the period 2004-2012. The conclusions highlight the impact of the activity of the institutions involved in the system of social protection and security within the labour market.

  5. Wear measurement by surface layer activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blatchley, C.


    The purpose of these projects was to demonstrate the capability for precisely but remotely measuring small increments of wear, erosion or corrosion in utility components using detectors mounted outside the system to monitor the presence of radionuclide surface markers. These gamma ray emitting markers are produced by surface layer activation (SLA) using a high energy particle beam from a Van de Graaff or cyclotron particle accelerator. The work was divided into three major projects: (1) determination of the feasibility of applying SLA based surface monitoring techniques to key power plant systems; (2) a field demonstration of SLA monitoring in steam turbine components subject to severe solid particle erosion; and (3) a field demonstration of SLA wear or corrosion monitoring of components in boiler auxiliaries. In the field tests, surface material removal was successfully measured from both selected systems, demonstrating the feasibility of the technique for long term diagnostic condition monitoring. Three bearing components in a boiler circulation pump were monitored almost continuously for a period of over 5 months until the pump was stopped due to electrical problems unrelated to the wear measurements. Solid particle erosion from two stop valve bypass valves was measured during a series of nine startup cycles. Both test demonstrations confirmed the earlier feasibility estimates and showed how SLA markers can be used to provide valuable diagnostic information to plant operators. 22 refs., 63 figs., 29 tabs.

  6. DUQuE quality management measures: associations between quality management at hospital and pathway levels (United States)

    Wagner, Cordula; Groene, Oliver; Thompson, Caroline A.; Dersarkissian, Maral; Klazinga, Niek S.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Suñol, Rosa; Klazinga, N; Kringos, DS; Lombarts, K; Plochg, T; Lopez, MA; Secanell, M; Sunol, R; Vallejo, P; Bartels, P; Kristensen, S; Michel, P; Saillour-Glenisson, F; Vlcek, F; Car, M; Jones, S; Klaus, E; Garel, P; Hanslik, K; Saluvan, M; Bruneau, C; Depaigne-Loth, A; Shaw, C; Hammer, A; Ommen, O; Pfaff, H; Groene, O; Botje, D; Wagner, C; Kutaj-Wasikowska, H; Kutryba, B; Escoval, A; Franca, M; Almeman, F; Kus, H; Ozturk, K; Mannion, R; Arah, OA; Chow, A; DerSarkissian, M; Thompson, C; Wang, A; Thompson, A


    Objective The assessment of integral quality management (QM) in a hospital requires measurement and monitoring from different perspectives and at various levels of care delivery. Within the DUQuE project (Deepening our Understanding of Quality improvement in Europe), seven measures for QM were developed. This study investigates the relationships between the various quality measures. Design It is a multi-level, cross-sectional, mixed-method study. Setting and Participants As part of the DUQuE project, we invited a random sample of 74 hospitals in 7 countries. The quality managers of these hospitals were the main respondents. Furthermore, data of site visits of external surveyors assessing the participating hospitals were used. Main Outcome Measures Three measures of QM at hospitals level focusing on integral systems (QMSI), compliance with the Plan-Do-Study-Act quality improvement cycle (QMCI) and implementation of clinical quality (CQII). Four measures of QM activities at care pathway level focusing on Specialized expertise and responsibility (SER), Evidence-based organization of pathways (EBOP), Patient safety strategies (PSS) and Clinical review (CR). Results Positive significant associations were found between the three hospitals level QM measures. Results of the relationships between levels were mixed and showed most associations between QMCI and department-level QM measures for all four types of departments. QMSI was associated with PSS in all types of departments. Conclusion By using the seven measures of QM, it is possible to get a more comprehensive picture of the maturity of QM in hospitals, with regard to the different levels and across various types of hospital departments. PMID:24615597

  7. Distinguishing Functional DNA Words; A Method for Measuring Clustering Levels (United States)

    Moghaddasi, Hanieh; Khalifeh, Khosrow; Darooneh, Amir Hossein


    Functional DNA sub-sequences and genome elements are spatially clustered through the genome just as keywords in literary texts. Therefore, some of the methods for ranking words in texts can also be used to compare different DNA sub-sequences. In analogy with the literary texts, here we claim that the distribution of distances between the successive sub-sequences (words) is q-exponential which is the distribution function in non-extensive statistical mechanics. Thus the q-parameter can be used as a measure of words clustering levels. Here, we analyzed the distribution of distances between consecutive occurrences of 16 possible dinucleotides in human chromosomes to obtain their corresponding q-parameters. We found that CG as a biologically important two-letter word concerning its methylation, has the highest clustering level. This finding shows the predicting ability of the method in biology. We also proposed that chromosome 18 with the largest value of q-parameter for promoters of genes is more sensitive to dietary and lifestyle. We extended our study to compare the genome of some selected organisms and concluded that the clustering level of CGs increases in higher evolutionary organisms compared to lower ones. PMID:28128320

  8. Distinguishing Functional DNA Words; A Method for Measuring Clustering Levels (United States)

    Moghaddasi, Hanieh; Khalifeh, Khosrow; Darooneh, Amir Hossein


    Functional DNA sub-sequences and genome elements are spatially clustered through the genome just as keywords in literary texts. Therefore, some of the methods for ranking words in texts can also be used to compare different DNA sub-sequences. In analogy with the literary texts, here we claim that the distribution of distances between the successive sub-sequences (words) is q-exponential which is the distribution function in non-extensive statistical mechanics. Thus the q-parameter can be used as a measure of words clustering levels. Here, we analyzed the distribution of distances between consecutive occurrences of 16 possible dinucleotides in human chromosomes to obtain their corresponding q-parameters. We found that CG as a biologically important two-letter word concerning its methylation, has the highest clustering level. This finding shows the predicting ability of the method in biology. We also proposed that chromosome 18 with the largest value of q-parameter for promoters of genes is more sensitive to dietary and lifestyle. We extended our study to compare the genome of some selected organisms and concluded that the clustering level of CGs increases in higher evolutionary organisms compared to lower ones.

  9. Ultra-low-level measurements of 3H and 14C in wines and champagne (United States)

    Scherer, U. W.; Jacobi, M.; Castillo, J.; Förstel, D. H.

    Methods to measure low concentrations of tritium and radiocarbon in wine and champagne, respectively, have been tested by using liquid scintillation counting after chemical sample processing. It could be shown that tritium activity was too low to be measured by our standard low-level liquid scintillation counter, WALLAC Guardian 1414. Positive results could be achieved when using a WALLAC Quantulus. The methods will be established as standard methods to detect forgeries and to improve consumer safety.

  10. Measurements of radon and radium activity in bottled mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Reque, Marilson; Tabuchi, Camila Garcia; Del Claro, Flavia; Perna, Allan Felipe, E-mail: [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Deniak, Valeriy [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)


    Current work presents the results of further development of optimized experimental protocol for RAD7 instant radon detector (Durridge Company Inc.) usage in low level radon in water measurements and the results concerning Ra-226 activity evaluation in bottled mineral water samples purchased at Brazilian market. With the purpose to achieve the statistically consistent results for the activity levels of 0.1Bq/L for radon (radium) activity in water, present study used modified experimental protocol which consists of: 1) water samples were stored in hermetically sealed glass vials of 250mL during 30 days to guarantee that Rn-222 will reach the secular equilibrium; 2) the measurements were performed using WAT250 protocol of RAD7 detector; 3) with an aim to decrease the background, the cleaning (activated carbon filter) and drying (DRIERITE desiccant) vessels, which have a function to retain the radioactive decay product of Rn-222 and humidity, were connected to a closed air loop of RAD7 permanently by means of valves and taps, which gave a possibility to repeat all sequence of measurements (including background evaluation) three or four times without to open the air loop and disconnect the sample vial with water. Each water sample was submitted to such measurements two or three times. Obtained results presented the level of Ra-226 activity in studied samples of bottled mineral water that varied from 0.007 ± 0.061 Bq/L to 0.145 ± 0.049 Bq/L, which is below the limit of 0,5 Bq/L established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for drinking water. (author)

  11. Dependence of elbow joint stiffness measurements on speed, angle, and muscle contraction level. (United States)

    Kuxhaus, Laurel; Zeng, Sisi; Robinson, Charles J


    Elbow joint stiffness is critical to positioning the hand. Abnormal elbow joint stiffness may affect a person's ability to participate in activities of daily living. In this work, elbow joint stiffness was measured in ten healthy young adults with a device adapted from one previously used to measure stiffness in other joints. Measurements of elbow stiffness involved applying a constant-velocity rotational movement to the elbow and measuring the resultant displacement, torque, and acceleration. Elbow stiffness was then computed using a previously-established model for joint stiffness. Measurements were made at two unique elbow joint angles, two speeds, and two forearm muscle contraction levels. The results indicate that the elbow joint stiffness is significantly affected by both rotational speed and forearm muscle contraction level.

  12. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque


    Full Text Available Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1 has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p<0.001. Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP, containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons’ active ageing level in Thailand.

  13. Murine erythrocytes contain high levels of lysophospholipase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, J.A.F. op den; Roelofsen, B.; Sanderink, G.; Middelkoop, E.; Hamer, R.


    Murine erythrocytes were found to be unique in the high levels of lysophospholipase activity in the cytosol of these cells. The specific activity of the enzyme in the cytosol of the murine cells is 10-times higher than in the cytosol of rabbit erythrocytes and approximately three orders of magnitude

  14. Objective assessment of levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasholt, Martin; Chawes, Bo; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil


    profiles throughout the year were unique for each sex with boys being overall more active than girls except for winter months. Preschool children also showed distinct patterns of physical activity during weekdays compared to weekends, and were most active in weekdays. Preschool children in the highest......Background:To study in detail levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children and the effect of gender and body mass index on this activity.Methods:Two hundred and fifty-three children aged 5 years participating in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2000......) wore an accelerometer day and night over a 4-weekperiod. The main outcome measure was level of physical activity using the raw data.A secondary measure was time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. A Fourier series analysis was applied to study in detail patterns over time.Results:Activity...

  15. Parent-child relationship of directly measured physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mâsse Louise C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on parent-child correlations of physical activity have been mixed. Few studies have examined concurrent temporal patterns of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in parents and children using direct measures. The purpose of this study was to examine parent-child activity correlations by gender, day of week, and time of day, using accelerometers - a method for direct assessment of physical activity. Methods Accelerometers were used to assess physical activity and sedentary time in 45 fathers, 45 mothers and their children (23 boys, 22 girls, mean age 9.9 years over the course of 4 days (Thursday - Sunday. Participants were instructed to wear accelerometers for 24 hours per day. Data from accelerometers were aggregated into waking hours on weekdays and weekends (6:00 am to midnight and weekday after-school hours (3:00 - 7:00 pm. Results Across the 4 days, the mean minutes per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA for fathers was 30.0 (s.d. = 17.3, for mothers was 30.1 (s.d. = 20.1 and for children was 145.47 (s.d. = 51.64. Mothers' and fathers' minutes of MVPA and minutes of sedentary time were positively correlated with child physical activity and sedentary time (all ps Conclusions Greater parental MVPA was associated with increased child MVPA. In addition, having two parents with higher levels of MVPA was associated with greater levels of activity in children. Sedentary time in children was not as strongly correlated with that of their parents. Findings lend support to the notion that to increase childhood activity levels it may be fruitful to improve physical activity among parents.

  16. [Coordination among healthcare levels: systematization of tools and measures]. (United States)

    Terraza Núñez, Rebeca; Vargas Lorenzo, Ingrid; Vázquez Navarrete, María Luisa


    Improving healthcare coordination is a priority in many healthcare systems, particularly in chronic health problems in which a number of professionals and services intervene. There is an abundance of coordination strategies and mechanisms that should be systematized so that they can be used in the most appropriate context. The present article aims to analyse healthcare coordination and its instruments using the organisational theory. Coordination mechanisms can be classified according to two basic processes used to coordinate activities: programming and feedback. The optimal combination of mechanisms will depend on three factors: the degree to which healthcare activities are differentiated, the volume and type of interdependencies, and the level of uncertainty. Historically, healthcare services have based coordination on skills standardization and, most recently, on processes standardization, through clinical guidelines, maps, and plans. Their utilisation is unsatisfactory in chronic diseases involving intervention by several professionals with reciprocal interdependencies, variability in patients' response to medical interventions, and a large volume of information to be processed. In this case, mechanisms based on feedback, such as working groups, linking professionals and vertical information systems, are more effective. To date, evaluation of healthcare coordination has not been conducted systematically, using structure, process and results indicators. The different strategies and instruments have been applied mainly to long-term care and mental health and one of the challenges to healthcare coordination is to extend and evaluate their use throughout the healthcare continuum.

  17. Firm-level innovation activity, employee turnover and HRM practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Qin, Zhihua; Wang, Wenjing


    ' innovation activities. Innovation is measured both by the number of ongoing projects and new commercialized products. The results show that higher R&D employee turnover is associated with a higher probability of being innovative, but decreases the intensity of innovation activities in innovating firms...

  18. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitencourt, C.S. [Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I. [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)


    Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production.

  19. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Bitencourt


    Full Text Available Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3, propylthiouracil (PTU or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4 levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg. Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01. In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32% were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production.

  20. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans. (United States)

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo


    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Systemic lupus erythematosus activity and beta two microglobulin levels

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    Thelma Larocca Skare

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease with a cyclical clinical course. Evaluation of the clinical activity of this disease is important for choosing the correct treatment. The objective of this study was to analyze the value of beta-2 microglobulin (β2M serum levels in determining SLE clinical activity.DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study conducted at the rheumatology outpatient clinic of a private university hospital.METHODS: 129 SLE patients were studied regarding disease activity using SLEDAI (SLE Disease Activity Index and cumulative damage using SLICC ACR (SLE International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index for SLE. At the same time, the β2M serum level, ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, anti-dsDNA (anti-double-stranded DNA and C3 and C4 complement fractions were determined.RESULTS: β2M levels correlated positively with SLEDAI (P = 0.02 and ESR (P = 0.0009 and negatively with C3 (P = 0.007. Patients who were positive for anti-dsDNA had higher β2M serum levels (P = 0.009.CONCLUSION: β2M levels are elevated in SLE patients with active disease.

  2. The Effect of Gambling Activities on Happiness Levels of Nursing Home Residents (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R.; Nastally, Becky L.; Waterman, Amber


    The current study evaluated the effect of participating in simulated gambling activities on happiness levels of 3 nursing home residents. A 4-component analysis was used to measure objective responses associated with happiness during baseline, varying durations of engagement in simulated gambling activities, and 2 follow-up periods. Results…

  3. Oxidative stress level and tyrosinase activity in vitiligo patients

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    Eskandani M


    Full Text Available Background: Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary disorder of the skin. Genetic factors, oxidative stress, autoimmunity, and neurochemical agents might be contributing factors for the development of the disease. Aims: To evaluate the oxidative stress level and tyrosinase activity in vitiligo patients and to compare them with healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: We used Comet assay to evaluate DNA strand breaks in peripheral blood cells of active vitiligo patients. We then extracted total protein from lesional and nonlesional skin of ten selected patients. Tyrosinase activity was found to play a crucial role in melanogenesis. Results: The basal level of systemic oxidative DNA strand breaks in leukocytes increased in vitiligo patients compared to healthy participants. We observed that tyrosinase activity in lesional skin was lower than in nonlesional skin. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that increased levels of oxidative stress might impact tyrosinase activity and eumelanin synthesis via anabolism pathway of melanin synthesis. In sum, we observed a negative correlation between levels of systemic oxidative stress and of tyrosinase activity.

  4. Serum Renalase Levels Correlate with Disease Activity in Lupus Nephritis.

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    Chaojun Qi

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis (LN is among the most serious complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Renalase is a novel, kidney-secreted cytokine-like protein that promotes cell survival. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship of serum renalase levels with LN and its role in the disease progression of LN.For this cross-sectional study, 67 LN patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Seventeen active LN patients who received standard therapies were followed up for six months. Disease activity was determined by the SLE Disease Activity-2000 (SLEDAI-2K scoring system and serum renalase amounts were determined by ELISA. Predictive value of renalase for disease activity was assessed. Furthermore, the expression of renalase in the kidneys of patients and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry.Serum renalase amounts were significantly higher in LN patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, patients with proliferative LN had more elevated serum renalase levels than Class V LN patients. In proliferative LN patients, serum renalase levels were significantly higher in patients with active LN than those with inactive LN. Serum renalase levels were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K, 24-h urine protein excretion, ds-DNA and ESR but inversely correlated with serum albumin and C3. Renalase amounts decreased significantly after six-months of standard therapy. The performance of renalase as a marker for diagnosis of active LN was 0.906 with a cutoff value of 66.67 μg/ml. We also observed that the amount of renalase was significantly higher in glomerular of proliferative LN along with the co-expression of macrophages.Serum renalase levels were correlated with disease activity in LN. Serum renalase might serve as a potential indicator for disease activity in LN. The marked increase of glomerular renalase and its association with macrophages suggest that it might play an

  5. Accuracy of Self-Reported Physical Activity Levels in Obese Adolescents

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    Sarah A. Elliott


    Full Text Available Introduction. Self-reported measures of habitual physical activity rely completely on the respondent’s ability to provide accurate information on their own physical activity behaviours. Our aim was to investigate if obese adolescents could accurately report their physical activity levels (PAL using self-reported diaries. Methods. Total energy expenditure (TEE was measured using doubly labelled water (DLW and resting energy expenditure (REE was measured via indirect calorimetry. Activity energy expenditure (AEE and PAL values were derived from measured TEE and REE. Self-reported, four-day activity diaries were used to calculate daily MET values and averaged to give an estimated PAL value (ePAL. Results. Twenty-two obese adolescents, mean age 13.2±1.8 years, mean BMI 31.3±4.6 kg/m2, completed the study. No significant differences between mean measured and estimated PAL values were observed (1.37±0.13 versus 1.40±0.34, P=0.74. Bland Altman analysis illustrated a significant relationship (r=-0.76, P<0.05 between the two methods; thus the bias was not consistent across a range of physical activity levels, with the more inactive overreporting their physical activity. Conclusion. At an individual level, obese adolescents are unlikely to be able to provide an accurate estimation of their own activity.

  6. Accuracy of self-reported physical activity levels in obese adolescents. (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah A; Baxter, Kimberley A; Davies, Peter S W; Truby, Helen


    Introduction. Self-reported measures of habitual physical activity rely completely on the respondent's ability to provide accurate information on their own physical activity behaviours. Our aim was to investigate if obese adolescents could accurately report their physical activity levels (PAL) using self-reported diaries. Methods. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labelled water (DLW) and resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured via indirect calorimetry. Activity energy expenditure (AEE) and PAL values were derived from measured TEE and REE. Self-reported, four-day activity diaries were used to calculate daily MET values and averaged to give an estimated PAL value (ePAL). Results. Twenty-two obese adolescents, mean age 13.2 ± 1.8 years, mean BMI 31.3 ± 4.6 kg/m(2), completed the study. No significant differences between mean measured and estimated PAL values were observed (1.37 ± 0.13 versus 1.40 ± 0.34, P = 0.74). Bland Altman analysis illustrated a significant relationship (r = -0.76, P < 0.05) between the two methods; thus the bias was not consistent across a range of physical activity levels, with the more inactive overreporting their physical activity. Conclusion. At an individual level, obese adolescents are unlikely to be able to provide an accurate estimation of their own activity.

  7. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level (United States)

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.


    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  8. Bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) activity and pollination levels in commercial tomato greenhouses. (United States)

    Morandin, L A; Laverty, T M; Kevan, P G


    Commercial greenhouse studies were conducted to assess levels of pollination of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) flowers in relation to bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson) colony activity and colony densities. For the assessment of pollination levels of tomato flowers, five categories were defined based on bruising levels caused by bumble bee pollination. Colony activity was measured as bee trips per ha/d using electric powered photodiode monitors inserted into the hive entrance. Levels of pollination were positively correlated with bee activity levels, up to a mean of approximately 400 pollen grains per stigma per day, after which greater activity did not result in further increases in daily pollination levels. Densities of colonies in the commercial greenhouses studied ranged from 7.6 to 19.8 colonies per hectare with a mean of 11.6 +/- 0.9. We found that an average activity of 2,000 bee trips per hectare per day was more than adequate to ensure sufficient pollination, and that this level of activity could be achieved with 7-15 colonies per hectare, depending on greenhouse conditions. Greenhouses requiring >15 colonies per hectare to achieve this level of pollination may be able to increase bee activity through alteration of greenhouse conditions. Across 50-m rows of tomato plants, levels of pollination decreased with increasing distance from bee colonies, suggesting that colonies should be evenly distributed throughout the greenhouses.

  9. Levels of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in Japanese people

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    Full Text Available Levels of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD activitiy in a sample of Japanese people were determined. Blood samples were taken from new-born infants, preschool children, young and old people who had no apparent diseases and also from three anemic patients. Erythrocyte SOD activities in different age groups had a nearly normal distribution. Females had slightly lower activities than males, although the difference was statistically insignificant. The distributions of SOD activities were 12.6 +/- 2.7 (m +/- SD unit/mg Hb in young people and 11.4 +/- 3.0 in old people, indicating that erythrocyte SOD activity falls with aging. Because of low concentration of hemoglobin, SOD activities of old people expressed as unit/ml blood were much lower than in young people. Three anemic patients had slightly lower SOD activity.

  10. Active calibration target for bistatic radar cross-section measurements (United States)

    Pienaar, M.; Odendaal, J. W.; Joubert, J.; Cilliers, J. E.; Smit, J. C.


    Either passive calibration targets are expensive and complex to manufacture or their bistatic radar cross section (RCS) levels are significantly lower than the monostatic RCS levels of targets such as spheres, dihedral, and trihedral corner reflectors. In this paper the performance of an active calibration target with relative high bistatic RCS values is illustrated as a reference target for bistatic RCS measurements. The reference target is simple to manufacture, operates over a wide frequency range, and can be configured to calibrate all four polarizations (VV, HH, HV, and VH). Bistatic RCS measurements of canonical targets, performed in a controlled environment, are calibrated with the reference target and the results are compared to simulated results using FEKO.

  11. Activity of anidulafungin in a murine model of Candida krusei infection: evaluation of mortality and disease burden by quantitative tissue cultures and measurement of serum (1,3)-beta-D-glucan levels. (United States)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Paetznick, Victor L; Rodriguez, Jose; Chen, Enuo; Sheehan, Daniel J


    Experience with anidulafungin against Candida krusei is limited. Immunosuppressed mice were injected with 1.3 x 10(7) to 1.5 x 10(7) CFU of C. krusei. Animals were treated with saline, 40 mg/kg fluconazole, 1 mg/kg amphotericin B, or 10 and 20 mg/kg anidulafungin for 5 days. Anidulafungin improved survival and significantly reduced the number of CFU/g in kidneys and serum beta-glucan levels.

  12. Classroom Management to Support Active Middle Level Classrooms

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    Bryan Lloyd McCoy


    Full Text Available

    This article presents a discussion of connections between middle level concepts of teaching and learning and managing a classroom through creating opportunities for active and engaged learning. The article argues and concludes that classroom management is more about managing learning than managing behavior and that one effective way to manage student behavior is to create an environment where students continuously engage in active learning (Haydon, Borders, Embury, & Clarke, 2009.

  13. Classroom Management to Support Active Middle Level Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Lloyd McCoy


    Full Text Available This article presents a discussion of connections between middle level concepts of teaching and learning and managing a classroom through creating opportunities for active and engaged learning. The article argues and concludes that classroom management is more about managing learning than managing behavior and that one effective way to manage student behavior is to create an environment where students continuously engage in active learning (Haydon, Borders, Embury, & Clarke, 2009.

  14. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship. (United States)

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino


    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine's list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996-2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship.

  15. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship (United States)

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino


    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine’s list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996–2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. PMID:24449873

  16. The Detection and Measurement of the Activity Size Distributions (United States)

    Ramamurthi, Mukund

    The infiltration of radon into the indoor environment may cause the exposure of the public to excessive amounts of radioactivity and has spurred renewed research interest over the past several years into the occurrence and properties of radon and its decay products in indoor air. The public health risks posed by the inhalation and subsequent lung deposition of the decay products of Rn-222 have particularly warranted the study of their diffusivity and attachment to molecular cluster aerosols in the ultrafine particle size range (0.5-5 nm) and to accumulation mode aerosols. In this research, a system for the detection and measurement of the activity size distributions and concentration levels of radon decay products in indoor environments has been developed. The system is microcomputer-controlled and involves a combination of multiple wire screen sampler -detector units operated in parallel. The detection of the radioactivity attached to the aerosol sampled in these units permits the determination of the radon daughter activity -weighted size distributions and concentration levels in indoor air on a semi-continuous basis. The development of the system involved the design of the detection and measurement system, its experimental characterization and testing in a radon-aerosol chamber, and numerical studies for the optimization of the design and operating parameters of the system. Several concepts of utility to aerosol size distribution measurement methods sampling the ultrafine cluster size range evolved from this study, and are discussed in various chapters of this dissertation. The optimized multiple wire screen (Graded Screen Array) system described in this dissertation is based on these concepts. The principal facet of the system is its ability to make unattended measurements of activity size distributions and concentration levels of radon decay products on a semi-continuous basis. Thus, the capability of monitoring changes in the activity concentrations and size

  17. Children with cerebral palsy do not achieve healthy physical activity levels


    Bratteby Tollerz, L. U.; Forslund, A. H.; Olsson, R. M.; Lidström, Helene; Holmback, U.


    AimThis study compared daily activity energy expenditure (AEE) in children with cerebral palsy with a control group and investigated whether the children achieved healthy levels of physical activity. MethodsWe enrolled eight children with bilateral cerebral palsy, from eight to 10years of age, and a group of controls matched for age and gender. For three days, physical activity was simultaneously measured by accelerometers and self-reports using a diary. The daily AEE results were compared be...

  18. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other State-level activities. 300.814 Section 300.814 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  19. Can nursing students' confidence levels increase with repeated simulation activities? (United States)

    Cummings, Cynthia L; Connelly, Linda K


    In 2014, nursing faculty conducted a study with undergraduate nursing students on their satisfaction, confidence, and educational practice levels, as it related to simulation activities throughout the curriculum. The study was a voluntary survey conducted on junior and senior year nursing students. It consisted of 30 items based on the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning and the Educational Practices Questionnaire (Jeffries, 2012). Mean averages were obtained for each of the 30 items from both groups and were compared using T scores for unpaired means. The results showed that 8 of the items had a 95% confidence level and when combined the items were significant for p confidence and active learning. Based on these findings, it can be assumed that repeated simulation experiences can lead to an increase in student confidence and active learning.

  20. How valid are wearable physical activity trackers for measuring steps? (United States)

    An, Hyun-Sung; Jones, Gregory C; Kang, Seoung-Ki; Welk, Gregory J; Lee, Jung-Min


    Wearable activity trackers have become popular for tracking individual's daily physical activity, but little information is available to substantiate the validity of these devices in step counts. Thirty-five healthy individuals completed three conditions of activity tracker measurement: walking/jogging on a treadmill, walking over-ground on an indoor track, and a 24-hour free-living condition. Participants wore 10 activity trackers at the same time for both treadmill and over-ground protocol. Of these 10 activity trackers three were randomly given for 24-hour free-living condition. Correlations of steps measured to steps observed were r = 0.84 and r = 0.67 on a treadmill and over-ground protocol, respectively. The mean MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) score for all devices and speeds on a treadmill was 8.2% against manually counted steps. The MAPE value was higher for over-ground walking (9.9%) and even higher for the 24-hour free-living period (18.48%) on step counts. Equivalence testing for step count measurement resulted in a significant level within ±5% for the Fitbit Zip, Withings Pulse, and Jawbone UP24 and within ±10% for the Basis B1 band, Garmin VivoFit, and SenseWear Armband Mini. The results show that the Fitbit Zip and Withings Pulse provided the most accurate measures of step count under all three different conditions (i.e. treadmill, over-ground, and 24-hour condition), and considerable variability in accuracy across monitors and also by speeds and conditions.

  1. Effects of Curricular Activity on Students' Situational Motivation and Physical Activity Levels (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun


    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students' situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve…

  2. Biofilter odour reduction level, measurements; Luktreduceringsgrad hos biofilter, faeltmaetningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrhenius, Karine; Rosell, Lars; Tsetsilas, Sakis (SP, Boraas (Sweden)); Loevenklev, Maria; Blomqvist, Marie; Hall, Gunnar; Sverken, Anna; Widen, Helene (SIK, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Holmgren, Magnus Andreas (Vattenfall Power Consultants (Sweden))


    Biofilter is today the most common odour reduction method for biological treatment. A biofilter consists of a bed of organic material often made of compost together with another material which increases the porosity of the bed. Microorganisms in the compost use odorous compounds as nutrient by decomposing them. Resulting products are mainly carbon dioxide and water, mineral salts, other organic compounds and more microorganisms. In this project, seven biofilters implemented in Sweden have been tested in order to describe their status and function. A number of physical, chemical, microbiological and odour related parameters have be measured in the pipe which leads to the biofilter as well as on the surface of the biofilter in order to determine biofilters status and their effectiveness. Values from plants have been compared to published optimal values for each parameter. The goal of the project is to optimize biofilters function och prevent risks for performance disturbances. Results from the project can also be used as reference for plants which are planning process modifications as an increase of waste to be treated, substrate/material changes etc. Each plant has been visited during two days in August/September 2009. The following parameters have been measured: 1) physical parameters such as relative humidity, temperature, and pH, 2) chemical parameters such as incoming and out coming gas composition, gas composition variation with time, access to nutriments, 3) microbiological parameters such as the total number of microorganisms and the dominating microflora i respective biofilter and 4) odour related parameters through an evaluation of the contribution of individual compounds to the total out coming odour and in some cases, through a evaluation by olfactometry. All these parameters have been subsequently interpreted and treated in order to evaluate the status of the biofilter: description of the biofilter, its environment, the microbiological status, which flow

  3. Relationship between gastric levels and antiulcerogenic activity of zinc. (United States)

    Navarro, C; Ramis, A; Sendrós, S; Bulbena, O; Ferrer, L; Escolar, G


    The relationship between the absorption of an organic zinc salt, zinc acexamate, and its antiulcerogenic activity in a model of cold-restraint stress was studied. Serum and gastric levels of zinc, as well as its antiulcerogenic effect, were determined after oral or intravenous administration of zinc acexamate. Cytochemical and X-ray microanalysis techniques were also applied. In the rats subjected to cold-restraint stress, gastric levels of zinc correlated with the antiulcerogenic effect observed after administration of zinc acexamate. However, it was not possible to establish a relationship between serum levels and the pharmacologic effect of zinc. Our results in animals subjected to regular diet indicate that the antiulcerogenic effect exhibited by zinc compounds could be associated with the presence of zinc at different levels of gastric tissue.

  4. Methods to Measure Physical Activity Behaviors in Health Education Research (United States)

    Fitzhugh, Eugene C.


    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important concept to measure in health education research. The health education researcher might need to measure physical activity because it is the primary measure of interest, or PA might be a confounding measure that needs to be controlled for in statistical analysis. The purpose of this commentary is to…

  5. Carotenoid levels in human lymphocytes, measured by Raman microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramanauskaite, R B; SegersNolten, IGMJ; DeGrauw, K J; Sijtsema, N M; VanderMaas, L; Greve, J; Otto, C; Figdor, C G


    Carotenoid levels in lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood of healthy people have been investigated by Raman microspectroscopy. We observed that carotenoids are concentrated in so-called ''Gall bodies''. The level of carotenoids in living human lymphocytes was found to be age-dependent and to d

  6. Early androgens, activity levels and toy choices of children in the second year of life. (United States)

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Saenz, Janet


    The hypothesis that stronger preferences for active play styles contribute to stronger preferences for male-typical toys was examined in 47 boys and 37 girls at 19-months of age using ambulatory monitoring technology (i.e., actigraphy) to measure activity levels during contact with male-typical, female-typical, and gender-neutral toys. Digit ratios and salivary testosterone levels were measured earlier in children at 3-4 months of age. There were no significant sex differences in digit ratios, salivary testosterone levels, or overall activity levels during toy play. In contrast, contact times showed large sex differences in infants' toy preferences. The within-sex comparisons showed that infant girls had significant preferences for female-typical toys over male-typical toys, whereas infant boys showed only a small preference for male-typical toys over female-typical toys. More male-typical digit ratios in early infancy predicted higher activity counts during toy play and less female-typical toy preferences in girls. However, in both sexes, activity levels were unrelated to toy preferences suggesting that factors other than activity level preferences contribute to the early emergence of gender-linked toy preferences.

  7. Age-associated changes in the level of physical activity in elderly adults (United States)

    Takagi, Daisuke; Nishida, Yuusuke; Fujita, Daisuke


    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify how light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity in older adults changes with age, subdividing physical activity according to intensity levels, by using an accelerometer. [Subjects] Older adults living independently in the community were included (n = 106, age: 65–85 years). [Methods] A triaxial accelerometer was used to measure the amount of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity (1–2.9, 3–5.9, and ≥6 metabolic equivalents, respectively) and inactive time over 7 days. Light- and moderate-intensity physical activity levels were further subdivided into 1–1.9, 2–2.9, 3–3.9, and 4–5.9 metabolic equivalents, respectively. [Results] The amount of moderate-intensity physical activity at both sub-levels showed significant inverse correlations with age (r = −0.34, −0.33, respectively), but this was not seen with other levels. Both levels of moderate-intensity physical activity were independently predicted by age using multiple regression analysis adjusted for gender and body mass index. [Conclusion] These results suggest that understanding the reduction in moderate-intensity physical activity with age in older adults, subdivided according to intensity level, could be a useful index to increase the amount of higher intensity physical activity in stages, considering individual health conditions. PMID:26834332

  8. Anthropogenic noise alters bat activity levels and echolocation calls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie P. Bunkley


    Full Text Available Negative impacts from anthropogenic noise are well documented for many wildlife taxa. Investigations of the effects of noise on bats however, have not been conducted outside of the laboratory. Bats that hunt arthropods rely on auditory information to forage. Part of this acoustic information can fall within the spectrum of anthropogenic noise, which can potentially interfere with signal reception and processing. Compressor stations associated with natural gas extraction produce broadband noise 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. With over half a million producing gas wells in the U.S. this infrastructure is a major source of noise pollution across the landscape. We conducted a ‘natural experiment’ in the second largest gas extraction field in the U.S. to investigate the potential effects of gas compressor station noise on the activity levels of the local bat assemblage. We used acoustic monitoring to compare the activity level (number of minutes in a night with a bat call of the bat assemblage at sites with compressor stations to sites lacking this infrastructure. We found that activity levels for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis were 40% lower at loud compressor sites compared to quieter well pads, whereas the activity levels of four other species (Myotis californicus, M. cillolabrum, M. lucifugus, Parastrellus hesperus were not affected by noise. Furthermore, our results reveal that the assemblage of bat species emitting low frequency (35 kHz echolocation did not exhibit altered activity levels in noise. Lower activity levels of Brazilian free-tailed bats at loud sites indicate a potential reduction in habitat for this species. Additionally, a comparison of echolocation search calls produced by free-tailed bats at sites with and without compressor stations reveal that this species modifies its echolocation search calls in noise—producing longer calls with a narrower bandwidth. Call alterations might affect prey

  9. Predicting Group-Level Outcome Variables from Variables Measured at the Individual Level: A Latent Variable Multilevel Model (United States)

    Croon, Marcel A.; van Veldhoven, Marc J. P. M.


    In multilevel modeling, one often distinguishes between macro-micro and micro-macro situations. In a macro-micro multilevel situation, a dependent variable measured at the lower level is predicted or explained by variables measured at that lower or a higher level. In a micro-macro multilevel situation, a dependent variable defined at the higher…

  10. Self-reported activity level and knee function in amateur football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frobell, R B; Svensson, E; Göthrick, M;


    The aim of this study is to investigate if self-reported activity level or knee functions are influenced by subject characteristics, level of competition and history of knee injury. Cross-Sectional study using questionnaires distributed at a personal visit. One hundred and eighty-eight (65 women......) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are the main outcome measures. Older age, female gender and lower level of competition (football...... is recommended. We suggest that self-reported Tegner Activity Scale scores should be adjusted for age, gender and level of competition. In amateur football players, KOOS scores do not need adjustment for age and gender....

  11. Safety measures at railway level crossings for pedestrians and bicyclists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Bakker, P.


    At railway level crossings only a physical median helps to reduce speed and improve the safety of encounters between motorists and bicyclists when no options are available for separatory slow and fast traffic completely.

  12. The Measurement and Interpretation of Children's Physical Activity. (United States)

    Rowlands, Ann V; Eston, Roger G


    The accurate and reliable assessment of physical activity is necessary for any research study where physical activity is either an outcome measure or an intervention. The aim of this review is to examine the use of objective measurement techniques for the assessment and interpretation of children's physical activity. Accurate measurement of children's activity is challenging, as the activity is characteristically sporadic and intermittent, consisting of frequent, short bouts. Objective measures of physical activity include heart rate telemetry, pedometry and accelerometry, and each of these methods has strengths and limitations. Heart rate is suited to the measurement of sustained periods of moderate and vigorous activity, pedometry provides a valid measure of total activity, and accelerometry provides a valid measure of total activity as well as the pattern and intensity of activity. As the weaknesses of heart rate and accelerometry for the assessment of activity are not inter-correlated, a combination of the two methods may be more accurate than either method alone. Recent evidence suggests that the Actiheart, an integrated accelerometer and heart rate unit, provides a more accurate prediction of children's energy expenditure than either heart rate or accelerometry alone. However, the cost of the Actiheart is prohibitive for large-scale studies. The pedometer is recommended when only the total amount of physical activity is of interest. When the intensity or the pattern of activity is of interest, accelerometry is the recommended measurement tool. Key pointsThe use of objective measures to assess physical activity in children is recommended.Pedometers provide an inexpensive objective measure of total activity that is highly correlated with more sophisticated techniques, e.g. accelerometry, and has been used to identify relationships between health and activity in children.Accelerometry allows examination of the temporal pattern and intensity of children

  13. Precision measurements of positronium decay rate and energy level

    CERN Document Server

    Asai, S; Kobayashi, T; Namba, T; Suehara, T; Akimoto, G; Ishida, A; Hashimoto, M M; Saito, H; Idehara, T; Yoshida, M


    Positronium is an ideal system for the research of the bound state QED. New precise measurement of orthopositronium decay rate has been performed with an accuracy of 150 ppm, and the result combined with the last three is 7.0401 +- 0.0007 mu s^-1. It is the first result to validate the 2nd order correction. The Hyper Fine Splitting of positronium is sensitive to the higher order corrections of the QED prediction and also to the new physics beyond Standard Model via the quantum oscillation into virtual photon. The discrepancy of 3.5 sigma is found recently between the measured values and the QED prediction (O(alpha^3)). It might be due to the contribution of the new physics or the systematic problems in the previous measurements: (non-thermalized Ps and non-uniformity of the magnetic field). We propose new methods to measure HFS precisely without the these uncertainties.

  14. The relationship between postnatal depression, sociodemographic factors, levels of partner support, and levels of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam eSaligeh


    Full Text Available Background: postnatal depression (PND is defined as a psychological mood disorder that occurs in a mother within six weeks of her giving birth. It refers to an episode that causes mood disturbance and it could begin in, or extend into, the postpartum period. It is thought to have a high impact upon the mother’s health as well as the family’s functioning and the child’s development. Socio-demographic, psych-social, and physical activity factors may all contribute to postpartum mood and ability to cope with responsibilities. The primary aim of this study was to determine which of these factors predicted PND in postpartum women. A secondary aim was to identify the socio-demographic and psycho-social predictors of physical activity in postpartum women . Methods: The study used a cross-sectional correlational design. A sample of 150 postpartum women was sent a package of six standardised questionnaires. Results: There was no association between physical activity and PND; however, older mothers, mothers of younger children, mothers who are less reluctant to ask for help, and mothers who are more satisfied with the help they get experience lower levels of PND. Mothers of older babies, mothers with more children, and less educated mothers are more likely to engage in caregiving activities, whereas mothers with fewer children and higher levels of partner support are more likely to engage in occupational activities. None of the socio-demographic factors or any of the parenting factors predicted levels of sporting activity.

  15. Level measurement and control strategies for subsea separators (United States)

    Hjertaker, Bjorn T.; Johansen, Geir A.; Jackson, Peter


    Level monitoring instrumentation is an essential part of hydrocarbon processing facilities, and has, together with separator technology, been widely addressed over the last decade. Key issues are production capacity, product enhancement, and well-flow control. The reliability and accuracy of the level instrumentation, and its ability to monitor all the interface layers of the separator, including the thickness of the foam and the oil-water emulsion, are particularly important when considering the level instrumentation as the main sensing element in the automatic control of the separator vessel. Lately, industry focus has been placed on optimal automatic control to improve the quality of the production output, and to minimize the use of expensive and environmentally undesirable separation enhancing chemicals. Recent developments in hydrocarbon production include subsea separation stations, where the constraints placed on the reliability and accuracy of the level instrumentation are especially demanding. This paper presents level interface monitoring developments based on electrical, ultrasonic, thermal, and nucleonic physical principles for three-phase hydrocarbon separators, and introduces the notion of tomometry, meaning multi-point cross-sectional metering aiming to acquire information on the cross-sectional flow-component distribution in the process vessel intended for control purposes.

  16. Endogenous testosterone levels are associated with neural activity in men with schizophrenia during facial emotion processing. (United States)

    Ji, Ellen; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Catts, Stanley V; Vercammen, Ans; White, Christopher; Gur, Raquel E; Weickert, Thomas W


    Growing evidence suggests that testosterone may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia given that testosterone has been linked to cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Here, we determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels are related to neural activity in affective processing circuitry in men with schizophrenia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal changes as 32 healthy controls and 26 people with schizophrenia performed a facial emotion identification task. Whole brain analyses were performed to determine regions of differential activity between groups during processing of angry versus non-threatening faces. A follow-up ROI analysis using a regression model in a subset of 16 healthy men and 16 men with schizophrenia was used to determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels were related to neural activity. Healthy controls displayed significantly greater activation than people with schizophrenia in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). There was no significant difference in circulating testosterone levels between healthy men and men with schizophrenia. Regression analyses between activation in the IFG and circulating testosterone levels revealed a significant positive correlation in men with schizophrenia (r=.63, p=.01) and no significant relationship in healthy men. This study provides the first evidence that circulating serum testosterone levels are related to IFG activation during emotion face processing in men with schizophrenia but not in healthy men, which suggests that testosterone levels modulate neural processes relevant to facial emotion processing that may interfere with social functioning in men with schizophrenia.

  17. The relationship between physical activity levels and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers. (United States)

    Ko, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Eon-Ho; Baek, Un-Hyo; Gang, Zhao; Kang, Seol-Jung


    [Purpose] Physical activity is important for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. White-collar workers can be inherently predisposed to chronic diseases, as their jobs are primarily sedentary. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers. [Subjects and Methods] Physical activity and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in 331 male public office workers. Physical activity was classified as high (N=101), moderate (N=115), or low (N=111) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. To diagnose metabolic syndrome, the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program's standard was used. [Results] Waist circumference and triglyceride levels, factors of metabolic syndrome, were significantly higher in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. Waist circumference and fasting glucose were negatively correlated with physical activity level, and HDL cholesterol showed a positive correlation with waist circumference. The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome were 2.03 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.01-4.09) in the low physical activity group than in the high physical activity group. [Conclusion] Low physical activity was a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. Therefore, increasing physical activity in daily life may prevent metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers.

  18. Measurement of myeloid cell immune suppressive activity. (United States)

    Dolcetti, Luigi; Peranzoni, Elisa; Bronte, Vincenzo


    This unit presents simple methods to assess the immunosuppressive properties of immunoregulatory cells of myeloid origin, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), both in vitro and in vivo. These methods are general and could be adapted to test the impact of different suppressive populations on T cell activation, proliferation, and cytotoxic activity; moreover they could be useful to assess the influence exerted on immune suppressive pathways by genetic modifications, chemical inhibitors, and drugs.

  19. Bayesian Compressed Sensing with Unknown Measurement Noise Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Lundgaard; Jørgensen, Peter Bjørn; Pedersen, Niels Lovmand


    In sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) approximate Bayesian inference is applied to find sparse estimates from observations corrupted by additive noise. Current literature only vaguely considers the case where the noise level is unknown a priori. We show that for most state-of-the-art reconstruction a...

  20. Estimation of geomagnetic activity using measure of anomalousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Soloviev


    Full Text Available Herein, we present a newly developed indicator for estimating geomagnetic activity. It is based on the magnitude of measure of anomalousness (MA of magnetometer recordings at a given time or interval. It is intended for automated estimation of geomagnetic activity level in the area of a specific magnetic station or in a given region using data of a set of stations. It reflects geomagnetic activity level at different observatories in a single scale [-1, 1], regardless of their latitudinal location and consequently typical disturbance amplitudes. To a certain extent MA indicator is an analog of traditional K index. However, a well-known shortcoming of the latter is its long, 3-hour update rate. Moreover, K index calculation requires subtraction of Sq variation that also causes delays. At the same time there is a demand for operational geomagnetic indices that have maximal time resolution and are available in near real-time. The proposed MA indicator aims to address the shortcomings of the traditional K index. The MA calculation may be implemented automatically with the same time resolution as the initial data are recorded.

  1. Measuring patient activation in the Netherlands: translation and validation of the American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rademakers Jany


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM is a 13-item instrument which assesses patient (or consumer self-reported knowledge, skills and confidence for self-management of one’s health or chronic condition. In this study the PAM was translated into a Dutch version; psychometric properties of the Dutch version were established and the instrument was validated in a panel of chronically ill patients. Methods The translation was done according to WHO guidelines. The PAM 13-Dutch was sent to 4178 members of the Dutch National Panel of people with Chronic illness or Disability (NPCD in April 2010 (study A and again to a sub sample of this group (N = 973 in June 2010 (study B. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and cross-validation with the SBSQ-D (a measure for Health literacy were computed. The Dutch results were compared to similar Danish and American data. Results The psychometric properties of the PAM 13-Dutch were generally good. The level of internal consistency is good (α = 0.88 and item-rest correlations are moderate to strong. The Dutch mean PAM score (61.3 is comparable to the American (61.9 and lower than the Danish (64.2. The test-retest reliability was moderate. The association with Health literacy was weak to moderate. Conclusions The PAM-13 Dutch is a reliable instrument to measure patient activation. More research is needed into the validity of the Patient Activation Measure, especially with respect to a more comprehensive measure of Health literacy.

  2. Measuring Afterschool Program Quality Using Setting-Level Observational Approaches (United States)

    Oh, Yoonkyung; Osgood, D. Wayne; Smith, Emilie P.


    The importance of afterschool hours for youth development is widely acknowledged, and afterschool settings have recently received increasing attention as an important venue for youth interventions, bringing a growing need for reliable and valid measures of afterschool quality. This study examined the extent to which the two observational tools,…

  3. Measuring Physical Activity in the Elderly: Some Implications for Nutrition. (United States)

    Shephard, Roy J.


    Measurement of physical activity patterns is discussed in terms of data obtained by attitude assessment, activity questionnaires, personal monitoring devices, and fitness assessment. Problems of each technique are described. Application of activity measures to the estimation of total dietary needs is discussed. (SK)

  4. Physical Activity Levels in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Are Extremely Low (United States)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Reis, Debora; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.


    This study measures physical activity levels in a representative population-based sample of older adults (aged [greater than or equal to]50 years) with intellectual disabilities. For this, the steps/day of all 1050 participants of the Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disabilities study (HA-ID; a study conducted among three Dutch healthcare…

  5. Physical activity levels in older adults with intellectual disabilities are extremely low

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Reis, Debora; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.


    This study measures physical activity levels in a representative population-based sample of older adults (aged >= 50 years) with intellectual disabilities. For this, the steps/day of all 1050 participants of the Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disabilities study (HA-ID; a study conducted among three

  6. Determining Intensity Levels of Selected Wii Fit Activities in College Aged Individuals (United States)

    Grieser, Joshua D.; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda; Simonson, Shawn


    The purpose of this study was to determine the intensity of Nintendo Wii Fit games using indirect calorimetry. Twenty-five college students completed Wii Fit activity sessions at two difficulty levels within aerobics, strength, and yoga categories. Resting metabolic rate and exercise oxygen uptake were measured, and metabolic equivalents were…

  7. Physical Activity Levels of Non-Overweight, Overweight, and Obese Children during Physical Education (United States)

    Pathare, Neeti; Piche, Kelly; Nicosia, Andrea; Haskvitz, Esther


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) levels of young children classified by body mass index (BMI) (non-overweight, overweight, and obese) during physical education classes. Method: Participants included 82 children (45 boys, 37 girls; 7.5 ± 1.2 years). PA was determined by the number of steps measured with…

  8. [Preoperative digitalization. Measurement of digoxin plasma levels (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Geiger, H J; Rietbrock, N


    In a study of 233 patients from the department of surgery and anesthesiology taking digoxin preparations 64, per cent exhibit digoxin levels in the therapeutic range (0.6--1.5 ng/ml), 19 per cent had subtoxic concentrations ranged from 1.6--2.0 ng/ml and 7 per cent were in the toxic range (greater than 2 ng/ml). In patients treated with digoxin before admission to hospital subtherapeutic levels were most frequent. An average loading dose of digoxin 1 mg or more on one day may result in subtoxic and toxic digoxin levels on the second day, in patients receiving less than 1 mg digoxin daily an increasing frequency of plasma digoxin concentrations of 1.5 ng/ml or higher values was present on the third day. Averaged plasma digoxin concentrations were correlated with daily maintenance dose. There was, however, a wide individual variation in digoxin plasma concentrations. A low incidence of toxic digoxin plasma levels was observed in patients receiving a daily oral maintenance dose of 0.375 mg digoxin (Lanicor). For prophylactic digitalization of patients with normal renal and thyroid function the following schedules or statistical guidlines are proposed: Lanicor (bioavailability 60%): oral loading dose of 0.75 mg over two days, and then daily oral maintenance dose of 0.375 mg; Novodigal (bioavailability 80%): oral loading dose of 0.6 mg over two days and then daily oral maintenance dose of 0.3 mg; Digoxin i.v.: intravenous loading dose of 0.5 (0.4) mg over two days and then 0.25 (0.2) mg daily intravenous maintenance dose. For any patient needing treatment with digitalis glycosides therapy must be individual and dynamic. The reasons for toxic concentrations were frequently attributed to wrong dosage.

  9. Attempting to be active: Self-efficacy and barrier limitation differentiate activity levels of working mothers. (United States)

    Gierc, Madelaine; Locke, Sean; Jung, Mary; Brawley, Lawrence


    Working mothers are less physically active than working women without children and mothers who do not work. The purpose of this study was to examine concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and barriers to physical activity in a sample of working mothers. Women completed a mixed-methods survey which included measures of physical activity, concurrent self-regulatory efficacy, and barriers. Sufficiently active women experienced significantly greater concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and significantly less barrier limitation and frequency. No significant group differences were found for age, domestic duties performed, and children's extracurricular activities. Thematic analysis of barriers revealed six themes of common and unique factors, including limited time and family activities.


    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  11. Assessing Causality in the Association between Child Adiposity and Physical Activity Levels : A Mendelian Randomization Analysis


    Rebecca C Richmond; George Davey Smith; Ness, Andy R; Marcel den Hoed; George McMahon; Nicholas J Timpson


    BackgroundCross-sectional studies have shown that objectively measured physical activity is associated with childhood adiposity, and a strong inverse dose-response association with body mass index (BMI) has been found. However, few studies have explored the extent to which this association reflects reverse causation. We aimed to determine whether childhood adiposity causally influences levels of physical activity using genetic variants reliably associated with adiposity to estimate causal eff...

  12. Instructions, feedback, and reinforcement in reducing activity levels in the classroom. (United States)

    Schulman, J L; Suran, B G; Stevens, T M; Kupst, M J


    The biomotometer, an electronic device which simultaneously measures motor activity and provides auditory feedback, was used in combination with material reinforcers in an experiment to reduce children's activity level in a classroom setting. Subjects were nine boys and two girls, aged 9--13, from a day hospital program for emotionally disturbed children. After five baseline trials, each child had five contingent reinforcement trials in which he/she received feedback "beeps" from the biomotometer and was given toy or candy rewards after each trial in which activity fell at least 20% below mean baseline level. Then five noncontingent reinforcement trials were run in which children received rewards for wearing the apparatus without the feedback attachment. Results indicated that the intervention "package," including instructions, feedback, and contingent reinforcement, was successful in all five trials for 8 of 11 children. Activity levels increased during the final noncontingent phase.

  13. Quantitative Method of Measuring Metastatic Activity (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)


    The metastatic potential of tumors can be evaluated by the quantitative detection of urokinase and DNA. The cell sample selected for examination is analyzed for the presence of high levels of urokinase and abnormal DNA using analytical flow cytometry and digital image analysis. Other factors such as membrane associated uroldnase, increased DNA synthesis rates and certain receptors can be used in the method for detection of potentially invasive tumors.

  14. A Novel Method on ISO 27001 Reviews: ISMS Compliance Readiness Level Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Susanto, Heru; Tuan, Yong Chee


    Security is a hot issue to be discussed, ranging from business activities, correspondence, banking and financial activities; it requires prudence and high precision. Since information security has a very important role in supporting activities of the organization, we need a standard or benchmark which regulates governance over information security. The main objective of this paper is to implement a novel practical approach framework to the development of information security management system (ISMS) assessment and monitoring software, called by I-SolFramework. System / software is expected to assist stakeholders in assessing the level of their ISO27001 compliance readiness, the software could help stakeholders understood security control or called by compliance parameters, being shorter, more structured, high precision and measured forecasting.

  15. Measuring Physical Activity in Children and Youth Living with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Hinckson, Erica Aneke; Curtis, Amy


    Accurate assessment of physical activity is necessary in determining levels of physical activity in children living with intellectual disability (ID) and assessing effectiveness of intervention programmes. A systematic review of measures of physical activity in children with ID was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE-PubMed, Scopus,…

  16. Monitoring Oral Anticoagulant Therapy: Measuring Coagulant Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attermann, Jorn

    daily anticoagulant therapy. The therapy necessitates close monitoring of coagulant activity, since excess doses of anticoagulant medicine may lead to life-threatening bleedings. Traditionally, patients on OAT are required to pay regular visits to a physician, who decides on drug dosage adjustments...... of the new concept is the training and continuous support and monitoring of the patients, and a center with these purposes has been established at Skejby Sygehus. The main instrument for monitoring the coagulant activity is the prothrombin time (PT). This is the time until clotting can be observed...... central aspects of the INR system, such as the inaccuracy of INR estimates based on a given path of calibrations. The main result states that, under weak regularity conditions, log (log (estimated INR)) is approximately normally distributed with mean log (log (true INR)). The variance is a function...

  17. Hadron structure beyond collinear level and precision DIS measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hautmann F


    Full Text Available General formulations of QCD factorization for hadronic collisions extend the notion of ordinary parton distributions to transverse-momentum dependent (TMD parton density and parton decay functions. We discuss the use of the recent high-precision deep-inelastic scattering (DIS measurements for determination of TMD distributions. These are relevant for both low-pT and high-pT physics in hadron collisions. We comment on applications to multi-jet final states associated with electroweak gauge boson production at the LHC.

  18. LOWRAD 96. Methods and applications of low-level radioactivity measurements. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fietz, J. [ed.] [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany)


    The newest developments in the field of low-level radioactivity measurements and new applications for existing and low-level measuring facilities are presented. The contributions mostly were devoted to basic physical aspects and applications of low-level counting. Papers on chemical separation and preparation techniques and on low-level radiation dose determinations were also presented. (DG)

  19. Listening levels of teenage iPod users: does measurement approach matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole C. Haines


    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to determine the influence of background noise levels and measurement approach on user-selected listening levels (USLLs chosen by teenaged MP3 player users. It was hypothesized that the presence of background noise would (i increase the USLL across all measurement approaches, (ii result in no significant USLL differences between survey reports, objective lab measures or calibrated self-report field measures, and (iii cause no interaction effect between level of background noise and measurement approach. There were two independent variables in this study: the level of background noise and measurement approach. The first independent variable, level of background noise, had two levels: quiet and transportation noise. The second independent variable, measurement approach, had three levels: survey, objective in-ear lab measurement and calibrated self-report field measurement. The dependent variable was ear canal A-weighted sound pressure level (dBA SPL. A 2 x 3 repeated-measures ANOVA was used to determine the significance of the main and interaction effects. USLLs increased in the presence of background noise, regardless of the measurement approach used. However, the listening levels estimated by the participants using the survey and self-report field measure were significantly lower than those recorded using in-ear laboratory measurements by 9.6 and 3.3 dBA respectively. In-ear laboratory measures yielded the highest listening levels. Higher listening levels were observed in the presence of background noise for all measurement approaches. It appears that subjects’ survey responses underestimate true listening levels in comparison to self-report calibrated field measures, and that both underestimate listening levels measured in the laboratory setting. More research in this area is warranted to determine whether measurement techniques can be refined and adjusted to accurately reflect real-world listening

  20. Listening levels of teenage iPod users: does measurement approach matter? (United States)

    Haines, Nicole C; Hodgetts, William E; Ostevik, Amberley V; Rieger, Jana M


    The main objective of this study was to determine the influence of background noise levels and measurement approach on user-selected listening levels (USLLs) chosen by teenaged MP3 player users. It was hypothesized that the presence of background noise would (i) increase the USLL across all measurement approaches, (ii) result in no significant USLL differences between survey reports, objective lab measures or calibrated self-report field measures, and (iii) cause no interaction effect between level of background noise and measurement approach. There were two independent variables in this study: the level of background noise and measurement approach. The first independent variable, level of background noise, had two levels: quiet and transportation noise. The second independent variable, measurement approach, had three levels: survey, objective in-ear lab measurement and calibrated self-report field measurement. The dependent variable was ear canal A-weighted sound pressure level (dBA SPL). A 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANOVA was used to determine the significance of the main and interaction effects. USLLs increased in the presence of background noise, regardless of the measurement approach used. However, the listening levels estimated by the participants using the survey and self-report field measure were significantly lower than those recorded using in-ear laboratory measurements by 9.6 and 3.3 dBA respectively. In-ear laboratory measures yielded the highest listening levels. Higher listening levels were observed in the presence of background noise for all measurement approaches. It appears that subjects' survey responses underestimate true listening levels in comparison to self-report calibrated field measures, and that both underestimate listening levels measured in the laboratory setting. More research in this area is warranted to determine whether measurement techniques can be refined and adjusted to accurately reflect real-world listening preferences.

  1. Towards Fast In-line Measurement of Water Activity (United States)

    Nielsen, J.; Andreasen, M. B.; Pedersen, M.; Rasmussen, M. K.


    Water activity is widely used as a key parameter in controlling the quality of food and feed products, among others. For determining the water activity, the material is sampled from the manufacturing process and measured in the laboratory with water activity analyzers. The sampling procedure can lead to non-representative measurements, the measurement process is time consuming, and much of the produced material may be wasted before the measurement results are available. To reduce waste and to be able to optimize production processes, industry requires in-line measurement of relevant quality determining parameters, hereunder the water activity. In cooperation with a manufacturer of systems for automatic in-line sampling and measurement of moisture, density, and the size of items, a project was defined to also enable the manufacturer's existing products to perform automatic measurement of the water activity in a sample. The aim was to develop a measurement system with the ability to operate in an industrial environment, which in the end would increase the measurement speed significantly and minimize the problems related to the handling of samples. In the paper the selection and characterization of the sensors, the design of a measurement chamber, and various issues of modeling and methods to reduce measurement time are discussed. The paper also presents water activity measurements obtained from food and feed products with the system, and shows that reliable results can be obtained in a few minutes with a proper design of the measurement chamber and selection of a model.

  2. Quantitative measurements of active Ionian volcanoes in Galileo NIMS data (United States)

    Saballett, Sebastian; Rathbun, Julie A.; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Spencer, John R.


    Io is the most volcanically active body in our solar system. The spatial distribution of volcanoes a planetary body's surface gives clues into its basic inner workings (i.e., plate tectonics on earth). Tidal heating is the major contributor to active surface geology in the outer solar system, and yet its mechanism is not completely understood. Io's volcanoes are the clearest signature of tidal heating and measurements of the total heat output and how it varies in space and time are useful constraints on tidal heating. Hamilton et al. (2013) showed through a nearest neighbor analysis that Io's hotspots are globally random, but regionally uniform near the equator. Lopes-Gautier et al. (1999) compared the locations of hotspots detected by NIMS to the spatial variation of heat flow predicted by two end-member tidal heating models. They found that the distribution of hotspots is more consistent with tidal heating occurring in asthenosphere rather than the mantle. Hamilton et al. (2013) demonstrate that clustering of hotspots also supports a dominant role for asthenosphere heating. These studies were unable to account for the relative brightness of the hotspots. Furthermore, studies of the temporal variability of Ionian volcanoes have yielded substantial insight into their nature. The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) gave us a large dataset from which to observe active volcanic activity. NIMS made well over 100 observations of Io over an approximately 10-year time frame. With wavelengths spanning from 0.7 to 5.2 microns, it is ideally suited to measure blackbody radiation from surfaces with temperatures over 300 K. Here, we report on our effort to determine the activity level of each hotspot observed in the NIMS data. We decide to use 3.5 micron brightness as a proxy for activity level because it will be easy to compare to, and incorporate, ground-based observations. We fit a 1-temperature blackbody to spectra in each grating position and averaged the

  3. Carbonic anhydrase activity in the red blood cells of sea level and high altitude natives. (United States)

    Gamboa, J; Caceda, R; Gamboa, A; Monge-C, C


    Red blood cell carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity has not been studied in high altitude natives. Because CA is an intraerythocytic enzyme and high altitude natives are polycythemic, it is important to know if the activity of CA per red cell volume is different from that of their sea level counterparts. Blood was collected from healthy subjects living in Lima (150m) and from twelve subjects from Cerro de Pasco (4330m), and hematocrit and carbonic anhydrase activity were measured. As expected, the high altitude natives had significantly higher hematocrits than the sea level controls (p = 0.0002). No difference in the CA activity per milliliter of red cells was found between the two populations. There was no correlation between the hematocrit and CA activity.

  4. Silicon microreactors for measurements of catalytic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Toke Riishøj

    . The reactors consist of a microchannel system etched in an oxidized silicon chip and sealed with a glass lid using anodic bonding. The chip design relies on a gas flow through the channel system and is designed for reactions at pressures at the order of 1 bar. A high sensitivity is obtained by directing...... by a highly perforated, hydrophobic silicon membrane. The device allows measurements of electrode current simultaneously with direct product detection. The operation of the device has been demonstrated employing electrolysis of water as a test reaction....

  5. Activities on Nuclear Data Measurements at Pohang Neutron Facility (United States)

    Kim, Guinyun


    We report the activities of the Pohang Neutron Facility which consists of an electron linear accelerator, a water-cooled Ta target, and a 12-m time-of-flight path. It has been equipped with a four-position sample changer controlled remotely by a CAMAC data acquisition system, which allows simultaneous accumulation of the neutron time of flight spectra from 4 different detectors. It can be possible to measure the neutron total cross-sections in the neutron energy range from 0.1 eV to few hundreds eV by using the neutron time-of-flight method. A 6LiZnS(Ag) glass scintillator was used as a neutron detector. The neutron flight path from the water-cooled Ta target to the neutron detector was 12.1 m. The background level was determined by using notch-filters of Co, In, Ta, and Cd sheets. In order to reduce the gamma rays from bremsstrahlung and those from neutron capture, we employed a neutron-gamma separation system based on their different pulse shapes. The present measurements of several samples (Ta, Mo) are in general agreement with the evaluated data in ENDF/B-VI. We measured the thermal neutron capture cross-sections and the resonance integrals of the 186W(n,γ)187W reaction and the 98Mo(n,γ)99Mo reaction by the activation method using the 197Au(n,γ)198Au monitor reaction as a single comparator. We also report the isomeric yield ratios for the 44 m, gSc isomeric pairs produced from four different photonuclear reactions 45Sc(γ,n)44m,gSc, natTi(γ,xn1p)44m,gSc, natFe(γ,xn5p)52m,gMn, and 103Rh(γ,4n)99m,gRh by using the activation method.

  6. Longitudinal measurement of physical activity following kidney transplantation. (United States)

    Dontje, M L; de Greef, M H G; Krijnen, W P; Corpeleijn, E; Kok, T; Bakker, S J L; Stolk, R P; van der Schans, C P


    The purpose of this longitudinal observational study was to (i) examine the change of daily physical activity in 28 adult kidney transplant recipients over the first 12 months following transplantation; and (ii) to examine the change in metabolic characteristics and renal function. Accelerometer-based daily physical activity and metabolic- and clinical characteristics were measured at six wk (T1), three months (T2), six months (T3) and 12 months (T4) following transplantation. Linear mixed effect analyses showed an increase in steps/d (T1 = 6326 ± 2906; T4 = 7562 ± 3785; F = 3.52; p = 0.02), but one yr after transplantation only 25% achieved the recommended 10 000 steps/d. There was no significant increase in minutes per day spent on moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (T1 = 80.4 ± 63.6; T4 = 93.2 ± 55.1; F = 1.71; p = 0.17). Body mass index increased over time (T1 = 25.4 ± 3.2; T4 = 27.2 ± 3.8; F = 12.62; p physical activity, the majority did not meet the recommended levels of physical activity after one yr. In addition to the weight gain, this may result in negative health consequences. Therefore, it is important to develop strategies to support kidney transplant recipients to comply with healthy lifestyle recommendations, including regular physical activity.

  7. Measuring patient safety culture: an assessment of the clustering of responses at unit level and hospital level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; Wagner, C.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wal, van der G.


    OBJECTIVES: To test the claim that the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) measures patient safety culture instead of mere individual attitudes and to determine the most appropriate level (individual, unit or hospital level) for interventions aimed at improving the culture of patient s

  8. Measuring patient safety culture : an assessment of the clustering of responses at unit level and hospital level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; Wagner, C.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wal, G. van der; Groenewegen, P.P.


    Objectives: To test the claim that the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) measures patient safety culture instead of mere individual attitudes and to determine the most appropriate level (individual, unit or hospital level) for interventions aimed at improving the culture of patient s

  9. Examining the Level of Career maturity among Foreign Asian Students by measuring Academic Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tekke


    Full Text Available The Asian individuals are dependent and collectivist compared with the western individuals that are independent and individualistic. Foreign Asian students choosing similar courses with their country friends do not reveal their career maturity and also lead to negative effect on their choices.  This study aims at examining the level of career maturity of foreign Asian students in Malaysia based on academic level by using the Career Maturity Inventory. Two hundred and twenty nine ( Male=106, Female= 123 international students studying in various semesters completed the Career Maturity Inventory and it was reported that there were no significant differences between respondents of different academic semesters with regard to level of career maturity, this might reflect an educational level bias in the construction of the career decision-making. The findings of the current study are not consistent with theoretical expectations and prior research that international undergraduate senior students would be having higher career maturity than international undergraduate fresh students. Research emphasizes the reason behind might result from dependent and collectivist Asian culture that leading to fresh international students are higher career maturity compared to senior international students.

  10. A detector for monitoring the onset of cavitation during therapy-level measurements of ultrasonic power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodnett, M; Zeqiri, B [National Physical Laboratory, Queens Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)


    Acoustic cavitation occurring in the water path between a transducer and the target of a radiation force balance can provide a significant source of error during measurements of ultrasonic power. These problems can be particularly acute at physiotherapy levels (>1 W), and low frequencies ({<=} 1 MHz). The cavitating bubbles can absorb and scatter incident ultrasound, leading to an underestimate in the measured power. For these reasons, International Specification standards demand the use of degassed water. This imposes requirements that may actually be difficult to meet, for example, in the case of hospitals. Also, initially degassed water will rapidly re-gas, increasing the likelihood of cavitation occurring. For these reasons, NPL has developed a device that monitors acoustic emissions generated by bubble activity, for detecting the onset of cavitation during power measurements. A commercially available needle hydrophone is used to detect these emissions. The acoustic signals are then monitored using a Cavitation Detector (CD) unit, comprising an analogue electrical filter that may be tuned to detect frequency components generated by cavitating bubbles, and which provides an indication of when the measured level exceeds a pre-defined threshold. This paper describes studies to establish a suitable detection scheme, the principles of operation of the CD unit, and the performance tests carried out with a range of propagation media.

  11. A detector for monitoring the onset of cavitation during therapy-level measurements of ultrasonic power (United States)

    Hodnett, M.; Zeqiri, B.


    Acoustic cavitation occurring in the water path between a transducer and the target of a radiation force balance can provide a significant source of error during measurements of ultrasonic power. These problems can be particularly acute at physiotherapy levels (>1 W), and low frequencies (leq 1 MHz). The cavitating bubbles can absorb and scatter incident ultrasound, leading to an underestimate in the measured power. For these reasons, International Specification standards demand the use of degassed water. This imposes requirements that may actually be difficult to meet, for example, in the case of hospitals. Also, initially degassed water will rapidly re-gas, increasing the likelihood of cavitation occurring. For these reasons, NPL has developed a device that monitors acoustic emissions generated by bubble activity, for detecting the onset of cavitation during power measurements. A commercially available needle hydrophone is used to detect these emissions. The acoustic signals are then monitored using a Cavitation Detector (CD) unit, comprising an analogue electrical filter that may be tuned to detect frequency components generated by cavitating bubbles, and which provides an indication of when the measured level exceeds a pre-defined threshold. This paper describes studies to establish a suitable detection scheme, the principles of operation of the CD unit, and the performance tests carried out with a range of propagation media.

  12. Relationship between Bone Mineral Density and Physical Activity Level in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Monemi Amiri


    Full Text Available This study purposed to investigate the relationship between physical activity level and bone mineral density (BMD in the elderly of Amirkola in northern Iran. This cross-sectional study was part of a proposal to assess the situation of the elderly in Amirkola (AHAP (Amirkola Health and Ageing Project conducted on 1113 elderly individuals (616 males and 497 females in Amirkola city. Physical activity was measured using a standard questionnaire of physical activity in the elderly (Physical Activity Scale for Elderly. Mineral bone mass was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in the femur neck and lumbar spines, and vitamin D levels were measured in morning blood samples. T-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and linear regression tests were used to analyze data. The mean physical activity of women (118.6±55.5 was higher than that of men (110.3±71.1 (p=0.035. This study found a significant positive relationship between total physical activity and femur bone mineral density (p=0.001 and r=0.101, but this association was not significant in lumbar spines (p=0.597 and r=0.016, though bone mineral density increased in both areas with increased physical activity (p=0.098. A significant inverse relationship between age and physical activity (p=0.001 and between age and bone mineral density (p=0.001 was observed. Analyzing the influencing variables using the linear regression model indicated physical activity, age, and BMI had significant relationships with bone mineral density in the femur, but neither vitamin D nor calcium played a role. Given the positive correlation between bone mineral density and physical activity, it can be concluded that low intensity weight-bearing activities carried out in compliance with safety rules may be suitable for the elderly.

  13. The Effect of Gender and Level of Vision on the Physical Activity Level of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairment (United States)

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakci; Kitis, Ali


    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between…

  14. Electromagnetic Measurements in an Active Oilfield Environment (United States)

    Schramm, K. A.; Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.; Weiss, C. J.


    An important issue in oilfield development pertains to mapping and monitoring of the fracture distributions (either natural or man-made) controlling subsurface fluid flow. Although microseismic monitoring and analysis have been used for this purpose for several decades, there remain several ambiguities and uncertainties with this approach. We are investigating a novel electromagnetic (EM) technique for detecting and mapping hydraulic fractures in a petroleum reservoir by injecting an electrically conductive contrast agent into an open fracture. The fracture is subsequently illuminated by a strong EM field radiated by a large engineered antenna. Specifically, a grounded electric current source is applied directly to the steel casing of the borehole, either at/near the wellhead or at a deep downhole point. Transient multicomponent EM signals (both electric and magnetic) scattered by the conductivity contrast are then recorded by a surface receiver array. We are presently utilizing advanced 3D numerical modeling algorithms to accurately simulate fracture responses, both before and after insertion of the conductive contrast agent. Model results compare favorably with EM field data recently acquired in a Permian Basin oilfield. However, extraction of the very-low-amplitude fracture signatures from noisy data requires effective noise suppression strategies such as long stacking times, rejection of outliers, and careful treatment of natural magnetotelluric fields. Dealing with the ever-present "episodic EM noise" typical in an active oilfield environment (associated with drilling, pumping, machinery, traffic, etc.) constitutes an ongoing problem. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. Is the activity level of HD 80606 influenced by its eccentric planet?

    CERN Document Server

    Figueira, P; da Silva, J Gomes; Abe, L; Adibekyan, V Zh; Bendjoya, P; Correia, A C M; Delgado-Mena, E; Faria, J P; Hebrard, G; Lovis, C; Oshagh, M; Rivet, J -P; Santos, N C; Suarez, O; Vidotto, A A


    Aims: Several studies suggest that the activity level of a planet-host star can be influenced by the presence of a close-by orbiting planet. Moreover, the interaction mechanisms that have been proposed, magnetic interaction and tidal interaction, exhibit a very different dependence on orbital separation between the star and the planet. A detection of activity enhancement and characterization of its dependence on planetary orbital distance can, in principle, allow us to characterize the physical mechanism behind the activity enhancement. Methods: We used the HARPS-N spectrograph to measure the stellar activity level of HD 80606 during the planetary periastron passage and compared the activity measured to that close to apastron. Being characterized by an eccentricity of 0.93 and an orbital period of 111 days, the system's extreme variation in orbital separation makes it a perfect target to test our hypothesis. Results: We find no evidence for a variation in the activity level of the star as a function of planet...

  16. Benchmark dose approach for low-level lead induced haematogenesis inhibition and associations of childhood intelligences with ALAD activity and ALA levels. (United States)

    Wang, Q; Ye, L X; Zhao, H H; Chen, J W; Zhou, Y K


    Lead (Pb) levels, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activities, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in blood, and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and coproporphyrin (CP) concentrations were measured for 318 environmental Pb exposed children recruited from an area of southeast China. The mean of blood lead (PbB) levels was 75.0μg/L among all subjects. Benchmark dose (BMD) method was conducted to present a lower PbB BMD (lower bound of BMD) of 32.4μg/L (22.7) based on ALAD activity than those based on the other three haematological indices, corresponding to a benchmark response of 1%. Childhood intelligence degrees were not associated significantly with ALAD activities or ALA levels. It was concluded that blood ALAD activity is a sensitive indicator of early haematological damage due to low-level Pb exposures for children.

  17. Physical Activity Measures in the Healthy Communities Study. (United States)

    Pate, Russell R; McIver, Kerry L; Colabianchi, Natalie; Troiano, Richard P; Reis, Jared P; Carroll, Dianna D; Fulton, Janet E


    The risk of obesity is reduced when youth engage in recommended levels of physical activity (PA). For that reason, public health organizations in the U.S. have encouraged communities to implement programs and policies designed to increase PA in youth, and many communities have taken on that challenge. However, the long-term effects of those programs and policies on obesity are largely unknown. The Healthy Communities Study is a large-scale observational study of U.S. communities that is examining the characteristics of programs and policies designed to promote healthy behaviors (e.g., increase PA and improve diet) and determining their association with obesity-related outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used to measure PA in children and the personal and community factors that may influence it. The study used both self-reported and objective measures of PA, and measured personal, family, and home influences on PA via three constructs: (1) PA self-schema; (2) parental support; and (3) parental rules regarding PA. Neighborhood and community factors related to PA were assessed using three measures: (1) child perceptions of the neighborhood environment; (2) availability of PA equipment; and (3) attributes of the child's street segment via direct observation. School influences on children's PA were assessed via three constructs: (1) school PA policies; (2) child perceptions of the school PA environment; and (3) school outdoor PA environment. These measures will enable examination of the associations between characteristics of community PA programs and policies and obesity-related outcomes in children and youth.

  18. Hydrogen sulfide diminishes the levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin in activated mast cells. (United States)

    Han, Na-Ra; Moon, Phil-Dong; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min


    Bamboo salt (BS) is a Korean traditional type of salt and has been reported to have therapeutic effects on allergic inflammation. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) aggravates inflammation in the pathogenesis of allergic reactions, such as allergic rhinitis (AR). To confirm an active compound of BS, we investigated the effect of sulfur, a compound of BS, on the levels of TSLP in a human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells and a mouse model of AR using hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH). We treated NaSH or BS in HMC-1 cells and activated the HMC-1 cells with phorbol myristate acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI). ELISA for the production measurement of TSLP, PCR for the mRNA expression measurement of TSLP, and western blot analysis for the expression measurement of upstream mediators were performed. Mice were treated with NaSH and sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA). The levels of TSLP were measured in serum and nasal mucosa tissue in an OVA-induced AR mouse model. NaSH or BS diminished the production and mRNA expression of TSLP as well as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. NaSH or BS diminished the level of intracellular calcium in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. NaSH or BS reduced the expression and activity of caspase-1 in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. And NaSH or BS inhibited the expression of receptor interacting protein-2 and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. The translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus as well as the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα in the cytoplasm were diminished by NaSH or BS in the PMACI-activated HMC-1 cells. Furthermore, NaSH inhibited the production of TSLP, IL-6, and IL-8 in TNF-α-activated HMC-1 cells. Finally, the administration of NaSH showed a decrease in number of rubs on mice with OVA-induced AR. And the levels of immunoglobulin E and TSLP in the serum and the level of TSLP in the

  19. Objectively Measured Physical Activity Is Associated with Brain Volumetric Measurements in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Klaren


    Full Text Available Background. Little is known about physical activity and its association with volumes of whole brain gray matter and white matter and deep gray matter structures in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS. Purpose. This study examined the association between levels of physical activity and brain volumetric measures from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in MS. Method. 39 persons with MS wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period and underwent a brain MRI. Normalized GM volume (NGMV, normalized WM volume (NWMV, and deep GM structures were calculated from 3D T1-weighted structural brain images. We conducted partial correlations (pr controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Results. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA was significantly associated with NGMV (pr=0.370, p<0.05, NWMV (pr=0.433, p<0.01, hippocampus (pr=0.499, p<0.01, thalamus (pr=0.380, p<0.05, caudate (pr=0.539, p<0.01, putamen (pr=0.369, p<0.05, and pallidum (pr=0.498, p<0.01 volumes, when controlling for sex, age, clinical course of MS, and Expanded Disability Status Scale score. There were no associations between sedentary and light physical activity with MRI outcomes. Conclusion. Our results provide the first evidence that MVPA is associated with volumes of whole brain GM and WM and deep GM structures that are involved in motor and cognitive functions in MS.

  20. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students (United States)

    Orhan, Özlem


    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  1. Low Level Gamma Spectroscopy Measurements of Radium and Cesium in Lucerne (Medicago Sativa) (United States)

    Fokapić, S.; Bikit, I.; Mrđa, D.; Vesković, M.; Slivka, J.; Mihaljev, Ž.; Ćupić, Ž.


    Nineteen years after Chernobyl nuclear accident, activity concentration of 137Cs still could be detected in food and soil samples in Central and Eastern Europe. In this paper radiation levels of radium and cesium in Lucerne will be presented. It is a perennial plant with a deep root system and it is widely grown throughout the world as forage for cattle. The samples of Lucerne were taken from twelve different locations in Vojvodina in the summer period July-September 2004. The samples were specially dried on the air and after that ground, powdered and mineralized by method of dry burning on the temperature of 450°C. Gamma spectrometry measurements of the ash were performed by means of actively shielded germanium detector with maximal background reduction. For cesium 137Cs 10 mBq/kg order of magnitude detection limits were achieved.

  2. ATP consumption of eukaryotic flagella measured at a single-cell level

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Daniel T N; Fraden, Seth; Nicastro, Daniela; Dogic, Zvonimir


    The motility of cilia and flagella is driven by thousands of dynein motors that hydrolyze adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Despite decades of genetic, biochemical, structural and biophysical studies, some aspects of ciliary motility remain elusive, such as the regulation of beating patterns and the energetic efficiency of these nanomachines. Here, we introduce an experimental method to measure ATP consumption of actively beating axonemes on a single-cell level. We encapsulated individual sea urchin sperm with demembranated flagellum inside water-in-oil emulsion droplets and measured the axonemes ATP consumption by monitoring fluorescence intensity of a fluorophore-coupled reporter system for ATP turnover in the droplet. Concomitant phase contrast imaging allowed us to extract a linear dependence between the ATP consumption rate and the flagellar beating frequency, with ~2.3e5 ATP molecules consumed per beat of a demembranated flagellum. Increasing the viscosity of the aqueous medium led to modified beating wavef...

  3. Sub-chronic exposure to methylmercury at low levels decreases butyrylcholinesterase activity in rats. (United States)

    Valentini, Juliana; Vicentini, Juliana; Grotto, Denise; Tonello, Raquel; Garcia, Solange C; Barbosa, Fernando


    In this study, we examined the effects of low levels and sub-chronic exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) on butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity in rats. Moreover, we examined the relationship between BuChE activity and oxidative stress biomarkers [delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALA-D) and malondialdehyde levels (MDA)] in the same animals. Rats were separated into three groups (eight animals per group): (Group I) received water by gavage; (Group II) received MeHg (30 microg/kg/day) by gavage; (Group III) received MeHg (100 microg/kg/day). The time of exposure was 90 days. BuChE and ALA-D activities were measured in serum and blood, respectively; whereas MDA levels were measured in plasma. We found BuChE and ALA-D activities decreased in groups II and III compared to the control group. Moreover, we found an interesting negative correlation between plasmatic BuChE activity and MDA (r = -0.85; p < 0.01) and a positive correlation between plasmatic BuChE activity and ALA-D activities (r = 0.78; p < 0.01), thus suggesting a possible relationship between oxidative damage promoted by MeHg exposure and the decrease of BuChE activity. In conclusion, long-term exposure to low doses of MeHg decreases plasmatic BuChE activity. Moreover, the decrease in the enzyme is strongly correlated with the oxidative stress promoted by the metal exposure. This preliminary finding highlights a possible mechanism for MeHg to reduce BuChE activity in plasma. Additionally, this enzyme could be an auxiliary biomarker on the evaluation of MeHg exposure.

  4. Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjorth Mads F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women, and their association with demographic characteristics and anthropometric measures. Methods Physical activity was measured for seven consecutive days in 304 women using a combined uniaxial accelerometer and heart rate sensor. Activity energy expenditure was determined using a group calibration in a branched equation model framework. Type and duration of activities were reported using a 24-hour physical activity recall and grip strength was assessed using a dynamometer. Results Median (interquartile-range, IQR activity energy expenditure was 31.1 (23.7-42.0 kJ/kg/day corresponding to a median (IQR physical activity level of 1.46 (1.39-1.58. Median (IQR time in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity was 1100 (999–1175, 303 (223–374 and 40 (22–69 min/day, respectively. Mean (standard deviation sleeping heart rate was 73.6 (8.0 beats/min and grip strength was 21.6 (4.5 kg. Activity energy expenditure was 14% higher for every 10 cm2 difference in arm muscle area and 10% lower for every 10 cm2 difference in arm fat area and 10-week difference in gestational age. Conclusion The level and intensity of physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia is low compared to non-pregnant women from other low income countries as well as pregnant European women from high-income countries.

  5. Measured and perceived environmental characteristics are related to accelerometer defined physical activity in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strath Scott J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated both the self-perceived and measured environment with objectively determined physical activity in older adults. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine measured and perceived environmental associations with physical activity of older adults residing across different neighborhood types. Methods One-hundred and forty-eight older individuals, mean age 64.3 ± 8.4, were randomly recruited from one of four neighborhoods that were pre-determined as either having high- or low walkable characteristics. Individual residences were geocoded and 200 m network buffers established. Both objective environment audit, and self-perceived environmental measures were collected, in conjunction with accelerometer derived physical activity behavior. Using both perceived and objective environment data, analysis consisted of a macro-level comparison of physical activity levels across neighborhood, and a micro-level analysis of individual environmental predictors of physical activity levels. Results Individuals residing in high-walkable neighborhoods on average engaged in 11 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day more than individuals residing in low-walkable neighborhoods. Both measured access to non-residential destinations (b = .11, p p = .031 were significant predictors of time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Other environmental variables significantly predicting components of physical activity behavior included presence of measured neighborhood crime signage (b = .4785, p = .031, measured street safety (b = 26.8, p = .006, and perceived neighborhood satisfaction (b = .5.8, p = .003. Conclusions Older adult residents who live in high-walkable neighborhoods, who have easy and close access to nonresidential destinations, have lower social dysfunction pertinent to crime, and generally perceive the neighborhood to a higher overall satisfaction are likely to engage in higher levels

  6. High levels of LDL-C combined with low levels of HDL-C further increase platelet activation in hypercholesterolemic patients. (United States)

    Chan, L W; Luo, X P; Ni, H C; Shi, H M; Liu, L; Wen, Z C; Gu, X Y; Qiao, J; Li, J


    High levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) enhance platelet activation, whereas high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) exert a cardioprotective effect. However, the effects on platelet activation of high levels of LDL-C combined with low levels of HDL-C (HLC) have not yet been reported. We aimed to evaluate the platelet activation marker of HLC patients and investigate the antiplatelet effect of atorvastatin on this population. Forty-eight patients with high levels of LDL-C were enrolled. Among these, 23 had HLC and the other 25 had high levels of LDL-C combined with normal levels of HDL-C (HNC). A total of 35 normocholesterolemic (NOMC) volunteers were included as controls. Whole blood flow cytometry and platelet aggregation measurements were performed on all participants to detect the following platelet activation markers: CD62p (P-selectin), PAC-1 (GPIIb/IIIa), and maximal platelet aggregation (MPAG). A daily dose of 20 mg atorvastatin was administered to patients with high levels of LDL-C, and the above assessments were obtained at baseline and after 1 and 2 months of treatment. The expression of platelets CD62p and PAC-1 was increased in HNC patients compared to NOMC volunteers (PHDL-C further increased platelet activation in patients with high levels of LDL-C. Platelet activation remained higher among HLC patients regardless of atorvastatin treatment.

  7. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women (United States)

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley


    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  8. Measuring temperature-dependent activation energy in thermally activated processes: a 2D Arrhenius plot method. (United States)

    Li, Jian V; Johnston, Steven W; Yan, Yanfa; Levi, Dean H


    Thermally activated processes are characterized by two key quantities, activation energy (E(a)) and pre-exponential factor (nu(0)), which may be temperature dependent. The accurate measurement of E(a), nu(0), and their temperature dependence is critical for understanding the thermal activation mechanisms of non-Arrhenius processes. However, the classic 1D Arrhenius plot-based methods cannot unambiguously measure E(a), nu(0), and their temperature dependence due to the mathematical impossibility of resolving two unknown 1D arrays from one 1D experimental data array. Here, we propose a 2D Arrhenius plot method to solve this fundamental problem. Our approach measures E(a) at any temperature from matching the first and second moments of the data calculated with respect to temperature and rate in the 2D temperature-rate plane, and therefore is able to unambiguously solve E(a), nu(0), and their temperature dependence. The case study of deep level emission in a Cu(In,Ga)Se(2) solar cell using the 2D Arrhenius plot method reveals clear temperature dependent behavior of E(a) and nu(0), which has not been observable by its 1D predecessors.

  9. Relationship between serum leptin level and disease activity in patients with systemic sclerosis. (United States)

    Budulgan, Mahmut; Dilek, Banu; Dağ, Şevin Buluttekin; Batmaz, Ibrahim; Yıldız, İsmail; Sarıyıldız, Mustafa Akif; Çevik, Remzi; Nas, Kemal


    To determine the relationship between serum leptin levels and disease activity in systemic sclerosis (SSc). A total of 60 subjects (30 controls and 30 patients) were included. The inflammatory markers and leptin levels were evaluated and body mass index (BMI) was measured for both groups. The assessment of the skin involvement was performed based on the modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS). Disease activity was evaluated according to the Valentini scleroderma disease activity index. There was a significant difference between the patient and control groups in terms of BMI (p 0.05). Valentini scores and mRSS were determined to be significantly higher in active patients (n = 14) than in inactive patients (n = 16) (p 0.05). However, leptin levels were significantly lower in active patients than in inactive patients (p < 0.05). We found a significant positive correlation between serum leptin and BMI (p < 0.05), and leptin and serum C3 levels (p < 0.05); no relationship was detected between leptin and other parameters. Leptin can be used as an activity marker in SSc. Further studies, including larger series, should be carried out to clarify this relationship.

  10. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.


    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during

  11. Measuring steps with the Fitbit activity tracker: an inter-device reliability study. (United States)

    Dontje, Manon L; de Groot, Martijn; Lengton, Remko R; van der Schans, Cees P; Krijnen, Wim P


    Activity trackers like Fitbit are used for self-tracking of physical activity by an increasing number of individuals. Comparing physical activity scores with peers can contribute to the desired behavioural change. However, for meaningful social comparison a high inter-device reliability is paramount. This study aimed to determine the inter-device reliability of Fitbit activity trackers in measuring steps. Ten activity trackers (Fitbit Ultra) were worn by a single person (male, 46 years) during eight consecutive days. Inter-device reliability was assessed on three different levels of aggregation (minutes, hours, days) with various methods, including intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland-Altman plots, limits of agreement (LOA) and Mixed Model Analysis. Results showed that the inter-device reliability of the Fitbit in measuring steps is good at all levels of aggregation (minutes, hours, days), but especially when steps were measured per day. This implies that individuals can reliably compare their daily physical activity scores with peers.

  12. Systems-Level Smoking Cessation Activities by Private Health Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Reif, PhD


    Full Text Available IntroductionThe US Public Health Service urges providers to screen patients for smoking and advise smokers to quit. Yet, these practices are not widely implemented in clinical practice. This study provides national estimates of systems-level strategies used by private health insurance plans to influence provider delivery of smoking cessation activities.MethodsData are from a nationally representative survey of health plans for benefit year 2003, across product types offered by insurers, including health maintenance organizations (HMOs, preferred provider organizations, and point-of-service products, regarding alcohol, tobacco, drug, and mental health services. Executive directors of 368 health plans responded to the administrative module (83% response rate. Medical directors of 347 of those health plans, representing 771 products, completed the clinical module in which health plan respondents were asked about screening for smoking, guideline distribution, and incentives for guideline adherence.ResultsOnly 9% of products require, and 12% verify, that primary care providers (PCPs screen for smoking. HMOs are more likely than other product types to require screening. Only 17% of products distribute smoking cessation guidelines to PCPs, and HMOs are more likely to do this. Feedback to PCPs was most frequently used to encourage guideline adherence; financial incentives were rarely used. Furthermore, health plans that did require screening often conducted other cessation activities.ConclusionFew private health plans have adopted techniques to encourage the use of smoking cessation activities by their providers. Increasing health plan involvement is necessary to reduce tobacco use and concomitant disease in the United States.

  13. Measurement of soil radioactivity levels and radiation hazard assessment in southern Rechna interfluvial region, Pakistan. (United States)

    Jabbar, Abdul; Arshed, Waheed; Bhatti, Arshad Saleem; Ahmad, Syed Salman; Akhter, Perveen; Rehman, Saeed-Ur; Anjum, Muhammad Iftikhar


    Rechna interfluvial region is one of the main regions of Punjab, Pakistan. It is the area which is lying between River Ravi and River Chenab, alluvial-filled. Radioactivity levels in soil samples, collected from southern Rechna interfluvial region, Pakistan, have been estimated by using gamma-ray spectrometric technique. (226)Ra, (232)Th, the primordial radionuclide (40)K, and the artificial radionuclide (137)Cs have been measured in the soil of the study area. The mean radioactivity levels of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (137)Cs were found to be 50.6 +/- 1.7, 62.3 +/- 3.2, 662.2 +/- 32.1, and 3.1 +/- 0.3 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The mean radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), outdoor radiation hazard index (H(out)), indoor radiation hazard index (H(in)), and terrestrial absorbed dose rate for the area under study were determined as 190.8 +/- 8.7 Bq kg(-1), 0.52, 0.65, and 69.8 nGy h(-1), respectively. The annual effective dose to the general public was found to be 0.43 mSv. This value lies well below the limit of 1 mSv for general public as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The measured values are comparable with other global radioactivity measurements and are found to be safe for the public and the environment.

  14. Level of Mercury Manometer With Respect to Heart: Does it Affect Blood Pressure Measurement? (United States)

    Kapoor, Raj; Roy, V K; Manna, S; Bhattacharjee, M


    Measurement of blood pressure is an integral part of clinical examination. Over the years various types of instruments have been used to measure blood pressure but till date the mercury sphygmomanometer is regarded as the gold standard. However, there is a myth prevalent among health professionals regarding the level of the manometer in relation to heart at the time of measuring of blood pressure. Many professionals insist that it has to be placed at the level of the heart. We argue that the limb from which pressure is measured must be at the heart level rather than the manometer. We conducted a study in which we measured the blood pressure in adults by placing the manometer at three different levels with respect to the heart. The values of blood pressure obtained at all levels were similar and did not show any statistically significant difference. We therefore conclude that the level of sphygmomanometer per se does not affect blood pressure measurement.

  15. Elevated serum interleukin-23 levels in ankylosing spondylitis patients and the relationship with disease activity. (United States)

    Ugur, Mahir; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Melikoglu, Meltem Alkan; Baygutalp, Fatih; Altas, Elif Umay; Seferoglu, Buminhan


    This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum interleukin-23 (IL-23) levels and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).Twenty male patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis according to the 1984 modified New York criteria for AS and twenty male healthy controls were included in this study.The demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings of the patients were recorded. Serum IL-23 levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured in both the AS and control groups. The Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity ındex (BASDAI), the Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), and the Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) were evaluated as disease activity parameters. The AS patients were divided into two subgroups as active and inactive in respect of CRP, ESR levels and BASDAI scores. The mean serum IL-23 levels of the AS and control groups were 334.45±176.54 pg/ml and 166.49±177.50 pg/ml respectively, and there was a significant difference between the groups. Correlation analysis of serum IL-23 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters showed that there were positive correlations between serum IL-23 levels and the BASDAI, BASFI scores in total, active and inactive patients and the BASMI scores in total and inactive patients and negative correlations between serum IL-23 levels and ESR in inactive patients. It was shown that altered serum IL-23 levels were related to AS disease activity. Further studies in large patient series are necessary to investigate the role of IL-23 protein in etiopathogenesis of AS.

  16. Judging disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis by serum free kappa and lambda light chain levels. (United States)

    Ye, Yun; Li, Su-Liang; Xie, Ming; Jiang, Ping; Liu, Kai-Ge; Li, Ya-Jun


    The study aimed to evaluate the levels of serum free kappa (κ) and lambda (λ) light chains in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as exploring the association between serum free κ and λ light chains and activity of RA. For this purpose, healthy individuals and patients with active RA and RA in remission were enrolled, and their serum levels of free κ and λ light chains were measured using rate nephelometry. The diagnostic accuracy of serum free κ and λ light chains was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves and 95% confidence intervals for areas under the curve (AUC). The results obtained indicated that the levels of serum free κ and λ light chains in patients with active RA were significantly higher than those of patients in remission and of healthy controls (p light chain and 0.781 for free λ light chain. When the optimal cut-off point for serum κ light chain was 8.02 g/L, the maximum sensitivity and specificity were 82.5% and 82.5%, respectively, and when the optimal cut-off point for serum λ light chain was 3.57 g/L, the maximum sensitivity and specificity were 80% and 82.5%, respectively. It was thus found that serum levels of free κ and λ light chains were positively correlated with disease activity in RA, the Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), and values for C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), platelet count (PLT), rheumatoid factor (RF), and anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) (p light chains in patients with active RA are closely correlated with disease activity parameters including DAS28, CRP, ESR, PLT, RF, and ACPA. Thus, the above-mentioned levels of serum free κ and λ light chains may be used as important indicators of activity of RA.

  17. Elevated Platelet Activating Factor Level in Ischemia-Related Arrhythmia and Its Electrophysiological Effect on Myocardium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Yong Kang; ZHAO Shui Ping; YU Pu Lin; SHI Jing; GU Cheng Dong; SUN Hong Tao; ZHANG Guo Qiang


    Objective The mechanism through which platelet activating factor (PAF) induces cardiac electrical activity and arrhythmia is not well understood and previous studies have suggested a potential involvement of ion channels in its action. The present study was aimed to clarify the role of PAF in fatal arrhythmias following acute myocardia infarction (AMI) and the underlying mechanism. Methods (1) Blood PAF levels were measured among 72 AMI patients at the time of diagnosis with AMI and 48 h later, and their electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded continuously. (2) Ischemia simulation and surface electrocardiogram were conducted in 20 pigs and their PAF levels were measured. (3) PAF perfusion and standard microelectrode recording were performed on guinea pig papillary muscles. Results In both humans and pigs, elevated PAF levels were detected in AMI and simulated ischemia, respectively, and even higher PAF levels were found when fatal arrhythmias occurred. In guinea pig myocardium, PAF induced a shortening of action potential duration at 90% level of repolarization (APD90)under non-ischemic conditions and a more pronounced shortening under early simulated ischemic conditions. Conclusion AMI and ischemia are associated with increased PAF levels in humans and pigs, which are further raised when fatal arrhythmia follows. The effects of PAF on the myocardium may be mediated by multiple ion channels.

  18. Are children's activity levels determined by their genes or environment? A systematic review of twin studies ☆


    Abigail Fisher; Lee Smith; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H. M.; Alexia Sawyer; Jane Wardle


    Context: The importance of physical activity to paediatric health warrants investigation into its determinants. Objective measurement allows a robust examination of genetic and environmental influences on physical activity. Objective: To systematically review the evidence on the extent of genetic and environmental influence on children's objectively-measured activity levels from twin studies. Data sources and search terms: Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Health and Psychosocial Instruments a...

  19. Determining skill level in myoelectric prosthesis use with multiple outcome measures


    Hanneke Bouwsema, MSc; Peter J. Kyberd, PhD; Wendy Hill, BScOT; Corry K. van der Sluis, MD, PhD; Raoul M. Bongers, PhD


    To obtain more insight into how the skill level of an upper-limb myoelectric prosthesis user is composed, the current study aimed to (1) portray prosthetic handling at different levels of description, (2) relate results of the clinical level to kinematic measures, and (3) identify specific parameters in these measures that characterize the skill level of a prosthesis user. Six experienced transradial myoelectric prosthesis users performed a clinical test (Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure...

  20. Effects of a Classroom-Based Physical Activity Program on Children's Physical Activity Levels (United States)

    Goh, Tan Leng; Hannon, James; Webster, Collin Andrew; Podlog, Leslie William; Brusseau, Timothy; Newton, Maria


    High levels of physical inactivity are evident among many American children. To address this problem, providing physical activity (PA) during the school day within the CSPAP framework, is one strategy to increase children's PA. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a classroom-based PA program on children's PA. Two hundred…

  1. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth (United States)

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken


    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  2. Measurement of Habitual Physical Activity Performance in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Clanchy, Kelly M.; Tweedy, Sean M.; Boyd, Roslyn


    Aim: This systematic review compares the validity, reliability, and clinical use of habitual physical activity (HPA) performance measures in adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Measures of HPA across Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V for adolescents (10-18y) with CP were included if at least 60% of items…

  3. On-line Measurements of Settling Charateristics in Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Larsen, Torben


    An on-line settling column for measuring the dynamic variations of settling velocity of activated sludge has been developed. The settling column is automatic and self-cleansing insuring continuous and reliable measurements. The settling column was tested on sludge from a batch reactor where sucrose...... was added as an impulse to activated sludge. The continuous measurement of settling velocity revealed a highly dynamic response after the sucrose was added. The result were verified with simultaneous measurement of the initial settling rate. A 200 hour experiment showed variations in settling velocity...

  4. Assays to measure nanomolar levels of the renin inhibitor CGP 38 560 in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumin, F.; de Gasparo, M.; Wood, J.M.; Schnell, C.; Frueh, F.; Graf, P. (Ciba-Geigy Limited, Basel (Switzerland))


    A radioinhibitor binding assay and an enzyme inhibition assay have been developed to measure plasma levels of CGP 38 560, a potent human renin inhibitor. The detection limit of the assays was between 0.5 and 1 pmol/ml. There was a good correlation (r = 0.989) between the two assays for the measurement of human plasma spiked with CGP 38 560 in concentrations from 1.9 nM to 12 microM. Intra-assay variability was 6.1-17.3% and 4.4-27.2% for the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibition assay, respectively. Interassay variability was 6.0-28.2% and 3.8-28.4% for the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibition assay, respectively. Blood samples were collected during a pharmacological study performed in normotensive human volunteers on an unrestricted diet who were infused during a 30-minute period with CGP 38 560 A (50 micrograms/kg). Similar values for the concentrations of renin inhibitor in plasma were obtained with the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibitor assay, and there was a significant correlation between values obtained with the two different methodologies (r = 0.94). The plasma levels of renin inhibitor reached a maximum at the end of infusion and then decreased rapidly, indicating a short plasma half-life. The changes in biochemical parameters, plasma renin activity, and plasma concentration of active renin could be related to the concentrations of CGP 38 560 measured in the plasma.

  5. Does activity space size influence physical activity levels of adolescents?—A GPS study of an urban environment (United States)

    Lee, Nolan C.; Voss, Christine; Frazer, Amanda D.; Hirsch, Jana A.; McKay, Heather A.; Winters, Meghan


    Background Physical activity (PA) is closely linked with child and youth health, and active travel may be a solution to enhancing PA levels. Activity spaces depict the geographic coverage of one's travel. Little is known about activity spaces and PA in adolescents. Objective To explore the relation between adolescent travel (using a spatial measure of activity space size) and daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), with a focus on school days. Methods We used Global Positioning Systems to manually identify trips and generate activity spaces for each person-day; quantified by area for 39 students (13.8 ± 0.6 years, 38% female) attending high school in urban Downtown Vancouver, Canada. We assessed the association between activity space area and MVPA using multi-level regression. We calculated total, school-day and trip-based MVPA for each valid person-day (accelerometry; ≥ 600 min wear time). Results On school days, students accrued 68.2 min/day (95% CI 60.4–76.0) of MVPA. Daily activity spaces averaged 2.2 km2 (95% CI 1.3–3.0). There was no association between activity space size and school-day MVPA. Students accrued 21.8 min/day (95% CI 19.2–24.4) of MVPA during school hours, 19.4 min/day (95% CI 15.1–23.7) during travel, and 28.3 min/day (95% CI 22.3–34.3) elsewhere. Conclusion School and school travel are important sources of PA in Vancouver adolescents, irrespective of activity space area covered. PMID:26807349

  6. Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Levels in Patients With Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Røge, Rasmus; Pristed, Sofie Gry;


    BACKGROUND: The etiology of schizophrenia remains largely unknown but alterations in the immune system may be involved. In addition to the psychiatric symptoms, schizophrenia is also associated with up to 20 years reduction in life span. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (su......PAR) is a protein that can be measured in blood samples and reflects the levels of inflammatory activity. It has been associated with mortality and the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. METHODS: suPAR levels in patients with schizophrenia were compared to healthy controls from the Danish...... Blood Donor Study. SuPAR levels were dichotomized at >4.0 ng/ml, which is considered the threshold for low grade inflammation. A multiple logistic regression model was used and adjusted for age, sex, and current smoking. RESULTS: In total we included 1009 subjects, 105 cases with schizophrenia (10...

  7. Investigation of environmental activity levels of bone-coal mining area in five provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ji-Da; KONG Ling-Li; LI Ying; JIANG Shan; ZHANG Liang; SHI Jin-Hua; WU Zong-Mei


    During 1991-1993,the activity levels of the bone-coal mines were investigated in Zhejiang,Hubei,Hunan,Jiangxi and Anhui Province,respectively,where the reserve of bone-coal is about 90% of our country's total reserve.The average of γ radiation doserate level measured for bone-coal, bone-coal cinder (BCC)and bone-coal cinder brick (BCCB) in these provinces is about 500 nGy/h,400 nGy/h and 700 nGy/h respectively, while that for fields,roads and houses made of BCCB in corresponding regions of these provinces is about 200 nGy/h, 260 nGy/h and 300nGy/h respectively.It is shown that the environmental activity level of bone-coal mining area is about 3 times higher than the reference spots.

  8. Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition of Adult Premenopausal Women with Three Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando D. Saraví


    Full Text Available Weight-bearing and resistance physical activities are recommended for osteoporosis prevention, but it is unclear whether an intensity level above current recommendations has a positive effect on adult premenopausal women. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD by DXA were compared in three groups of women as follows: Sedentary, Maintenance exercise, and federated Sport Team (n=16 for each group. Physical activity was estimated from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. The groups did not differ in age, height, weight, or body mass index. Bone mineral content and non-fat soft tissue mass were higher and fat mass was lower in the Sport Team group than in the other groups. The same was true for BMD of total skeleton, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. A test for linear trend of body composition and BMD showed significant results when including all three groups. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between physical activity level (or alternatively, years of participation in programmed physical activity and bone mass measures at all sites except for the middle third of radius. It is concluded that a level of physical activity higher than that usually recommended benefits bone health in adult premenopausal women.

  9. [Comparison of eating habits among students according to sex and level of physical activity]. (United States)

    Łagowska, Karolina; Woźniewicz, Małgorzata; Jeszka, Jan


    The aim of the study was to evaluate nutritional habits of high school students, depending on their sex and physical activity. The investigated population included 147 students in age of 17.5 +/- 1.5 y (girls DZ = 98, boys CH = 49) with different level of physical activity (athletes SPO, moderate physical activity UAF, low physical activity NAF). Nutritional data were obtained by FFQ and calculated for selected food-groups and generally as young healthy eating index YHEI. International IPAQ was used to determine the level of physical activity and anthropometric measured were conducted to estimated BMI and body fat status. It was indicated the YHEI in athletes was significantly higher (p students. Moreover, a significant difference (p consumption of red meat, vegetable oil and sweetned drinks was revealed between DZ and CH adolescents. The frequency of consumption of vegetable oil, fast - foods, sweets, alcoholic drinks, energy drinks and isotonic drinks varied with the level of physical activity. Frequency of consumption of sweets negatively correlated with skinfold thickness in DZ, whereas positive correlation between consumption frequency of energy drinks, BMI and skinfold thickness was found in CH. The results show, that nutritional habits of the athletes was most approached to nutritional guidelines. CH, nutritional habits may predicted to overweight and obesity in CH group more distinctly than in DZ group.

  10. Social, environmental and psychological factors associated with objective physical activity levels in the over 65s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion E T McMurdo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess physical activity levels objectively using accelerometers in community dwelling over 65 s and to examine associations with health, social, environmental and psychological factors. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING: 17 general practices in Scotland, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Random sampling of over 65 s registered with the practices in four strata young-old (65-80 years, old-old (over 80 years, more affluent and less affluent groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Accelerometry counts of activity per day. Associations between activity and Theory of Planned Behaviour variables, the physical environment, health, wellbeing and demographic variables were examined with multiple regression analysis and multilevel modelling. RESULTS: 547 older people (mean (SD age 79(8 years, 54% female were analysed representing 94% of those surveyed. Accelerometry counts were highest in the affluent younger group, followed by the deprived younger group, with lowest levels in the deprived over 80 s group. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower age, higher perceived behavioural control, the physical function subscale of SF-36, and having someone nearby to turn to were all independently associated with higher physical activity levels (R(2 = 0.32. In addition, hours of sunshine were independently significantly associated with greater physical activity in a multilevel model. CONCLUSIONS: Other than age and hours of sunlight, the variables identified are modifiable, and provide a strong basis for the future development of novel multidimensional interventions aimed at increasing activity participation in later life.

  11. Measuring eco-efficiency of contaminated soil management at the regional level. (United States)

    Kielenniva, Nea; Antikainen, Riina; Sorvari, Jaana


    Eco-efficiency and sustainable development are the key environmental topics and goals for today's society that we should strive for in all activities, including contaminated soil management (CSM). However, particularly at the regional level, CSM is studied to a lesser extent from this perspective and practical means to monitor and assess sustainability or eco-efficiency are not widely available. This study aims to fill this gap by developing indicators to measure and monitor the development of regional eco-efficiency of CSM. The indicators can be used to support decision-making at the regional level since many CSM decisions, such as prioritisation of sites and the number of soil treatment and storing facilities, are made regionally. To start with, we surveyed the methods available for determining eco-efficiency and suitable indicators to monitor and measure the development of CSM regionally. We used life cycle analysis (LCA) and material flow analysis (MFA) to identify factors that the environmental indicators should cover, and also involved economic indicators. We ended up with a selection of 28 indicators, which can be classed into three different categories: background indicators, environmental indicators and economic indicators. We further demonstrated the use of the indicators by applying data from three different regions in Finland, and evaluated their suitability. On the basis of the results we recommended 15 indicators for continuous follow-up and decision-making purposes. Even though these indicators are suitable for monitoring and measuring the eco-efficiency of CSM at the regional level, unfortunately we found several data gaps related to the actual remediation projects which impede their use in practice. The data collection practices therefore need to be regionally developed.

  12. Paired galaxies with different activity levels and their supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Nazaryan, T A; Hakobyan, A A; Adibekyan, V Zh; Kunth, D; Mamon, G A; Turatto, M; Aramyan, L S


    We investigate the influence of close neighbor galaxies on the properties of supernovae (SNe) and their host galaxies using 56 SNe located in pairs of galaxies with different levels of star formation (SF) and nuclear activity. The statistical study of SN hosts shows that there is no significant difference between morphologies of hosts in our sample and the larger general sample of SN hosts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). The mean distance of type II SNe from nuclei of hosts is greater by about a factor of 2 than that of type Ibc SNe. The distributions and mean distances of SNe are consistent with previous results compiled with the larger sample. For the first time it is shown that SNe Ibc are located in pairs with significantly smaller difference of radial velocities between components than pairs containing SNe Ia and II. We consider this as a result of higher star formation rate (SFR) of these closer systems of galaxies. SN types are not correlated with the luminosity ratio of ho...

  13. Measurement and analysis of alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase activity levels in gingival cervical fluid after treatment of telescope retained fixed bridge%套筒冠式固定桥基牙龈沟液中碱性磷酸酶和天冬氨酸转氨酶的检测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武峰; 赵彬; 姚蔚


    Objective To explore the role of telescopic crown retainers fixed bridge in periodontal maintenance. Methods A total of 64 abutment teeth were selected from 16 patients and divided into experimental and control groups (n=32 each). The gingival index and sulcus bleeding index of abutments in the both two groups were detected at 6 and 12 months before and after repair. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity levels in gingival cervical fluid were measured using automatic biochemistry analyzer. Results There were significant differences in Gl and SBI between the experimental and control groups, as well as in ALP and AST activity levels (P<0.05). Conclusion Telescope retained fixed bridge might help protect the periodontal tissue of abutment teeth.%目的 探索套筒冠固位式固定桥对于牙周维护的作用.方法 选择16例患者共64颗基牙,分为实验组和对照组,每组32颗基牙.在修复前以及修复后6 、12个月,对基牙进行牙龈指数(GI)和龈沟出血指数(SBI)的检测,利用全自动生化分析仪检测基牙龈沟液中碱性磷酸酶(ALP)和天冬氨酸转氨酶(AST)活性水平.结果 在修复前与修复后12 个月实验组与对照组之间GI、SBI比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),ALP、AST活性水平差异也有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 套筒冠式固定桥有利于基牙牙周组织的保护.

  14. First results on enzymatic activities in two salt marsh soils under different hydromorphic level and vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Trasar-Cepeda


    Full Text Available Salt-marsh soils are soils characterized by non-permanent hydric saturation that, depending on factors like duration of submersion periods, are dominated by different salt-tolerant plant species. The composition of microbial communities is an essential component in trophic dynamics and biogeochemical processes in salt marshes, and determines the level of enzymatic activities, which catalyze the conversion of complex molecules into simpler ones. Despite of this, the enzymatic activities in marsh-soils has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the enzymatic activities in two soil profiles of marsh-soils under different water saturation level and dominated by different plant species [Juncus maritimus Lam and Spartina maritima (Curtis Fernald (Sp]. In both soils, the enzymatic activities were much lower than the levels typically found in terrestrial ecosystems. The enzymatic activities were measured both in air-dried and in re-moistened and incubated soil samples. In air-dried samples, the enzymatic activities were higher in Juncus than in Spartina soil and tended to decrease with depth, being sharper the decrease in Juncus than in Spartina soil. Re-moistened and pre-incubated soils showed a general increase in all the enzymatic activities and throughout the whole soil profile, especially in Spartina soils. Hydrolase activities showed a strong and positive relationship with organic matter content both in air-dried and in re-moistened soil samples, higher in these latter. In general, oxidoreductase activities only showed this relationship in re-moistened soil samples. More studies, preferably using freshly collected soil samples, are needed to understand the relationship between enzymatic activities and these environmental conditions.

  15. Low-Level Plutonium Bioassay Measurements at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T; Brown, T; Hickman, D; Marchetti, A; Williams, R; Kehl, S


    National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has independently verified the accuracy and precision of the AMS detection system for low-level bioassay measurements of plutonium isotopes through participation in an intercomparison exercise whereby performance evaluation samples were prepared in a synthetic urine matrix and submitted to participating laboratories for blind analysis. The results of the analyses were then sent to the NIST to independently evaluate the performance of laboratory participants. At LLNL, the AMS measurements of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu met ANSI 13.30 criteria for both precision and accuracy at all sample test levels. Livermore scientists continue to test the performance of the Marshall Islands Plutonium Urinalysis Program by routine blind analysis of externally prepared quality control test samples, and through the rigorous implementation of standardized methods and procedures. Although not addressed directly in the report, AMS measurements show that the urinary excretion of plutonium by selected Marshallese populations fall into a low and reproducible range. Moreover, there appears to be no evidence of small incremental intakes of plutonium associated with resettlement activities - past or present. The improved quality, reliability and detection sensitivity of AMS for low-level plutonium isotope measurements will enable DOE to develop high-quality, baseline urinary excretion data for Marshallese populations, and accurately assess and track potential uptakes of plutonium. associated with resettlement activities and/or from long-term changes in plutonium exposure conditions in the Marshall Islands.

  16. Measuring sound absorption: considerations on the measurement of the active acoustic power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, E.R.; Wijnant, Y.H.; Boer, de A.


    Using a local plane wave assumption, one can determine the normal incidence sound absorption coefficient of a surface by measuring the acoustic pressure and the particle velocity normal to that surface. As the measurement surface lies in front of the material surface, the measured active and inciden

  17. Caries-free subjects have high levels of urease and arginine deiminase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn REYES


    Full Text Available Objectives: This study investigated the relationship between urease and arginine deiminase system (ADS activities and dental caries through a cross-sectional study. Material and Methods: Urease and ADS activities were measured in saliva and plaque samples from 10 caries-free subjects and 13 caries-active. Urease activity was obtained from the ammonia produced by incubation of plaque and saliva samples in urea. ADS activity was obtained from the ammonia generated by the arginine-HCl and Tris-maleate buffer. Specific activity was defined as micromoles of ammonia per minute per milligram of protein. Shapiro-Wilk statistical test was used to analyze the distribution of the data, and Mann-Whitney test was used to determine the significance of the data. Results: The specific urease activity in saliva and plaque was significantly higher in individuals with low DMFT scores. ADS activity in saliva (6.050 vs 1.350, p=0.0154 and plaque (8.830 vs 1.210, p=0.025 was also higher in individuals with low DMFT scores. Conclusions: Caries-free subjects had a higher ammonia generation activity by urease and arginine deiminase system for both saliva and plaque samples than low caries-active subjects. High levels of alkali production in oral environment were related to caries-free subjects.

  18. Association of day length and weather conditions with physical activity levels in older community dwelling people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles D Witham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Weather is a potentially important determinant of physical activity. Little work has been done examining the relationship between weather and physical activity, and potential modifiers of any relationship in older people. We therefore examined the relationship between weather and physical activity in a cohort of older community-dwelling people. METHODS: We analysed prospectively collected cross-sectional activity data from community-dwelling people aged 65 and over in the Physical Activity Cohort Scotland. We correlated seven day triaxial accelerometry data with daily weather data (temperature, day length, sunshine, snow, rain, and a series of potential effect modifiers were tested in mixed models: environmental variables (urban vs rural dwelling, percentage of green space, psychological variables (anxiety, depression, perceived behavioural control, social variables (number of close contacts and health status measured using the SF-36 questionnaire. RESULTS: 547 participants, mean age 78.5 years, were included in this analysis. Higher minimum daily temperature and longer day length were associated with higher activity levels; these associations remained robust to adjustment for other significant associates of activity: age, perceived behavioural control, number of social contacts and physical function. Of the potential effect modifier variables, only urban vs rural dwelling and the SF-36 measure of social functioning enhanced the association between day length and activity; no variable modified the association between minimum temperature and activity. CONCLUSIONS: In older community dwelling people, minimum temperature and day length were associated with objectively measured activity. There was little evidence for moderation of these associations through potentially modifiable health, environmental, social or psychological variables.

  19. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active. (United States)

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy


    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=-0.539; PActive older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index.

  20. Liquid Level Measurement in Oil Tanks Based on Double-differential Pressure Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The system principle and configuration of the double-differential pressure method for measuring oil tank level are presented. The fundamental method and circuit of fiber optic transmission are analyzed .The accuracy and security of level measurement in the oil tanks have been greatly improved.

  1. The effect of carbohydrates on alpha-amylase activity measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baks, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.


    The Ceralpha method can be used for ¿-amylase activity measurements during the hydrolysis of starch at high substrate concentrations (>40 wt.%). However, the results are affected by the carbohydrates present in the samples. The effect of carbohydrates on the Ceralpha ¿-amylase activity measuremen

  2. A Simple and Accurate Method for Measuring Enzyme Activity. (United States)

    Yip, Din-Yan


    Presents methods commonly used for investigating enzyme activity using catalase and presents a new method for measuring catalase activity that is more reliable and accurate. Provides results that are readily reproduced and quantified. Can also be used for investigations of enzyme properties such as the effects of temperature, pH, inhibitors,…

  3. Enzyme activity measurement via spectral evolution profiling and PARAFAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas; Meyer, Anne S.; Garcia, Javier Lopez;


    The recent advances in multi-way analysis provide new solutions to traditional enzyme activity assessment. In the present study enzyme activity has been determined by monitoring spectral changes of substrates and products in real time. The method relies on measurement of distinct spectral fingerp...... parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) for pectin lyase, glucose oxidase, and a cellulase preparation....

  4. Physical activity and physical activity induced energy expenditure in humans: measurement, determinants, and effects. (United States)

    Westerterp, Klaas R


    Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure. The doubly labeled water method for the measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE), in combination with resting energy expenditure, is the reference for physical activity under free-living conditions. To compare the physical activity level (PAL) within and between species, TEE is divided by resting energy expenditure resulting in a figure without dimension. The PAL for sustainable lifestyles ranges between a minimum of 1.1-1.2 and a maximum of 2.0-2.5. The average PAL increases from 1.4 at age 1 year to 1.7-1.8 at reproductive age and declines again to 1.4 at age 90 year. Exercise training increases PAL in young adults when energy balance is maintained by increasing energy intake. Professional endurance athletes can reach PAL values around 4.0. Most of the variation in PAL between subjects can be ascribed to predisposition. A higher weight implicates higher movement costs and less body movement but not necessarily a lower PAL. Changes in physical activity primarily affect body composition and to a lesser extent body weight. Modern man has a similar PAL as a wild mammal of a similar body size.

  5. Measuring radioactivity level in various types of rice using NaI (Tl detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith A. Najam


    Full Text Available A study of long- lived gamma emitting radionuclides in rice consumed in Nineveh Province (IRAQ were performed. The study targeted the natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K .The rice samples originated from seven different countries. NaI(Tl detector was used to measure the radionuclides level. The radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K ranged from 51.15 to 109.26 Bq/kg,13.67 to 71.97 Bq/kg and 231.87 to 691.71Bq/kg. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, radium equivalent activity, gamma absorbed dose rate, internal and external hazard indices , gamma index and finally alpha index have been calculated . Hence rice consumption in Nineveh province (IRAQ is radiologically safe for the presence of the investigated radionuclides.

  6. Development of the Patient Activation Measure for mental health. (United States)

    Green, Carla A; Perrin, Nancy A; Polen, Michael R; Leo, Michael C; Hibbard, Judith H; Tusler, Martin


    Our objective was to adapt the physical health Patient Activation Measure (PAM) for use among people with mental health conditions (PAM-MH). Data came from three studies among people with chronic mental health conditions and were combined in Rasch analyses. The PAM-MH's psychometric properties equal those of the original 13-item PAM. Test-retest reliability and concurrent validity were good, and the PAM-MH showed sensitivity to change. The PAM-MH appears to be a reliable and valid measure of patient activation among individuals with mental health problems. It appears to have potential for use in assessing change in activation.

  7. Childhood socioeconomic position and objectively measured physical capability levels in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie, Kate; Cooper, Rachel; Martin, Richard M;


    Grip strength, walking speed, chair rising and standing balance time are objective measures of physical capability that characterise current health and predict survival in older populations. Socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood may influence the peak level of physical capability achieved...... in early adulthood, thereby affecting levels in later adulthood. We have undertaken a systematic review with meta-analyses to test the hypothesis that adverse childhood SEP is associated with lower levels of objectively measured physical capability in adulthood....

  8. Determining skill level in myoelectric prosthesis use with multiple outcome measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwsema, Hanneke; Kyberd, Peter J.; Hill, Wendy; van der Sluis, Corry K.; Bongers, Raoul M.


    To obtain more insight into how the skill level of an upper-limb myoelectric prosthesis user is composed, the current study aimed to (1) portray prosthetic handling at different levels of description, (2) relate results of the clinical level to kinematic measures, and (3) identify specific parameter

  9. Traceable measurements of the activity concentration in air

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, A; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Müller, A; Marcos, A


    The nuclear reactions induced by high energetic protons in heavy targets such as UC/sub 2/ and ThC cause a particular, complex radiation protection task at facilities like ISOLDE: the measurement of a mixture of different isotopes of the radioactive noble gas radon and the radon progenies in air. The knowledge of their respective activity concentration is fundamental for exposure assessments. Due to the complex mixture of activity concentrations in air, its precise determination is quite difficult. Therefore, a new procedure for taking reference samples was developed and implemented for the traceable measurement of the activity concentration of radioactive ions (e.g., radon progenies) in air. This technique is combined by measuring alpha -particles with a multi-wire ionization chamber for the parallel on-line determination of the activity concentration of different radon isotopes. (10 refs).

  10. Comparison of Estimated and Measured Muscle Activity During Inclined Walking. (United States)

    Alexander, Nathalie; Schwameder, Hermann


    While inclined walking is a frequent daily activity, muscle forces during this activity have rarely been examined. Musculoskeletal models are commonly used to estimate internal forces in healthy populations, but these require a priori validation. The aim of this study was to compare estimated muscle activity using a musculoskeletal model with measured EMG data during inclined walking. Ten healthy male participants walked at different inclinations of 0°, ± 6°, ± 12°, and ± 18° on a ramp equipped with 2 force plates. Kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity of the musculus (m.) biceps femoris, m. rectus femoris, m. vastus lateralis, m. tibialis anterior, and m. gastrocnemius lateralis were recorded. Agreement between estimated and measured muscle activity was determined via correlation coefficients, mean absolute errors, and trend analysis. Correlation coefficients between estimated and measured muscle activity for approximately 69% of the conditions were above 0.7. Mean absolute errors were rather high with only approximately 38% being ≤ 30%. Trend analysis revealed similar estimated and measured muscle activities for all muscles and tasks (uphill and downhill walking), except m. tibialis anterior during uphill walking. This model can be used for further analysis in similar groups of participants.

  11. The improved physical activity index for measuring physical activity in EPIC Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Wientzek

    Full Text Available In the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC, physical activity (PA has been indexed as a cross-tabulation between PA at work and recreational activity. As the proportion of non-working participants increases, other categorization strategies are needed. Therefore, our aim was to develop a valid PA index for this population, which will also be able to express PA continuously. In the German EPIC centers Potsdam and Heidelberg, a clustered sample of 3,766 participants was re-invited to the study center. 1,615 participants agreed to participate and 1,344 participants were finally included in this study. PA was measured by questionnaires on defined activities and a 7-day combined heart rate and acceleration sensor. In a training sample of 433 participants, the Improved Physical Activity Index (IPAI was developed. Its performance was evaluated in a validation sample of 911 participants and compared with the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index. The IPAI consists of items covering five areas including PA at work, sport, cycling, television viewing, and computer use. The correlations of the IPAI with accelerometer counts in the training and validation sample ranged r = 0.40-0.43 and with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE r = 0.33-0.40 and were higher than for the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index previously applied in EPIC. In non-working participants the IPAI showed higher correlations than the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index, with r = 0.34 for accelerometer counts and r = 0.29 for PAEE. In conclusion, we developed a valid physical activity index which is able to express PA continuously as well as to categorize participants according to their PA level. In populations with increasing rates of non-working people the performance of the IPAI is better than the established indices used in EPIC.

  12. Resilience of Infrastructure Systems to Sea-Level Rise in Coastal Areas: Impacts, Adaptation Measures, and Implementation Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Azevedo de Almeida


    Full Text Available Expansive areas of low elevation in many densely populated coastal areas are at elevated risk of storm surges and flooding due to torrential precipitation, as a result of sea level rise. These phenomena could have catastrophic impacts on coastal communities and result in the destruction of critical infrastructure, disruption of economic activities and salt water contamination of the water supply. The objective of the study presented in this paper was to identify various impacts of sea level rise on civil infrastructures in coastal areas and examine the adaptation measures suggested in the existing literature. To this end, a systemic review of the existing literature was conducted in order to identify a repository of studies addressing sea level rise impacts and adaptation measures in the context of infrastructure systems. The study focused on three infrastructure sectors: water and wastewater, energy, and road transportation. The collected information was then analyzed in order to identify different categories of sea level rise impacts and corresponding adaptation measures. The findings of the study are threefold: (1 the major categories of sea level rise impacts on different infrastructure systems; (2 measures for protection, accommodation, and retreat in response to sea level rise impacts; and (3 challenges related to implementing adaptation measures.

  13. Characterization of sediment and measurement of groundwater levels and temperatures, Camas National Wildlife Refuge, eastern Idaho (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Rattray, Gordon W.


    The Camas National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) in eastern Idaho, established in 1937, contains wetlands, ponds, and wet meadows that are essential resting and feeding habitat for migratory birds and nesting habitat for waterfowl. Initially, natural sources of water supported these habitats. However, during the past few decades, climate change and changes in surrounding land use have altered and reduced natural groundwater and surface water inflows such that the wetlands, ponds, and wet meadows are now maintained through water management and groundwater pumping. These water management activities have proven to be inefficient and costly, prompting the Refuge to develop alternative water management options that are more efficient and less expensive. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, is studying the hydrogeology at the Refuge to provide information for developing alternative water management options.The hydrogeologic studies at the Refuge included characterizing the type, distribution, and hydraulic conductivity of surficial sediments and measuring water levels and temperatures in monitoring wells. Four monitoring wells and seven soil probe coreholes were drilled at the Refuge. Seven water level and temperature data loggers were installed in the wells and water levels and temperatures were continuously recorded from November 2014 to June 2016. Sediment cores were collected from the coreholes and sediment type and distribution were characterized from drillers’ notes, geophysical logs, corehole samples, and particle grain-size analysis. The hydraulic conductivities of sediments were estimated using the measured average grain size and the assumed textural maturity of the sediment, and ranged from about 20 to 290 feet per day.

  14. Health-related aspects of objectively measured daily physical activity in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars Bo


    It is well established that physical inactivity in adults is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Whether daily physical activity level is related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children has been debated. Furthermore, objective data on the habitual daily physical...... activity in children have at large been scarce in the literature. The main reason for this is the fact that daily physical activity is very difficult to measure in children. In recent years, a new device, the accelerometer, has emerged as a frequently used instrument for the measurement of daily physical...... activity. This review summarizes recently published studies that have used accelerometers to measure daily physical activity in children and related activity data to known risk factors for CVD....

  15. An elevated level of physical activity is associated with normal lipoprotein(a) levels in individuals from Maracaibo, Venezuela. (United States)

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Aparicio, Daniel; Rojas, Edward; Peñaranda, Lianny; Finol, Freddy; Acosta, Luis; Mengual, Edgardo; Rojas, Joselyn; Arráiz, Nailet; Toledo, Alexandra; Colmenares, Carlos; Urribarí, Jesica; Sanchez, Wireynis; Pineda, Carlos; Rodriguez, Dalia; Faria, Judith; Añez, Roberto; Cano, Raquel; Cano, Clímaco; Sorell, Luis; Velasco, Manuel


    Coronary artery disease is the main cause of death worldwide. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in which concentrations are genetically regulated. Contradictory results have been published about physical activity influence on Lp(a) concentration. This research aimed to determine associations between different physical activity levels and Lp(a) concentration. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was made in 1340 randomly selected subjects (males = 598; females = 712) to whom a complete clinical history, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Lp(a) level determination were made. Statistical analysis was carried out to assess qualitative variables relationship by chi2 and differences between means by one-way analysis of variance considering a P value <0.05 as statistically significant. Results are shown as absolute frequencies, percentages, and mean +/- standard deviation according to case. Physical activity levels were ordinal classified as follows: low activity with 24.3% (n = 318), moderate activity with 35.0% (n = 458), and high physical activity with 40.8% (n = 534). Lp(a) concentration in the studied sample was 26.28 +/- 12.64 (IC: 25.59-26.96) mg/dL. Lp(a) concentration according to low, moderate, and high physical activity levels were 29.22 +/- 13.74, 26.27 +/- 12.91, and 24.53 +/- 11.35 mg/dL, respectively, observing statistically significant differences between low and moderate level (P = 0.004) and low and high level (P < 0.001). A strong association (chi2 = 9.771; P = 0.002) was observed among a high physical activity level and a normal concentration of Lp(a) (less than 30 mg/dL). A lifestyle characterized by high physical activity is associated with normal Lp(a) levels.

  16. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active (United States)

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy


    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=−0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=−0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  17. Bowie Lecture: The Record of Sea Level Change from Satellite Measurements: What Have We Learned? (United States)

    Nerem, R. S.


    Over the last decade, satellite geodetic measurements together with in situ measurements, have revolutionized our understanding of present-day sea level change. This is important because sea level change can be used as one barometer of climate variations and because of the implications sea level change has for coastal populations. With measurements from satellite altimeter missions (TOPEX/Posiedon and Jason), satellite gravity missions (GRACE), and the Global Positioning System (GPS), we are now able to start asking some important questions with regards to global sea level change and its regional variations. What has been the rate of global mean sea level change over the last dozen years? Is this rate different from the historical rate observed by the tide gauges over the last century? What are the principal causes of the observed sea level change, and are they related to anthropogenic climate variations? The record of sea level change from satellite altimetry will be reviewed, its error sources and limitations discussed, and the results placed in context with other estimates of sea level change from tide gauges, in situ measurements, and global climate models. The much shorter, but just as important, record of ocean mass variations from satellite gravity measurements will be similarly reviewed. In addition, GPS measurements of the deformation of the solid Earth due to the melting of continental ice and what they tell us about sea level change will be discussed. A sea level change budget will be presented, both for the altimetric era and the last century, containing estimates of contributions from thermal expansion, ocean mass changes (melting ice, runoff, etc.), and other contributions to sea level change. Finally, the need for continuing the satellite measurements of sea level change will be discussed in the context of future missions and the scientific gain that would result.

  18. Assessing adrenocortical activity by determining levels of urinary free cortisol and urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol. (United States)

    Nakamura, J; Yakata, M


    A comparative study of urinary free cortisol and urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol levels as a diagnostic test for hypercortisolemic states was carried out by measuring the excretion in 24-h specimens from 289 apparently healthy subjects and 10 Cushing patients. The diurnal variations of both variables were examined in normal subjects and subjects with altered adrenal activities. Two of the 289 apparently normal subjects had high values of urinary free cortisol; one had a high, the other a normal 6 beta-hydroxycortisol level; they were later diagnosed as having Cushing's syndrome and infertility, respectively. Three other subjects had high values of the urinary variables, but during 5 years of follow-up did not show any clinical evidence of hypercortisolism. The two urinary variables gave no false-negative results in the Cushing patients. The diurnal variation revealed that levels of 6 beta-hydroxycortisol change in parallel with those of free cortisol in normal subjects and in subjects with altered adrenal activities. However, the ratio of 6 beta-hydroxycortisol to free cortisol during the diurnal variation varied from low values when free cortisol levels were high to high values when free cortisol levels were low. In normal subjects, 1 mg of dexamethasone taken orally at 23.00 h completely suppressed the levels of both variables on the following day. It is concluded that urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol is correlated to urinary free cortisol so that measurement of urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol levels can be used as a diagnostic test for hypercortisolism in a way comparable to the method using urinary free cortisol.

  19. Photo-activated biological processes as quantum measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Imamoglu, Atac


    We outline a framework for describing photo-activated biological reactions as generalized quantum measurements of external fields, for which the biological system takes on the role of a quantum meter. By using general arguments regarding the Hamiltonian that describes the measurement interaction, we identify the cases where it is essential for a complex chemical or biological system to exhibit non-equilibrium quantum coherent dynamics in order to achieve the requisite functionality. We illustrate the analysis by considering measurement of the solar radiation field in photosynthesis and measurement of the earth's magnetic field in avian magnetoreception.

  20. Longitudinal measurement invariance of psychosocial measures in physical activity research: An application to adolescent data. (United States)

    Roesch, Scott C; Norman, Greg J; Merz, Erin L; Sallis, James F; Patrick, Kevin


    The current study served as a practical and substantive guide to establishing longitudinal measurement invariance of psychosocial measures commonly used in adolescent physical activity (PA) research. Psychosocial data on an initial sample of 878 adolescents (ages 11 - 15) recruited through primary care providers were provided at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months. The target measures included family support, peer support, decisional balance (pros, cons), self-efficacy, and behavioral strategies. Five of the six psychosocial measures exhibited strict longitudinal measurement invariance, with the 6th measure (self-efficacy) exhibiting strong longitudinal measurement invariance. These findings support the equivalence of these measures across time, and provide the foundation to substantively interpret group differences and associations involving these measures and PA.

  1. Physical activity, fatness, educational level and snuff consumption as determinants of semen quality: findings of the ActiART study. (United States)

    Pärn, Triin; Grau Ruiz, Raúl; Kunovac Kallak, Theodora; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Davey, Eva; Hreinsson, Julius; Wånggren, Kjell; Salumets, Andres; Sjöström, Michael; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli; Ortega, Francisco B; Altmäe, Signe


    In this study, the association between physical activity and other potential determinants, objectively measured by accelerometry, was examined. Sixty-two men attending an infertility clinic participated in the study. Obese men (body mass index ≥ 30) and those with a waist circumference 102 cm or more had lower semen volume than the other men (P quality than those who engaged in low or high numbers of bouts of activity (P quality than men who engage in low or high levels of such activity. Similarly, high levels of total and central adiposity, low educational level and snuff consumption are negatively related to semen quality.

  2. Advanced Active-Magnetic-Bearing Thrust-Measurement System (United States)

    Imlach, Joseph; Kasarda, Mary; Blumber, Eric


    An advanced thrust-measurement system utilizes active magnetic bearings to both (1) levitate a floating frame in all six degrees of freedom and (2) measure the levitation forces between the floating frame and a grounded frame. This system was developed for original use in measuring the thrust exerted by a rocket engine mounted on the floating frame, but can just as well be used in other force-measurement applications. This system offers several advantages over prior thrust-measurement systems based on mechanical support by flexures and/or load cells: The system includes multiple active magnetic bearings for each degree of freedom, so that by selective use of one, some, or all of these bearings, it is possible to test a given article over a wide force range in the same fixture, eliminating the need to transfer the article to different test fixtures to obtain the benefit of full-scale accuracy of different force-measurement devices for different force ranges. Like other active magnetic bearings, the active magnetic bearings of this system include closed-loop control subsystems, through which the stiffness and damping characteristics of the magnetic bearings can be modified electronically. The design of the system minimizes or eliminates cross-axis force-measurement errors. The active magnetic bearings are configured to provide support against movement along all three orthogonal Cartesian axes, and such that the support along a given axis does not produce force along any other axis. Moreover, by eliminating the need for such mechanical connections as flexures used in prior thrust-measurement systems, magnetic levitation of the floating frame eliminates what would otherwise be major sources of cross-axis forces and the associated measurement errors. Overall, relative to prior mechanical-support thrust-measurement systems, this system offers greater versatility for adaptation to a variety of test conditions and requirements. The basic idea of most prior active

  3. Serum Adenosine deaminase activity and C-reactive protein levels in unstable angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Surekha


    Full Text Available In unstable angina (USA patients, immunological responses contributing to inflammation play a vital role in plaque rupture and thrombosis causing stroke. In the present study an attempt is made to estimate the levels of adenosine deaminase activity, an immunoenzyme marker and C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation in USA patients. 45 patients presenting USA and 50 age and sex matched healthy controls were included in the study. Serum ADA activity was measured spectrophotometrically at 630nm and serum C-reactive protein was detected using Avitex CRP kit, which is a rapid latex agglutination test. The Mean ADA levels were 41.15 ± 11.04 in patients and 20.71±5.63 in controls and 66.6% of patients and none of the controls were positive to CRP. The present study observed the importance of ADA as a serum marker in addition to CRP for assessing the immune response in USA patients.

  4. Expression levels of microRNAs are not associated with their regulatory activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jiarui


    Full Text Available Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate their targets by triggering mRNA degradation or translational repression. The negative relationship between miRNAs and their targets suggests that the regulatory effect of a miRNA could be determined from the expression levels of its targets. Here, we investigated the relationship between miRNA activities determined by computational programs and miRNA expression levels by using data in which both mRNA and miRNA expression from the same samples were measured. We found that different from the intuitive expectation one might have, miRNA activity shows very weak correlation with miRNA expression, which indicates complex regulating mechanisms between miRNAs and their target genes. Reviewers This manuscript was reviewed by an anonymous reviewer and Dr Yuriy Gusev.

  5. Analysis of enzyme activity and the level of malondialdehyde in the saliva of children with gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tričković-Janjić Olivera


    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim. By analyzing activity of some of the enzymes normally present in the saliva and the level of malondialdehyde in gingivitis, it is possible to estimate the functional condition of parodontium, and the examined parameters can be considered as biochemical markers of its functional condition. The aim of this paper was to examine activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase and the level of malondialdehyde in the saliva of children affected with gingivitis, as well as the values of the mentioned parameters in relation to the level of the inflammation of gingiva. Methods. The research included 120 children at the age of 12.2 with permanent dentition. Löe and Silness gingival index was used to estimate the condition of gingiva, based on which the children were classified into four groups: the children with healthy gingiva (the control groups, the children with mild, moderate and severe inflammation of gingiva (the study group. Enzymes of the saliva were determined by the use of original tests and measured by the autoanalyser (Bio Systems A25, Spain. A modified method with tiobarbituric acid was used to determine malondialdehyde in nonstimulated mixed saliva. Results. The results of the examined enzyme activity and the level of malondialdehyde in the saliva of the study groups showed statistically considerably higher values for the level of malondialdehyde (p < 0.001, for the activity of aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase (p < 0.01, as well as for alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.05 in comparison with the control group, whereas the activity of lactate dehydrogenase did not show a statistically significant increase. In relation to the level of the inflammation of gingiva, the results of the examination of the enzyme activity in the study groups showed statistically significantly higher values in the group with severe inflammation in comparison

  6. Indirect measurement of molten steel level in tundish based on laser triangulation. (United States)

    Su, Zhiqi; He, Qing; Xie, Zhi


    For real-time and precise measurement of molten steel level in tundish during continuous casting, slag level and slag thickness are needed. Among which, the problem of slag thickness measurement has been solved in our previous work. In this paper, a systematic solution for slag level measurement based on laser triangulation is proposed. Being different from traditional laser triangulation, several aspects for measuring precision and robustness have been done. First, laser line is adopted for multi-position measurement to overcome the deficiency of single point laser range finder caused by the uneven surface of the slag. Second, the key parameters, such as installing angle and minimum requirement of the laser power, are analyzed and determined based on the gray-body radiation theory to fulfill the rigorous requirement of measurement accuracy. Third, two kinds of severe noises in the acquired images, which are, respectively, caused by heat radiation and Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI), are cleaned via morphological characteristic of the liquid slag and color difference between EMI and the laser signals, respectively. Fourth, as false target created by stationary slag usually disorders the measurement, valid signals of the slag are distinguished from the false ones to calculate the slag level. Then, molten steel level is obtained by the slag level minus the slag thickness. The measuring error of this solution is verified by the applications in steel plants, which is ±2.5 mm during steady casting and ±3.2 mm at the end of casting.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Avdeeva


    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the association of cytokine profile measures with disease activity, autoantibody levels, and joint destructive changes in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA.Subjects and methods. Forty-five patients, including 35 women, with early RA were examined. Their median age was 53.5 [46; 59.5] years; the duration of the disease – 7.0 [4.0; 11.5] months; DAS28 – 5.8 [4.9; 6.4]; 91 and 96% of the patents were positive for rheumatoid factor (RF and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, respectively. Serum cytokine concentrations were estimated using the xMAP multiplex technology. The modified Sharp method was employed to quantify radiographic changes.Results and discussion. A group of 30 patients with high disease activity (DAS28 >5.1 had higher levels of interleukin (IL-6 (62.3 [36.1; 127.5] pg/ml and IP-10 (6367.8 [3682.7; 10691.3] pg/ml than 15 patients with moderate/low disease activity (DAS28 ≤5.1 (35.8 [13.4; 64.2] and 3222.6 [1881.0; 5671.9] pg/ml, respectively, p < 0.05. The patients highly positive for IgM RF had higher levels (pg/ml of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IL-15, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α; the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and the growth factors IL-7 and vascular endothelial growth factor (4.8 [2.8; 19.3], 23.0 [7.1; 55.8], 64.2 [41.6; 170.5], 52.2 [30.9; 126.9], 2.4 [0.2; 11.2], 210.8 [119.9; 584.2], 90.7 [42.7; 307/9], 57.5 [26.1; 93.8], 54.9 [37.1; 123.7], and 143.3 [70.6; 249.6] pg/ml than those who were negative/lowly positive for IgM RF (2.3 [1.9; 3.1], 4.9 [2.9; 16.8], 24.9 [20.4; 45.4], 25.6 [19.9; 57.1], 0.2 [0.01; 1.65], 94.4 [86.3; 138.9], 37.3 [23.6; 47.7], 20.9 [12.3; 33.9], 32.6 [28.1; 37.8], 74.2 [53.5; 147.6], respectively (p < 0.05.Conclusion. There are significant differences in cytokine profile measures in patients with early RA in relation to disease activity and serum autoantibody levels.

  8. Assessing causality in the association between child adiposity and physical activity levels: a Mendelian randomization analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Richmond


    Full Text Available Cross-sectional studies have shown that objectively measured physical activity is associated with childhood adiposity, and a strong inverse dose-response association with body mass index (BMI has been found. However, few studies have explored the extent to which this association reflects reverse causation. We aimed to determine whether childhood adiposity causally influences levels of physical activity using genetic variants reliably associated with adiposity to estimate causal effects.The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children collected data on objectively assessed activity levels of 4,296 children at age 11 y with recorded BMI and genotypic data. We used 32 established genetic correlates of BMI combined in a weighted allelic score as an instrumental variable for adiposity to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on activity. In observational analysis, a 3.3 kg/m² (one standard deviation higher BMI was associated with 22.3 (95% CI, 17.0, 27.6 movement counts/min less total physical activity (p = 1.6×10⁻¹⁶, 2.6 (2.1, 3.1 min/d less moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity (p = 3.7×10⁻²⁹, and 3.5 (1.5, 5.5 min/d more sedentary time (p = 5.0×10⁻⁴. In Mendelian randomization analyses, the same difference in BMI was associated with 32.4 (0.9, 63.9 movement counts/min less total physical activity (p = 0.04 (∼5.3% of the mean counts/minute, 2.8 (0.1, 5.5 min/d less moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity (p = 0.04, and 13.2 (1.3, 25.2 min/d more sedentary time (p = 0.03. There was no strong evidence for a difference between variable estimates from observational estimates. Similar results were obtained using fat mass index. Low power and poor instrumentation of activity limited causal analysis of the influence of physical activity on BMI.Our results suggest that increased adiposity causes a reduction in physical activity in children and support research into the targeting of BMI in efforts to

  9. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Levels and Patterns of Objectively Measured Sedentary Time in Adolescent Females

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harrington, Deirdre M.


    Abstract Background Adolescent females have been highlighted as a particularly sedentary population and the possible negative effects of a sedentary lifestyle are being uncovered. However, much of the past sedentary research is based on self-report or uses indirect methods to quantity sedentary time. Total time spent sedentary and the possible intricate sedentary patterns of adolescent females have not been described using objective and direct measure of body inclination. The objectives of this article are to examine the sedentary levels and patterns of a group of adolescent females using the ActivPAL™ and to highlight possible differences in sedentary levels and patterns across the week and within the school day. A full methodological description of how the data was analyzed is also presented. Methods One hundred and eleven adolescent females, age 15-18 yrs, were recruited from urban and rural areas in the Republic of Ireland. Participants wore an ActivPAL physical activity monitor for a 7.5 day period. The ActivPAL directly reports total time spent sitting\\/lying every 15 seconds and accumulation (frequency and duration) of sedentary activity was examined using a customized MATLAB ® computer software programme. Results While no significant difference was found in the total time spent sitting\\/lying over the full 24 hour day between weekday and weekend day (18.8 vs. 18.9 hours; p = .911), significantly more sedentary bouts of 1 to 5 minutes and 21 to 40 minutes in duration were accumulated on weekdays compared to weekend days (p < .001). The mean length of each sedentary bout was also longer (9.8 vs. 8.8 minutes; p < .001). When school hours (9 am-3 pm) and after school hours (4 pm-10 pm) were compared, there was no difference in total time spent sedentary (3.9 hours; p = .796) but the pattern of accumulation of the sedentary time differed. There were a greater number of bouts of > 20 minutes duration during school hours than after school hours (4.7 vs. 3

  10. Population-level intervention to promote chlamydia screening. Moving toward implementation of chlamydia hedis 2000 measure (United States)

    Oh; Grimley; Heudebert


    Background: HEDIS 2000 measure includes chlamydia screening in women which is designed to assess the percentage of sexually active women 15 to 25 years who have received at least one screening test for chlamydia during the reporting year. This study is being undertaken to determine feasibility of implementing a population-level intervention within HMOs to promote chlamydia screening. This abstract presents preliminary findings from the Birmingham project of this multicenter study.Methods: In partnerships with two HMOs, series of outreach methods were used in a stepwise fashion to determine potential barriers and enabling factors for the implementation of chlamydia HEDIS measure in a conservative social environment. Mail outreach was sequentially combined with newspaper, TV, radio advertisements and poster displays. Both qualitative and quantitative impact of the outreach efforts were measured across the timeline. The measures included reporting for chlamydia screening (urine LCR) and infection rate, monitoring chlamydia hotline and staffed phoneline use, and assessment of untoward effects and cost-analysis of the chlamydia outreach campaign.Results: The key findings are: the benefit of chlamydia screening is not understood by general public, letters send by Health Plans to their members are not read by many subscribers, and there are wide gaps between adolescents and their parents, in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs in regard to obtaining information and accessing the screening services (teens prefer hotline, brochure in an envelop addressed to teens, incentives for reporting to the clinic for screening, vs. parents prefer staffed phone consults, "exposed" brochure addressed to parents, and no incentives). A month of sustained and repeat multi-media campaign resulted in 330 hotline calls, 83 phone calls and only 17 subjects being tested (3 were positive) though many more intended to come. Cumulative effects and cost of various outreach efforts are being monitored

  11. Tritium activity levels in environmental water samples from different origins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Edifici CTT-FURV, Av. Paisos Catalans 18, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Borrull, F. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Edifici CTT-FURV, Av. Paisos Catalans 18, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)], E-mail:


    Tritium activity was determined in environmental waters from different areas of Catalonia, using a distillation procedure before liquid scintillation counting. The developed method was validated by analysing two samples from proficiency tests. In most of water samples (from rivers, rain, mineral bottled waters and tap waters) analysed, the activity values were lower or close to the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for our method which has a value of 0.6 Bq/l. However, the Ebro river samples had a mean activity around 3.6{+-}0.6Bq/l. The nuclear power station of Asco, which is located on the banks of this river, can be a source of tritium production and introduction into the environment, so a more exhaustive study of these waters was carried out. Tritium activities in this river were a long way above the normative limit in Spain for waters intended for human consumption, which is 100 Bq/l.

  12. Physical activity levels, duration pattern and adherence to WHO recommendations in German adults (United States)

    Luzak, Agnes; Heier, Margit; Thorand, Barbara; Laxy, Michael; Nowak, Dennis; Peters, Annette; Schulz, Holger


    Background Intensity and duration of physical activity are associated with the achievement of health benefits. Our aim was to characterize physical activity behavior in terms of intensity, duration pattern, and adherence to the WHO physical activity recommendations in a population-based sample of adults from southern Germany. Further, we investigated associations between physical activity and sex, age, and body mass index (BMI), considering also common chronic diseases. Methods We analyzed 475 subjects (47% males, mean age 58 years, range 48–68 years) who wore ActiGraph accelerometers for up to seven days. Measured accelerations per minute obtained from the vertical axis (uniaxial) and the vector magnitude of all three axes (triaxial) were classified as sedentary, light or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) according to predefined acceleration count cut-offs. The average minutes/day spent in each activity level per subject served as outcome. Associations of sex, age, BMI, and seven chronic diseases or health limitations, with the activity levels were analyzed by negative binomial regression. Results Most of the wear time was spent in sedentarism (median 61%/day), whereas the median time spent in MVPA was only 3%, with men achieving more MVPA than women (35 vs. 28 minutes/day, pdiabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anxiety/depression, pain or walking difficulties was observed in regression analyses with MVPA as outcome. Conclusions Activity behavior among middle-aged German adults was highly insufficient, indicating a further need for physical activity promotion in order to gain health benefits. PMID:28245253

  13. Microbial metabolic activity in soil as measured by dehydrogenase determinations (United States)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.


    The dehydrogenase technique for measuring the metabolic activity of microorganisms in soil was modified to use a 6-h, 37 C incubation with either glucose or yeast extract as the electron-donating substrate. The rate of formazan production remained constant during this time interval, and cellular multiplication apparently did not occur. The technique was used to follow changes in the overall metabolic activities of microorganisms in soil undergoing incubation with a limiting concentration of added nutrient. The sequence of events was similar to that obtained by using the Warburg respirometer to measure O2 consumption. However, the major peaks of activity occurred earlier with the respirometer. This possibly is due to the lack of atmospheric CO2 during the O2 consumption measurements.

  14. Levels of gingival tissue platelet activating factor after conventional and regenerative periodontal surgery. (United States)

    Keles, Gonca Cayir; Cetinkaya, Burcu Ozkan; Ayas, Bulent; Isildak, Ibrahim; Diraman, Emine; Koprulu, Hulya; Acikgoz, Gokhan


    The hypothesis, a relationship between gingival tissue platelet activating factor (PAF) levels and healing after periodontal surgery, was tested by measuring PAF levels in gingival tissues collected from sites that had undergone flap surgery and guided tissue regeneration (GTR) or flap surgery alone. Using a split-mouth design, 20 intrabony defects were randomly assigned to treatment with flap surgery and GTR (group 1) or with flap surgery alone (group 2). Gingival tissue samples were obtained at surgery (baseline) and at 6-month follow-up evaluation visit. One half of each sample was used for analysis of PAF levels by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the other half of the sample was used for histomorphometric analysis that included measurements of number and diameter of blood vessels. PAF levels and diameter of blood vessels were significantly decreased (p 0.05). Based on the reported results, it is suggested that a decrease in gingival PAF levels might be found after conventional and regenerative periodontal surgery.

  15. A unique automation platform for measuring low level radioactivity in metabolite identification studies. (United States)

    Krauser, Joel; Walles, Markus; Wolf, Thierry; Graf, Daniel; Swart, Piet


    Generation and interpretation of biotransformation data on drugs, i.e. identification of physiologically relevant metabolites, defining metabolic pathways and elucidation of metabolite structures, have become increasingly important to the drug development process. Profiling using (14)C or (3)H radiolabel is defined as the chromatographic separation and quantification of drug-related material in a given biological sample derived from an in vitro, preclinical in vivo or clinical study. Metabolite profiling is a very time intensive activity, particularly for preclinical in vivo or clinical studies which have defined limitations on radiation burden and exposure levels. A clear gap exists for certain studies which do not require specialized high volume automation technologies, yet these studies would still clearly benefit from automation. Use of radiolabeled compounds in preclinical and clinical ADME studies, specifically for metabolite profiling and identification are a very good example. The current lack of automation for measuring low level radioactivity in metabolite profiling requires substantial capacity, personal attention and resources from laboratory scientists. To help address these challenges and improve efficiency, we have innovated, developed and implemented a novel and flexible automation platform that integrates a robotic plate handling platform, HPLC or UPLC system, mass spectrometer and an automated fraction collector.

  16. A unique automation platform for measuring low level radioactivity in metabolite identification studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Krauser

    Full Text Available Generation and interpretation of biotransformation data on drugs, i.e. identification of physiologically relevant metabolites, defining metabolic pathways and elucidation of metabolite structures, have become increasingly important to the drug development process. Profiling using (14C or (3H radiolabel is defined as the chromatographic separation and quantification of drug-related material in a given biological sample derived from an in vitro, preclinical in vivo or clinical study. Metabolite profiling is a very time intensive activity, particularly for preclinical in vivo or clinical studies which have defined limitations on radiation burden and exposure levels. A clear gap exists for certain studies which do not require specialized high volume automation technologies, yet these studies would still clearly benefit from automation. Use of radiolabeled compounds in preclinical and clinical ADME studies, specifically for metabolite profiling and identification are a very good example. The current lack of automation for measuring low level radioactivity in metabolite profiling requires substantial capacity, personal attention and resources from laboratory scientists. To help address these challenges and improve efficiency, we have innovated, developed and implemented a novel and flexible automation platform that integrates a robotic plate handling platform, HPLC or UPLC system, mass spectrometer and an automated fraction collector.

  17. The Danish Physical Activity Cohort with Objective measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Lagersted-Olsen, Julie; Villumsen, Morten


    and leisure that account for health and work-related outcomes are enabled by a number of factors. These include: successful recruitment of participants; good follow-up rates; and, large variance in types and amounts of physical activities during work and leisure within the measured population....... of musculoskeletal pain. In this abstract, wereport on the profile of the Danish Physical Activity Cohort with Objective Measurements(DPhacto). DPhacto investigated the association between objective diurnal field measurementsof physical activities and provides follow up on pain. Methods. Eligible workers (n=2...... to the monthly text messages was >80%. Almost all (99%) participants provided their social security number, which offers a unique opportunity for longitudinal register-based follow up. Discussion. Opportunities for high quality, prospective analyses on the association between physical activities at work...

  18. An alternative measure of solar activity from detailed sunspot datasets

    CERN Document Server

    Muraközy, Judit; Ludmány, András


    The sunspot number is analyzed by using detailed sunspot data, including aspects of observability, sunspot sizes, and proper identification of sunspot groups as discrete entities of the solar activity. The tests show that besides the subjective factors there are also objective causes of the ambiguities in the series of sunspot numbers. To introduce an alternative activity measure the physical meaning of the sunspot number has to be reconsidered. It contains two components whose numbers are governed by different physical mechanisms, this is one source of the ambiguity. This article suggests an activity index, which is the amount of emerged magnetic flux. The only long-term proxy measure is the detailed sunspot area dataset with proper calibration to the magnetic flux amount. The Debrecen sunspot databases provide an appropriate source for the establishment of the suggested activity index.

  19. Measurement of nuclear activity with Ge detectors and its uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Cortes, C A P


    presented in the fifth chapter and they are applied to establish the optimum conditions for the measurement of the activity of a gamma transmitter isolated radioactive source with a spectrometer with germanium detector. (Author) The objective of this work is to analyse the influence magnitudes which affect the activity measurement of gamma transmitter isolated radioactive sources. They prepared by means of the gravimetric method, as well as, determining the uncertainty of such measurement when this is carried out with a gamma spectrometer system with a germanium detector. This work is developed in five chapters: In the first one, named Basic principles it is made a brief description about the meaning of the word Measurement and its implications and the necessaries concepts are presented which are used in this work. In the second chapter it is exposed the gravimetric method used for the manufacture of the gamma transmitter isolated radioactive sources, it is tackled the problem to determine the main influence ...

  20. Levels of patient activation among adults with schizophrenia: associations with hope, symptoms, medication adherence, and recovery attitudes. (United States)

    Kukla, Marina; Salyers, Michelle P; Lysaker, Paul H


    Patient activation, defined as one's attitudes and confidence toward managing illness, has been not been thoroughly studied in consumers with schizophrenia. The current study sought to understand the relationship between patient activation and symptoms, medication adherence, recovery attitudes, and hope in a sample of 119 adults with schizophrenia. The participants were enrolled in an 18-month randomized controlled study of the Illness Management and Recovery program. Data were collected at baseline; correlations and stepwise multiple regressions were used to examine the relationships and determine the unique contribution of variables. Higher patient activation was most strongly associated with positive recovery attitudes, higher levels of hope, and fewer emotional discomfort symptoms. Patient activation was significantly related to a broad measure of illness self-management, providing evidence for the construct validity of the patient activation measure. Our findings emphasize the importance of recovery-based mental health services that recognize level of patient activation as a potential factor in consumer outcomes.

  1. Dislocation Pile-Ups, Material Strength Levels, and Thermal Activation (United States)

    Armstrong, Ronald W.


    A review dedicated to James C.M. Li is given of dislocation pile-ups and their connection to the Hall-Petch dependence of polycrystalline strength and fracture mechanics properties on an inverse square root of grain size basis, with such grain size dependence now very importantly extended to nanopolycrystalline material behaviors. An analogous H-P dependence is described for the inverse activation volume parameter obtained from the strain rate (and thermal) dependencies contained in the model dislocation thermal activation-strain rate analysis, also relating to pioneering contributions of Li to the topic of thermally activated dislocation dynamics.

  2. Measuring Inclinations and Attitudes of University Teachers towards Sports Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaimaa Abed Mutar A1-Tamimi


    The researcher wants to know the inclinations of the teachers in A1-Mustansiriyah University into participation in sports activities and the obstacles. The aims are to build measure of trends and tendencies toward university teachers about exercise and sporting activities and identify the reasons that prevent teachers from exercise. This measure contained on 25 open questions directed by the researcher toward the university teachers, and the distribution of the questions was on three areas: cognitive domain, behavioral domain and emotional domain. These areas have a relationship between tendencies and attitudes of teachers towards sports activities, in addition to the knowledge of the problems and obstacles that prevent this group from participating in sports activities. There is a lack of correlation between the desire to practice physical activity and the presence of a sports hall at the university in terms of statistics. The difficulties in the practice of sports activities, including economic, social and other factors, insecurity and instability exist. There is a good correlation between the previous practice of physical activity and the current desire to practice in terms of statistical activities.

  3. Passive and active measurements of Egyptian monazite samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sroor, A. E-mail:


    Five samples of Egyptian monazite from beach black sand at Abou Khashba near Rosetta, North Egypt were separated in the laboratories of the nuclear materials authority of Egypt. Neutron activation analysis has been used to determine the elemental content of monazite samples. Twelve elements Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Cs, La, Eu, Sm, Hf, Pa and Np are observed and the concentrations of these elements have been calculated. Using passive measurements natural radioactivity has also been determined in Bq/kg for the investigated monazite samples. Th and U concentrations from both passive and active measurements are in agreement. Some of the observed elements have a high economic value.

  4. Passive and active measurements of Egyptian monazite samples. (United States)

    Sroor, A


    Five samples of Egyptian monazite from beach black sand at Abou Khashba near Rosetta, North Egypt were separated in the laboratories of the nuclear materials authority of Egypt. Neutron activation analysis has been used to determine the elemental content of monazite samples. Twelve elements Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Cs, La, Eu, Sm, Hf, Pa and Np are observed and the concentrations of these elements have been calculated. Using passive measurements natural radioactivity has also been determined in Bq/kg for the investigated monazite samples. Th and U concentrations from both passive and active measurements are in agreement. Some of the observed elements have a high economic value.

  5. Gross β activity level of fallout in the environment around Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ji-Da; CHEN Bin; WU Zong-Mei


    This paper presents the measurement results of gross β activities in fallout samples collected from the environment around Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) during 1993-2002. The gross β activity of 191 samples collected at five monitoring spots were (0.11~3.64) Bq · m-2 · d-1, with an average of (0.91 ±0.49) Bq · m-2 · d-1. This value was lower than (1.02±0.35) Bq·m-2·d-1 , the average of the samples collected at the reference spot in Hangzhou.It indicated that no obvious rise in the gross β activity level of fallout was observed in ambience of Qinshan NPP.

  6. The influence of thoron on instruments measuring radon activity concentration. (United States)

    Michielsen, N; Bondiguel, S


    Thoron, the isotope 220 of radon, is a radionuclide whose concentration may influence the measurement of the activity concentration of (222)Rn in the air. If in the case of continuous and active sampling measuring instruments, using a pump for example, the influence of thoron on radon measurement is obvious and is taken into account in the apparatus, it is often assumed that in the case of a passive sampling, by diffusion through a filter for example, this thoron influence is negligible. This is due to the very short radioactive half-life of thoron, 55.6 s (3.82 d for (222)Rn), and the assumption that the diffusion time of thoron in the detection chamber is long enough beside that of the thoron half-life. The objective of this study is to check whether this assumption is true or not for different kinds of commercial electronic apparatus used to measure radon activity concentration from soil to dwellings. First of all, the devices were calibrated in activity concentration of radon, and then they were exposed to a controlled thoron atmosphere. The experiments concerning the thoron aimed to investigate the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode of the apparatus. Results of these experiments show that all devices have a very quick answer to thoron atmosphere, even though the sensitivities vary from one instrument to another. Results clearly show that this influence on radon measurement due to the thoron is observed also after the exposition because of the decay of (212)Pb and its progenies. In conclusion, the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode depends strongly on the type of instruments. The results of the present investigation show that for some apparatus, the influence of thoron cannot be disregarded especially when measuring radon in soil.

  7. Tethered phytic acid as a probe for measuring phytase activity. (United States)

    Berry, Duane F; Berry, David A


    A novel approach for measuring phytase activity is presented. We have developed a new chromophoric substrate analog of phytic acid, 5-O-[6-(benzoylamino)hexyl]-d-myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,6-pentakisphosphate that permits direct measurement of the phosphate ester bond-cleavage reaction using HPLC. This compound, along with its dephosphorylated T-phosphatidylinositol intermediates, are quantified using reversed phase chromatography with UV detection.

  8. Measurement of the severity of disability in community-dwelling adults and older adults: interval-level measures for accurate comparisons in large survey data sets (United States)

    Buz, José; Cortés-Rodríguez, María


    Objectives To (1) create a single metric of disability using Rasch modelling to be used for comparing disability severity levels across groups and countries, (2) test whether the interval-level measures were invariant across countries, sociodemographic and health variables and (3) examine the gains in precision using interval-level measures relative to ordinal scores when discriminating between groups known to differ in disability. Design Cross-sectional, population-based study. Setting/participants Data were drawn from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), including comparable data across 16 countries and involving 58 489 community-dwelling adults aged 50+. Main outcome measures A single metric of disability composed of self-care and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) and functional limitations. We examined the construct validity through the fit to the Rasch model and the know-groups method. Reliability was examined using person separation reliability. Results The single metric fulfilled the requirements of a strong hierarchical scale; was able to separate persons with different levels of disability; demonstrated invariance of the item hierarchy across countries; and was unbiased by age, gender and different health conditions. However, we found a blurred hierarchy of ADL and IADL tasks. Rasch-based measures yielded gains in relative precision (11–116%) in discriminating between groups with different medical conditions. Conclusions Equal-interval measures, with person-invariance and item-invariance properties, provide epidemiologists and researchers with the opportunity to gain better insight into the hierarchical structure of functional disability, and yield more reliable and accurate estimates of disability across groups and countries. Interval-level measures of disability allow parametric statistical analysis to confidently examine the relationship between disability and continuous measures so frequent in health sciences

  9. Estradiol levels modulate brain activity and negative responses to psychosocial stress across the menstrual cycle. (United States)

    Albert, Kimberly; Pruessner, Jens; Newhouse, Paul


    Although ovarian hormones are thought to have a potential role in the well-known sex difference in mood and anxiety disorders, the mechanisms through which ovarian hormone changes contribute to stress regulation are not well understood. One mechanism by which ovarian hormones might impact mood regulation is by mediating the effect of psychosocial stress, which often precedes depressive episodes and may have mood consequences that are particularly relevant in women. In the current study, brain activity and mood response to psychosocial stress was examined in healthy, normally cycling women at either the high or low estradiol phase of the menstrual cycle. Twenty eight women were exposed to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), with brain activity determined through functional magnetic resonance imaging, and behavioral response assessed with subjective mood and stress measures. Brain activity responses to psychosocial stress differed between women in the low versus high estrogen phase of the menstrual cycle: women with high estradiol levels showed significantly less deactivation in limbic regions during psychosocial stress compared to women with low estradiol levels. Additionally, women with higher estradiol levels also had less subjective distress in response to the MIST than women with lower estradiol levels. The results of this study suggest that, in normally cycling premenopausal women, high estradiol levels attenuate the brain activation changes and negative mood response to psychosocial stress. Normal ovarian hormone fluctuations may alter the impact of psychosocially stressful events by presenting periods of increased vulnerability to psychosocial stress during low estradiol phases of the menstrual cycle. This menstrual cycle-related fluctuation in stress vulnerability may be relevant to the greater risk for affective disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder in women.

  10. Non-Destructive Damping Measurement for Wafer-Level Packaged Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) Acceleration Switches (United States)


    Non - destructive Damping Measurement for Wafer-level Packaged Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) Acceleration Switches by Ryan Knight and...Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1138 ARL-TR-7094 September 2014 Non - destructive Damping Measurement for Wafer-level Packaged...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) September 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Non - destructive

  11. Lifetime measurements in sd shell nuclei (VII). Mean lives of 27Si and 27Al levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauritzson, I.; Engmann, R.; Brandolini, F.; Barci, V.


    Abstract The mean lives and excitation energies of the lowest six levels of 27Si were measured by means of the 28Si(, αγ)27Si reaction. Coincidence Doppler-shift attenuation measurements lead to mean lives of τm = 2200±400, 56±12, 16±8, < 10 and 79±11 fs for the 27Si levels at E× = 0.96, 2.17, 2.65,

  12. QR-codes as a tool to increase physical activity level among school children during class hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Kristensen, Allan; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup

    QR-codes as a tool to increase physical activity level among school children during class hours Introduction: Danish students are no longer fulfilling recommendations for everyday physical activity. Since August 2014, Danish students in public schools are therefore required to be physically active...... for 45 minutes a day during school hours. An experiment implementing QR-codes as a method to increase physical activity during school hours has been tried. The purpose of this study was to examine if the use of QR-codes as a tool for teaching older classes in Danish public schools could increase...... the students physical activity level during class hours. Methods: A before-after study was used to examine 12 students physical activity level, measured with pedometers for six lessons. Three lessons of traditional teaching and three lessons, where QR-codes were used to make orienteering in school area...

  13. Associations of objectively measured physical activity and abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Annelotte; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Jørgensen, Marit Eika


    Introduction/Purpose: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and physical activity are both independent predictors of Type 2 diabetes. Physical activity and overall obesity are inversely associated with each other. Yet the nature of the association between objectively measured dimensions of physical...... activity and abdominal fat distribution has not been well characterized. We aimed to do so in a middle-age to elderly population at high risk of diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 1134 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed one...

  14. Measuring the Enzyme Activity of Arabidopsis Deubiquitylating Enzymes. (United States)

    Kalinowska, Kamila; Nagel, Marie-Kristin; Isono, Erika


    Deubiquitylating enzymes, or DUBs, are important regulators of ubiquitin homeostasis and substrate stability, though the molecular mechanisms of most of the DUBs in plants are not yet understood. As different ubiquitin chain types are implicated in different biological pathways, it is important to analyze the enzyme characteristic for studying a DUB. Quantitative analysis of DUB activity is also important to determine enzyme kinetics and the influence of DUB binding proteins on the enzyme activity. Here, we show methods to analyze DUB activity using immunodetection, Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining, and fluorescence measurement that can be useful for understanding the basic characteristic of DUBs.

  15. Beta-Carotene, Vitamin E, MDA, Glutathione Reductase and Arylesterase Activity Levels in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Aryaeian


    Full Text Available "nBackground: Many studies have investigated the possible role of reactive oxygen species in the etiology and patho­gene­sis of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA. The aim of this study was to investigate the activities of some antioxidants in RA patients."nMethods: In this case-control study, 59 RA patients and 60 healthy sex and age-matched controls were selected. Vitamin E and Beta-carotene were determined using HPLC. Erythrocytes glutathione reductase (GR activity was meas­ured spec­trophotometrically, and malondialdehyde (MDA was determined by colorimetric method. Aryles­terase activity (AEA was measured by Phenylacetate. The clinical data were determined by a rheumatologist, medical history and filling the questionnaire by interview. Statistical analyses were carried out using the SPSS software."nResults: In patients with RA, serum MDA level was significantly higher and plasma concentration of vitamin E, Beta-carotene and GR activity, were significantly lower than healthy control (P<0.001. AEA activity differences between two groups were non-significant."nConclusions: Oxidative stress may play an important role in the inflammation and pathogenesis of RA.  

  16. Are children's activity levels determined by their genes or environment? A systematic review of twin studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Fisher


    Conclusions: Although genetic influences may be expressed when children have brief opportunities for autonomous activity, activity levels in daily-life are predominantly explained by environmental factors. Future research should aim to identify key environmental drivers of childhood activity.

  17. Anoxic Activated Sludge Monitoring with Combined Nitrate and Titrimetric Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B.; Gernaey, Krist; Vanrolleghem, P.A.


    An experimental procedure for anoxic activated sludge monitoring with combined nitrate and titrimetric measurements is proposed and evaluated successfully with two known carbon sources, (-)acetate and dextrose. For nitrate measurements an ion-selective nitrate electrode is applied to allow...... was with the carbon source in excess, since excess nitrate provoked nitrite build-up thereby complicating the data interpretation. A conceptual model could quantitatively describe the experimental observations and thus link the experimentally measured proton production with the consumption of electron acceptor...... and carbon source during denitrification....

  18. Objectively measured differences in physical activity in five types of schoolyard area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Klinker, Charlotte Demant; Toftager, Mette;


    Abstract Physical activity (PA) in childhood is related to a multitude of short- and long-term health consequences. School recess can contribute with up to 40% of the recommended 60 min of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This paper aims to investigate how schoolchildren use...... different schoolyard areas during recess and whether these areas are associated with different levels of PA. Time spent by 316 students (grade 5–8) in five types of schoolyard area was measured during at least two days and four separate recess period per person (in total 1784 recess periods), using global...... positioning system (GPS) and the level of activity was measured using accelerometers. Total time spent and proportions of time spent sedentary and in MVPA were calculated per area type. Significant differences in PA levels were found. Grass and playground areas had the highest proportion of time in MVPA...

  19. Influence of acute glycaemic level on measures of myocardial infarction in non-diabetic pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diemar, Sarah S; Sejling, Anne-Sophie; Iversen, Kasper K;


    OBJECTIVE: Patients with diabetes are at increased risk of experiencing myocardial infarction. The influence of the prevailing plasma glucose level on infarction and mortality after acute ischaemia is however unknown. The aim was to study the effect of the acute plasma glucose level on the myocar...... glycaemic level and measures of myocardial infarction, rates of ventricular fibrillation and subsequent premature death in the setting of acute ischaemia and reperfusion.......OBJECTIVE: Patients with diabetes are at increased risk of experiencing myocardial infarction. The influence of the prevailing plasma glucose level on infarction and mortality after acute ischaemia is however unknown. The aim was to study the effect of the acute plasma glucose level...

  20. High Source Levels and Small Active Space of High-Pitched Song in Bowhead Whales (Balaena mysticetus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tervo, Outi M.; Christoffersen, Mads F.; Simon, Malene


    The low frequency, powerful vocalizations of blue and fin whales may potentially be detected by conspecifics across entire ocean basins. In contrast, humpback and bowhead whales produce equally loud, but more complex broadband vocalizations composed of higher frequencies that suffer from higher...... attenuation. Here we evaluate the active space of high-pitched song notes of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in Western Greenland using measurements of song source levels and ambient noise. Four independent GPS-synchronized hydrophones were deployed through holes in the ice to localize vocalizing bowhead...... whales, estimate source levels and measure ambient noise. The song had a mean apparent source level of 185 ± 2 dB rms re 1µPa and a high mean centroid frequency of 444 ± 48 Hz. Using measured ambient noise levels in the area and Arctic sound spreading models, the estimated active space of these song...

  1. Tracking of objectively measured physical activity from childhood to adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Lund; Møller, N C; Korsholm, L


    A number of studies have investigated tracking of physical activity from childhood to adolescence and, in general, these studies have been based on methods with some degree of subjectivity (e.g., questionnaires). The aim of the present study was to evaluate tracking of physical activity from...... childhood to adolescence using accelerometry, taking into account major sources of variation in physical activity. Both a crude and an adjusted model was fitted, and, in the adjusted model, analyses were corrected for seasonal variation, within-week variation, activity registration during night time sleep......, within instrumental measurement error, and day-to-day variation in physical activity. In all, 208 subjects were included in the crude analyses. Stability coefficients estimated from the crude model were low (i.e., 0.18 and 0.19 for boys and girls, respectively) and only borderline significant. However...

  2. Low-level 14C methane oxidation rate measurements modified for remote field settings (United States)

    Pack, M. A.; Pohlman, J.; Ruppel, C. D.; Xu, X.


    Aerobic methane oxidation limits atmospheric methane emissions from degraded subsea permafrost and dissociated methane hydrates in high latitude oceans. Methane oxidation rate measurements are a crucial tool for investigating the efficacy of this process, but are logistically challenging when working on small research vessels in remote settings. We modified a low-level 14C-CH4 oxidation rate measurement for use in the Beaufort Sea above hydrate bearing sediments during August 2012. Application of the more common 3H-CH4 rate measurement that uses 106 times more radioactivity was not practical because the R/V Ukpik cannot accommodate a radiation van. The low-level 14C measurement does not require a radiation van, but careful isolation of the 14C-label is essential to avoid contaminating natural abundance 14C measurements. We used 14C-CH4 with a total activity of 1.1 μCi, which is far below the 100 μCi permitting level. In addition, we modified field procedures to simplify and shorten sample processing. The original low-level 14C-CH4 method requires 6 steps in the field: (1) collect water samples in glass serum bottles, (2) inject 14C-CH4 into bottles, (3) incubate for 24 hours, (4) filter to separate the methanotrophic bacterial cells from the aqueous sample, (5) kill the filtrate with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and (6) purge with nitrogen to remove unused 14C-CH4. Onshore, the 14C-CH4 respired to carbon dioxide or incorporated into cell material by methanotrophic bacteria during incubation is quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). We conducted an experiment to test the possibility of storing samples for purging and filtering back onshore (steps 4 and 6). We subjected a series of water samples to steps 1-3 & 5, and preserved with mercuric chloride (HgCl2) instead of NaOH because HgCl2 is less likely to break down cell material during storage. The 14C-content of the carbon dioxide in samples preserved with HgCl2 and stored for up to 2 weeks was stable

  3. Range and number-of-levels effects in derived and stated measures of attribute importance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, PWJ; Schifferstein, HNJ; Wittink, DR


    We study how the range of variation and the number of ttribute levels affect five measures of attribute importance: full profile conjoint estimates, ranges in attribute level attractiveness ratings. regression coefficients. graded paired comparisons. and self-reported ratings, We find that all impor

  4. Target detection and driving behaviour measurements in a driving simulator at mesopic light levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.


    During night-time driving hazardous objects often appear at mesopic light levels, which are typically measured using light meters with a spectral sensitivity that is only valid for photopic light levels. In order to develop suitable mesopic models a target detection experiment was performed in a dri

  5. Preliminary evidence of physical activity levels measured by accelerometer in Spanish adolescents: The AFINOS Study Evidencia preliminar de los niveles de actividad física medidos mediante un acelerómetro en adolescentes españoles: Estudio AFINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martínez-Gómez


    Full Text Available Background: It is necessary to know the levels of physical activity (PA for a better understanding of the development of chronic diseases in youth. The aim of this study was to assess levels of total PA and time spent in different PAintensities in Spanish adolescents by accelerometer. Methods: A sub-sample of 214 healthy Spanish adolescents (107 females, aged 13-16 years, enrolled in the AFINOS Study was selected for this study. Participants wore the ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer for 7 consecutive days. Total PA and time spent in sedentary, light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA was estimated using the accelerometer. Adiposity was measured in the sample using sum of 6 skinfoldthickness, waist circumference and BMI. Results: Adolescent boys were engaged in higher levels of total PA, moderate PA, vigorous PA and MVPA than adolescent girls, whereas girls were engaged in higher levels of light PA. Differences between age groups showed that the 15-16 years group did more total PA (P = 0.008 than the 13-14 years group. Adolescents with highest levels of body fat were less active and spent less time in vigorous PA and MVPA than adolescents with less body fat. Among the current sample, 71.1% of the adolescents (82.2% adolescent boys and 60.7% adolescent girls reached the recommendation of ≥ 60 min in MVPA. Conclusions: Although these findings suggest that Spanish adolescents have similar PA levels than other European adolescents, further cross-sectional and longitudinal studies must assess PA levels in free-living conditions in Spanish children and adolescents using objective methods such as accelerometers, heart rate monitors and pedometers.Antecedentes: Para comprender mejor el desarrollo de las enfermedades crónicas en los jóvenes resulta necesario conocer los niveles de actividad física (AF que realizan. El propósito de este estudio es evaluar los niveles de AF total y el tiempo de AF a distintas

  6. Activity levels of gamma-emitters in Brazil nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, M. J.A.; Maihara, V.A.; Silva, P.S.C.; Saiki, M., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisas. Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Cozzolino, S.M.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas


    Activity concentrations of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra were determined in Brazil nuts acquired at points of sale between 2010 and 2013. Results indicated that the estimated annual effective radioactive dose due to ingestion of Brazil nuts is 27% of the annual dose limit of 1 mSv y{sup -1} for public exposure, according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To estimate this dose the highest activity concentration obtained for each radionuclide was considered, assuming an annual consumption of 1.5 kg y{sup -1} per individual. (author)

  7. Cavitation Measurement during Sonic and Ultrasonic Activated Irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, R.G.; Verhaagen, B.; Fernandez-Rivas, D.; Versluis, M.; Wesselink, P.R.; Sluis, van der L.W.M.


    Introduction The aims of this study were to quantify and to visualize the possible occurrence of transient cavitation (bubble formation and implosion) during sonic and ultrasonic (UAI) activated irrigation. Methods The amount of cavitation generated around several endodontic instruments was measure

  8. Cavitation measurement during sonic and ultrasonic activated irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, R.; Verhaagen, B.; Fernandez Rivas, D.; Versluis, M.; Wesselink, P.; van der Sluis, L.


    Introduction The aims of this study were to quantify and to visualize the possible occurrence of transient cavitation (bubble formation and implosion) during sonic and ultrasonic (UAI) activated irrigation. Methods The amount of cavitation generated around several endodontic instruments was measured

  9. Exploring Patient Activation in the Clinic: Measurement from Three Perspectives (United States)

    Ledford, Christy J. W.; Ledford, Christopher C.; Childress, Marc A.


    Objective. To further conceptualize and operationalize patient activation (PA), using measures from patient, physician, and researcher perspectives. Data Source/Study Setting. Multimethod observation in 2010 within a family medicine clinic. Study Design. Part of an intervention with 130 patients with type 2 diabetes, this observational study…

  10. Design parameters for measurements of local catalytic activity on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Martin; Johannessen, Tue; Jørgensen, Jan Hoffmann;


    Computational fluid dynamics in combination with experiments is used to characterize a gas sampling device for measurements of the local catalytic activity on surfaces. The device basically consists of a quartz capillary mounted concentrically inside an aluminum tube. Reactant gas is blown toward...

  11. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study. (United States)

    Abdulnour, Joseph; Razmjou, Sahar; Doucet, Éric; Boulay, Pierre; Brochu, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Prud'homme, Denis


    To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter "fitness") and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa) on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB) and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥ 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) compared to women with a fitness fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition.

  12. The "Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale" and its application to health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimby, G; Börjesson, M; Jonsdottir, I H;


    The use of a four-level questionnaire to assess leisure time physical activity (PA) and its validation is reviewed in this paper. This questionnaire was first published in 1968 and has then been used by more than 600 000 subjects, especially in different population studies in the Nordic countries....... The concurrent validity, with respect to aerobic capacity and movement analysis using objective measurements has been shown to be good, as has the predictive validity with respect to various risk factors for health conditions and for morbidity and mortality....

  13. Irisin levels are not affected by physical activity in patients with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eHofmann


    Full Text Available Irisin was recently identified as muscle-derived hormone that increases energy expenditure. Studies in normal weight and obese subjects reported an increased irisin expression following physical activity, although inconsistent results were observed. Increased physical activity in a subgroup of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN complicates the course of the disease. Since irisin could account for differences in clinical outcomes, we investigated irisin levels in anorexic patients with high and moderate physical activity to evaluate whether irisin differs with increasing physical activity. Hospitalized female anorexic patients (n=39 were included. Plasma irisin measured by ELISA and locomotor activity were assessed at the same time. Patients were separated into two groups (n=19/group; median excluded: moderate and high activity (6331±423 vs. 13743±1047 steps/day, p0.05, whereas body weight-adjusted total energy expenditure (46.0±1.4 vs. 41.1±1.1 kcal/kg/d, metabolic equivalents (METs, 1.9±0.1 vs. 1.7±0.1 METs/d, body weight-adjusted exercise activity thermogenesis (EAT, 1.8±0.5 vs. 0.6±0.3 kcal/kg/d, duration of exercise (18.6±4.7 vs. 6.2±3.1 min/d and body weight-adjusted non-exercise activity thermogenesis (21.6±1.0 vs. 18.8±0.8 kcal/kg/d were higher in the high activity compared to the moderate activity group (p0.05. In conclusion, the current data do not support the concept of irisin being induced by exercise, at least not under conditions of severely reduced body weight like AN.

  14. [Mass spectrometry assay for denitrifying enzyme activity measurement]. (United States)

    Zhang, Li-li; Wu, Zhi-jie; Song, Yu-chao


    Nitrification inhibitors exert inhibition function in soil nitrification process (NH4(+)-N to NO3(-)-N) and are widely applied in order to improve N fertilizer use efficiency. Before the new nitrification inhibitor is used, its effects on denitrification process must be investigated and denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) is an effective indicator to show this process. In the present paper, a mass spectrometery (MS) method was taken to measure the denitrifying enzyme activity in the new nitrification inhibitor 3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) incubation system. The results showed that the method measured the concentration of N2O in the incubation system accurately and the concentration measured by MS had marked correlation with that measured by gas chromatogram (GC) (MS(N2O) = -0.45 + 1.03GC(N2O, R2 = 0.995). At the same time, enrichment of 15 N2O and 15 N2 was measured to discriminate the nitrate reductase and N2O reductase. Differed with traditional method, the enzymatic inhibitor-acetylene was not appended. The results showed that DMPP had no influence on the denitrifying enzyme activity and indicated that the denitrification process was not influenced by DMPP.


    Groundwater flow models are usually calibrated with respect to water level measurements collected at intervals of several months or even years. Measurements of these kinds are not sensitive to sudden or short stress conditions, such as impact from stormwater drainage flow or flas...

  16. Coh-Metrix Measures Text Characteristics at Multiple Levels of Language and Discourse (United States)

    Graesser, Arthur C.; McNamara, Danielle S.; Cai, Zhiqang; Conley, Mark; Li, Haiying; Pennebaker, James


    Coh-Metrix analyzes texts on multiple measures of language and discourse that are aligned with multilevel theoretical frameworks of comprehension. Dozens of measures funnel into five major factors that systematically vary as a function of types of texts (e.g., narrative vs. informational) and grade level: narrativity, syntactic simplicity, word…

  17. Rasch-Built Measure of Pleasant Touch through Active Fingertip Exploration (United States)

    Klöcker, Anne; Arnould, Carlyne; Penta, Massimo; Thonnard, Jean-Louis


    Background: Evidence suggests that somatic sensation has a modality for pleasant touch. Objective: To investigate pleasant touch at the fingertip level (i.e., glabrous skin site) through the elaboration of a linear unidimensional scale that measures (i) various materials according to the level of pleasantness they elicit through active fingertip explorations and (ii) subjects according to their pleasantness leniency levels. Subjects: We enrolled 198 healthy subjects without any neurological disease. Methods: Blindfolded subjects actively explored 48 materials with their index fingertips and reported the perceived pleasantness of each on a 4-level scale. The fingertip moisture levels on each subject were measured before the experimental session. Data were analyzed using the Rasch model. Results: We elaborated unidimensional linear scale that included 37 materials according to their pleasantness of touch. The pleasantness level of 21 materials was perceived differently, depending on the fingertip moisture levels of the subjects. Conclusion: Based on our findings, we formulated a Pleasant Touch Scale. Fingertip moisture levels appeared to be a major factor for (un)pleasant feelings during active exploration. PMID:22737122

  18. Associations between students' situational interest, mastery experiences, and physical activity levels in an interactive dance game. (United States)

    Huang, Chaoqun; Gao, Zan


    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of previous experiences on students' situational interest and physical activity (PA) levels, as well as the relationships between situational interest and PA levels in Dance Dance Revolution (DDR). A total of 135 seventh through ninth graders participated in DDR unit for two weeks, and reported their previous DDR experiences. Students' PA levels were measured by ActiGraph accelerometers for three classes with percentages of time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) as the outcome variable. They also responded to the Situational Interest Scale (including novelty, challenge, attention demand, exploration intention, and instant enjoyment) at the end of each class. The multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) yielded a significant main effect for experience. Follow-up tests revealed that students with DDR experiences scored significantly higher than those without experiences at following dimensions: challenge; exploration intention; instant enjoyment; and attention demand. Regression analysis yielded that novelty emerged as the only significant predictor for MVPA. The findings suggested that four dimensions of situational interest differed between students with and without previous experiences. Novelty emerged as the only predictor for MVPA, suggesting that students would have higher PA when they feel the activity provides new information.

  19. Mid-level Features Improve Recognition of Interactive Activities (United States)


    Recognizing action as clouds of space-time interest points. In CVPR, 2009. [5] W. Brendel, A. Fern , and S. Todorovic. Probabilistic event logic for interval...context. In CVPR, 2009. [27] R. Messing, C. Pal, and H. Kautz. Activity recognition using the velocity histories of tracked keypoints. In ICCV, 2009

  20. New data sources to indicate levels of active citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosales Sanchez, C.; Craglia, M.; Bregt, A.K.


    Data availability is a general constraint in the generation of indicators for decision-making processes. Web 2.0 technologies offer new potentials of data sources (also considered as big data sources) that needs to be investigated. In our research we focus on indicators of active citizenship as a re

  1. Minority Youth, Physical Activity, and Fitness Levels: Targeted Interventions Needed (United States)

    Fahlman, Mariane; Hall, Heather L.; Gutuskey, Lila


    Background: There is a clear disparity in health in the United States such that African Americans and Hispanics are more likely to suffer from morbidity and mortality related to chronic disease than their Caucasian counterparts. Purpose: We will determine whether fourth- and fifth-grade students' measures of health-related fitness and physical…

  2. Triton burnup measurements in KSTAR using a neutron activation system (United States)

    Jo, Jungmin; Cheon, MunSeong; Kim, Jun Young; Rhee, T.; Kim, Junghee; Shi, Yue-Jiang; Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.


    Measurements of the time-integrated triton burnup for deuterium plasma in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) have been performed following the simultaneous detection of the d-d and d-t neutrons. The d-d neutrons were measured using a 3He proportional counter, fission chamber, and activated indium sample, whereas the d-t neutrons were detected using activated silicon and copper samples. The triton burnup ratio from KSTAR discharges is found to be in the range 0.01%-0.50% depending on the plasma conditions. The measured burnup ratio is compared with the prompt loss fraction of tritons calculated with the Lorentz orbit code and the classical slowing-down time. The burnup ratio is found to increase as plasma current and classical slowing-down time increase.

  3. Measurements of g-Factor of Rotational Levels in 83Y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Da-Qing; LI Guang-Sheng; WEN Shu-Xian; XU Guo-Ji; GAO Zao-Chun; CHEN Yong-Shou; ZHU Sheng-Yun; ZHENG Yong-Nan; ZHOU Dong-Mei; ZUO Yi; DU En-Peng; DUAN Xiao; WANG Chao-Hui; LUO Qi; WU Xiao-Guang


    @@ The g-factors of the positive parity rotational levels up to spin Ⅰ = 41/2+ in 83Y have been measured by a transient-magnetic-field ion implantation perturbed angular distribution method. The experimentally measured g-factors show the g9/2 proton alignment followed by the gg/2 neutron alignment. The measured g-factors are in good agreement with the results calculated by an empirical formula based on the cranking shell model.

  4. Comparative measurements of the level of turbulence atmosphere by optical and acoustic devices (United States)

    Lukin, V. P.; Botugina, N. N.; Gladkih, V. A.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.; Odintsov, S. L.; Torgaev, A. V.


    The complex measurements of level of atmospheric turbulence are conducted by the differential measurement device of turbulence (DMT), wave-front sensor (WFS), and also by ultrasonic weather-stations. Daytime measurements of structure parameters of refractive index of atmospheric turbulence carried out on horizontal optical paths on the Base Experimental Complex (BEC) of V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS (IOA). A comparative analysis over of the got results is brought.

  5. Correlation between High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL) Level and Aerobic Activity Level. (United States)


    over a 40 day period for HDtJICholesteroll and Total Choleis- added with the "reverse" technique, This technique is only poai- tarot . The results are...Stand- tarot and Total Cholestero levels, it is beat that eet laoatr ard and a control Serum were each analyzed 10 times giving the * determinle its

  6. Knowledge, attitude, and level of physical activity among medical undergraduate students in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanu Anand


    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical inactivity has been implicated as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The healthy lifestyle of medical students could facilitate the formation of healthy physicians who is more likely to give effective preventive counseling to their patients. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess the knowledge, attitude, and pattern of the physical activity among the medical students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 161 eligible sixth semester medical undergraduate students. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect the data. Anthropometric measurements were also taken. The data were fed and coded in Microsoft Excel 2007 and analyzed using SPSS 17.0 and Epi Info software of World Health Organization. Results: Knowledge regarding different types of exercise and anthropometric variables was fairly low among the study participants. Only 9.3% of the students were aware of the recommended level of the physical activity but nearly all (96.27% were aware of the benefits of it. The attitude of the participants toward the physical activity was favorable, yet only one-third (32.3% subjects adhered to recommended guidelines. Boys (39.8% were found to be significantly more active than girls (20.6% (P = 0.01. Conclusion: The knowledge and practices regarding the physical activity was found to be low amongst the medical students. There is a need to provide an enabling environment for promoting the physical activity amongst them so that can inculcate the same in their patients.

  7. Comparison of the level of residual coagulant activity in different cheese varieties. (United States)

    Bansal, Nidhi; Fox, Patrick F; McSweeney, Paul L H


    The coagulant retained in cheese curd is a major contributor to proteolysis during ripening. The objective of this study was to quantify residual coagulant in 9 cheese varieties by measuring its activity on a synthetic heptapeptide (Pro-Thr-Glu-Phe-[NO2-Phe]-Arg-Leu) assayed using reversed-phase HPLC. The level of residual coagulant activity was highest in Camembert cheese, probably due to its low pH at whey drainage and the high moisture content of the cheese, followed in order by Feta=Port du Salut=Cheddar>Gouda>Emmental=Parmigiano Reggiano=low-moisture part-skim Mozzarella=Mozzarella di Bufala Campana. The high cooking temperature (50-54 degrees C) used during the manufacture of Emmental and Parmigiano Reggiano cheeses and the cooking and stretching step in hot water during the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese may be the reasons for the lowest residual coagulant activity in these cheeses. The level of residual coagulant activity was higher in Feta cheese made from milk concentrated by ultrafiltration than in conventional Feta.

  8. Lack of correlation of glucose levels in filtered blood plasma to density and conductivity measurements. (United States)

    Gordon, David M; Ash, Stephen R


    The purpose of this research project was to determine whether the glucose level of a blood plasma sample from a diabetic patient could be predicted by measuring the density and conductivity of ultrafiltrate of plasma created by a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. Conductivity of the plasma filtrate measures electrolyte concentration and should correct density measurements for changes in electrolytes and water concentration. In vitro studies were performed measuring conductivity and density of solutions of varying glucose and sodium chloride concentrations. Plasma from seven hospitalized patients with diabetes was filtered across a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. The filtrate density and conductivity were measured and correlated to glucose levels. In vitro studies confirmed the ability to predict glucose from density and conductivity measurements, in varying concentrations of glucose and saline. In plasma filtrate, the conductivity and density measurements of ultrafiltrate allowed estimation of glucose in some patients with diabetes but not others. The correlation coefficient for the combined patient data was 0.45 which was significant but only explained 20% of the variability in the glucose levels. Individually, the correlation was significant in only two of the seven patients with correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.88. The reasons for lack of correlation are not clear, and cannot be explained by generation of idiogenic osmoles, effects of alcohol dehydrogenase, water intake, etc. This combination of physical methods for glucose measurement is not a feasible approach to measuring glucose in plasma filtrate.

  9. A method to measure thrombin activity in a mixture of fibrinogen and thrombin powders (United States)

    DeAnglis, Ashley P.; Nur, Israel; Gorman, Anne J.; Meidler, Roberto


    Thrombin and fibrinogen powders are the active components of advanced surgical hemostasis products including the EVARREST Fibrin Sealant Patch. Measuring the enzymatic activity of thrombin in the presence of fibrinogen is challenging, as hydration of the powders in a neutral aqueous environment will cause the enzyme to rapidly react with the fibrinogen to form a fibrin clot, which in turn binds and entraps the enzyme thus preventing subsequent measurement of thrombin activity. A novel approach has been developed to overcome this challenge. After isolation of the mixture of powders, an alkaline carbonate solution is used to solubilize the proteins, while reversibly inhibiting the activity of thrombin and preventing clot formation. Once the powders have been fully solubilized, thrombin activity can be restored by neutralization in a buffered fibrinogen solution resulting in fibrin clot formulation. The rate of clot formation can be quantified in a coagulometer to determine the thrombin activity of the original powder. Samples coated with powders containing fibrinogen and varying amounts of thrombin were tested using the method described herein. The results demonstrated that the method could consistently measure the activity of (alpha) thrombin in the presence of fibrinogen over a broad range of thrombin activity levels. The test was successfully validated according to International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use Guidelines and thus is suitable for use as part of a commercial manufacturing process. A method has been developed that enables thrombin activity to be measured in a mixture of fibrinogen and thrombin powders. PMID:26991860

  10. SAGE II Measurements of Stratospheric Aerosol Properties at Non-Volcanic Levels (United States)

    Thomason, Larry W.; Burton, Sharon P.; Luo, Bei-Ping; Peter, Thomas


    Since 2000, stratospheric aerosol levels have been relatively stable and at the lowest levels observed in the historical record. Given the challenges of making satellite measurements of aerosol properties at these levels, we have performed a study of the sensitivity of the product to the major components of the processing algorithm used in the production of SAGE II aerosol extinction measurements and the retrieval process that produces the operational surface area density (SAD) product. We find that the aerosol extinction measurements, particularly at 1020 nm, remain robust and reliable at the observed aerosol levels. On the other hand, during background periods, the SAD operational product has an uncertainty of at least a factor of 2 during due to the lack of sensitivity to particles with radii less than 100 nm.

  11. CAT5:A Tool for Measuring the Maturity Level of Information Technology Governance Using COBIT 5 Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souhaïl El ghazi El Houssaïni


    Full Text Available Companies have more and more trends to automate their operational and organizational activities, therefore the investment of information technology (IT continues to increase every year. However, good governance that can ensure the alignment of IT and business strategy and realized benefits from IT investments has not always followed this increase. Measurement of IT governance is then required as a basis for the continuous improvement of the IT services. This study is aimed at producing a tool CAT5 to measure the maturity level of IT governance, thus facilitating the process of improvement of IT services. CAT5 is based on COBIT 5 framework and the design used is Unified Modeling Language. Through stages of information system development, this research results in an application for measuring the maturity level of IT governance that can be used in assessing existing IT governance.

  12. Thermodynamic Activity Measurements with Knudsen Cell Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Copland, Evan H.; Jacobson, Nathan S.


    Coupling the Knudsen effusion method with mass spectrometry has proven to be one of the most useful experimental techniques for studying the equilibrium between condensed phases and complex vapors. The Knudsen effusion method involves placing a condensed sample in a Knudsen cell, a small "enclosure", that is uniformly heated and held until equilibrium is attained between the condensed and vapor phases. The vapor is continuously sampled by effusion through a small orifice in the cell. A molecular beam is formed from the effusing vapor and directed into a mass spectrometer for identification and pressure measurement of the species in the vapor phase. Knudsen cell mass spectrometry (KCMS) has been used for nearly fifty years now and continues to be a leading technique for obtaining thermodynamic data. Indeed, much of the well-established vapor specie data in the JANAF tables has been obtained from this technique. This is due to the extreme versatility of the technique. All classes of materials can be studied and all constituents of the vapor phase can be measured over a wide range of pressures (approximately 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -11) bar) and temperatures (500-2800 K). The ability to selectively measure different vapor species makes KCMS a very powerful tool for the measurement of component activities in metallic and ceramic solutions. Today several groups are applying KCMS to measure thermodynamic functions in multicomponent metallic and ceramic systems. Thermodynamic functions, especially component activities, are extremely important in the development of CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) type thermodynamic descriptions. These descriptions, in turn, are useful for modeling materials processing and predicting reactions such as oxide formation and fiber/matrix interactions. The leading experimental methods for measuring activities are the Galvanic cell or electro-motive force (EMF) technique and the KCMS technique. Each has specific advantages, depending on

  13. Cortisol level measurements in fingernails as a retrospective index of hormone production. (United States)

    Izawa, Shuhei; Miki, Keiichi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Mitani, Takeshi; Midorikawa, Toru; Fuchu, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Taiki; Togo, Fumiharu


    The cortisol level in fingernails may reflect the hormone's cumulative production over a long period, but the notions have not been fully established. In this study, we investigated the association of cortisol in fingernails with cortisol accumulation over a long period (hair cortisol) and over a relatively short period (salivary cortisol). In study 1, hair and fingernail samples were collected from 58 middle-aged and elderly men. The cortisol level in hair samples was moderately associated with the level in fingernail samples (r = 0.29, p cortisol level in saliva over the whole day (area under the curve for cortisol) was moderately associated with the cortisol level measured in fingernail samples that were collected 4 months (r = 0.43, p cortisol level in fingernail samples might retrospectively represent hormone production during a given period. The cortisol level in fingernail samples may be useful in the investigation of the link between psychosocial stress and health.

  14. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ashley R; Goodman, Anna; Page, Angie S


    BACKGROUND: Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in youth have been reported to vary by sex, age, weight status and country. However, supporting data are often self-reported and/or do not encompass a wide range of ages or geographical locations. This study aimed to describe objectively.......8-18.4 years) who provided at least three days of valid accelerometer data. Linear regression was used to examine associations between age, sex, weight status, country and physical activity outcomes. RESULTS: Boys were less sedentary and more active than girls at all ages. After 5 years of age......-measured physical activity and sedentary time patterns in youth. METHODS: The International Children's Accelerometry Database (ICAD) consists of ActiGraph accelerometer data from 20 studies in ten countries, processed using common data reduction procedures. Analyses were conducted on 27,637 participants (2...

  15. Examining student ideas about energy measurements on quantum states across undergraduate and graduate levels (United States)

    Passante, Gina; Emigh, Paul J.; Shaffer, Peter S.


    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Energy measurements play a fundamental role in the theory of quantum mechanics, yet there is evidence that the underlying concepts are difficult for many students, even after all undergraduate instruction. We present results from an investigation into student ability to determine the possible energies that can be measured for a given wave function and Hamiltonian, to determine the probabilities of each energy measurement and how they depend on time, and to recognize how a measurement of energy affects the state. By analyzing student responses to open-ended questions, we identify five broad, interrelated sets of conceptual and reasoning difficulties related to energy measurements. Data are drawn from sophomore-, junior-, and graduate-level quantum mechanics courses. Particular attention is paid to incorrect ideas that persist across all levels.

  16. Visualization and measurement of ATP levels in living cells replicating hepatitis C virus genome RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Ando

    Full Text Available Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP is the primary energy currency of all living organisms and participates in a variety of cellular processes. Although ATP requirements during viral lifecycles have been examined in a number of studies, a method by which ATP production can be monitored in real-time, and by which ATP can be quantified in individual cells and subcellular compartments, is lacking, thereby hindering studies aimed at elucidating the precise mechanisms by which viral replication energized by ATP is controlled. In this study, we investigated the fluctuation and distribution of ATP in cells during RNA replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV, a member of the Flaviviridae family. We demonstrated that cells involved in viral RNA replication actively consumed ATP, thereby reducing cytoplasmic ATP levels. Subsequently, a method to measure ATP levels at putative subcellular sites of HCV RNA replication in living cells was developed by introducing a recently-established Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET-based ATP indicator, called ATeam, into the NS5A coding region of the HCV replicon. Using this method, we were able to observe the formation of ATP-enriched dot-like structures, which co-localize with non-structural viral proteins, within the cytoplasm of HCV-replicating cells but not in non-replicating cells. The obtained FRET signals allowed us to estimate ATP concentrations within HCV replicating cells as ∼5 mM at possible replicating sites and ∼1 mM at peripheral sites that did not appear to be involved in HCV replication. In contrast, cytoplasmic ATP levels in non-replicating Huh-7 cells were estimated as ∼2 mM. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate changes in ATP concentration within cells during replication of the HCV genome and increased ATP levels at distinct sites within replicating cells. ATeam may be a powerful tool for the study of energy metabolism during replication of the viral genome.

  17. Density and Temperature Measurements in a Solar Active Region (United States)

    Warren, Harry P.; Winebarger, Amy R.


    We present electron density and temperature measurements from an active region observed above the limb with the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation spectrometer on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. Density-sensitive line ratios from Si VIII and S X indicate densities greater than 108 cm-3 as high as 200" (or 145 Mm) above the limb. At these heights, static, uniformly heated loop models predict densities close to 107 cm-3. Differential emission measure analysis shows that the observed plasma is nearly isothermal with a mean temperature of about 1.5 MK and a dispersion of about 0.2 MK. Both the differential emission measure and the Si XI/Si VIII line ratios indicate only small variations in the temperature at the heights observed. These measurements confirm recent observations from the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer of ``overdense'' plasma at temperatures near 1 MK in solar active regions. Time-dependent hydrodynamic simulations suggest that impulsive heating models can account for the large densities, but they have a difficult time reproducing the narrow range of observed temperatures. The observations of overdense, nearly isothermal plasma in the solar corona provide a significant challenge to theories of coronal heating.

  18. The Repercussions of the Accountancy System at the Level of the SMEs Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the economical activity of the SMEs, the interference of accountancy is reflected by respecting some principles and compulsory rules according to the current laws. Ever since the antiquity the accountancy was manifested at the level of SMEs through the activity of some professionals recognized for their competency to produce, explore and authenticate economical data which were quantified, presented according to the regulated conventions. The professional accountant, abiding by the professional rules, goes through a cyclic and determined route to obtain, filter, measure and expose the precise information of the business. Thus can be observed the significant importance in the business environment of the object of study of accountancy - the economical patrimony based on which it is reflected the patrimonial situation of the company.

  19. Determining skill level in myoelectric prosthesis use with multiple outcome measures. (United States)

    Bouwsema, Hanneke; Kyberd, Peter J; Hill, Wendy; van der Sluis, Corry K; Bongers, Raoul M


    To obtain more insight into how the skill level of an upper-limb myoelectric prosthesis user is composed, the current study aimed to (1) portray prosthetic handling at different levels of description, (2) relate results of the clinical level to kinematic measures, and (3) identify specific parameters in these measures that characterize the skill level of a prosthesis user. Six experienced transradial myoelectric prosthesis users performed a clinical test (Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure [SHAP]) and two grasping tasks. Kinematic measures were end point kinematics, joint angles, grasp force control, and gaze behavior. The results of the clinical and kinematic measures were in broad agreement with each other. Participants who scored higher on the SHAP showed overall better performance on the kinematic measures. They had smaller movement times, had better grip force control, and needed less visual attention on the hand. The results showed that time was a key parameter in prosthesis use and should be one of the main focus aspects of rehabilitation. The insights from this study are useful in rehabilitation practice because they allow therapists to specifically focus on certain parameters that may result in a higher level of skill for the prosthesis user.

  20. Measurement of accidental coincidences for higher activity sources

    CERN Document Server

    Yull Hwang, H; Jae-Oh, P; Man-Lee, J; Kie-Lee, M


    The multi-channel time-scaling (MCTS) technique has been applied for the measurement of accidental coincidences for the cases of higher activity samples in beta-gamma coincidence counting. Two beta samples of sup 1 sup 3 sup 4 Cs were prepared and the nominal activities observed in the beta counter were about 7000 and 11000 s sup - sup 1 , respectively. The obtained true coincidence rates are independent of resolving times and dead times. They are compared with those calculated from the mathematical model derived by Cox and Isham.

  1. Approximate determination of efficiency for activity measurements of cylindrical samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helbig, W. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany); Bothe, M. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany)


    Some calibration samples are necessary with the same geometrical parameters but of different materials, containing known activities A homogeniously distributed. Their densities are measured, their mass absorption coefficients may be unknown. These calibration samples are positioned in the counting geometry, for instance directly on the detector. The efficiency function {epsilon}(E) for each sample is gained by measuring the gamma spectra and evaluating all usable gamma energy peaks. From these {epsilon}(E) the common valid {epsilon}{sub geom}(E) will be deduced. For this purpose the functions {epsilon}{sub mu}(E) for these samples have to be established. (orig.)

  2. Environmental Measurements Laboratory fiscal year 1998: Accomplishments and technical activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, M.D.


    The Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) is government-owned, government-operated, and programmatically under the DOE Office of Environmental Management. The Laboratory is administered by the Chicago Operations Office. EML provides program management, technical assistance and data quality assurance for measurements of radiation and radioactivity relating to environmental restoration, global nuclear nonproliferation, and other priority issues for the Department of Energy, as well as for other government, national, and international organizations. This report presents the technical activities and accomplishments of EML for Fiscal Year 1998.

  3. Neutron Field Measurements in Phantom with Foil Activation Methods. (United States)


    jI25 Ii III uumu ullli~ S....- - Lb - w * .qJ’ AD-A 192 122 ulJ. IL (pj DNA-TR-87- 10 N EUTRON FIELD MEASUREMENTS IN PHANTOM WITH FOIL ACTIVATION...SAND II Measurements in Phantom 6 4 The 5-Foil Neutron Dosimetry Method 29 5 Comparison of SAND II and Simple 5-Foil Dosimetry Method 34 6 Thermal ...quite reasonable. The monkey phantom spectrum differs from the NBS U-235 fission spectrum in that the former has a I/E tail plus thermal -neutron peak

  4. Measurement of functional independence level and falls-risk in individuals with undiagnosed phenylketonuria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mazur, Artur


    The aim of the study was to determine the level of functional independence in adult patients with previously undiagnosed or untreated phenylketonuria (PKU). The study was conducted among 400 intellectually impaired adult residents of Social Welfare Homes in South-Eastern Poland born prior to the introduction of neonatal PKU screening programs. PKU was screened by filter paper test using tandem mass spectrometry methods, and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of PKU organic acids in urine. Degree of functional independence included the assessment of activities of daily living (Barthel Index) and measures of balance and gait (Tinetti scale). Eleven individuals with previously untreated PKU were identified whereby eight presented with moderate disability and three with mild disability. Six had a high risk of falls and five had a moderate risk of falls. This study indicates that there is considerable number of undiagnosed PKU patients within the Polish population who require assessment and management in order to reduce the impact of the neurological and neuropsychiatric problems associated with the condition. Appropriate therapy for those with undiagnosed PKU should, in particular, address the risk of falls.

  5. Field-measured drag area is a key correlate of level cycling time trial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Peterman


    Full Text Available Drag area (Ad is a primary factor determining aerodynamic resistance during level cycling and is therefore a key determinant of level time trial performance. However, Ad has traditionally been difficult to measure. Our purpose was to determine the value of adding field-measured Ad as a correlate of level cycling time trial performance. In the field, 19 male cyclists performed a level (22.1 km time trial. Separately, field-determined Ad and rolling resistance were calculated for subjects along with projected frontal area assessed directly (AP and indirectly (Est AP. Also, a graded exercise test was performed to determine $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak, lactate threshold (LT, and economy. $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak ($\\mathrm{l}~\\min ^{-1}$lmin−1 and power at LT were significantly correlated to power measured during the time trial (r = 0.83 and 0.69, respectively but were not significantly correlated to performance time (r = − 0.42 and −0.45. The correlation with performance time improved significantly (p < 0.05 when these variables were normalized to Ad. Of note, Ad alone was better correlated to performance time (r = 0.85, p < 0.001 than any combination of non-normalized physiological measure. The best correlate with performance time was field-measured power output during the time trial normalized to Ad (r = − 0.92. AP only accounted for 54% of the variability in Ad. Accordingly, the correlation to performance time was significantly lower using power normalized to AP (r = − 0.75 or Est AP (r = − 0.71. In conclusion, unless normalized to Ad, level time trial performance in the field was not highly correlated to common laboratory measures. Furthermore, our field-measured Ad is easy to determine and was the single best predictor of level time trial performance.

  6. Objectively measured habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour in obese and non-obese Malaysian children. (United States)

    Wafa, Sharifah Wajihah; Hamzaid, Hana; Talib, Ruzita Abd; Reilly, John J


    The present study examined objectively measured physical activity in Malaysian children and compared the differences in physical levels between obese and healthy weight children. Eighty-six obese children were matched for age and sex with 86 healthy weight children with median age 9.5 years. Habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour were measured over 5 days using Actigraph accelerometers. Time spent sedentary was significantly higher in the obese group (90% vs. 86% of daytime; p = 0.001). Moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly higher in the healthy weight group (1.2 vs. 0.7% of daytime, p low, although moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly lower in the obese group than the healthy weight group. Efforts to prevent and treat obesity in Malaysian children will need a substantial focus on the promotion of reductions in sedentary behaviour and increases in physical activity.

  7. Measurements of Indoor Radon Levels in India using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors: Need for Standardisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Subba Ramu


    Full Text Available Solid-state nuclear track detectors are being used to obtain the time integrated concentration levels of indoor radon/thoron and their daughters. This technique is preferred for taking such measurements in dwellings. Such measurements are important as the radiation dose to human beings due to indoor radon constitutes more than 50 per cent of the total dose including that received from the natural sources. Normalisation is necessary to obtain a representative value of the effective dose equivalent to the population. Indoor measurements carried out by several laboratories all over the country show that the indoor radon levels vary from 1.5 to about 2000 Bq m/sup -3/, while the normal level is in the range of 10 to 60 Bq m/sup -3/. It is rather difficult to compare the levels since the exposure conditions, the period of measurements and the calibration techniques used are not standardised. The present paper discusses the measurements of indoor radon in India by various groups and the important problems associated with the standardisation of these measurements. The standardisation procedure and the calibration set-up developed at this laboratory are also presented.

  8. Increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression levels in visceral adipose tissue, and serum CCL2 and interleukin-6 levels during visceral adipose tissue accumulation. (United States)

    Yogarajah, Thaneswary; Bee, Yvonne-Tee Get; Noordin, Rahmah; Yin, Khoo Boon


    This study was conducted to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in visceral adipose tissue, as well as serum adipokine levels, in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were fed either a normal (control rats) or excessive (experimental rats) intake of food for 8 or 16 weeks, then sacrificed, at which time visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, as well as blood samples, were collected. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PPARs in the visceral adipose tissues were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. In addition, the levels of adipokines in the serum samples were determined using commercial ELISA kits. The results revealed that at 8 weeks, the mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue was higher than that of the visceral adipose tissue in the experimental rats, but the reverse occurred at 16 weeks. Furthermore, at 16 weeks the experimental rats exhibited an upregulation of PPARγ mRNA and protein expression levels in the visceral adipose tissues, and significant increases in the serum levels of CCL2 and interleukin (IL)-6 were observed, compared with those measured at 8 weeks. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the PPARγ expression level was likely correlated with serum levels of CCL2 and IL-6, molecules that may facilitate visceral adipose tissue accumulation. In addition, the levels of the two adipokines in the serum may be useful as surrogate biomarkers for the expression levels of PPARγ in accumulated visceral adipose tissues.

  9. II. Physical activity: measurement and behavioral patterns in children and youth. (United States)

    Wójcicki, Thomas R; McAuley, Edward


    With physical activity levels among children and adolescents at an all-time low, there is a critical need for scientists and public health officials alike to further examine the physical activity behaviors of this population. Accordingly, this chapter will act as an entrée to the rest of the monograph by providing a general overview of the epidemiology of physical activity among youth in the United States. In so doing, we discuss the following: public health guidelines for youth-based physical activity, current rates and trends of physical activity participation in youth, issues related to physical education rates in school systems, lifestyle practices that encourage sedentary behaviors and attendant disease states, a synopsis of the health-related benefits of a physically active lifestyle, promotion of and opportunities for increased engagement, and comparisons of objective and subjective methods of measuring physical activity.

  10. Measurement of shunt amount using radionuclide angiocardiography: accuracy according to level of shunt and associated lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yang Min [Sejong General Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Determination of pulmonary to systemic blood flow ratio (QP/QS) is important for the management of patients with left-to-right shunt. This study was performed to assess the agreement of Qp/Qs ratio using the radionuclide method and oxymetry, to investigate the factors influencing the agreement, and to know how interchangeable the results of each technique. We compared the Qp/Qs measured by single-pass radionuclide angiocardiography and oxymetry during catheterization in 207 patients who underwent both studies. In radionuclide method, Qp/Qs was calculated from the pulmonary time-activity curves using a gamma variate fit. The correlation and Bland-Altman analysis were performed according to the levels of shunt and associated lesions. The mean Qp/Qs was 1.83 {+-} 0.50 by radionuclide, and 1.74 {+-} 0.51 by oxymetry. The overall correlation coefficient was 0.86 ({rho} 0.001), and Bland-Altman range of agreement encompassing 4SD was 1.05. For atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, tricuspid and mitral insufficiency, the correlation coefficient was 0.78, 0.90, 0.84, 0.63 and 0.44 and Bland-Altman range was 1.52, 0.74, 0.96, 1.57 and 1.50, respectively. There is good agreement but wide variance between the Qp/Qs ratios by radionuclide method and oxymetry. Associated atrioventricular valvar insufficiency decreases the correlation coefficient and widens the variance. Wide overall variance suggests that Qp/Qs measurements by two techniques should not be used interchangeably.

  11. A two-layered approach to recognize high-level human activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hu; G. Englebienne; B. Kröse


    Automated human activity recognition is an essential task for Human Robot Interaction (HRI). A successful activity recognition system enables an assistant robot to provide precise services. In this paper, we present a two-layered approach that can recognize sub-level activities and high-level activi

  12. Use and activity levels on newly built bicycle playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Hansen, Christine Kier; Rask, Simon


    Increasing the use of urban green space (UGS) as well as increasing cycling could potentially help address the growing inactivity problem. Three bicycle playgrounds were designed based on a participatory process and afterwards constructed in the UGS along a cycle-route on the historic outer defence...... circle around the City of Copenhagen, the Copenhagen Fortifications. The concept of a bicycle playground is new, and to examine how the three areas were used, and explore how users experience the areas, this study was designed as a combination of systematic observations, using the System for Observing...... Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC), and short on-site interviews with ‘typical users’. Based on the structural observations and 12 short interviews it became clear that 63% of the users were active during their use. The bicycle playgrounds main users were teenagers and children, especially...

  13. A College-Level Inquiry-Based Laboratory Activity on Transiting Planets

    CERN Document Server

    McConnell, Nicholas J; Strubbe, Linda E; Moth, Pimol; Montgomery, Ryan M; Raschke, Lynne M; Hunter, Lisa; Goza, Barbara


    We have designed an inquiry-based laboratory activity on transiting extrasolar planets for an introductory college-level astronomy class. The activity was designed with the intent of simultaneously teaching science process skills and factual content about transits and light curves. In the activity, groups of two to four students each formulate a specific science question and design and carry out an investigation using a table-top model of a star and orbiting planet. Each group then presents their findings to other students in their class. In a final presentation, the instructors integrate students' findings with a summary of how measured light curves indicate properties of planetary systems. The activity debuted at Hartnell College in November 2009 and has also been adapted for a lecture-based astronomy course at U.C. Santa Cruz. We present the results of student surveys before and after the astronomy course at Hartnell and discuss how well our activity promotes students' confidence and identity as scientists...

  14. The road towards accurate optical width measurements at the industrial level (United States)

    Bodermann, Bernd; Köning, Rainer; Bergmann, Detlef; Buhr, Egbert; Hässler-Grohne, Wolfgang; Flügge, Jens; Bosse, Harald


    Optical vision systems require both unidirectional and bidirectional measurements for the calibrations and the verification of the tool performance to enable accurate measurements traceable to the SI unit Metre. However, for bidirectional measurements up to now the national metrology institutes are unable to provide internationally recognized calibrations of suitable standards. Furthermore often users are not aware of the specific difficulties of these measurements. In this paper the current status and limitations of bidirectional optical measurements at the industrial level are summarised and compared to state-of-the-art optical linewidth measurements performed at PTB on measurement objects of semiconductor industry. It turns out, that for optical widths measurements at an uncertainty level below 1 μm edge localisation schemes are required, which are based on tool and sample dependent threshold values, which usually need to be determined by a rigorous simulation of the microscopic image. Furthermore the calibration samples and structures must have a sufficient quality, e. g. high edge angle and low edge roughness and the structure materials and their material parameters have to be known. The experience obtained within the accreditation process of industrial labs for width calibrations shows that, in order to be able to achieve a desired measurement uncertainties of about 100 nm, the imaging system needs to have a monochromatic Koehler illumination, numerical aperture larger than 0.5, a magnification greater than 50x and the ability to control the deviation of the focus position to better than 100 nm.

  15. Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species (United States)


    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis were harvested shortly after release from sporangia, incubated under...Dec-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 spores, Bacillus , spore dormancy, 3-phosphoglycerate REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11

  16. Mediated Electrochemical Measurements of Intracellular Catabolic Activities of Yeast Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Sheng ZHAO; Zhen Yu YANG; Yao LU; Zheng Yu YANG


    Coupling with the dual mediator system menadione/ferricyanide, microelectrode voltammetric measurements were undertaken to detect the ferrocyanide accumulations arising from the mediated reduction of ferricyanide by yeast cells. The results indicate that the dual mediator system menadione/ferricyanide could be used as a probe to detect cellular catabolic activities in yeast cells and the electrochemical response has a positive relationship with the specific growth rate of yeast cells.

  17. Memory based active contour algorithm using pixel-level classified images for colon crypt segmentation. (United States)

    Cohen, Assaf; Rivlin, Ehud; Shimshoni, Ilan; Sabo, Edmond


    In this paper, we introduce a novel method for detection and segmentation of crypts in colon biopsies. Most of the approaches proposed in the literature try to segment the crypts using only the biopsy image without understanding the meaning of each pixel. The proposed method differs in that we segment the crypts using an automatically generated pixel-level classification image of the original biopsy image and handle the artifacts due to the sectioning process and variance in color, shape and size of the crypts. The biopsy image pixels are classified to nuclei, immune system, lumen, cytoplasm, stroma and goblet cells. The crypts are then segmented using a novel active contour approach, where the external force is determined by the semantics of each pixel and the model of the crypt. The active contour is applied for every lumen candidate detected using the pixel-level classification. Finally, a false positive crypt elimination process is performed to remove segmentation errors. This is done by measuring their adherence to the crypt model using the pixel level classification results. The method was tested on 54 biopsy images containing 4944 healthy and 2236 cancerous crypts, resulting in 87% detection of the crypts with 9% of false positive segments (segments that do not represent a crypt). The segmentation accuracy of the true positive segments is 96%.

  18. Locomotor activity, ultrasonic vocalization and oxytocin levels in infant CD38 knockout mice. (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lopatina, Olga; Higashida, Chiharu; Tsuji, Takahiro; Kato, Ichiro; Takasawa, Shin; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Higashida, Haruhiro


    Oxytocin (OT), a neurohormone involved in reproduction, plays a critical role in social behavior in a wide range of mammalian species from rodents to humans. The role of CD38 in regulating OT secretion for social behavior has been demonstrated in adult mice, but has not been examined in pups or during development. Separation from the dam induces stress in 7-day-old mouse pups. During such isolation, locomotor activity was higher in CD38 knockout (CD38(-/-)) pups than in wild-type (CD38(+/+)) or heterozygous (CD38(+/-)) controls. The number of ultrasonic vocalizations was lower in CD38(-/-) pups than in CD38(+/+) pups. However, the difference between the two genotypes was less severe than that in OT knockout or OT receptor knockout mice. To explain this, we measured plasma OT levels. The level was not lower in CD38(-/-) pups during the period 1-3 weeks after birth, but was significantly reduced after weaning (>3 weeks). ADP-ribosyl cyclase activities in the hypothalamus and pituitary were markedly lower from 1 week after birth in CD38(-/-) mice and were consistently lower thereafter to the adult stage (2 months old). These results showed that the reduced severity of behavioral abnormalities in CD38(-/-) pups was due to partial compensation by the high level of plasma OT.

  19. Insecticidal activity of residual Bt protein at the second trophic level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Measurements were taken of Bt protein expressed in the leaves of transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) transformed with a synthesized Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cry1A gene and its persistent level in larval bodies and faeces of a non-targeted insect pest, beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua). We performed enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and bioassays using neonate larvae of cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) to detect the insecticidal activity of residual Bt protein at the second trophic level. The results showed that Bt protein content in functional leaves was different at various developmental stages and was different among plants at the same stage. Even though Bt protein concentration in the larval bodies and faeces decreased 97.5%-99% compared to that found in cotton leaves subsequently fed to beet armyworm larvae, it still had a lethal effect on neonate cotton bollworm larvae. Therefore, Bt protein present at the second trophic level had insecticidal activity. This result is important in understanding and predicting the effect of transgenic plants on nontarget organisms.

  20. Measurements of the communication noise level on the internal roads of the manufacturing metallurgical enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik


    Full Text Available This publication shows the results of measurements of the noise level emitted by the motor trucks on the internal roads of the steelworks. The distribution of the metallurgical products with the use of trucks is, next to the rail transport, one of the main logistic forms of products delivery to the customer. The research was conducted on one of the busiest internal roads of metallurgical enterprise ArcelorMittal Poland in Dąbrowa Górnicza. The enterprise conducts the whole production cycle and is the biggest steel producer in Poland. On the premises of the steelworks there were five points of measurements marked where the noise level is measured and the results were compared with the acceptable noise levels defined in the norms.

  1. Measuring Capability for Healthy Diet and Physical Activity (United States)

    Ferrer, Robert L.; Cruz, Inez; Burge, Sandra; Bayles, Bryan; Castilla, Martha I.


    PURPOSE Patterns of diet and physical activity, major drivers of morbidity and mortality, are contingent on people’s feasible opportunities to pursue healthy behaviors. Our objective for this mixed methods study was to develop measures of feasible opportunities for diet and activity. METHODS The Capability Approach framework for evaluating people’s real freedoms to pursue their values guided the research. A community-based participatory model was applied to conduct focus groups of adults with obesity or diabetes mellitus from an economically disadvantaged Latino community. Focus group themes were developed into survey items that assess how individual circumstances and neighborhood contexts influence opportunities for diet and activity. The prevalence of different influences was explored in a sample of 300 patients from a primary care safety net clinic. Scales measuring different aspects of opportunity were created through principal components analysis. RESULTS Availability, convenience, safety, cost of food, and activity resources interact with individual circumstances, such as illness, depression, family and nonfamily supports, and scope of personal agency, to shape practical opportunities. Multiple vulnerabilities in availability of resources and moderators of resource use commonly occur together, intensifying challenges and creating difficult trade-offs. Only one-half of participants reported that physicians understood their difficulties pursuing activity, and just one-third for diet. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that practical opportunities for healthy behavior can be measured as a primary target for clinical and public health assessment and intervention. The Capability Approach holds promise as a framework for developing interventions responsive to both personal and environmental determinants. PMID:24445103

  2. The role of galactic cold gas in low-level supermassive black hole activity

    CERN Document Server

    Alfvin, Erik D; Haynes, Martha P; Gallo, Elena; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Koopmann, Rebecca A; Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Cannon, John M


    The nature of the relationship between low-level supermassive black hole (SMBH) activity and galactic cold gas, if any, is currently unclear. Here, we test whether central black holes may feed at higher rates in gas-rich galaxies, probing SMBH activity well below the active regime down to Eddington ratios of ~1e-7. We use a combination of radio data from the ALFALFA survey and from the literature, along with archival X-ray flux measurements from the Chandra X-ray observatory, to investigate this potential relationship. We construct a sample of 129 late-type galaxies, with MB<-18 out to 50 Mpc, that have both HI masses and sensitive X-ray coverage. Of these, 75 host a nuclear X-ray source, a 58% detection fraction. There is a highly significant correlation between nuclear X-ray luminosity LX and galaxy stellar mass Mstar with a slope of 1.7+/-0.3, and a tentative correlation (significant at the 2.8 sigma level) between LX and HI gas mass MHI. However, a joint fit to LX as a function of both Mstar and MHI fi...

  3. Variability in and agreement between modeled and personal continuously measured black carbon levels using novel smartphone and sensor technologies. (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Rivas, Ioar; de Castro, Montserrat; Cirach, Marta; Hoek, Gerard; Seto, Edmund; Jerrett, Michael; Sunyer, Jordi


    Novel technologies, such as smartphones and small personal continuous air pollution sensors, can now facilitate better personal estimates of air pollution in relation to location. Such information can provide us with a better understanding about whether and how personal exposures relate to residential air pollution estimates, which are normally used in epidemiological studies. The aims of this study were to examine (1) the variability in personal air pollution levels during the day and (2) the relationship between modeled home and school estimates and continuously measured personal air pollution exposure levels in different microenvironments (e.g., home, school, and commute). We focused on black carbon as an indicator of traffic-related air pollution. We recruited 54 school children (aged 7-11) from 29 different schools around Barcelona as part of the BREATHE study, an epidemiological study of the relation between air pollution and brain development. For 2 typical week days during 2012-2013, the children were given a smartphone with CalFit software to obtain information on their location and physical activity level and a small sensor, the micro-aethalometer model AE51, to measure their black carbon levels simultaneously and continuously. We estimated their home and school exposure to PM2.5 filter absorbance, which is well-correlated with black carbon, using a temporally adjusted PM2.5 absorbance land use regression (LUR) model. We found considerable variation in the black carbon levels during the day, with the highest levels measured during commuting periods (geometric mean = 2.8 μg/m(3)) and the lowest levels at home (geometric mean = 1.3 μg/m(3)). Hourly temporally adjusted LUR model estimates for the home and school showed moderate to good correlation with measured personal black carbon levels at home and school (r = 0.59 and 0.68, respectively) and lower correlation with commuting trips (r = 0.32 and 0.21, respectively). The correlation between modeled home

  4. Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure: an overview of objective measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Hills


    Full Text Available The ability to assess energy expenditure and estimate physical activity in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that physical activity and energy expenditure are different constructs with physical activity defined as any bodily movement that results in energy expenditure and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of physical activity. However, total energy expenditure, best assessed using the criterion doubly labelled water technique, includes components in addition to physical activity energy expenditure, namely resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of food. Given the large number of assessment techniques currently used to estimate physical activity in humans, it is imperative to understand the relative merits of each. The goal of this review is to provide information on the utility and limitations of a range of objective measures of physical activity and their relationship with energy expenditure. The measures discussed include those based on energy expenditure or oxygen uptake including doubly labelled water, activity energy expenditure, physical activity level, and metabolic equivalent; those based on heart rate monitoring and motion sensors; and because of their widespread use, selected subjective measures.

  5. Active spectroscopic measurements using the ITER diagnostic system. (United States)

    Thomas, D M; Counsell, G; Johnson, D; Vasu, P; Zvonkov, A


    Active (beam-based) spectroscopic measurements are intended to provide a number of crucial parameters for the ITER device being built in Cadarache, France. These measurements include the determination of impurity ion temperatures, absolute densities, and velocity profiles, as well as the determination of the plasma current density profile. Because ITER will be the first experiment to study long timescale (∼1 h) fusion burn plasmas, of particular interest is the ability to study the profile of the thermalized helium ash resulting from the slowing down and confinement of the fusion alphas. These measurements will utilize both the 1 MeV heating neutral beams and a dedicated 100 keV hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam. A number of separate instruments are being designed and built by several of the ITER partners to meet the different spectroscopic measurement needs and to provide the maximum physics information. In this paper, we describe the planned measurements, the intended diagnostic ensemble, and we will discuss specific physics and engineering challenges for these measurements in ITER.

  6. Precise Measurement of Drift Velocities in Active-Target Detectors (United States)

    Jensen, Louis


    Nuclear experiments with radioactive beams are needed to improve our understanding of nuclei structure far from stability. Radioactive beams typically have low beam rates, but active-target detectors can compensate for these low beam rates. In active-target detectors that are also Time-Projection Chambers (TPC), ionized electrons drift through an electric fieldto a detection device to imagethe trajectory of charged-particle ionization tracks within the chamber's gas volume. The measurement of the ionized electrons' drift velocity is crucial for the accurate imaging of these tracks. In order to measure this drift velocity, we will use a UV laser and photo-sensitive foil in a the ND-Cubedetector we are developing, periodically releasingelectrons from the foil at a known timesand a known distance from the electron detector, thereby precisely measuring the drift velocity in situ. We have surveyed several materials to find a material that will work well with typical solid-state UV lasers on the market. We plan to determine the best material and thickness of the foil to maximize the number of photoelectrons. The precision that will be afforded by this measurement of the drift velocity will allow us to eliminate a source of systematic uncertainty.

  7. Evaluating the Measurement of Activated Sludge Foam Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoghan O’Flaherty


    Full Text Available The most widely used technique for assessing the propensity of activated sludge to suffer from biological foaming is to measure foam potential. This involves measuring the amount of foam produced from sludge under conditions of controlled aeration. Two approaches have been adopted: (1 Air is passed through specially designed columns from fine porous diffusers at a fixed rate to form uniform sized bubbles or (2 employing Alka-Seltzer™ tablets which effervesce when added to the sludge. Both tests generate foam formation which can then be quantified. Foam assessment in activated sludge is reviewed. A sintered disc aeration column was compared with the Alka-Seltzer™ test method and both methods examined under a range of different environmental conditions. Foam potential measured by the sintered disc method displayed better repeatability compared to the Alka-Seltzer test. The use of a wire cage placed over the tablets greatly improved the precision of the Alka-Seltzer test. A positive linear correlation was also found between foam potential and temperature (4–20 °C. Sludge solids concentration was also shown to influence foaming potential making comparisons between reactors problematic. Recommendations on how to improve the repeatability of foam potential measurements are given.

  8. Equivalence of the measures of non-Markovianty for open two-level systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Hao-Sheng; Zheng, Yan-Ping; Wang, Guo-You


    In order to depict the deviation of quantum time evolution in open systems from Markovian processes, different measures have been presented. We demonstrate that the measure proposed by Breuer, Laine and Piilo [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 210401 (2009)] and the two measures proposed by Rivas, Huelga and Plenio [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 050403 (2010)] have exactly the same non-Markovian time-evolution intervals and thus are really equivalent each other when they apply to open two-level systems coupled to environments via Jaynes-Cummings or dephasing models. This equivalence implies that the three measures in different ways capture the intrinsical characters of non-Markovianty of quantum evolutional processes. We also show that the maximization in the definition of the first measure can be actually removed for the considered models without influencing the sensibility of the measure to detect non-Markovianty.

  9. Equivalence of the measures of non-Markovianity for open two-level systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Haosheng; Tang Ning; Zheng Yanping; Wang Guoyou [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)


    Different measures have been presented to depict the deviation of quantum time evolution in open systems from Markovian processes. We demonstrate that the measure proposed by Breuer, Laine, and Piilo [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 210401 (2009)] and the two measures proposed by Rivas, Huelga, and Plenio [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 050403 (2010)] have exactly the same non-Markovian time-evolution intervals and thus are really equivalent to each other when they are applied to open two-level systems coupled to environments via the Jaynes-Cummings or dephasing models. This equivalence implies that the three measures, in different ways, capture the intrinsic character of the non-Markovianity of quantum evolutional processes. We also show that the maximization in the definition of the first measure can be actually removed for the considered models without influencing the sensibility of the measure to detect non-Markovianity.

  10. Integrated impor tance measure for multi-state coherent systems of k level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xibin Zhao; Shubin Si; Hongyan Dui; Zhiqiang Cai; Shudong Sun


    To verify the effectiveness of the integrated importance measure (IIM) for multi-state coherent systems of k level, the defi-nition and physical meaning of IIM are demonstrated. Then, the im-provement potential andΔ-importance measures are generalized to multi-state coherent systems based on the system performance level, and the relationships between IIM and traditional importance measures are discussed. The characteristics of IIM are demon-strated in both series and paral el systems. Also, an application to an oil transportation system is given. The comparison results show that: (i) IIM has some useful properties that are not possessed by traditional importance measures; (i ) IIM is effective in evaluating the component role in multi-state systems when the component reliability and the failure rate are simultaneously considered.

  11. Measuring Stress and Ability to Recover from Stress with Salivary Alpha-Amylase Levels (United States)


    to be resilient. So what is salivary alpha amylase ? To start, an amylase is enzyme in the body that hydrolyzes starch (breaks it down) into...Ability to Recover from Stress with Salivary α- Amylase Levels Authors Brandon L. Mulrine Michael F. Sheehan Lolita M. Burrell Michael...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Measuring Stress and Ability to Recover from Stress with Salivary Alpha Amylase Levels 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  12. Measurement of dynamic gas disengagement profile by using an analog output level gauge (United States)

    Mikkilineni, S.; Koelle, M.; Xu, H.

    The dynamic gas disengagement profile was measured in a 0.14 m diameter and 3.66 m high plexiglas column by using an analog output gauge, which was connected to a data acquisition system. This analog output gauge is a high accuracy continuous measurement level gauge. It is made up of a wave guide, a float, a motion or stress sensing device and a probe housing. The fluid level at any gas velocity is obtained by using the data acquisition system. The dynamic gas disengagement profile produced one slope in the bubble flow and two slopes in the churn turbulent flow representing unimodal and bimodal distributions of bubbles.

  13. Hair cortisol levels as a retrospective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary axis activity throughout pregnancy: Comparison to salivary cortisol


    D’Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L.; ROSS, RANDAL G .; Natvig, Crystal L.; Laudenslager, Mark L.


    Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal/child outcomes. One potential biomarker of the maternal stress response is cortisol, a product of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study evaluated cortisol levels in hair throughout pregnancy as a marker of total cortisol release. Cortisol levels in hair have been shown to be easily quantifiable and may be representative of total cortisol release more than single saliva or serum measures. Hair corti...

  14. The contribution of former work-related activity levels to predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement: moderating role of educational level and physical functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfien Van Dyck

    Full Text Available The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined.In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models.More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal.Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during retirement, so this is an

  15. Lifetime measurements for some n=2 levels in Be-like S ⅩⅢ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Highly ionized Spectra from sulfur obtained at an energy of 80 MeV have been studied in the 19.0~53.0 nm wavelength range. Radiative lifetimes for some n=2 level in Be+-like S ⅩⅢwere measured using he beam-foil time of flight method. The results, using an arbitrarily normalized decay curves analysis, are compared with theoretical predictions and earlier measurement.

  16. Measuring and Validating Levels of Steroid Hormones in the Skin of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) (United States)


    Björklund E & Styrishave B. Developing a new research tool for use in free-ranging cetaceans: recovering cortisol from harbor porpoise skin. Conservation Physiology, 3: doi:10.1093/conphys/cov016 ...relationship between serum and skin concentrations of aldosterone, c) how long it takes for aldosterone , corticosterone, and cortisol to be measurable in...project described here is complementary to another currently ongoing project: “Validating the novel method of measuring cortisol levels in cetacean

  17. Measurements of excitation spectra and level lifetimes for highly charged neon ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友德; 马新文; 杨治虎; 杜一飞; 刘惠萍; 赵孟春; 郭天瑞; 王春芳


    Beam foil experiments were carried out for 47 MeV Ne ions passing through C (39 μg/cm2) and Al (3 4mg/cm2) foils. Highly charged H-, He-, Li-, and Be-like ions were obtained after the foils. The excitation spectra and level lifetimes for these ions were measured, and transition configurations for most measured lines were identified

  18. Survey of radiofrequency radiation levels around GSM base stations and evaluation of measurement uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulević Branislav D.


    Full Text Available This paper is a summary of broadband measurement values of radiofrequency radiation around GSM base stations in the vicinity of residential areas in Belgrade and 12 other cities in Serbia. It will be useful for determining non-ionizing radiation exposure levels of the general public in the future. The purpose of this paper is also an appropriate representation of basic information on the evaluation of measurement uncertainty.

  19. Dietary fiber stabilizes blood glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in sows (Sus scrofa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.


    The aim of this study was to test whether a diet with a high level of fermentable dietary fiber can stabilize interprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, prevent declines below basal levels, and reduce physical activity in limited-fed breeding sows. Stable levels of glucose and insulin may preve

  20. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Abdulnour


    Full Text Available To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter “fitness” and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥30.0 mlO2 kg−1 min−1 compared to women with a fitness <30.0 mlO2 kg−1 min−1 (P < 0.05. However, only fasting triglycerides was lower in women with physical activity levels ≥770.0 Kcal/day (P < 0.05. Between fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition.

  1. Daily Physical Activity and Screen Time, but Not Other Sedentary Activities, Are Associated with Measures of Obesity during Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoo Thien Lee


    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI, BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ, body fatness (%BF and waist circumference (WC. A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514. PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours.

  2. Daily physical activity and screen time, but not other sedentary activities, are associated with measures of obesity during childhood. (United States)

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon


    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours.

  3. Effects of Soil and Water Conservation Measures on Groundwater Levels and Recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang


    Full Text Available Measures of soil and water conservation (SWC could affect the hydrological process. The impacts of typical measures on groundwater recharge, levels and flow were analyzed based on simulated rainfall experiments and a groundwater model. The three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model (MODFLOW was calibrated and verified for bare slope, grassland and straw mulching scenarios based on the experiments. The results of the verification in groundwater balance, levels, runoff and flow field all showed that MODFLOW could be applied to study the impact of SWC measures on groundwater. Meanwhile, the results showed the recharge rate (α and specific yield of the three soil layers (Sy1, Sy2 and Sy3 were the most sensitive parameters to the change in the underlying surface. Then, the impacts of the SWC measures’ construction and destruction on the groundwater regime were studied. The results indicated the measures could strengthen groundwater recharge. The amounts of groundwater recharge, runoff and level were on the order of straw mulching > grassland > bare slope. When the underlying surface was converted from grass and mulching to bare slope, the recharge decreased by 42.2% and 39.1%. It was concluded that SWC measure construction would increase groundwater recharge and the measure destruction would decrease recharge.

  4. Online measurement of LHC beam parameters with the ATLAS High Level Trigger (United States)

    Strauss, E.


    We present an online measurement of the LHC beamspot parameters in ATLAS using the High Level Trigger (HLT). When a significant change is detected in the measured beamspot, it is distributed to the HLT. There, trigger algorithms like b-tagging which calculate impact parameters or decay lengths benefit from a precise, up-to-date set of beamspot parameters. Additionally, online feedback is sent to the LHC operators in real time. The measurement is performed by an algorithm running on the Level 2 trigger farm, leveraging the high rate of usable events. Dedicated algorithms perform a full scan of the silicon detector to reconstruct event vertices from registered tracks. The distribution of these vertices is aggregated across the farm and their shape is extracted through fits every 60 seconds to determine the beamspot position, size, and tilt. The reconstructed beamspot values are corrected for detector resolution effects, measured in situ using the separation of vertices whose tracks have been split into two collections. Furthermore, measurements for individual bunch crossings have allowed for studies of single-bunch distributions as well as the behavior of bunch trains. This talk will cover the constraints imposed by the online environment and describe how these measurements are accomplished with the given resources. The algorithm tasks must be completed within the time constraints of the Level 2 trigger, with limited CPU and bandwidth allocations. This places an emphasis on efficient algorithm design and the minimization of data requests.

  5. Meta-analysis of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Cally A


    Full Text Available Abstract Many internet-delivered physical activity behaviour change programs have been developed and evaluated. However, further evidence is required to ascertain the overall effectiveness of such interventions. The objective of the present review was to evaluate the effectiveness of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity, whilst also examining the effect of intervention moderators. A systematic search strategy identified relevant studies published in the English-language from Pubmed, Proquest, Scopus, PsychINFO, CINHAL, and Sport Discuss (January 1990 – June 2011. Eligible studies were required to include an internet-delivered intervention, target an adult population, measure and target physical activity as an outcome variable, and include a comparison group that did not receive internet-delivered materials. Studies were coded independently by two investigators. Overall effect sizes were combined based on the fixed effect model. Homogeneity and subsequent exploratory moderator analysis was undertaken. A total of 34 articles were identified for inclusion. The overall mean effect of internet-delivered interventions on physical activity was d = 0.14 (p = 0.00. Fixed-effect analysis revealed significant heterogeneity across studies (Q = 73.75; p = 0.00. Moderating variables such as larger sample size, screening for baseline physical activity levels and the inclusion of educational components significantly increased intervention effectiveness. Results of the meta-analysis support the delivery of internet-delivered interventions in producing positive changes in physical activity, however effect sizes were small. The ability of internet-delivered interventions to produce meaningful change in long-term physical activity remains unclear.

  6. Physical Activity in Hemodialysis Patients Measured by Triaxial Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimar Pedrosa Gomes


    Full Text Available Different factors can contribute to a sedentary lifestyle among hemodialysis (HD patients, including the period they spend on dialysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate characteristics of physical activities in daily life in this population by using an accurate triaxial accelerometer and to correlate these characteristics with physiological variables. Nineteen HD patients were evaluated using the DynaPort accelerometer and compared to nineteen control individuals, regarding the time spent in different activities and positions of daily life and the number of steps taken. HD patients were more sedentary than control individuals, spending less time walking or standing and spending more time lying down. The sedentary behavior was more pronounced on dialysis days. According to the number of steps taken per day, 47.4% of hemodialysis patients were classified as sedentary against 10.5% in control group. Hemoglobin level, lower extremity muscle strength, and physical functioning of SF-36 questionnaire correlated significantly with the walking time and active time. Looking accurately at the patterns of activity in daily life, HDs patients are more sedentary, especially on dialysis days. These patients should be motivated to enhance the physical activity.

  7. Comparison of fatal motor vehicle accidents at passive and active railway level crossings in Finland


    Sirkku Laapotti


    The study compares accidents at passive and active railway level crossings, and both immediate and background risk factors are considered. Passive railway level crossings have no warning devices, although there might be a static warning sign. Active level crossings are equipped with automatic devices warning road users of approaching trains. The data covers all fatal motor vehicle accidents at level crossings in Finland during the years 1991 to 2011 (n = 142). All these accidents have previou...

  8. Radon-222 activity flux measurement using activated charcoal canisters: revisiting the methodology. (United States)

    Alharbi, Sami H; Akber, Riaz A


    The measurement of radon ((222)Rn) activity flux using activated charcoal canisters was examined to investigate the distribution of the adsorbed (222)Rn in the charcoal bed and the relationship between (222)Rn activity flux and exposure time. The activity flux of (222)Rn from five sources of varying strengths was measured for exposure times of one, two, three, five, seven, 10, and 14 days. The distribution of the adsorbed (222)Rn in the charcoal bed was obtained by dividing the bed into six layers and counting each layer separately after the exposure. (222)Rn activity decreased in the layers that were away from the exposed surface. Nevertheless, the results demonstrated that only a small correction might be required in the actual application of charcoal canisters for activity flux measurement, where calibration standards were often prepared by the uniform mixing of radium ((226)Ra) in the matrix. This was because the diffusion of (222)Rn in the charcoal bed and the detection efficiency as a function of the charcoal depth tended to counterbalance each other. The influence of exposure time on the measured (222)Rn activity flux was observed in two situations of the canister exposure layout: (a) canister sealed to an open bed of the material and (b) canister sealed over a jar containing the material. The measured (222)Rn activity flux decreased as the exposure time increased. The change in the former situation was significant with an exponential decrease as the exposure time increased. In the latter case, lesser reduction was noticed in the observed activity flux with respect to exposure time. This reduction might have been related to certain factors, such as absorption site saturation or the back diffusion of (222)Rn gas occurring at the canister-soil interface.

  9. Segmentation of hand radiographs by using multi-level connected active appearance models (United States)

    Kauffman, Joost A.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Bernelot Moens, Hein J.


    Robust and accurate segmentation methods are important for the computerized evaluation of medical images. For treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, joint damage assessment in radiographs of hands is frequently used for monitoring disease progression. Current clinical scoring methods are based on visual measurements that are time-consuming and subject to intra and inter-reader variance. A solution may be found in the development of partially automated assessment procedures. This requires reliable segmentation algorithms. Our work demonstrates a segmentation method based on multiple connected active appearance models (AAM) with multiple search steps using different quality levels. The quality level can be regulated by setting the image resolution and the number of landmarks in the AAMs. We performed experiments using two models of different quality levels for shape and texture information. Both models included AAMs for the carpal region, the metacarpals, and all phalanges. By starting an iterative search with the faster, low-quality model, we were able to determine the initial parameters of the second, high-quality model. After the second search, the results showed successful segmentation for 22 of 30 test images. For these images, 70% of the landmarks were found within 1.3 mm difference from manual placement by an expert. The multi-level search approach resulted in a reduction of 50% in calculation time compared to a search using a single model. Results are expected to improve when the model is refined by increasing the number of training examples and the resolution of the models.

  10. Noise levels in the learning-teaching activities in a dental medicine school


    Paula Andreia Matos; Carvalho, A.; João C. Sampaio Fernandes


    The noise levels made by clinical handpieces and laboratory engines are the main descriptors of acoustical comfort in learning spaces in a dental medicine school. Sound levels were measured in five types of classrooms and teaching laboratories at the University of Porto Dental Medicine School. Handpiece noise measurements were made while instruments were running free and during operations with cutting tools (tooth, metal and acrylic). Noise levels were determined using a precision sound level...

  11. Lanthanide complexes as luminogenic probes to measure sulfide levels in industrial samples. (United States)

    Thorson, Megan K; Ung, Phuc; Leaver, Franklin M; Corbin, Teresa S; Tuck, Kellie L; Graham, Bim; Barrios, Amy M


    A series of lanthanide-based, azide-appended complexes were investigated as hydrogen sulfide-sensitive probes. Europium complex 1 and Tb complex 3 both displayed a sulfide-dependent increase in luminescence, while Tb complex 2 displayed a decrease in luminescence upon exposure to NaHS. The utility of the complexes for monitoring sulfide levels in industrial oil and water samples was investigated. Complex 3 provided a sensitive measure of sulfide levels in petrochemical water samples (detection limit ∼ 250 nM), while complex 1 was capable of monitoring μM levels of sulfide in partially refined crude oil.

  12. Serum testosterone and progesterone levels and ovarian activity as indicators for seasonal breeding in dromedary camels in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babiker, E. A,


    Full Text Available The present work was done to investigate the effect of season on level of testosterone, progesterone hormone and ovarian activity in Arabian dromedary camels. Over a period of one year (July 2009–June 2010, jugular blood samples were collected monthly from 7 mature male camels and 12 females at late pregnancy to detect the levels of testosterone and progesterone hormones. A total of 900 ovarian follicles were measured in the slaughterhouses of Tamboul and Um-Elgura to define the effect of season on ovarian activity. The obtained results showed that plasma testosterone levels greatly varied among months of the year. It increased during July and August and decreased during the period from September to February. The level started to increase again during March and remained high until the end of the study in June. Plasma progesterone level was high during July, while it dropped at parturition during August. The level of progesterone remained low during the period from September to February, before it started to rise again in March and remained high until the end of the study in June. The rise of progesterone level in females coincided with the rise of testosterone in males. Ovarian activity was observed throughout the different seasons with a maximum activity during autumn. According to the hormonal findings and ovarian activity, there is a clear breeding season in Arabian dromedary camel in the Butana area, northeast of Sudan extending throughout summer (March – June and autumn (July–October.

  13. Measurements of Microbial Community Activities in Individual Soil Macroaggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bilskis, Christina L.; Fansler, Sarah J.; McCue, Lee Ann; Smith, Jeff L.; Konopka, Allan


    The functional potential of single soil aggregates may provide insights into the localized distribution of microbial activities better than traditional assays conducted on bulk quantities of soil. Thus, we scaled down enzyme assays for {beta}-glucosidase, N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase, lipase, and leucine aminopeptidase to measure of the enzyme potential of individual aggregates (250-1000 {mu}m diameter). Across all enzymes, the smallest aggregates had the greatest activity and the range of enzyme activities observed in all aggregates supports the hypothesis that functional potential in soil may be distributed in a patchy fashion. Paired analyses of ATP as a surrogate for active microbial biomass and {beta}-glucosidase on the same aggregates suggest the presence of both extracellular {beta}-glucosidase functioning in aggregates with no detectable ATP and also of relatively active microbial communities (high ATP) that have low {beta}-glucosidase potentials. Studying function at a scale more consistent with microbial habitat presents greater opportunity to link microbial community structure to microbial community function.

  14. Using decision trees to measure activities in people with stroke. (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Fulk, George D; Tang, Wenlong; Sazonov, Edward S


    Improving community mobility is a common goal for persons with stroke. Measuring daily physical activity is helpful to determine the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions. In our previous studies, a novel wearable shoe-based sensor system (SmartShoe) was shown to be capable of accurately classify three major postures and activities (sitting, standing, and walking) from individuals with stroke by using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). In this study, we utilized decision tree algorithms to develop individual and group activity classification models for stroke patients. The data was acquired from 12 participants with stroke. For 3-class classification, the average accuracy was 99.1% with individual models and 91.5% with group models. Further, we extended the activities into 8 classes: sitting, standing, walking, cycling, stairs-up, stairs-down, wheel-chair-push, and wheel-chair-propel. The classification accuracy for individual models was 97.9%, and for group model was 80.2%, demonstrating feasibility of multi-class activity recognition by SmartShoe in stroke patients.

  15. Contrasting Various Metrics for Measuring Tropical Cyclone Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yuh Yu Ping-Gin Chiu


    Full Text Available Popular metrics used for measuring the tropical cyclone (TC activity, including NTC (number of tropical cyclones, TCD (tropical cyclone days, ACE (accumulated cyclone energy, PDI (power dissipation index, along with two newly proposed indices: RACE (revised accumulated cyclone energy and RPDI (revised power dissipation index, are compared using the JTWC (Joint Typhoon Warning Center best-track data of TC over the western North Pacific basin. Our study shows that, while the above metrics have demonstrated various degrees of discrepancies, but in practical terms, they are all able to produce meaningful temporal and spatial changes in response to climate variability. Compared with the conventional ACE and PDI, RACE and RPDI seem to provide a more precise estimate of the total TC activity, especially in projecting the upswing trend of TC activity over the past few decades, simply because of a better approach in estimating TC wind energy. However, we would argue that there is still no need to find a ¡§universal¡¨ or ¡§best¡¨ metric for TC activity because different metrics are designed to stratify different aspects of TC activity, and whether the selected metric is appropriate or not should be determined solely by the purpose of study. Except for magnitude difference, the analysis results seem insensitive to the choice of the best-track datasets.

  16. Contrasting Various Metrics for Measuring Tropical Cyclone Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yuh Yu and Ping-Gin Chiu


    Full Text Available Popular metrics used for measuring the tropical cyclone (TC activity, including NTC (number of tropical cyclones, TCD (tropical cyclone days, ACE (accumulated cyclone energy, PDI (power dissipation index, along with two newly proposed indices: RACE (revised accumulated cyclone energy and RPDI (revised power dissipation index, are compared using the JTWC (Joint Typhoon Warning Center best-track data of TC over the western North Pacific basin. Our study shows that, while the above metrics have demonstrated various degrees of discrepancies, but in practical terms, they are all able to produce meaningful temporal and spatial changes in response to climate variability. Compared with the conventional ACE and PDI, RACE and RPDI seem to provide a more precise estimate of the total TC activity, especially in projecting the upswing trend of TC activity over the past few decades, simply because of a better approach in estimating TC wind energy. However, we would argue that there is still no need to find a _ or _ metric for TC activity because different metrics are designed to stratify different aspects of TC activity, and whether the selected metric is appropriate or not should be determined solely by the purpose of study. Except for magnitude difference, the analysis results seem insensitive to the choice of the best-track datasets.

  17. Iso standardization of theoretical activity evaluation method for low and intermediate level activated waste generated at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makoto Kashiwagi [JGC, Yokohama, 220-6001 (Japan); Garamszeghy, Mike [NWMO, Toronto, Ontario, M4T 2S3 (Canada); Lantes, Bertrand; Bonne, Sebastien [EDF UTO, 93192 Noisy le Grand (France); Pillette-Cousin, Lucien [AREVA TA, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Leganes, Jose Luis [ENRESA, 28043 Madrid (Spain); Volmert, Ben [NAGRA, CH-5430 Wettingen (Switzerland); James, David W. [DW James Consulting, North Oaks, MN 55127 (United States)


    Disposal of low-and intermediate-level activated waste generated at nuclear power plants is being planned or carried out in many countries. The radioactivity concentrations and/or total quantities of long-lived, difficult-to-measure nuclides (DTM nuclides), such as C-14, Ni-63, Nb-94, α emitting nuclides etc., are often restricted by the safety case for a final repository as determined by each country's safety regulations, and these concentrations or amounts are required to be known and declared. With respect to waste contaminated by contact with process water, the Scaling Factor method (SF method), which is empirically based on sampling and analysis data, has been applied as an important method for determining concentrations of DTM nuclides. This method was standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and published in 2007 as ISO21238 'Scaling factor method to determine the radioactivity of low and intermediate-level radioactive waste packages generated at nuclear power plants' [1]. However, for activated metal waste with comparatively high concentrations of radioactivity, such as may be found in reactor control rods and internal structures, direct sampling and radiochemical analysis methods to evaluate the DTM nuclides are limited by access to the material and potentially high personnel radiation exposure. In this case, theoretical calculation methods in combination with empirical methods based on remote radiation surveys need to be used to best advantage for determining the disposal inventory of DTM nuclides while minimizing exposure to radiation workers. Pursuant to this objective a standard for the theoretical evaluation of the radioactivity concentration of DTM nuclides in activated waste, is in process through ISO TC85/SC5 (ISO Technical Committee 85: Nuclear energy, nuclear technologies, and radiological protection; Subcommittee 5: Nuclear fuel cycle). The project team for this ISO standard was formed in 2011 and

  18. Radon measurements during the building of a low-level laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Antanasijevic, R; Bikit, I; Banjanac, R; Dragic, A; Joksimovic, D; Krmpotic, D; Udovicic, V; Vukovic, J


    Radon measurements were provided during the different stages of building of a low-level laboratory in Belgrade. The depth of the laboratory is 12 m, equivalent to 30 m of water with an area of 45 m sup 2. The whole of the laboratory is hermetically lined with 1 mm A1 foil and is ventilated with filtered air. Radon concentrations were measured with the CR-39 detector as well as via the gamma-ray spectroscopic measurements. The radon concentrations in the air were achieved to 20 Bqm sup - sup 3 and reduction of secondary and tertiary cosmic-ray fluxes is five times when ventilation, filtering and sealing was applied.

  19. Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Activation of the Primary Visual Cortex Predicts Size Adaptation Illusion (United States)

    Pooresmaeili, Arezoo; Arrighi, Roberto; Biagi, Laura; Morrone, Maria Concetta


    In natural scenes, objects rarely occur in isolation but appear within a spatiotemporal context. Here, we show that the perceived size of a stimulus is significantly affected by the context of the scene: brief previous presentation of larger or smaller adapting stimuli at the same region of space changes the perceived size of a test stimulus, with larger adapting stimuli causing the test to appear smaller than veridical and vice versa. In a human fMRI study, we measured the blood oxygen level-dependent activation (BOLD) responses of the primary visual cortex (V1) to the contours of large-diameter stimuli and found that activation closely matched the perceptual rather than the retinal stimulus size: the activated area of V1 increased or decreased, depending on the size of the preceding stimulus. A model based on local inhibitory V1 mechanisms simulated the inward or outward shifts of the stimulus contours and hence the perceptual effects. Our findings suggest that area V1 is actively involved in reshaping our perception to match the short-term statistics of the visual scene. PMID:24089504

  20. Physical activity in an indigenous Ecuadorian forager-horticulturalist population as measured using accelerometry (United States)

    Madimenos, Felicia C.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Liebert, Melissa A.; Sugiyama, Lawrence S.


    Objective Minimal information on physical activity is available for non-Western populations undergoing the transition to a market economy. This is unfortunate given the importance of these data for understanding health issues such as the global obesity epidemic. We consider the utility of using accelerometry technology to examine activity patterns and energy use regulation among indigenous Shuar, an Ecuadorian forager-horticulturalist population undergoing economic and lifestyle change. We investigate sex differences in Shuar activity patterns and the effects of reproductive status on activity. Finally, we discuss the potential of accelerometry use in human biology research. Methods Physical activity levels were measured using Actical accelerometers in 49 indigenous Shuar adults (23 males, 26 females) from a rural Ecuadorian community. Female participants were in various reproductive states including pregnant, lactating, and non-pregnant/non-lactating. Results Activity counts (AC), activity energy expenditure (AEE), and physical activity levels (PAL) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in males than females. Significant differences in energy expenditure were found among pregnant or lactating females and males with pregnant or lactating partners (P < 0.001). Males with pregnant or lactating partners also had significantly higher activity levels than did other men (P < 0.01). Conclusions Shuar activity levels are relatively low compared to other non-Western populations. Despite increasing market integration, pregnant and lactating females seem to be adopting a strategy noted in other subsistence populations where male participation in subsistence activities increases to compensate for their partners’ elevated reproductive costs. Despite certain limitations, use of accelerometry in human biology research shows promise. PMID:21538650

  1. Physical Activity in Vietnam: Estimates and Measurement Issues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Van Bui

    Full Text Available Our aims were to provide the first national estimates of physical activity (PA for Vietnam, and to investigate issues affecting their accuracy.Measurements were made using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ on a nationally-representative sample of 14706 participants (46.5% males, response 64.1% aged 25-64 years selected by multi-stage stratified cluster sampling.Approximately 20% of Vietnamese people had no measureable PA during a typical week, but 72.9% (men and 69.1% (women met WHO recommendations for PA by adults for their age. On average, 52.0 (men and 28.0 (women Metabolic Equivalent Task (MET-hours/week (largely from work activities were reported. Work and total PA were higher in rural areas and varied by season. Less than 2% of respondents provided incomplete information, but an additional one-in-six provided unrealistically high values of PA. Those responsible for reporting errors included persons from rural areas and all those with unstable work patterns. Box-Cox transformation (with an appropriate constant added was the most successful method of reducing the influence of large values, but energy-scaled values were most strongly associated with pathophysiological outcomes.Around seven-in-ten Vietnamese people aged 25-64 years met WHO recommendations for total PA, which was mainly from work activities and higher in rural areas. Nearly all respondents were able to report their activity using the GPAQ, but with some exaggerated values and seasonal variation in reporting. Data transformation provided plausible summary values, but energy-scaling fared best in association analyses.

  2. A comparison of direct versus self-report measures for assessing physical activity in adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardt Jill


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate assessment is required to assess current and changing physical activity levels, and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase activity levels. This study systematically reviewed the literature to determine the extent of agreement between subjectively (self-report e.g. questionnaire, diary and objectively (directly measured; e.g. accelerometry, doubly labeled water assessed physical activity in adults. Methods Eight electronic databases were searched to identify observational and experimental studies of adult populations. Searching identified 4,463 potential articles. Initial screening found that 293 examined the relationship between self-reported and directly measured physical activity and met the eligibility criteria. Data abstraction was completed for 187 articles, which described comparable data and/or comparisons, while 76 articles lacked comparable data or comparisons, and a further 30 did not meet the review's eligibility requirements. A risk of bias assessment was conducted for all articles from which data was abstracted. Results Correlations between self-report and direct measures were generally low-to-moderate and ranged from -0.71 to 0.96. No clear pattern emerged for the mean differences between self-report and direct measures of physical activity. Trends differed by measure of physical activity employed, level of physical activity measured, and the gender of participants. Results of the risk of bias assessment indicated that 38% of the studies had lower quality scores. Conclusion The findings suggest that the measurement method may have a significant impact on the observed levels of physical activity. Self-report measures of physical activity were both higher and lower than directly measured levels of physical activity, which poses a problem for both reliance on self-report measures and for attempts to correct for self-report – direct measure differences. This review reveals

  3. Comparison of accelerometry and oxymetry for measuring daily physical activity. (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yumiko; Kawamura, Takashi; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Noda, Akiko; Hirai, Makoto; Saito, Hidehiko; Ohno, Yoshiyuki


    To assess the validity of accelerometry in measuring daily physical activity, the energy consumption calculated by accelerometry, with respiratory gas analysis as a reference, was evaluated in 45 non-athletes during various exercise tests. Subjects were required to (1) walk on a treadmill ergometer at various speeds, (2) walk on a treadmill ergometer at a fixed speed and with a stride of 20% more or 20% less than that when walking freely, (3) walk on a treadmill ergometer at a fixed speed wearing either sneakers or leather-soled shoes, and (4) cycle on a bicycle ergometer. There were strong linear relationships between the measurements during the progressively graded treadmill test, with an overall Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.97. The mean estimated difference ranged from -0.77 to 0.27 kcal/min and the coefficients of variation from 13.2% to 22.2%. However, the difference between the methods was not negligible for individual subjects. Accelerometry overestimated energy expenditure during short-step walking, and underestimated it during long-step walking. No significant difference in energy expenditure was found according to the type of shoes worn. Cycling activity was not recorded by accelerometry. Accelerometry is a reasonably accurate and feasible method for evaluating the physical activities of non-athletes, and could be a common tool for epidemiological research and health promotion despite its limitations.

  4. A method to measure hydrolytic activity of adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Bartolommei

    Full Text Available The detection of small amounts (nanomoles of inorganic phosphate has a great interest in biochemistry. In particular, phosphate detection is useful to evaluate the rate of hydrolysis of phosphatases, that are enzymes able to remove phosphate from their substrate by hydrolytic cleavage. The hydrolysis rate is correlated to enzyme activity, an extremely important functional parameter. Among phosphatases there are the cation transporting adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases, that produce inorganic phosphate by cleavage of the γ-phosphate of ATP. These membrane transporters have many fundamental physiological roles and are emerging as potential drug targets. ATPase hydrolytic activity is measured to test enzyme functionality, but it also provides useful information on possible inhibitory effects of molecules that interfere with the hydrolytic process. We have optimized a molybdenum-based protocol that makes use of potassium antimony (III oxide tartrate (originally employed for phosphate detection in environmental analysis to allow its use with phosphatase enzymes. In particular, the method was successfully applied to native and recombinant ATPases to demonstrate its reliability, validity, sensitivity and versatility. Our method introduces significant improvements to well-established experimental assays, which are currently employed for ATPase activity measurements. Therefore, it may be valuable in biochemical and biomedical investigations of ATPase enzymes, in combination with more specific tests, as well as in high throughput drug screening.

  5. Phoswich detectors with DSP analysis for low-energy, low-activity photon measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillai, S.; Feng, J.; Miller, W.H. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)


    Several new phoswich detector designs coupled with digital pulse shape discrimination systems are under development for a variety of radiological measurements. Herein the authors report on two detectors for measuring small activities (nanocurie amounts) of low photon energy (30 to 150 keV) from either isotopic decay or beta-produced bremsstrahlung radiation. The lower limit of detection (LLD), assuming a 60-s counting time, for a phoswich well detector is 0.7 Bq (0.02 nCi) of gamma activity in the 20- to 100-keV range and 11 Bq (0.3 nCi) and 550 (15 nCi) for gamma rays and beta bremsstrahlung X rays, respectively. It is envisioned that these detectors would be useful for biomedical applications or for other measurements requiring low-level, low-energy photon measurement.

  6. Dopamine activation in Neuroticism as measured by spontaneous eye blink rate. (United States)

    Barbato, Giuseppe; Della Monica, Ciro; Costanzo, Antonio; De Padova, Vittoria


    Personality dimensions have been associated with different psychobiological systems. However, no agreement exists in literature on a specific role of a single neurotransmitter for each of the dimensions investigated. We studied the relationship of Neuroticism, Extraversion and Psychoticism as assessed by Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) with spontaneous eye blink rate (BR), a non-invasive measure of central dopamine activity. A total of sixty-three healthy subjects (40 females, 23 males, mean age 24.2±3.9) were studied. Spontaneous blink rate and time of blink suppression were assessed by EOG measurement. Levels of Extraversion and Neuroticism were inversely correlated. In contrast with previous findings, a significant correlation between blink rate measures and Neuroticism was found. No significant correlation between blink measures and either Extraversion, or Psychoticism were found. The results appear consistent with a lower threshold for activation in neuroticism as suggested by Eysenck's original model.

  7. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis (United States)

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, J.; Koleška, M.; Voljanskij, A.


    Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. Not all fluorescent lamps are recycled, resulting in contamination of the environment with toxic mercury, making measurement of the mercury mass used in fluorescent lamps important. Mercury mass measurement of lamps via instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) was tested under various conditions in the LVR-15 research reactor. Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in different positions in vertical irradiation channels and a horizontal channel in neutron fields with total fluence rates from 3×108 cm-2 s-1 to 1014 cm-2 s-1. The 202Hg(n,γ)203Hg nuclear reaction was used for mercury mass evaluation. Activities of 203Hg and others induced radionuclides were measured via gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector at various times after irradiation. Standards containing an Hg2Cl2 compound were used to determine mercury mass. Problems arise from the presence of elements with a large effective cross section in luminescent material (europium, antimony and gadolinium) and glass (boron). The paper describes optimization of the NAA procedure in the LVR-15 research reactor with particular attention to influence of neutron self-absorption in fluorescent lamps.

  8. Transmission Power Measurements for Wireless Sensor Nodes and their Relationship to the Battery Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, S.; Bellettini, C.; Sinigalliesi, A.; Stabellini, L.; Rossi, M.; Mazzini, G.


    In this work we focus on the new generation EYESIFXv2 [1] wireless sensor nodes by carrying out experimental measurements on power related quantities. In particular, our aim is to characterize the relationship between the level of the battery and the transmission power radiated by the node. The pres

  9. Measuring triple-helix synergy in the Russian innovation systems at regional, provincial, and national levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Perevodchikov, E.; Uvarov, A.


    We measure synergy for the Russian national, provincial, and regional innovation systems as reduction of uncertainty using mutual information among the 3 distributions of firm sizes, technological knowledge bases of firms, and geographical locations. Half a million units of data at firm level in 201

  10. Derivation of the radiation budget at ground level from satellite measurements (United States)

    Raschke, E.


    Determination of the Earth radiaton budget and progress in measurement of the budget components and in the treatment of imaging data from satellites are described. Methods for calculating the radiation budget in a general circulation model, radiative transfer characteristics of clouds, computation of solar radiation at ground level using meteorological data and development of a 10-channel radiometer are discussed.

  11. Electromyographic Patterns during Level and Inclined Treadmill Running and Their Relationship to Step Cycle Measures. (United States)

    Hannon, Patrick R.; And Others


    Eight highly skilled male runners were filmed running on level and inclined treadmills while electromyographic measures from right thigh muscles were collected. Results indicate that treadmill grade had a significant effect on the relative duration of both stance and swing phases of the step cycle and on total step cycle duration. (MT)

  12. [An outpatient clinic measure and control system for anticoagulation levels, CoaguChek XS]. (United States)

    Romero Guardeño, Araceli; Pérez Lucena, Dolores Amalia


    A significant increase during recent years in the number of patients who need Oral Anticoagulant Treatment has meant a greater role for nurses, especially in Primary Health Care Centers, since nurses, along with doctors, are the professionals responsible for treating those patients. This control is carried out by measuring the levels of anticoagulants in the blood, regulating the anticoagulant medicine doses, and providing patients with the essential health education so patients participate in the treatment of their illness. To a large degree, the preponderance of Primary Health Care Centers in the aforementioned control has developed hand-in-hand with the availability of portable, simple and low cost coagulation measuring systems which permit a direct reading of a patient's anticoagulation level with one drop of capillary blood. The objective of this article is introduce the reader to a measuring system appropriate for outpatient clinic control of anticoagulant levels in blood by mans of the CoaguChek XS System, which is described. The authors specify the sample extraction procedure, how to measure coagulant levels, and recommendations to keep in mind while carrying out this procedure. The authors sketch the importance of health education and finally, they describe some advantages and inconveniences this system has.

  13. Your Mind Wanders Weakly, Your Mind Wanders Deeply: Objective Measures Reveal Mindless Reading at Different Levels (United States)

    Schad, Daniel J.; Nuthmann, Antje; Engbert, Ralf


    Time Factors (Learning);When the mind wanders, attention turns away from the external environment and cognitive processing is decoupled from perceptual information. Mind wandering is usually treated as a dichotomy (dichotomy-hypothesis), and is often measured using self-reports. Here, we propose the levels of inattention hypothesis, which…

  14. Measuring Confidence Levels of Male and Female Students in Open Access Enabling Courses (United States)

    Atherton, Mirella


    The study of confidence was undertaken at the University of Newcastle with students selecting science courses at two campuses. The students were enrolled in open access programs and aimed to gain access to undergraduate studies in various disciplines at University. The "third person effect" was used to measure the confidence levels of…

  15. Ambulatory monitoring of activity levels of individuals in the sub-acute stage following stroke: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabjek Karl F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an important need to better understand the activities of individual patients with stroke outside of structured therapy since this activity is likely to have a profound influence on recovery. A case-study approach was used to examine the activity levels and associated physiological load of patients with stroke throughout a day. Methods Activities and physiologic measures were recorded during a continuous 8 hour period from 4 individuals in the sub-acute stage following stroke (ranging from 49 to 80 years old; 4 to 8 weeks post-stroke in an in-patient rehabilitation hospital. Results Both heart rate (p = 0.0207 and ventilation rate (p Conclusion Activity levels of individuals with stroke during the day were generally low, though task-related changes in physiologic measures were observed. Large variability in the physiological response to even the activities deemed to be greatest intensity suggests that inclusion of such extended measurement of physiologic measures may improve understanding of physiological profile that could guide elements of the physical therapy prescription.

  16. Use of inexpensive pressure transducers for measuring water levels in wells (United States)

    Keeland, B.D.; Dowd, J.F.; Hardegree, W.S.


    Frequent measurement of below ground water levels at multiple locations is an important component of many wetland ecosystem studies. These measurements, however, are usually time consuming, labor intensive, and expensive. This paper describes a water-level sensor that is inexpensive and easy to construct. The sensor is placed below the expected low water level in a shallow well and, when connected to a datalogger, uses a pressure transducer to detect groundwater or surface water elevations. Details of pressure transducer theory, sensor construction, calibration, and examples of field installations are presented. Although the transducers must be individually calibrated, the sensors have a linear response to changing water levels (r2 ??? .999). Measurement errors resulting from temperature fluctuations are shown to be about 4 cm over a 35??C temperature range, but are minimal when the sensors are installed in groundwater wells where temperatures are less variable. Greater accuracy may be obtained by incorporating water temperature data into the initial calibration (0.14 cm error over a 35??C temperature range). Examples of the utility of these sensors in studies of groundwater/surface water interactions and the effects of water level fluctuations on tree growth are provided. ?? 1997 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  17. NIST traceable measurements of radiance and luminance levels of night-vision-goggle test-instruments (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Podobedov, V. B.


    In order to perform radiance and luminance level measurements of night-vision-goggle (NVG) test instruments, NIST developed new-generation transfer-standard radiometers (TR). The new TRs can perform low-level radiance and luminance measurements with SI traceability and low uncertainty. The TRs were calibrated against NIST detector/radiometer standards holding the NIST photometric and radiometric scales. An 815 nm diode laser was used at NIST for the radiance responsivity calibrations. A spectrally flat (constant) filter correction was made for the TRs to correct the spectral responsivity change of the built-in Si photodiode for LEDs peaking at different wavelengths in the different test sets. The radiance responsivity transfer to the test instruments (test-sets) is discussed. The radiance values of the test instruments were measured with the TRs. The TRs propagate the traceablity to the NIST detector-based reference scales. The radiance uncertainty obtained from three TR measurements was 4.6 % (𝑘=2) at a luminance of 3.43 x 10-4 cd/m2. The output radiance of the previously used IR sphere source and the radiance responsivity of a previously used secondary standard detector unit, which was originally calibrated against an IR sphere source, were also measured with the TRs. The performances of the NVG test instruments were evaluated and the manufacturer produced radiance and luminance levels were calibrated with SI/NIST traceability.

  18. Measuring the engagement level of children for multiple intelligence test using Kinect (United States)

    Lee, Dongjin; Yun, Woo han; Park, Chan kyu; Yoon, H.; Kim, Jaehong; Park, C. H.


    In this paper, we present an affect recognition system for measuring the engagement level of children using the Kinect while performing a multiple intelligence test on a computer. First of all, we recorded 12 children while solving the test and manually created a ground truth data for the engagement levels of each child. For a feature extraction, Kinect for Windows SDK provides support for a user segmentation and skeleton tracking so that we can get 3D joint positions of an upper-body skeleton of a child. After analyzing movement of children, the engagement level of children's responses is classified into two classes: High or Low. We present the classification results using the proposed features and identify the significant features in measuring the engagement.

  19. Displacement measurement with multi-level spiral phase filtering in speckle interferometry (United States)

    Aguilar, Alberto; Dávila, Abundio; Landgrave, J. E. A.


    A multi-level spiral phase filter is proposed in electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) for out-of-plane displacement measurements. This filter generates a particular kind of speckle pattern that results from the convolution of standard speckles with the filter point spread function (Fourier transform). We shall refer to it as a vortex-filtered speckle pattern (VF-SP). It is shown here that if unresolved and fully developed VF-SPs are generated, then each speckle contains embedded phase terms which can be controlled by the multi-level spiral filter rotation. This mechanism effectively allows the application of standard phase extraction procedures for displacement measurements. Numerical simulations of an interferometer working with VF-SPs were done to verify this technique. Experimental validation was achieved with an out-of-plane electronic speckle pattern interferometer, in which an Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) was used to generate the multi-level spiral phase filters.

  20. Liquid-level Measurement with Fiber-optic Low Coherence Interferometer:Micrometer-resolution Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yan-fang; SUN Yu-xing; SUN Chang-sen


    According to the fact that the surface of liquid with low viscosity coefficient is a good reflection plane for a broadband light beam,liquid-level measurement in micrometer resolution is designed based on a fiber-optic low coherence interferometer in Michelson configuration.The wave front of the reflected light beam is well enough to form an interferogram with a beam reflected from an optic mirror mounted on a stepping scanning-motor.The central peak of the interferogram is read as a measure of the liquid level.Experimental results show that this noncontact method can reach a resolution of ±1.25 μm in the measurement range of 86 mm.

  1. Kingdon trap apparatus and technique for precise measurement of the lifetimes of metastable levels of ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehs, D.P.; Church, D.A. [Physics Department, Texas AM University, College Station, Texas77843-4242 (United States); Phaneuf, R.A. [Physics Department, University of Nevada at Reno, Reno, Nevada89557-0058 (United States)


    A portable system consisting of a Kingdon electrostatic ion trap and associated vacuum system and electronics has been especially designed to capture multiply charged ions from a beam produced by an electron cyclotron resonance ion source and to measure the lifetimes of the decays of metastable levels of these ions, which are excited in the source. Measurements on ion charge states as high as 14+ have been completed, with precisions exceeding 1{percent} achieved with a few hours of data collection time in favorable cases. Gaseous and metallic ions of astrophysical interest have been studied. The measured lifetime of the 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 2} {sup 1}D{sub 2} level of Mn{sup 11+}, {tau}=11.16{plus_minus}0.10 ms, is discussed as an example of the apparatus capabilities. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Using the TOEFL to measure the reading proficiency levels of deaf college applicants. (United States)

    LoMaglio, L J


    The TOEFL is widely used by colleges and universities in the United States and Canada to measure the English language proficiency levels of hearing international applicants. At the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, a faculty committee recommended that this popular test instrument be used to measure the English reading skills of deaf international applicants to the National Technical Institute for the Deaf. This study examined the merits of using the TOEFL to measure the English reading ability of hearing post-secondary international students seeking admission to English-based colleges and universities. Forty-one hearing foreign students were tested in the fall of 1989 at the English Language Institute at SUNY Buffalo. The instruments chosen were both the TOEFL and the California Achievement Test of reading ability. The majority of the research subjects who scored between 400 and 500 on the TOEFL achieved a grade level of less than 8.0 on the California Achievement Test.

  3. Measurement and AFPS control of molten steel level in strip casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liye Zhu; Tihua Wu; Yuan Fang


    The measurement and control of the molten steel level are studied, which affect the quality of strip surface in strip casting.A system of molten steel measurement with a CCD (Charge Coupled Devices) sensor is designed, real-time measured data are given and its precision is analyzed. The level fluctuation model is derived, and an adaptive fuzzy-PID controller with supervisory control (AFPS) is proposed. The stability of the system is proved using Lyapunov theorem, and the simulation results are given when the model, the casting speed and the roll gap change. It is suggested that this kind of coupled nonlinear and time varying system is stable and robust using the designed AFPS controller.

  4. Decrease of physical activity level in adolescents with limb fractures: an accelerometry-based activity monitor study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delhumeau Cécile


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immobilization and associated periods of inactivity can cause osteopenia, the physiological response of the bone to disuse. Mechanical loading plays an essential role in maintaining bone integrity. Skeletal fractures represent one cause of reduction of the physical activity (PA level in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to quantify the reduction of PA in adolescents with limb fractures during the cast immobilization period compared with healthy controls. Methods Two hundred twenty adolescents were divided into three groups: those with upper limb fractures (50 cases; lower limb fractures (50 cases; and healthy cases (120 cases. Patients and their healthy peers were matched for gender, age, and seasonal assessment of PA. PA level was assessed during cast immobilization by accelerometer. Time spent in PA in each of the different intensity levels - sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous - was determined for each participant and expressed in minutes and as a percentage of total valid time. Results Reduction in PA during cast immobilization was statistically significant in patients with limb fractures compared to healthy controls. The total PA count (total number of counts/min was significantly lower in those with upper and lower limb fractures (-30.1% and -62.4%, respectively compared with healthy controls (p p = 0.0003 and 76.6% (p p = 0.0008 and 84.4% (p Conclusions PA measured by accelerometer is a useful and valid tool to assess the decrease of PA level in adolescents with limb fractures. As cast immobilization and reduced PA are known to induce bone mineral loss, this study provides important information to quantify the decrease of skeletal loading in this patient population. The observed reduction of high intensity skeletal loading due to the decrease in vigorous PA may explain osteopenia due to disuse, and these data should be kept in mind by trauma practitioners to avoid any unnecessary prolongation of the cast

  5. Improved installation prototype for measurement of low argon-37 activity (United States)

    Pakhomov, Sergei; Dubasov, Yuri


    On-site Inspection (OSI) is a key element of verification of State Parties' compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). An on-site inspection is launched to establish whether or not a nuclear explosion has been carried out. One of the most significant evidence of n underground nuclear explosion (UNE) is detection above background concentrations of argon-37 in near surface air. Argon-37 is formed in large amounts at interaction of neutrons of UNE with the potassium which is a part of the majority of rocks. Its estimated contents for the 100th days after explosion with a energy of 1000 t of TNT near a surface can vary from 1 to 1000 mBq/m3. The background concentrations of argon-37 in subsoil air vary 1 do100 mBq/m3. Traditionally, for argon-37 activity measurement the gas-proportional counters are used. But at Khlopin Radium institute the developments of the new type of highly sensitive and low-background installation capable to provide the required range of measurements of the argon-37 concentration are conducted. The liquid scintillation method of the registration of the low-energetic argon-37 electrons is the basic installation principle and as scintillator, the itself condensed air argon sample is used. Registration of scintillations of liquid argon is made by means of system from 3 PMT which cathodes are cooled near to the temperature of liquid nitrogen together with the measuring chamber in which placed the quartz glass ampule, containing the measured sample of the liquefied argon. For converse the short wavelength photons (λ = 127 nm) of liquid argon scintillations to more long-wave, corresponding to the range of PMT sensitivity, the polymer film with tetra-phenyl-butadiene (TPB) is provided. Even the insignificant impurities of nitrogen, oxygen and others gaseous in the liquid argon samples can to cause the quenching of scintillation, especially their slow components. To account this effect and it influence on change of registration

  6. Measurements of 55Fe activity in activated steel samples with GEMPix (United States)

    Curioni, A.; Dinar, N.; La Torre, F. P.; Leidner, J.; Murtas, F.; Puddu, S.; Silari, M.


    In this paper we present a novel method, based on the recently developed GEMPix detector, to measure the 55Fe content in samples of metallic material activated during operation of CERN accelerators and experimental facilities. The GEMPix, a gas detector with highly pixelated read-out, has been obtained by coupling a triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) to a quad Timepix ASIC. Sample preparation, measurements performed on 45 samples and data analysis are described. The calibration factor (counts per second per unit specific activity) has been obtained via measurements of the 55Fe activity determined by radiochemical analysis of the same samples. Detection limit and sensitivity to the current Swiss exemption limit are calculated. Comparison with radiochemical analysis shows inconsistency for the sensitivity for only two samples, most likely due to underestimated uncertainties of the GEMPix analysis. An operative test phase of this technique is already planned at CERN.

  7. Development of standard ionization chamber counting system for activity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pyun, W B; Lee, H Y; Park, T S


    This study is to set up the activity measuring system using a 4 pi gamma ionization chamber as used mainly in national standards laboratories that are responsible for radionuclide metrology. The software for automatic control between the electrometer and personal computer is developed using Microsoft visual basic 4.0 and IEEE488 Interface. The reproducibility of this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber is about 0.02% and the background current is 0.054+-0.024 pA. this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber is calibrated by 6 standard gamma emitting radionuclides from KRISS. According to the result of this study, it is revealed that this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber counting system can be used as a secondary standard instrument for radioactivity measurement.

  8. Measurement of Antioxidant Activity Towards Superoxide in Natural Waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Whitney King


    Full Text Available Antioxidants are a class of molecules that provide a protective function against reactive oxygen species (ROS in biological systems by out competing physiologically important molecules for ROS oxidation. In natural waters, the reactivity of antioxidants gives an estimate of oxidative stress and may determine the reactivity and distribution of reactive oxidants. We present an analytical method to measure antioxidant activity in natural waters through the competition between ascorbic acid, an antioxidant, and MCLA, a chemiluminescent probe for superoxide. A numerical kinetic model of the analytical method has been developed to optimize analytical performance. Measurements of antioxidant concentrations in pure and seawater are possible with detection limits below 0.1 nM. Surface seawater samples collected at solar noon contained over 0.4 nM of antioxidants and exhibited first-order decay with a half-life of 3-7 minutes, consistent with a reactive species capable of scavenging photochemically produced superoxide.

  9. Effects of Barometric Fluctuations on Well Water-Level Measurements and Aquifer Test Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FA Spane, Jr.


    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, as part of the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project, examines the potential for offsite migration of contamination within underlying aquifer systems. Well water-level elevation measurements from selected wells within these aquifer systems commonly form the basis for delineating groundwater-flow patterns (i.e., flow direction and hydraulic gradient). In addition, the analysis of water-level responses obtained in wells during hydrologic tests provides estimates of hydraulic properties that are important for evaluating groundwater-flow velocity and transport characteristics. Barometric pressure fluctuations, however, can have a discernible impact on well water-level measurements. These barometric effects may lead to erroneous indications of hydraulic head within the aquifer. Total hydraulic head (i.e., sum of the water-table elevation and the atmospheric pressure at the water-table surface) within the aquifer, not well water-level elevation, is the hydrologic parameter for determining groundwater-flow direction and hydraulic gradient conditions. Temporal variations in barometric pressure may also adversely affect well water-level responses obtained during hydrologic tests. If significant, adjustments or removal of these barometric effects from the test-response record may be required for quantitative hydraulic property determination. This report examines the effects of barometric fluctuations on well water-level measurements and evaluates adjustment and removal methods for determining areal aquifer head conditions and aquifer test analysis. Two examples of Hanford Site unconfined aquifer tests are examined that demonstrate barometric response analysis and illustrate the predictive/removal capabilities of various methods for well water-level and aquifer total head values. Good predictive/removal characteristics were demonstrated with best corrective results provided by multiple-regression deconvolution methods.

  10. Effects of simvastatin on lipid levels and platelet activation in elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Chen; Yuanping Hou; Miaobin Liu


    Background and Objective To investigate the effects of simvastatin on lipid lowering therapy and platelet activation in elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia. Methods Fasting serum lipids, CD63, CD41a, serum glucose, hepatic and renal function, routine urine analysis (UA) were measured in 50 healthy subjects, and in 50 elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia before and after 4 weeks treatment with simvastatin (20mg daily for 4 weeks). Results 1. After simvastatin treatment for 4 weeks, the fasting serum level of lipids in elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia was significantly lower than before treatment (P<0.01). 2. CD63 and CD41a were decreased after treatment compared with before, respectively (1.36 0.34) vs (4.26 1.06), (P<0.01) and (123.54 19.73) vs (253.78 16.75), (P<0.01).3. Changes in serum lipid level tended to be positively correlated with the declines in CD63 and CD41a, but there was no statistical significance (P>0.05). Conclusions The results suggested that lipid lowering therapy with simvastatin inhibit platelet activity.

  11. Survey of plutonium and uranium atom ratios and activity levels in Mortandad Canyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallaher, B.M.; Benjamin, T.M.; Rokop, D.J.; Stoker, A.K.


    For more than three decades Mortandad Canyon has been the primary release area of treated liquid radioactive waste from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory). In this survey, six water samples and seven stream sediment samples collected in Mortandad Canyon were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) to determine the plutonium and uranium activity levels and atom ratios. Be measuring the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, the Laboratory plutonium component was evaluated relative to that from global fallout. Measurements of the relative abundance of {sup 235}U and {sup 236}U were also used to identify non-natural components. The survey results indicate the Laboratory plutonium and uranium concentrations in waters and sediments decrease relatively rapidly with distance downstream from the major industrial sources. Plutonium concentrations in shallow alluvial groundwater decrease by approximately 1000 fold along a 3000 ft distance. At the Laboratory downstream boundary, total plutonium and uranium concentrations were generally within regional background ranges previously reported. Laboratory derived plutonium is readily distinguished from global fallout in on-site waters and sediments. The isotopic ratio data indicates off-site migration of trace levels of Laboratory plutonium in stream sediments to distances approximately two miles downstream of the Laboratory boundary.

  12. Relationships among Physical Activity Levels, Psychomotor, Psychosocial, and Cognitive Development of Primary Education Students. (United States)

    Isler, Ayse Kin; Asci, F. Hulya; Kosar, S. Nazan


    Investigated the relationships of physical activity levels and psychomotor, psychosocial, and cognitive development among Turkish elementary school students. Student evaluations indicated that physical activity level was an important factor in determining student psychomotor development, but it was not important in determining psychosocial and…

  13. High-resolution genetic mapping of mammalian motor activity levels in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, M J H; de Mooij-van Malsen, J G; de Krom, M; van Gassen, K L I; van Lith, H A; Olivier, B; Oppelaar, H; Hendriks, J; de Wit, M; Groot Koerkamp, M J A; Holstege, F C P; van Oost, B A; de Graan, P N E


    The generation of motor activity levels is under tight neural control to execute essential behaviors, such as movement toward food or for social interaction. To identify novel neurobiological mechanisms underlying motor activity levels, we studied a panel of chromosome substitution (CS) strains deri

  14. Correlation between the Physical Activity Level and Grade Point Averages of Faculty of Education Students (United States)

    Imdat, Yarim


    The aim of the study is to find the correlation that exists between physical activity level and grade point averages of faculty of education students. The subjects consist of 359 (172 females and 187 males) under graduate students To determine the physical activity levels of the students in this research, International Physical Activity…

  15. Elevated serum level of IL-27 and VEGF in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and associate with disease activity. (United States)

    Lin, Tian-Tian; Lu, Jing; Qi, Chen-Yue; Yuan, Lin; Li, Xiao-Lin; Xia, Li-Ping; Shen, Hui


    Interleukin (IL)-27 is an IL-12 family cytokine and exerts a critical role in immune regulation in the context of infection, autoimmunity, and angiogenesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible pathophysiological role of IL-27 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). One hundred and forty AS patients and 90 healthy controls were included in the current study. The levels of IL-27 and VEGF in serum and synovial fluid (SF) samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 were measured by standard laboratory techniques. Disease activity in AS was scored with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Hip involvement, peripheral arthritis, and eye involvement were also recorded. The serum levels of IL-27 were remarkably higher in AS patients than healthy groups and significantly correlated with serum levels of VEGF. Furthermore, the serum levels of IL-27 were correlated with BASDAI independent of other markers of inflammation. Elevated serum levels of IL-27 and VEGF were detected in AS patients with peripheral arthritis and HLA-B27 positive. The SF levels of IL-27 and VEGF were significantly higher than serum levels in AS patients with peripheral arthritis. By contrast, levels of IL-27 and VEGF were not increased in AS patients with hip involvement and eye involvement. IL-27 may regulate the immunological or inflammatory process of AS.

  16. Use of existing standards to measure sound power levels of powered hand tools-necessary revisions (United States)

    Hayden, Charles S.; Zechmann, Edward


    At recent NOISE-CON and Acoustical Society of America meetings, noise rating labeling was discussed as a way of manufacturers providing full disclosure information for their noise emitting products. The first step is to gather sound power level data from these products. Sound power level data should be gathered in accordance with existing ANSI and/or ISO standards. Some standards, such as ANSI 12.15, may not define true operational noise emissions[r1] and thus may provide inaccurate information when that information is used to choose a hearing protection device or used to make a purchasing decision. A number of standards were systematically combined by NIOSH researchers to provide the most accurate information on sound power levels of powered hand tools used in the construction industry. This presentation will detail some of the challenges of existing ANSI 12.15 (and draft ANSI 12.41) to measure sound power levels of electric (and pneumatic) powered hand tools.

  17. Difficulty levels of OSCE items related to examination and measurement skills. (United States)

    Kanada, Yoshikiyo; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Sugiura, Yoshito


    [Purpose] The difficulty levels of level-2 OSCE (examination and measurement skills) items were examined, with a view to providing reference data for the determination of students' skills. [Subjects] A total of 284 graduates of physical (PT) and occupational (OT) therapy classes of 2011 (59 and 40), 2012 (46 and 36), and 2013 (61 and 42, respectively) were studied, with PT or OT faculty members as OSCE examiners and a simulated patient. [Methods] Scores for 11 level-2 OSCE items were compared between before and after clinical training. [Results] Scores markedly increased after clinical training. On comparison among the items, scores for sensory examination were the highest, and those for interviews were the lowest. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate the necessity of considering an appropriate combination of different difficulty levels when adopting OSCE-based educational approaches.

  18. Measuring the Level of Socialization in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustov A.V.,


    Full Text Available Difficulties with socialization common for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD are a serious problem for their inclusion into educational settings. These socialization deficits are basically related to underdeveloped social skills. The paper describes a study aimed at revealing the level of socialization in children with ASD. The study involved 117 children aged 5–7 years and their parents. The children’s socialization level was measured with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. The outcomes showed that most children with ASD display low levels of socialization resulting in their inability to adequately communicate and cooperate with other people as in play, as in everyday life. Two factors were found to affect the level of socialization in the children: deficit of motivation and specific cognitive impairments. The paper argues for the necessity of developing a program for psychologi- cal and educational assistance aimed at forming social skills in children with ASD.

  19. Exposure to pyrethroids insecticides and serum levels of thyroid-related measures in pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie; Hisada, Aya [Department of Environmental Studies, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan); Yoshinaga, Jun, E-mail: [Department of Environmental Studies, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroaki [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563 (Japan); Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Showa University School of Medicine, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Noda, Yumiko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Kato, Nobumasa [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Showa University School of Medicine, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan)


    Possible association between environmental exposure to pyrethroid insecticides and serum thyroid-related measures was explored in 231 pregnant women of 10–12 gestational weeks recruited at a university hospital in Tokyo during 2009–2011. Serum levels of free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid biding globulin (TBG) and urinary pyrethroid insecticide metabolite (3-phenoxybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) were measured. Obstetrical information was obtained from medical records and dietary and lifestyle information was collected by self-administered questionnaire. Geometric mean concentration of creatinine-adjusted urinary 3-PBA was 0.363 (geometric standard deviation: 3.06) μg/g cre, which was consistent with the previously reported levels for non-exposed Japanese adult females. The range of serum fT4, TSH and TBG level was 0.83–3.41 ng/dL, 0.01–27.4 μIU/mL and 16.4–54.4 μg/mL, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was carried out by using either one of serum levels of thyroid-related measures as a dependent variable and urinary 3-PBA as well as other potential covariates (age, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, urinary iodine, smoking and drinking status) as independent variables: 3-PBA was not found as a significant predictor of serum level of thyroid-related measures. Lack of association may be due to lower pyrethroid insecticide exposure level of the present subjects. Taking the ability of pyrethroid insecticides and their metabolite to bind to nuclear thyroid hormone (TH) receptor, as well as their ability of placental transfer, into consideration, it is warranted to investigate if pyrethroid pesticides do not have any effect on TH actions in fetus brain even though maternal circulating TH level is not affected. -- Highlights: • Pyrethroid exposure and thyroid hormone status was examined in pregnant women. • Urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid was used as a biomarker of exposure. • Iodine nutrition, age and other covariates were included

  20. Correlation of Glypican-4 Level with Basal Active Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (United States)

    Koh, Gwanpyo; Cho, Suk Ju; Yoo, So-Yeon; Chin, Sang Ouk


    Background Previous studies have reported that glypican-4 (GPC4) regulates insulin signaling by interacting with insulin receptor and through adipocyte differentiation. However, GPC4 has not been studied with regard to its effects on clinical factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to identify factors associated with GPC4 level in T2DM. Methods Between January 2010 and December 2013, we selected 152 subjects with T2DM and collected serum and plasma into tubes pretreated with aprotinin and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor to preserve active gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). GPC4, active GLP-1, active GIP, and other factors were measured in these plasma samples. We performed a linear regression analysis to identify factors associated with GPC4 level. Results The subjects had a mean age of 58.1 years, were mildly obese (mean body mass index [BMI], 26.1 kg/m2), had T2DM of long-duration (mean, 101.3 months), glycated hemoglobin 7.5%, low insulin secretion, and low insulin resistance (mean homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], 1.2). Their mean GPC4 was 2.0±0.2 ng/mL. In multivariate analysis, GPC4 was independently associated with age (β=0.224, P=0.009), and levels of active GLP-1 (β=0.171, P=0.049) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; β=–0.176, P=0.043) after being adjusted for other clinical factors. Conclusion GPC4 was independently associated with age, active GLP-1, and AST in T2DM patients, but was not associated with HOMA-IR and BMI, which are well known factors related to GPC4. Further study is needed to identify the mechanisms of the association between GPC4 and basal active GLP-1 levels. PMID:27704740

  1. Design of Liquid Level Measurement System Using Multi Sensor Data Fusion for Improved Characteristics and Fault Detection


    SANTHOSH K V Shashank Kumar


    Online validation of multi sensor data fusion based liquid level measurement technique using capacitance level sensor and ultrasonic level sensor is implemented in this work. The objectives of the proposed work is to calibrate level measurement system by fusing the outputs of fuzzy sets of Capacitive Level Sensor (CLS) and Ultrasonic Level Sensor (ULS) such that (i) sensitivity and linearity should be improved as compared to ULS, (ii) reduction of nonlinear characteristics like offset and sat...

  2. Agreement between aggregate and individual-level measures of income and education: a comparison across three patient groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynd Larry D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between lower socioeconomic status and poorer health outcomes has been observed using both individual-level and aggregate-level measures of income and education. While both are predictive of health outcomes, previous research indicates poor agreement between individual-level and aggregate-level measures. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of agreement between aggregate-level and individual-level measures of income and education among three distinct patient groups, specifically asthma, diabetes, and rheumatoid patients. Methods Individual-level measures of annual household income and education were derived from three separate surveys conducted among patients with asthma (n = 359, diabetes (n = 281 and rheumatoid arthritis (n = 275. Aggregate-level measures of income and education were derived from the 2001 Canadian census, including both census tract-and dissemination area-level measures. Cross-tabulations of individual-level income by aggregate-level income were used to determine the percentage of income classifications in agreement. The kappa statistic (simple and weighted, Spearman's rank correlations, and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC were also calculated. Individual-level and aggregate-level education was compared using Chi-Square tests within patient groups. Point biserial correlation coefficients between individual-level and aggregate-level education were computed. Results Individual-level income was poorly correlated with aggregate-level measures, which provided the worst estimations of income among patients in the lowest income category at the individual-level. Both aggregate-level measures were best at approximating individual-level income in patients with diabetes, in whom aggregate-level estimates were only significantly different from individual-level measures for patients in the lowest income category. Among asthma patients, the proportion of patients classified by

  3. Power levels in office equipment: Measurements of new monitors and personal computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, Judy A.; Brown, Richard E.; Nordman, Bruce; Webber, Carrie A.; Homan, Gregory H.; Mahajan, Akshay; McWhinney, Marla; Koomey, Jonathan G.


    Electronic office equipment has proliferated rapidly over the last twenty years and is projected to continue growing in the future. Efforts to reduce the growth in office equipment energy use have focused on power management to reduce power consumption of electronic devices when not being used for their primary purpose. The EPA ENERGY STAR[registered trademark] program has been instrumental in gaining widespread support for power management in office equipment, and accurate information about the energy used by office equipment in all power levels is important to improving program design and evaluation. This paper presents the results of a field study conducted during 2001 to measure the power levels of new monitors and personal computers. We measured off, on, and low-power levels in about 60 units manufactured since July 2000. The paper summarizes power data collected, explores differences within the sample (e.g., between CRT and LCD monitors), and discusses some issues that arise in m etering office equipment. We also present conclusions to help improve the success of future power management programs.Our findings include a trend among monitor manufacturers to provide a single very low low-power level, and the need to standardize methods for measuring monitor on power, to more accurately estimate the annual energy consumption of office equipment, as well as actual and potential energy savings from power management.

  4. Serum paraoxonase activity, total thiols levels, and oxidative status in patients with acute brucellosis. (United States)

    Esen, Ramazan; Aslan, Mehmet; Kucukoglu, Mehmet Emin; Cıkman, Aytekin; Yakan, Umit; Sunnetcioglu, Mahmut; Selek, Sahbettin


    It is well known that paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity may decrease during the course of infection and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate serum PON1 activity, oxidative status, and thiols levels in patients with acute brucellosis. In addition, we investigated the PON1 phenotype in patients with acute brucellosis. Thirty patients with acute brucellosis and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, thiols levels, lipid hydroperoxide levels, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) were determined. Serum basal and salt-stimulated paraoxonase-arylesterase activities, TAC levels and thiols levels were significantly lower in patients with acute brucellosis than controls (for all, p brucellosis. These results indicate that lower PON1 activity is associated with oxidant-antioxidant imbalance.

  5. Urinary levels of high mobility group box-1 are associated with disease activity in antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Tian Ma

    Full Text Available High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1, a kind of pro-inflammatory mediator, is associated with inflammatory conditions and tissue damage. Our previous study demonstrated that the circulating levels of HMGB1 correlated with disease activity of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV. In the current study, we aimed to measure urinary levels of HMGB1 in AAV patients, correlated them to clinical activity index and analysed the immunohistochemical HMGB1 staining in kidney specimens.50 patients with AAV in active stage and 56 patients with AAV in remission were recruited. The urinary levels of HMGB1 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, renal biopsy specimens from 27 patients with active AAV were randomly collected to evaluate the deposition of HMGB1.Urinary HMGB1 levels in AAV patients in active stage were significantly higher than those in AAV patients in remission and healthy controls (1.46 [0.56-3.43] versus 0.38 [0.10-1.35] mg/μmolCr, P=0.001; 1.46 [0.56-3.43] versus 0.48 [0.40-0.60] mg/μmolCr, P=0.000, respectively. Further analysis found that urinary levels of HMGB1 correlated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r=0.354, p=0.012, C-reactive protein (r=0.289, p=0.042, and Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (r=0.350, p=0.013. Renal tissue of active AAV patients showed HMGB1 was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm and the extracellular space. The percentage of HMGB1-negative nuclei in renal tissue of patients with active AAV was significantly higher than that in normal controls (60.6±20.2 % versus 2.7±0.6 %, p<0.01.Urinary levels of HMGB1 may be associated with the disease activity in AAV patients.

  6. Half-life Measurements of Excited Levels in Fission Products around Mass Number 150

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Y., E-mail: [Radioisotope Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Shima, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Hayashi, H. [Institute of Health Biosciences, the University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8509 (Japan); Taniguchi, A. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori 590-0494 (Japan); Shibata, M. [Radioisotope Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)


    A spectrometer to measure nuclear level half-lives has been installed at the on-line isotope separator of the Kyoto University Reactor. This spectrometer consists of a LaBr3 scintillator, a thin plastic scintillator and an HPGe detector. Half-lives are deduced using the β-γ-γ delayed coincidence method. The prompt-time distribution curves measured with the spectrometer give a time resolution (FWHM) of 600 ps for 100-keV γ rays. This resolution means that half-lives down to the subnanosecond range or shorter can be measured. We reported recent measurements of the half-life of {sup 149}Pr and {sup 149}Nd. Some of the more interesting results include the first determination of the half-lives of {sup 149}Pr levels at 86.5 and 125.6 keV, which are 4.2(5) ns and 1.0(2) ns, respectively. In addition, the data indicate that the half-life of the 270.8-keV level in {sup 149}Nd is not 5.1(3) ns as reported previously, but 0.42(3) ns.

  7. Relation of hepatic EROD activity and CYP1A level in Sebastiscus marmoratus exposed to benzo[a]pyrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and its correlation with cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) protein levels in Sebastiscus marmoratus, which were exposed through a water column to BaP (10, 100, 1000 ng/L, respectively) or were treated with intraperitoneal injections of BaP (0.5, 1, 5, 10 mg/kg, respectively) every 7 d. The results showed that after 25 d of waterborne exposure to 1000 ng/L BaP, fish hepatic CYP1A levels and EROD activity were significantly induced. In contrast, EROD activity was not altered 7 d after second ip injections, whereas, CYP1A protein levels were increased. Dose-dependent increase of biliary BaP metabolites demonstrated that the catalytic activity of CYP1A was induced by treatment with BaP. The lowest observable effect concentration with regard to biliary BaP metabolites (100 ng/L) was much lower than that with reference to EROD activity (1000 ng/L). The results suggest that biliary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites were shown to better reflect the contamination gradients of PAHs than EROD activity. It appeared to be necessary to measure CYP1A protein levels to complement the EROD activity in relevant toxicological assessments.

  8. Realization of a Binary-Outcome Projection Measurement of a Three-Level Superconducting Quantum System (United States)

    Jerger, Markus; Macha, Pascal; Hamann, Andrés Rosario; Reshitnyk, Yarema; Juliusson, Kristinn; Fedorov, Arkady


    Binary-outcome measurements allow one to determine whether a multilevel quantum system is in a certain state while preserving quantum coherence between all orthogonal states. In this paper, we explore different regimes of the dispersive readout of a three-level superconducting quantum system coupled to a microwave cavity in order to implement binary-outcome measurements. By designing identical cavity-frequency shifts for the first and second excited states of the system, we realize strong projective binary-outcome measurements onto its ground state with a fidelity of 94.3%. Complemented with standard microwave control and low-noise parametric amplification, this scheme enables the quantum nondemolition detection of leakage errors and can be used to create sets of compatible measurements to reveal the contextual nature of superconducting circuits.

  9. Union Activities to promote cooperative activities at enterprise level: workplace assesment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå; Høy, Jette


    An analysis of the information activities on workplace assessment from a major Danish confederation......An analysis of the information activities on workplace assessment from a major Danish confederation...

  10. Atmospheric effects on infrared measurements at ground level: Application to monitoring of transport infrastructures (United States)

    Boucher, Vincent; Dumoulin, Jean


    Being able to perform easily non-invasive diagnostics for surveillance and monitoring of critical transport infrastructures is a major preoccupation of many technical offices. Among all the existing electromagnetic methods [1], long term thermal monitoring by uncooled infrared camera [2] is a promising technique due to its dissemination potential according to its low cost on the market. Nevertheless, Knowledge of environmental parameters during measurement in outdoor applications is required to carry out accurate measurement corrections induced by atmospheric effects at ground level. Particularly considering atmospheric effects and measurements in foggy conditions close as possible to those that can be encountered around transport infrastructures, both in visible and infrared spectra. In the present study, atmospheric effects are first addressed by using data base available in literature and modelling. Atmospheric attenuation by particles depends greatly of aerosols density, but when relative humidity increases, water vapor condenses onto the particulates suspended in the atmosphere. This condensed water increases the size of the aerosols and changes their composition and their effective refractive index. The resulting effect of the aerosols on the absorption and scattering of radiation will correspondingly be modified. In a first approach, we used aerosols size distributions derived from Shettle and Fenn [3] for urban area which could match some of experimental conditions encountered during trials on transport infrastructures opened to traffic. In order to calculate the influence of relative humidity on refractive index, the Hänel's model [4] could be used. The change in the particulate size is first related to relative humidity through dry particle radius, particle density and water activity. Once the wet aerosol particle size is found, the effective complex refractive index is the volume weighted average of the refractive indexes of the dry aerosol substance

  11. Hierarchical Model-Based Activity Recognition With Automatic Low-Level State Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Muncaster


    Full Text Available Activity recognition in video streams is increasingly important for both the computer vision and artificial intelligence communities. Activity recognition has many applications in security and video surveillance. Ultimately in such applications one wishes to recognize complex activities, which can be viewed as combination of simple activities. In this paper, we present a general framework of a Dlevel dynamic Bayesian network to perform complex activity recognition. The levels of the network are constrained to enforce state hierarchy while the Dth level models the duration of simplest event. Moreover, in this paper we propose to use the deterministic annealing clustering method to automatically define the simple activities, which corresponds to the low level states of observable levels in a Dynamic Bayesian Networks. We used real data sets for experiments. The experimental results show the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  12. Female reproductive factors are associated with objectively measured physical activity in middle-aged women (United States)

    Kulmala, Janne; Aukee, Pauliina; Hakonen, Harto; Kujala, Urho M.; Lowe, Dawn A.; Kovanen, Vuokko; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipilä, Sarianna


    Physical activity improves health and may delay the onset of several chronic diseases. For women in particular, the rate of these diseases accelerates at middle age; therefore it is important to identify the determinants of health-enhancing physical activity during midlife in this population. In this study, we focused on determinants that are unique to the female sex, such as childbearing and menopause. The main objective was to characterize the level of physical activity and differences between active and inactive middle-aged Finnish women. In addition, we examined the association of physical activity with female reproductive factors at midlife. The study population consisted of 647 women aged 48 to 55 years who participated in our Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis (ERMA) study during the period from 2015 to 2016. Physical activity was measured objectively using hip-worn accelerometers for seven consecutive days. The outcome measures included the amounts of light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity accumulated in bouts of at least 10 minutes (MVPA10). MVPA10 was used to determine whether women were placed in the active (≥150 min/week) or inactive (pelvic floor dysfunction as independent variables. We found that a large portion (61%) of Finnish middle-aged women did not meet the physical activity recommendations of 150 minutes of MVPA10 per week. In the studied cohort, 78% of women experienced menopausal symptoms, and 54% exhibited pelvic floor dysfunction. Perceived menopausal symptoms were associated with greater light physical activity. Perceived pelvic floor dysfunction was associated with lower MVPA10. According to the fully adjusted multiple linear regression models, reproductive factors explained 6.0% of the variation of MVPA10 and 7.5% of the variation of light physical activity. The results increase our knowledge of the factors related to physical activity participation among middle-aged women and

  13. Settings for Physical Activity – Developing a Site-specific Physical Activity Behavior Model based on Multi-level Intervention Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Jens; Klinker, Charlotte Demant; Breum, Lars

    Settings for Physical Activity – Developing a Site-specific Physical Activity Behavior Model based on Multi-level Intervention Studies Introduction: Ecological models of health behavior have potential as theoretical framework to comprehend the multiple levels of factors influencing physical...... of new established outdoor facilities for PA among 12 – 85 years old citizens (N=10,434). The SPACE and the WCMC study used objective measurements of PA combined with e-surveys, the VDPA study is based on self-reported e-survey data. Results: Merging the data from the three intervention studies clarifies...... activity (PA). The potential is shown by the fact that there has been a dramatic increase in application of ecological models in research and practice. One proposed core principle is that an ecological model is most powerful if the model is behavior-specific. However, based on multi-level interventions...

  14. Resolution of Two Sub-Populations of Conformers and Their Individual Dynamics by Time Resolved Ensemble Level FRET Measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Rahamim

    Full Text Available Most active biopolymers are dynamic structures; thus, ensembles of such molecules should be characterized by distributions of intra- or intermolecular distances and their fast fluctuations. A method of choice to determine intramolecular distances is based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET measurements. Major advances in such measurements were achieved by single molecule FRET measurements. Here, we show that by global analysis of the decay of the emission of both the donor and the acceptor it is also possible to resolve two sub-populations in a mixture of two ensembles of biopolymers by time resolved FRET (trFRET measurements at the ensemble level. We show that two individual intramolecular distance distributions can be determined and characterized in terms of their individual means, full width at half maximum (FWHM, and two corresponding diffusion coefficients which reflect the rates of fast ns fluctuations within each sub-population. An important advantage of the ensemble level trFRET measurements is the ability to use low molecular weight small-sized probes and to determine nanosecond fluctuations of the distance between the probes. The limits of the possible resolution were first tested by simulation and then by preparation of mixtures of two model peptides. The first labeled polypeptide was a relatively rigid Pro7 and the second polypeptide was a flexible molecule consisting of (Gly-Ser7 repeats. The end to end distance distributions and the diffusion coefficients of each peptide were determined. Global analysis of trFRET measurements of a series of mixtures of polypeptides recovered two end-to-end distance distributions and associated intramolecular diffusion coefficients, which were very close to those determined from each of the pure samples. This study is a proof of concept study demonstrating the power of ensemble level trFRET based methods in resolution of subpopulations in ensembles of flexible macromolecules.

  15. Investigation of the activity level and radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in blast furnace slag. (United States)

    Uğur, F A; Turhan, S; Sahan, H; Sahan, M; Gören, E; Gezer, F; Yeğingil, Z


    The activity level and possible radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on the health of workers and members of the public, as a result of utilisation of blast furnace slag (BFS) samples as a substitute for aggregate in road construction were investigated by using a gamma-ray spectrometer and potential exposure scenarios given in Radiation Protection 122. The mean activity concentrations of the (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in BFS samples were found to be 152.4, 54.9 and 183.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These values are compared with typical values measured in BFS samples from the European Union countries, which are 270, 70 and 240 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The values of radium equivalent activity index calculated for BFS samples were within the recommended safety limits. The highest total annual effective doses evaluated as 0.9 and 0.4 mSv y(-1) for members of the public and workers, respectively, were lower than the annual limit of 1 mSv y(-1).

  16. Consideration of tidal influences in determining measurement periods when monitoring built-environment radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, R.G.M.; Phillips, P.S. [Northampton Univ., School of Applied Sciences (United Kingdom); Gillmore, G.K. [Bradford Univ., School of Archaeological, Geographical and Environmental Sciences (United Kingdom); Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J. [Northampton General Hospital, Medical Physics Dept. (United Kingdom)


    Using three hourly-sampling continuous radon monitors, deployed at separate locations in and around the town of Northampton, UK, during the period May 2002 to September 2005, evidence has been identified of tidal influences on built environment radon levels. The data-sets from these deployments, together with additional data-sets collected from a house in Devon, UK, over the period May 1994 to October 1996, and made available by the UK Building Research Establishment, have been analysed using a number of analytical techniques, including a novel cortion technique developed during the investigation. Radon concentration levels in all of the investigated sites exhibit cyclic variation with a period of approximately 14-15 days, equivalent to the spring-tide interval, and lag the corresponding new and full moons by varying periods. The tide/radon lag interval for the two public-sector buildings changes abruptly in September/October, indicating that a significant characteristic of these buildings changes at this time. For domestic properties, the lag is relatively unchanged during the year, but is greater in Devon, in the South-West of England, than in Northampton, in the English East Midlands. These differences are attributed to location relative to coastlines (the South-West experiences greater tidal-loading than the Midlands), underlying geology and rock/soil hydration. Depending on its position within the local 14 to 15-day tidally-induced radon cycle, an individual 7-day radon measurement may yield an erroneous estimate of longer term average levels, up to 46% higher or lower than the average level for one of the reported data-sets. Thus a building with a mean radon concentration below the local Action Level could appear to be unsafe if measured around a tidal-cyclic radon maximum: conversely, a building with a mean radon concentration above the Action Level could appear to be safe when measured around a tidal-cyclic radon minimum. A minimum radon-measurement period

  17. [Measurement and correlation analysis of plasma VEGF level in the patients of hyperthyroidism]. (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoni; Wang, Guangrong; You, Jinhui


    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a glycoprotein that promotes endothelial regeneration, stimulates formation of collateral blood vessels and increases vascular permeability. The purpose of this study was to measure the peripheral blood plasma level of VEGF and FT3, FT4, TSH and to analyze the correlation of the level of VEGF and TSH, FT3, FT4, age and gender in the patients of hyperthyroidism. The relationship between hyperthyroidism and VEGF was investigated as well. The plasma level of VEGF in 45 hyperthyroidism patients and 27 healthy persons were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while plasma FT3, FT4, TSH were detected by chemiluminescence. The result showed that the plasma level of VEGF in hyperthyroidism patients [(92.53 +/- 62.38) pg/mL] was significantly lower than that in the control group [(158.28 +/- 77.15) pg/mL] (P hyperthyroidism patients (P > 0.05). These results suggested that the peripheral blood plasma level of VEGF in hyperthyroidism patients was significantly lower than that in the control group. Further experimental investigations are needed to estimate the relationship between VEGF and hyperthyroidism.

  18. Simultaneous Measurement and Analysis of Noise Levels in Flexible and Rigid Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yıldırım


    Full Text Available Although concrete roads have been used worldwide for years, the same improvement could not exist in Turkey and therefore, bituminous (hot mix asphalt roads were preferred instead.In this paper, the vastly built HMA (Hot Mix Asphalt roads and rarely preferred concrete roads were compared based on their level of noise. For this purpose, the concrete road at the length of 2 kilometers between Afyonkarahisar and Emirdag; also the transition point to the HMA road (which continues after the concrete road was observed.Both concrete and HMA road ends of this transition point was equipped with a noise measurement device and a camera was installed separately for providing minimum level of noise interference. Consequently, change in the noise levels depending on the building material of roads was recorded simultaneously. These factors was analysed and various models related to the sort of coating was provided. At this stage, the distance between set up points was kept as short as possible in order to prevent different results in the density of traffic and also in the flow rate.Result of various measurements and analysis provided the noise levels of concrete roads being 4 dB(A less than HMA roads in the comparison based on the same level of vehicle composition and traffic flow. Encouraging the construction of concrete roads in our country is emphasized accordingly.

  19. Comparison of fatal motor vehicle accidents at passive and active railway level crossings in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirkku Laapotti


    Active warning devices are effective in preventing accidents due to road user errors. Equipping the most dangerous passive level crossings with warning devices – low cost or conventional – would increase safety. Alternatively, some level crossings could be removed altogether. A minimum requirement is that the environmental factors at passive level crossings support safe crossing.

  20. Radiative Lifetime Measurements of Even-Parity Levels of Singly Ionized Erbium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Huai-Liang(徐淮良); JIANG Hong-Mei(蒋红梅); LIU Qian(刘倩); JIANG Zhan-Kui(蒋占魁); S.Svanberg


    Radiative lifetime measurements were performed by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique for eight even-parity levels of the astrophysically importantion Er+ over the energy range from 33753 to 55317 cm-1.Free erbium ions were generated by a laser-induced plasma. A narrow bandwidth UV laser pulse (1 ns) was employed to populate selectively the short-lived upper levels, and the lifetime value were evaluated from the time-resolved fluorescence signals. The lifetimes reported fall in the range of 3-35 ns with the experimental accuracy 5-8%.

  1. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Saulicz


    Full Text Available To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581, Psychological Domain (r = –0.451, and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577. Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434 has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598 has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507. Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity.

  2. Using a Differential Emission Measure and Density Measurements in an Active Region Core to Test a Steady Heating Model (United States)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Schmelz, Joan T.; Warren, Harry P.; Saar, Steve H.; Kashyap, Vinay L.


    The frequency of heating events in the corona is an important constraint on the coronal heating mechanisms. Observations indicate that the intensities and velocities measured in active region cores are effectively steady, suggesting that heating events occur rapidly enough to keep high-temperature active region loops close to equilibrium. In this paper, we couple observations of active region (AR) 10955 made with the X-Ray Telescope and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode to test a simple steady heating model. First we calculate the differential emission measure (DEM) of the apex region of the loops in the active region core. We find the DEM to be broad and peaked around 3 MK. We then determine the densities in the corresponding footpoint regions. Using potential field extrapolations to approximate the loop lengths and the density-sensitive line ratios to infer the magnitude of the heating, we build a steady heating model for the active region core and find that we can match the general properties of the observed DEM for the temperature range of 6.3 accounts for the base pressure, loop length, and distribution of apex temperatures of the core loops. We find that the density-sensitive spectral line intensities and the bulk of the hot emission in the active region core are consistent with steady heating. We also find, however, that the steady heating model cannot address the emission observed at lower temperatures. This emission may be due to foreground or background structures, or may indicate that the heating in the core is more complicated. Different heating scenarios must be tested to determine if they have the same level of agreement.

  3. Measurement of active shoulder proprioception: dedicated system and device. (United States)

    Lubiatowski, Przemyslaw; Ogrodowicz, Piotr; Wojtaszek, Marcin; Kaniewski, Ryszard; Stefaniak, Jakub; Dudziński, Witold; Romanowski, Leszek


    Proprioception is an essential part of shoulder stability and neuromuscular control. The purpose of the study was the development of a precise system of shoulder proprioception assessment in the active mode (Propriometr). For that purpose, devices such as the electronic goniometer and computer software had been designed. A pilot study was carried out on a control group of 27 healthy subjects, the average age being 23.8 (22-29) in order to test the system. The result of the assessment was the finding of the error of active reproduction of the joint position (EARJP). EARJP was assessed for flexion, abduction, external and internal rotation. For every motion, reference positions were used at three different angles. The results showed EARJP to range in 3-6.1°. The proprioception evaluation system (propriometr) allows a precise measurement of active joint position sense. The designed system can be used to assess proprioception in both shoulder injuries and treatment. In addition, all achieved results of normal shoulders may serve as reference to be compared with the results of forthcoming studies.

  4. Effects of vasoactive and metabolic active substances (measurement of RCBF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrschaft, H.


    Methods, principles, normal values, reproducibility and clinical indications of rCBF-measurements, using the intraartrial 133-Xenon-clearance-technique, are presented. The effect of vaso- and metabolically active drugs on cerebral blood flow was examined in 215 patients, suffering from cerebral ischemia. Significant increase of rCBF was ascertained after intravenous injection of centrophenoxine, pyrithioxine, extractum sanguis deproteinatus, piracetam and solutions of low molecular dextran. All the other drugs tested proved to be either without any effect or caused decrease of rCBF. In 130 patients with obstructive disease of internal carotid artery after surgery at an interval of 6 - 8 weeks and 1 year a significant increase of CBF could be stated. The rank of psychological tests and quantitative EEF-investigations relating to evidence of efficacy of metabolically active drugs is discussed critically. Therapeutic efficacy and clinical relevance of vaso- and metabolically active drugs in cerebral ischemia of man are to be substantiated only by double-blind controlled studies.

  5. Measurement of the hyperfine splitting of the 6S$_{1/2}$ level in rubidium

    CERN Document Server

    Galvan, A Perez; Orozco, L A


    We present a measurement of the hyperfine splitting of the 6S$_{1/2}$ excited level of rubidium using two photon absorption spectroscopy in a glass cell. The values we obtain for the magnetic dipole constant A are 239.18(03) MHz and 807.66(08) MHz for $^{85}$Rb and $^{87}$Rb, respectively. The combination of the magnetic moments of the two isotopes and our measurements show a hyperfine anomaly in this atomic excited state. The observed hyperfine anomaly difference has a value of $_{87}\\delta_{85}=-0.0036(2)$ due to the finite distribution of nuclear magnetization, the Bohr-Weisskopf effect.

  6. Mutations at the Level of the Measures Adopted by Monetary Authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Constantin APOSTOAIE


    Full Text Available Following the intensification of the international financial crisis in autumn 2008 the functioning of the financial system was seriously hindered. Central banks around the world responded firmly by lowering their key interest rates to historically low levels. As financial conditions didn’t improve as hoped and the real economy was still unstable, revealing therefore the limits of mainstream monetary policy, many monetary authorities employed several unconventional measures. This study documents two important approaches of classifying “unorthodox” monetary policies and reviews several measures undertook by central banks highlighting the impact and some of the possible risks to the contemporary economy.

  7. A helium gas scintillator active target for photoreaction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Jebali, Ramsey; Annand, John R.M.; Buchanan, Emma; Gardner, Simon; Hamilton, David J.; Livingston, Kenneth; McGeorge, John C.; MacGregor, Ian J.D.; MacRae, Roderick; Reiter, Andreas J.H.; Rosner, Guenther; Sokhan, Daria; Strandberg, Bruno [University of Glasgow, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Adler, Jan-Olof; Fissum, Kevin; Schroeder, Bent [University of Lund, Department of Physics, Lund (Sweden); Akkurt, Iskender [Sueleyman Demirel University, Fen-Edebiyat Faculty, Isparta (Turkey); Brudvik, Jason; Hansen, Kurt; Isaksson, Lennart; Lundin, Magnus [MAX IV Laboratory, PO Box 118, Lund (Sweden); Middleton, Duncan G. [Universitaet Tuebingen, Kepler Centre for Astro and Particle Physics, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Sjoegren, Johan [University of Glasgow, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); MAX IV Laboratory, PO Box 118, Lund (Sweden)


    A multi-cell He gas scintillator active target, designed for the measurement of photoreaction cross sections, is described. The target has four main chambers, giving an overall thickness of 0.103 g/cm{sup 3} at an operating pressure of 2 MPa. Scintillations are read out by photomultiplier tubes and the addition of small amounts of N{sub 2} to the He, to shift the scintillation emission from UV to visible, is discussed. First results of measurements at the MAX IV Laboratory tagged-photon facility show that the target has a timing resolution of around 1 ns and can cope well with a high-flux photon beam. The determination of reaction cross sections from target yields relies on a Monte Carlo simulation, which considers scintillation light transport, photodisintegration processes in {sup 4}He, background photon interactions in target windows and interactions of the reaction-product particles in the gas and target container. The predictions of this simulation are compared to the measured target response. (orig.)

  8. A Helium Gas-Scintillator Active Target for Photoreaction Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Jebali, R Al; Adler, J -O; Akkurt, I; Buchanan, E; Brudvik, J; Fissum, K; Gardner, S; Hamilton, D J; Hansen, K; Isaksson, L; Livingston, K; Lundin, M; McGeorge, J C; MacGregor, I J D; MacRae, R; Middleton, D G; Reiter, A J H; Rosner, G; Schröder, B; Sjögren, J; Sokhan, D; Strandberg, B


    A multi-cell He gas-scintillator active target, designed for the measurement of photoreaction cross sections, is described. The target has four main chambers, giving an overall thickness of 0.103 $\\mathrm{g/cm^{2}}$ at an operating pressure of 2 MPa. Scintillations are read out by photomultiplier tubes and the addition of small amounts of $\\mathrm{N}_{2}$ to the He, to shift the scintillation emission from UV to visible, is discussed. First results of measurements at the MAX IV Laboratory tagged-photon facility show that the target has good timing resolution and can cope well with a high-flux photon beam. The determination of reaction cross sections from target yields relies on a Monte Carlo simulation, which considers scintillation light transport, photodisintegration processes in $^{4}\\mathrm{He}$, background photon interactions in target windows and interactions of the reaction-product particles in the gas and target container. The predictions of this simulation are compared to the measured target response...

  9. Establishing a reproducible protocol for measuring index active extension strength. (United States)

    Matter-Parrat, V; Hidalgo Diaz, J J; Collon, S; Salazar Botero, S; Prunières, G; Ichihara, S; Facca, S; Liverneaux, P


    The goal of this study was to establish a reproducible protocol to measure active extension strength in the index finger. The secondary objectives consisted in correlating the independent or associated index extension strength to the other fingers force of contraction of the extensor indicis propius with hand dominance. The population studied consisted of 24 healthy volunteers, including 19 women and 20 right-handed individuals. The independent and dependent index extension strength in each hand was measured three times with a dynamometer by three examiners at Day 0 and again at Day 7. Intra and inter-examiner reproducibility were, respectively, >0.90 and >0.75 in all cases. The independent extension strength was lower than the dependent one. There was no difference between the independent index extension strength on the dominant and non-dominant sides. The same was true for the dependent strength. Our results show that our protocol is reproducible in measuring independent and dependent index extension strength. Dominance did not come into account.

  10. Biological aerosol detection with combined passive-active infrared measurements (United States)

    Ifarraguerri, Agustin I.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.; Ben-David, Avishai


    A data collection experiment was performed in November of 2003 to measure aerosol signatures using multiple sensors, all operating in the long-wave infrared. The purpose of this data collection experiment was to determine whether combining passive hyperspectral and LIDAR measurements can substantially improve biological aerosol detection performance. Controlled releases of dry aerosols, including road dust, egg albumin and two strains of Bacillus Subtilis var. Niger (BG) spores were performed using the ECBC/ARTEMIS open-path aerosol test chamber located in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD. The chamber provides a ~ 20' path without optical windows. Ground truth devices included 3 aerodynamic particle sizers, an optical particle size spectrometer, 6 nephelometers and a high-volume particle sampler. Two sensors were used to make measurements during the test: the AIRIS long-wave infrared imaging spectrometer and the FAL CO2 LIDAR. The AIRIS and FAL data sets were analyzed for detection performance relative to the ground truth. In this paper we present experimental results from the individual sensors as well as results from passive-active sensor fusion. The sensor performance is presented in the form of receiver operating characteristic curves.

  11. Retrospective assessment of indoor radon exposure by measurements of embedded 210Po activity in glass objects (United States)

    Ramola, R. C.; Gusain, G. S.; Prasad, Ganesh

    In most of the epidemiological studies contemporary radon measurements have been used as surrogates for radon concentrations in past decades even though changes in radon levels and residence may have occurred. Short-lived radon progeny may deposit on available surfaces in dwellings thus giving rise over time to a build up of long-lived progeny. Airborne radon decay products can be deposited and implanted through alpha recoil into the glass surfaces. On glass surface, activities of 210Po may arise as a result of the decay of recoil implanted activity following the alpha decay of surface deposited 218Po or 214Po. Measurement of 210Po implanted on a household glass is a method that can be employed to retrospectively determine the historic level of radon in dwellings. This method is based on the assumption that levels of recoil implanted 210Po in the glass provide a measure of time integrated radon concentration in the environment in which the glass has been located. The surface deposited activity of the radon progenies, which then become implanted in the glass by alpha recoil, is believed to reflect past exposure to airborne activity. Such retrospective measurements on glass are valuable in estimating the human dose derived from radon during the time of exposure. In this paper an account is given of the principles and some field applications of a retrospective technique, using the alpha track detectors, CR-39 and LR-115, to measure 210Po implanted in glass surfaces (surface traps). By using this CR-LR difference technique, the cumulative radon exposure in a dwelling in past decades may be estimated. This method provides reliable radon exposure data as a support to epidemiological studies concerning the health effects of radon exposure in the living environment.

  12. Electromyography Activation Levels of the 3 Gluteus Medius Subdivisions During Manual Strength Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otten, Roald; Tol, Johannes L; Holmich, Per;


    deficits and guide specific rehabilitation programs. However, the optimal positions for assessing the strength and activation of these subdivisions are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The first aim was to establish which strength-testing positions produce the highest surface electromyography (sEMG) activation levels...... of the individual GM subdivisions. The second aim was to evaluate differences in sEMG activation levels between the tested and contralateral (stabilizing) leg. METHOD: Twenty healthy physically active male subjects participated in this study. Muscle activity using sEMG was recorded for the GM subdivisions in 8...

  13. Leisure activity associated with cognitive ability level, but not cognitive change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gow, Alan John; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik L


    with higher cognitive ability (significant correlations ranged from 0.15 to 0.31, p cognitive ability declined significantly. Growth curve models, which provided latent variables for level of and 10-year change in both leisure activity......Although activity participation is promoted as cognitively protective, critical questions of causality remain. In a cohort followed every 5 years from age 75 to 85 years, potential reciprocal associations between level and change in leisure activity participation and level and change in cognitive...... abilities were examined. Participants in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort, a longitudinal study of aging, completed standardized cognitive ability tests and reported their leisure activity participation (11 activities defined a leisure activity score) at ages 75, 80, and 85. Higher leisure activity was associated...

  14. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis mediates loss of intrinsic activity measured by functional MRI. (United States)

    Brier, Matthew R; Day, Gregory S; Snyder, Abraham Z; Tanenbaum, Aaron B; Ances, Beau M


    Spontaneous brain activity is required for the development and maintenance of normal brain function. Many disease processes disrupt the organization of intrinsic brain activity, but few pervasively reduce the amplitude of resting state blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI fluctuations. We report the case of a female with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, longitudinally studied during the course of her illness to determine the contribution of NMDAR signaling to spontaneous brain activity. Resting state BOLD fMRI was measured at the height of her illness and 18 weeks following discharge from hospital. Conventional resting state networks were defined using established methods. Correlation and covariance matrices were calculated by extracting the BOLD time series from regions of interest and calculating either the correlation or covariance quantity. The intrinsic activity was compared between visits, and to expected activity from 45 similarly aged healthy individuals. Near the height of the illness, the patient exhibited profound loss of consciousness, high-amplitude slowing of the electroencephalogram, and a severe reduction in the amplitude of spontaneous BOLD fMRI fluctuations. The patient's neurological status and measures of intrinsic activity improved following treatment. We conclude that NMDAR-mediated signaling plays a critical role in the mechanisms that give rise to organized spontaneous brain activity. Loss of intrinsic activity is associated with profound disruptions of consciousness and cognition.

  15. Physical Activity Measurement Device Agreement: Pedometer Steps/Minute and Physical Activity Time (United States)

    Scruggs, Philip W.; Mungen, Jonathan D.; Oh, Yoonsin


    The purpose of this study was to examine agreement between the Walk4Life DUO pedometer (W4L; Walk4Life, Plainfield, Illinois, USA) and two criterion instruments in the measurement of physical activity. Participants (N = 189, M = 16.74 years, SD = 0.99) in high school physical education concurrently wore the DUO (i.e., comparison instrument) and…

  16. Fostering and Measuring General Scientific Reasoning Expertise at the Second Year Level (United States)

    Jones, F. M.; Jellinek, M.; Bostock, M. G.


    Geoscience faculty members often debate about the definition and development of scientific expertise. Some will argue it emerges at the graduate level, others that novice students can develop relevant skills. The debate hinges on definitions of “expertise”, “scientific skills” and how these abilities are assessed. We present data from a second year geoscience course specifically designed to help research scientists foster generic skills associated with critical scientific thinking, presentation, and framing of scientific arguments and questions. To develop the course, key characteristics that professional scientists exhibit were identified from the literature and our experience. These are the abilities to: a) read critically; b) succinctly summarize and communicate; c) pose insightful questions; d) use and discuss models, data and their relationships; and e) work effectively as part of a team. To help with learning and assessment of these skills in students who do not yet have significant discipline-specific background, classroom practices were chosen so that students must think and act more like professional scientists. These include use of some team-based learning strategies, replacing exams with quizzes and projects, mixing team-teaching with solo-teaching, discursive rather than didactic instruction, and use of diverse topics representative of research in our Department. Specific strategies employed which enable “master geoscientists” to actively guide and assess novices as they practice desired skills are: homework involving reading, writing abstracts and posing questions for one or two articles each week, pre-post testing of model based reasoning abilities, interaction with guest scientists, and oral and poster presentations on topics chosen by students. Results of collecting data over two terms of using these general and specific strategies include: 1. Abstract writing skills improved during the first two thirds of the course, then leveled off in

  17. Serum activities of liver enzymes in workers exposed to sub-TLV levels of dimethylformamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjiang He


    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study has been to investigate serum activities of liver enzymes in workers exposed to sub-TLV levels of dimethylformamide (DMF. Material and Methods: Seventy-two workers and 72 healthy controls participated in the study. All subjects underwent complete physical examinations and abdominal ultrasound examination. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and c-glutamyl transpeptidase (c-GT were determined by an auto-chemistry analyzer. The data of airborne concentrations of DMF was obtained from the local Center of Disease Control and Prevention. The level of urine N-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoylcysteine (AMCC was measured by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: Time weighted average (TWA concentration of the DMF in workplace was 18.6 (range: 9.8–36.2 mg/m3. The concentration of the AMCC in workers’ urine was 28.32 (range: 1.8–58.6 mg/l and 9 workers’ AMCC exceeded the biological exposure index (40 mg/l. Thirty-one workers reported gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, nausea, anorexia and 10 workers reported headache, dizziness and/or palpitation in the exposed group. Serum analysis revealed that both the mean of serum activities of liver enzymes (ALT, AST and c-GT and the percentage of workers with abnormal liver function were significantly higher in the exposed group as compared to the controls. Conclusions: Dimethylformamide can cause liver damage even if air concentration is in the sub-threshold limit value (sub-TLV level. The protection of skin contact against the exposure to the DMF might be a critical issue as far as the occupational health is concerned.

  18. Measuring the level and content of consciousness during epileptic seizures: the Ictal Consciousness Inventory. (United States)

    Cavanna, A E; Mula, M; Servo, S; Strigaro, G; Tota, G; Barbagli, D; Collimedaglia, L; Viana, M; Cantello, R; Monaco, F


    Ictal alterations of the level of general awareness and subjective content of consciousness play a pivotal role in the clinical phenomenology of epilepsy, and reflect the pathological involvement of different neurobiological substrates. However, no self-reported measures have been proposed for patients experiencing altered conscious states during seizures. This study describes the development and validation of a new scale for the quantitative assessment of the level and content of ictal consciousness, the Ictal Consciousness Inventory (ICI). The ICI is a 20-item questionnaire generated on the basis of interviews with patients, literature review, and consultation with experts. It was tested on a sample of 110 patients attending three different epilepsy clinics in Northern Italy, who also completed standardized clinical scales. Standard psychometric methods were used to demonstrate that this scale satisfies criteria for acceptability, reliability, and validity. The ICI is proposed as a user-friendly and clinically sound instrument for the measurement of ictal alterations of consciousness in patients with epilepsy.

  19. Measurement and interpretation of low levels of dissolved oxygen in ground water (United States)

    White, A.F.; Peterson, M.L.; Solbau, R.D.


    A Rhodazine-D colorimetric technique was adapted to measure low-level dissolved oxygen concentrations in ground water. Prepared samples containing between 0 and 8.0 ??moles L-1 dissolved oxygen in equilibrium with known gas mixtures produced linear spectrophotometric absorbance with a lower detection limit of 0.2 ??moles L-1. Excellent reproducibility was found for solutions ranging in composition from deionized water to sea water with chemical interferences detected only for easily reduced metal species such as ferric ion, cupric ion, and hexavalent chromium. Such effects were correctable based on parallel reaction stoichiometries relative to oxygen. The technique, coupled with a downhole wire line tool, permitted low-level monitoring of dissolved oxygen in wells at the selenium-contaminated Kesterson Reservoir in California. Results indicated a close association between low but measurable dissolved oxygen concentrations and mobility of oxidized forms of selenium. -from Authors

  20. Participation in Complex and Social Everyday Activities Six Years after Stroke: Predictors for Return to Pre-Stroke Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avvai Singam

    Full Text Available Long-term disability following stroke can lead to participation restrictions in complex and social everyday activities, yet information is lacking on to what extent stroke survivors return to their pre-stroke levels of participation.The objectives of this study were to investigate the level of participation in complex and social everyday activities 6 years after stroke, to compare this with pre-stroke participation and to identify predictors of returning to pre-stroke levels of participation.All patients admitted to Karolinska University Hospital's stroke units during a 1-year period were eligible to participate and 349 patients were recruited. Assessments were made at base-line, 3 months and 6 years using self-reported outcome measures. Participation was assessed using the Frenchay Activities Index (FAI. The 6-year score for each participant was compared to the pre-stroke score, both for the total score and for each domain (domestic chores, leisure/work and outdoor activities. Predictors of having the same or better level of participation at 6 years were identified using logistic regression.At 6 years, 121 participants were followed up, 166 were deceased, 44 declined to take part and 18 could not be traced. At 6 years 84% could be described as active (FAI≥15. The same level of participation or better than pre-stroke was found in 35% of participants, in 65% the level was lower. Similar predictors were identified for achieving the same or better level of participation at 6 years for FAI total and the three domains; ability to walk without aids and a lower age at stroke onset, and perceived mobility, participation and recovery at 3 months.Six years after stroke, 35% of participants had the same or better level of participation as pre-stroke. Rehabilitation after stroke to improve walking ability and participation might improve long-term participation in complex and social everyday activities.

  1. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyatt Raymond R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. Methods During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Results Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p p = 0.03. While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. Conclusions This work extends the current literature by demonstrating the potential

  2. Associations between active commuting to school and objectively measured physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børrestad L, Anita Bjørkelund; Ostergaard, Lars; Andersen, Lars Bo;


    , b) compare moderate vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among children cycling vs. walking to school, and c) thus calculate possible underestimated MVPA, when using accelerometers to measure commuter cycling. Methods: A total of 78 children, average age 11.4 (SD = 0.5), participated in the study....... Physical activity was measured with cycle computers and accelerometers for 4 days. Mode of commuting and demographic information was self-reported in a questionnaire. Results: Children who reported to cycle to school spent significantly more time cycling than those who walked to school, 53.6 (SD = ± 33......Background: To provide more accurate assessment of commuting behavior and potential health effect, it is important to have accurate methods. Therefore, the current study aimed to a) compare questionnaire reported mode of commuting with objectively measured data from accelerometer and cycle computer...

  3. Are Parental Perceptions of Child Activity Levels and Overall Health More Important than Perceptions of Weight? (United States)

    Vangeepuram, Nita; Ramos, Michelle A.; Fei, Kezhen; Fox, Ashley M.; Horowitz, Carol R.; Kleinman, Lawrence C.; Galvez, Maida P.


    Objectives To examine relationships between parental perceptions of child weight and overall health, reported lifestyle behaviors and measured body mass index (BMI). Methods Using community-partnered methods, we surveyed families residing in a two census tract area identified for targeted interventions to decrease diabetes related disparities. The survey included demographics, child dietary and physical activity behaviors, and parental perception of child’s health and weight. We measured child BMI using a standardized protocol. Results We surveyed parents of 116 children with a mean age of 7 years (range 3–15) with 51 % boys, 74 % Hispanic, and 26 % Black. Over half of the children (55 %) were overweight or obese. Half (50 %) of the parents underestimated their children’s weight. Reported daily hours of walking and/or running trended higher (3.6 vs. 2.6 h, p = 0.08) for children perceived to be of normal weight. Parents who correctly estimated their child’s weight status reported more hours of daily walking/running than parents who underestimated child weight status, 4.5 versus 2.4 h, p = 0.0002. Parents of healthy weight children were more likely to report that children were in excellent or very good health compared to parents of overweight/obese children, 75 versus 56 % respectively (p = 0.04). We found significant racial/ethnic differences in reported diet and physical activity behaviors and perception of overall health. Conclusions for Practice Parental perceptions of child health and physical activity level may be related to perceptions of their child’s weight status. Study findings informed community-based initiatives for reducing diabetes risk among children. PMID:27010551

  4. Influence of different levels of sports activities on the quality of life after the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninković Srđan


    Full Text Available Introduction. The goal of this study was to examine the nature and presence of influence of different levels of sports activity on the life quality of the patients a year after the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament. Material and Methods. The study included 185 patients operated at the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology of the Clinical Centre of Vojvodina, who were followed for twelve months. Data were collected using the modified Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score questionnaire which included the Lysholm scale. Results. This study included 146 male and 39 female subjects. The reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament was equally successful in both gender groups. In relation to different types of sports activity, there were no differences in the overall life quality measured by the questionnaire and its subscales, regardless of the level (professional or recreational. However, regarding the level of sports activities, there were differences among the subjects engaged in sports activities at the national level as compared with those going in for sports activities at the recreational level, and particularly in comparison with physically inactive population. A significant correlation was not found by examining the aforementioned relationship between sports activities. Conclusions. This study has shown that the overall life quality a year after the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament does not differ in relation to either the gender of the subjects or the type of sports activity, while the level of sports activity does have some influence on the quality of life. Professional athletes have proved to train significantly more intensively after this reconstruction than those going in for sports recreationally.

  5. Lifetime measurements in sd-shell nuclei : (I). Mean lives of 38Ar levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelbertink, G.A.P.; Middelkoop, G. van


    The 41K(p,αγ) and 35CI(α, pγ) reactions were used to populate levels in 38Ar. The mean lives of the lowest six excited states in 38Ar were measured with the Doppler shift attenuation method. Gamma rays were detected at 90°, in coincidence with particles observed at angles θ = 100° and −100° or 110°

  6. Hausdorff measures of the image, graph and level set of bifractional Brownian motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Let BH,K = {BH,K(t), t ∈ R+} be a bifractional Brownian motion in Rd. This process is a selfsimilar Gaussian process depending on two parameters H and K and it constitutes a natural generalization of fractional Brownian motion (which is obtained for K = 1). The exact Hausdorff measures of the image, graph and the level set of BH,K are investigated. The results extend the corresponding results proved by Talagrand and Xiao for fractional Brownian motion.

  7. The Development of a Tactical-Level Full Range Leadership Measurement Instrument (United States)


    shown that the range of typical leadership behaviors may vary depending on the organizational level of the leader (Den Hartog et al., 1997...Den Hartog et al., 1997). Accordingly, this effort was designed to develop a full range leadership model measurement instrument that targets low- to...302 (1997). Den Hartog , Deanne N., Jaap J. Van Muijen, and Paul L. Koopman. “Transactional versus transformational leadership: An analysis of the

  8. Designing virtual environments to measure behavioral correlates of state-level body satisfaction. (United States)

    Purvis, Clare K; Jones, Megan; Bailey, Jakki; Bailenson, Jeremy; Taylor, C Barr


    Virtual reality (VR) offers a unique method for eliciting state-variable fluctuations in body satisfaction and associated behaviors by allowing near-perfect control over environmental factors. Greater variability in momentary body satisfaction is associated with more problematic eating behavior and cognitive styles predictive of eating disorders. The field currently lacks a model for understanding environmental variables and everyday events that tend to influence fluctuations in state body satisfaction. This study proposes a model of state-level body satisfaction and presents a method for measuring changes as they occur. We aim to investigate body comparison, selective attention and body checking behaviors in relation to self-report levels of state body satisfaction. We additionally assess interpersonal correlates of state body satisfaction using VR to measure personal distance between subjects and avatars of varying body sizes. 80 female college students with varying levels of weight and shape concerns will be exposed to five virtual environments designed to elicit varying levels of body dissatisfaction: (a) an empty room; (b) an empty beach; (c) a beach populated with avatars; (d) an empty party scene; (e) a party scene populated with avatars. Self-report body satisfaction was measured immediately following each exposure. A tracking system automatically tracked subjects' head orientation and body translation to measure visual gaze and personal space behavior relative to each virtual human within the environment. Data collection is currently underway and expected to be completed by May 2013. Preliminary data and development of the VR model for state-variable assessment will be presented.

  9. Water Level Loggers as a Low-Cost Tool for Monitoring of Stormwater Control Measures


    Laura Toran


    Stormwater control measures (SCMs) are a key component of watershed health in urbanized areas. SCMs are used to increase infiltration and reduce discharge to streams or storm sewer systems during rain events. Monitoring is important for the evaluation of design and causes of failure in SCMs. However, the expense of monitoring means it is not always included in stormwater control planning. This study shows how low-cost water level loggers can be used to answer certain questions about SCM perfo...

  10. Enzymatic Activity of Glutathione S-Transferase and Dental Fluorosis Among Children Receiving Two Different Levels of Naturally Fluoridated Water. (United States)

    Bonola-Gallardo, Irvin; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Vera-Robles, Liliana; Campero, Antonio; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis


    This study was conducted to measure the activity of the enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) in saliva and to compare the activity of this enzyme in children with and without dental fluorosis in communities with different concentrations of naturally fluoridated water. A total of 141 schoolchildren participated in this cross-sectional study. Children were selected from two communities: one with a low (0.4 ppm) and the other with a high (1.8 ppm) water fluoride concentration. Dental fluorosis was evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerskov Index (TFI) criteria. Stimulated saliva was obtained, and fluoride concentration and GST activity were measured. The GST activity was compared among children with different levels of dental fluorosis using multinomial logistic regression models and odds ratios (OR). The mean age of the children was 10.6 (±1.03) years. Approximately half of the children showed dental fluorosis (52.5 %). The average GST activity was 0.5678 (±0.1959) nmol/min/μg. A higher concentration of fluoride in the saliva was detected in children with a higher GST activity (p = 0.039). A multinomial logistic regression model used to evaluate the GST activity and the dental fluorosis score identified a strong association between TFI = 2-3 (OR = 15.44, p = 0.007) and TFI ≥ 4 (OR = 55.40, p = 0.026) and the GST activity level, compared with children showing TFI = 0-1, adjusted for age and sex. Schoolchildren with higher levels of dental fluorosis and a higher fluoride concentration in the saliva showed greater GST activity. The increased GST activity most likely was the result of the body's need to inactivate free radicals produced by exposure to fluoride.

  11. Experience of measuring the level of victimization of the population of Nizhniy Novgorod region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Glukhova


    Full Text Available Objective basing on the data from empirical sociological study to identify the level of latency and victimization of the population of Nizhny Novgorod region. Methods general scientific analysis systemicstructural approach to the analysis of object of research comparativelegal as well as logical methods and specific scientific method survey ndash questionnaires and interviews. nbsp Results qualitative and quantitative analysis is performed of the overall situation referring to unrecorded crime latent crime committed on the territory of Nizhny Novgorod city and Nizhny Novgorod oblast as well as comparative analysis of the level of latent crime in the city and region by the types and trends of criminal activities the main reasons are identified for refusal the victims to appeal to police in Nizhny Novgorod and Nizhny Novgorod oblast recommendations and proposals are elaborated of the work of territorial bodies of the Ministry of Domestic Affairs to the aim of reducing the level of latent crime. Scientific novelty for the first time on the basis of data obtained during a sociological survey the crime situation on the territory of Nizhny Novgorod region is discussed revealing the actual level of latent delinquency and proposals and practical recommendations are formulated for the adjustment of the work of territorial bodies of the Ministry of Domestic Affairs to the aim of reducing the level of latent crime. Practical significance basing on the research the recommendations are to improve the work of territorial bodies of the Ministry of Domestic Affairs to the aim of reducing the level of latent crime.

  12. A new proxy measure for state-level gun ownership in studies of firearm injury prevention. (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles


    Since many states are considering gun control laws, researchers need reliable data on rates of gun ownership at the state level. Survey measures of gun ownership in all 50 states, however, are only available for 3 years, and no state-level data have been collected since 2004. Consequently, the National Research Council has declared the development of a valid proxy that can be constructed from accessible, annual, state-level data to be a priority. While such a proxy does exist (the proportion of suicides in a state committed using a gun (FS/S), its correlation with state estimates of gun ownership in recent years is only 0.80. Using state-level data for the years 2001, 2002 and 2004, we developed an improved proxy for state-level gun ownership that uses FS/S (firearm suicides divided by all suicides) and also the per capita number of hunting licenses. We validated this measure using data from surveys of gun ownership conducted in 48 states during 1996 and 1999, and in 21 states during 1995-1998. Adding per capita hunting licenses to the proxy increased its correlation with survey-measured gun ownership from 0.80 to 0.95. The correlations of the new proxy with gun ownership in the two validation studies were 0.95 and 0.97. We conclude that the combination of FS/S and per capita hunting licenses improves substantially upon FS/S alone. This new proxy is easily computed from data that are available annually by state and may be useful for investigating the effect of gun prevalence on firearm-related morbidity and mortality.

  13. Measurement of Low Level Explosives Reaction in the Two-Dimensional Steven Impact Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, J.W.; Tarver, C.M.; Chidester, S.K.; Garcia, F.; Greenwood, D.W.; Garza, R.


    The two-dimensional Steven impact test has been developed to be reproducible and amenable to computer modeling. This test has a hemispherical projectile traveling at tens of m/s impacting a metal cased explosive target. To assist in the understanding of this safety test, two-dimensional shock wave gauge techniques were used to measure the pressures of a few kilobars and times of reactions less than a millisecond. This work is in accord with a long-term goal to develop two-dimensional shock diagnostic techniques that are more than just time of arrival indicators. Experiments were performed where explosives were impacted at levels below shock initiation levels but caused low level reactions. Carbon foil and carbon resistor pressure gauges were used to measure pressures and time of events. The carbon resistor gauges indicate a late time low level reaction at 350 {micro}s after impact of the hemispherical projectile creating 0.5-6 kb peak shocks at the center of PBX 9501 (HMX/Estane/BDNPA-F; 95/2.5/2.5 wt %) explosive discs. The Steven test calculations are based on an ignition and growth criteria and found that the low level reaction occurs at 335 {micro}s, which is in good agreement with the experimental data. Some additional experiments simulating the Steven impact test were done on a gas gun with carbon foil and constantan strain gauges in a PMMA target. Hydrodynamic calculations can be used to evaluate the gauge performance in these experiments and check the lateral strain measurements.

  14. A History of In Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis in Measurement of Aluminum in Human Subjects. (United States)

    Mohseni, Hedieh K; Chettle, David R


    Aluminum, as an abundant metal, has gained widespread use in human life, entering the body predominantly as an additive to various foods and drinking water. Other major sources of exposure to aluminum include medical, cosmetic, and occupational routes. As a common environmental toxin, with well-known roles in several medical conditions such as dialysis encephalopathy, aluminum is considered a potential candidate in the causality of Alzheimer's disease. Aluminum mostly accumulates in the bone, which makes bone an indicator of the body burden of aluminum and an ideal organ as a proxy for the brain. Most of the techniques developed for measuring aluminum include bone biopsy, which requires invasive measures, causing inconvenience for the patients. There has been a considerable effort in developing non-invasive approaches, which allow for monitoring aluminum levels for medical and occupational purposes in larger populations. In vivo neutron activation analysis, a method based on nuclear activation of isotopes of elements in the body and their subsequent detection, has proven to be an invaluable tool for this purpose. There are definite challenges in developing in vivo non-invasive techniques capable of detecting low levels of aluminum in healthy individuals and aluminum-exposed populations. The following review examines the method of in vivo neutron activation analysis in the context of aluminum measurement in humans focusing on different neutron sources, interference from other activation products, and the improvements made in minimum detectable limits and patient dose over the past few decades.

  15. Gender-specific correlations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator levels with cardiovascular disease-related traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselbergs, F. W.; Williams, S. M.; Hebert, P. R.; Coffey, C. S.; Hillege, H. L.; Navis, G.; Vaughan, D. E.; Van Gilst, W. H.; Moore, J. H.


    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the correlations between plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and cardiovascular disease-related traits in a general population and whether these correlations differed between females a

  16. Diurnal blood pressure variability and physical activity measured electronically and by diary. (United States)

    Gretler, D D; Carlson, G F; Montano, A V; Murphy, M B


    In order for 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) to be useful in clinical decision making, it is necessary to quantify ambient physical activity and to develop appropriate norms of ambulatory pressure for different levels of activity. The present study has compared the predictive value of physical activity determined by an electronic activity monitor or a written diary, for concomitantly recorded blood pressure during ABPM in healthy normotensive subjects. Each subject wore four activity monitors, on the right and left wrists, on the left ankle and at the waist, respectively. Linear regression analysis was performed for each subject to determine the correlation between ABPM data (systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate) and activity data (obtained from diaries and the four monitors). Significant differences in the degree of correlation were found for both the location of the activity monitor and the time (1/2, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 30 min preceding blood pressure measurement) over which activity was averaged (P accounting for 18 to 69% (mean 36 +/- 5%) of systolic blood pressure variation. Diaries performed similarly in these well-motivated subjects. It is concluded that because of the significant interaction between activity and blood pressure, ABPM data should be interpreted only in the light of concomitant activity data.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Examination of blood clobazam levels and several pupillary measures in humans. (United States)

    Kotzan, J A; Needham, T E; Honigberg, I L; Vallner, J J; Stewart, J T; Brown, W J; Jun, H W


    The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was administered to 15 subjects before initiation of the experiment. Three subgroups of five subjects were defined by computing the unweighted sum of the state and trait anxiety scores. A 40-mg dose of clobazam, a 1.5-benzodiazepine, was administered to each subject and repeated with two additional dosage forms following a 2-week washout period. Blood samples were withdrawn, and blood levels were determined by fluorometric analysis. Additionally, pupillary measures of critical flicker fusion, constriction, and dilation in response to a cognitive task were obtained at 0, 2, 4, and 6 hr. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that blood levels were, as expected, statistically different over time and dosage form. The pupillary constriction mirrored the blood levels in statistical patterns. The pupillary measure of cognition related to the anxiety state after the performance effects of the cognitive task were statistically removed. The results suggest that clobazam has less immediate human effect than does diazepam.

  18. Serum interleukin-18 levels are associated with physical activity in Japanese men.

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    Kanae Oda

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the link between serum interleukin-18 (IL-18 levels and physical activity in Japanese men. METHODS: A total of 81 men (45.7±17.6 years old was enrolled in this cross-sectional investigation study. We assessed anthropometric and body composition parameters. Serum IL-18 levels, physical activity by uniaxial accelerometers, peak oxygen uptake and metabolic risk parameters were also evaluated. RESULTS: Serum IL-18 levels were 179.4±84.7 pg/mL. Physical activity evaluated by Σ[metabolic equivalents × h per week (METs⋅h/w]was significantly and negatively correlated with serum IL-18 levels (r = -0.252, p = 0.0235. These associations remained even after adjusting for age, peak oxygen uptake and other confounding factors. CONCLUSION: Serum IL-18 levels were closely associated with physical activity independent of peak oxygen uptake in Japanese men.

  19. The relation between leisure activities and glycemic levels from deaf adults

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    Inacia Sátiro Xavier de França


    Full Text Available The aim has been to check the association among leisure activities and glycemic levels from deaf adults. Transversal study made with 36 deaf adults in an Audiocomunicação school, making use of a semi-structured questionnaire. Chi-square, Fisher and Contingency Coefficient tests were made. Unfed capillary glycemic average showed up close to values considered usual, however, there are participants with risky glycemic level. Participants with altered glycemic levels totalized 11,1%. We checked association among deaf glycemic people having leisure activities, go shopping (p=0,034 and visiting relatives (p=0,012. Leisure activities may have influence over glycemic levels of deaf people, and nurses are supposed to consider stimuli and orientation of leisure activities in nurse processes, as a potential intervention to promote health of those people, and prevent implications caused by altered glycemic levels.

  20. Study of solar activity by measuring cosmic rays with a water Cherenkov detector

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    Bahena Bias, Angelica [Facultad de ciencias FIsico-Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Avenida Francisco J. Mujica S/N Ciudad Universitaria C.P. 58030 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Villasenor, Luis, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Avenida Francisco J. Mujica S/N Ciudad Universitaria C.P. 58030 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)


    We report on an indirect study of solar activity by using the Forbush effect which consists on the anti-correlation between the intensity of solar activity and the intensity of secondary cosmic radiation detected at ground level at the Earth. We have used a cylindrical water Cherenkov detector to measure the rate of arrival of secondary cosmic rays in Morelia Mich., Mexico, at 1950 m.a.s.l. We describe the analysis required to unfold the effect of atmospheric pressure and the search for Forbush decreases in our data, the latter correspond to more than one year of continuous data collection.