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Sample records for activity levels measured

  1. Are Preschool Children Active Enough? Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Greet M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe accelerometer-based physical activity levels in 4- and 5-year-old children (N = 76) on 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days. The children were sedentary for 9.6 hr (85%) daily, while they engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for 34 min (5%). Only 7% of the children engaged in MVPA for 60 min per…

  2. Sleep Duration, Activity Levels, and Measures of Obesity in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Betty L; Ammar, Erica M; Pile, Debra

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate sleep and activity as they relate to obesity measures of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in adults. Findings from recent studies have linked physical inactivity and short sleep with obesity. A total of 337 subjects were collected from the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The sample was evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between sleep duration, activity levels, and measures of obesity. Pearson r correlation revealed a significant positive relationship between WC and sedentary activity, r(318) = .168, p = .003. Analysis also showed a significant inverse association between sleep duration and WC, r(319) = -.113, p = .043. No statistical significance was found using BMI as the measure of obesity in relation to duration of sleep or activity level. In support of recent literature, this study found duration of sleep and sedentary activity in adults may relate to the development of obesity as measured by WC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Low level alpha activity measurements with pulse shape discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Masayasu; Satoh, Kaneaki; Higuchi, Hideo.

    1984-01-01

    Pulse shape discrimination of α and β rays with liquid scintillation counting was investigated for the purpose of low level α activity measurements. Various liquid scintillators for pulse shape discrimination were examined by means of pulse rise time analysis. A new scintillator of low cost and of superior characteristics was found. The figure of merits better than 3.5 in risetime spectrum and the energy resolution better than 9% were obtained for carefully prepared samples. The background counting rate for a sample of 10 ml was reduced to 0.013 cpm/MeV in the range of α ray energy 5 to 7 MeV. (author)

  4. Application of CAMAC in low-level activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loessner, V.

    1980-01-01

    A description is given of the measuring and data processing facilities designed for use in the bioassay laboratory which is now under construction in the SAAS. The detector units, especially alpha and quantum spectrometers, are linked to a PDP11/34 based CAMAC system enabling fully-automatic data acquisition and processing operations to be made by making use of an event-driven technique via CAMAC interrupts. (author)

  5. Advantage of low-background laboratory in low-level activity samples measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukanac, I.; Djurasevic, M.; Kandic, A.; Udovicic, V.; Banjanac, R.

    2009-01-01

    Detailed analyse of advantages of low-background laboratory in low-level activity samples measurements, over standard gamma spectrometry laboratory is presented in this paper. Comparative measurements were performed with two semiconductor HPGe spectrometers. Detection systems were with very similar characteristics. (author) [sr

  6. Minimum Detectable Activity in gamma spectrometry and its use in low level activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Done, L.; Ioan, M-R.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper there are described three different algorithms of Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) calculus, and its use in high resolution gamma spectrometry. In the first part, few introductive theoretical aspects related to the MDA are presented. Further, the theory was applied to real gamma rays spectrometry measurements and the results were compared with the activities reference values. Two different gamma spectrometry systems, both of them using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors, but having different efficiencies, were used. Samples having different geometries and radionuclides content were measured. The measured samples were made by dissolving of some acids containing anthropogenic radionuclides in water, obtaining a density of 1 g/cm 3 . Choosing this type of matrix was done because of its high homogeneity. - Highlights: • Three different MDA algorithms were applied to gamma spectrometry measurements. • The measurements were performed using two HPGe detectors. • MDA performances of the two spectrometric systems were compared. • The measured samples had different geometries and contained a mixture of radionuclides. • MDA was studied also as a function of measuring time.

  7. Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Differ According to Education Level in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantomaa, Marko T; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kankaanpää, Anna; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (2009-2011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays.

  8. Measuring Your Fitness Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test measures the strength and endurance of your abdominal muscles. Here's how to do the test: Lie on ... and Human Services recommends one of the following activity levels for adult fitness and health benefits: 150 ...

  9. Perceived and measured physical activity and mental stress levels in obstetricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez de Tejada, Begoña; Jastrow, Nicole; Poncet, Antoine; Le Scouezec, Iona; Irion, Olivier; Kayser, Bengt

    2013-11-01

    Obstetric work generates important subjective and objective mental stress and is perceived as a physically demanding activity by obstetricians. The aim of this study was to quantify physical and mental stress levels in obstetricians at work and during leisure activities to investigate their association with overall physical activity levels and professional experience. 18 obstetricians at the maternity unit of the University of Geneva Hospitals were enrolled in a prospective observational study. Physical activity and stress levels were measured in two different activity sectors (delivery room and outpatient clinic) and outside work. Physical activity was assessed by questionnaire, visual analogue scale (VAS), and accelerometer. Mental stress levels were assessed by validated questionnaires, VAS, measurement of urine catecholamines and salivary cortisol, and night-time heart rate variability indices. Daily stress levels were higher at work compared to outside work (all, P = 0.002). Adrenalin (P = 0.002) and dopamine (P = 0.09) levels were elevated after a labour suite shift and a trend was observed for reduced heart rate variability during the night after this shift. The median average daily number of steps was 7132 (range, 5283-8649). Subjects reached a median of 32 min (range, 19-49 min) of moderate or higher intensity (≥ 1952 counts/min) daily physical activity. Contrary to perception, obstetrics work is not physically demanding. It is, however, accompanied by important subjective and objective mental stress that may have a negative impact on health when combined with a lack of regular daily physical activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermally activated state transition technique for femto-Newton-level force measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng-Jung; Wong, Jhih-Sian; Hsu, Ken Y; Hsu, Long

    2012-05-01

    We develop and test a thermally activated state transition technique for ultraweak force measurement. As a force sensor, the technique was demonstrated on a classical Brownian bead immersed in water and restrained by a bistable optical trap. A femto-Newton-level flow force imposed on this sensor was measured by monitoring changes in the transition rates of the bead hopping between two energy states. The treatment of thermal disturbances as a requirement instead of a limiting factor is the major feature of the technique, and provides a new strategy by which to measure other ultraweak forces beyond the thermal noise limit.

  11. PROMETHEE: An Alpha Low Level Waste Assay System Using Passive and Active Neutron Measurement Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passard, Christian; Mariani, Alain; Jallu, Fanny; Romeyer-Dherbey, Jacques; Recroix, Herve; Rodriguez, Michel; Loridon, Joel; Denis, Caroline; Toubon, Herve

    2002-01-01

    The development of a passive-active neutron assay system for alpha low level waste characterization at the French Atomic Energy Commission is discussed. Less than 50 Bq[α] (about 50 μg Pu) per gram of crude waste must be measured in 118-l 'European' drums in order to reach the requirements for incinerating wastes. Detection limits of about 0.12 mg of effective 239 Pu in total active neutron counting, and 0.08 mg of effective 239 Pu coincident active neutron counting, may currently be detected (empty cavity, measurement time of 15 min, neutron generator emission of 1.6 x 10 8 s -1 [4π]). The most limiting parameters in terms of performances are the matrix of the drum - its composition (H, Cl...), its density, and its heterogeneity degree - and the localization and self-shielding properties of the contaminant

  12. [Physical activity level and home blood pressure measurement: Pilot study "Acti-HTA"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosner, P; Ott, J; Steichen, O; Bally, S; Krummel, T; Brucker, M; Lequeux, B; Dourmap, C; Llaty, P; Le Coz, S; Baguet, S; Miranne, A; Labrunée, M; Gremeaux, V; Lopez-Sublet, M

    2015-06-01

    While physical activity (PA) is recommended for high blood pressure management, the level of PA practice of hypertensive patients remains unclear. We aimed to assess the association between the level of both PA and blood pressure of individuals consulting in 9 hypertension specialist centres. Eighty-five hypertensive patients were included (59 ± 14 years, 61% men, 12% smokers, 29% with diabetes). Following their consultation, they performed home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) over 7 days (2 in the morning+2 in the evening), they wrote in a dedicated form their daily activities to estimate the additional caloric expenditure using Acti-MET device (built from International physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ]). Thus, patients completed a self-administered questionnaire "score of Dijon" (distinguishing active subjects with a score>20/30, from sedentaryactive" subjects (48.9% vs. 34.2%, P=0.1773). In conclusion, our results demonstrate a "tendency" to a higher level of reported PA for subjects whose hypertension was controlled. This encourages us to continue with a study that would include more subjects, which would assess PA level using an objective method such as wearing an accelerometer sensor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. How the Venus flytrap actively snaps: hydrodynamic measurements at the cellular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombani, Mathieu; Forterre, Yoel; GEP Team

    2012-11-01

    Although they lack muscle, plants have evolved a remarkable range of mechanisms to create rapid motion, from the rapid folding of sensitive plants to seed dispersal. Of these spectacular examples that have long fascinated scientists, the carnivorous plant Venus flytrap, whose leaves snap together in a fraction of second to capture insects, has long been a paradigm for study. Recently, we have shown that this motion involves a snap-buckling instability due to the shell-like geometry of the leaves of the trap. However, the origin of the movement that allows the plant to cross the instability threshold and actively bend remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigate this active motion using a micro-fluidic pressure probe that gives direct hydraulic and mechanical measurements at the cellular level (osmotic pressure, cell membrane permeability, cell wall elasticity). Our results challenge the role of osmotically-driven water flows usually put forward to explain Venus flytrap's active closure.

  14. Single parent status and children's objectively measured level of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhammer, John; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Møller, Niels Christian; Lund-Kristensen, Peter; Froberg, Karsten; Andersen, Lars Bo

    Single-parent family status has been investigated as a possible psychosocial determinant of children's level of physical activity (PA)-although with mixed and inconclusive results. Prevailing evidence of the importance of two-parent family status as a resource for children's PA is based on a mix of subjective and objective measurements of PA. Objectives: To investigate if the level of PA among children living with a single parent was lower compared to children living with two parents by means of a meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies. We restricted our analysis to studies with objective measurements of PA. Data sources: The databases, Social Science Citation Index, PsycINFO, PubMed, and EBSCO were searched (1987-2013). Study eligibility criteria: Observational studies comparing objectively measured PA between single-parent children and children from two-parent families. Study appraisal and synthesis methods: We used guidelines from the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions and a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale overall to assess the quality of the included studies. We refrained from calculation of summary scores. Twelve studies met the following inclusion criteria of which six were unpublished: (a) child age (6-18 years) and (b) objectively measured level of PA. Meta-analysis revealed pooled estimates of -0.01 for boys (95 % CI -0.04-0.03, p  = 0.77, I 2  = 6.5 %, p  = 0.38) and 0.01 for girls (95 % CI -0.03-0.04, p  = 0.62, I 2  = 21.0 %, p  = 0.24), respectively. Estimates show no differences in objectively measured physical activity between children living in single-parent families compared to children living with two parents. Analyses investigating seven potential moderators did not yield any statistical significant effect size estimates. No evidence of heterogeneity between studies was observed. Limitations: Retrieved articles were assessed by several of the authors. Blinding of the

  15. Introducing B2B Service Level Measures via a Poker-Card Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Miin; Bailey, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the appropriate level of product availability, most operations management textbooks introduce and define service level measures in a Business-to-Customer context. In other words, a retailer that wants to measure product availability in their store calculates the fill rate (FR) or cycle service level over an infinite review horizon.…

  16. Test Plan for Measuring Ventilation Rates and Combustible Gas Levels in TWRS Active Catch Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this data collection activity is to obtain data for a screening of combustible gases in catch tanks that are currently operated by the River Protection Project (RPP). The results will be used to support closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. The data collection will be conducted in accordance with the ''Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective'' (Dukelow et al. 1995). Combustible gas, ammonia, and organic vapor levels in the headspace of the catch tanks will be field-measured using hand-held instruments. If a combustible gas level measurement in a tank exceeds an established threshold, vapor grab samples (i.e., Hoke and SUMMA) will be collected for laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be determine using the tracer gas injection method to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flowing through the tanks. This test plan identifies the field tests, sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance, and reporting objectives for this data collection effort. The plan also provides step-by-step direction for field measurement of combustible gas concentrations and determination of ventilation rates

  17. Test Plan for Measuring Ventilation Rates and Combustible Gas Levels in TWRS Active Catch Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this data collection activity is to obtain data for a screening of combustible gases in catch tanks that are currently operated by the River Protection Project (RPP). The results will be used to support closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. The data collection will be conducted in accordance with the ''Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective'' (Dukelow et a1 1995). Combustible gas, ammonia, and organic vapor levels in the headspace of the catch tanks will be field-measured using hand-held instruments. If a combustible gas level measurement in a tank exceeds an established threshold, vapor grab samples will be collected for laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be determined using the tracer gas injection method to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flowing through the tanks. This test plan identifies the field tests, sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance, and reporting objectives for this data collection effort. The plan also provides step by-step direction for field measurement of combustible gas concentrations and determination of ventilation rates

  18. Background compensated GM counter for the measurement of low level #betta#-activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, C.; Kumanomido, H.; Watanabe, T.

    1983-01-01

    When low level activity of a #betta#-ray source or surface contamination is to be measured with a GM counter, it is desirable to obtain a net count without background count through a single measurement. An end-window GM counter for such a purpose was constructed. The counter has a diaphragm to divide it into two parts. The front part, the window side, can detect #betta#-rays and background radiations, while the rear part only detects background, since #betta#-rays coming through the front are absorbed by the diaphragm. In the counter type I, the sensitive volumes of the two parts are the same and the anode wire of the front is connected to that of the rear through an electric resistor which leads to yielding different pulse heights and rise times. The net count of #betta#-rays can be obtained through a single measurement by subtracting the count in the rear part from that in the front part. In the counter type II, the lengths of the anode wires of the two parts are different, which gives rise to different pulse heights. With a background compensated GM counter, it is possible to shorten the measuring time, keeping nearly the same accuracy compared with a conventional GM counter. (orig.)

  19. Muscle thickness measurements to estimate gluteus medius and minimus activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Angela V; Pickard, Christine M; Strauss, Geoffrey R; Deshon, Louise E; Gibson, William; McKay, Janice

    2014-10-01

    The clinical assessment of gluteus medius and minimus force sharing requires non-invasive measurements of individual activity levels. Do ultrasound measurements of change of muscle thickness substitute invasive electromyography (EMG)? Isometric hip abduction in 20-80% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was measured using dynamometry, M-mode ultrasound for gluteus medius and minimus thickness and EMG using (1) surface electrodes on gluteus medius, n = 15, (2) fine-wire electrodes in deep gluteus medius and minimus, n = 6. Gluteus medius thickened by 5.0 (SD 2.5) mm at 80% MVIC while gluteus minimus thickness was constant in the surface EMG study and decreased by 1.6 (SD 1.6) mm at the more ventral location in the fine-wire EMG study. Thickness change of gluteus medius enabled prediction of torque (r(2) 0.66) and of surface EMG amplitude (r(2) 0.57). Surface EMG enabled higher torque prediction (r(2) 0.84) than thickness change. Thickness change of gluteus minimus did not enable a practically relevant estimation of torque production. Ultrasound examination revealed a differential thickening behaviour of gluteus medius and minimus which enabled estimation of isometric torque production only for gluteus medius but with lower precision than surface EMG. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reliability of smartphone-based gait measurements for quantification of physical activity/inactivity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebara, Takeshi; Azuma, Ryohei; Shoji, Naoto; Matsukawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Yasuyuki; Akiyama, Tomohiro; Kurihara, Takahiro; Yamada, Shota

    2017-11-25

    Objective measurements using built-in smartphone sensors that can measure physical activity/inactivity in daily working life have the potential to provide a new approach to assessing workers' health effects. The aim of this study was to elucidate the characteristics and reliability of built-in step counting sensors on smartphones for development of an easy-to-use objective measurement tool that can be applied in ergonomics or epidemiological research. To evaluate the reliability of step counting sensors embedded in seven major smartphone models, the 6-minute walk test was conducted and the following analyses of sensor precision and accuracy were performed: 1) relationship between actual step count and step count detected by sensors, 2) reliability between smartphones of the same model, and 3) false detection rates when sitting during office work, while riding the subway, and driving. On five of the seven models, the inter-class correlations coefficient (ICC (3,1) ) showed high reliability with a range of 0.956-0.993. The other two models, however, had ranges of 0.443-0.504 and the relative error ratios of the sensor-detected step count to the actual step count were ±48.7%-49.4%. The level of agreement between the same models was ICC (3,1) : 0.992-0.998. The false detection rates differed between the sitting conditions. These results suggest the need for appropriate regulation of step counts measured by sensors, through means such as correction or calibration with a predictive model formula, in order to obtain the highly reliable measurement results that are sought in scientific investigation.

  1. A measurement error model for physical activity level as measured by a questionnaire with application to the 1999-2006 NHANES questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooze, Janet A; Troiano, Richard P; Carroll, Raymond J; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Freedman, Laurence S

    2013-06-01

    Systematic investigations into the structure of measurement error of physical activity questionnaires are lacking. We propose a measurement error model for a physical activity questionnaire that uses physical activity level (the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal energy expenditure) to relate questionnaire-based reports of physical activity level to true physical activity levels. The 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey physical activity questionnaire was administered to 433 participants aged 40-69 years in the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study (Maryland, 1999-2000). Valid estimates of participants' total energy expenditure were also available from doubly labeled water, and basal energy expenditure was estimated from an equation; the ratio of those measures estimated true physical activity level ("truth"). We present a measurement error model that accommodates the mixture of errors that arise from assuming a classical measurement error model for doubly labeled water and a Berkson error model for the equation used to estimate basal energy expenditure. The method was then applied to the OPEN Study. Correlations between the questionnaire-based physical activity level and truth were modest (r = 0.32-0.41); attenuation factors (0.43-0.73) indicate that the use of questionnaire-based physical activity level would lead to attenuated estimates of effect size. Results suggest that sample sizes for estimating relationships between physical activity level and disease should be inflated, and that regression calibration can be used to provide measurement error-adjusted estimates of relationships between physical activity and disease.

  2. Abdominal strengthening using the AbVice machine as measured by surface electromyographic activation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avedisian, Lori; Kowalsky, Don S; Albro, Richard C; Goldner, Daniel; Gill, Robert C

    2005-08-01

    Twenty-four college students served as subjects in a study that examined the effect of a prototypical abdominal muscle strengthening device (AbVice) compared with other devices currently on the market. The purpose of the present study was to investigate a prototypical device (AbVice) that incorporates contraction of the hamstring and gluteal musculature in conjunction with the abdominals, which may assist in decreasing activation of the hip flexors by allowing greater activity levels of the abdominal musculature via the theory of reflex inhibition, compared with other devices currently available on the market (AbRoller and AbRocker). The repeated-measures study included 17 women and 7 men who ranged in age from 20-23 years (mean +/- SD age, 21.3 +/- 1.5 years). Each subject underwent a single session of data collection during which they completed 10 repetitions of abdominal crunches per device. Subjects completed 4 different crunch sets (AbRocker, AbRoller, standard crunch, AbVice). Counterbalancing of the device was used to negate the effect of fatigue. Speed of repetitions was ensured via use of a metronome set at 40 b.min(-1) to permit similar contraction times and rest periods between repetitions. Rest between conditions was 3 minutes. Mean activation levels of surface electromyography (EMG) were recorded for each condition at the following locations on the right side of the body: rectus abdominis 2.5 cm superior to the umbilicus, rectus abdominis 2.5 cm inferior to the umbilicus, external oblique abdominis 1.0 cm medial to the anterior superior iliac spine, and external oblique abdominis less than 1.0 cm superior to the inguinal ligament. Mean (SD) activation was 1,165.21 mV (634.60 mV) with the AbVice, 242.92 mV (263.03 mV) with the AbRocker, 753.29 mV (514.80 mV) with the standard crunch, and 757.67 mV (542.85 mV) with the AbRoller. Broken down by sex, women had the following mean (SD) EMG values: 1,079.76 mV (705.02 mV) with the AbVice, 680.35 mV (535.35 m

  3. Anthropometric measurements, dietary intake and physical activity level in medicine students from Santa Fe (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Monsted

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD are increasing in the world and in Argentina too. Lifestyles, especially diet and physical activity (PA, are presented as key in preventing these diseases. The aim of the study was to assess anthropometric measurements, dietary intake and physical activity level in medical students, and evaluate the possible association between these variables.Material and methods: a cross-sectional study was performed in 141 students from the last three years of the career (21-31 years old. Body Mass Index (BMI, % Body Fat (%BF and Waist Circumference (WC were assessed and subjects were classified according to their cardiovascular risk (CVR from the WC. Dietary intake was assessed by a 24-hours register, a food frequency questionnaire and the pattern of consumption was compared with the Food Guide for Argentinean population. “Argenfoods” Table of Food Composition was used for nutritional assessment and compared with WHO goals for the Prevention of Non-communicable Chronic Diseases. Diet was evaluated by the International Dietary Quality Index (DQI-I and the compliance of the WHO goals for the Prevention of Non-communicable Chronic Diseases. Exercise was assessed by International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. The possible association between different anthropometric variables, anthropometry and intake, and anthropometry and physical activity was assessed.Results: 3.5% of the students were obese (31.7 ± 0.7 kg/m2 and 25.5% were overweight (26.8 ± 1.6 kg/m2, 27.7% showed increased BF (women: 36.8 ± 3.4 %; men: 29.1 ± 3.4 % and 14.9% had limit BF (women: 31.7 ± 0,7%, men: 23.6 ± 3.4%, 23.4% had CVR per WC (women: 85.8 ± 5.6 cm; men: 101.4 ± 2.3 cm. 27.8% of normal weight individuals (women showed increased and limit BF (35.0 ± 0.9 %. CVR by WC was associated to BMI in both sexes (p=0.001, OR=6.24 and with BF (p=0.003, OR=4.57 in women. Dietary quality was good only in a 5% and poor in a 49

  4. Assessment of objectively measured physical activity levels in individuals with intellectual disabilities with and without Down's syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Phillips

    Full Text Available To investigate, using accelerometers, the levels of physical activity being undertaken by individuals with intellectual disabilities with and without Down's syndrome.One hundred and fifty two individuals with intellectual disabilities aged 12-70 years from East and South-East England. Physical activity levels in counts per minute (counts/min, steps per day (steps/day, and minutes of sedentary, light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA measured with a uni-axial accelerometer (Actigraph GT1M for seven days.No individuals with intellectual disabilities met current physical activity recommendations. Males were more active than females. There was a trend for physical activity to decline and sedentary behaviour to increase with age, and for those with more severe levels of intellectual disability to be more sedentary and less physically active, however any relationship was not significant when adjusted for confounding variables. Participants with Down's syndrome engaged in significantly less physical activity than those with intellectual disabilities without Down's syndrome and levels of activity declined significantly with age.Individuals with intellectual disabilities, especially those with Down's syndrome may be at risk of developing diseases associated with physical inactivity. There is a need for well-designed, accessible, preventive health promotion strategies and interventions designed to raise the levels of physical activity for individuals with intellectual disabilities. We propose that there are physiological reasons why individuals with Down's syndrome have particularly low levels of physical activity that also decline markedly with age.

  5. Methods for measuring serum activity levels of the 192 Q and R isoenzymes of paraoxonase 1 in QR heterozygous individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teiber, John F; Kramer, Gerald L; Haley, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an esterase that hydrolyzes toxic organophosphates and has antioxidative and antiatherogenic properties, contains a common polymorphism at position 192: glutamine (Q) or arginine (R). The Q and R isoenzymes exhibit different physical and protective properties. We describe 2 methods for quantifying their serum activity levels. We measured serum hydrolytic activity with paraoxon [paraoxonase (PXN) activity], phenylacetate [arylesterase (AE) activity], and diazoxon [diazoxonase (DZN) activity] with standard automated assays. We determined PON1 Q192R genotypes with PCR and Q192R phenotypes using the PXN/AE and PXN/DZN ratios. Interpolation equations were empirically derived to predict the percentage of total PON1 hydrolytic activity due to the Q isoenzyme (%Q) from the PXN/AE and PXN/DZN ratios; %R is 100 - %Q. We estimated Q and R isoenzyme activity levels in sera from 2095 veterans by multiplying AE activity, a measure of total PON1 hydrolytic activity, by %Q and %R. In all 2095 samples, the PXN/AE and PXN/DZN ratios predicted Q192R phenotypes with nearly identical accuracy (κ = 0.997). In the 925 QR heterozygotes, the 2 interpolation methods predicted Q and R isoenzyme activity levels with excellent agreement (intraclass correlation 0.94). After excluding a few genotype/phenotype-discordant samples, the percentage of total PON1 activity due to the Q isoenzyme ranged from 22% to 70%. These new interpolation methods allow accurate estimation of PON1 192 Q and R isoenzyme activity levels, increasing specificity and power for studying susceptibility to disease.

  6. Levels and patterns of objectively-measured physical activity volume and intensity distribution in UK adolescents: the ROOTS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Paul J; Wijndaele, Katrien; Corder, Kirsten; Westgate, Kate; Ridgway, Charlotte L; Dunn, Valerie; Goodyer, Ian; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren

    2014-02-24

    Few studies have quantified levels of habitual physical activity across the entire intensity range. We aimed to describe variability in total and intensity-specific physical activity levels in UK adolescents across gender, socio-demographic, temporal and body composition strata. Physical activity energy expenditure and minutes per day (min/d) spent sedentary and in light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity were assessed in 825 adolescents from the ROOTS study (43.5% boys; mean age 15.0 ± 0.30 years), by 4 days of individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing. Measurement days were classified as weekday or weekend and according to the three school terms: summer (April-July), autumn (September-December), and spring (January-March). Gender and age were self-reported and area-level SES determined by postcode data. Body composition was measured by anthropometry and bio-electrical impedance. Variability in physical activity and sedentary time was analysed by linear multilevel modelling, and logistic multilevel regression was used to determine factors associated with physical inactivity (physical activity/d). During awake hours (15.8 ± 0.9 hrs/d), adolescents primarily engaged in light intensity physical activity (517 min/d) and sedentary time (364 min/d). Boys were consistently more physically active and less sedentary than girls, but gender differences were smaller at weekends, as activity levels in boys dropped more markedly when transitioning from weekday to weekend. Boys were more sedentary on both weekend days compared to during the week, whereas girls were more sedentary on Sunday but less sedentary on Saturday. In both genders light intensity physical activity was lower in spring, while moderate physical activity was lower in autumn and spring terms, compared to the summer term; sedentary time was also higher in spring than summer term. Adolescents with higher fatness engaged in less vigorous intensity physical activity

  7. Distinguishing nitrogen fertilization levels in field corn (Zea mays L.) with actively induced fluorescence and passive reflectance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurtrey, J.E. III; Chappelle, E.W.; Kim, M.S.; Meisinger, J.J.; Corp, L.A

    1994-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is an active sensing technique capable of capturing immediate and specific indications of changes in plant physiology and metabolism as they relate to the concentration and photosynthetic activity of the plant pigments. Reflectance is a passive sensing technique that can capture differences in the concentration of the primary plant pigments. Fluorescence and reflectance were compared for their ability to measure levels of plant stress that are of agronomic importance in corn (Zea mays L.) crops. Laboratory LIF and reflectance spectra were made on excised leaves from field grown corn. Changes in the visible region of the spectrum were compared between groups of plants fertilized with seven different levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization. A pulsed nitrogen laser emitting photons at a wavelength of 337 nm was used as a fluorescence excitation source. Differences in maximum intensity of fluorescence occurred at 440 nm, 525 nm, 685 nm, and 740 nm. Significant separations were found between levels of N fertilization at several LIF wavelength ratios. Several reflectance algorithms also produced significant separations between certain levels of N fertilization

  8. A new device to measure the activity size distribution of radon progeny in a low level environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokonami, S; Takahashi, F; Iimoto, T; Kurosawa, R

    1997-09-01

    In order to easily measure the activity size distribution of radon progeny, a new instrument was developed that can determine their activity median diameter in a low level environment within 90 min. A four stage low-pressure cascade impactor was used. The particle size cut-off points were >2,100, 700, 210 and 70 nm, based on a particle density of 1 g cm(-3). A 300 metal wire screen diffusion collector facing with a silicon semiconductor detector was placed within the first air inlet in order to measure unattached radon progeny concentrations and also to prevent unattached progeny from entering the impactor. Silicon photodiodes, from which the ceramic windows were removed, were installed in each stage of the impactor. Alpha particles could be effectively detected with 46.2% efficiency as radon progeny were directly collected on the detecting surface of the photodiode. The surface of the photodiodes was coated with silicon grease to prevent particle bounce-off. An inline-type filter holder with a silicon semiconductor detector was connected at the exit of the impactor in order to collect the remaining radon progeny and to measure their concentrations. The instrument was used to concurrently measure the size distribution of radon progeny and the aerosol in the natural environment. The results indicated that the activity median diameter fell in between the median diameter of the aerosol derived from number statistics and that derived from surface-area statistics. A negative correlation was found between the unattached fraction (f(p)) and the activity median diameter.

  9. Cardiovascular health metrics and accelerometer-measured physical activity levels: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Tiago V; Harrington, Deirdre M; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether relationships exist between accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and other cardiovascular (CV) health metrics in a large sample. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collected from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2006, were used. Overall, 3454 nonpregnant adults 20 years or older who fasted for 6 hours or longer, with valid accelerometer data and with CV health metrics, were included in the study. Blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), smoking status, diet, fasting plasma glucose level, and total cholesterol level were defined as ideal, intermediate, and poor on the basis of American Heart Association criteria. Results were weighted to account for sampling design, oversampling, and nonresponse. Significant increasing linear trends in mean daily MVPA were observed across CV health levels for BMI, BP, and fasting plasma glucose (Pphysical activity in the overall definition of ideal CV health. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Accelerometer Measured Level of Physical Activity Indoors and Outdoors During Preschool Time in Sweden and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raustorp, A.; Pagels, P.; Boldemann, C.

    2012-01-01

    boys and girls indoor and outdoor physical activity regarding different intensity levels and sedentary behaviour. METHODS: Accelerometer determined physical activity in 50 children with mean age 52 months, (range 40-67) was recorded during preschool time for 5 consecutive weekdays at four sites......BACKGROUND: It is important to understand the correlates of physical activity in order to influence policy and create environments that promote physical activity among preschool children. We compared preschoolers' physical activity in Swedish and in US settings and objectively examined differences...

  11. Effect of physical activity intervention based on a pedometer on physical activity level and anthropometric measures after childbirth: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maturi Masumeh S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy and childbirth are associated with weight gain in women, and retention of weight gained during pregnancy can lead to obesity in later life. Diet and physical activity are factors that can influence the loss of retained pregnancy weight after birth. Exercise guidelines exist for pregnancy, but recommendations for exercise after childbirth are virtually nonexistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of physical activity intervention based on pedometer on physical activity level and anthropometric measures of women after childbirth. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial in which 66 women who had given birth 6 weeks to 6 months prior were randomly assigned to receive either a 12 week tailored program encouraging increased walking using a pedometer (intervention group, n = 32 or routine postpartum care (control group, n = 34. During the 12-week study period, each woman in the intervention group wore a pedometer and recorded her daily step count. The women were advised to increase their steps by 500 per week until they achieved the first target of 5000 steps per day and then continued to increase it to minimum of 10,000 steps per day by the end of 12th week. Assessed outcomes included anthropometric measures, physical activity level, and energy expenditure per week. Data were analyzed using the paired t-test, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney, chi-square, Wilcoxon, covariance analysis, and the general linear model repeated measures procedure as appropriate. Results After 12 weeks, women in the intervention group had significantly increased their physical activity and energy expenditure per week (4394 vs. 1651 calorie, p P = 0.001, Body Mass Index (P = 0.001, waist circumference (P = 0.001, hip circumference (P = 0.032 and waist-hip ratio (P = 0.02 were presented after the intervention. The intervention group significantly increased their mean daily step count over the study period (from 3249

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  14. Portable instrumentation for quantitatively measuring radioactive contamination levels and for monitoring the effectiveness of decontamination and decommissioning activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodzinski, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    Two completely portable high-resolution germanium diode spectrometer systems are described. These detectors are capable of measuring transuranics, activation products, and fission products, including 90 Sr, at sensitivities below the uncontrolled release criteria. The detectors measure x-rays, gamma-rays, or bremsstrahlung radiation as required and have been calibrated for a variety of decontamination and decommissioning scenarios. A description of a new technology for the in-situ determination of 90 Sr is given

  15. Portable instrumentation for quantitatively measuring radioactive contamination levels and for monitoring the effectiveness of decontamination and decommissioning activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodzinski, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    Two completely portable high-resolution germanium diode spectrometer systems are described. These detectors are capable of measuring transuranics, activation products, and fission products, including /sup 90/Sr, at sensitivities below the uncontrolled release criteria. The detectors measure x-rays, gamma-rays, or bremsstrahlung radiation as required and have been calibrated for a variety of decontamination and decommissioning scenarios. A description of a new technology for the in-situ determination of /sup 90/Sr is given.

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated ... YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  19. Effect of urbanization on objectively measured physical activity levels, sedentary time, and indices of adiposity in Kenyan adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiambo, Robert M; Easton, Chris; Casajús, Jose A; Konstabel, Kenn; Reilly, John J; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization affects lifestyles in the developing world but no studies have assessed the impact on objectively measured physical activity in children and adolescents from sub-Saharan Africa. To compare objectively measured habitual physical activity, sedentary time, and indices of adiposity in adolescents from rural and urban areas of Kenya. Physical activity and sedentary time were assessed by accelerometry for 5 consecutive days in 97 (50 female and 47 male) rural and 103 (52 female and 51 male) urban adolescents (mean age 13 ± 1 years). Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI z-scores were used to assess adiposity. Rural males spent more time in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) compared with urban males (68 ± 22 vs. 50 ± 17 min, respectively; P urban females (62 ± 20 vs. 37 ± 20 min, respectively; P urban subjects. Residence (rural vs. urban) significantly (P urban adolescents and this is a likely reflection of the impact of urbanization on lifestyle in Kenya.

  20. Nuclear systems of level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, A.J.; Cabrera, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the industry there are processes in which is necessary to maintain the products level controlled which are handled for their transformation. The majority of such processes and by the operation conditions, they do not admit measure systems of level of invasive type then the application of nuclear techniques for level measurement results a big aid in these cases, since all the system installation is situated beyond frontiers of vessels that contain the product for measuring. In the Department of Nuclear Technology Applications of Mexican Petroleum Institute was developed a level measurement system by gamma rays transmission which operates in the Low Density Polyethylene plant of Petrochemical Complex Escolin at Poza Rica, Veracruz, Mexico. (Author)

  1. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churtgen, C.

    2007-01-01

    The low-level radioactivity measurements service performs measurements of alpha or beta emitters on various types of low-radioactivity samples (biological and environmental) from internal and external clients. to maintain and develop techniques concerning the measurement of low-level radioactivity of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental or biological samples; to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters and alpha-spectrometers); to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination or low level radioactivity measurements; to maintain the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard for which we obtained the Beltest accreditation in 1998; to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides for workers of the nuclear industry;

  2. Inspector measurement verification activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.S.; Crouch, R.

    e most difficult and complex activity facing a safeguards inspector involves the verification of measurements and the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurement is the key to measurement verification activities. Remeasurerements using the facility's measurement system provide the bulk of the data needed for determining the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurements by reference laboratories are also important for evaluation of the measurement system and determination of systematic errors. The use of these measurement verification activities in conjunction with accepted inventory verification practices provides a better basis for accepting or rejecting an inventory. (U.S.)

  3. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, C.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advice the nuclear and non-nuclear industry in matters concerning radioactive contamination and/or low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain the quality assurance system according to the EN45001/ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are reported

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... videos Here are some ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and ... The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. In general, if you're doing ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  7. Physical Activity Level and Sedentary Behaviors among Public School Children in Dakar (Senegal Measured by PAQ-C and Accelerometer: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Diouf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles are major risk factors of childhood obesity. This study aimed to measure physical activity (PA levels by accelerometer and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C among Senegalese school children and the relation with Body Mass Index (BMI and body composition. Methodology: 156 pupils 8–11 years old were randomly selected in four elementary public schools of Dakar. BMI z-score was used to categorize children according to their weight status. PA was measured by PAQ-C in the 156 pupils and by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+, Pensacola, FL, USA in a subsample of 42 children. Body composition was determined by deuterium dilution method. Results: PAQ-C results were comparable in the 156 and 42 pupils. The 42 pupils presented a light activity measured by accelerometer, while PAQ-C classified the majority of them (57%; n = 24 in the moderate PA level. Children spent most of their time (min/day in sedentary activities and light activities than in moderate and intense activity levels. Accumulation of 60 min/day Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA was achieved by 54.8% (n = 23 of the pupils. MVPA decreased in girls in relation to their body fatness. There was a significant difference in MVPA between boys and girls. Similarly, overweight/obese (45 ± 16 min/day children had lower MVPA than their normal and underweight peers (88 ± 34 and 74 ± 36 min/day, respectively; p = 0.004. Conclusions: The two methods are inconsistent for measuring light and moderate PA levels. Although PAQ-C is an uncomplicated routine method, various activities were not adapted for genuine activities in Senegalese children and therefore needs to be validated in African children.

  8. Physical Activity Level and Sedentary Behaviors among Public School Children in Dakar (Senegal) Measured by PAQ-C and Accelerometer: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Adama; Thiam, Mbeugué; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diongue, Ousmane; Mégné, Ndé; Diallo, Khady; Sembène, Pape Malick; Wade, Salimata

    2016-10-10

    Background : Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles are major risk factors of childhood obesity. This study aimed to measure physical activity (PA) levels by accelerometer and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) among Senegalese school children and the relation with Body Mass Index (BMI) and body composition. Methodology : 156 pupils 8-11 years old were randomly selected in four elementary public schools of Dakar. BMI z -score was used to categorize children according to their weight status. PA was measured by PAQ-C in the 156 pupils and by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+, Pensacola, FL, USA) in a subsample of 42 children. Body composition was determined by deuterium dilution method. Results : PAQ-C results were comparable in the 156 and 42 pupils. The 42 pupils presented a light activity measured by accelerometer, while PAQ-C classified the majority of them (57%; n = 24) in the moderate PA level. Children spent most of their time (min/day) in sedentary activities and light activities than in moderate and intense activity levels. Accumulation of 60 min/day Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) was achieved by 54.8% ( n = 23) of the pupils. MVPA decreased in girls in relation to their body fatness. There was a significant difference in MVPA between boys and girls. Similarly, overweight/obese (45 ± 16 min/day) children had lower MVPA than their normal and underweight peers (88 ± 34 and 74 ± 36 min/day, respectively; p = 0.004). Conclusions : The two methods are inconsistent for measuring light and moderate PA levels. Although PAQ-C is an uncomplicated routine method, various activities were not adapted for genuine activities in Senegalese children and therefore needs to be validated in African children.

  9. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    -income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes...

  10. Measurement of enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T K; Keshwani, M M

    2009-01-01

    To study and understand the nature of living cells, scientists have continually employed traditional biochemical techniques aimed to fractionate and characterize a designated network of macromolecular components required to carry out a particular cellular function. At the most rudimentary level, cellular functions ultimately entail rapid chemical transformations that otherwise would not occur in the physiological environment of the cell. The term enzyme is used to singularly designate a macromolecular gene product that specifically and greatly enhances the rate of a chemical transformation. Purification and characterization of individual and collective groups of enzymes has been and will remain essential toward advancement of the molecular biological sciences; and developing and utilizing enzyme reaction assays is central to this mission. First, basic kinetic principles are described for understanding chemical reaction rates and the catalytic effects of enzymes on such rates. Then, a number of methods are described for measuring enzyme-catalyzed reaction rates, which mainly differ with regard to techniques used to detect and quantify concentration changes of given reactants or products. Finally, short commentary is given toward formulation of reaction mixtures used to measure enzyme activity. Whereas a comprehensive treatment of enzymatic reaction assays is not within the scope of this chapter, the very core principles that are presented should enable new researchers to better understand the logic and utility of any given enzymatic assay that becomes of interest.

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay ... State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ...

  15. Level of agreement between methods for measuring moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time in people with obstructive sleep apnea and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igelström, Helena; Emtner, Margareta; Lindberg, Eva; Asenlöf, Pernilla

    2013-01-01

    There is ambiguity about what measures to use to best identify physical activity and sedentary behavior, and agreement between methods for measuring physical activity and sedentary behavior in people with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and obesity has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to examine the level of agreement between an accelerometer and a self-report questionnaire (International Physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ]) or a logbook for measuring time spent on moderate to vigorous physical activity and time spent sedentary in people with OSAS and obesity. This prospective study was a psychometric evaluation of agreement between measurement methods. Thirty-nine people who were obese (body mass index: X=36.1 kg/m², SD=4.35) and had moderate to severe OSAS (apnea-hypopnea index of ≥15) were consecutively recruited from a sleep clinic in Sweden. All were treated with continuous positive airway pressure and were waiting for a follow-up sleep evaluation. Agreement between the measurement methods was limited. For physical activity, the mean difference between the accelerometer and the IPAQ was 47 minutes, and the mean difference between the accelerometer and the logbook was 32 minutes. Agreement was limited for sedentary time as well; the mean difference between the accelerometer and the IPAQ was 114 minutes, and the mean difference between the accelerometer and the logbook was 86 minutes. The small sample size may affect the interpretation and generalizability of the results. The results imply that the methods cannot be used interchangeably. A combination of an accelerometer and a daily logbook seems to provide a detailed description of physical activity and sedentary behavior.

  16. Measuring children's physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...... on the thigh (n=903) and one on the lower back (n= 856), for up to ten consecutive days. Participants were instructed not to reattach an accelerometer should it fall off. Simple and multiple linear regression were used to determine associations between accelerometer wear time and age, sex, BMI percentiles......, and PA level. RESULTS: Over 65% had >7 days of uninterrupted, 24h wear time for the thigh location, and 59.5% for the lower back location. From multiple linear regressions, PA levels showed the strongest association with lower wear time (thigh: β=-.231, R=.066; lower back: β=-.454, R=.126). In addition...

  17. Measurement of Functional Cognition and Complex Everyday Activities in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Dementia: Validity of the Large Allen's Cognitive Level Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Jacqueline; Clemson, Lindy; Crawford, John D; Kochan, Nicole A; Brodaty, Henry; Reppermund, Simone

    2017-05-01

    To explore the validity of the Large Allen's Cognitive Level Screen-5 (LACLS-5) as a performance-based measure of functional cognition, representing an ability to perform complex everyday activities in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia living in the community. Using cross-sectional data from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study, 160 community-dwelling older adults with normal cognition (CN; N = 87), MCI (N = 43), or dementia (N = 30) were studied. Functional cognition (LACLS-5), complex everyday activities (Disability Assessment for Dementia [DAD]), Assessment of Motor and Process Skills [AMPS]), and neuropsychological measures were used. Participants with dementia performed worse than CN on all clinical measures, and MCI participants were intermediate. Correlational analyses showed that LACLS-5 was most strongly related to AMPS Process scores, DAD instrumental activities of daily living subscale, Mini-Mental State Exam, Block Design, Logical Memory, and Trail Making Test B. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both cognitive (Block Design) and functional measures (AMPS Process score) and sex predicted LACLS-5 performance. Finally, LACLS-5 was able to adequately discriminate between CN and dementia and between MCI and dementia but was unable to reliably distinguish between CN and MCI. Construct validity, including convergent and discriminative validity, was supported. LACLS-5 is a valid performance-based measure for evaluating functional cognition. Discriminativevalidity is acceptable for identifying mild dementia but requires further refinement for detecting MCI. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations ...

  20. Measurements of fluorine in contemporary urban Canadians: a comparison of the levels found in human bone using in vivo and ex vivo neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafaei, F; McNeill, F E; Chettle, D R; Wainman, B C; Pidruczny, A E; Prestwich, W V

    2015-03-01

    Non-invasive in vivo neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used to measure the fluorine concentration in 35 people in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Measurement and precision data of this second generation NAA system were determined in 2013, and the results were compared with the performance of a first generation system used in a pilot study of 33 participants from the Hamilton area in 2008. Improvements in precision in line with those predicted by phantom studies were observed, but the use of fewer technicians during measurement seemed adversely to affect performance. We compared the levels of fluorine observed in people between the two studies and found them to be comparable. The average fluorine concentration in bone was found to be 3  ±  0.3 mg and 3.5  ±  0.4 mg F/g Ca for 2013 and 2008 measurements respectively. Ten people were measured in both studies; the observed average change in bone fluorine in this subgroup was consistent with that predicted by the observation of the relationship between bone fluorine and age in the wider group. In addition, we observed differences in the relationship between bone fluorine level and age between men and women, which may be attributable either to sex or gender differences. The rate of increase in fluorine content for men was found to be 0.096  ±  0.022 mg F/g Ca per year while the rate of increase for women was found to be slightly less than half that of men, 0.041  ±  0.017 mg F/g Ca per year. A discontinuity in the rate of increase in fluorine content with age was observed in women at around age 50. Bone fluorine content was significantly lower ([Formula: see text]) in women age 50 to 59 than in women age 40 to 49, which we suggest may be attributable to bone metabolism changes associated with menopause. We also observed increased fluorine levels in tea drinkers as compared to non-tea drinkers, suggesting tea may be a significant source of exposure in Canada. The rate of increase in fluorine

  1. Measurements of fluorine in contemporary urban Canadians: a comparison of the levels found in human bone using in vivo and ex vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafaei, F; McNeill, F E; Chettle, D R; Prestwich, W V; Wainman, B C; Pidruczny, A E

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive in vivo neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used to measure the fluorine concentration in 35 people in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Measurement and precision data of this second generation NAA system were determined in 2013, and the results were compared with the performance of a first generation system used in a pilot study of 33 participants from the Hamilton area in 2008. Improvements in precision in line with those predicted by phantom studies were observed, but the use of fewer technicians during measurement seemed adversely to affect performance. We compared the levels of fluorine observed in people between the two studies and found them to be comparable. The average fluorine concentration in bone was found to be 3  ±  0.3 mg and 3.5  ±  0.4 mg F/g Ca for 2013 and 2008 measurements respectively. Ten people were measured in both studies; the observed average change in bone fluorine in this subgroup was consistent with that predicted by the observation of the relationship between bone fluorine and age in the wider group. In addition, we observed differences in the relationship between bone fluorine level and age between men and women, which may be attributable either to sex or gender differences. The rate of increase in fluorine content for men was found to be 0.096  ±  0.022 mg F/g Ca per year while the rate of increase for women was found to be slightly less than half that of men, 0.041  ±  0.017 mg F/g Ca per year. A discontinuity in the rate of increase in fluorine content with age was observed in women at around age 50. Bone fluorine content was significantly lower (p<0.01) in women age 50 to 59 than in women age 40 to 49, which we suggest may be attributable to bone metabolism changes associated with menopause. We also observed increased fluorine levels in tea drinkers as compared to non-tea drinkers, suggesting tea may be a significant source of exposure in Canada. The rate of increase in fluorine content

  2. Accelerometer measured levels of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and sedentary time in children and adolescents with chronic disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabha Elmesmari

    Full Text Available Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and sedentary time (ST are important for child and adolescent health.To examine habitual levels of accelerometer measured MVPA and ST in children and adolescents with chronic disease, and how these levels compare with healthy peers.Data sources: An extensive search was carried out in Medline, Cochrane library, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus and CINAHL from 2000-2017. Study selection: Studies with accelerometer-measured MVPA and/or ST (at least 3 days and 6 hours/day to provide estimates of habitual levels in children 0-19 years of age with chronic diseases but without co-morbidities that would present major impediments to physical activity. In all cases patients were studied while well and clinically stable.Out of 1592 records, 25 studies were eligible, in four chronic disease categories: cardiovascular disease (7 studies, respiratory disease (7 studies, diabetes (8 studies, and malignancy (3 studies. Patient MVPA was generally below the recommended 60 min/day and ST generally high regardless of the disease condition. Comparison with healthy controls suggested no marked differences in MVPA between controls and patients with cardiovascular disease (1 study, n = 42 and type 1 diabetes (5 studies, n = 400; SMD -0.70, 95% CI -1.89 to 0.48, p = 0.25. In patients with respiratory disease, MVPA was lower in patients than controls (4 studies, n = 470; SMD -0.39, 95% CI -0.80, 0.02, p = 0.06. Meta-analysis indicated significantly lower MVPA in patients with malignancies than in the controls (2 studies, n = 90; SMD -2.2, 95% CI -4.08 to -0.26, p = 0.03. Time spent sedentary was significantly higher in patients in 4/10 studies compared with healthy control groups, significantly lower in 1 study, while 5 studies showed no significant group difference.MVPA in children/adolescents with chronic disease appear to be well below guideline recommendations, although comparable with activity levels of their healthy peers except for

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ...

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    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . ... Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps ... by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists examples of activities classified as moderate- ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps to ... counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples ...

  10. MEASUREMENT AND CALCULATION OF RADIONUCLIDE ACTIVITIES IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE FOR ACCEPTANCE OF DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY GLASS IN A FEDERAL REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C; David Diprete, D; Ned Bibler, N

    2008-12-31

    This paper describes the results of the analyses of High Level Waste (HLW) sludge slurry samples and of the calculations necessary to decay the radionuclides to meet the reporting requirement in the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) [1]. The concentrations of 45 radionuclides were measured. The results of these analyses provide input for radioactive decay calculations used to project the radionuclide inventory at the specified index years, 2015 and 3115. This information is necessary to complete the Production Records at Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) so that the final glass product resulting from Macrobatch 5 (MB5) can eventually be submitted to a Federal Repository. Five of the necessary input radionuclides for the decay calculations could not be measured directly due to their low concentrations and/or analytical interferences. These isotopes are Nb-93m, Pd-107, Cd-113m, Cs-135, and Cm-248. Methods for calculating these species from concentrations of appropriate other radionuclides will be discussed. Also the average age of the MB5 HLW had to be calculated from decay of Sr-90 in order to predict the initial concentration of Nb-93m. As a result of the measurements and calculations, thirty-one WAPS reportable radioactive isotopes were identified for MB5. The total activity of MB5 sludge solids will decrease from 1.6E+04 {micro}Ci (1 {micro}Ci = 3.7E+04 Bq) per gram of total solids in 2008 to 2.3E+01 {micro}Ci per gram of total solids in 3115, a decrease of approximately 700 fold. Finally, evidence will be given for the low observed concentrations of the radionuclides Tc-99, I-129, and Sm-151 in the HLW sludges. These radionuclides were reduced in the MB5 sludge slurry to a fraction of their expected production levels due to SRS processing conditions.

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples ... 4, 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists ... upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ...

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    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and ...

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    Full Text Available ... Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity ... Implementation Maintaining Interest Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example ... Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other ...

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    Full Text Available ... an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

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    Full Text Available ... Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs ... Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity ... Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ...

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    Full Text Available ... CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E F G H I J K L M ... Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR ...

  4. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  5. Computer-aided measurement of liver volumes in CT by means of geodesic active contour segmentation coupled with level-set algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Kohlbrenner, Ryan; Epstein, Mark L.; Obajuluwa, Ademola M.; Xu Jianwu; Hori, Masatoshi [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: Computerized liver extraction from hepatic CT images is challenging because the liver often abuts other organs of a similar density. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided measurement of liver volumes in hepatic CT. Methods: The authors developed a computerized liver extraction scheme based on geodesic active contour segmentation coupled with level-set contour evolution. First, an anisotropic diffusion filter was applied to portal-venous-phase CT images for noise reduction while preserving the liver structure, followed by a scale-specific gradient magnitude filter to enhance the liver boundaries. Then, a nonlinear grayscale converter enhanced the contrast of the liver parenchyma. By using the liver-parenchyma-enhanced image as a speed function, a fast-marching level-set algorithm generated an initial contour that roughly estimated the liver shape. A geodesic active contour segmentation algorithm coupled with level-set contour evolution refined the initial contour to define the liver boundaries more precisely. The liver volume was then calculated using these refined boundaries. Hepatic CT scans of 15 prospective liver donors were obtained under a liver transplant protocol with a multidetector CT system. The liver volumes extracted by the computerized scheme were compared to those traced manually by a radiologist, used as ''gold standard.''Results: The mean liver volume obtained with our scheme was 1504 cc, whereas the mean gold standard manual volume was 1457 cc, resulting in a mean absolute difference of 105 cc (7.2%). The computer-estimated liver volumetrics agreed excellently with the gold-standard manual volumetrics (intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.95) with no statistically significant difference (F=0.77; p(F{<=}f)=0.32). The average accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and percent volume error were 98.4%, 91.1%, 99.1%, and 7.2%, respectively. Computerized CT liver volumetry would require substantially less

  6. Field methods and quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities and water-level measurements, U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Maimer, Neil V.; Wehnke, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    Water-quality activities and water-level measurements by the personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Project Office coincide with the USGS mission of appraising the quantity and quality of the Nation’s water resources. The activities are carried out in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operations Office. Results of the water-quality and hydraulic head investigations are presented in various USGS publications or in refereed scientific journals and the data are stored in the National Water Information System (NWIS) database. The results of the studies are used by researchers, regulatory and managerial agencies, and interested civic groups. In the broadest sense, quality assurance refers to doing the job right the first time. It includes the functions of planning for products, review and acceptance of the products, and an audit designed to evaluate the system that produces the products. Quality control and quality assurance differ in that quality control ensures that things are done correctly given the “state-of-the-art” technology, and quality assurance ensures that quality control is maintained within specified limits.

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ... an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ...

  9. Measuring Children's Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . ... Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity ...

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    Full Text Available ... Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant ... page, enter your email address: Enter Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Our Division ...

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    Full Text Available ... Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World ... Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton ...

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    Full Text Available ... Search The CDC Physical Activity Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For ... Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References Discount Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting a ... pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a ...

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    Full Text Available ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National ... INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ways to ... ePub file RIS file Page last reviewed: June 4, 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. ... Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References Discount Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting a ...

  20. Market survey of level measurement equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    In a market survey of level measurement equipment from 42 manufacturers, which is based on different principles of measurement and which is used for different applications, the data of the various manufacturers is compiled. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated ... YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  2. Physical activity level among undergraduate students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study determine physical activity level among 95 undergraduate students at UniSZA using pedometer. Subjects consented and completed socio-demographic details, weight and height were measured. Each subject was supplied with a pedometer and wear it for a week and record steps per day from the ...

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    Full Text Available ... Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Physical Activity Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About ...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water aerobics Bicycling slower than 10 miles per hour ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water aerobics Bicycling slower than 10 miles per hour ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Stair Usage Project Checklist CDC’s Example Related Resources Walking Step It Up! Surgeon General’s Call to Action ... doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file Zip Archive file SAS file ePub file RIS file Page last reviewed: June 4, 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , ...

  8. Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels among Ethnic Minority Children Attending School-Based Afterschool Programs in a High-Poverty Neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngdeok Kim, Marc Lochbaum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic minority children living in high poverty neighborhoods are at high risk of having insufficient physical activity (PA during school days and, thus, the importance of school as a place to facilitate PA in these underserved children has been largely emphasized. This study examined the levels and patterns of PA in minority children, with particular focus on the relative contributions of regular physical education (PE and school-based afterschool PA program in promoting moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA during school days. PA data were repeatedly measured using a Polar Active accelerometer across multiple school days (M = 5.3 days per child, from seventy-five ethnic minority children attending a Title I public elementary school in a high-poverty neighborhood in the US. The minutes and percentage of MVPA accumulated during school, PE, and afterschool PA program were compared to the current recommendations (≥30-min of MVPA during school hours; and ≥50% of MVPA during PE or afterschool PA program as well as by the demographic characteristics including sex, grade, ethnicity, and weight status using a general linear mixed model that accounts for repeated observations. On average, children spent 41.6 mins (SE = 1.8 of MVPA during school hours and of those, 14.1 mins (SE = 0.6 were contributed during PE. The average proportion of time spent in MVPA during PE was 31.3% (SE = 1.3, which was significantly lower than the recommendation (≥50% of MVPA, whereas 54.2% (SE = 1.2 of time in afterschool PA program were spent in MVPA. The percentage of monitoring days meeting current recommendations were 69.5% (SE = 0.03, 20.8% (SE = 0.02, and 59.6% (SE = 0.03 for during school, PE, and afterschool PA program, respectively. Our findings highlighted that school-based afterschool PA, in addition to regular PE classes, could be of great benefit to promote PA in minority children during school days. Further research and practice are still needed to

  9. Sound level measurements using smartphone "apps": Useful or inaccurate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Nast

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many recreational activities are accompanied by loud concurrent sounds and decisions regarding the hearing hazards associated with these activities depend on accurate sound measurements. Sound level meters (SLMs are designed for this purpose, but these are technical instruments that are not typically available in recreational settings and require training to use properly. Mobile technology has made such sound level measurements more feasible for even inexperienced users. Here, we assessed the accuracy of sound level measurements made using five mobile phone applications or "apps" on an Apple iPhone 4S, one of the most widely used mobile phones. Accuracy was assessed by comparing application-based measurements to measurements made using a calibrated SLM. Whereas most apps erred by reporting higher sound levels, one application measured levels within 5 dB of a calibrated SLM across all frequencies tested.

  10. Electrical measurement of sweat activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronstad, Christian; Grimnes, Sverre; Martinsen, Ørjan G; Gjein, Gaute E; Fosse, Erik; Krogstad, Anne-Lene

    2008-01-01

    A multichannel logger for long-term measurements of sweat activity is presented. The logger uses skin surface electrodes for unipolar admittance measurements in the stratum corneum. The logger is developed with emphasis on clinical use. The portability of the logger enables recording of sweat activity under circumstances such as daily errands, exercise and sleep. Measurements have been done on 24 healthy volunteers during relaxation and exercise with heart rate monitoring. Recordings of sweat activity during sleep have been done on two healthy subjects. Early results show good agreement with the literature on sweating physiology and electrodermal activity. Results are presented showing measurements related to physical exercise, dermatomes, distribution of sweat glands and sympathetic activity. This study examines the normal sweating patterns for the healthy population, and we present results with the first 24 healthy volunteers. Comparing these results with similar measurements on hyperhidrosis patients will make it possible to find the most useful parameters for diagnosis and treatment evaluation

  11. Optical remote measurement of liquid level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanbing; Yang, Yong-Hua

    1993-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce an approach to the remote measurement of liquid level in oil storage tank.The measurement is made by the method of CW rangefinding. The design, performance and limitation of the system are discussed with a view to a practical working system.

  12. Lifetime measurements of excited Co I levels

    CERN Document Server

    Klotz, W D; Gobel, L H

    1977-01-01

    In the region of 3500 AA the lifetimes of eight excited Cobalt I levels have been measured by means of the zero field level crossing method. The measured lifetimes belong to the odd configurations 3d/sup 7/4s4p and 3d/sup 8/4p and are of the accuracy of about 5%. The hyperfine structure of levels with I not=J has to be taken into account in evaluating lifetimes from level crossing data, because the nuclear spin of the natural isotope /sup 59/Co is I=7/2. Therefore the influence of the line profile of the exciting resonance lines on the lifetimes has been investigated. The results are compared with those of other authors. Furthermore absolute oscillator strengths were calculated with known branching ratios and a new absolute scale has been established. (23 refs).

  13. Students' objectively measured physical activity levels and engagement as a function of between-class and between-student differences in motivation toward physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aelterman, Nathalie; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Van Keer, Hilde; Van den Berghe, Lynn; De Meyer, Jotie; Haerens, Leen

    2012-08-01

    Despite evidence for the utility of self-determination theory in physical education, few studies used objective indicators of physical activity and mapped out between-class, relative to between-student, differences in physical activity. This study investigated whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and rated collective engagement in physical education were associated with autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation at the between-class and between-student levels. Participants were 739 pupils (46.3% boys, Mage = 14.36 ±1.94) from 46 secondary school classes in Flanders (Belgium). Multilevel analyses indicated that 37% and 63% of the variance in MVPA was explained by between-student and between-class differences, respectively. Students' personal autonomous motivation related positively to MVPA. Average autonomous class motivation was positively related to between-class variation in MVPA and collective engagement. Average controlled class motivation and average class amotivation were negatively associated with collective engagement. The findings are discussed in light of self-determination theory's emphasis on quality of motivation.

  14. Torsional ultrasonic wave based level measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, David E [Oak Ridge, TN; Kisner, Roger A [Knoxville, TN

    2012-07-10

    A level measurement system suitable for use in a high temperature and pressure environment to measure the level of coolant fluid within the environment, the system including a volume of coolant fluid located in a coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment and having a level therein; an ultrasonic waveguide blade that is positioned within the desired coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment; a magnetostrictive electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment and configured to operate in the environment and cooperate with the waveguide blade to launch and receive ultrasonic waves; and an external signal processing system located outside of the high temperature and pressure environment and configured for communicating with the electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment.

  15. Do low levels of physical activity in female adolescents cause ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The increase in obesity levels in South African adolescents is attributed to an energy imbalance such that physical inactivity is causally related to adiposity. However, in some settings obesity occurs in spite of high physical activity levels. Objectives. To examine objectively measured physical activity levels of ...

  16. Effects of microelectronics on industrial level measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudel, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Microelectronic elements and production technologies have begun to change industrial level measurement, and this trend will continue. Spectacular breakthroughs cannot be expected, due to the major demand of reliability and to administrative constraints. The demand for transducers has increased with the advance of low-cost computer hardware. Electronics makes well-known method of measurements more universally applicable; it helps to realize new methods, and to design multifunctional transducers which always give the necessary signal for process guidance. The effects on society and environment are wholly positive: More and better measuring technologies permit a better utilisation of raw materials and energies, help to prevent environmental damage, and to raise the standard of living. Negative results are not to be expected on this sector. (orig./RW) [de

  17. CMS High Level Trigger Timing Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Clint

    2015-01-01

    The two-level trigger system employed by CMS consists of the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, which is implemented using custom-built electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a farm of commercial CPUs running a streamlined version of the offline CMS reconstruction software. The operational L1 output rate of 100 kHz, together with the number of CPUs in the HLT farm, imposes a fundamental constraint on the amount of time available for the HLT to process events. Exceeding this limit impacts the experiment's ability to collect data efficiently. Hence, there is a critical need to characterize the performance of the HLT farm as well as the algorithms run prior to start up in order to ensure optimal data taking. Additional complications arise from the fact that the HLT farm consists of multiple generations of hardware and there can be subtleties in machine performance. We present our methods of measuring the timing performance of the CMS HLT, including the challenges of making such measurements. Results for the performance of various Intel Xeon architectures from 2009-2014 and different data taking scenarios are also presented. (paper)

  18. Relationship between insulin resistance-associated metabolic parameters and anthropometric measurements with sugar-sweetened beverage intake and physical activity levels in US adolescents: findings from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Andrew A; Auinger, Peggy; Byrd, Robert S

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between insulin resistance-associated metabolic parameters and anthropometric measurements with sugar-sweetened beverage intake and physical activity levels. A cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. Nationally representative samples of US adolescents participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during the years 1999-2004. A total of 6967 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and physical activity levels. Glucose and insulin concentrations, a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, triglyceride concentrations, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) percentile for age and sex. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that increased sugar-sweetened beverage intake was independently associated with increased HOMA-IR, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index percentile for age and sex and decreased HDL cholesterol concentrations; alternatively, increased physical activity levels were independently associated with decreased HOMA-IR, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, and triglyceride concentrations and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Furthermore, low sugar-sweetened beverage intake and high physical activity levels appear to modify each others' effects of decreasing HOMA-IR and triglyceride concentrations and increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake and physical activity levels are each independently associated with insulin resistance-associated metabolic parameters and anthropometric measurements in adolescents. Moreover, low sugar

  19. Measuring receptive collocational competence across proficiency levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déogratias Nizonkiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates, (i English as Foreign Language (EFL learners’ receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as proficiency develops; and (iii the extent to which receptive knowledge of collocations of EFL learners varies across word frequency bands. A proficiency measure and a collocation test were administered to English majors at the University of Burundi. Results of the study suggest that receptive collocational competence develops alongside EFL learners’ linguistic proficiency; which lends empirical support to Gyllstad (2007, 2009 and Author (2011 among others, who reported similar findings. Furthermore, EFL learners’ collocations growth seems to be quantifiable wherein both linguistic proficiency level and word frequency occupy a crucial role. While more gains in terms of collocations that EFL learners could potentially add as a result of change in proficiency are found at lower levels of proficiency; collocations of words from more frequent word bands seem to be mastered first, and more gains are found at more frequent word bands. These results confirm earlier findings on the non-linearity nature of vocabulary growth (cf. Meara 1996 and the fundamental role played by frequency in word knowledge for vocabulary in general (Nation 1983, 1990, Nation and Beglar 2007, which are extended here to collocations knowledge.

  20. Measuring activity in ant colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, C.; Fernández, J.; Pérez-Penichet, C.; Altshuler, E.

    2006-12-01

    Ants, as paradigm of social insects, have become a recurrent example of efficient problem solvers via self-organization. In spite of the simple behavior of each individual, the colony as a whole displays "swarm intelligence:" the organization of ant trails for foraging is a typical output of it. But conventional techniques of observation can hardly record the amount of data needed to get a detailed understanding of self-organization of ant swarms in the wild. Here we are presenting a measurement system intended to monitor ant activity in the field comprising massive data acquisition and high sensitivity. A central role is played by an infrared sensor devised specifically to monitor relevant parameters to the activity of ants through the exits of the nest, although other sensors detecting temperature and luminosity are added to the system. We study the characteristics of the activity sensor and its performance in the field. Finally, we present massive data measured at one exit of a nest of Atta insularis, an ant endemic to Cuba, to illustrate the potential of our system.

  1. Low-level activity measurement of 131Xem, 133Xem, 135Xe and 133Xe in atmospheric air samples using high-resolution dual X-γ spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Petit, G.; Jutier, C.; Gross, P.; Greiner, V.

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution dual X and γ spectrometry has been optimized to improve the sensitivity in analyzing radioxenon from environmental samples, especially for the metastable isotopes ( 131 Xe m and 133 Xe m ). The full-energy peak (FEP) efficiency curve in the 20-700 keV range has been established with a global uncertainty better than ±3% using a Monte Carlo simulation. The minimum detectable activity concentrations (MDC) achievable at the laboratory for 131 Xe m , 133 Xe m , 133 Xe and 135 Xe are presented and the influence of 133 Xe activity on the metastable radioxenon MDCs is evaluated

  2. Alpha activity measurement with lsc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrin, R. I.; Dulama, C. N.; Ciocirlan, C. N.; Toma, A.; Stoica, S. M.; Valeca, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we showed that the alpha activity in liquid samples can be measured using a liquid scintillation analyzer without alpha/beta discrimination capability. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the performances of the method and to optimize the procedure of the sample preparation. A series of tests was performed to validate the procedure of alpha emitting radionuclides extraction in aqueous samples with Actinide Resin, especially regarding to the contact time required to extract all alpha nuclides. The main conclusions were that a minimum 18 hours stirring time is needed to achieve a percent recovery of the alpha nuclides grater than 90% and that the counting efficiency of alphas measurements with LSC is nearly 100%. (authors)

  3. Body image and weight perceptions in relation to actual measurements by means of a new index and level of physical activity in Italian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccagni, Luciana; Masotti, Sabrina; Donati, Roberta; Mazzoni, Gianni; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2014-02-11

    Body image perception depends on anthropometric and psychological factors. Body dissatisfaction is influenced by the socio-cultural environment and is associated with eating disorders and low self-esteem. This study examined the body image perception, the degree of dissatisfaction and the weight status perception inconsistency in relation to sex, weight status and amount of physical activity in a sample of university students. The participants were 734 university students (354 females aged 21.5 ± 2.9 yrs and 380 males aged 22.1 ± 3.6 yrs) recruited from the second year of the Sport Sciences degree program. A self-administered questionnaire was used to acquire socio-demographic and sport participation information. Height, weight, BMI and weight status were considered for each subject. Body image perception was assessed by a silhouette matching technique. A new index, FAI (Feel status minus Actual status Inconsistency), was used to assess weight status perception inconsistency. A large proportion of the sample had normal weight status. On average, females chose as feel status a significantly higher figure than the males (4.7 versus 3.8) and they would have liked to have a significantly thinner figure than the males (3.4 versus 3.6). Therefore, the mean FID (Feel minus Ideal Discrepancy) values (positive in both sexes) were significantly higher in females than in males, meaning higher dissatisfaction. The mean FAI values were positive in females and negative in males, indicating a tendency of the women to overestimate their weight status and of the men to underestimate it. Men were more physically active than women. Less active women showed significantly lower body weight and BMI than more active women. Men less engaged in physical activity showed significantly higher FID than more active men. These results show greater dissatisfaction and higher weight status perception consistency in females than in males among Italian university students examined. Our findings

  4. Ultrasound measurement of deep abdominal muscle activity in sitting positions with different stability levels in subjects with and without chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Omid; Arab, Amir Massoud; Amiri, Mohsen; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in the thickness of the transversus abdominis (TrA) and internal oblique (IO) muscles in three sitting postures with different levels of stability. The technique of ultrasound imaging was used for individuals with and without chronic low back pain (LBP). A sample of 40 people participated in this study. Subjects were categorised into two groups: with LBP (N = 20) and without LBP (N = 20). Changes in the thickness of tested muscles were normalized under three different sitting postures to actual muscle thickness at rest in the supine lying position and were expressed as a percentage of thickness change. The percentage of thickness change in TrA and IO increased as the stability of the sitting position decreased in both groups. However, the percentages of thickness change in all positions were less in subjects with LBP. There was a significant difference in thickness change in TrA when sitting on a gym ball between subjects with and without LBP but no difference was found when sitting on a chair. There was no significant difference in thickness change in IO in all positions between the two groups. Our findings indicate that difference in the percentage of thickness change in TrA between subjects with and without LBP increases as the stability of sitting position decreases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Measurement of salivary resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamali, Irene; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Armeni, Anastasia K; Theodoropoulou, Anastasia; Markou, Kostas B; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2012-01-01

    Hormonal determination in saliva offers several advantages. Peptides enter the salivary glands either by active transport mechanisms or are expressed and secreted by the salivary glands themselves. The collection of saliva is a noninvasive, easily repeatable and less stressful technique than blood withdrawal. The purpose of the present study was to introduce a method for measuring salivary resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels and to evaluate their associations with serum levels. Resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels were measured in serum and saliva of 50 healthy adult volunteers (17 male and 33 female) using commercial enzyme immunoassay kits for serum with minor modifications. The present study documented the determination of resistin and adiponectin levels in saliva and the significant correlation of salivary levels with serum levels (r=0.441, p<0.01 and r=0.347, p<0.05, respectively). Moreover, the identification of visfatin in saliva was achieved, but no significant correlation with serum visfatin levels was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the determination of resistin and visfatin in saliva and the significant correlation of salivary resistin with serum levels, while it confirmed the significant association between salivary and serum adiponectin. The introduction of salivary determinations of adipokines could contribute to the elucidation of the physiology and the role of the specific adipokines in various clinical conditions (obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, reproduction, energy imbalance and stress response). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High-Sensitive C-Reactive Protein Levels in a Group of Syrian University Male Students and Its Associations with Smoking, Physical Activity, Anthropometric Measurements, and Some Hematologic Inflammation Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafika Zarzour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Syria, health risk data on young males are limited. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors along with C-reactive protein levels measured by high-sensitive method (hsCRP in a group of healthy males of university students (n=101, 18–25 years old. Participants’ anthropometric characteristics; alcohol drinking, smoking, and physical activity habits; parents medical history; and some inflammatory biomarkers were inspected for their associations with hsCRP. Results. Regarding hsCRP level, 19 participants were at average (1–3 mg/L and 13 were at high (>3 mg/L risk of CVD. Nonparametric statistical tests (p value < 0.05 revealed that hsCRP level was higher in participants who had high body mass index (BMI, had high BMI with high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, or did not practice sport frequently. Unexpectedly, it did not vary between smokers and nonsmokers. In general, it correlated positively with anthropometric and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR measurements. Nevertheless, it negatively correlated with sports practicing in overall and nonsmoker groups and in participants whose parents were without medical history. Finally, when participants with high BMI were smokers, did not practice sport frequently, or had a parent with medical history, their hsCRP levels were higher than others who had the same circumstances but with low BMI.

  7. Radium activity measurements in bottled mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Denyak, Valeriy; Reque, Marilson; Rocha, Paschuk; Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of 226 Ra activity measurements of fifteen samples of bottled mineral water acquired at markets of Curitiba-PR, Brazil. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology - Parana (UTFPR) in collaboration with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Committee (CNEN). The experimental setup was based on the electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.). The measurements were carried out with a special kit of accessory vessels (vials) RAD7 H 2 O, which allows one to identify the 222 Rn activity concentration in small water samples of 40 mL and 250 mL in the range going from less than 30 pCi/L to greater than 10 5 pCi/L. During each measurement a vial from RAD H 2 O was poured with a sample of water. The air pump, included in the close loop aeration circuit and connected to the vial and RAD7 detector, operated for five minutes to snatch the sample of air maintained above the level of water sample and transporting it from the vial through the system. Evaluation of the concentration of soluble radium ( 226 Ra) salts in water and their activity was performed after 30 days when 222 Rn in the water samples reached secular equilibrium. The background measurements were performed using the samples of the distilled water. Considering the importance of background measurements, it was found that the value suggested by user Manual protocol (RAD7) for the case of low activity radon measurements, has to be slightly modified. (author)

  8. High Levels of Phytophenolics and Antioxidant Activities in Oryza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate phenolic levels, phytophenolic profiles and total antioxidant activities of Oryza sativa, unpolished Thai rice. Methods: Unpolished Thai rice strains of Leum Phua, Klam, Hawm Nil and Black Rose were measured for antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ...

  9. The Role of Various Curriculum Models on Physical Activity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, Dean O.; Tarr, Susan J.; Killion, Lorraine E.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that physical education curricula can be highly effective in increasing physical activity levels at school (Sallis & Owen, 1999). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of various curriculum models on physical activity. Total steps were measured on 1,111 subjects and three curriculum models were studied…

  10. [Subliminal perception and the levels of activation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgeat, F; Chabot, R; Chaloult, L

    1981-06-01

    The influence of the auditory subliminal messages on the level of activation has been evaluated through a double-blind study. Twenty consenting subjects were alternately submitted to activating and deactivating subliminal messages. Activation changes were estimated through the variations in the scores at the Mood Adjective Check List. Five out of this test's six factors concerned by the content of the subliminal messages responded differently according to the nature of these messages; four factors did so to a statistically significant degree. These results tend to indicate that auditory subliminal perceptions can influence the level of activation. The authors raise several questions, especially stressing that the parameters regulating subliminal response and susceptibility remain largely undefined and in need of systematic investigation.

  11. Actively shielded low level gamma - spectrometric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrdja, D.; Bikit, I.; Forkapic, S.; Slivka, J.; Veskovic, M.

    2005-01-01

    The results of the adjusting and testing of the actively shielded low level gamma-spectrometry system are presented. The veto action of the shield reduces the background in the energy region of 50 keV to the 2800 keV for about 3 times. (author) [sr

  12. Ferromagnetic interaction model of activity level in workplace communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Yano, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    The nature of human-human interaction, specifically, how people synchronize with each other in multiple-participant conversations, is described by a ferromagnetic interaction model of people’s activity levels. We found two microscopic human interaction characteristics from a real-environment face-to-face conversation. The first characteristic is that people quite regularly synchronize their activity level with that of the other participants in a conversation. The second characteristic is that the degree of synchronization increases as the number of participants increases. Based on these microscopic ferromagnetic characteristics, a “conversation activity level” was modeled according to the Ising model. The results of a simulation of activity level based on this model well reproduce macroscopic experimental measurements of activity level. This model will give a new insight into how people interact with each other in a conversation.

  13. Activity levels in mothers and their preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Kathryn R; Goodfellow, Laura; Ekelund, Ulf; McMinn, Alison M; Godfrey, Keith M; Inskip, Hazel M; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the association between objectively measured maternal and preschool-aged children's physical activity, determine how this association differs by demographic and temporal factors, and identify factors associated with maternal activity levels. In the UK Southampton Women's Survey, physical activity levels of 554 4-year-olds and their mothers were measured concurrently by using accelerometry for ≤7 days. Two-level mixed-effects linear regression was used to model the association between maternal and children's minutes spent sedentary, in light (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to investigate correlates of maternal activity. Mother-child daily activity levels were positively associated at all activity intensities (sedentary, LPA, and MVPA; all P children (versus those who were overweight/obese), and those attending preschool part-time (versus full-time). The mother-child association for LPA differed by maternal education and was stronger at the weekend (versus weekdays). The opposite was true for MVPA. Sedentary time and MVPA were most strongly associated in mornings, with LPA most strongly associated in the evenings. Maternal BMI, age leaving school, number and age of children at home, and working hours were independently associated with maternal daily sedentary time and LPA. Physical activity levels in mothers and their 4-year-old children are directly associated, with associations at different activity intensities influenced by temporal and demographic factors. Influences on maternal physical activity levels also differ by activity intensity. Providing targeted interventions for mothers of young children may increase both groups' activity.

  14. Vectorised Spreading Activation algorithm for centrality measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Troussov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spreading Activation is a family of graph-based algorithms widely used in areas such as information retrieval, epidemic models, and recommender systems. In this paper we introduce a novel Spreading Activation (SA method that we call Vectorised Spreading Activation (VSA. VSA algorithms, like “traditional” SA algorithms, iteratively propagate the activation from the initially activated set of nodes to the other nodes in a network through outward links. The level of the node’s activation could be used as a centrality measurement in accordance with dynamic model-based view of centrality that focuses on the outcomes for nodes in a network where something is flowing from node to node across the edges. Representing the activation by vectors allows the use of the information about various dimensionalities of the flow and the dynamic of the flow. In this capacity, VSA algorithms can model multitude of complex multidimensional network flows. We present the results of numerical simulations on small synthetic social networks and multi­dimensional network models of folksonomies which show that the results of VSA propagation are more sensitive to the positions of the initial seed and to the community structure of the network than the results produced by traditional SA algorithms. We tentatively conclude that the VSA methods could be instrumental to develop scalable and computationally efficient algorithms which could achieve synergy between computation of centrality indexes with detection of community structures in networks. Based on our preliminary results and on improvements made over previous studies, we foresee advances and applications in the current state of the art of this family of algorithms and their applications to centrality measurement.

  15. Measurements of sea level off Tikkavanipalem - Coast India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desai, R.G.P.; Peshwe, V.B.; Desa, E.; VijayKumar, K.; Desa, E.S.; Mehra, P.; Nagvekar, S.

    Sea level and meteorological measurements have been made, off Tikkavanipalem coast in Andhra Pradesh, India in 1997-98. Sea level measurements were made in four temporal segments of one-month duration each during a one-year period...

  16. THE INEXPENSIVE DEVICE FOR SEA LEVEL MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Annunziato

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new mareograph device has been designed at the Joint Research Centre (JRC of the European Commission (EC in order improve the sea level network in use for the Tsunami Hazard monitoring in the Mediterranean Sea and in the North Atlantic area (NEAMTWS area of UNESCO. The instrument has the characteristic to be cheap and very effective but its reliability, duration and quality need to be determined and qualified. For this reason a number of experimental campaigns are being conducted, whose first results are presented here. In collaboration with the UNESCO/IOC (Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, responsible of the definition of the Tsunami Warning System of this geographical area, a set of 20 devices has been offered by JRC for a period of 1 year of testing of the devices; the surveys for the installation of the devices is under way and the installation should be completed by the end of 2015.

  17. Experiences on pollution level measurement in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya-Tena, Gerardo; Hernandez-Corona, Ramiro; Ramirez-Vazquez, Isaias

    2005-01-01

    The pollution on overhead insulators is influenced by the pollutant type as well as by the climate of the site. In Mexico, due to its orography and diversity of lands, there are several areas where the failures on the overhead insulation are mainly caused by the pollution. Since the decade of 1980s, various studies have been performed to solve or at least alleviate such transmission and distribution power line pollution-related problems. This paper presents a description of several studies conducted by the Mexican Electrical Research Institute 'Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas' (IIE) together with the Mexican electrical utility 'Comision Federal de Electricidad' (CFE), from the elaboration of a contamination map to the development of a system for measuring leakage current, which is used as a tool for the in-service diagnostic of insulators installed on lines of transmission. (author)

  18. Measurement of radon activity concentration in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godet, J.L.; Perrin, M.L.; Pineau, C.; Dechaux, E.

    2010-01-01

    Radon exposure, along with medical-related exposure, is the leading source of exposure to ionising radiation for the French population. Measurement campaigns are done in the action plan, drawn up by the French nuclear safety authority (ASN), in cooperation with the French directorate for housing, town planning and countryside (DHUP), the French radiation protection and nuclear safety institute (IRSN), the French health monitoring institute (InVS) and the French scientific and technical centre for construction (CSTB). The review of 2005-2008 measurement campaign shows that of the 7356 buildings screened, 84.8% had activity concentration levels below the 400 Bq/m 3 action level. For the other buildings (15.2%), action will be required to reduce human exposure to radon, possibly including building renovation/redevelopment work. In the 1999-2002 measurement campaign,12% of the 13,000 buildings screened had a radon activity concentration level higher than 400 Bq/m 3 . In addition, the ASN and the French general directorate of labour (DGT) are continuing to work on drawing up regulations for occupational risk management. The second national health and environment plan (PNSE 2) was published on 26 June 2009. It follows on from the actions initiated in PNSE 1, a document provided for under the Public Health Act dated 9 August 2004 and under the French 'Grenelle' environmental agreements. On the basis of guidelines laid out in PNSE 2, a radon action plan for 2009-2012 will be drawn up, enabling some of the actions to be continued, particularly in the fields of new building projects and dwellings. (author)

  19. 45 CFR 305.40 - Penalty performance measures and levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES PROGRAM PERFORMANCE MEASURES, STANDARDS, FINANCIAL INCENTIVES, AND PENALTIES § 305.40 Penalty performance measures and levels. (a) There are three performance measures for which States must... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Penalty performance measures and levels. 305.40...

  20. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fior, L; Nicolosi Corrêa, J; Paschuk, S A; Denyak, V V; Schelin, H R; Soreanu Pecequilo, B R; Kappke, J

    2012-07-01

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60×60×60 cm3 were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Raeq), and external hazard index (Hext) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Levels of physical activity among colombian university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Puello, Floralinda; Herazo Beltrán, Yaneth; Tuesca Molina, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for chronic diseases in Western societies. To determine the sociodemographic and motivational factors associated with physical activity in college students. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) -short form- and the "motives for physical activities measure-revised" (MPAM-R) questionnaire were applied to 900 university students aged 20 ± 3 years (60% women). The frequency, level and motivations for engaging in physical activity and associated demographic factors were analyzed. Twenty two percent of students were classified as having a high level of physical activity, 54.8% had a low level and 13.9% were considered inactive. According to MET consumption, 68.9% of students are inactive and only 16.8% of students classified as very active. Ninety two percent of active students performed physical activity for health reasons. A significant association between gender and social motivation was observed. A high prevalence of physical inactivity was found in these students. Males showed higher levels of physical activity than females.

  2. Food choices, physical activity levels and other factors associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate educators' health behaviours regarding dietary intake and physical activity (PA). A survey was undertaken in 517 educators at 83 primary schools in the Western Cape. Food choices (healthy vs. unhealthy), PA levels, and health knowledge were measured by questionnaire. The six most ...

  3. Measuring healthcare productivity - from unit to system level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämäräinen, Vesa Johannes; Peltokorpi, Antti; Torkki, Paulus; Tallbacka, Kaj

    2016-04-18

    Purpose - Healthcare productivity is a growing issue in most Western countries where healthcare expenditure is rapidly increasing. Therefore, accurate productivity metrics are essential to avoid sub-optimization within a healthcare system. The purpose of this paper is to focus on healthcare production system productivity measurement. Design/methodology/approach - Traditionally, healthcare productivity has been studied and measured independently at the unit, organization and system level. Suggesting that productivity measurement should be done in different levels, while simultaneously linking productivity measurement to incentives, this study presents the challenges of productivity measurement at the different levels. The study introduces different methods to measure productivity in healthcare. In addition, it provides background information on the methods used to measure productivity and the parameters used in these methods. A pilot investigation of productivity measurement is used to illustrate the challenges of measurement, to test the developed measures and to prove the practical information for managers. Findings - The study introduces different approaches and methods to measure productivity in healthcare. Practical implications - A pilot investigation of productivity measurement is used to illustrate the challenges of measurement, to test the developed measures and to prove the practical benefits for managers. Originality/value - The authors focus on the measurement of the whole healthcare production system and try to avoid sub-optimization. Additionally considering an individual patient approach, productivity measurement is examined at the unit level, the organizational level and the system level.

  4. Active Crohn's disease is associated with low vitamin D levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren Peter; Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Agnholt, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Crohn's disease prevalence increases with increasing latitude. Because most vitamin D comes from sunlight exposure and murine models of intestinal inflammation have demonstrated beneficial effects of 1,25-(OH)(2) vitamin D treatment, we hypothesised that Crohn's disease...... activity is associated with low vitamin D levels. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 182 CD patients and 62 healthy controls, we measured serum 25-OH vitamin D. Stratified analysis was used to compare 25-OH vitamin D levels with Crohn's disease activity index, C-reactive protein, smoking status, intake...... of oral vitamin D supplements and seasonal variation in CD patients and healthy controls. RESULTS: Serum 25-OH vitamin D was inversely associated with disease activity: Median 25-OH vitamin D levels of Crohn's disease in remission, mildly, and moderately active diseases evaluated by Crohn's disease...

  5. Device to measure level in a steam drum of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradov, Yu.A.

    1988-01-01

    Gravitation-hydrostatic device for measuring coolant level in a steam drum of NPP is described. The device enables to improve the accuracy and sensitivity of measuring coolant level above and below the submerged perforated sheet of the steam drum and decrease the amount of levelling vessels in the unit by 50%. 1 fig

  6. Physical activity level among children recovering from severe acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babirekere-Iriso, Esther; Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Namusoke, Hanifa

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the level and predictors of physical activity at discharge among children recovering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM). METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among 69 children 6 - 59 months of age admitted with SAM for nutritional rehabilitation at Mulago National...... both negative predictors. CONCLUSION: The level of physical activity at discharge among children treated for SAM was low. WHZ, MUAC and DHA on admission were positive predictors of physical activity whereas duration of stabilization and hospitalization were negative predictors of physical activity...... Referral Hospital, Uganda. Using hip-mounted tri-axial accelerometers, we measured physical activity expressed as counts per minute (cpm) during the last three days of hospital treatment. As potential predictors, we assessed clinical and background characteristics, duration to transition phase and duration...

  7. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  8. Youth physical activity resource use and activity measured by accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether use of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily (1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and (2) vigorous physical activity. Using a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources.

  9. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    OpenAIRE

    Ohkawara, Kazunori; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Park, Jong Hoon; Tabata, Izumi; Tanaka, Shigeho

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL). The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in ...

  10. Photocatalytic Active Radiation Measurements and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Underwood, Lauren W.

    2011-01-01

    Photocatalytic materials are being used to purify air, to kill microbes, and to keep surfaces clean. A wide variety of materials are being developed, many of which have different abilities to absorb various wavelengths of light. Material variability, combined with both spectral illumination intensity and spectral distribution variability, will produce a wide range of performance results. The proposed technology estimates photocatalytic active radiation (PcAR), a unit of radiation that normalizes the amount of light based on its spectral distribution and on the ability of the material to absorb that radiation. Photocatalytic reactions depend upon the number of electron-hole pairs generated at the photocatalytic surface. The number of electron-hole pairs produced depends on the number of photons per unit area per second striking the surface that can be absorbed and whose energy exceeds the bandgap of the photocatalytic material. A convenient parameter to describe the number of useful photons is the number of moles of photons striking the surface per unit area per second. The unit of micro-einsteins (or micromoles) of photons per m2 per sec is commonly used for photochemical and photoelectric-like phenomena. This type of parameter is used in photochemistry, such as in the conversion of light energy for photosynthesis. Photosynthetic response correlates with the number of photons rather than by energy because, in this photochemical process, each molecule is activated by the absorption of one photon. In photosynthesis, the number of photons absorbed in the 400 700 nm spectral range is estimated and is referred to as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). PAR is defined in terms of the photosynthetic photon flux density measured in micro-einsteins of photons per m2 per sec. PcAR is an equivalent, similarly modeled parameter that has been defined for the photocatalytic processes. Two methods to measure the PcAR level are being proposed. In the first method, a calibrated

  11. Nurses' occupational physical activity levels: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappel, Stephanie E; Verswijveren, Simone J J M; Aisbett, Brad; Considine, Julie; Ridgers, Nicola D

    2017-08-01

    Nurses' physical performance at work has implications both for nurses' occupational health and patient care. Although nurses are the largest healthcare workforce, are present 24-hours a day, and engage in many physically demanding tasks, nurses' occupational physical activity levels are poorly understood. The aim of this systematic review was to examine nurses' occupational physical activity levels, and explore how nurses accumulate their physical activity during a shift. This narrative systematic review was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) Statement. EBSCOHost (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Age Line, Academic Search Complete, Global Health, Health Business Centre, Health Policy Reference Centre, Health Source (Consumer and Nursing/Academic Edition) and SPORTDiscus), Embase, Informit, ProQuest Health and Medical, Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. A systematic search of seven databases were completed to locate peer-reviewed journal articles documenting nurses' occupational physical activity levels from January 1990. Papers were included if they were original research papers; measured physical activity objectively and/or subjectively; reported nurses' occupational physical activity; and were published in English. Articles were excluded if nurses' data were not reported separately from other professional groups. Two researchers independently screened the articles, extracted data, and undertook the methodological quality assessments. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Nursing work predominantly comprised of light-intensity physical activity. In nine studies how nurses' accumulated occupational physical activity were documented and showed that the majority of a nurses' shift was spent standing or walking whilst completing direct patient care tasks. However, the definition of the nursing populations studied were often poorly reported, and few researchers reported the validity and the reliability of

  12. Monitoring interseismic activity on the Ilan Plain (NE Taiwan) using Small Baseline PS-InSAR, GPS and leveling measurements: partitioning from arc-continent collision and backarc extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhe; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Wang, Erchie; Li, Yongsheng; Yang, Yinghui; Wang, Pei-Ling

    2018-01-01

    The Ilan Plain, located in Northeast Taiwan, represents a transition zone between oblique collision (between the Luzon Arc and the Eurasian Plate) and backarc extension (the Okinawa Trough). The mechanism for this abrupt transition from arc-continent collision to backarc extension remains uncertain. We used Global Positioning System (GPS), leveling and multi-interferogram Small Baseline Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (SBAS-PSI) data to monitor the interseismic activity in the basin. A common reference site was selected for the data sets. The horizontal component of GPS and the vertical measurements of the leveling data were converted to line-of-sight (LOS) data and compared with the SBAS-PSI data. The comparison shows that the entire Ilan Plain is undergoing rapid subsidence at a maximum rate of -11 ± 2 mm yr-1 in the LOS direction. We speculate that vertical deformation and anthropogenic activity may play important roles in this deformation. We also performed a joint inversion modeling that combined both the DInSAR and strong motion data to constrain the source model of the 2005 Ilan earthquake. The best-fitting model predicts that the Sansing fault caused the 2005 Ilan earthquake. The observed transtensional deformation is dominated by the normal faulting with a minor left-lateral strike-slip motion. We compared our SBAS-PSI results with the short-term (2005-2009) groundwater level changes. The results indicate that although pumping-induced surface subsidence cannot be excluded, tectonic deformation, including rapid southward movement of the Ryukyu arc and backarc extension of the Okinawa Trough, characterizes the opening of the Ilan Plain. Furthermore, a series of normal and left-lateral strike-slip transtensional faults, including the Choshui and Sansing faults, form a bookshelf-like structure that accommodates the extension of the plain. Although situated in a region of complex structural interactions, the Ilan Plain is primarily controlled by extension

  13. Azimuth selection for sea level measurements using geodetic GPS receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Shuangcheng

    2018-03-01

    Based on analysis of Global Positioning System (GPS) multipath signals recorded by a geodetic GPS receiver, GPS Reflectometry (GPS-R) has demonstrated unique advantages in relation to sea level monitoring. Founded on multipath reflectometry theory, sea level changes can be measured by GPS-R through spectral analysis of recorded signal-to-noise ratio data. However, prior to estimating multipath parameters, it is necessary to define azimuth and elevation angle mask to ensure the reflecting zones are on water. Here, a method is presented to address azimuth selection, a topic currently under active development in the field of GPS-R. Data from three test sites: the Kachemak Bay GPS site PBAY in Alaska (USA), Friday Harbor GPS site SC02 in the San Juan Islands (USA), and Brest Harbor GPS site BRST in Brest (France) are analyzed. These sites are located in different multipath environments, from a rural coastal area to a busy harbor, and they experience different tidal ranges. Estimates by the GPS tide gauges at azimuths selected by the presented method are compared with measurements from physical tide gauges and acceptable correspondence found for all three sites.

  14. The measurement of carbon dioxide levels in a city canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jenny; Budinov, Daniel; Robinson, Iain; Jack, James

    2016-10-01

    Cities today have two major environmental concerns - carbon emissions and air quality. Global carbon levels are increasing and cities require to show plans to tackle and reduce the amount of carbon which they are emitting. At present carbon emissions in urban areas are calculated rather than measured. In some cities where industrial activity is not carbon intensive, the major contributors are the burning of fuel for heating and the emissions from vehicles. Air quality levels have a direct impact on human health and cities are under increased pressure to demonstrate plans to control and reduce levels of air pollution. Of great importance is the way in which emissions, both carbon rich emissions and pollutants, disperse in a city environment. Little work has been reported on the movement of CO2 in the urban environment and the effect the structure of the environment exerts on the movement and dispersion. This paper describes an investigation into the dispersion of CO2 within an urban environment in the Old Town of the City of Edinburgh, using a hand carried low cost portable CO2 sensor.

  15. Measuring the osmotic pressure of active colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael; Soni, Vishal; Magkiriadou, Sofia; Ferrari, Melissa; Youssef, Mina; Driscoll, Michelle; Sacanna, Stefano; Chaikin, Paul; Irvine, William

    We study the behavior of a system of colloidal spinners, consisting of weakly magnetic colloids driven by a rotating magnetic field. First the particles are allowed to sediment to an equilibrium density profile in a gravitational field, from which we measure the equilibrium equation of state. By spinning the particles at various frequencies, we introduce activity into the system through the hydrodynamic interactions between particles. We observe that the activity expands the sedimentation profile to a new steady state, from which we measure the pressure as a function of the density and activity. We compare the effects of activity on the pressure and mean-squared displacement of spinners and tracer particles.

  16. Ultra Low Level Environmental Neutron Measurements Using Superheated Droplet Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, A.C. [Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa. Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649- 003 Lisboa (Portugal); Felizardo, M.; Girard, T.A.; Kling, A.; Ramos, A.R. [Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa. Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649- 003 Lisboa (Portugal); Marques, J.G.; Prudencio, M.I.; Marques, R.; Carvalho, F.P. [Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2015-07-01

    Through the application of superheated droplet detectors (SDDs), the SIMPLE project for the direct search for dark matter (DM) reached the most restrictive limits on the spin-dependent sector to date. The experiment is based on the detection of recoils following WIMP-nuclei interaction, mimicking those from neutron scattering. The thermodynamic operation conditions yield the SDDs intrinsically insensitive to radiations with linear energy transfer below ∼150 keVμm{sup -1} such as photons, electrons, muons and neutrons with energies below ∼40 keV. Underground facilities are increasingly employed for measurements in a low-level radiation background (DM search, gamma-spectroscopy, intrinsic soft-error rate measurements, etc.), where the rock overburden shields against cosmic radiation. In this environment the SDDs are sensitive only to α-particles and neutrons naturally emitted from the surrounding materials. Recently developed signal analysis techniques allow discrimination between neutron and α-induced signals. SDDs are therefore a promising instrument for low-level neutron and α measurements, namely environmental neutron measurements and α-contamination assays. In this work neutron measurements performed in the challenging conditions of the latest SIMPLE experiment (1500 mwe depth with 50-75 cm water shield) are reported. The results are compared with those obtained by detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the neutron background induced by {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th traces in the facility, shielding and detector materials. Calculations of the neutron energy distribution yield the following neutron fluence rates (in 10{sup -8} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}): thermal (<0.5 eV): 2.5; epithermal (0.5 eV-100 keV): 2.2; fast (>1 MeV): 3.9. Signal rates were derived using standard cross sections and codes routinely employed in reactor dosimetry. The measured and calculated neutron count rates per unit of active mass were 0.15 ct/kgd and 0.33 ct/kg-d respectively. As the major

  17. Measurement of neutron activation in concrete samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, T.; Ravnik, M.

    2000-01-01

    The results of activation studies of ordinary and barytes concrete samples relevant for research reactor decommissioning are given. Five important long-lived radioactive isotopes ( 54 Mn, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 133 Ba, and 152 Eu) were identified from the gamma-ray spectra measured in the irradiated concrete samples. Activation of these samples was also calculated using ORIGEN2 code. Comparison of calculated and measured results is given. (author)

  18. Application of neutron backscatter techniques to level measurement problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonardi-Cattolica, A.M.; McMillan, D.H.; Telfer, A.; Griffin, L.H.; Hunt, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    We have designed and built portable level detectors and fixed level monitors based on neutron scattering and detection principles. The main components of these devices, which we call neutron backscatter gauges, are a neutron emitting radioisotope, a neutron detector, and a ratemeter. The gauge is a good detector for hydrogen but is much less sensitive to most other materials. This allows level measurements of hydrogen bearing materials, such as hydrocarbons, to be made through the walls of metal vessels. Measurements can be made conveniently through steel walls which are a few inches thick. We have used neutron backscatter gauges in a wide variety of level measurement applications encountered in the petrochemical industry. In a number of cases, the neutron techniques have proven to be superior to conventional level measurement methods, including gamma ray methods

  19. Measurement of plasma 11-deoxycorticosterone levels by radioimmunoassay in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuchi, Soitsu; Nakajima, Katsuo; Takenouchi, Takahiko; Nishisato, Koji

    1974-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay procedure has been developed to measure 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) in human peripheral plasma. DOC-oxime was coupled with porcine gamma globulin and antibodies produced in rabbits. One to 3 ml of plasma, with 1, 2 3 H-DOC added for recovery, was extracted with dichloromethane and purification achieved by a silica gel column and by one paper chromatograph. After overnight incubation of the antibody-steroid mixture at 4 0 C, bound and free fractions were separated using ammonium sulfate. The mean recovery of 3 H-DOC, after extraction and chromatography, was 84.6 +- 7.4%. The method showed adequate specificity, precision and accuracy. Normal plasma DOC levels were found to be 4.4 +- 2.5 ng/100 ml (n=8). Plasma DOC levels were almost normal (0.3 - 26.8 ng/100 ml) in fifteen patients with benign essential hypertension. The mean level of 8.1 +- 8.2 ng/100 ml obtained in hypertensive patients with suppressed plasma renin activity, was not significantly different from normal. Plasma DOC showed a high level, 3.0 - 30.5 (11.4 +- 7.5) ng/100 ml, in 9 patients with primary aldosteronism. Four out of 8 patients with Cushing's syndrome were found to have elevated plasma DOC levels. Higher levels of 21.2 +- 15.8 ng/100 ml were found in 5 patients with adrenal hyperplasia than those of 12.3 +- 8.0 ng/100 ml in 3 with adrenal adenoma. Plasma DOC levels were high, 113 - 176 ng/100 ml, in 2 patients with 17α-hydroxylase deficiency. ACTH administered to 5 subjects produced a mean increase in plasma DOC from 4.8 to 25.8 ng/100 ml. Angiotensin II infused at a rate of 10 ng/kg/min for 30 min into 4 subjects did not increase mean plasma DOC. Similarly, dietary sodium restriction or postural change did not increase plasma DOC. (auth.)

  20. Measurement of larval activity in the Drosophila activity monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, Aidan L; Follansbee, Taylor L; Ganter, Geoffrey K

    2015-04-30

    Drosophila larvae are used in many behavioral studies, yet a simple device for measuring basic parameters of larval activity has not been available. This protocol repurposes an instrument often used to measure adult activity, the TriKinetics Drosophila activity monitor (MB5 Multi-Beam Activity Monitor) to study larval activity. The instrument can monitor the movements of animals in 16 individual 8 cm glass assay tubes, using 17 infrared detection beams per tube. Logging software automatically saves data to a computer, recording parameters such as number of moves, times sensors were triggered, and animals' positions within the tubes. The data can then be analyzed to represent overall locomotion and/or position preference as well as other measurements. All data are easily accessible and compatible with basic graphing and data manipulation software. This protocol will discuss how to use the apparatus, how to operate the software and how to run a larval activity assay from start to finish.

  1. Evaluation of a method to measure long term cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenschijn, Laura; Koper, Jan W; Lamberts, Steven W J; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of cortisol are known to induce various symptoms and diseases, e.g. abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. Measuring serum, saliva and urine cortisol is limited to one time point. Measurement of cortisol in scalp hair is a recently developed method to measure long term cortisol levels. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hair cortisol is a feasible parameter to measure cortisol exposure. We collected hair samples of 195 healthy individuals, 9 hypercortisolemic and one hypocortisolemic patient and measured hair cortisol levels. Cortisol was extracted from scalp hair using methanol and cortisol levels were measured using a salivary ELISA kit. Measurement of waist and hip circumferences and blood pressure was performed in 46 healthy subjects. We found a positive correlation between hair cortisol and both waist circumference (r=0.392, p=0.007) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (r=0.425, p=0.003). No correlations were found between hair cortisol levels and BMI, blood pressure or age. There was no decline in cortisol levels in six consecutive hair segments. Hair cortisol levels were elevated in patients with known hypercortisolism (pcortisol was positively correlated with WHR, suggesting that hair cortisol reflects cortisol exposure at tissue level, which was also supported by elevated hair cortisol levels in hypercortisolemic patients and concordance between hair cortisol levels and clinical disease course. Cortisol levels in hair are slightly influenced by hair treatment but not by natural hair colour, use of hair products, gender or age. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Outdoor spectrometric measurement of gamma source activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cespirova, I.

    2003-01-01

    Two methods for outdoor activity measurements are described. The one is the in situ measurement method which is based on a proportionality between the flux density of non-dispersed photons of the given energy at the detector site and the specific activity of the relevant radionuclide in soil. The other method, for the monitoring of large areas, uses the spectrometric IRIS system (Integrated Radiation Information System), located on a helicopter for aerial monitoring or in a car for terrestrial measurement. (P.A.)

  3. Automatic Measurement of Low Level Contamination on Concrete Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, M.; Itoh, H.; Shimada, T.; Yanagihara, S.

    2002-01-01

    Automatic measurement of radioactivity is necessary for considering cost effectiveness in final radiological survey of building structures in decommissioning nuclear facilities. The RAPID (radiation measuring pilot device for surface contamination) was developed to be applied to automatic measurement of low level contamination on concrete surfaces. The RAPID has a capability to measure contamination with detection limit of 0.14 Bq/cm2 for 60Co in 30 seconds of measurement time and its efficiency is evaluated to be 5 m2/h in a normal measurement option. It was confirmed that low level contamination on concrete surfaces could be surveyed by the RAPID efficiently compared with direct measurement by workers through its actual application

  4. Measurement of Heme Synthesis Levels in Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooda, Jagmohan; Alam, Maksudul; Zhang, Li

    2015-07-09

    Heme serves as the prosthetic group for a wide variety of proteins known as hemoproteins, such as hemoglobin, myoglobin and cytochromes. It is involved in various molecular and cellular processes such as gene transcription, translation, cell differentiation and cell proliferation. The biosynthesis levels of heme vary across different tissues and cell types and is altered in diseased conditions such as anemia, neuropathy and cancer. This technique uses [4-(14)C] 5-aminolevulinic acid ([(14)C] 5-ALA), one of the early precursors in the heme biosynthesis pathway to measure the levels of heme synthesis in mammalian cells. This assay involves incubation of cells with [(14)C] 5-ALA followed by extraction of heme and measurement of the radioactivity incorporated into heme. This procedure is accurate and quick. This method measures the relative levels of heme biosynthesis rather than the total heme content. To demonstrate the use of this technique the levels of heme biosynthesis were measured in several mammalian cell lines.

  5. Instructions for 104-SX liquid level measurement field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides detailed instructions for field testing a suggested solution of inserting a liner inside the 104-SX failed Liquid Observation Well to gain access for making temporary Liquid Level Measurement until a permanent solution has been provided

  6. Measurement of Acceptable Noise Level with Background Music

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Hyun-Jung; Bahng, Junghwa; Lee, Jae Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Acceptable noise level (ANL) is a measure of the maximum background noise level (BNL) that a person is willing to tolerate while following a target story. Although researchers have used various sources of target sound in ANL measures, a limited type of background noise has been used. Extending the previous study of Gordon-Hickey & Moore (2007), the current study determined the effect of music genre and tempo on ANLs as possible factors affecting ANLs. We also investi...

  7. Lifetime measurement of the 8s level in francium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, E.; Sprouse, G.D.; Orozco, L.A.; Galvan, A. Perez

    2005-01-01

    We measure the lifetime of the 8s level of 210 Fr atoms on a magneto-optically trapped sample with time-correlated single-photon counting. The 7P 1/2 state serves as the resonant intermediate level for two-step excitation of the 8s level completed with a 1.3-μm laser. Analysis of the fluorescence decay through the 7P 3/2 level gives 53.30±0.44 ns for the 8s level lifetime

  8. pedometer-measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The association between self-perceived and actual physical activity, with particular reference to physical activity guidelines, ... were 6 574 (3 541). Of a total of 312 participants' self-reported data, those meeting guidelines (n=63) ... of the limitations of recall-and-response bias evident in indirect measures.

  9. Mathematical model of radon activity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Zambianchi, Pedro, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Present work describes a mathematical model that quantifies the time dependent amount of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn altogether and their activities within an ionization chamber as, for example, AlphaGUARD, which is used to measure activity concentration of Rn in soil gas. The differential equations take into account tree main processes, namely: the injection of Rn into the cavity of detector by the air pump including the effect of the traveling time Rn takes to reach the chamber; Rn release by the air exiting the chamber; and radioactive decay of Rn within the chamber. Developed code quantifies the activity of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn isotopes separately. Following the standard methodology to measure Rn activity in soil gas, the air pump usually is turned off over a period of time in order to avoid the influx of Rn into the chamber. Since {sup 220}Rn has a short half-life time, approximately 56s, the model shows that after 7 minutes the activity concentration of this isotope is null. Consequently, the measured activity refers to {sup 222}Rn, only. Furthermore, the model also addresses the activity of {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn progeny, which being metals represent potential risk of ionization chamber contamination that could increase the background of further measurements. Some preliminary comparison of experimental data and theoretical calculations is presented. Obtained transient and steady-state solutions could be used for planning of Rn in soil gas measurements as well as for accuracy assessment of obtained results together with efficiency evaluation of chosen measurements procedure. (author)

  10. Noise levels near streets, effectiveness and cost abatement measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J.

    1980-01-01

    During the years 1975-1978, research was carried concerning the current noise levels near streets, the annoyance felt by the population, possible noise abatement measures for these streets, and the economic impact of such measures. The results of the research are summarized.

  11. Measurement of Background Gamma Radiation Levels at Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An in-situ measurement of the background radiation level was carried out at the vicinity of three campuses of two major tertiary institutions in Minna. A portable Geiger-Mueller tube-based environmental radiation dosimeter was used for the measurement. A total of 34 point was surveyed across the three institutions for ...

  12. Measurement of environmental radiation levels and contour map ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement of environmental radiation levels and contour map development for the northern zone of Adamawa state, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Physics ... Mubi North, Mubi South, Michika and Madagali, all in the northern zone of Adamawa State, Nigeria was measured using a Radiation Alert Monitor 4 solid state ...

  13. Measuring Structural Gender Equality in Mexico: A State Level Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Sonia M.

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to assess the level of gender equality across the 32 Mexican states. After reviewing conceptual and methodological issues related to previous measures of structural inequality I detail the logic and methodology involved in the construction of a composite and multidimensional measure of gender equality, at the…

  14. Recent advances in measurements of the nuclear level density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Bency

    2007-01-01

    A short review of recent advances in measurements of the nuclear level density is given. First results of the inverse level density parameter - angular momentum correlation in a number of nuclei around Z∼50 shell region at an excitation energy around 0.3 MeV/nucleon are presented. Significant variations observed over and above the expected shell corrections are discussed in context of the emerging trends in microscopic calculations of the nuclear level density. (author)

  15. Commissioning of the XENON1T liquid level measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geis, Christopher [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Two-phase xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) have been operated very successfully in direct detection experiments for dark matter. This kind of detector uses liquid xenon as the sensitive target and is operated in two-phase (liquid/gas) mode, where the liquid level needs to be monitored and controlled with sub-millimeter precision. We present the installation, commissioning and first measurement data of two kinds of level meters operated in the XENON1T TPC: short level meters are three-plated capacitors measuring the level of the liquid-gas interface with a measurement range h∼5 mm and a resolution of ΔC/h∼1 pF/mm. The long level meters are cylindrical double-walled capacitors, measuring the overall filling level of the XENON1T TPC at a measurement range of h=1.4 m and a resolution of ΔC/h∼0.1 pF/mm. Further, we present the design and programming of the readout electronic based on the UTI chip by Smartec, which allows to read all six levelmeters simultaneously.

  16. Physical Activity Level Among Undergraduate Students In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-15

    Jan 15, 2018 ... percentage (%) was measured using Hand Held Omron body fat analyzer. 2.2. Step Measurement using Pedometer. Each subject was supplied with a pedometer (Omron, Walking style One 2.1 HJ-321-E) and instructed to wear the pedometer for one week from the time subjects woke up in the morning.

  17. Level validity of self-report whole-family measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manders, Willeke A; Cook, William L; Oud, Johan H L; Scholte, Ron H J; Janssens, Jan M A M; De Bruyn, Eric E J

    2007-12-01

    This article introduces an approach to testing the level validity of family assessment instruments (i.e., whether a family instrument measures family functioning at the level of the system it purports to assess). Two parents and 2 adolescents in 69 families rated the warmth in each of their family relationships and in the family as a whole. Family members' ratings of whole-family warmth assessed family functioning not only at the family level (i.e., characteristics of the family as a whole) but also at the individual level of analysis (i.e., characteristics of family members as raters), indicating a lack of level validity. Evidence was provided for the level validity of a latent variable based on family members' ratings of whole-family warmth. The findings underscore the importance of assessing the level validity of individual ratings of whole-family functioning.

  18. Associations between personality traits, physical activity level, and muscle strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolea, Magdalena I.; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway. PMID:23966753

  19. Determinants Affecting Physical Activity Levels In Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Janet C. L.; Wade, Charles E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play all underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multi-factorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to tile ventral medial hypothalamus and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  20. Measuring physical activity and sedentary behaviour at work: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Retamal, Marcelo; Hinckson, Erica A

    2011-01-01

    To identify methods used to assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour at the workplace and review the validity and reliability of these measures. Databases were searched for relevant published articles including MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, ProQuest and Google Scholar. Keywords used were physical-activity, workplace, sedentary-behaviour, measurement and questionnaire. Studies included were original, written in English, published between 1990 and 2009, and focused on validated physical activity and sedentary behaviour measures at work. Eleven papers were identified in which three used criterion standards, three objective measures, and five subjective measures. The most common method of data collection was through self-report, surveys or questionnaires. Physical activity measured with motion sensors, ranged from 4,422 to 10,334 steps/day (pedometers) and sedentary time ranged from 1.8 to 6 hours/day (h/d) (accelerometers). Self-report measures provided information relevant to the perception of physical activity at work (∼ 0.5 h/d), sitting time (> 3 h/d) and calculated energy expenditure (< 800 kcal/d). Physical activity levels at work were low while sedentary behaviour was high. This was largely a function of occupation (white-collar vs. blue-collar). None of the studies assessed validity or reliability of measures used however, instruments as assessed by others showed moderate to strong validity and reliability values.

  1. Monthly variations of the Caspian sea level and solar activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, P. R.; Pasechnik, M. N.

    The connection between 11-year cycle of solar activity and the Caspian sea level is investigated. Seasonal changes of the Caspian sea level and annual variations of the sea level with variations of solar activity are studied. The results of the verifications of the sea level forecasts obtained with application of the rules discovered by the authors are given.

  2. Quantifying levels of animal activity using camera trap data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rowcliffe, J.M.; Kays, R.; Kranstauber, B.; Carbone, C.; Jansen, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    1.Activity level (the proportion of time that animals spend active) is a behavioural and ecological metric that can provide an indicator of energetics, foraging effort and exposure to risk. However, activity level is poorly known for free-living animals because it is difficult to quantify activity

  3. Importance of measuring lactate levels in children with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Nisha

    2017-10-10

    Sepsis is a major public health problem as well as one of the leading causes of preventable death in children because of failure to recognise the early signs and symptoms and to resuscitate rapidly. Blood lactate levels are used to assess the severity of sepsis and the effectiveness of resuscitation. Lactate levels are easily obtainable and should be checked in all patients admitted with suspected sepsis within six hours of presentation. The test should be repeated four and eight-hours post-diagnosis of sepsis. For the diagnosis of sepsis, patients' clinical symptoms, along with the combined analysis of partial pressure of oxygen, carbon dioxide and lactate levels, should be used. A multitude of factors can cause elevated lactate levels and so clinicians should use elevated levels cautiously by considering all other aetiologies. This article, which focuses on practice in Australia but makes reference to the UK, discusses the importance of measuring lactate levels in sepsis, the pathophysiology of lactate production, causes of elevated lactate levels, lactate measurement, nursing management of patients with elevated lactate levels, limitations of using lactate as a biomarker for diagnosing sepsis and implications for practice. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  4. THE LEVEL OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION - MEASURE OF SOCIAL EFFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN MARIANA CLAUDIA

    2014-01-01

    Pricing models for social efficiency focuses on assessing the quality, namely the comparison of the desired product to the consumer and the product received, the level of consumer satisfaction on the products and / or services will be therefore a very important component in measuring the effectiveness social. Between the two concepts there is a relationship of mutual interdependence: the level of consumer satisfaction is the result of the quality performance of products and se...

  5. Global change and the measurement of absolute sea-level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamante, John M.; Pyle, Thomas E.; Carter, William E.; Scherer, Wolfgang

    To quantify properly the long-term response of sea-level to climate change, land motions must be separated from the apparent or relative sea-level change recorded by conventional tide/sea-level gauges. Here we present a concept for global measurement of the true or “absolute” sea-level change, which combines recent advances in space-based geodetic techniques with plans for a global sea-level network under the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). Data from initial feasibility tests show that land motion, due to global (plate tectonic), regional (glacial rebound), or local (fluid withdrawal) effects, can probably be measured to ±1cm (on a single measurement basis) by an innovative combination of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Global Positioning System (GPS) tevhniques. By making repeated observations of position at a number of tide gauges using portable, economical GPS receivers in a differential mode relative to the fewer, more stable, but more expensive VLBI observatories, it will be possible to subtract land motion from the relative sea-level signal. Decadal to century scale trends at the 1-2mm y -1 level will be resolvable in the sea-level and vertical land motion time series within about a decade. Detection of subsidence or uplift at specific gauges will allow correction for land motion or deletion of bad data when computing regional or global, i.e. eustatic, sea-level changes. In addition to their applications in oceanography and climate studies, such data will test models by Peltier and other that relate mantle viscosity and deglaciation history to present rates of crustal subsidence or uplift. If the predicted crustal motions are confirmed, we can also have more confidence in the use of historical tide/sea-level gauge records in retrospective studies of sea-level change related to climate variability on decadal or longer time scales. It is concluded that as few as one-third (about 100) of the total number of tide/sea-level gauges (250

  6. Active caspase-3 expression levels as bioindicator of individual radiosensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEYLIANE F.G. DOS SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Several molecules and events involved in cell response to radiation-induced damage have been investigated towards a personalized radiotherapy. Considering the importance of active caspase-3 in the proteolytic cascade that ensures radiation-induced apoptosis execution, this research was designed to evaluate the expression levels of this protein as a bioindicator of individual radiosensitivity. Peripheral blood samples of 10 healthy individuals were gamma-irradiated (cobalt-60 source with 1, 2 and 4 Gy (control: non-irradiated samples, and active caspase-3 expression levels were measured in lymphocytes, by flow cytometry, ex vivo and after different times of in vitro incubation (24, 48 and 72 hours. Short-term incubation of 24 h was the most adequate condition to evidence correlations between dose radiation and active caspase-3 expression. For each radiation dose, it was observed a significant inter-individual variation in active caspase-3 expression intensity, suggesting that this parameter may be suitable for evidence individual radiosensitivity. The methodology presented and discussed in this work may help to predict healthy tissues response to radiation exposure toward the better patient outcome.

  7. Low level air radioactivity measurements in Prague, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rulík, P.; Malá, H.; Bečková, V.; Hölgye, Z.; Schlesingerová, E.; Světlík, Ivo; Škrkal, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 67, - (2009), s. 969-973 ISSN 0969-8043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : atmospheric radionuclides * monitoring * low level activities Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.094, year: 2009

  8. Measuring micronutrient intakes at different levels of sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring micronutrient intakes at different levels of sugar consumption in a population in transition: the Transition and Health during Urbanisation in South Africa (THUSA) study. ... Objective: The objective was to investigate the absolute micronutrient intake and the possibility of micronutrient dilution of added sugar in the

  9. Precision lifetime measurements of Ar II 4p doublet levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marger, D.; Schmoranzer, H.

    1990-01-01

    The lifetimes of the Ar II 4p doublet fine-structure levels 4p 2 D 0 5/2 , 4p' 2 F 0 5/2 and 4p' 2 F 0 7/2 were measured by beam-dye laser spectroscopy. The experimental uncertainty was reduced to below 1%. (orig.)

  10. Measuring Resistance to Change at the Within-Session Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonneau, Francois; Rios, Americo; Cabrera, Felipe

    2006-01-01

    Resistance to change is often studied by measuring response rate in various components of a multiple schedule. Response rate in each component is normalized (that is, divided by its baseline level) and then log-transformed. Differential resistance to change is demonstrated if the normalized, log-transformed response rate in one component decreases…

  11. Measurement of Background Gamma Radiation Levels at Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    *Dept. of Physics, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger state, Nigeria. **Dept. of Science Lab. Tech. ... ABSTRACT: An in-situ measurement of the background radiation level was carried out at the vicinity of three campuses of two major ... body is permanently irradiated from two ionizing radiation sources: External ...

  12. Micro-Gal level gravity measurements with cold atom interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Min-Kang; Duan Xiao-Chun; Chen Le-Le; Luo Qin; Xu Yao-Yao; Hu Zhong-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Developments of the micro-Gal level gravimeter based on atom interferometry are reviewed, and the recent progress and results of our group are also presented. Atom interferometric gravimeters have shown high resolution and accuracy for gravity measurements. This kind of quantum sensor has excited world-wide interest for both practical applications and fundamental research. (topical review)

  13. Peptide Level Turnover Measurements Enable the Study of Proteoform Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecha, Jana; Meng, Chen; Zolg, Daniel Paul; Samaras, Patroklos; Wilhelm, Mathias; Kuster, Bernhard

    2018-05-01

    The coordination of protein synthesis and degradation regulating protein abundance is a fundamental process in cellular homeostasis. Today, mass spectrometry-based technologies allow determination of endogenous protein turnover on a proteome-wide scale. However, standard dynamic SILAC (Stable Isotope Labeling in Cell Culture) approaches can suffer from missing data across pulse time-points limiting the accuracy of such analysis. This issue is of particular relevance when studying protein stability at the level of proteoforms because often only single peptides distinguish between different protein products of the same gene. To address this shortcoming, we evaluated the merits of combining dynamic SILAC and tandem mass tag (TMT)-labeling of ten pulse time-points in a single experiment. Although the comparison to the standard dynamic SILAC method showed a high concordance of protein turnover rates, the pulsed SILAC-TMT approach yielded more comprehensive data (6000 proteins on average) without missing values. Replicate analysis further established that the same reproducibility of turnover rate determination can be obtained for peptides and proteins facilitating proteoform resolved investigation of protein stability. We provide several examples of differentially turned over splice variants and show that post-translational modifications can affect cellular protein half-lives. For example, N-terminally processed peptides exhibited both faster and slower turnover behavior compared with other peptides of the same protein. In addition, the suspected proteolytic processing of the fusion protein FAU was substantiated by measuring vastly different stabilities of the cleavage products. Furthermore, differential peptide turnover suggested a previously unknown mechanism of activity regulation by post-translational destabilization of cathepsin D as well as the DNA helicase BLM. Finally, our comprehensive data set facilitated a detailed evaluation of the impact of protein

  14. Plastic optical fiber level measurement sensor based on side holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young June; Shin, Jong-Dug; Park, Jaehee

    2014-10-01

    Plastic optical fiber level measurement sensor based on in-line side holes is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The sensor consists of a plastic optical fiber with in-line side holes spaced about 5 cm apart. The 0.9 diameter in-line side holes were fabricated by micro-drilling. An analytical expression of the sensor transmittance was obtained using a simple ray optics approach. The measurements of the sensor transmittance were performed with a 55 cm height Mass cylinder. Both results show that the sensor transmittance increases as the number of side holes filled with water increases. The research results indicate that the plastic optical fiber based on in-line side holes can be used for water level measurement.

  15. Measuring Cognitive Translation Effort with Activity Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael; Lacruz, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    and complementarities of both partners. This paper traces cognitive approaches in machine translation back to the mid-1980s and argues that we now have the technologies available that will allow us to eventually arrive at an in-depth understanding of the human translation processes. It illustrates some of the research...... methods in empirical translation process research and suggests ngrams of Activity Units for measuring the translation process....

  16. High levels of incidental physical activity are positively associated with cognition and EEG activity in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lopez, Javier; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Fernández, Thalía; Alatorre-Cruz, Graciela C; Castro-Chavira, Susana A; González-López, Mauricio; Sánchez-Moguel, Sergio M

    2018-01-01

    High levels of physical activity seem to positively influence health and cognition across the lifespan. Several studies have found that aerobic exercise enhances cognition and likely prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. Nevertheless, the association of incidental physical activity (IPA) with health and cognition during aging has not been studied. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of IPA level with cognitive functions and resting electroencephalogram (EEG) in healthy old participants. Participants (n = 97) with normal scores on psychometric and neuropsychological tests and normal values in blood analyses were included. A cluster analysis based on the scores of the Yale Physical Activity Scale (YPAS) allowed the formation of two groups: active, with high levels of IPA, and passive, with low levels of IPA. Eyes-closed resting EEG was recorded from the participants; the fast Fourier transform was used offline to calculate absolute power (AP), relative power (RP), and mean frequency (MF) measures. There were no differences in socioeconomic status, cognitive reserve, general cognitive status, or lipid and TSH profiles between the groups. The results of cognitive tests revealed significant differences in the performance variables of the WAIS scores (p = .015), with advantages for the active group. The resting EEG exhibited significantly slower activity involving the frontal, central, and temporal regions in the passive group (p aging.

  17. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawara, Kazunori; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Park, Jong Hoon; Tabata, Izumi; Tanaka, Shigeho

    2011-11-24

    Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL). The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day) targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45), and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day) or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day) targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75). These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW). In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day), 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day), and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day), respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  18. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohkawara Kazunori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  19. Platelets retain high levels of active plasminogen activator inhibitor 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helén Brogren

    Full Text Available The vascular fibrinolytic system is crucial for spontaneous lysis of blood clots. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, the principal inhibitor of the key fibrinolytic enzyme tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA, is present in platelets at high concentrations. However, the majority of PAI-1 stored in platelets has been considered to be inactive. Our recent finding (Brogren H, et al. Blood 2004 that PAI-1 de novo synthesized in platelets remained active for over 24 h, suggested that PAI-1 stored in the α-granules might be active to a larger extent than previously reported. To re-evaluate this issue, we performed experiments where the fraction of active PAI-1 was estimated by analyzing the tPA-PAI-1 complex formation. In these experiments platelets were lysed with Triton X-100 in the presence of serial dilutions of tPA and subsequently the tPA-PAI-1 complex was evaluated by Western blot. Also, using a non-immunologic assay, tPA was labeled with (125I, and (125I-tPA and (125I-tPA-PAI-1 was quantified by scintigraphy. Interestingly, both methods demonstrated that the majority (>50% of platelet PAI-1 is active. Further analyses suggested that pre-analytical procedures used in previous studies (sonication or freezing/thawing may have substantially reduced the activity of platelet PAI-1, which has lead to an underestimation of the proportion of active PAI-1. Our in vitro results are more compatible with the role of PAI-1 in clot stabilization as demonstrated in physiological and pathophysiological studies.

  20. DUQuE quality management measures: associations between quality management at hospital and pathway levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Cordula; Groene, Oliver; Thompson, Caroline A; Dersarkissian, Maral; Klazinga, Niek S; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Suñol, Rosa

    2014-04-01

    The assessment of integral quality management (QM) in a hospital requires measurement and monitoring from different perspectives and at various levels of care delivery. Within the DUQuE project (Deepening our Understanding of Quality improvement in Europe), seven measures for QM were developed. This study investigates the relationships between the various quality measures. It is a multi-level, cross-sectional, mixed-method study. As part of the DUQuE project, we invited a random sample of 74 hospitals in 7 countries. The quality managers of these hospitals were the main respondents. Furthermore, data of site visits of external surveyors assessing the participating hospitals were used. Three measures of QM at hospitals level focusing on integral systems (QMSI), compliance with the Plan-Do-Study-Act quality improvement cycle (QMCI) and implementation of clinical quality (CQII). Four measures of QM activities at care pathway level focusing on Specialized expertise and responsibility (SER), Evidence-based organization of pathways (EBOP), Patient safety strategies (PSS) and Clinical review (CR). Positive significant associations were found between the three hospitals level QM measures. Results of the relationships between levels were mixed and showed most associations between QMCI and department-level QM measures for all four types of departments. QMSI was associated with PSS in all types of departments. By using the seven measures of QM, it is possible to get a more comprehensive picture of the maturity of QM in hospitals, with regard to the different levels and across various types of hospital departments.

  1. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.; Porrata Maury, C.; Jimenez Acosta, S.; Gonzalez Perez, T.; Diaz, M.E.; Martin, I.; Sanchez, V.; Monterrey, P.

    1999-01-01

    Obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. Previous studies done in Havana showed values of physical activity level (PAL) which are lower than the reported for elderly subjects. Elderly people living in rural areas use to have physical activity levels which differ from the observed in urban areas. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 40 apparently healthy people older than 60 years of age living in a rural mountain community will be submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary, anthropometric and insulin resistance study. Physical activity will be determined by questionnaire and by the calculation of the PAL from the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) measured with the doubly-labelled water method (DLW). Associations with the prevalence of insulin resistance and obesity will be assessed. (author)

  2. How should we measure online learning activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim O'Riordan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of Web-based learning objects makes finding and evaluating resources a considerable hurdle for learners to overcome. While established learning analytics methods provide feedback that can aid learner evaluation of learning resources, the adequacy and reliability of these methods is questioned. Because engagement with online learning is different from other Web activity, it is important to establish pedagogically relevant measures that can aid the development of distinct, automated analysis systems. Content analysis is often used to examine online discussion in educational settings, but these instruments are rarely compared with each other which leads to uncertainty regarding their validity and reliability. In this study, participation in Massive Open Online Course (MOOC comment forums was evaluated using four different analytical approaches: the Digital Artefacts for Learning Engagement (DiAL-e framework, Bloom's Taxonomy, Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO and Community of Inquiry (CoI. Results from this study indicate that different approaches to measuring cognitive activity are closely correlated and are distinct from typical interaction measures. This suggests that computational approaches to pedagogical analysis may provide useful insights into learning processes.

  3. Prenatal androgen exposure and children's aggressive behavior and activity level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Debra; Pasterski, Vickie; Neufeld, Sharon; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L; Hines, Melissa

    2017-11-01

    Some human behaviors, including aggression and activity level, differ on average for males and females. Here we report findings from two studies investigating possible relations between prenatal androgen and children's aggression and activity level. For study 1, aggression and activity level scores for 43 girls and 38 boys, aged 4 to 11years, with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, a genetic condition causing increased adrenal androgen production beginning prenatally) were compared to those of similarly-aged, unaffected relatives (41 girls, 31 boys). Girls with CAH scored higher on aggression than unaffected girls, d=0.69, and unaffected boys scored higher on activity level than unaffected girls, d=0.50. No other group differences were significant. For study 2, the relationship of amniotic fluid testosterone to aggression and activity level was investigated in typically-developing children (48 girls, 44 boys), aged 3 to 5years. Boys scored higher than girls on aggression, d=0.41, and activity level, d=0.50. However, amniotic fluid testosterone was not a significant predictor of aggression or activity level for either sex. The results of the two studies provide some support for an influence of prenatal androgen exposure on children's aggressive behavior, but not activity level. The within-sex variation in amniotic fluid testosterone may not be sufficient to allow reliable assessment of relations to aggression or activity level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Measuring Moisture Levels in Graphite Epoxy Composite Sandwich Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Youngquist, Robert; Starr, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Graphite epoxy composite (GEC) materials are used in the construction of rocket fairings, nose cones, interstage adapters, and heat shields due to their high strength and light weight. However, they absorb moisture depending on the environmental conditions they are exposed to prior to launch. Too much moisture absorption can become a problem when temperature and pressure changes experienced during launch cause the water to vaporize. The rapid state change of the water can result in structural failure of the material. In addition, heat and moisture combine to weaken GEC structures. Diffusion models that predict the total accumulated moisture content based on the environmental conditions are one accepted method of determining if the material strength has been reduced to an unacceptable level. However, there currently doesn t exist any field measurement technique to estimate the actual moisture content of a composite structure. A multi-layer diffusion model was constructed with Mathematica to predict moisture absorption and desorption from the GEC sandwich structure. This model is used in conjunction with relative humidity/temperature sensors both on the inside and outside of the material to determine the moisture levels in the structure. Because the core materials have much higher diffusivity than the face sheets, a single relative humidity measurement will accurately reflect the moisture levels in the core. When combined with an external relative humidity measurement, the model can be used to determine the moisture levels in the face sheets. Since diffusion is temperaturedependent, the temperature measurements are used to determine the diffusivity of the face sheets for the model computations.

  5. A Pilot Study on Measuring Customer’s Satisfaction Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vide Boltez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Determine the level of customer satisfaction of a company’s products and services to obtain information on needed improvements.Purpose: The purpose of measuring customer’s satisfaction level is to obtain information directly from the final buyer that bought our product. The next step is to analyze the information obtained and to take the results into consideration to improve the working process in production and in other departments of the company.Method: The method used for the pilot study to measure customer satisfaction was a short questionnaire that was given to 10 customers of our product and 10 completed questionnaires were obtained.Results: The results showed the level of satisfaction of final buyers of roof tiles and roofs that the company has achieved through their products and services. The results facilitate the production, logistics, purchasing and sales department to obtain information on positive satisfaction levels and areas that need change. At the same time, the final buyer was identified (i.e., name, surname, address, and so forth, which up until now had not been.Organization: The organization will save time and money in the future, because it will continuously measure customer satisfaction to improve production and other departments in the organization towards creating satisfied customers.Society: Final buyers of roofs are, and will be, more satisfied with their decisions, because the organization carries out after-sales satisfaction levels.Originality: The research was original, because up to this date the organization has not conducted research in such a manner.Limitations: The pilot study used 10 completed questionnaires that represent a very small sample to make any generalizations.

  6. Prediction of habitual physical activity level and weight status from fundamental movement skill level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Elizabeth Sarah; James, Rob S; Birch, Samantha Louise; Duncan, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental movement skills (FMS) have been assessed in children in order to investigate the issues of the low proportion of children who meet physical activity (PA) guidelines and rising levels of obesity. The aim of this research was to identify whether previous or current FMS level is a better predictor of PA levels and weight status in children. In January 2012 (year 1), 281 children were recruited from one primary school in the West Midlands, UK. Children performed eight FMS three times, which were videoed and assessed using a subjective checklist. Sprint speed and jump height were measured objectively. Height and mass were measured to calculate the body mass index to determine the weight status. Skinfold calliper readings were used to calculate body fat percentage. One year later, in January 2013, all these tests were repeated on the same children, with the additional collection of PA data via the use of pedometers. Following multiple linear regression, it was identified that prior mastery in FMS was a better predictor of current PA, whereas current FMS was a better predictor of current weight status. Overall, FMS mastery is needed in childhood to be able to participate in PA and maintain a healthy weight status.

  7. THE LEVEL OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION - MEASURE OF SOCIAL EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN MARIANA CLAUDIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pricing models for social efficiency focuses on assessing the quality, namely the comparison of the desired product to the consumer and the product received, the level of consumer satisfaction on the products and / or services will be therefore a very important component in measuring the effectiveness social. Between the two concepts there is a relationship of mutual interdependence: the level of consumer satisfaction is the result of the quality performance of products and services and high quality products and services is reflected in consumer satisfaction. From the theoretical point of view, according to the marketing strategy, it is necessary to bring to a common level of perceived benefit to consumer expectations. Customer satisfaction is actually the result of a complex information processing.

  8. The Greenlandic sea areas and activity level up to 2025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; í Dali, Birita

    2016-01-01

    . It includes an overview of types of vessels and other objects involved in different activities, and the volume of traffic connected to different types of activities, such as fisheries, petroleum, tourism, navy and research. Furthermore, this report estimates the maritime activity level in the area the next...... ten years, or until 2025, and the potential development of the regional preparedness system. The data within this report is derived both from secondary and primary sources. The analysis of the current maritime activity is based on published analytical reports on maritime activity, facts and statistics......, petroleum activity, tourism and research/government activity. The last chapter is devoted to summarizing findings about the current developed activity level in the High North sea and coastal regions and the estimated activity level up to 2025. Possible implications for the preparedness system in the High...

  9. PROMOTION OF ACTIVE MEASURES AND EMPLOYMENT STIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA ELISABETA POPP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches in the field of the labour market has allowed the identification of certain specific mechanisms for employment promotion; at present, on the Romanian labour market we find passive policies, concretised in financial aids paid to the unemployed, along with active policies, constituting the most efficient social protection activity addressed to the unemployed (they aim at counterbalancing the inefficiencies determined by the granting of financial allowances, help population to find a job by actions of information, professional training and contributing to the encouragement of the labour force mobility. The paper refers to some theoretical considerations related to the influence factors of employment stimulation, as well as to the unemployment – correlated adequate measures synapse. The applied research comprises the analysis of statistic documents; the method used is the case study, i.e. the activity of employment stimulation carried on by the County Agency for Employment Caraş-Severin, in the period 2004-2012. The conclusions highlight the impact of the activity of the institutions involved in the system of social protection and security within the labour market.

  10. First fusion proton measurements in TEXTOR plasmas using activation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonheure, G.; Wassenhove, G. Van [ERM-KMS, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Mlynar, J. [Association Euratom-IPP.CR, Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Za Slovankou 3, CZ-182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Hult, M.; Gonzalez de Orduna, R.; Lutter, G. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Vermaercke, P. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Huber, A.; Schweer, B.; Esser, G.; Biel, W. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    MeV particle loss measurements from fusion plasmas, in particular alpha particles, remain difficult in large fusion devices and further R and D is needed for ITER. This paper describes the first attempt to measure 3 MeV escaping fusion protons emitted from TEXTOR tokamak plasmas using activation technique. This technique was successfully demonstrated, initially, in 2006 on the JET tokamak. An ion camera equipped with a collimator and several types of activation detectors was installed inside the TEXTOR vacuum vessel to perform these measurements. After irradiation, the detectors were analyzed using ultra low level gamma-ray spectrometry at the HADES underground laboratory. 3 MeV escaping fusion protons were detected in larger number -{approx}6 times more - compared to earlier measurements using this technique on JET. Another major progress was the reduction of the cooling time by a factor of 50, which made possible to detect radionuclides with half-life of less than 90 min.

  11. Feedback on Measured Dust Concentrations Reduces Exposure Levels Among Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basinas, Ioannis; Sigsgaard, Torben; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Andersen, Nils Testrup; Omland, Øyvind; Kromhout, Hans; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2016-08-01

    The high burden of exposure to organic dust among livestock farmers warrants the establishment of effective preventive and exposure control strategies for these workers. The number of intervention studies exploring the effectiveness of exposure reduction strategies through the use of objective measurements has been limited. To examine whether dust exposure can be reduced by providing feedback to the farmers concerning measurements of the exposure to dust in their farm. The personal dust levels of farmers in 54 pig and 26 dairy cattle farms were evaluated in two measurement series performed approximately 6 months apart. Detailed information on work tasks and farm characteristics during the measurements were registered. Participating farms were randomized a priori to a control (n = 40) and an intervention group (n = 40). Shortly after the first visit, owners of intervention farms only received a letter with information on the measured dust concentrations in the farm together with some general advises on exposure reduction strategies (e.g. use of respirators during certain tasks). Relationships between measured dust concentrations and intervention status were quantified by means of linear mixed effect analysis with farm and worker id as random effects. Season, type of farming, and work tasks were treated as fixed effects. Changes in exposure over time were explored primarily at a farm level in models combined, as well as separate for pig and cattle farmers. After adjustment for fixed effects, an overall reduction of 23% in personal dust exposures was estimated as a result of the intervention (P = 0.02). Exposure reductions attributable to the intervention were similar across pig and cattle farmers, but statistically significant only for pig farmers. Intervention effects among pig farmers did not depend on the individuals' information status; but among cattle farmers a significant 48% reduction in exposure was found only among individuals that reported to have been

  12. Measurement of Acceptable Noise Level with Background Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyun-Jung; Bahng, Junghwa; Lee, Jae Hee

    2015-09-01

    Acceptable noise level (ANL) is a measure of the maximum background noise level (BNL) that a person is willing to tolerate while following a target story. Although researchers have used various sources of target sound in ANL measures, a limited type of background noise has been used. Extending the previous study of Gordon-Hickey & Moore (2007), the current study determined the effect of music genre and tempo on ANLs as possible factors affecting ANLs. We also investigated the relationships between individual ANLs and the familiarity of music samples and between music ANLs and subjective preference. Forty-one participants were seperated into two groups according to their ANLs, 29 low-ANL listeners and 12 high-ANL listeners. Using Korean ANL material, the individual ANLs were measured based on the listeners' most comfortable listening level and BNL. The ANLs were measured in six conditions, with different music tempo (fast, slow) and genre (K-pop, pop, classical) in a counterbalanced order. Overall, ANLs did not differ by the tempo of background music, but music genre significantly affected individual ANLs. We observed relatively higher ANLs with K-pop music and relatively lower ANLs with classical music. This tendency was similar in both low-ANL and high-ANL groups. However, the subjective ratings of music familiarity and preference affected ANLs differently for low-ANL and high-ANL groups. In contrast to the low-ANL listeners, the ANLs of the high-ANL listeners were significantly affected by music familiarity and preference. The genre of background music affected ANLs obtained using background music. The degree of music familiarity and preference appears to be associated with individual susceptibility to background music only for listeners who are greatly annoyed by background noise (high-ANL listeners).

  13. Measurement of Acceptable Noise Level with Background Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyun-Jung; Bahng, Junghwa

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Acceptable noise level (ANL) is a measure of the maximum background noise level (BNL) that a person is willing to tolerate while following a target story. Although researchers have used various sources of target sound in ANL measures, a limited type of background noise has been used. Extending the previous study of Gordon-Hickey & Moore (2007), the current study determined the effect of music genre and tempo on ANLs as possible factors affecting ANLs. We also investigated the relationships between individual ANLs and the familiarity of music samples and between music ANLs and subjective preference. Subjects and Methods Forty-one participants were seperated into two groups according to their ANLs, 29 low-ANL listeners and 12 high-ANL listeners. Using Korean ANL material, the individual ANLs were measured based on the listeners' most comfortable listening level and BNL. The ANLs were measured in six conditions, with different music tempo (fast, slow) and genre (K-pop, pop, classical) in a counterbalanced order. Results Overall, ANLs did not differ by the tempo of background music, but music genre significantly affected individual ANLs. We observed relatively higher ANLs with K-pop music and relatively lower ANLs with classical music. This tendency was similar in both low-ANL and high-ANL groups. However, the subjective ratings of music familiarity and preference affected ANLs differently for low-ANL and high-ANL groups. In contrast to the low-ANL listeners, the ANLs of the high-ANL listeners were significantly affected by music familiarity and preference. Conclusions The genre of background music affected ANLs obtained using background music. The degree of music familiarity and preference appears to be associated with individual susceptibility to background music only for listeners who are greatly annoyed by background noise (high-ANL listeners). PMID:26413573

  14. Improving sea level record in arctic using ENVISAT altimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, Pierre; Poisson, Jean-Christophe; Hoang, Duc; Quartly, Graham; Kurekin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic is an important component of the climate system whose exact influence on ocean circulation is still poorly understood today. This region is also very sensitive to global warming and some direct consequences like melting ice are particularly visible. In this context, extending the knowledge of the sea level variability as far as possible in the Arctic Ocean is a valuable contribution to the understanding of rapid changes occurring in this region. Due to a particularly complex and unstable environment, ocean observation is challenging considering that sea level measurements can be widely corrupted by the presence of sea ice in the altimeter footprint. In the framework of the ESA Sea Level Climate Change Initiative project, new algorithms have been developed and implemented to process 10 years of ENVISAT altimeter data over the Arctic Ocean and to improve the sea level measurement in this region. The new processing chain contains three main steps. The first task consists in identifying altimetric returns for which a standard proven estimation processing may be used, and in flagging those requiring more sophisticated processing. This will include introducing a novel approach that uses the relationship with neighbouring waveforms to aid in the identification of key reflecting surfaces. The second task consists in applying estimators that performs better in situations where sea-ice covers partially or totally the observed surface. The last task consists in investigating the transition zones to make sure that no artificial discontinuities are introduced by the different processing and to reduce these discontinuities. We propose in this talk, to explain and illustrate the different steps of this study and to show important figures of improvement regarding the estimation of sea level variability in the Arctic Ocean.

  15. Physical activity levels in adolescents: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Sevilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical Activity (PA is very important during childhood and adolescence in order to promote healthy development and prevent obesity. The WHO recommends 60 minutes daily of moderate-vigorous activity (e» 3 METs/day. The main objective of the study is to assess the levels of PA intensity performed daily by adolescents from a school using the triaxial accelerometry system and to know if they achieve the WHO recommendations. The sample size was 60 Spanish adolescents (14.52 ± .854 year-old belongs to the Empordá school (Empúries, Spain. Previous informed consent was obtained from their parents and/or tutors. PA levels were obtained through accelerometry, Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated though weight and height, heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP were measured using a digital automatic blood pressure monitor. Descriptive for all data was calculated, and T–test (p < .05 was used to analyze the differences between boys and girls. The main result show that males performed PA during longer time and at higher intensity than women. There is a low percentage of students who achieve the WHO recommendations. In conclusion, we believe very important to seek new strategies and methods to involve more adolescents in the practice of PA, and we believe that PA sessions at school are very important.

  16. Mediating Role of Activity Level in the Depressive Realism Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena; A. Vadillo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Several classic studies have concluded that the accuracy of identifying uncontrollable situations depends heavily on depressive mood. Nondepressed participants tend to exhibit an optimistic illusion of control, whereas depressed participants tend to better detect a lack of control. Recently, we suggested that the different activity levels (measured as the probability of responding during a contingency learning task) exhibited by depressed and nondepressed individuals is partly responsible for this effect. The two studies presented in this paper provide further support for this mediational hypothesis, in which mood is the distal cause of the illusion of control operating through activity level, the proximal cause. In Study 1, the probability of responding, P(R), was found to be a mediator variable between the depressive symptoms and the judgments of control. In Study 2, we intervened directly on the mediator variable: The P(R) for both depressed and nondepressed participants was manipulated through instructions. Our results confirm that P(R) manipulation produced differences in the participants’ perceptions of uncontrollability. Importantly, the intervention on the mediator variable cancelled the effect of the distal cause; the participants’ judgments of control were no longer mood dependent when the P(R) was manipulated. This result supports the hypothesis that the so-called depressive realism effect is actually mediated by the probability of responding. PMID:23029435

  17. Do low levels of physical activity in female adolescents cause ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently Mokabane et al. asserted that black female periurban adolescents exhibited low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviour, and that there is a causal, unidirectional, inverse relationship between physical activity and adiposity.[1] However, contrary to their conclusions, the data they presented ...

  18. Food choices, physical activity levels and other factors associated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Food choices (healthy vs. unhealthy), PA levels, and health knowledge ... physical activity; South Africa. Food choices, physical activity levels and other factors associated with weight gain in primary school educators. 83 ...... educators that reflect fast-food intake (take-outs, pies, sausage rolls, samosas, fried foods and.

  19. How to tackle energy saving and load leveling. Energy saving towards 2000 and measures for the coming winter (energy-saving activities by California`s SCE, demand side management activities); Sho energy fuka heijunka ni do torikumuka. Seireki 2000 nen ni muketa sho energy to konto no shoene taisaku, Kashu SCE no sho energy (DSM katsudo wo saguru)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasu, S. [The Energy Conservation Center Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Tokyo Electric Power has realized a peak shift of 5% for the maximum power demand by various measures to cope with increasing power demand and differential rate by time zone, including expansion of the differential rate system and heat-storage systems. Some of more notable recent techniques are eco-ice and eco-vendor systems, the former storing ice in the heat-storage tanks and the latter strongly cooling vending machines during nighttime. The NAS battery system is being developed as the new technique for load leveling. The energy-related advisory organ for Minister of International Trade and Industry asks each industrial unit to save at least 1% of power on the annual average as the energy-saving measure towards 2000. The energy-saving measures promoted by the government for the coming winter are controlled release of wastes, efficient use of power, setting room temperature at 19{degree}C or lower and voluntarily refrain from commuting by cars. The US power industry is abandoning the concept of DSM in the midst of deregulation and increased competition, and cutting budgets for new energy development. California`s SCE is promoting energy-saving through expanded use of high-efficiency motors, accurate grasp of customers` needs and publicity activities through internet systems. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Solar Activity, Different Geomagnetic Activity Levels and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Svetla; Jordanova, Malina; Stoilova, Irina; Taseva, Tatiana; Maslarov, Dimitar

    Results on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data covering the period from 1.12.1995 to 31.12.2004 and concerned daily distribution of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia region on the day of admission at the hospital. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms, those caused by Magnetic Clouds (MC) and by High Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS), on AMI morbidity. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI. ANOVA revealed that AMI number was signifi- cantly increased from the day before (-1st) till the day after (+1st) geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day.

  1. GPS water level measurements for Indonesia's Tsunami Early Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schöne

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available On Boxing Day 2004, a severe tsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Northern Sumatra causing a large number of casualties. At this time, neither an offshore buoy network was in place to measure tsunami waves, nor a system to disseminate tsunami warnings to local governmental entities. Since then, buoys have been developed by Indonesia and Germany, complemented by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART buoys, and have been moored offshore Sumatra and Java. The suite of sensors for offshore tsunami detection in Indonesia has been advanced by adding GPS technology for water level measurements.

    The usage of GPS buoys in tsunami warning systems is a relatively new approach. The concept of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS (Rudloff et al., 2009 combines GPS technology and ocean bottom pressure (OBP measurements. Especially for near-field installations where the seismic noise may deteriorate the OBP data, GPS-derived sea level heights provide additional information.

    The GPS buoy technology is precise enough to detect medium to large tsunamis of amplitudes larger than 10 cm. The analysis presented here suggests that for about 68% of the time, tsunamis larger than 5 cm may be detectable.

  2. Gender- and race-related physical activity levels of South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical inactivity and the resultant chronic diseases are becoming a global epidemic. This article reflects on physical activity levels of undergraduate students at a university in South Africa. Gender and race differences in relation to these levels were investigated. A self-reported measure of physical activity suitable to ...

  3. Measuring homework completion in behavioral activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Andrew M; Uebelacker, Lisa A; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities of BA. The tested scale sought to capture the type of assignment, realm of functioning targeted, extent of completion, and assignment difficulty. Homework assignments were drawn from 12 (mean age = 48, 83% female) clients in two trials of a 10-session BA manual targeting treatment-resistant depression in primary care. The two coders demonstrated acceptable or better reliability on most codes, and unreliable codes were dropped from the proposed scale. In addition, correlations between homework completion and outcome were strong, providing some support for construct validity. Ultimately, this line of research aims to develop a user-friendly, reliable measure of BA homework completion that can be completed by a therapist during session.

  4. MEASURING INSTRUMENT CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION IN ESTIMATING UNICYCLING SKILL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Granić

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Riding the unicycle presupposes the knowledge of the set of elements which describe motoric skill, or just part of that set with which we could measure the level of that knowledge. Testing and evaluation of the elements is time consuming. In order to design a unique, composite measuring instrument, to facilitate the evaluation of the initial level of unicycling skill, we tested 17 recreative subjects who were learning to ride the unicycle in 15 hours of training, without any previous knowledge or experience what was measured before the beginning of the training. At the beginning and at the end of the training they were tested with the set of the 12 riding elements test that was carried out to record only successful attempts, followed by unique SLALOM test which include previously tested elements. It was found that the unique SLALOM test has good metric features and a high regression coefficient showed that the SLALOM could be used instead of the 12 elements of unicycle riding skill, and it could be used as a uniform test to evaluate learned or existing knowledge. Because of its simplicity in terms of action and simultaneous testing of more subjects, the newly constructed test could be used in evaluating the unicycling recreational level, but also for monitoring and programming transformation processes to develop the motor skills of riding of unicycle. Because of its advantages, it is desirable to include unicycling in the educational processes of learning new motor skills, which can be evaluated by the results of this research. The obtained results indicate that the unicycle should be seriously consider as a training equipment to “refresh” or expand the recreational programs, without any fear that it is just for special people. Namely, it was shown that the previously learned motor skills (skiing, roller-skating, and cycling had no effect on the results of final testing.

  5. MEASURING THE LEVEL OF TOURIST SATISFACTION. CASE STUDY BRASOV COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bratucu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to measure the satisfaction level of Romanian and foreign tourists visiting Brașov. In order to achieve the above mentioned objective, a survey was carried out on a sample of 1,119 visitors to Brașov County. This quantitative research is part of a project entitled Destination Intelligent Management for Sustainable Tourism, won following a national competition. These findings can be used by businesses and the local managing authorities in establishing the strategies for the sustainable development of tourism in the in the region.

  6. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Apparatus to measure low level helium for neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Shuji; Takao, Yoshiyuki; Muramasu, Masatomo; Hida, Tomoya; Sou, Hirofumi; Nakashima, Hideki; Kanda, Yukinori

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus to measure low level helium in a solid sample for neutron dosimetry in the practical use such as area monitoring in the long-term and reactor surveillance was reported. In our previous work, the helium atoms measurement system (HAMS) was developed. A sample was evaporated in the furnace and the released gas from the sample was analyzed with the mass spectrometer of the system to determine the amount of helium contained in it. The system has been improved to advance the lower helium measurement limit in a solid sample for its application to an area monitoring system. The mass of a solid is up to 100mg. Two important points should be considered to advance the lower limit. One was to produce a high quality vacuum in the system chamber for suppressing background gases during the sample measurement. The other important point was to detect very small output from the mass spectrometer. A pulse counting system was used to get high sensitivity in the mass 4 analyzing. (author)

  8. Apparatus to measure low level helium for neutron dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, Shuji; Takao, Yoshiyuki; Muramasu, Masatomo; Hida, Tomoya; Sou, Hirofumi; Nakashima, Hideki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Kanda, Yukinori

    1998-03-01

    An apparatus to measure low level helium in a solid sample for neutron dosimetry in the practical use such as area monitoring in the long-term and reactor surveillance was reported. In our previous work, the helium atoms measurement system (HAMS) was developed. A sample was evaporated in the furnace and the released gas from the sample was analyzed with the mass spectrometer of the system to determine the amount of helium contained in it. The system has been improved to advance the lower helium measurement limit in a solid sample for its application to an area monitoring system. The mass of a solid is up to 100mg. Two important points should be considered to advance the lower limit. One was to produce a high quality vacuum in the system chamber for suppressing background gases during the sample measurement. The other important point was to detect very small output from the mass spectrometer. A pulse counting system was used to get high sensitivity in the mass 4 analyzing. (author)

  9. The perceived constraints, motivation, and physical activity levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research was threefold; Are Korean youth physically active to promote health during leisure time? What constraints to physical active do youth experience during leisure time? Are there relationships among constraints, motivation, and physical activity level? Of 1 280 youth randomly selected by a ...

  10. Measurements of radon and radium activity in bottled mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Reque, Marilson; Tabuchi, Camila Garcia; Del Claro, Flavia; Perna, Allan Felipe; Deniak, Valeriy

    2013-01-01

    Current work presents the results of further development of optimized experimental protocol for RAD7 instant radon detector (Durridge Company Inc.) usage in low level radon in water measurements and the results concerning Ra-226 activity evaluation in bottled mineral water samples purchased at Brazilian market. With the purpose to achieve the statistically consistent results for the activity levels of 0.1Bq/L for radon (radium) activity in water, present study used modified experimental protocol which consists of: 1) water samples were stored in hermetically sealed glass vials of 250mL during 30 days to guarantee that Rn-222 will reach the secular equilibrium; 2) the measurements were performed using WAT250 protocol of RAD7 detector; 3) with an aim to decrease the background, the cleaning (activated carbon filter) and drying (DRIERITE desiccant) vessels, which have a function to retain the radioactive decay product of Rn-222 and humidity, were connected to a closed air loop of RAD7 permanently by means of valves and taps, which gave a possibility to repeat all sequence of measurements (including background evaluation) three or four times without to open the air loop and disconnect the sample vial with water. Each water sample was submitted to such measurements two or three times. Obtained results presented the level of Ra-226 activity in studied samples of bottled mineral water that varied from 0.007 ± 0.061 Bq/L to 0.145 ± 0.049 Bq/L, which is below the limit of 0,5 Bq/L established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for drinking water. (author)

  11. Measurements of radon and radium activity in bottled mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Reque, Marilson; Tabuchi, Camila Garcia; Del Claro, Flavia; Perna, Allan Felipe, E-mail: jaquelinekappke@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Deniak, Valeriy [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Current work presents the results of further development of optimized experimental protocol for RAD7 instant radon detector (Durridge Company Inc.) usage in low level radon in water measurements and the results concerning Ra-226 activity evaluation in bottled mineral water samples purchased at Brazilian market. With the purpose to achieve the statistically consistent results for the activity levels of 0.1Bq/L for radon (radium) activity in water, present study used modified experimental protocol which consists of: 1) water samples were stored in hermetically sealed glass vials of 250mL during 30 days to guarantee that Rn-222 will reach the secular equilibrium; 2) the measurements were performed using WAT250 protocol of RAD7 detector; 3) with an aim to decrease the background, the cleaning (activated carbon filter) and drying (DRIERITE desiccant) vessels, which have a function to retain the radioactive decay product of Rn-222 and humidity, were connected to a closed air loop of RAD7 permanently by means of valves and taps, which gave a possibility to repeat all sequence of measurements (including background evaluation) three or four times without to open the air loop and disconnect the sample vial with water. Each water sample was submitted to such measurements two or three times. Obtained results presented the level of Ra-226 activity in studied samples of bottled mineral water that varied from 0.007 ± 0.061 Bq/L to 0.145 ± 0.049 Bq/L, which is below the limit of 0,5 Bq/L established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for drinking water. (author)

  12. Microfluidics-Enabled Enzyme Activity Measurement in Single Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesauro, Cinzia; Frøhlich, Rikke; Stougaard, Magnus; Ho, Yi-Ping; Knudsen, Birgitta R

    2015-01-01

    Cellular heterogeneity has presented a significant challenge in the studies of biology. While most of our understanding is based on the analysis of ensemble average, individual cells may process information and respond to perturbations very differently. Presented here is a highly sensitive platform capable of measuring enzymatic activity at the single-cell level. The strategy innovatively combines a rolling circle-enhanced enzyme activity detection (REEAD) assay with droplet microfluidics. The single-molecule sensitivity of REEAD allows highly sensitive detection of enzymatic activities, i.e. at the single catalytic event level, whereas the microfluidics enables isolation of single cells. Further, confined reactions in picoliter-sized droplets significantly improve enzyme extraction from human cells or microorganisms and result in faster reaction kinetics. Taken together, the described protocol is expected to open up new possibilities in the single-cell research, particularly for the elucidation of heterogeneity in a population of cells.

  13. Parent-child relationship of directly measured physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mâsse Louise C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on parent-child correlations of physical activity have been mixed. Few studies have examined concurrent temporal patterns of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in parents and children using direct measures. The purpose of this study was to examine parent-child activity correlations by gender, day of week, and time of day, using accelerometers - a method for direct assessment of physical activity. Methods Accelerometers were used to assess physical activity and sedentary time in 45 fathers, 45 mothers and their children (23 boys, 22 girls, mean age 9.9 years over the course of 4 days (Thursday - Sunday. Participants were instructed to wear accelerometers for 24 hours per day. Data from accelerometers were aggregated into waking hours on weekdays and weekends (6:00 am to midnight and weekday after-school hours (3:00 - 7:00 pm. Results Across the 4 days, the mean minutes per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA for fathers was 30.0 (s.d. = 17.3, for mothers was 30.1 (s.d. = 20.1 and for children was 145.47 (s.d. = 51.64. Mothers' and fathers' minutes of MVPA and minutes of sedentary time were positively correlated with child physical activity and sedentary time (all ps Conclusions Greater parental MVPA was associated with increased child MVPA. In addition, having two parents with higher levels of MVPA was associated with greater levels of activity in children. Sedentary time in children was not as strongly correlated with that of their parents. Findings lend support to the notion that to increase childhood activity levels it may be fruitful to improve physical activity among parents.

  14. Air radioactivity levels following the Fukushima reactor accident measured at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiza, P; Brudanin, V; Piquemal, F; Reyss, J-L; Stekl, I; Warot, G; Zampaolo, M

    2012-12-01

    The radioactivity levels in the air of the radionuclides released by the Fukushima accident were measured at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, in the South-East of France, during the period 25 March-18 April 2011. Air-filters from the ventilation system exposed for one or two days were measured using low-background gamma-ray spectrometry. In this paper we present the activity concentrations obtained for the radionuclides (131)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (95)Nb, (95)Zr, (106)Ru, (140)Ba/La and (103)Ru. The activity concentration of (131)I was of the order of 100 μBq/m(3), more than 100 times higher than the activities of other fission products. The highest activities of (131)I were measured as a first peak on 30 March and a second peak on 3-4 April. The activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs varied from 5 to 30 μBq/m(3). The highest activity concentration recorded for Cs corresponded to the same period as for (131)I, with a peak on 2-3 April. The results of the radioactivity concentration levels in grass and mushrooms exposed to the air in the Modane region were also measured. Activity concentrations of (131)I of about 100 mBq/m(2) were found in grass. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of curricular activity on students' situational motivation and physical activity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students'situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve students in grades 7-9 participated in three activities (cardiovascular fitness, ultimate football, and Dance Dance Revolution [DDR]) in physical education. ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers were used to measure students' PA levels for three classes for each activity. Students also completed a Situational Motivation Scale (Guay, Vallerand, & Blanchard, 2000) at the end of each class. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that students spent significantly higher percentages of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in fitness and football classes than they did in DDR class. Students reported higher lM and IR toward fitness than DDR They also scored higher in IR toward fitness than football. In contrast, students displayed significantly lower AM toward fitness than football and DDR Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that IM was the only positive predictor for time in MVPA (p = .02), whereas AM was the negative predictor (p < .01). The findings are discussed in regard to the implications for educational practice.

  16. High frequency electric field levels: An example of determination of measurement uncertainty for broadband measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulević Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining high frequency electromagnetic field levels in urban areas represents a very complex task, having in mind the exponential growth of the number of sources embodied in public cellular telephony systems in the past twenty years. The main goal of this paper is a representation of a practical solution in the evaluation of measurement uncertainty for in-situ measurements in the case of spatial averaging. An example of the estimation of the uncertainty for electric field strength broadband measurements in the frequency range from 3 MHz to 18 GHz is presented.

  17. Measurements of the PLT and PDX device activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavely, J.; Barnes, C.W.; Chrien, R.E.; Strachan, J.D.

    1981-09-01

    Measurements of the activation levels around the PLT and PDX tokamaks have been made using a Ge(Li) gamma spectrometer and a Geiger counter. The activation results from radiation induced in the plasma by 14 MeV neutrons from the d(t,n)α fusion reaction, 14.7 MeV protons from the d( 3 He,p)α fusion reaction, 10 → 20 MeV hard x-rays from runaway electron induced bremmstrahlung, and 2.5 MeV neutrons from the d(d,n) 3 He fusion reaction. The magnitude of the activation is compared to that predicted for PDX on the basis of one-dimensional activation codes

  18. Shoulder activity level in patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamplot, Joseph D; Lillegraven, Olivia; Brophy, Robert H

    2017-09-01

    Idiopathic adhesive capsulitis is a common condition resulting in painful multidirectional restriction of motion. Adhesive capsulitis may inhibit shoulder activity level, but this relationship has not been previously studied. This study tested the hypothesis that patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis have lower shoulder activity than sex- and age-matched controls. Seventy-two eligible patients (37 men and 35 women) with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis completed a validated shoulder activity scale that was compared with sex- and age-matched norms from a healthy population with no history of shoulder disorders. The association of shoulder activity level with patient age, sex, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons and Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores was evaluated. Overall, 58% of patients actually had higher shoulder activity scores than sex- and age-matched controls. Among patients aged 51 to 70 years, 68% of patients (73% of men and 63% of women) demonstrated higher Shoulder Activity Scale scores compared with controls. The activity level was higher among all patients aged 51 to 70 years compared with controls (10.3 ± 1.48 vs. 8 ± 0.52, P = .0067). The difference was significant for men in this age group (12.2 ± 1.7 vs. 9 ± 0.75, P = .0042). There was a statistically significant positive correlation of the Shoulder Activity Scale score with the SST score (r = 0.31, P = .009). Patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis do not have a lower shoulder activity level than sex- and age-matched controls, and older men may actually have a higher level of shoulder activity than controls. Shoulder activity level is correlated with the SST score in patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Self-reported activity level and knee function in amateur football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frobell, R B; Svensson, E; Göthrick, M

    2008-01-01

    ) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are the main outcome measures. Older age, female gender and lower level of competition (football...... is recommended. We suggest that self-reported Tegner Activity Scale scores should be adjusted for age, gender and level of competition. In amateur football players, KOOS scores do not need adjustment for age and gender....

  20. Comparability of measured acceleration from accelerometry-based activity monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Alex V; Fraysse, FranÇois; Catt, Mike; Stiles, Victoria H; Stanley, Rebecca M; Eston, Roger G; Olds, Tim S

    2015-01-01

    Accelerometers that provide triaxial measured acceleration data are now available. However, equivalence of output between brands cannot be assumed and testing is necessary to determine whether features of the acceleration signal are interchangeable. This study aimed to establish the equivalence of output between two brands of monitor in a laboratory and in a free-living environment. For part 1, 38 adults performed nine laboratory-based activities while wearing an ActiGraph GT3X+ and GENEActiv (Gravity Estimator of Normal Everyday Activity) at the hip. For part 2, 58 children age 10-12 yr wore a GT3X+ and GENEActiv at the hip for 7 d in a free-living setting. For part 1, the magnitude of time domain features from the GENEActiv was greater than that from the GT3X+. However, frequency domain features compared well, with perfect agreement of the dominant frequency for 97%-100% of participants for most activities. For part 2, mean daily acceleration measured by the two brands was correlated (r = 0.93, P acceleration values. The strong relation between accelerations measured by the two brands suggests that habitual activity level and activity patterns assessed by the GENE and GT3X+ may compare well if analyzed appropriately.

  1. Objective assessment of levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasholt, Martin; Chawes, Bo; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil

    2013-01-01

    Background:To study in detail levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children and the effect of gender and body mass index on this activity.Methods:Two hundred and fifty-three children aged 5 years participating in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2000......) wore an accelerometer day and night over a 4-weekperiod. The main outcome measure was level of physical activity using the raw data.A secondary measure was time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. A Fourier series analysis was applied to study in detail patterns over time...

  2. Energy Levels, wavelengths and hyperfine structure measurements of Sc II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hala, Fnu; Nave, Gillian

    2018-01-01

    Lines of singly ionized Scandium (Sc II) along with other Iron group elements have been observed [1] in the region surrounding the massive star Eta Carinae [2,3] called the strontium filament (SrF). The last extensive analysis of Sc II was the four-decade old work of Johansson & Litzen [4], using low-resolution grating spectroscopy. To update and extend the Sc II spectra, we have made observation of Sc/Ar, Sc/Ne and Sc/Ge/Ar hollow cathode emission spectrum on the NIST high resolution FT700 UV/Vis and 2 m UV/Vis/IR Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS). More than 850 Sc II lines have been measured in the wavelength range of 187 nm to 3.2 μm. connecting a total of 152 energy levels. The present work also focuses to resolve hyperfine structure (HFS) in Sc II lines. We aim to obtain accurate transition wavelengths, improved energy levels and HFS constants of Sc II. The latest results from work in progress will be presented.Reference[1] Hartman H, Gull T, Johansson S and Smith N 2004 Astron. Astrophys. 419 215[2] Smith N, Morse J A and Gull T R 2004 Astrophys. J. 605 405[3] Davidson K and Humphreys R M 1997 Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 35[4] Johansson S and Litzén U 1980 Phys. Scr. 22 49

  3. Hydrostatic levelling systems: Measuring at the system limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Edi; Geiger, Alain; Ingensand, Hilmar; Licht, Hans; Limpach, Philippe; Steiger, Andreas; Zwyssig, Roger

    2010-09-01

    Three hydrostatic displacement monitoring system applications in Switzerland are discussed; the first concerns experience gained monitoring the foundation of the Albigna dam, the second relating to the underground stability of the Swiss Light Source synchrotron and the third concerning the deformation of a bridge near the city of Lucerne. Two different principles were applied, the Hydrostatic Levelling System (HLS) using the “half-filled pipe principle” developed by the Paul Scherrer Institute and the Large Area Settlement System (LAS) using the “differential pressure principle”. With both systems ground deformations induced by tidal forces can be seen. However, high accuracy of single sensors is not sufficient. A well-designed configuration of the complete system is equally important. On the other hand there are also limits imposed by installation logistics and by the environmental conditions. An example is the bridge monitoring application, where the acceleration along the bridge due to the passage of heavy trucks limits the feasibility of using hydrostatic levelling measurements.

  4. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine’s list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996–2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. PMID:24449873

  5. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2014-02-04

    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine's list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996-2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship.

  6. Distress Levels among Parents of Active Duty Soldiers during Wartime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Bitton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Military service is a highly stressful period both for the soldiers serving and for their parents. Surprisingly, parents’ experience has been mostly ignored in the research. This study’s goal is to shed light on the experience and distress levels of parents of active duty combat soldiers during Operation Protective Edge, a military operation carried out by the Israel Defense Forces during July and August of 2014.Methods: During the advanced stages of the operation, 69 parents of Israeli male combat soldiers (55 mothers and 14 fathers completed an online survey measuring symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD-Checklist-5 and distress (Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Participants were recruited using a convenience sample, by posting ads on the public Facebook pages of the researchers and of the groups dedicated to parents of Israeli soldiers.Results: Parents’ depression and anxiety symptom levels were higher than depression and anxiety symptom levels of the adult community norms in Israel. General distress rates of parents were similar to those presented by adults in southern Israel who were exposed for 7 years to the ongoing threat of daily rocket fire from Gaza, and higher than rates of a non-threatened Israeli population. Finally, 20.2% of the parents presented PTSD-like symptoms, a higher percentage than the probable PTSD diagnosis rates that were found in the general population in Israel during previous terror waves.Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence of soldiers’ parents’ distress and indicates the need for a better understanding of the impact of military service on soldiers’ parents.

  7. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  8. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1 has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p<0.001. Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP, containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons’ active ageing level in Thailand.

  9. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand.

  10. Noninvasive measurements of activity-induced changes in muscle metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, K K; Kakihira, H; Vandenborne, K; Kent-Braun, J

    1991-01-01

    Two noninvasive measurement techniques were used to monitor activity-induced changes in skeletal muscle in humans. Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-MRS) was used to measure changes in energy metabolism by measuring the ratio of inorganic phosphate to phosphocreatine (Pi/PCr) during steady level work in the wrist flexor muscles in a 30 cm bore, 1.9 Telsa magnet, and the rate of PCr recovery from exercise in the calf muscles in a 76 cm bore, 1.8 Tesla magnet. Near red spectroscopy (NRS) was used to measure changes in oxygen saturation of hemoglobin and myoglobin during and after exercise. Fourteen days of wrist flexion exercise resulted in significant improvement in muscle metabolism as measured by MRS. This improvement disappeared after 35 days of inactivity. Indications of muscle stress during training such as muscle soreness and decreased maximum strength were associated with increases in resting Pi/PCr. A similar training protocol using plantar flexion exercise resulted in an improved rate of PCr resynthesis, which returned to control values 42 days after training stopped. NRS measurements of the wrist flexor muscles during a ramp exercise protocol demonstrated a decrease in the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin-myoglobin from 60% at rest to 15% at the highest work levels. The half time of recovery of oxygen saturation was faster than that of PCr in both young and old subjects, supporting the hypothesis that oxygen delivery is not rate limiting in submaximal exercise in healthy individuals.

  11. A rapid method of predicting radiocaesium concentrations in sheep from activity levels in faeces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGee, E.J.; Synnott, H.J.; Colgan, P.A.; Keatinge, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The use of faecal samples taken from sheep flocks as a means of predicting radiocaesium concentrations in live animals was studied. Radiocaesium levels in 1726 sheep from 29 flocks were measured using in vivo techniques and a single faecal sample taken from each flock was also analysed. A highly significant relationship was found to exist between mean flock activity and activity in the corresponding faecal samples. Least-square regression yielded a simple model for predicting mean flock radiocaesium concentrations based on activity levels in faecal samples. A similar analysis of flock maxima and activity levels in faeces provides an alternative model for predicting the expected within-flock maximum radiocaesium concentration. (Author)

  12. A review of physical activity measures used among U.S. Latinos: Guidelines for developing culturally appropriate measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Elder, John

    2013-01-01

    As the U.S. population continues to grow and diversify, there is a need for progressive physical activity measurement and cross-cultural research. Studies suggest that U.S.-Latinos are among the most sedentary of ethnic groups compared to others; however, study findings may be biased given that some measures may not be culturally sensitive for assessing behaviors that are not characterized as leisure time physical activity. The primary objective of this review was to identify and evaluate measures used to quantify physical activity among U.S. Latinos. A review of the literature was performed and studies examining levels of physical activity among Spanish and English speaking Latinos were documented. This process involved identifying existing guidelines for the purpose of culturally adapting and/or translating [into Spanish] physical activity measures for the Latino population. These guidelines were used as the minimal criteria for the evaluation of the 13 identified measures of physical activity. Of these 13 measures, four were available in English and nine were available in Spanish. One English measure met the guidelines for being culturally adapted for assessing physical activity among Latinos. There were no Spanish measures that met all the guidelines for physical activity assessment among Spanish speaking Latinos. Lastly, the identified guidelines for developing culturally appropriate measures were improved to advance physical activity measurement among ethnic and cultural groups. Future research should merit the use of culturally appropriate guidelines to increase the understanding of physical activity patterns in the U.S. PMID:18855091

  13. Does regional disadvantage affect health-related sport and physical activity level? A multi-level analysis of individual behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Pamela; Downward, Paul; Lera-López, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the role of regional government quality in health-related participation in sport and physical activity among adults (18-64 years) in 28 European countries. The importance of the analysis rests in the relative autonomy that regional and local governments have over policy decisions connected with sport and physical activity. While existing studies have focussed on economic and infrastructural investment and expenditure, this research investigates the quality of regional governments across 208 regions within 28 European countries. The individual-level data stem from the 2013 Eurobarometer 80.2 (n = 18,675) and were combined with regional-level data from Eurostat. An individual's level of participation in sport and physical activity was measured by three variables reflecting whether an individual's activity level is below, meets, or exceeds the recommendations of the World Health Organization. The results of multi-level analyses reveal that regional government quality has a significant and positive association with individual participation in sport and physical activity at a level meeting or exceeding the guidelines. The impact is much larger than that of regional gross domestic product per capita, indicating that regional disadvantage in terms of political quality is more relevant than being disadvantaged in terms of economic wealth.

  14. Electromagnetic Measurements in an Active Oilfield Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, C. J.; Aur, K. A.; Schramm, K. A.; Aldridge, D. F.; O'rourke, W. T.

    2016-12-01

    An important issue in oilfield development is mapping fracture distributions (either natural or man-made) controlling subsurface fluid flow. Although microseismic monitoring has been successful in constraining fracture system geometry and dynamics, accurate interpretation of microseismic data can be confounded by factors such as complex or poorly-understood velocity distributions, reactivation of previously unknown faults and fractures, and the problem of relating flow patterns to the cloud of hypocenter locations. For the particular problem of hydrocarbon production, the question of which fractures remain sufficiently "open" to allow economical fluid extraction is critical. As a supplement to microseismic analysis, we are investigating a novel electromagnetic (EM) technique for detecting and mapping hydraulic fractures in a hydrocarbon or geothermal reservoir by introducing an electrically conductive contrast agent into the fracturing fluid. In the field experiment presented here, a proppant-filled fracture zone is illuminated by a large engineered antenna consisting of an insulated current-carrying cable, grounded to `Earth' near the wellhead, and grounded at the other end to the steel-cased borehole near the target. Time-lapse measurements of horizontal electric field are subsequently made on Earth's surface to map the change in subsurface conductivity due to proppant emplacement. As predicted by 3D numerical modelling, observed differences in electric field values are very small. While these numbers are above the noise floor of electric field sensors, pervasive anthropogenic EM noise and regional-scale magnetotelluric signals make extraction of the differences from the observed time series especially difficult. We present field-acquired data on ambient EM noise in an active oilfield environment and demonstrate techniques for extracting the difference signal due to proppant emplacement. These techniques include classical spectral methods along with estimation of

  15. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.H.; Sanchez, V.; Basabe-Tuero, B.; Gonzalez-Calderin, S.; Diaz, M.E.; Aleman-Mateo, H.; Valencia-Julleirat, M.; Salazar, G.

    2002-01-01

    Obesity and NIDDM are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 48 elderly people aged 61-74 years living in a rural mountain community was submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary and biochemical study of the nutritional status. Glucose intolerance was diagnosed in 40% and arterial hypertension was present in 23 % of them. Ten subjects without signs or symptoms of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome were submitted to a measurement of the total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method. PAL values of 2.13 and 1.77 were measured for men and women, values which were significantly higher that the recommended value of 1.51 for elderly subjects. The total energy expenditure: The estimation of energy requirements by the energy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11 % and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW-method. The value of 1.51 x BMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated

  16. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.; Aleman Mateo, H.; Valencia Julleirat, M.

    2002-01-01

    Obesity and NIDDM are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 48 elderly people aged 61-74 years living in a rural mountain community was submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary and biochemical study of the nutritional status. Glucose intolerance was diagnosed in 40% and arterial hypertension was present in 23 of them. Ten subjects without signs or symptoms of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome were submitted to a measurement of the total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method. PAL values of 2.13 and 1. 77 were measured for men and women, values which were significantly higher that the recommended value of 1.51 for elderly subjects. The estimation of energy requirements by the energy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11% and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW-method The value of 1.51 x BMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated. (author)

  17. Assessing recent smoking status by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnnSofi Sandberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke causes both acute and chronic changes of the immune system. Excluding recent smoking is therefore important in clinical studies with chronic inflammation as primary focus. In this context, it is common to ask the study subjects to refrain from smoking within a certain time frame prior to sampling. The duration of the smoking cessation is typically from midnight the evening before, i.e. 8 hours from sampling. As it has been shown that a proportion of current smokers underestimates or denies smoking, objective assessment of recent smoking status is of great importance. Our aim was to extend the use of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO(breath, a well-established method for separating smokers from non-smokers, to assessment of recent smoking status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The time course of CO(breath decline was investigated by hourly measurements during one day on non-symptomatic smokers and non-smokers (6+7, as well as by measurements on three separate occasions on non-smokers (n = 29, smokers with normal lung function (n = 38 and smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 19 participating in a clinical study. We used regression analysis to model the decay, and receiver operator characteristics analysis for evaluation of model performance. The decline was described as a mono-exponential decay (r(2 = 0.7 with a half-life of 4.5 hours. CO decline rate depends on initial CO levels, and by necessity a generic cut-off is therefore crude as initial CO(breath varies a lot between individuals. However, a cut-off level of 12 ppm could classify recent smokers from smokers having refrained from smoking during the past 8 hours with a specificity of 94% and a sensitivity of 90%. CONCLUSIONS: We hereby describe a method for classifying recent smokers from smokers having refrained from smoking for >8 hours that is easy to implement in a clinical setting.

  18. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitencourt, C.S.; Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production

  19. Systemic lupus erythematosus activity and beta two microglobulin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Larocca Skare

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease with a cyclical clinical course. Evaluation of the clinical activity of this disease is important for choosing the correct treatment. The objective of this study was to analyze the value of beta-2 microglobulin (β2M serum levels in determining SLE clinical activity.DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study conducted at the rheumatology outpatient clinic of a private university hospital.METHODS: 129 SLE patients were studied regarding disease activity using SLEDAI (SLE Disease Activity Index and cumulative damage using SLICC ACR (SLE International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index for SLE. At the same time, the β2M serum level, ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, anti-dsDNA (anti-double-stranded DNA and C3 and C4 complement fractions were determined.RESULTS: β2M levels correlated positively with SLEDAI (P = 0.02 and ESR (P = 0.0009 and negatively with C3 (P = 0.007. Patients who were positive for anti-dsDNA had higher β2M serum levels (P = 0.009.CONCLUSION: β2M levels are elevated in SLE patients with active disease.

  20. A technique for the measurement of organic aerosol hygroscopicity, oxidation level, and volatility distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kerrigan P.; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2017-12-01

    Hygroscopicity, oxidation level, and volatility are three crucial properties of organic pollutants. This study assesses the feasibility of a novel measurement and analysis technique to determine these properties and establish their relationship. The proposed experimental setup utilizes a cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) counter to quantify hygroscopic activity, an aerosol mass spectrometer to measure the oxidation level, and a thermodenuder to evaluate the volatility. The setup was first tested with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from the ozonolysis of α-pinene. The results of the first experiments indicated that, for this system, the less volatile SOA contained species that had on average lower O : C ratios and hygroscopicities. In this SOA system, both low- and high-volatility components can have comparable oxidation levels and hygroscopicities. The method developed here can be used to provide valuable insights about the relationships among organic aerosol hygroscopicity, oxidation level, and volatility.

  1. Serum Renalase Levels Correlate with Disease Activity in Lupus Nephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaojun Qi

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis (LN is among the most serious complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Renalase is a novel, kidney-secreted cytokine-like protein that promotes cell survival. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship of serum renalase levels with LN and its role in the disease progression of LN.For this cross-sectional study, 67 LN patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Seventeen active LN patients who received standard therapies were followed up for six months. Disease activity was determined by the SLE Disease Activity-2000 (SLEDAI-2K scoring system and serum renalase amounts were determined by ELISA. Predictive value of renalase for disease activity was assessed. Furthermore, the expression of renalase in the kidneys of patients and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry.Serum renalase amounts were significantly higher in LN patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, patients with proliferative LN had more elevated serum renalase levels than Class V LN patients. In proliferative LN patients, serum renalase levels were significantly higher in patients with active LN than those with inactive LN. Serum renalase levels were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K, 24-h urine protein excretion, ds-DNA and ESR but inversely correlated with serum albumin and C3. Renalase amounts decreased significantly after six-months of standard therapy. The performance of renalase as a marker for diagnosis of active LN was 0.906 with a cutoff value of 66.67 μg/ml. We also observed that the amount of renalase was significantly higher in glomerular of proliferative LN along with the co-expression of macrophages.Serum renalase levels were correlated with disease activity in LN. Serum renalase might serve as a potential indicator for disease activity in LN. The marked increase of glomerular renalase and its association with macrophages suggest that it might play an

  2. Measurement of blood calprotectin (MRP-8/MRP-14) levels in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojko, Jaryna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to compare blood calprotectin (MRP8/14, S100A 8/9) levels in patients with systemic-onset, polyarticular, RF-negative and oligoarticular subtypes of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and to explore links between blood calprotectin levels and clinical and laboratory markers of JIA activity. Measurement of calprotectin in blood serum was performed in 160 patients with JIA followed up at Lviv Regional Council Public Institution "Western-Ukrainian Specialised Children's Medical Centre". Seventeen patients with systemic-onset JIA (sJIA) and 49 patients with other JIA subtypes (RF-negative polyarthritis and oligoarthritis) in the active phase of the disease were included in this study. Determination of calprotectin levels in blood serum was performed using EK-MRP8/14 Buhlmann Calprotectin reagents (Buhlmann, Switzerland) by the ELISA method. The results of the investigations showed that blood calprotectin levels were higher in patients with systemic-onset subtype of the disease (median 13,800 ng/ml), and differed significantly from levels in healthy children (median 1,800 ng/ml, p = 0.00002), levels in patients with articular subtypes of JIA (median 2,700 ng/ml, p = 0.000008), and patients with RF-negative polyarthritis (median 3,800 ng/ml, p = 0.003226) and oligoarthritis (median 2,500 ng/ml, p = 0.000009). The highest blood calprotectin levels were found in patients with newly diagnosed sJIA, the median being 32,500 ng/ml (range: 13,800-177,000 ng/ml). Direct correlations were found between blood calprotectin and JADAS 27 activity score ( p = 0.000009), ESR ( p = 0.000079) and CRP ( p = 0.000058). Blood calprotectin level is one of the measures that can be used to confirm the diagnosis of sJIA and to monitor the disease activity and therapy effectiveness.

  3. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  4. Disease activity measurement in rheumatoid arthritis: comparison of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    joint count (DAS-28) with the Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) and the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) in measuring disease activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Design: ...

  5. The Effect of Gambling Activities on Happiness Levels of Nursing Home Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R.; Nastally, Becky L.; Waterman, Amber

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of participating in simulated gambling activities on happiness levels of 3 nursing home residents. A 4-component analysis was used to measure objective responses associated with happiness during baseline, varying durations of engagement in simulated gambling activities, and 2 follow-up periods. Results…

  6. Serum Adipocytokine Levels as Surrogate Markers for Disease Activity of Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Hwan; Jang, Seung Hyeon; Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Kim, You Sun; Han, Dong Soo; Kim, Joo Sung

    2017-05-01

    Determining inflammatory activity is crucial for assessing disease activity and for tailoring therapy in patients with Crohn׳s disease (CD). This study aimed to evaluate adipocytokine levels in patients with CD and to determine whether they can serve as surrogate markers for disease activity. Serum samples and information regarding the clinical features of patients in the CD Network Project registry were collected from March 2009 to February 2012. Patients with CD and disease duration of at least 2 years were enrolled in this study. Fasting serum leptin, adiponectin, obestatin and ghrelin levels were measured, and their correlation with clinical features of the patients was analyzed. Serum adipocytokine levels were evaluated according to disease activity as determined by CD activity index score. A total of 153 patients with CD were included. Serum ghrelin levels negatively correlated with patient age (P = 0.041) and age at diagnosis (P = 0.017), and positively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (P = 0.017). Multiple regression analysis showed that serum ghrelin levels were related only to CRP levels (P = 0.032). Like ghrelin, serum leptin levels were also related to CRP levels (P disease locations or behaviors. Serum ghrelin levels were significantly lower in patients with CD with a history of surgery than in those without (P = 0.007). Serum ghrelin and leptin levels may be useful as surrogate markers for disease activity in patients with CD. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Extraction of Children's Friendship Relation from Activity Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Aki; Shintani, Kimio; Katsuki, Takuya; Kihara, Shin'ya; Ueda, Mari; Kaneda, Shigeo; Haga, Hirohide

    Children learn to fit into society through living in a group, and it's greatly influenced by their friend relations. Although preschool teachers need to observe them to assist in the growth of children's social progress and support the development each child's personality, only experienced teachers can watch over children while providing high-quality guidance. To resolve the problem, this paper proposes a mathematical and objective method that assists teachers with observation. It uses numerical data of activity level recorded by pedometers, and we make tree diagram called dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering with recorded activity level. Also, we calculate children's ``breadth'' and ``depth'' of friend relations by using more than one dendrogram. When we record children's activity level in a certain kindergarten for two months and evaluated the proposed method, the results usually coincide with remarks of teachers about the children.

  8. Measurement by γ spectrometry of specific activities of radioisotopes present in vegetal ashes. Study of variations of the ambient radioactivity level in the Grenoble transverse valley from March 1966 to August 1968

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, Michel; Guitton, Pierre; Gagnaire, Janine; Ferard, Guy; Plebin, Roger; LACHET, Bernard

    1969-08-01

    The first part of this report addresses the dosimetry of γ emitting radio-elements which are present in vegetal samples. The dose measurements were performed by spectrometry and results were processed by using a least square method. The second part reports works performed in the Grenoble transverse valley by using the same techniques. Radioactivity fluctuations of various radio-elements ( 40 K, 54 Mn, 95 Zr + 95 Nb, 103 Ru + 106 Rh, 137 Cs, 137 Ba, 140 Ba + 140 La, 144 Ce + 144 Pr) in various vegetal species, in water and in sediments have been monitored in seven points of the Isere river banks, upstream and downstream the city of Grenoble, from March 1966 to August 1968. Fluctuations observed for each radio-element are explained by comparison with physiologic, hydrologic and atmospheric climate conditions. The principles of a systematic control of a site for the detection of possible radioactive pollutions are then defined [fr

  9. Mental health and physical activity levels of school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Cerqueira da Silva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The regular practice of physical activity is fundamental to the health of children, it has been cited as factor of protection for mental disorders in school age. Objective: To verify the relation between mental health and physical activity levels in schoolchildren of the city Jacobina, Bahia. Method: Sample composed of 55 students between the ages 08 to 10 and their parents, who participated as secondary informants in this study. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL was used for evaluation of mental health problems of the schoolchildren, Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C, for evaluation of the physical activity levels of the subject, and a social-demographic questionnaire. Results: Most children were classified as sedentary (80% and only 7.3% of the sample showed positive for trace of mental disorder. No significant association was found between mental disorders and physical activity levels among the group, or between these variables and socio-demographic characteristics of children. It was observed that the girls were more sedentary than boys, with significant difference (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Despite the low prevalence of mental health problems among schoolchildren and the non-association with physical activity levels, special attention is necessary with this audience, aiming to strengthen physical activity as a protective factor for children’s mental health, with investments in actions aimed at the encouragement of regular practice of physical activity, combining family and school. Studies with a larger number of samples need to be conducted and its findings must be thoroughly analyzed.

  10. Active transportation measurement : Minneapolis case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This research examines longitudinal bicycle count data to better understand the impact of new bicycle facilities on use. The study site is Minneapolis which has invested close to $25 million over 8 years to improve active transportation facilities as...

  11. Measurement of optical activity of honey bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Mauricio; Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Salgado-Verduzco, Marco Antonio; Ibarra-Torres, Juan Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Optical activity of some substances, such as chiral molecules, often exhibits circular birefringence. Circular birefringence causes rotation of the vibration plane of the plane polarized light as it passes through the substance. In this work we present optical characterization of honey as function of the optical activity when it is placed in a polariscope that consists of a light source and properly arranged polarizing elements.

  12. Precision level measurement based on time-domain reflection (TDR measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gerding

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for a high precision multi target level measurement based on guided microwave pulses is presented. A wide-band technique based on time-domain reflectometry (TDR in combination with a TEM-waveguide as the probe fulfils the requirements of mm-precision level measurements in tanks. The coaxial waveguide provides very low dispersion for wide-band signals. Inside the coaxial waveguide the different fluids with their specific dielectric constants influence the waveguide’s characteristic impedance, so that reflections take place at each discontinuity and separating layer respectively. A second very important requirement of the system is a high resolution. Thin layers (< 10 mm should be measured reliably. For that reason the pulse width must be sufficiently small. In this case a pulse width about 100 ps is suitable. It is obvious, that a high bandwidth of the whole system is necessary to provide the precision and the resolution. One further requirement is a nearly jitter free generation of two pulse trains with slightly different pulse repetition rates. These pulse trains are used for sequential sampling. The following analog to digital conversion of the received signal occurs at a relatively slow rate, in order to allow an A/D conversion with a high resolution.

  13. Serum paraoxonase activity and oxidative stress levels in patients with cutaneous anthrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadas, S; Aslan, M; Ceylan, M R; Sunnetcioglu, M; Bozan, N; Kara, H; Demir, H

    2017-07-01

    Anthrax is a bacterial disease caused by the aerobic sporeforming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. It has been suggested that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of B. anthracis. The aim of this study was to investigate serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity, catalase activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in patients with cutaneous anthrax. Fifteen patients with cutaneous anthrax and 15 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The serum MDA levels, SOD levels, paraoxonase, arylesterase, and catalase activities were measured using a spectrophotometer. The serum SOD levels, paraoxonase, arylesterase, and catalase activities were significantly lower in patients with cutaneous anthrax than in controls (for all, p paraoxonase activity, arylesterase activity, SOD levels, and MDA levels (all, p > 0.05) in patients with cutaneous anthrax. The current study was the first to show decreased antioxidant levels and increased oxidant levels in patients with cutaneous anthrax. Therefore, decreased PON1 activity may play a role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous anthrax.

  14. Monitoring Oral Anticoagulant Therapy: Measuring Coagulant Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attermann, Jorn

    daily anticoagulant therapy. The therapy necessitates close monitoring of coagulant activity, since excess doses of anticoagulant medicine may lead to life-threatening bleedings. Traditionally, patients on OAT are required to pay regular visits to a physician, who decides on drug dosage adjustments....... There is general agreement that the quality of the therapy is too low, and often unexpected fluctuations in the coagulant activity are seen. Recently, OAT based on patient self-management has become a realistic alternative by the availability of small portable whole blood coagulometers. An important part...... of the new concept is the training and continuous support and monitoring of the patients, and a center with these purposes has been established at Skejby Sygehus. The main instrument for monitoring the coagulant activity is the prothrombin time (PT). This is the time until clotting can be observed...

  15. Biofilter odour reduction level, measurements; Luktreduceringsgrad hos biofilter, faeltmaetningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrhenius, Karine; Rosell, Lars; Tsetsilas, Sakis (SP, Boraas (Sweden)); Loevenklev, Maria; Blomqvist, Marie; Hall, Gunnar; Sverken, Anna; Widen, Helene (SIK, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Holmgren, Magnus Andreas (Vattenfall Power Consultants (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    Biofilter is today the most common odour reduction method for biological treatment. A biofilter consists of a bed of organic material often made of compost together with another material which increases the porosity of the bed. Microorganisms in the compost use odorous compounds as nutrient by decomposing them. Resulting products are mainly carbon dioxide and water, mineral salts, other organic compounds and more microorganisms. In this project, seven biofilters implemented in Sweden have been tested in order to describe their status and function. A number of physical, chemical, microbiological and odour related parameters have be measured in the pipe which leads to the biofilter as well as on the surface of the biofilter in order to determine biofilters status and their effectiveness. Values from plants have been compared to published optimal values for each parameter. The goal of the project is to optimize biofilters function och prevent risks for performance disturbances. Results from the project can also be used as reference for plants which are planning process modifications as an increase of waste to be treated, substrate/material changes etc. Each plant has been visited during two days in August/September 2009. The following parameters have been measured: 1) physical parameters such as relative humidity, temperature, and pH, 2) chemical parameters such as incoming and out coming gas composition, gas composition variation with time, access to nutriments, 3) microbiological parameters such as the total number of microorganisms and the dominating microflora i respective biofilter and 4) odour related parameters through an evaluation of the contribution of individual compounds to the total out coming odour and in some cases, through a evaluation by olfactometry. All these parameters have been subsequently interpreted and treated in order to evaluate the status of the biofilter: description of the biofilter, its environment, the microbiological status, which flow

  16. Physical activity, fitness level and health problems of healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of physical activity of healthcare workers using the transtheoretical model (TTM) as a framework and to identify barriers to exercise. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 200 randomly selected hospital staff members in South Africa. The weight and height of the ...

  17. Seasonal disease activity and serum vitamin D levels in rheumatoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vitamin D is a steroid hormone that plays essential roles in calcium and phosphorus metabolism, bone formation and mineralization homeostasis, also has a role in the maintenance of immune-homeostasis. Objective: We aimed to investigate seasonal serum vitamin D levels and seasonal disease activity in ...

  18. Habitual physical activity levels are positively correlated with CD4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... month) and functional independence as assessed from the responses to the questionnaire. There was a positive and significant correlation between the patients' length of time on ARV medication and CD4 cell counts (p < 0.0001, r = 0.45), and between CD4 cell counts and total habitual physical activity levels (p = 0.0067, ...

  19. Malondialdehyde level and some enzymatic activities in subclinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes occurring in milk malondialdehyde (MDA) level and some enzymatic activities as a result of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in dairy cows. A total of 124 milk samples were collected from 124 lactating cows from the same herd in the period between the 2nd week after calving ...

  20. Self Reported Physical Activity Levels in Hypertensive Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was mainly described as brisk-walking 179(69.1%), jogging 27(10.4%), gymnasium workouts 13(5.1%), dancing 4(1.5), cycling 4(1.5%) and weight lifting ... There is need to engage hypertensive patients on the relevance of physical activity and encourage them to obtain the known benefits by optimizing their levels of ...

  1. Some problems of residual activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katrik, P.; Mustafin, E.; Strasik, I.; Pavlovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    As a preparatory work for constructing the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI Darmstadt, samples of copper were irradiated by 500 MeV/u 238 U ion beam and investigated by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The nuclides that contribute dominantly to the residual activity have been identified and their contributions have been quantified by two different methods: from the whole-target gamma spectra and by integration of depth-profiles of residual activity of individual nuclides. Results obtained by these two methods are compared and discussed in this paper. (authors)

  2. Measurements of radon concentration levels in drinking water at urban area of Curitiba, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Barbosa, Laercio; Sadula, Tatyana; Matsuzaki, Cristiana A.

    2009-01-01

    Current work presents the results of more than 100 measurements of 222 Rn activity in drinking water collected at artesian bores at Curitiba region during the period of 2008 - 2009. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology in cooperation with the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Committee (CNEN). Experimental setup was based on the Professional Radon Monitor (ALPHA GUARD) connected to specific kit of glass vessels Aqua KIT through the air pump. The equipment was adjusted with air flow of 0.5 L/min. The 222 Rn concentration levels were detected and analyzed by the computer every 10 minutes using the software DataEXPERT by GENITRON Instruments. Collected average levels of 222 Rn concentration were processed taking into account the volume of water sample and its temperature, atmospheric pressure and the total volume of the air in the vessels. Collected samples of water presented the average 222 Rn activity about 57.70 Bq/L which is almost 5 times more than maximum level of 11.1 Bq/L recommended by the USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). It has to be noted that many artesian drillings presented the radon activity in the range of 100 - 200 Bq/L. Further measurements are planned to be performed at other regions of Parana State and will involve the mineral water sources, explored artesian drillings as well as soil samples. (author)''

  3. THE MEASUREMENT AND INTERPRETATION OF CHILDREN'S PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann V. Rowlands

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The accurate and reliable assessment of physical activity is necessary for any research study where physical activity is either an outcome measure or an intervention. The aim of this review is to examine the use of objective measurement techniques for the assessment and interpretation of children's physical activity. Accurate measurement of children's activity is challenging, as the activity is characteristically sporadic and intermittent, consisting of frequent, short bouts. Objective measures of physical activity include heart rate telemetry, pedometry and accelerometry, and each of these methods has strengths and limitations. Heart rate is suited to the measurement of sustained periods of moderate and vigorous activity, pedometry provides a valid measure of total activity, and accelerometry provides a valid measure of total activity as well as the pattern and intensity of activity. As the weaknesses of heart rate and accelerometry for the assessment of activity are not inter-correlated, a combination of the two methods may be more accurate than either method alone. Recent evidence suggests that the Actiheart, an integrated accelerometer and heart rate unit, provides a more accurate prediction of children's energy expenditure than either heart rate or accelerometry alone. However, the cost of the Actiheart is prohibitive for large-scale studies. The pedometer is recommended when only the total amount of physical activity is of interest. When the intensity or the pattern of activity is of interest, accelerometry is the recommended measurement tool

  4. Measurement of farm level efficiency of home gardens in Uyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the farm level efficiency of home vegetable gardens in Uyo, a stochastic production function which incorporates a model for the technical inefficiency effects was used. Using farm-level data from 80 home gardeners obtained through structured questionnaire, the parameters were estimated simultaneously with ...

  5. Carotenoid levels in human lymphocytes, measured by Raman microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramanauskaite, R.; Ramanauskaite, Regina B.; Segers-Nolten, Gezina M.J.; de Grauw, C.J.; de Grauw, Kees J.; Sijtsema, N.M.; van der Maas, Louis; Greve, Jan; Otto, Cornelis; Figdor, Carl

    1997-01-01

    Carotenoid levels in lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood of healthy people have been investigated by Raman microspectroscopy. We observed that carotenoids are concentrated in so-called “Gall bodies”. The level of carotenoids in living human lymphocytes was found to be age-dependent and to

  6. Carotenoid levels in human lymphocytes, measured by Raman microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramanauskaite, R B; SegersNolten, IGMJ; DeGrauw, K J; Sijtsema, N M; VanderMaas, L; Greve, J; Otto, C; Figdor, C G

    1997-01-01

    Carotenoid levels in lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood of healthy people have been investigated by Raman microspectroscopy. We observed that carotenoids are concentrated in so-called ''Gall bodies''. The level of carotenoids in living human lymphocytes was found to be age-dependent and to

  7. Objectively measured physical activity in Danish after-school cares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Møller, Niels Christian; Støckel, Jan Toftegaard

    2015-01-01

    Inactivity and more sedentary time predominate the daily activity level of many of today's children. In Denmark, certified sport after-school cares have been established in order to increase children's daily physical activity (PA) level. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the activity...

  8. Can nursing students' confidence levels increase with repeated simulation activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Cynthia L; Connelly, Linda K

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, nursing faculty conducted a study with undergraduate nursing students on their satisfaction, confidence, and educational practice levels, as it related to simulation activities throughout the curriculum. The study was a voluntary survey conducted on junior and senior year nursing students. It consisted of 30 items based on the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning and the Educational Practices Questionnaire (Jeffries, 2012). Mean averages were obtained for each of the 30 items from both groups and were compared using T scores for unpaired means. The results showed that 8 of the items had a 95% confidence level and when combined the items were significant for p confidence and active learning. Based on these findings, it can be assumed that repeated simulation experiences can lead to an increase in student confidence and active learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Combining Eddy Covariance, Leaf Level Measurements and Modelling to Investigate Ecosystem Fluxes in Tropical Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohland, P.; Mantlana, B.; Kattge, J.

    2007-12-01

    Our project determined seasonal and spatial variations in ecosystem fluxes of tropical grassland ecosystems by investigating three prominent grassland types along a hydrological gradient in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.To identify the environmental factors that control CO2 and H2O exchange in tropical grassland ecosystems, we successfully combined eddy covariance measurements, leaf level measurements and remotely sensed data.Grassland ecosystems growing under the same climate showed profound differences in ecosystem fluxes as well as what regulated those fluxes on an ecosystem level. The analysis of the eddy covariance measurements revealed a pronounced seasonal and spatial variation with maximum net ecosystem exchange (NE) varying between -25μ mol -2 s-1 and -1μ mol -2 s-1 across sites and seasons. Without water limitation the main factor for the differences in NE between ecosystems was nutrient content per vegetation unit. This importance of nutrient content was also confirmed by our leaf level measurements. Seasonal differences in NE varied between sites and were driven by phenology or temperature and light limitation.Eddy covariance measurements for this project were predominantly campaign measurements. To determine annual course and sum of NE, we adapted the ecosystem model BETHY (Biosphere-Energy Transfer Hydrology Scheme) by parameter inversion in combination with remotely sensed fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation for each site.

  10. Corruption and Economic Activity: Micro Level Evidence from Rural Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, G.; Bulte, E.H.; Nillesen, E.E.M.

    2013-01-01

    We study how corruption affects economic activities of households in rural Liberia. A proxy of corruption of community leaders is obtained by directly monitoring the diversion of inputs associated with a development project. We measure quantities of these inputs twice; before and after the chief

  11. Measures of Audiovisual Production Activities with Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, Grace

    1985-01-01

    Presents a case study of the library media program at Old High Elementary School, Bentonville, Arkansas, which uses production of audiovisual materials to build extrinsic motivation into reading programs for grades five and six and special education classes. Five measurement techniques used to evaluate the program's effectiveness are also…

  12. Oxygen activity measurements in simulated converter matte

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tshilombo, KG

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available , FeS and Ni3S2) when in contact with silica saturated SiO2-FeO slags, and silica and (initially) magnetite saturated SiO2-FeO-Fe3O4 slags. The measurements were performed on laboratory scale at 1250°C, using an oxygen probe consisting of an Mg...

  13. Pressure sound level measurements at an educational environment in Goiania, Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Jhonatha J.L.; Nascimento, Eriberto O. do; Oliveira, Lucas N. de; Caldas, Linda V. E.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, twenty five points located on the ground floor of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Goias - IFG - Campus Goiania, were analyzed in morning periods of two Saturdays. The pressure sound levels were measured at internal and external environments during routine activities seeking to perform an environmental monitoring at this institution. The initial hypothesis was that an amusement park (Mutirama Park) was responsible for originating noise pollution in the institution, but the results showed, within the campus environment, sound pressure levels in accordance with the Municipal legislation of Goiania for all points. (author)

  14. Effects of Curricular Activity on Students' Situational Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students' situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve…

  15. Measurement for cobalt target activity and its axial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingyuan; Chen Zigen.

    1985-01-01

    Cobalt target activity and its axial distribution are measured in process of producing radioactive isotopes 60 Co by irradiation in HFETR. Cobalt target activity is obtained with measured data at 3.60 m and 4.60 m, relative axial distribution of cobalt target activity is obtained with one at 30 cm, and axial distribution of cobalt target activity(or specific activity) is obtained with both of data. The difference between this specific activity and measured result for 60 Co teletherapy sources in the end is less than +- 5%

  16. Thin layer activation: measuring wear and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvigne, T.; Leyman, D.; Oxorn, K.

    1995-01-01

    The technique known as thin layer activation (TLA) is explained and assessed in this article. Widely used, in for example the automotive industry, TLA allows on-line monitoring of the loss of matter from a critical surface, by wear erosion and corrosion. The technique offers extremely high sensitivity thus leading to reduced test times. On-line wear phenomena can be assessed during operation of a mechanical process, even through thick engine walls. (UK)

  17. Artificial Heads for High-Level Impulse Sound Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buck, K

    1999-01-01

    If the Insertion Loss (IL) of hearing protectors has to be determined with very high impulse or continuous noise levels, the acoustic insulation of the Artificial Test Fixture has to exceed at least the Insertion Loss (IL...

  18. Measuring patient activation in the Netherlands: translation and validation of the American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rademakers Jany

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM is a 13-item instrument which assesses patient (or consumer self-reported knowledge, skills and confidence for self-management of one’s health or chronic condition. In this study the PAM was translated into a Dutch version; psychometric properties of the Dutch version were established and the instrument was validated in a panel of chronically ill patients. Methods The translation was done according to WHO guidelines. The PAM 13-Dutch was sent to 4178 members of the Dutch National Panel of people with Chronic illness or Disability (NPCD in April 2010 (study A and again to a sub sample of this group (N = 973 in June 2010 (study B. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and cross-validation with the SBSQ-D (a measure for Health literacy were computed. The Dutch results were compared to similar Danish and American data. Results The psychometric properties of the PAM 13-Dutch were generally good. The level of internal consistency is good (α = 0.88 and item-rest correlations are moderate to strong. The Dutch mean PAM score (61.3 is comparable to the American (61.9 and lower than the Danish (64.2. The test-retest reliability was moderate. The association with Health literacy was weak to moderate. Conclusions The PAM-13 Dutch is a reliable instrument to measure patient activation. More research is needed into the validity of the Patient Activation Measure, especially with respect to a more comprehensive measure of Health literacy.

  19. Statistical measurements of library activities: implementation of ISO 2789 : 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kodrič-Dačič

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The author presents statistical measurements of library activities in Slovenia and some problems which emerge when implementing the novelties of the new edition of ISO 2789 : 2003 from the standpoint of a librarian, who provides statistics on the national level. Collecting library statistics already has a long tradition in Slovenia and is presently carried out by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia and by the National Centre for Library Development at the National and University Library, which is also responsible for the content of statistical questionnaires. The questionnaires are based on UNESCO statistical questionnaires and ISO standards while in the last decade there have been some changes due to the requirements of the LIBECON project. As a response to the needs of the information society, libraries develop new services which have to be measured and monitored. The third edition of the standard ISO 2789 : 2003 has defined new measures which are needed to perform statistical research of library activities in the digital environment. In order to preserve international comparability of statistical data it is necessary to implement the novelties of the ISO standard in the national statistics. However, there are at least three problems: how to preserve comparability of the data with previous statistics, how to collect them and how to educate librarians to report the relevant data.

  20. Low patient activation levels in frail older adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Anouk; Rietjens, Judith A C; Jabbarian, Lea J; Severijnen, Johan; Swart, Siebe J; van der Heide, Agnes; Korfage, Ida J

    2018-01-05

    Frail older adults are increasingly expected to self-manage their health and healthcare. We assessed the extent to which this group is able to take up this responsibility by measuring their level of activation as patients (i.e. their knowledge, skills and confidence to self-manage their health and healthcare). Further, we studied which characteristics of older adults were associated with patient activation. In this cross-sectional study 200 frail, competent adults (median age 87 years) participated. Participants were community-dwelling adults who received home care and residents of care homes. Data were collected via personal interviews in participants' homes. The main outcome measure was patient activation assessed by the short version of the Patient Activation Measure (PAM-13; range: 0-100). The PAM distinguishes four levels of increasing activation with level 1 indicating poor patient activation and level 4 adequate patient activation. Other studied variables were: multimorbidity, type of residency, frailty (Tilburg Frailty Index), mental competence (Mini Mental State Examination), health-related quality of life (SF-12), satisfaction with healthcare (subscale Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire) and personal characteristics (age, gender, marital status, educational level). Regression analyses were performed to investigate which variables were associated with patient activation. Participants had a median PAM score of 51. Thirty-nine percent had level 1 activation, 31% level 2, 26% level 3 and 5% level 4. Fifty-nine percent of community dwelling adults had level 1 or 2 activation versus 81% of care home residents (p = 0.007). Mental competence (Effect: 0.52, CI: 0.03-1.01, p = 0.04) and health-related quality of life (Effect: 0.15, CI: 0.01-0.30, p = 0.04 for physical health; Effect: 0.20, CI: 0.07-0.34, p = 0.003 for mental health) were positively associated with patient activation. Frailty (Effect: -1.06, CI: -1.75 - -0.36, p = 0.003) was

  1. Exterior sound level measurements of snowcoaches at Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Sounds associated with oversnow vehicles, such as snowmobiles and snowcoaches, are an important management concern at Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks. The John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Centers Environmental Measurement a...

  2. Quality assurance for radionuclide measurements at environmental levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisenne, I.M.; Welford, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Environmental Measurements Laboratory administers and participates in two quality control programs. The first is the intralaboratory program for evaluation of staff and Environmental Measurement Laboratory's contractor results obtained for environmental samples. The second Quality Assurance Program is operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Division of Operational and Environmental Safety. The Quality Assurance Program is an interlaboratory program designed for major DOE contractors reporting environmental radionuclide data. The problems associated with the data evaluation process under both programs are contrasted

  3. Physical activity levels of adolescent girls during dance classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Jennifer R; Pate, Russell R; Beets, Michael W

    2012-03-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the physical activity levels of girls during dance classes and to identify factors associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in those classes. Participants were 137 girls (11 to 18 years-old) enrolled in ballet, jazz, or tap dance classes from 11 dance studios. Participants wore an accelerometer during the selected dance class on 2 separate days. Factors hypothesized to be associated with MVPA were dance style, instructional level, instructor's experience, percent of class time spent in choreography, and participants' age, race/ethnicity, BMI-for-age percentile, and years of dance training. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Girls engaged in 9.8 minutes of MVPA, 6.0 minutes of moderate, 3.8 minutes of vigorous, 39.3 minutes of light, and 10.9 minutes of sedentary behavior per hour of dance class participation. Jazz/tap classes provided more MVPA than ballet classes, and intermediate level classes provided more MVPA than advanced level classes. Girls with more dance training obtained more MVPA than girls with less dance training. Dance classes provide valuable opportunities for adolescent girls to be physically active.

  4. Urinary cadmium levels in active and retired coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isermann, Julia; Prager, Hans-Martin; Ebbinghaus, Rainer; Janasik, Beata; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Dufaux, Bertinus; Meyer, Hans-Friedrich; Widera, Agata; Selinski, Silvia; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    A meta-analysis, based upon 24 publications, showed a significantly elevated risk for urinary bladder cancer amongst miners. In European underground hard coal mining areas, an increased risk for urinary bladder cancer development was noted among hard coal miners, in particular in three investigations in the greater Dortmund area. However, the cause remains unclear. As cadmium (Cd), which was reported to be a bladder carcinogen in humans and is a constituent of coal, the aim of this study was to determine urinary Cd levels in active and retired hard coal miners and assess whether hard coal miners demonstrated elevated metal levels. In total, 103 retired and 25 active hard coal miners as well as 18 controls without any history of hard coal mining were investigated for urinary Cd levels. Urinary Cd concentrations, in addition to other elements, were analyzed in spot urines by ICP-MS-based multi-element analysis in a Department for Forensic and Clinical Toxicology. Limit of detection (LOD) for Cd was 0.5 μg/L. Reference value for occupationally non-exposed working age population was 0.8 μg/L. In total, 49% of all underground coal miners were exposed to coal dust, 12% to grinded rock, and 39% to both. Urinary Cd levels in retired as well as active coal miners and controls were clearly below the Biological Exposure Index. Urinary Cd concentration is a suitable biomarker to evaluate the metallic load of the body, as the half-life is > than 10 years. The detected urinary Cd levels in retired and active coal miners indicated underground hard coal miners were not apparently exposed to Cd to a occupationally-relevant concentration.

  5. Measuring Kinase Activity-A Global Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Marissa L; McDonald, Ian M; East, Michael P; Johnson, Gary L; Graves, Lee M

    2017-11-01

    The kinase enzymes within a cell, known collectively as the kinome, play crucial roles in many signaling pathways, including survival, motility, differentiation, stress response, and many more. Aberrant signaling through kinase pathways is often linked to cancer, among other diseases. A major area of scientific research involves understanding the relationships between kinases, their targets, and how the kinome adapts to perturbations of the cellular system. This review will discuss many of the current and developing methods for studying kinase activity, and evaluate their applications, advantages, and disadvantages. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3595-3606, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Anthropogenic noise alters bat activity levels and echolocation calls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie P. Bunkley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative impacts from anthropogenic noise are well documented for many wildlife taxa. Investigations of the effects of noise on bats however, have not been conducted outside of the laboratory. Bats that hunt arthropods rely on auditory information to forage. Part of this acoustic information can fall within the spectrum of anthropogenic noise, which can potentially interfere with signal reception and processing. Compressor stations associated with natural gas extraction produce broadband noise 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. With over half a million producing gas wells in the U.S. this infrastructure is a major source of noise pollution across the landscape. We conducted a ‘natural experiment’ in the second largest gas extraction field in the U.S. to investigate the potential effects of gas compressor station noise on the activity levels of the local bat assemblage. We used acoustic monitoring to compare the activity level (number of minutes in a night with a bat call of the bat assemblage at sites with compressor stations to sites lacking this infrastructure. We found that activity levels for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis were 40% lower at loud compressor sites compared to quieter well pads, whereas the activity levels of four other species (Myotis californicus, M. cillolabrum, M. lucifugus, Parastrellus hesperus were not affected by noise. Furthermore, our results reveal that the assemblage of bat species emitting low frequency (35 kHz echolocation did not exhibit altered activity levels in noise. Lower activity levels of Brazilian free-tailed bats at loud sites indicate a potential reduction in habitat for this species. Additionally, a comparison of echolocation search calls produced by free-tailed bats at sites with and without compressor stations reveal that this species modifies its echolocation search calls in noise—producing longer calls with a narrower bandwidth. Call alterations might affect prey

  7. Low level alpha activity measurements with pulse shape discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Kaneaki; Higuchi, Hideo; Kitamura, Kiyoshi; Noguchi, Masayasu.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid scintillation counting of α rays with pulse shape discrimination was applied to the analysis of 226 Ra and 239+240 Pu in environmental samples and of α-emitters in/on a filter paper. The instrument used in this study was either a specially designed detector or a commercial liquid scintillation counter with an automatic sample changer, both of which were connected to the pulse shape discrimination circuit. The background counting rate in α energy region of 5-7 MeV was 0.01 or 0.04 cpm/MeV, respectively. The figure of merit indicating the resolving power for α- and β-particles in time spectrum was found to be 5.7 for the commercial liquid scintillation counter. (author)

  8. Sea level: measuring the bounding surfaces of the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamisiea, Mark E; Hughes, Chris W; Williams, Simon D P; Bingley, Richard M

    2014-09-28

    The practical need to understand sea level along the coasts, such as for safe navigation given the spatially variable tides, has resulted in tide gauge observations having the distinction of being some of the longest instrumental ocean records. Archives of these records, along with geological constraints, have allowed us to identify the century-scale rise in global sea level. Additional data sources, particularly satellite altimetry missions, have helped us to better identify the rates and causes of sea-level rise and the mechanisms leading to spatial variability in the observed rates. Analysis of all of the data reveals the need for long-term and stable observation systems to assess accurately the regional changes as well as to improve our ability to estimate future changes in sea level. While information from many scientific disciplines is needed to understand sea-level change, this review focuses on contributions from geodesy and the role of the ocean's bounding surfaces: the sea surface and the Earth's crust. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Sea level: measuring the bounding surfaces of the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamisiea, Mark E.; Hughes, Chris W.; Williams, Simon D. P.; Bingley, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    The practical need to understand sea level along the coasts, such as for safe navigation given the spatially variable tides, has resulted in tide gauge observations having the distinction of being some of the longest instrumental ocean records. Archives of these records, along with geological constraints, have allowed us to identify the century-scale rise in global sea level. Additional data sources, particularly satellite altimetry missions, have helped us to better identify the rates and causes of sea-level rise and the mechanisms leading to spatial variability in the observed rates. Analysis of all of the data reveals the need for long-term and stable observation systems to assess accurately the regional changes as well as to improve our ability to estimate future changes in sea level. While information from many scientific disciplines is needed to understand sea-level change, this review focuses on contributions from geodesy and the role of the ocean's bounding surfaces: the sea surface and the Earth's crust. PMID:25157196

  10. The Efficiency of Repressive Anti-Corruption Measures in Conditions of High-Level Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramov Fedir V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at determining the efficiency of repressive anti-corruption measures in conditions of high-level corruption. It is shown that the formal rules regulating the use of repressive methods of countering corruption are characterized by a significant level of the target inefficiency of formal rules. Resulting from ignorance as to the causes of both occurence and spread of corruption – the inefficiency of the current formal rules – repressive anti-corruption measures are fundamentally incapable of achieving a significant reduction in the level of corruptness. It has been proved that, in addition to significant target inefficiency, repressive anti-corruption methods can potentially lead to increased levels of corruption because of abusing by supervisory officials of their official duties and the spread of internal corruption within anti-corruption structures. The potential threats from the uncontrolled anti-corruption structures towards other controlling organizations were considered. It is shown that in conditions of high-level corruption repressive anti-corruption measures can lead to expansion of imitation of anti-corruption activity.

  11. Inversion of double-difference measurements from optical levelling for the Groningen gas field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Fokker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon extraction lead to compaction of the gas reservoir which is visible as subsidence on the surface. Subsidence measurements can therefore be used to better estimate reservoir parameters. Total subsidence is derived from the result of the measurement of height differences between optical benchmarks. The procedure from optical height difference measurements to absolute subsidence is an inversion, and the result is often used as an input for consequent inversions on the reservoir. We have used the difference measurements directly to invert for compaction of the Groningen gas reservoir in the Netherlands. We have used a linear inversion exercise to update an already existing reservoir compaction model of the field. This procedure yielded areas of increased and decreased levels of compaction compared to the existing compaction model in agreement with observed discrepancies in porosity and aquifer activity.

  12. Topoisomerase I as a Biomarker: Detection of Activity at the Single Molecule Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proszek, Joanna; Roy, Amit; Jakobsen, Ann-Katrine

    2014-01-01

    of hTopI cleavage-religation activity at the single molecule level, may be used to detect posttranslational enzymatic differences influencing CPT response. These differences cannot be detected by analysis of hTopI gene copy number, mRNA amount, or protein amount, and only become apparent upon measuring......Human topoisomerase I (hTopI) is an essential cellular enzyme. The enzyme is often upregulated in cancer cells, and it is a target for chemotherapeutic drugs of the camptothecin (CPT) family. Response to CPT-based treatment is dependent on hTopI activity, and reduction in activity, and mutations...... in hTopI have been reported to result in CPT resistance. Therefore, hTOPI gene copy number, mRNA level, protein amount, and enzyme activity have been studied to explain differences in cellular response to CPT. We show that Rolling Circle Enhanced Enzyme Activity Detection (REEAD), allowing measurement...

  13. Measuring level of friendliness of smart city: a perceptual study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani Roychansyah, Muhammad; Felasari, Sushardjanti

    2018-03-01

    Currently the concept of smart city comes not only at the level of discussion, but some cities have stepped in the stage of implementation. Many of promised benefits will be met for the needs of urban residents if the city applies this concept. Conversely, many professionals and scholars are still in doubt about readiness of a city in the application of this concept. Dimension of friendliness of the real city certainly will have some limitations in a smart city that relies more on interactions with information and communication technology (ICT). This new paradigm becomes background of this paper in viewing the friendliness dimension of a smart city based on city residents’ perceptions. This paper uses case of 2 cities that have different level of readiness in the application of smart city. They are Yogyakarta City and Magelang City, both are located in Central Java. The method applied in this paper is quantitative method based on perceptual answer of respondents structured in a Likert Scale. Importance Performance Analysis (IPA) is then used to look at the attributes of smart city’s dimension which will show the relationship of the level of city friendliness and the level of city readiness in an application of smart city. The result briefly shows that the level of city sensitivity in the application of smart city is very influential in viewing the friendliness of the city. The city that is better equipped to meet the needs of its population according to the dimensions of the smart city based on its existing characteristics has higher friendliness. Time period of applying a smart city concept as the City of Yogyakarta has done longer before Magelang City, is not a guarantee that the city then has a better level of friendliness. The urban citizens have appropriate affective aspect to articulate between what they need and what the city has provided.

  14. Torsional ultrasonic technique for reactor vessel liquid level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    We have undertaken a detailed study of an ultrasonic waveguide employed as a level, density, and temperature sensor. The purpose of this study was to show how such a device might be used in the nuclear power industry to provide reliable level information with a multifunction sensor, thus overcomming several of the errors that led to the accident at Three Mile Island. Some additional work is needed to answer the questions raised by the current study, most noticably the damping effects of flowing water

  15. Microscopic cross-section measurements by thermal neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila L, J.

    1987-08-01

    Microscopic cross sections measured by thermal neutron activation using RP-0 reactor at the Peruvian Nuclear Energy Institute. The method consists in measuring microscopic cross section ratios through activated samples, requiring being corrected in thermal and epithermal energetic range by Westcott formalism. Furthermore, the comptage ratios measured for each photopeak to its decay fraction should be normalized from interrelation between both processes above, activation microscopic cross sections are obtained

  16. MEASURING LEVEL OF ACCEPTANCE OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIESAND THEIR FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARAZ Svetlana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The group of persons with disabilities represents a group at immediate risk of social exclusion. Different researchers offer us analyses of the phenomenon of exclusion of different groups of population, but we can find very few studies regarding the measurement of social distance towards the groups at risk of exclusion. We set the goal to measure the Indices of Social Distance (ISD towards the following groups: family that cares the child with disabilities; adult person with disabilities and the child with disabilities. The measurement was performed using the instrument – Bogardus Scale. According to this technique, we have: if the distance is bigger, than the social group is lesser accepted. The minimum ISD counted for our researched groups: the family caring child/ children with disabilities; adult persons with disabilities and children/adolescents with disabilities, confirms the fact that the social distance expressed by people towards these groups is minimal respectively the groups are accepted.

  17. Chaos and Brain Wave Activity: Measures of Irregular Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    West, Bruce

    1988-01-01

    Physiological measurements of the electrical activity of the brain may provide the predictive information necessary for a sensitive measure of the attention state of an airplane pilot or air traffic controller...

  18. Bayesian Compressed Sensing with Unknown Measurement Noise Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Lundgaard; Jørgensen, Peter Bjørn; Pedersen, Niels Lovmand

    2013-01-01

    In sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) approximate Bayesian inference is applied to find sparse estimates from observations corrupted by additive noise. Current literature only vaguely considers the case where the noise level is unknown a priori. We show that for most state-of-the-art reconstruction a...

  19. The diagnostic value of thrombopoietin level measurements in thrombocytopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porcelijn, L.; Folman, C. C.; Bossers, B.; Huiskes, E.; Overbeeke, M. A.; van der Schoot, C. E.; de Haas, M.; von dem Borne, A. E.

    1998-01-01

    It has been reported that blood trombopoietin (TPO) levels can discriminate between thrombocytopenia due to increased platelet destruction and decreased platelet production. With our TPO ELISA and a glycocalicin ELISA we analysed a large group of patients in detail and could confirm and amplify the

  20. Measurements of radon activity concentrations in air at Niska spa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrovic, F.; Vuckovic, B.; Ninkovic, M.

    2004-01-01

    Radon activity concentrations in air were measured in the recreational-tourist center of Niska Banja. Alpha Guard PQ 2000/ MC50 instrumentation (Genitron instruments, Frankfurt) was used. The observed indoor radon concentrations in the air of the Radon Hotel pool lay within the range of 0.980-1.908 kBq/m 3 and were directly dependent on the exhalation of radon from thermomineral waters. Radon concentrations were also measured outdoors, at locations for capping thermomineral water, as well as at locations for draining used water from the Radon Hotel pool. Outdoor radon concentrations as high as over 500 Bq/m 3 were observed. Gamma dose rates were measured in parallel and found to lie within the range of 72-420 nSv/h. The gamma doses correlated well with the observed radon levels. The largest gamma dose rates in air were measured in the pool of Radon Hotel and at the site where this thermomineral water is being capped

  1. [Physical activity levels among Colombian adults: inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Silvia; Lozano, Óscar; Ramírez, Andrea; Grijalba, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide studies show inequalities in physical activity levels related to socio-demographic characteristics. In Colombia, among the countries in Latin America with the highest inequality, the evidence related to inequalities in physical activity is limited. It is imperative to identify disparities in physical activity in the country, to guide the design of public policies aimed at promoting physical activity. 1) To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of meeting physical activity recommendations; 2) to assess inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status in meeting physical activity recommendations, and 3) to assess the trends in physical activity prevalence within a five-year period. A secondary analysis of data from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey was conducted. The sample included 27,243 adults. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure leisure time and transport domains. Socioeconomic status was measured by the Sisben level. Compared to men, women were less likely to meet physical activity recommendations in all domains. Compared to adults from high socioeconomic-status households, low socioeconomic-status adults had a lower prevalence of meeting physical activity recommendations during leisure time and the highest prevalence of using a bicycle for transport. The factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations differed by gender and physical activity domain. Household and individual variables explained 13.6% of the inequalities observed by gender, and 23.2% of the inequalities by socioeconomic status. In a five-year period, the prevalence of physical activity in leisure time decreased, while the physical activity of walking for transport increased and biking for transport did not change. Future interventions to increase physical activity levels in Colombia must consider inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status. Of special concern is the low prevalence of meeting physical activity

  2. Remedial measures against high levels of radioisotopes in aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsekhovitch, O.; Haakanson, L.

    2000-01-01

    This Annex has been prepared within the framework of the Aquatic Working Group of the co-ordinated Research Programme on Validation of the Environmental Model Predictions (VAMP). The main objectives of this Annex are: (1) To provide an outline of a broad set of remedial measures and strategies tested and suggested for aquatic systems to speed up the recovery after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in April 1986. This Report covers case studies from rivers and lakes and includes results from field and laboratory experiments, as well as measures directed at reducing radioisotopes in food by different food preparation procedures in the home. (2) To provide results from selected case studies, focusing on general, strategic results rather than site-specific details. (3) To provide conclusions which specifically address practical matters concerning how to select remedial measures in different situations, how to avoid inefficient measures, and to suggest important areas for future research. (4) To provide an analysis of the concept of lake sensitivity using both empirical and modelled data. One and the same fallout may give rise to very different radionuclide concentrations in water and biota depending on the characteristics of the lake and its catchment

  3. Out-door radiation level measurement in Abeokuta, Nigeria, by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... measurements of terrestrial radiation dose in a previous survey, the mean dose rate from extraterrestrial (cosmic) radiation has been estimated to be about 0.18 mSv/y in Abeokut Keywords: Environmental radiation, thermoluminescent dosimetry, Abeokuta, outdoor Radiation exposure. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol.

  4. The measurement of radiation levels in Australian zircon milling plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, B M

    2001-01-01

    The processing of zircon often involves grinding it to a fine powder known as zircon flour. As the resulting particles are small they may be inhaled if they become airborne and, since they contain some uranium and thorium, deliver radiation doses to workers. Theoretical estimates and measured radiation exposure in Australian zircon milling plants are reported in this paper. Theoretical doses, calculated in this work, indicate a potential maximum dose to workers of 5.5 mSv y(-1). Measured doses, based on normal work practices, vary in different plants from 0.66 mSv to 1.03 mSv y(-1) and suggest that in the dustiest Australian zircon milling plants the maximum dose would be of the order of 1 mSv y(-1). Measurements, which focused on the dustiest operations, indicate an upper limit of dose of about 3 mSv y(-1). Based on the theoretical and measured doses not exceeding 6 mSv y(-1), workers would not be designated as Category A workers, and probably would not be designated Category B workers, exceeding 1 mSv y(-1), under the guidelines of a EURATOM Directive.

  5. Measurement of brix level of Malaysian local oranges at resonance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    production, a non-destructive method by using monopole antenna is used in this study. The reflection coefficient is measured at range operating frequency of 8MHz to 5 GHz. The relationship between dielectric constant and S11 is determined. The other variables are compared during S11 at resonance.S11 of oranges is the ...

  6. Measurement of radio frequency radiation (RFR) power levels from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the upsurge in the number of network providers and the attendant increase in the installation of mast in Nigeria, the environment is being inundated with radiofrequency radiation (RFR). There is, therefore, increasing concern about the health implications of this development. In this study measurements of RFR output ...

  7. Comparison of doubly labeled water with respirometry at low- and high-activity levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Brouns, F.; Saris, W.H.; ten Hoor, F.

    1988-01-01

    In previous studies the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure in free-living humans has been validated against respirometry under sedentary conditions. In the present investigation, energy expenditure is measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water and respirometry at low- and high-activity levels. Over 6 days, five subjects were measured doing mainly sedentary activities like desk work; their average daily metabolic rate was 1.40 +/- 0.09 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. Four subjects were measured twice over 3.5 days, including 2 days with heavy bicycle ergometer work, resulting in an average daily metabolic rate of 2.61 +/- 0.25 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. At the low-activity level, energy expenditures from the doubly labeled water method were on the average 1.4 +/- 3.9% (SD) larger than those from respirometry. At the high-activity level, the doubly labeled water method yielded values that were 1.0 +/- 7.0% (SD) lower than those from respirometry. Results demonstrate the utility of the doubly labeled water method for the determination of energy expenditure in the range of activity levels in daily life

  8. Cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity level in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Schultz Straatmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n1p21   More objective methods to detect inactive adolescents may help identify young people that are vulnerable to obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to examine the association between classifications obtained with the cardiorespiratory fitness test and physical activity level in adolescents, as well as the agreement between tertiles and z-score distribution of the variables generated with these methods (distance covered and total physical activity score. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a random sample of 639 adolescents (61% girls aged 12 to 19 years (mean age of 16 ± 1.8 and categorized into two age groups: 12-13 and 14-19 years, from public schools in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by a 9-min run/walk test (T9 and physical activity level by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. The chi-square test (or Fisher’s exact test and Kruskal-Wallis test were applied for the evaluation of associations, and the weighted kappa coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient were used to investigate agreement between variables. A level of significance of p<0.05 was adopted. A significant association between the classifications obtained with the two methods was only observed for adolescents aged ≥ 14 years. However, there was agreement between the variables generated with the two methods in both age groups. The median distance covered in the T9 increased according to tertiles of total physical activity score. An association between the classifications obtained with the IPAQ and T9 was only found for older adolescents. However, the continuous variables and variables categorized into tertiles generated with the methods were associated and showed agreement in both age groups.

  9. Indoor Levels of Formaldehyde and Other Pollutants and Relationship to Air Exchange Rates and Human Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Y.; O'Keeffe, P.; Kirk, M.; Walden, V. P.; Lamb, B. K.; Jobson, B. T.

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports results on an indoor air quality study conducted on six homes in summer and winter, contrasting indoor and outdoor concentrations of O3, CO, CO2, NOx, PM2.5, and selected volatile organic hydrocarbons measured by PTR-MS. Data were collected as 1 minute averages. Air exchange rates of the homes were determined by CO2 tracer release. Smart home sensors, recording human activity level in various places in the home, and window and doors openings, were utilized to better understand the link between human activity and indoor air pollution. From our study, averaged air exchange rates of the homes ranged from 0.2 to 1.2 hour-1 and were greatly affected by the ventilation system type and window and door openings. In general, a negative correlation between air exchange rate and indoor VOCs levels was observed, with large variation of pollutant levels between the homes. For most of the VOCs measured in the house, including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, summer levels were much higher than winter levels. In some homes formaldehyde levels displayed a time of day variation that was linked to changes in indoor temperature. During a wildfire period in the summer of 2015, outdoor levels of PM2.5, formaldehyde, and benzene dramatically increased, significantly impacting indoor levels due to infiltration. Human activities, such as cooking, can significantly change the levels of most of the compounds measured in the house and the levels can be significantly elevated for short periods of time, with peak levels can be several orders higher compared with typical levels. The data suggest that an outcome of state energy codes that require new homes to be energy efficient, and as a consequence built with lower air exchange rates, will be unacceptable levels of air toxics, notably formaldehyde.

  10. Measuring Physical Activity in Children and Youth Living with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckson, Erica Aneke; Curtis, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Accurate assessment of physical activity is necessary in determining levels of physical activity in children living with intellectual disability (ID) and assessing effectiveness of intervention programmes. A systematic review of measures of physical activity in children with ID was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE-PubMed, Scopus,…

  11. Use of a consumer market activity monitoring and feedback device improves exercise capacity and activity levels in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Brian; Kaljo, Indira; Donnelly, Seamas

    2014-01-01

    COPD is associated with a gradual decline in physical activity, which itself contributes to a worsening of the underlying condition. Strategies that improve physical activity levels are critical to halt this cycle. Wearable sensor based activity monitoring and persuasive feedback might offer a potential solution. However it is not clear just how much intervention might be needed in this regard - i.e. whether programmes need to be tailored specifically for the target clinical population or whether more simple activity monitoring and feedback solutions, such as that offered in consumer market devices, might be sufficient. This research was carried out to investigate the impact of 4 weeks of using an off the shelf consumer market activity monitoring and feedback application on measures of physical activity, exercise capacity, and health related quality of life in a population of 10 Stage I and II COPD patients. Results demonstrate a significant and positive effect on exercise capacity (measured using a 6-minute walk test) and activity levels (measured in terms of average number of steps per hour) yet no impact on health related quality of life (St Georges Respiratory Disease Questionnaire).

  12. Intervention levels for protective measures in nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.

    1992-12-01

    A radiation protection philosophy for exposure situations following an accident has been developed by international organisations such as the ICRP, IAEA, NES/OECD, FAO/WHO, and the CEC during the last decade. After the Chernobyl accident, the application of radiation protection principles for intervention situations such as exposure from accidental contamination or radon in dwellings were further developed and this work is still in progress. The present intervention policy recommended by the international organisations as well as by the Nordic radiation protection authorities is reviewed. The Nordic Intervention levels for foodstuff restrictions, both for the Chernobyl and post-Chernobyl periods, have been based on dose limits and they are therefore in conflict with international intervention policy. Illustrative examples on intervention level setting for relocation and foodstuff restrictions are derived for Nordic conditions from the optimisation principle recommended by the international organisations. Optimised Generic Intervention Levels have been determined to be about 10 mSv x month -1 for relocation/return and 5,000-30,000 Bqxkg -1 for restrictions on various foodstuffs contaminated with 137 Cs and 131 I. (au) (14 tabs., 1 ill., 16 refs.)

  13. Physical activity level and exercise in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Camila Kümmel; Almeida, Jussara Carnevale de; Merker, Aline Juliana Schneider; Brauer, Fabiane de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Ticiana da Costa

    2012-01-01

    To compare physical activity level (PAL) and care related to exercise in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). DM outpatients (adult, insulin-user patients) were assessed for PAL (international questionnaire; moderate- and high-level activities, as well as walking, over a typical week) and questioned about formal exercise practice, self-care, and hypoglycemic episodes related to exercise or reasons for not exercising. Two hundred twenty five patients were assessed: 107 (47.6%) had type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and 118 (52.4%) had type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1), with a larger percentage of patients with DM2 being classified as poorly active [33 (30.7%) versus 12 (10.3%)] and a lower percentage being classified as highly active [9 (8.7%) versus 29 (25%)], compared with patients having DM1. Patients who do not exercise (n = 140) gave different reasons for not doing so: patients with DM2 claimed that they "felt uncomfortable", "presented medical restrictions", and "did not like it"; DM1 patients claimed that they "had no time to exercise", "were lazy", and "had hypoglycemic episodes". Only 85 patients exercised regularly, regardless of the PAL, and 38.8% performed self-care, such as eating, stretching, and capillary glucose monitoring. Patients with DM2 [5 (14.3%)] reported a lower number of hypoglycemic episodes related to exercise than those with DM1 [17 (34%)]. Patients with DM2 have different PAL and behavior related to exercise than those seen in DM1 patients.

  14. Measuring workload with electrodermal activity during common braking actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, C; Salvia, E; Petit-Boulanger, C

    2014-01-01

    How to assess mental load remains a recurrent question. We aimed to explore whether slight differences in real-world driving task demands could be discriminated by electrodermal response (EDR). A sample of 33 participants was observed under five conditions: controlled braking from 50 to 30 km/h, 80 to 50 km/h, 50 to 0 km/h, 80 to 0 km/h, and a single unexpected emergency braking event from 80 to 0 km/h. The likelihood of EDR and, whenever present, its duration were both correlated with workload as represented by the deceleration demand. A higher base travel speed and the unexpected demand of the emergency braking situation impacted EDR, thus attesting higher workload level. EDR explains why stopping the vehicle from 50 km/h and slowing down from 80 to 50 km/h was of similar strain. The results further demonstrate that EDR measures can be successfully employed to discriminate multiple levels of workload. Common braking elicited different loads as revealed by electrodermal response (EDR) with sensitivity to deceleration of - 0.2 g. Even the slightest braking elicited a strain measurable with EDR. Accordingly, EDR may objectively assess the resulting strain during driving, with enhanced reliability if associated with other variables, e.g. cardiac activity.

  15. The measurement of sedentary patterns and behaviors using the activPAL™ Professional physical activity monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowd, Kieran P; Bourke, Alan K; Nelson, John; Donnelly, Alan E; Harrington, Deirdre M

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated the negative effects of sedentary time and sedentary patterns on health indices. However, these studies have used methodologies that do not directly measure the sedentary state. Recent technological developments in the area of motion sensors have incorporated inclinometers, which can measure the inclination of the body directly, without relying on self-report or count thresholds. This paper aims to provide a detailed description of methodologies used to examine a range of relevant variables, including sedentary levels and patterns from an inclinometer-based motion sensor. The activPAL Professional physical activity logger provides an output which can be interpreted and used without the need for further processing and additional variables were derived using a custom designed MATLAB® computer program. The methodologies described have been implemented on a sample of 44 adolescent females, and the results of a range of daily physical activity and sedentary variables are described and presented. The results provide a range of objectively measured and objectively processed variables, including total time spent sitting/lying, standing and stepping, number and duration of daily sedentary bouts and both bed hours and non-bed hours, which may be of interest when making association between physical activity, sedentary behaviors and health indices. (paper)

  16. From Structure to Activity: Using Centrality Measures to Predict Neuronal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jack McKay; Wennekers, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    It is clear that the topological structure of a neural network somehow determines the activity of the neurons within it. In the present work, we ask to what extent it is possible to examine the structural features of a network and learn something about its activity? Specifically, we consider how the centrality (the importance of a node in a network) of a neuron correlates with its firing rate. To investigate, we apply an array of centrality measures, including In-Degree, Closeness, Betweenness, Eigenvector, Katz, PageRank, Hyperlink-Induced Topic Search (HITS) and NeuronRank to Leaky-Integrate and Fire neural networks with different connectivity schemes. We find that Katz centrality is the best predictor of firing rate given the network structure, with almost perfect correlation in all cases studied, which include purely excitatory and excitatory-inhibitory networks, with either homogeneous connections or a small-world structure. We identify the properties of a network which will cause this correlation to hold. We argue that the reason Katz centrality correlates so highly with neuronal activity compared to other centrality measures is because it nicely captures disinhibition in neural networks. In addition, we argue that these theoretical findings are applicable to neuroscientists who apply centrality measures to functional brain networks, as well as offer a neurophysiological justification to high level cognitive models which use certain centrality measures.

  17. Protocol of source shielding maintenance in a level measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, E.; Figueroa, J.

    1996-01-01

    Maintenance labor of the source shielding and locking system is not performed in many Venezuelan enterprises that employ radioactive level gauge in large container. The lack of maintenance and the ambient long lasting action have produced impairment of many devices and their given parts rise to economical and radiological protection problems. In order to help to solve the mentioned problems, principally to reduce the unjustified dose to workers, the IVIC Health Physics Service worked out a protocol to perform, in a safety way, the maintenance of source shielding and its locking system. This protocol is presented in this paper. (authors)

  18. Impact of measurement and evaluation on innovation level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Henning Sejer; Gertsen, Frank; Goduscheit, René Chester

    This article explores the situation in which an innovation project fails to achieve its full potential because the goal is lowered during the process. When the gap between measured/perceived progress and goals/aspirations of an innovation project becomes too large, the goals will be lowered...... and opportunities will be lost. The hypothetical explanation suggested here, is that the progress is often perceived to be linear whereas the actual progress is often exponential and that this makes the gap between actual achievement and expected progress much larger. The hypothesis is explored by means of a single...

  19. Low level optical absorption measurements on organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stella, M.; Rojas, F.; Escarre, J.; Asensi, J.M.; Bertomeu, J.; Andreu, J. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona. Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Voz, C.; Puigdollers, J.; Fonrodona, M. [Micro and Nano Technology Group (MNT), Dept. d' Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, C/Jordi Girona 1-3, Campus Nord - Modul C4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-06-15

    The optical absorption of n-type (C{sub 60} and PTCDA) and p-type (CuPc and pentacene) organic semiconductors is investigated by optical transmission and photothermal deflection spectroscopy. The usual absorption bands related to HOMO-LUMO transitions are observed in the high absorption region of transmission spectra. Photothermal deflection spectroscopy also evidences exponential absorption shoulders with characteristic energies 47meV for CuPc, 38meV for pentacene, 50 meV for PTCDA and 87meV for C{sub 60}. In addition, broad bands in the low absorption level are observed for C{sub 60} and PTCDA. These bands have been attributed to contamination due to air exposure. On the other hand, in CuPc a clear absorption peak at 1.12eV is observed with smaller features at 1.04eV, 1.20eV and 1.33eV. These peaks are attributed to transitions between the Pc levels of CuPc ions. Finally, the optical absorption expected in blends of organic semiconductors is estimated by an effective media approximation. (author)

  20. Measurement of empathy levels in undergraduate paramedic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Boyle, Mal; Earl, Tracy

    2013-04-01

    Paramedics rely on establishing a health provider-patient relationship with patients that promotes two-way communication, patient satisfaction, and facilitates appropriate patient assessment and treatment. Paramedics also must have an ability to empathize with patients and their family members in order to develop a successful health provider-patient relationship. The objective of this study was to assess paramedics' empathy and attitudes toward patients with specific conditions. This was a cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of first-, second-, and third-year, Australian undergraduate paramedic students. Student empathy levels were assessed using two standardized self-reporting instruments: the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) Health Professional (HP) version and the Medical Condition Regard Scale (MCRS). A total of 94 paramedic students participated in the study. The JSPE demonstrated that male paramedic students had higher mean empathy scores than did female paramedic students (113.25 and 107.5, respectively; P = .042). The JSPE empathy level scores were lowest among first-year paramedic students (mean = 107.53); age was not found to be a significant variable on empathy scores. The Medical Condition Regard Scale revealed lowest scores in compassion towards substance abuse (mean = 46.42). The results of this study provide the discipline of paramedic health care with useful data, and provide students, academics, and other educators with important information regarding the improvement of the health provider-patient relationship and paramedic education curriculum development.

  1. Low-level radon measurements by nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koksal, E. M.; Goksel, S. A.; Alkan, H.

    1985-01-01

    In the work to be described here we have developed a passive nuclear track dosimeter to measure the integrated value of indoor radon (Rn-222) over a long period of time. Passive radon dosimeter which we have developed in our laboratories makes use of two small pieces of CR-39 plastic (Allyl diglycol carbonate) as detectors for registering tracks of alpha particles emitted by radon. These CR-39 plastic detectors are fixed on the inside bottom of a cup-shaped polystrene enclosure which is closed at the top by a tissue permeable for gases only. CR-39 detectors exposed to radon gas in the indoor air for a period of six months then are removed and chemically etched to make the alpha particle tracks visible under the microscope. The counts of tracks are evaluated to determine the radon concentration in the air in comparison with the number of tracks produced by a known concentration of radon gas. By using the passive dosimeters developed and the chemical etching procedure descriped here, measurements of indoor radon concentrations were carried out in 45 houses in different districts of the city of Istanbul. In this pilot experiment mean radon concentrations between 0.7 and 3.5 pCi/l have been found in these houses. In order to improve the counting of alpha tracks produced on the detectors a prototype electrochemical etching system in addition to chemical etching, is being developed. (author)

  2. Older Adults' Opinions on Fall Prevention in Relation to Physical Activity Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvemo Johnson, Susanna; Martin, Cathrin; Anens, Elisabeth; Johansson, Ann-Christin; Hellström, Karin

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe older adults' opinions regarding actions to prevent falls and to analyze differences in the opinions of highly versus less physically active older adults. An open-ended question was answered by 262 individuals aged 75 to 98 years living in the community. The answers were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, and differences in the categories were compared between highly and less physically active persons. Physical activity was measured according to a five-level scale. The content analysis resulted in eight categories: assistive devices, avoiding hazards, behavioral adaptive strategies, being physically active, healthy lifestyle, indoor modifications, outdoor modifications, and seeking assistance. Behavioral adaptive strategies were mentioned to a greater extent by highly active people, and indoor modifications were more often mentioned by less active older adults. Support for active self-directed behavioral strategies might be important for fall prevention among less physically active older adults.

  3. Distribution measurement of 60Co target radioactive specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingyan; Chen Zigen; Ren Min

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive specific activity distribution of cobalt 60 target by irradiation in HFETR is a key parameter. With the collimate principle, the under water measurement device and conversion coefficient which is get by experiments, and the radioactive specific activity distribution is obtained. The uncertainty of measurement is less than 10%

  4. Electrophysiological characteristics according to activity level of myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seong Hun; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the differences in electrophysiological characteristics of normal muscles versus muscles with latent or active myofascial trigger points, and identified the neuromuscular physiological characteristics of muscles with active myofascial trigger points, thereby providing a quantitative evaluation of myofascial pain syndrome and clinical foundational data for its diagnosis. [Subjects] Ninety adults in their 20s participated in this study. Subjects were equally divided into three groups: the active myofascial trigger point group, the latent myofascial trigger point group, and the control group. [Methods] Maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), endurance, median frequency (MDF), and muscle fatigue index were measured in all subjects. [Results] No significant differences in MVIC or endurance were revealed among the three groups. However, the active trigger point group had significantly different MDF and muscle fatigue index compared with the control group. [Conclusion] Given that muscles with active myofascial trigger points had an increased MDF and suffered muscle fatigue more easily, increased recruitment of motor unit action potential of type II fibers was evident. Therefore, electrophysiological analysis of these myofascial trigger points can be applied to evaluate the effect of physical therapy and provide a quantitative diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome.

  5. Measurement of Salivary Resistin Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Yin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum resistin was initially hypothesized as a link between obesity and insulin resistance in mice. The latest evidence suggests that serum resistin is proinflammatory cytokines. Inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Many reports have previously identified changed serum resistin levels in patients with T2DM, but little is known of the levels of resistin in saliva. In our study, saliva and serum samples were collected from 38 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM at each time point of OGTT and 35 nondiabetic controls at fasting state. Resistin concentrations were measured using ELISA. We have demonstrated the presence of resistin in saliva of T2DM and nondiabetic subjects. Saliva resistin levels of T2DM are significantly higher than those of nondiabetic controls. Resistin levels in saliva are not affected by eating activity and correlated with serum resistin levels at any time points of OGTT. A positive correlation of serum and salivary resistin with BMI and HOMA-IR existed in T2DM. Measurement of resistin in saliva is a simple, noninvasive and may be an acceptable alternative to blood sampling for evaluatinginflammation/obesity/insulin resistance state.

  6. Examining differences in physical activity levels by employment status and/or job activity level: Gender-specific comparisons between the United States and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Lydia; Berrigan, David; Van Domelen, Dane; Sjöström, Michael; Hagströmer, Maria

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between employment status and job activity level with physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, stratified by gender and country. Cross-sectional study design. Data from working age adults (18-65 years) from two cross-sectional studies, the Swedish 2001-2002 and 2007-2008 Attitude Behavior and Change Study (ABC; n=1165) and the 2003-2006 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n=4201), were stratified by employment status (employed and not employed) and job activity level (active, sedentary and mixed). PA in counts×min(-1) and time spent in sedentary, low and moderate or higher intensity were measured with accelerometers. Analyses were conducted in 2012-2013. In NHANES, the employed had significantly higher counts×min(-1) and spent more time in moderate or higher intensity PA than those not employed. In ABC, no significant differences were observed between employed and unemployed. Adults with active versus sedentary occupations had higher counts×min(-1) and less sedentary time in both the USA and Sweden and in both men and women. For example, counts×min(-1) were 20-40% greater in active versus sedentary jobs. Employment status is related to PA and sedentary time among men and women in the USA but not in Sweden. Among the employed, occupational PA is associated with total PA and sedentary time for both genders and in both countries. Comparisons of PA levels based on objective measurements can refine understanding of country differences in activity. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  7. Physical activity levels and health profiles of adult women living in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the physical activity levels and health profiles of adult women living in the Mmasechaba informal settlement in Gauteng. Apart from the questionnaire, anthropometric measurements were recorded and body mass index and waist-to-hip ratios were calculated. The results indicated that the incidence of ...

  8. Physical Activity Levels of Non-Overweight, Overweight, and Obese Children during Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, Neeti; Piche, Kelly; Nicosia, Andrea; Haskvitz, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) levels of young children classified by body mass index (BMI) (non-overweight, overweight, and obese) during physical education classes. Method: Participants included 82 children (45 boys, 37 girls; 7.5 ± 1.2 years). PA was determined by the number of steps measured with…

  9. META-ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL ( PAL ) DATA FOR U.S. YOUTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes analytical research undertaken by EMRB staff to obtain age- and gender-specific distributions of Physical Activity Level (PAL) values for children measured in studies published between 1990-2004 in the clinical nutrition and exercise physiology literatures. ...

  10. Activation method for measuring the neutron spectra parameters. Computer software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, B.V.; Ionov, V.S.; Konyaev, S.I.; Marin, S.V.

    2005-01-01

    The description of mathematical statement of a task for definition the spectral characteristics of neutron fields with use developed in RRC KI unified activation detectors (UKD) is resulted. The method of processing of results offered by authors activation measurements and calculation of the parameters used for an estimation of the neutron spectra characteristics is discussed. Features of processing of the experimental data received at measurements of activation with using UKD are considered. Activation detectors UKD contain a little bit specially the picked up isotopes giving at irradiation peaks scale of activity in the common spectrum scale of activity. Computing processing of results of the measurements is applied on definition of spectrum parameters for nuclear reactor installations with thermal and close to such power spectrum of neutrons. The example of the data processing, the measurements received at carrying out at RRC KI research reactor F-1 is resulted [ru

  11. Physical Activity Measures in the Healthy Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R; McIver, Kerry L; Colabianchi, Natalie; Troiano, Richard P; Reis, Jared P; Carroll, Dianna D; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-10-01

    The risk of obesity is reduced when youth engage in recommended levels of physical activity (PA). For that reason, public health organizations in the U.S. have encouraged communities to implement programs and policies designed to increase PA in youth, and many communities have taken on that challenge. However, the long-term effects of those programs and policies on obesity are largely unknown. The Healthy Communities Study is a large-scale observational study of U.S. communities that is examining the characteristics of programs and policies designed to promote healthy behaviors (e.g., increase PA and improve diet) and determining their association with obesity-related outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used to measure PA in children and the personal and community factors that may influence it. The study used both self-reported and objective measures of PA, and measured personal, family, and home influences on PA via three constructs: (1) PA self-schema; (2) parental support; and (3) parental rules regarding PA. Neighborhood and community factors related to PA were assessed using three measures: (1) child perceptions of the neighborhood environment; (2) availability of PA equipment; and (3) attributes of the child's street segment via direct observation. School influences on children's PA were assessed via three constructs: (1) school PA policies; (2) child perceptions of the school PA environment; and (3) school outdoor PA environment. These measures will enable examination of the associations between characteristics of community PA programs and policies and obesity-related outcomes in children and youth. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Examining the Level of Career maturity among Foreign Asian Students by measuring Academic Level

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Tekke; Faiz Bin Adam Ghani

    2013-01-01

    The Asian individuals are dependent and collectivist compared with the western individuals that are independent and individualistic. Foreign Asian students choosing similar courses with their country friends do not reveal their career maturity and also lead to negative effect on their choices.  This study aims at examining the level of career maturity of foreign Asian students in Malaysia based on academic level by using the Career Maturity Inventory. Two hundred and twenty nine ( Male=106, ...

  13. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) levels are increased in active acromegaly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karci, Alper Cagri; Canturk, Zeynep; Tarkun, Ilhan; Cetinarslan, Berrin

    2017-07-01

    During follow-up of acromegaly patients, there is a discordance rate of 30% between the measurements of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels. Further tests are required to determine disease activity in patients with discordant results. This study was planned to investigate an association of serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and cathepsin B with disease activity in acromegaly patients. In this study, 64 acromegaly patients followed in our clinic were divided into two groups according to the 2010 consensus criteria for cure of acromegaly as patients with active disease (n = 24) and patients with controlled disease (n = 40). Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and cathepsin B levels were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The mean serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level was significantly higher in the active acromegaly patients than in the controlled acromegaly patients (150.1 ± 54.5 ng/mL vs. 100.2 ± 44.6 ng/mL; p matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cathepsin B levels (p = 0.205 and p = 0.598, respectively). Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels of 118.3 ng/mL and higher had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 77.5% in determining active disease. The risk of active acromegaly was 3.3 fold higher in the patients with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 level of >118.3 ng/mL than in the patients with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 level is increased in the active acromegaly patients and a threshold value in determining active disease was defined for serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level. This study is the first to compare acromegaly patients having active or controlled disease in terms of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels. The results need to be confirmed by a study that will be conducted in a larger patient group also including a healthy control group to demonstrate the

  14. Voluntary breath holding affects spontaneous brain activity measured by magnetoencephalography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, N. A.; Reits, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity was measured by multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) during voluntary breath holds. Significant changes in the activity are limited to the alpha rhythm: 0.25 Hz frequency increase and narrowing of the peak. The area of alpha activity shifts slightly toward (fronto-)

  15. Active Learning: The Importance of Developing a Comprehensive Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Rodney; Palmer, Stuart; Hagel, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the validity of a widely used scale for measuring the extent to which higher education students employ active learning strategies. The scale is the active learning scale in the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement. This scale is based on the Active and Collaborative Learning scale of the National…

  16. LOWRAD 96. Methods and applications of low-level radioactivity measurements. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fietz, J.

    1997-03-01

    The newest developments in the field of low-level radioactivity measurements and new applications for existing and low-level measuring facilities are presented. The contributions mostly were devoted to basic physical aspects and applications of low-level counting. Papers on chemical separation and preparation techniques and on low-level radiation dose determinations were also presented. (DG)

  17. State and Federal activities on low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    With the passage of the Low-Level Waste Policy Act in December 1980, the states have assumed the management responsibility and the federal government has become a facilitator. State and Federal roles in regulation have not altered. This paper reviews the developments over the last two years to point out the progress made and critical steps that lie ahead. Both technological and political aspects are covered, and a conclusion is presented with a look to the future. Since compact development in the tool chosen by the politicans for low-level waste management, the author reviews the present status starting with the northwest compact which has been introduced into the House and Senate and is subject to hearings. The past two years have seen real progress in technology in the broadest sense. An information development and dissemination system was established in 1978 wih the state-by-state assessment of low-level waste disposal. Annual examinations have been made through 1981 which enables one to understand the generation of low-level wastes. Policy level planning by states can be supported by the base level of information available. Incineration of dry active waste and other non-fuel cycle waste is ready to be fully accepted. Much work has been done on volume reduction of liquids. The increased understanding of the ways to make a disposal site work represents a major technolological improvement. Within the DOE system, there is beginning to be a real understanding of the critical parameters in disposal site performance in the East

  18. Leisure activities, caregiving demands and catecholamine levels in dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattillion, Elizabeth A; Mausbach, Brent T; Roepke, Susan K; von Känel, Roland; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E; Allison, Matthew; Ziegler, Michael G; Patterson, Thomas L; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Grant, Igor

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether satisfaction from leisure activities moderates the relationship between caregiving demands (i.e., hours per day spent caring for a spouse with dementia) and resting levels of the catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI). Spousal caregivers (n = 107; mean age = 73.95 ± 8.12 years) were assessed in home for plasma levels of NE and EPI, amount of care provided, and leisure satisfaction. Regression was used to determine whether leisure satisfaction moderated the relationship between hours providing care per day and catecholamine levels. A significant interaction was found between hours caregiving and leisure satisfaction for NE, but not for EPI. Post hoc regressions were conducted for both NE and EPI. At low leisure satisfaction, time spent caring for a spouse was positively associated with plasma NE (β = 0.41; p = 0.005) and EPI (β = 0.44; p = 0.003). In contrast, at high levels of satisfaction, time caregiving was not significantly associated with plasma NE (β = -0.08; p = 0.57) or EPI (β = 0.23; p = 0.12). These findings suggest that leisure satisfaction may protect caregivers from increases in catecholamines, which have been implicated in cardiovascular risk. Further support for these findings may impact psychological treatments for distressed caregivers.

  19. Physical activity level and sedentary behavior among students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n3p299   The objective of this study was to determine the physical activity level (PAL and sedentary behavior of students from the city of Aracaju (SE. A total of 1028 students of both genders participated in the study, with a mean age of 15.38 (2.44 years for girls and 15.24 (2.40 years for boys. Among the sample, 24.7% were children and 75.3% were adolescents, with a mean age of 12.07 (0.88 and 16.39 (1.72 years, respectively. An instrument already used in Brazilian studies was applied to identify the average time (hours watching TV per day (hTV and PAL – PAQ-C. Descriptive statistics, t-test for independent samples, Fisher’s exact test and comparison test between two proportions were used for data analysis, with the level of significance set at 5% (p≤0.05. Boys presented a significantly higher physical activity score 2.25 (0.60 than girls. The prevalence of sedentarism was 72.5, 89.3 and 85.2% in the groups of children and adolescents and in the group as a whole, respectively, for girls, and 55.4, 74.8 and 69.8% for boys. No differences in hTV were observed between genders or between sedentary and physically active students (p > 0.05. We conclude that a there is a high prevalence of “sedentary” and “very sedentary” children and adolescents; b boys present a higher PAL than girls; c adolescents are less active than children, and d the number of hTV is high in the group studied.

  20. Physical activity level and sedentary behavior among students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the physical activity level (PAL and sedentary behavior of students from the city of Aracaju (SE. A total of 1028 students of both genders participated in the study, with a mean age of 15.38 (2.44 years for girls and 15.24 (2.40 years for boys. Among the sample, 24.7% were children and 75.3% were adolescents, with a mean age of 12.07 (0.88 and 16.39 (1.72 years, respectively. An instrument already used in Brazilian studies was applied to identify the average time (hours watching TV per day (hTV and PAL – PAQ-C. Descriptive statistics, t-test for independent samples, Fisher’s exact test and comparison test between two proportions were used for data analysis, with the level of significance set at 5% (p≤0.05. Boys presented a significantly higher physical activity score 2.25 (0.60 than girls. The prevalence of sedentarism was 72.5, 89.3 and 85.2% in the groups of children and adolescents and in the group as a whole, respectively, for girls, and 55.4, 74.8 and 69.8% for boys. No differences in hTV were observed between genders or between sedentary and physically active students (p > 0.05. We conclude that a there is a high prevalence of “sedentary” and “very sedentary” children and adolescents; b boys present a higher PAL than girls; c adolescents are less active than children, and d the number of hTV is high in the group studied.

  1. Firm-level innovation activity, employee turnover and HRM practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Qin, Zhihua; Wang, Wenjing

    2014-01-01

    ' innovation activities. Innovation is measured both by the number of ongoing projects and new commercialized products. The results show that higher R&D employee turnover is associated with a higher probability of being innovative, but decreases the intensity of innovation activities in innovating firms......This paper examines the relationship between employee turnover, HRM practices and innovation in Chinese firms in five high technology sectors. We estimate hurdle negative binomial models for count data on survey data allowing for analyses of the extensive as well as intensive margins of firms....... Innovating firms are more likely to have adopted high performance HRM practices, and the impact of employee turnover varies with the number of HRM practices implemented by the firm...

  2. The Effects of Altered Membrane Cholesterol Levels on Sodium Pump Activity in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparna Roy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMetabolic dysfunctions characteristic of overt hypothyroidism (OH start at the early stage of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH. Na+/K+-ATPase (the sodium pump is a transmembrane enzyme that plays a vital role in cellular activities in combination with membrane lipids. We evaluated the effects of early changes in thyroid hormone and membrane cholesterol on sodium pump activity in SCH and OH patients.MethodsIn 32 SCH patients, 35 OH patients, and 34 euthyroid patients, sodium pump activity and cholesterol levels in red blood cell membranes were measured. Serum thyroxine (T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Differences in their mean values were analysed using post hoc analysis of variance. We assessed the dependence of the sodium pump on other metabolites by multiple regression analysis.ResultsSodium pump activity and membrane cholesterol were lower in both hypothyroid groups than in control group, OH group exhibiting lower values than SCH group. In SCH group, sodium pump activity showed a significant direct dependence on membrane cholesterol with an inverse relationship with serum TSH levels. In OH group, sodium pump activity depended directly on membrane cholesterol and serum T4 levels. No dependence on serum cholesterol was observed in either case.ConclusionDespite the presence of elevated serum cholesterol in hypothyroidism, membrane cholesterol contributed significantly to maintain sodium pump activity in the cells. A critical reduction in membrane cholesterol levels heralds compromised enzyme activity, even in the early stage of hypothyroidism, and this can be predicted by elevated TSH levels alone, without any evident clinical manifestations.

  3. Sources of variability in alpha emissivity measurements at LA and ULA levels, a multicenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, Brendan D.; Coleman, Stuart; Warburton, William K.; Autran, Jean-Luc; Clark, Brett M.; Cooley, Jodi; Gordon, Michael S.; Zhu, Zhengmao

    2014-01-01

    Alpha emissivity measurements are important in the semiconductor industry for assessing the suitability of materials for use in production processes. A recently published round-robin study that circulated the same samples to several alpha counting centers showed wide center-to-center variations in measured alpha emissivity. A separate analysis of these results hypothesized that much of the variation might arise from differences in sample-to-entrance window separations. XIA recently introduced an ultra low background counter, the UltraLo-1800 (“UltraLo”), that operates in a fundamentally different manner from the proportional counters used at most of the centers in the original study. In particular, by placing the sample within the counting volume, it eliminates the sample-to-entrance window separation issue noted above, and so offers an opportunity to test this hypothesis. In this work we briefly review how the UltraLo operates and describe a new round-robin study conducted entirely on UltraLo instruments using a set of standard samples that included two samples used in the original study. This study shows that, for LA (“Low Alpha” between 2 and 50 α/khr-cm 2 ) sample measurements, the only remaining site-to-site variations were due to counting statistics. Variations in ULA (“Ultra-Low Alpha” 2 ) sample measurements were reduced three-fold, compared to the earlier study, with the measurements suggesting that residual activity variations now primarily arise from site-to-site differences in the cosmogenic background. - Highlights: • We sent a set of samples to 6 counting centers for alpha emissivity measurement. • The counting centers conducted measurements using a recently developed instrument. • The variability in measurement results is examined and compared to a prior study. • Minimal variability observed in measurements of LA level samples. • Variability in ULA measurements appears to be due to cosmogenic background

  4. [Comparison of eating habits among students according to sex and level of physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łagowska, Karolina; Woźniewicz, Małgorzata; Jeszka, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate nutritional habits of high school students, depending on their sex and physical activity. The investigated population included 147 students in age of 17.5 +/- 1.5 y (girls DZ = 98, boys CH = 49) with different level of physical activity (athletes SPO, moderate physical activity UAF, low physical activity NAF). Nutritional data were obtained by FFQ and calculated for selected food-groups and generally as young healthy eating index YHEI. International IPAQ was used to determine the level of physical activity and anthropometric measured were conducted to estimated BMI and body fat status. It was indicated the YHEI in athletes was significantly higher (p students. Moreover, a significant difference (p habits of the athletes was most approached to nutritional guidelines. CH, nutritional habits may predicted to overweight and obesity in CH group more distinctly than in DZ group.

  5. Examining the Level of Career maturity among Foreign Asian Students by measuring Academic Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tekke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Asian individuals are dependent and collectivist compared with the western individuals that are independent and individualistic. Foreign Asian students choosing similar courses with their country friends do not reveal their career maturity and also lead to negative effect on their choices.  This study aims at examining the level of career maturity of foreign Asian students in Malaysia based on academic level by using the Career Maturity Inventory. Two hundred and twenty nine ( Male=106, Female= 123 international students studying in various semesters completed the Career Maturity Inventory and it was reported that there were no significant differences between respondents of different academic semesters with regard to level of career maturity, this might reflect an educational level bias in the construction of the career decision-making. The findings of the current study are not consistent with theoretical expectations and prior research that international undergraduate senior students would be having higher career maturity than international undergraduate fresh students. Research emphasizes the reason behind might result from dependent and collectivist Asian culture that leading to fresh international students are higher career maturity compared to senior international students.

  6. Objectively measured physical activity in Brazilians with visual impairment: description and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Porcellis da Silva, Rafael; Marques, Alexandre Carriconde; Reichert, Felipe Fossati

    2017-05-19

    Low level of physical activity is a serious health issue in individuals with visual impairment. Few studies have objectively measured physical activity in this population group, particularly outside high-income countries. The aim of this study was to describe physical activity measured by accelerometry and its associated factors in Brazilian adults with visual impairment. In a cross-sectional design, 90 adults (18-95 years old) answered a questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for at least 3 days (including one weekend day) to measure physical activity (min/day). Sixty percent of the individuals practiced at least 30 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Individuals who were blind were less active, spent more time in sedentary activities and spent less time in moderate and vigorous activities than those with low vision. Individuals who walked mainly without any assistance were more active, spent less time in sedentary activities and spent more time in light and moderate activities than those who walked with a long cane or sighted guide. Our data highlight factors associated with lower levels of physical activity in people with visual impairment. These factors, such as being blind and walking without assistance should be tackled in interventions to increase physical activity levels among visual impairment individuals. Implications for Rehabilitation Physical inactivity worldwide is a serious health issue in people with visual impairments and specialized institutions and public policies must work to increase physical activity level of this population. Those with lower visual acuity and walking with any aid are at a higher risk of having low levels of physical activity. The association between visual response profile, living for less than 11 years with visual impairment and PA levels deserves further investigations Findings of the present study provide reliable data to support rehabilitation programs, observing the need of taking special attention to

  7. Measured and perceived environmental characteristics are related to accelerometer defined physical activity in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strath Scott J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated both the self-perceived and measured environment with objectively determined physical activity in older adults. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine measured and perceived environmental associations with physical activity of older adults residing across different neighborhood types. Methods One-hundred and forty-eight older individuals, mean age 64.3 ± 8.4, were randomly recruited from one of four neighborhoods that were pre-determined as either having high- or low walkable characteristics. Individual residences were geocoded and 200 m network buffers established. Both objective environment audit, and self-perceived environmental measures were collected, in conjunction with accelerometer derived physical activity behavior. Using both perceived and objective environment data, analysis consisted of a macro-level comparison of physical activity levels across neighborhood, and a micro-level analysis of individual environmental predictors of physical activity levels. Results Individuals residing in high-walkable neighborhoods on average engaged in 11 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day more than individuals residing in low-walkable neighborhoods. Both measured access to non-residential destinations (b = .11, p p = .031 were significant predictors of time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Other environmental variables significantly predicting components of physical activity behavior included presence of measured neighborhood crime signage (b = .4785, p = .031, measured street safety (b = 26.8, p = .006, and perceived neighborhood satisfaction (b = .5.8, p = .003. Conclusions Older adult residents who live in high-walkable neighborhoods, who have easy and close access to nonresidential destinations, have lower social dysfunction pertinent to crime, and generally perceive the neighborhood to a higher overall satisfaction are likely to engage in higher levels

  8. Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenfei; Wadley, Virginia G.; Howard, Virginia J.; Hutto, Brent; Blair, Steven N.; Hooker, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Emerging evidence suggests physical activity (PA) is associated with cognitive function. To overcome limitations of self-report PA measures, this study investigated the association of accelerometer-measured PA with incident cognitive impairment and longitudinal cognition among older adults. Methods Participants were recruited from the cohort study, REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS), in U.S.. Accelerometers provided PA measures, including percent of total accelerometer wearing time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA%), light-intensity PA and sedentary time, for 4-7 consecutive days at baseline. Cognitive impairment was defined by Six-Item Screener. Letter fluency, animal fluency, word list learning and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (orientation and recall) were conducted to assess executive function and memory. Results Participants (N=6,452, 69.7 ± 8.5 yr, 55.3% women, 30.5% black) with usable accelerometer and cognition measures spent extremely limited time in MVPA (1.5% ± 1.9% of accelerometer wearing time). During an average of 3 years of follow-up, 346 cases of incident cognitive impairment were observed. After adjustments, participants in higher MVPA% quartiles had a lower risk of cognitive impairment (i.e. Quartile 2: OR=0.64, 95% CI: 0.48-0.84), and better maintenance in executive function (≥0.03 z-score units) and memory (≥0.12 z-score units), compared with Quartile 1 (P<0.05). Stratified analyses showed the same association among white adults, but higher MVPA% was associated with better maintenance of only memory among black adults. No significance was found for light-intensity PA or sedentary time. Conclusion There was a dose-response relationship between MVPA% and cognitive function in older adults, with higher levels associated with a 36% lower risk of cognitive impairment and better maintenance of memory and executive function over time, particularly in white adults. PMID:27580146

  9. Measuring patient safety culture : an assessment of the clustering of responses at unit level and hospital level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; Wagner, C.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wal, G. van der; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To test the claim that the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) measures patient safety culture instead of mere individual attitudes and to determine the most appropriate level (individual, unit or hospital level) for interventions aimed at improving the culture of patient

  10. Measuring patient safety culture: an assessment of the clustering of responses at unit level and hospital level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; Wagner, C.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wal, van der G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the claim that the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) measures patient safety culture instead of mere individual attitudes and to determine the most appropriate level (individual, unit or hospital level) for interventions aimed at improving the culture of patient

  11. A detector for monitoring the onset of cavitation during therapy-level measurements of ultrasonic power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodnett, M; Zeqiri, B [National Physical Laboratory, Queens Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic cavitation occurring in the water path between a transducer and the target of a radiation force balance can provide a significant source of error during measurements of ultrasonic power. These problems can be particularly acute at physiotherapy levels (>1 W), and low frequencies ({<=} 1 MHz). The cavitating bubbles can absorb and scatter incident ultrasound, leading to an underestimate in the measured power. For these reasons, International Specification standards demand the use of degassed water. This imposes requirements that may actually be difficult to meet, for example, in the case of hospitals. Also, initially degassed water will rapidly re-gas, increasing the likelihood of cavitation occurring. For these reasons, NPL has developed a device that monitors acoustic emissions generated by bubble activity, for detecting the onset of cavitation during power measurements. A commercially available needle hydrophone is used to detect these emissions. The acoustic signals are then monitored using a Cavitation Detector (CD) unit, comprising an analogue electrical filter that may be tuned to detect frequency components generated by cavitating bubbles, and which provides an indication of when the measured level exceeds a pre-defined threshold. This paper describes studies to establish a suitable detection scheme, the principles of operation of the CD unit, and the performance tests carried out with a range of propagation media.

  12. A detector for monitoring the onset of cavitation during therapy-level measurements of ultrasonic power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodnett, M; Zeqiri, B

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic cavitation occurring in the water path between a transducer and the target of a radiation force balance can provide a significant source of error during measurements of ultrasonic power. These problems can be particularly acute at physiotherapy levels (>1 W), and low frequencies (≤ 1 MHz). The cavitating bubbles can absorb and scatter incident ultrasound, leading to an underestimate in the measured power. For these reasons, International Specification standards demand the use of degassed water. This imposes requirements that may actually be difficult to meet, for example, in the case of hospitals. Also, initially degassed water will rapidly re-gas, increasing the likelihood of cavitation occurring. For these reasons, NPL has developed a device that monitors acoustic emissions generated by bubble activity, for detecting the onset of cavitation during power measurements. A commercially available needle hydrophone is used to detect these emissions. The acoustic signals are then monitored using a Cavitation Detector (CD) unit, comprising an analogue electrical filter that may be tuned to detect frequency components generated by cavitating bubbles, and which provides an indication of when the measured level exceeds a pre-defined threshold. This paper describes studies to establish a suitable detection scheme, the principles of operation of the CD unit, and the performance tests carried out with a range of propagation media

  13. Soluble CD206 plasma levels in rheumatoid arthritis reflect decrease in disease activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heftdal, Line Dam; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Ørnbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by chronic joint inflammation and infiltration by activated macrophages. TNFα is a central mediator in this process. The mannose receptor, CD206, is a scavenger receptor expressed by M2A-macrophages and dendritic cells. It is involved in collagen...... internalization and degradation. The soluble form has been suggested as a biomarker of M2A-macrophage activation. The aim of this study was to investigate sCD206 plasma levels in early RA patients initiating anti-TNFα treatment. Plasma levels of sCD206 were measured by ELISA in samples from 155 early RA patients...

  14. Measuring student ability, classifying schools, and detecting item bias at school level, based on student-level dichotomous items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennink, Margot; Croon, Marcel A.; Keuning, Jos; Vermunt, Jeroen K.

    In educational measurement, responses of students on items are used not only to measure the ability of students, but also to evaluate and compare the performance of schools. Analysis should ideally account for the multilevel structure of the data, and school-level processes not related to ability,

  15. Neutron activation measurements in research reactor concrete shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, T.; Ravnik, M.; Bozic, M.

    2001-01-01

    The results of activation measurement inside TRIGA research reactor concrete shielding are given. Samples made of ordinary and barytes concrete together with gold and nickel foils were irradiated in the reactor body. Long-lived neutron-induced gamma-ray-emitting radioactive nuclides in the samples were measured with HPGe detector. The most active longlived radioactive nuclides in ordinary concrete samples were found to be 60 Co and 152 Eu and in barytes concrete samples 60 Co, 152 Eu and 133 Ba. Measured activity density of all nuclides was found to decrease almost linearly with depth in logarithmic scale.(author)

  16. FDG-PET imaging of lower extremity muscular activity during level walking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oi, Naoyuki; Iwaya, Tsutomu; Tobimatsu, Yoshiko; Fujimoto, Toshihiko [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Itoh, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center

    2003-07-01

    We analyzed muscular activity of the lower extremities during level walking using positron emission tomography (PET) with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG). We examined 17 healthy male subjects; 11 were assigned to a walking group and 6 to a resting group. After {sup 18}F-FDG injection, the walking group subjects walked at a free speed for 15 min. A whole-body image was then obtained by a PET camera, and the standardized uptake ratio (SUR) was computed for each muscle. The SUR for each muscle of the walking group was compared with that for the corresponding muscles in the resting group. The level of muscular activity of all the muscles we examined were higher during level walking than when resting. The activity of the lower leg muscles was higher than that of the thigh muscles during level walking. The muscular activity of the soleus was highest among all the muscles examined. Among the gluteal muscles, the muscular activity of the gluteus minimus was higher than that of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius. The concurrent validity of measuring muscular activity of the lower extremity during level walking by the PET method using {sup 18}F-FDG was demonstrated. (author)

  17. Measurement of water potential in low-level waste management. [Shallow Land Burial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T. L.; Gee, G. W.; Kirkham, R. R.; Gibson, D. D.

    1982-08-01

    The measurement of soil water is important to the shallow land burial of low-level waste. Soil water flow is the principle mechanism of radionuclide transport, allows the establishment of stabilizing vegetation and also governs the dissolution and release rates of the waste. This report focuses on the measurement of soil water potential and provides an evaluation of several field instruments that are available for use to monitor waste burial sites located in arid region soils. The theoretical concept of water potential is introduced and its relationship to water content and soil water flow is discussed. Next, four major areas of soils research are presented in terms of their dependence on the water potential concept. There are four basic types of sensors used to measure soil water potential. These are: (1) tensiometers; (2) soil psychrometers; (3) electrical resistance blocks; and (4) heat dissipation probes. Tensiometers are designed to measure the soil water potential directly by measuring the soil water pressure. Monitoring efforts at burial sites require measurements of soil water over long time periods. They also require measurements at key locations such as waste-soil interfaces and within any barrier system installed. Electrical resistance blocks are well suited for these types of measurements. The measurement of soil water potential can be a difficult task. There are several sensors commercially available; however, each has its own limitations. It is important to carefully select the appropriate sensor for the job. The accuracy, range, calibration, and stability of the sensor must be carefully considered. This study suggests that for waste management activities, the choice of sensor will be the tensiometer for precise soil characterization studies and the electrical resistance block for long term monitoring programs. (DMC)

  18. A School-Level Proxy Measure for Individual-Level Poverty Using School-Level Eligibility for Free and Reduced-Price Meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Sophia E; Hinterland, Kinjia; Myers, Christa; Gupta, Leena; Harris, Tiffany G; Konty, Kevin J

    2016-03-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts health outcomes. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), like many school-based data sources, lacks individual-level poverty information. We propose using school-level percentages of student eligibility for free/reduced-price meals (%FRPM) as a proxy for individual-level poverty. Using the New York City (NYC) 2009 YRBS, we created school-level poverty quartiles to append to individual YRBS records by ranking schools by %FRPM. We compared this with 2 other school-level poverty measures using students' home and school neighborhood-level poverty and measured the association of these 3 school-level proxies with individual's household income. Last, we evaluated health outcomes by race/ethnicity and poverty to demonstrate the importance of accounting for poverty. The school-level measure that used %FRPM had the strongest association with household income. When the school-level individual poverty proxy was included in illustrative analyses using YRBS data, patterns by poverty within race/ethnicity emerged that were not seen when looking at race/ethnicity alone. Using a poverty measure to analyze school-based data will provide a better understanding of the impact of SES on health outcomes. Based on our evaluation, when individual-level information is not available, we propose using school-level %FRPM, which are publicly available throughout the United States. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  19. Serum ischemia-modified albumin and malondialdehyde levels and superoxide dismutase activity in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Aysun; Kucuksen, Sami; Kucuk, Adem; Cicekler, Humeyra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine serum ischemia modified albumin and malondialdehyde levels as markers of oxidative stress and serum superoxide dismutase activity as a marker of antioxidant defense and their associations with clinical outcomes in patients with fibromyalgia. 59 patients with fibromyalgia and 38 age and gender matched healthy controls were included in the study. The diagnosis of fibromyalgia was based on the classification criteria declared by American College of Rheumatology in 1990. All patients underwent the clinical assessment, consisting of evaluation for tender point count, visual analogue scale for pain, fibromyalgia impact questionnaire, multidimensional assessment of fatigue, Beck anxiety inventory, Beck depression inventory, and the health assessment questionnaire. Serum levels of ischemia modified albumin, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase activities were measured using colorimetric methods. Malondialdehyde levels of fibromyalgia patients were significantly higher than they were in the control group. Ischemia modified albumin levels in the fibromyalgia group were not significantly different from the control values. There was no significant correlation between ischemia modified albumin and malondialdehyde and clinical measures with the exception that malondialdehyde levels positively correlated with health assessment questionnaire scores. We concluded that increased malondialdehyde levels in patients with fibromyalgia could be considered as a sign of increased oxidative stress. Ischemia modified albumin values were not in concordance with malondialdehyde levels and could not be considered as an oxidative stress marker in the follow-up of fibromyalgia. Further studies are needed to investigate IMA levels in newly diagnosed fibromyalgia patients.

  20. On-line Measurements of Settling Charateristics in Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Larsen, Torben

    1997-01-01

    An on-line settling column for measuring the dynamic variations of settling velocity of activated sludge has been developed. The settling column is automatic and self-cleansing insuring continuous and reliable measurements. The settling column was tested on sludge from a batch reactor where sucrose...... was added as an impulse to activated sludge. The continuous measurement of settling velocity revealed a highly dynamic response after the sucrose was added. The result were verified with simultaneous measurement of the initial settling rate. A 200 hour experiment showed variations in settling velocity......, which was not apparent in the DSVI (Diluted Sludge Volume Index)....

  1. Does feedback on daily activity level from a Smart watch during inpatient stroke rehabilitation increase physical activity levels? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yun; Steins, Dax; Sun, Shanbin; Li, Fei; Amor, James D; James, Christopher J; Xia, Zhidao; Dawes, Helen; Izadi, Hooshang; Cao, Yi; Wade, Derick T

    2018-03-09

    Practicing activities improves recovery after stroke, but many people in hospital do little activity. Feedback on activity using an accelerometer is a potential method to increase activity in hospital inpatients. This study's goal is to investigate the effect of feedback, enabled by a Smart watch, on daily physical activity levels during inpatient stroke rehabilitation and the short-term effects on simple functional activities, primarily mobility. A randomized controlled trial will be undertaken within the stroke rehabilitation wards of the Second Affiliated hospital of Anhui University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hefei, China. The study participants will be stroke survivors who meet inclusion criteria for the study, primarily: able to participate, no more than 4 months after stroke and walking independently before stroke. Participants will all receive standard local rehabilitation and will be randomly assigned either to receive regular feedback about activity levels, relative to a daily goal tailored by the smart watch over five time periods throughout a working day, or to no feedback, but still wearing the Smart watch. The intervention will last up to 3 weeks, ending sooner if discharged. The data to be collected in all participants include measures of daily activity (Smart watch measure); mobility (Rivermead Mobility Index and 10-metre walking time); independence in personal care (Barthel Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Index); overall activities (the World Health Organization (WHO) Disability Assessment Scale, 12-item version); and quality of life (the Euro-Qol 5L5D). Data will be collected by assessors blinded to allocation of the intervention at baseline, 3 weeks or at discharge (whichever is the sooner); and a reduced data set will be collected at 12 weeks by telephone interview. The primary outcome will be change in daily accelerometer activity scores. Secondary outcomes are compliance and adherence to wearing the watch, and changes in mobility

  2. Gastric bypass in the pig increases GIP levels and decreases active GLP-1 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Andreas; Ekelund, Mikael; Pierzynowski, Stefan; Groop, Leif; Hedenbro, Jan; Wierup, Nils

    2017-04-01

    Gastric bypass surgery results in remission of type 2 diabetes in the majority of patients. The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) have been implicated in the observed remission. Most knowledge so far has been generated in obese subjects. To isolate the surgical effects of gastric bypass on metabolism and hormone responses from the confounding influence of obesity, T2D, or food intake, we performed gastric bypass in lean pigs, using sham-operated and pair-fed pigs as controls. Thus, pigs were subjected to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sham surgery and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). RYGB pigs and sham pigs exhibited similar basal and 120-min glucose levels in response to the OGTT. However, RYGB pigs had approximately 1.6-fold higher 30-min glucose (pRYGB pigs (pRYGB pigs. Although total GLP-1 release increased approximately 2.1-fold after RYGB (pRYGB pigs (pRYGB in lean pigs increases the response of GIP, total GLP-1, and insulin, but reduces levels of active GLP-1 in response to an oral glucose load. These data challenge the role of active GLP-1 as a contributor to remission from diabetes after RYGB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Idaho Senior Center Activities, Activity Participation Level, and Managers' Perceptions of Activity Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvan, James T.; Harris, Frances

    A survey completed by managers of 77 senior centers in Idaho revealed that meals, blood pressure screening, and games and trips were the most successful activities offered. Alzheimer's support groups, library books for loan, and exercise classes were the least successful. Possible reasons for the success or failure of these activities were…

  4. Liverpool Active City 2005-2010: Increasing Population Physical Activity Levels Through Intersectoral Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Jon; Huikuri, Suvi; Armada, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    The process of working together across sectors to improve health and to influence its determinants is often referred to as intersectoral action for health. The Liverpool Active City strategy and action plan were launched in 2005, bringing together partners from diverse sectors such as education, transport, and civil society to boost levels of physical activity among the city's residents. The research material was based on semistructured interviews with key stakeholders and on review and analysis of gray literature and media reports. A case-study method was used to analyze the experience. The results show that Liverpool Active City succeeded in boosting levels of physical activity among the city's residents and demonstrate how intersectoral action benefited the goals of the program and promoted common aims. Important lessons can be drawn from the experience of Liverpool Active City for public health professionals and policy makers. Success factors include the involvement of a broad range of agencies from a variety of sectors, which reinforced the sense of partnership in the physical activity agenda and supported the implementation of activities. The experience also demonstrated how intersectoral action brought benefits to the physical activity goals of Liverpool Active City.

  5. Are physical activity levels associated with better health outcomes in people with epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfele, César Augusto; Freitas, Matheus Pintanel; da Silva, Marcelo Cozzensa; Rombaldi, Airton José

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association of physical activity in three categories (inactive, insufficiently active and active) with health outcomes in people with epilepsy. The dependent variables and the instruments used in the study were: a) quality of life - measured by Quality of Life in Epilepsy-31 for adults and Quality of Life in Epilepsy for Adolescents, b) side effects of medication - measured by Adverse Events Profile, c) depression - measured by Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy, and d) state and trait anxiety - measured by State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Physical activity levels were analyzed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) for adults in the commuting and leisure domains and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A). Simple and multiple linear regression was used in the statistical analysis. The cross-sectional study with one hundred and one individuals was conducted in Pelotas/RS, Brazil, at the Neurology Clinic of the Faculty of Medicine of the Federal University of Pelotas. In the crude analysis, physical activity was positively associated with quality of life (pepilepsy for improving health and life conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High performance gamma measurements of equipment retrieved from Hanford high-level nuclear waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyer, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    The cleanup of high level defense nuclear waste at the Hanford site presents several progressive challenges. Among these is the removal and disposal of various components from buried active waste tanks to allow new equipment insertion or hazards mitigation. A unique automated retrieval system at the tank provides for retrieval, high pressure washing, inventory measurement, and containment for disposal. Key to the inventory measurement is a three detector HPGe high performance gamma spectroscopy system capable of recovering data at up to 90% saturation (200,000 counts per second). Data recovery is based on a unique embedded electronic pulser and specialized software to report the inventory. Each of the detectors have different shielding specified through Monte Carlo simulation with the MCNP program. This shielding provides performance over a dynamic range of eight orders of magnitude. System description, calibration issues and operational experiences are discussed

  7. High performance gamma measurements of equipment retrieved from Hanford high-level nuclear waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troyer, G.L.

    1997-03-17

    The cleanup of high level defense nuclear waste at the Hanford site presents several progressive challenges. Among these is the removal and disposal of various components from buried active waste tanks to allow new equipment insertion or hazards mitigation. A unique automated retrieval system at the tank provides for retrieval, high pressure washing, inventory measurement, and containment for disposal. Key to the inventory measurement is a three detector HPGe high performance gamma spectroscopy system capable of recovering data at up to 90% saturation (200,000 counts per second). Data recovery is based on a unique embedded electronic pulser and specialized software to report the inventory. Each of the detectors have different shielding specified through Monte Carlo simulation with the MCNP program. This shielding provides performance over a dynamic range of eight orders of magnitude. System description, calibration issues and operational experiences are discussed.

  8. Adhesion molecules levels in blood correlate with MRI activity and clinical activity in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millers, A.; Enina, G.; Platkajis, A.; Metra, M.; Kukaine, R.

    2002-01-01

    Research into pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has prompted efforts to identify immunological markers associated with disease activity. Adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are associated with inflammatory mediated blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. In this study investigates the correlation between blood level of circulating ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) activity in different clinical phases of patients with MS. We show that RRMS and SPMS patients in clinically active phase with Gd-enhancing lesions in CNS had higher blood levels of cICAM-1 and cVCAM-1 compared these parameters levers of RRMS patients in remission stage. These results suggest that cICAM-1 and cVCAM-1 is a sensitive indicator of disease activity associated with BBB inflammatory dysfunction. Elevated blood level of cICAM-1 more strongly correlated with clinical activity and BBB damage, than cVCAM-1 and that could be used as biological marker of disease activity. Circulating VCAM-1 as an early indicator of BBB disturbance, may also serve as marker of beneficial activity in relapses phase of MS course. (authors)

  9. The Effect of Gender and Level of Vision on the Physical Activity Level of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakci; Kitis, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between…

  10. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Oppert

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire, CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire. Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively. Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies.

  11. Principle of coincidence method and application in activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mou; Dai Yihua; Ni Jianzhong

    2008-01-01

    The basic principle of coincidence method was discussed. The basic principle was generalized by analysing the actual example, and the condition in theory of coincidence method was brought forward. The cause of variation of efficiency curve and the effect of dead-time in activity measurement were explained using the above principle and condition. This principle of coincidence method provides the foundation in theory for activity measurement. (authors)

  12. Summary of activation cross section measurements at FNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Y.; Konno, C.; Kasugai, Y.; Kumar, A.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron activation cross sections around 14 MeV for seventeen reactions have been measured at the FNS facility in JAERI in order to provide experimental data meeting the requirement in the radioactive wastes disposal assessment in the D-T fusion reactor. This report summarizes contributing data measured in several phases of experiments to the IAEA-CRP on ''Activation Cross sections for the Generation of Long-Lived radionuclides of Importance in Fusion Reactor Technology''. (author). 18 refs, 1 tab

  13. LOFT experimental measurements uncertainty analyses. Volume XX. Fluid-velocity measurement using pulsed-neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassahn, G.D.; Taylor, D.J.N.

    1982-08-01

    Analyses of uncertainty components inherent in pulsed-neutron-activation (PNA) measurements in general and the Loss-of-Fluid-Test (LOFT) system in particular are given. Due to the LOFT system's unique conditions, previously-used techniques were modified to make the volocity measurement. These methods render a useful, cost-effective measurement with an estimated uncertainty of 11% of reading

  14. Measuring sound absorption: considerations on the measurement of the active acoustic power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, E.R.; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries

    2014-01-01

    Using a local plane wave assumption, one can determine the normal incidence sound absorption coefficient of a surface by measuring the acoustic pressure and the particle velocity normal to that surface. As the measurement surface lies in front of the material surface, the measured active and

  15. Objectively measured physical activity and cardiac biomarkers: A cross sectional population based study in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tessa J; Sartini, Claudio; Welsh, Paul; Sattar, Naveed; Ash, Sarah; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S Goya; Lee, I-Min; Whincup, Peter H; Jefferis, Barbara J

    2018-03-01

    N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high sensitivity Troponin T (hsTnT) are markers of cardiac injury used in diagnosis of heart failure and myocardial infarction respectively, and associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Since physical activity is protective against cardiovascular disease and heart failure, we investigated whether higher levels of physical activity, and less sedentary behaviour were associated with lower NT-proBNP and hsTnT. Cross sectional study of 1130 men, age 70-91years, from the British Regional Heart Study, measured in 2010-2012. Fasting blood samples were analysed for NT-proBNP and hsTnT. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour were measured using ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers. Relationships between activity and NT-proBNP or hsTnT were non-linear; biomarker levels were lower with higher total activity, steps, moderate/vigorous activity and light activity only at low to moderate levels of activity. For example, for each additional 10min of moderate/vigorous activity, NT-proBNP was lower by 35.7% (95% CI -47.9, -23.6) and hsTnT by 8.4% (95% CI -11.1, -5.6), in men who undertook <25 or 50min of moderate/vigorous activity per day respectively. Biomarker levels increased linearly with increasing sedentary behaviour, but not independently of moderate/vigorous activity. Associations between biomarkers and moderate/vigorous activity (and between hsTnT and light activity) were independent of sedentary behaviour, suggesting activity is driving the relationships. In these older men with concomitantly low levels of physical activity, activity may be more important in protecting against cardiac health deterioration in less active individuals, although reverse causality might be operating. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tutorial and Guidelines on Measurement of Sound Pressure Level in Voice and Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švec, Jan G.; Granqvist, Svante

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Sound pressure level (SPL) measurement of voice and speech is often considered a trivial matter, but the measured levels are often reported incorrectly or incompletely, making them difficult to compare among various studies. This article aims at explaining the fundamental principles behind these measurements and providing guidelines to…

  17. Adolescent perceptions of alcohol risk: variation by sex, race, student activity levels and parental communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Bryan E

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on data gathered from adolescents (N = 18,991) in the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), this study examined the effects of sex and race, as well as measures of student activity levels and frequency of recognition from parents, on perceptions of the risks associated with binge drinking. Overall, female, Black, Asian, and Hispanic adolescents, as well as individuals who indicated belonging to more than one race, perceived higher levels of risk. Male, White, and Native American/Alaskan/Pacific Islander respondents perceived lower risk levels. In addition, those who participated the most in school and community activities, as well as those who received more frequent recognition from parents, estimated higher levels of risk associated with binge drinking.

  18. Measurement of Habitual Physical Activity Performance in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanchy, Kelly M.; Tweedy, Sean M.; Boyd, Roslyn

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review compares the validity, reliability, and clinical use of habitual physical activity (HPA) performance measures in adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Measures of HPA across Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V for adolescents (10-18y) with CP were included if at least 60% of items…

  19. Attempting to be active: Self-efficacy and barrier limitation differentiate activity levels of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierc, Madelaine; Locke, Sean; Jung, Mary; Brawley, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    Working mothers are less physically active than working women without children and mothers who do not work. The purpose of this study was to examine concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and barriers to physical activity in a sample of working mothers. Women completed a mixed-methods survey which included measures of physical activity, concurrent self-regulatory efficacy, and barriers. Sufficiently active women experienced significantly greater concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and significantly less barrier limitation and frequency. No significant group differences were found for age, domestic duties performed, and children's extracurricular activities. Thematic analysis of barriers revealed six themes of common and unique factors, including limited time and family activities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Comparison of activation level between true and false items in the DRM paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Sergi, Ida; Iachini, Tina

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the activation levels of true and false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. For this purpose, we used a lexical decision task (LDT) that can be considered a relative pure measure of activation. Participants had to study a list of words that were semantically associated to a critical non-presented word (CI), and afterwards had to classify the actually studied words, the CI and new words in the LDT. Results indicated that the classification latency of the CI was the same as actually studied words and shorter than new words. The results might be interpreted as evidence that the false and true memory items have the same activation level and that the false memory effect can be based on the indirect activation of the CI at the encoding.

  1. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  2. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during

  3. A Simple and Accurate Method for Measuring Enzyme Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Din-Yan

    1997-01-01

    Presents methods commonly used for investigating enzyme activity using catalase and presents a new method for measuring catalase activity that is more reliable and accurate. Provides results that are readily reproduced and quantified. Can also be used for investigations of enzyme properties such as the effects of temperature, pH, inhibitors,…

  4. The effect of carbohydrates on alpha-amylase activity measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baks, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Ceralpha method can be used for ¿-amylase activity measurements during the hydrolysis of starch at high substrate concentrations (>40 wt.%). However, the results are affected by the carbohydrates present in the samples. The effect of carbohydrates on the Ceralpha ¿-amylase activity

  5. Measurement of very low alpha activity in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, M. T.; Acena, M. L.

    1987-01-01

    Measurement of very low levels of alpha-emitting nuclides in water needs substantial improvements. A system based on the adsorbing properties manganese dioxide eliminates the need for transporting very large volumes of water and increases the sensitivity of the measurement. (Author) 21 refs

  6. Validity of Multisensor Array for Measuring Energy Expenditure of an Activity Bout in Early Stroke Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Flora Kramer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Stroke survivors use more energy than healthy people during activities such as walking, which has consequences for the way exercise is prescribed for stroke survivors. There is a need for wearable device that can validly measure energy expenditure (EE of activity to inform exercise prescription early after stroke. We aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the SenseWear-Armband (SWA to measure EE and step-counts during activity 0.75 for walking and sit-to-stand, respectively. However, agreement levels changed with increasing EE levels (i.e., proportional bias. The SWA did not accurately measure step-counts. Conclusion. The SWA should be used with caution to measure EE of activity of mild to moderate stroke survivors <1 month after stroke.

  7. Effect of Physical Activity on Serum Homocysteine Levels in Obese and Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Soori

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Recently, homocysteine has been noticed as the major pathogenesis factor of the cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of physical activities on the serum homocysteine levels, as well as other cardiovascular risk factors in either obese or overweight women. Materials & Methods: In the controlled pretest-posttest semi-experimental study, 18 women referred to the Alzahra sport complexes in districts 3 and 4 of Tehran were studied in 2015. The subjects were selected via random sampling method and randomly divided into two groups; physical activity and control groups. And the intervention program was conducted in the former, while the latter received no intervention. The exercise protocol consisted of 10-week (5 sessions a week stretching exercises and aerobic activities (60 to 75% of the maximum heart beat. The serum homocystein level and lipids were measured both at the start and 48 hours after the exercises. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using paired T and independent T tests. Findings: After the exercises, the mean serum homocysteine level in physical activity group significantly decreased than control group (p=0.001. Nevertheless, the difference between the lipid levels of physical activity and control groups was not significant (p>0.05. Conclusion: Reducing the serum homocysteine concentration, 10-week physical activity might also reduce the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in either obese or overweight women.

  8. Measurement and characterization of cellulase activity in sclerophyllous forest litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criquet, Stéven

    2002-07-01

    Cellulases are enzymatic proteins which hydrolyze cellulose polymers to smaller oligosaccharides, cellobiose and glucose. They consist in three major types of enzymes: endoglucanases (EC 3.2.1.4), cellobiohydrolases (EC 3.2.1.91) and beta-glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.21) which play an essential role in carbon turnover of forest ecosystem. The aim of this study was firstly to determine the parameters (i.e. buffer type, pH, temperature, quantity of litter, incubation time and reagent type) which affect the measurement of cellulase activity in a sclerophyllous forest litter, and secondly to compare two methods for measuring cellulase activity: a direct method and an extraction method. In the direct method, the litter was directly incubated with a buffered solution containing the enzyme substrate, whereas in the extraction method, the cellulases were firstly extracted before measuring their activity. The results were compared with other studies about soil cellulase activity, and it appeared that several parameters (buffer type, pH, temperature and sample quantity) which influence the measurement of cellulase activity differ according to whether a soil or a litter is considered. Concerning the procedure used for the measurement of cellulase activity, results showed that the activity values were higher when using an extraction procedure than when using a direct procedure. The extraction procedure, combined with a concentration stage of the extract, also allowed electrophoretic analysis (PAGE) of the cellulases extracted from the litter. The electrophoretic pattern revealed two cellulase isoenzymes which may be related to the occurrence of two pH-activity peaks of these enzymes when citrate buffer was used for the measurement of cellulase activity in the litter.

  9. Measuring the Pro-Activity of Software Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Amo, Fernando; Fuertes Castro, José Luis; Martínez Normand, Loïc

    2010-01-01

    Despite having well-defined characteristics, software agents do not have a developed set of measures defining their quality. Attempts at evaluating software agent quality have focused on some agent aspects, like the development process, whereas others focusing on the agent as a software product have basically adopted measures associated with other software paradigms, like procedural and object-oriented concepts. Here we propose a set of measures for evaluating software agent pro-activity, the...

  10. Level of Mercury Manometer With Respect to Heart: Does it Affect Blood Pressure Measurement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Raj; Roy, V K; Manna, S; Bhattacharjee, M

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of blood pressure is an integral part of clinical examination. Over the years various types of instruments have been used to measure blood pressure but till date the mercury sphygmomanometer is regarded as the gold standard. However, there is a myth prevalent among health professionals regarding the level of the manometer in relation to heart at the time of measuring of blood pressure. Many professionals insist that it has to be placed at the level of the heart. We argue that the limb from which pressure is measured must be at the heart level rather than the manometer. We conducted a study in which we measured the blood pressure in adults by placing the manometer at three different levels with respect to the heart. The values of blood pressure obtained at all levels were similar and did not show any statistically significant difference. We therefore conclude that the level of sphygmomanometer per se does not affect blood pressure measurement.

  11. Physical activity and mental health: relationships between depressiveness, psychological disorders and physical activity level in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kull

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with an objective to study relationships between physical activity and emotional wellbeing of women. The study involved 659 women aged 18–45. The following questionnaires were used: General Health Questionnaire, Health Questionnaire for Adults, Beck Depression Inventory. Physically active women experienced less stress disorders (P<0.05 and less depressiveness (P<0.05. Results showed that even a low level of physical activity (1-2 times per week can account for positive impact on women’s mental health (depressive feelings and psychological disorders.

  12. Temperament and Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time among Canadian Preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer D. Irwin; Andrew M. Johnson; Leigh M. Vanderloo; Shauna M. Burke; Patricia Tucker

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to assess the influence of preschoolers' temperament on their objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time. Actical? accelerometers were used to measure preschoolers' from London, Canada's (n?=?216; 2.5?5?years) physical activity and sedentary levels during childcare hours (5 consecutive days; 15?s epoch). The Child Temperament Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to assess child temperament via parent/guardian report. The six subscales of the CTQ (i.e., reaction to foo...

  13. Management system of in vivo reports of activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.C.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Lourenco, M.C.; Dantas, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    The SGRIMA (management system of in vivo reports of activity measurements) is a software for Windows developed specifically for the Laboratory of In Vivo Measurements of the IRD - Brazilian Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry -, in order to manage the individual monitoring process that includes personal data archiving, data relating to the parameters of each measure and calculation results of activity. The software was developed in MS Visual Basic 6, using a MS Access database and can be run on personal computers with MS Windows 98 or higher

  14. Traceable measurements of the activity concentration in air

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, A; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Müller, A; Marcos, A

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear reactions induced by high energetic protons in heavy targets such as UC/sub 2/ and ThC cause a particular, complex radiation protection task at facilities like ISOLDE: the measurement of a mixture of different isotopes of the radioactive noble gas radon and the radon progenies in air. The knowledge of their respective activity concentration is fundamental for exposure assessments. Due to the complex mixture of activity concentrations in air, its precise determination is quite difficult. Therefore, a new procedure for taking reference samples was developed and implemented for the traceable measurement of the activity concentration of radioactive ions (e.g., radon progenies) in air. This technique is combined by measuring alpha -particles with a multi-wire ionization chamber for the parallel on-line determination of the activity concentration of different radon isotopes. (10 refs).

  15. Activity Level in the Lab: Overlap with Shyness Indicates It is More than Pure Motoric Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2017-01-01

    The observation that children's activity level (AL) differs between novel and familiar situations is well established. What influences individual differences in how AL is different across these situations is less well understood. Drawing on animal literature, which links rats' AL when 1st placed in a novel setting with novelty seeking phenotypes,…

  16. Endogenous testosterone levels are associated with neural activity in men with schizophrenia during facial emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ellen; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Catts, Stanley V; Vercammen, Ans; White, Christopher; Gur, Raquel E; Weickert, Thomas W

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that testosterone may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia given that testosterone has been linked to cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Here, we determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels are related to neural activity in affective processing circuitry in men with schizophrenia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal changes as 32 healthy controls and 26 people with schizophrenia performed a facial emotion identification task. Whole brain analyses were performed to determine regions of differential activity between groups during processing of angry versus non-threatening faces. A follow-up ROI analysis using a regression model in a subset of 16 healthy men and 16 men with schizophrenia was used to determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels were related to neural activity. Healthy controls displayed significantly greater activation than people with schizophrenia in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). There was no significant difference in circulating testosterone levels between healthy men and men with schizophrenia. Regression analyses between activation in the IFG and circulating testosterone levels revealed a significant positive correlation in men with schizophrenia (r=.63, p=.01) and no significant relationship in healthy men. This study provides the first evidence that circulating serum testosterone levels are related to IFG activation during emotion face processing in men with schizophrenia but not in healthy men, which suggests that testosterone levels modulate neural processes relevant to facial emotion processing that may interfere with social functioning in men with schizophrenia. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Velocity flow field and water level measurements in shoaling and breaking water waves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mukaro, R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available levels were measured using capacitive waves gauges, while the instantaneous velocity flow fields were measured using video techniques together with digital correlation techniques. The instantaneous velocity flow fields were further analyzed to yield...

  18. The measurement for level of marine high-temperature and high-pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jie.

    1986-01-01

    The various error factors in measurement for level of marine high-temperature and high-pressure vessels are anslysed. The measuring method of error self compensation and its simplification for land use are shown

  19. An objective assessment of toddlers' physical activity and sedentary levels: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderloo, Leigh M; Tucker, Patricia

    2015-09-26

    Little evidence exists on the physical activity and sedentary time of Canadian toddlers; this study objectively measured such behaviors and compared participants' activity levels to national guidelines. Levels of screen-viewing among toddlers were also explored. Forty toddlers (mean age = 25.7 months) wore Actical accelerometers for seven consecutive days (15 s epoch). Parents/guardians completed a wear-time log and a demographic and screen-viewing questionnaire. Descriptive analyses were used to determine participants' levels of physical activity and sedentary time, to identify whether toddlers were meeting physical activity/sedentary guidelines, and to explore demographic variables. T-tests were used to assess whether toddlers' activity levels differed based on cut-points applied and various demographic and screen-related variables. Regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between toddlers' sedentary time and screen-viewing levels. Toddlers engaged in 37.27 (SD = 3.79) to 49.40 (SD = 3.29) mins/hr of sedentary time, 9.79 (SD = 2.90) to 18.78 (SD = 3.22) mins/hr of light-intensity physical activity (LPA), 0.82 (SD = 0.72) to 3.95 (SD = 1.93) mins/hr of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), and 10.60 (SD =3.29) to 22.73 (SD = 3.97) mins/hr of total physical activity (TPA), based on the Trost et al. and the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) cut-points respectively; these rates were significantly different (p physical activity guidelines. No statistically significant differences in sedentary time or physical activity (all intensities) based on sex were reported (p sedentary behavior guidelines on weekdays and weekend days, respectively. The implications of this work suggest that a greater understanding of toddlers' activity patterns is needed; additional mechanisms of promoting active behaviors among this group should be explored.

  20. Mutual inductance appliance for measuring the level of a molten metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbinden, Marc.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns an appliance for measuring the level of a molten metal of the kind using the variation of the mutual inductance between two imbricated windings depending on the level of the free area of the molten metal in the range of levels taken up by the windings. It has a particularly significant use in measuring the level of liquid sodium, especially in nuclear facilities where sodium is used as coolant [fr

  1. Prehospital lactate improves accuracy of prehospital criteria for designating trauma activation level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua B; Lerner, E Brooke; Sperry, Jason L; Billiar, Timothy R; Peitzman, Andrew B; Guyette, Francis X

    2016-09-01

    Trauma activation level is determined by prehospital criteria. The American College of Surgeons (ACS) recommends trauma activation criteria; however, their accuracy may be limited. Prehospital lactate has shown promise in predicting trauma center resource requirements. Our objective was to investigate the added value of incorporating prehospital lactate in an algorithm to designate trauma activation level. Air medical trauma patients undergoing prehospital lactate measurement were included. Algorithms using ACS activation criteria (ACS) and ACS activation criteria plus prehospital lactate (ACS+LAC) to designate trauma activation level were compared. Test characteristics and net reclassification improvement (NRI), which evaluates reclassification of patients among risk categories with additional predictive variables, were calculated. Algorithms were compared to predict trauma center need defined as more than 1 unit of blood in the emergency department; spinal cord injury; advanced airway; thoracotomy or pericardiocentesis; ICP monitoring; emergent operative or interventional radiology procedure; or death. There were 6,347 patients included. Twenty-eight percent had trauma center need. The ACS+LAC algorithm upgraded 256 patients and downgraded 548 patients compared to the ACS algorithm. The ACS+LAC algorithm versus ACS algorithm had an NRI of 0.058 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.044-0.071; p trauma activation compared to the ACS algorithm. This overall benefit is achieved by significant reduction in overtriage relative to very small increase in undertriage. In the context of trauma team activation, this trade-off may be acceptable, especially in the current health care environment. Therapeutic/care management study, level III; prognostic/epidemiologic study, level III.

  2. The improved physical activity index for measuring physical activity in EPIC Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Wientzek

    Full Text Available In the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC, physical activity (PA has been indexed as a cross-tabulation between PA at work and recreational activity. As the proportion of non-working participants increases, other categorization strategies are needed. Therefore, our aim was to develop a valid PA index for this population, which will also be able to express PA continuously. In the German EPIC centers Potsdam and Heidelberg, a clustered sample of 3,766 participants was re-invited to the study center. 1,615 participants agreed to participate and 1,344 participants were finally included in this study. PA was measured by questionnaires on defined activities and a 7-day combined heart rate and acceleration sensor. In a training sample of 433 participants, the Improved Physical Activity Index (IPAI was developed. Its performance was evaluated in a validation sample of 911 participants and compared with the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index. The IPAI consists of items covering five areas including PA at work, sport, cycling, television viewing, and computer use. The correlations of the IPAI with accelerometer counts in the training and validation sample ranged r = 0.40-0.43 and with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE r = 0.33-0.40 and were higher than for the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index previously applied in EPIC. In non-working participants the IPAI showed higher correlations than the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index, with r = 0.34 for accelerometer counts and r = 0.29 for PAEE. In conclusion, we developed a valid physical activity index which is able to express PA continuously as well as to categorize participants according to their PA level. In populations with increasing rates of non-working people the performance of the IPAI is better than the established indices used in EPIC.

  3. The relationship between physical activity levels and pain in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limenis, Elizaveta; Grosbein, Haddas A; Feldman, Brian M

    2014-02-01

    Pain and reduced physical activity levels are common in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Currently, there is no consensus about the role of physical activity in managing pain in JIA. The purpose of our study was to assess the relationship between physical activity level and pain in children ages 11 to 18 years with JIA. A random sample of 50 patients with JIA were approached by mailed questionnaires. Physical activity was determined using the Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). Pain measures included the Numerical Rating Scale (pain severity), SUPER-KIDZ body diagram (number of painful areas), and the Child Activities Limitations Inventory-21 (pain interference). Generalized linear models were used to assess the relationship between physical activity and pain, as well as the roles of sex and age. The response rate was 84%. Thirty-four respondents completed the questionnaire package. The median age was 15 years. The mean PAQ score was 2.16/5. Physical activity declines with increasing age in youth with JIA (r = 0.53, p = 0.0014). Lower physical activity is associated with greater pain interference (r = 0.39, p = 0.0217) and more severe pain (r = 0.35, p = 0.0422). Children with JIA report significantly less activity than healthy children based on PAQ scores, with physical activity declining throughout adolescence. Physical activity is inversely related to pain interference and severity in children with JIA. Our findings suggest that physical activity interventions may play an important role in the management of pain in JIA.

  4. BMI and recommended levels of physical activity in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillipp Schwarzfischer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA and its health benefits are a continuous point of discussion. Recommendations for children’s daily PA vary between guidelines. To better define the amount of PA necessary to prevent overweight and obesity in children, further research is needed. The present study investigates children’s compliance to physical activity guidelines (PAGs and the association between objectively measured PA and body mass index (BMI. Methods Participating children were 11 years old (n = 419 and part of the European CHOP trial, which was conducted in Germany, Belgium, Poland, Spain, Italy. At least 2 days of PA measurements were collected from each child using a SenseWear™ armband. BMI was calculated from children’s height and weight. Thresholds of min·day−1 in PA needed to differentiate between normal and excess weight (overweight/obesity were determined with Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC analysis. Additionally, adjusted linear and logistic regressions models were calculated for group differences and effects of a 5, 15 and 60 min·day−1 increases in PA on BMI. Results Median time spent in total PA was 462 min·day−1 (25th percentile; 75th percentile: 389; 534 and 75 min·day−1 (41; 115 in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA. Girls spent 36 min·day−1 less in MVPA than boys and overweight/obese children 24 min·day−1 less than normal weight children (linear regression, p < 0.001. 63.2% of the children met PAGs of 60 min·day−1 in MVPA. The optimal threshold for min·day−1 in MVPA determined with ROC analysis was 46 min·day−1. Comparing 5, 15 and 60 min·day−1 increases in PA revealed that an additional 15 min·day−1 of vigorous PA had the same effect as 60 min·day−1 of MVPA. Sedentary time and light PA showed contrary associations to one another, with light PA being negatively and sedentary time being positively associated with excessive weight. Conclusions Current PAGs are

  5. Effect of occupational lead-exposure on blood pressure, serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouman, A E; El-Safty, I A

    2000-01-01

    Numerous observations have indicated a relationship between lead exposure and elevated blood pressure. The present study aims to investigate the association between occupational lead-exposure and elevated blood pressure as well as serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity as parameters affecting blood pressure. Fifty occupationally lead-exposed (16 males and 34 females) and 50 non-exposed (15 males and 34 females) workers were selected after application of certain exclusion criteria. All workers were admitted to complete clinical examination, including standard blood pressure measurement. Also, blood lead level, serum aldosterone concentration and plasma renin activity were estimated. The results of both occupationally lead-exposed males and females demonstrated no significant differences regarding age, work duration, systolic and diastolic blood pressures when compared to occupationally non-exposed males and females; respectively. In addition, occupationally lead-exposed males and females revealed a significant increase in blood lead level and serum aldosterone concentration in comparison to their controls. Moreover, plasma renin activity is significantly decreased among the lead-exposed male workers while it is significantly increased among the lead-exposed female workers in comparison to their controls. It is concluded that serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity are affected by occupationally low-level of lead exposure, and the present study provide further support for the association between blood lead exposure and blood pressure related hormones.

  6. Estimation of the terrestrial gamma-ray levels from car-borne measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badran, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    A place to place variation of the gamma-radiation has been measured. The terrestrial gamma-ray levels were obtained with a portable Nal(Tl) detector. Gamma-ray levels were measured inside a car for a distance of about 220 km, from Norman up to Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA. Simultaneous measurements have also been carried out outside the vehicle and at distances 1 m and 5 m from the car. A series of data was collected every 1 mile (∼ 1.6 km). The measurements were also repeated different time under different conditions. The measured car-borne levels were correlated with the outdoor equivalent levels at 1 m above flat ground. The result permits a good estimation of the outdoor gamma-ray levels from the car measurements after the correction due to the vehicle shielding

  7. Advanced Active-Magnetic-Bearing Thrust-Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imlach, Joseph; Kasarda, Mary; Blumber, Eric

    2008-01-01

    An advanced thrust-measurement system utilizes active magnetic bearings to both (1) levitate a floating frame in all six degrees of freedom and (2) measure the levitation forces between the floating frame and a grounded frame. This system was developed for original use in measuring the thrust exerted by a rocket engine mounted on the floating frame, but can just as well be used in other force-measurement applications. This system offers several advantages over prior thrust-measurement systems based on mechanical support by flexures and/or load cells: The system includes multiple active magnetic bearings for each degree of freedom, so that by selective use of one, some, or all of these bearings, it is possible to test a given article over a wide force range in the same fixture, eliminating the need to transfer the article to different test fixtures to obtain the benefit of full-scale accuracy of different force-measurement devices for different force ranges. Like other active magnetic bearings, the active magnetic bearings of this system include closed-loop control subsystems, through which the stiffness and damping characteristics of the magnetic bearings can be modified electronically. The design of the system minimizes or eliminates cross-axis force-measurement errors. The active magnetic bearings are configured to provide support against movement along all three orthogonal Cartesian axes, and such that the support along a given axis does not produce force along any other axis. Moreover, by eliminating the need for such mechanical connections as flexures used in prior thrust-measurement systems, magnetic levitation of the floating frame eliminates what would otherwise be major sources of cross-axis forces and the associated measurement errors. Overall, relative to prior mechanical-support thrust-measurement systems, this system offers greater versatility for adaptation to a variety of test conditions and requirements. The basic idea of most prior active

  8. Standards in clinical decision support: activities in health level seven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenders, Robert A; Jenders, Robert Allen; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Sailors, R Matthew

    2008-11-06

    Health Level Seven (HL7) has evolved into an international standards development organization (SDO) with a suite of standards. Prominent among these are formalisms related to clinical decision support, including the Arden Syntax, GELLO and Decision Support Service (DSS) standards. Continuing improvement in these standards and ongoing development of future decision support standards require wide participation in order to maximize their success. Accordingly, the purpose of the workshop is twofold. First, instructors will convey the latest developments regarding existing decision support standards and related efforts to develop new standards. Second, the instructors will solicit feedback so that attendees who do not participate in HL7 can have input into the standards activities of that organization. The instructors of this workshop, who are the co-chairs and/or members of the Clinical Decision Support Technical Committee of HL7, will review progress in these areas. They will present the details of the ongoing development of the extant Arden Syntax, GELLO and DSS standards. They will discuss work on current draft and proposed future standards, including the Infobutton communication and Order Set standards that are undergoing development in anticipation of certification as standards. Finally, they will solicit discussion regarding the future direction of standards development in these areas.

  9. Quality assurance activities and proposals at the international level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, M.

    1985-01-01

    A number of international bodies have attempted to stimulate wider interest in Quality Assurance in X-ray departments. A major initiative has been taken by WHO with the publication of its recommendations in 1982 under the title Quality Assurance in Diagnostic Radiology, in which they indicated the action that should be taken at various national, professional and local levels. The recommendations of ICRP in Publication 26 point to the need for quality assurance programmes that will obtain optimum diagnostic information at minimum cost and minimum patient dose. ICRU have been considering the need for cost-effective quality assurance programmes and the specification of standards for image quality. The IEC and various manufacturers' organisations have begun to consider the part they can play in setting up quality control procedures. The most active group has been the ISRRT, which has arranged a series of seminars and workshops for radiographers in various parts of the world. Future needs for international support lie in the provision of training programmes, the publication of comparative statistical data and the development of image quality standards. (author)

  10. Measurement and reduction of low-level radon background in the KATRIN experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fränkle, F. M.

    2013-01-01

    The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment is a next generation, model independent, large scale experiment to determine the mass of the electron anti-neutrino by investigating the kinematics of tritium beta decay with a sensitivity of 200 meV/c 2 . The measurement setup consists of a high luminosity windowless gaseous molecular tritium source (WGTS), a differential and cryogenic pumped electron transport and tritium retention section, a tandem spectrometer section (pre-spectrometer and main spectrometer) for energy analysis, followed by a detector system for counting transmitted beta decay electrons. Measurements performed at the KATRIN pre-spectrometer test setup showed that the decay of radon (Rn) atoms in the volume of the KATRIN spectrometers is a major background source. Rn atoms from low-level radon emanation of materials inside the vacuum region of the KATRIN spectrometers are able to penetrate deep into the magnetic flux tube so that the alpha decay of Rn contributes to the background. Of particular importance are electrons emitted in processes accompanying the Rn alpha decay, such as shake-off, internal conversion of excited levels in the Rn daughter atoms and Auger electrons. Lowenergy electrons (< 100 eV) directly contribute to the background in the signal region. High-energy electrons can be stored magnetically inside the volume of the spectrometer and are able to create thousands of secondary electrons via subsequent ionization processes with residual gas molecules. In order to reduce the Rn induced background different active and passive counter measures were developed and tested. This proceeding will give an overview on Rn sources within the KATRIN spectrometer, describes how Rn decays inside the spectrometer produce background events at the detector and presents different counter measures to reduce the Rn induced background

  11. Radioactivity evaluation method for pre-packed concrete packages of low-level dry active wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Toshiaki [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan); Funahashi, Tetsuo; Watabe, Kiyomi; Ozawa, Yukitoshi; Kashiwagi, Makoto

    1998-09-01

    Low-level dry active wastes of nuclear power plants are grouted with cement mortal in a container and planned to disposed into the shallow land disposal site. The characteristics of radionuclides contained in dry active wastes are same as homogeneous solidified wastes. In the previous report, we reported the applicability of the radioactivity evaluation methods established for homogeneous solidified wastes to pre-packed concrete packages. This report outlines the developed radioactivity evaluation methods for pre-packed concrete packages based upon recent data. Since the characteristics of dry active wastes depend upon the plant system in which dry active wastes originate and the types of contamination, sampling of wastes and activity measurement were executed to derive scaling factors. The radioactivity measurement methods were also verified. The applicability of non-destructive methods to measure radioactivity concentration of pre-packed concrete packages was examined by computer simulation. It is concluded that those methods are accurate enough to measure actual waste packages. (author)

  12. Questionnaires for measuring physical activity in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Bertoldo Benedetti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The identifi cation of the best amount of physical activity is fundamental so that coherent physical activity practices can be advised regarding the amount, intensity, and frequency, as well as intervention programs can be built to minimize and control problems from functional decline with age. Amongst the methods and techniques, questionnaires have been the most used tool to evaluate physical activity and energy expenditure. Thus, the present study proposed to evaluate psychometric characteristics, advantages and limitations of questionnaires that measure physical activity level in the elderly. A literature review in electronic databases was performed using Ovid Medline and also in personal fi les. After identifying the questionnaires, a new search was run. Six questionnaires were found, and their characteristics were presented. The Baecke and the IPAQ questionnaires are the only forms translated into Portuguese and validated. The IPAQ seemed to show the best conditions to be applied in aged Brazilians. Thus, the questionnaires evaluating physical activity level in the elderly population in Brazil have good reliability, but low validity. RESUMO Identificar a quantidade ideal de atividade física é fundamental para que se possa orientar práticas coerentes em relação à quantidade, intensidade e freqüência, bem como construir programas de intervenções para minimizar e controlar os problemas relacionados com o declínio funcional em idosos. Dentre os métodos e técnicas, os questionários têm sido os mais empregados para avaliar a atividade física e o gasto energético. Assim, o presente estudo objetivou avaliar as características, origens, aspectos psicométricos, vantagens e limitações de questionários que medem o nível de atividade física em idosos. Realizou-se umarevisão bibliográfi ca nos bancos de dados eletrônicos: Ovid Medline e o acervo bibliográfi co pessoal. Após a identifi cação dos instrumentos, realizou

  13. Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition of Adult Premenopausal Women with Three Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando D. Saraví

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight-bearing and resistance physical activities are recommended for osteoporosis prevention, but it is unclear whether an intensity level above current recommendations has a positive effect on adult premenopausal women. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD by DXA were compared in three groups of women as follows: Sedentary, Maintenance exercise, and federated Sport Team (n=16 for each group. Physical activity was estimated from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. The groups did not differ in age, height, weight, or body mass index. Bone mineral content and non-fat soft tissue mass were higher and fat mass was lower in the Sport Team group than in the other groups. The same was true for BMD of total skeleton, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. A test for linear trend of body composition and BMD showed significant results when including all three groups. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between physical activity level (or alternatively, years of participation in programmed physical activity and bone mass measures at all sites except for the middle third of radius. It is concluded that a level of physical activity higher than that usually recommended benefits bone health in adult premenopausal women.

  14. Segregation of low-level dry active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornblith, L. Jr.; Giuffre, M.; Naughton, M.; The Analytic Sciences Corp., Reading, MA; Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA)

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes an EPRI-sponsored project to provide the technical basis for exempting some extremely lightly contaminated radioactive trash from the disposal requirements of 10CFR61. The analysis shows that TVA's Sequoyah Plant could save more than $250,000 per year if the NRC would allow them to dispose of 200 mCi/y of trash with a specific activity of less than 2 nCi/g in a nearby landfill. Only the driver of the trash hauler would receive a dose, 14 mrem/y, that was a substantial fraction of the natural variation in background radiation. Landfill workers would receive a yearly dose of less than 0.6 mrem/y; no member of the general populace would receive a measurable dose. The paper also discusses the development of procedures to ensure that the trash limits are met. This study will form the technical basis for TVA's request to NRC to grant the exemption from the 10CFR61 disposal requirements

  15. Measuring physical activity with accelerometers for individuals with intellectual disability: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Willie; Siebert, Erin A; Yun, Joonkoo

    2017-08-01

    Multiple studies have reported differing physical activity levels for individuals with intellectual disabilities when using accelerometers. One of the potential reasons for these differences may be due to how researchers measure physical activity. Currently there is a lack of understanding on measurement protocol of accelerometers. The purpose of this study was to synthesize the current practice of using accelerometers to measure physical activity levels among individuals with intellectual disabilities. A systematic search was conducted using multiple databases including Medline (1998-2015), Sport Discus (1992-2015), Web of Science (1965-2015), and Academic Research Premier (2004-2015). Seventeen articles were found that met the inclusion criteria. There is a lack of consistent research protocols for measuring physical activity levels with accelerometers. Issues with the amount of time participants wore the accelerometer was a challenge for multiple studies. Studies that employed external strategies to maximize wear time had higher compliance rates. There is a need to establish and standardize specific accelerometer protocols for measuring physical activity levels of individuals with intellectual disabilities for higher quality and more comparable data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Health-related aspects of objectively measured daily physical activity in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that physical inactivity in adults is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Whether daily physical activity level is related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children has been debated. Furthermore, objective data on the habitual daily physical...... activity in children have at large been scarce in the literature. The main reason for this is the fact that daily physical activity is very difficult to measure in children. In recent years, a new device, the accelerometer, has emerged as a frequently used instrument for the measurement of daily physical...... activity. This review summarizes recently published studies that have used accelerometers to measure daily physical activity in children and related activity data to known risk factors for CVD....

  17. Investigation of environmental activity levels of bone-coal mining area in five provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jida; Wu Zongmei; Kong Lingli; Shi Jinhua; Li Ying; Jiang Shan; Zhang Liang

    2005-01-01

    During 1991-1993, the activity levels of the bone-coal mines were investigated in Zhejiang, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi and Anhui Province, respectively, where the reserve of bone-coal is about 90% of our country's total reserve. The average of γ radiation dose rate level measured for bone-coal, bone-coal cinder (BCC) and bone-coal cinder brick (BCCB) in these provinces is about 500 nGy/h, 400 nGy/h and 700 nGy/h respectively, while that for fields, roads and houses made of BCCB in corresponding regions of these provinces is about 200 nGy/h, 260 nGy/h and 300 nGy/h respectively. It is shown that the environmental activity level of bone-coal mining area is about 3 times higher than the reference spots. (authors)

  18. Infliximab and adalimumab drug levels in Crohn's disease: contrasting associations with disease activity and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M G; Warner, B; Unsworth, N; Chuah, S-W; Brownclarke, C; Shieh, S; Parkes, M; Sanderson, J D; Arkir, Z; Reynolds, J; Gibson, P R; Irving, P M

    2017-07-01

    Discriminative drug level thresholds for disease activity endpoints in patients with Crohn's disease. have been consistently demonstrated with infliximab, but not adalimumab. To identify threshold concentrations for infliximab and adalimumab in Crohn's disease according to different disease endpoints, and factors that influence drug levels. We performed a cross-sectional service evaluation of patients receiving maintenance infliximab or adalimumab for Crohn's disease. Serum drug levels were at trough for infliximab and at any time point for adalimumab. Endpoints included Harvey-Bradshaw index, C-reactive protein and faecal calprotectin. 6-tioguanine nucleotide (TGN) concentrations were measured in patients treated with thiopurines. A total of 191 patients (96 infliximab, 95 adalimumab) were included. Differences in infliximab levels were observed for clinical (P=.081) and biochemical remission (P=.003) and faecal calprotectin normalisation (Pinfliximab dose, body mass index and colonic disease independently accounted for 31% of the variation in infliximab levels, and weekly dosing, albumin and weight accounted for 23% of variation in adalimumab levels. TGN levels did not correlate with drug levels. Infliximab drug levels are associated with the depth of response/remission in patients with Crohn's disease, but no such relationship was observed for adalimumab. More data are needed to explain the variation in drug levels. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. First results on enzymatic activities in two salt marsh soils under different hydromorphic level and vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Trasar-Cepeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt-marsh soils are soils characterized by non-permanent hydric saturation that, depending on factors like duration of submersion periods, are dominated by different salt-tolerant plant species. The composition of microbial communities is an essential component in trophic dynamics and biogeochemical processes in salt marshes, and determines the level of enzymatic activities, which catalyze the conversion of complex molecules into simpler ones. Despite of this, the enzymatic activities in marsh-soils has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the enzymatic activities in two soil profiles of marsh-soils under different water saturation level and dominated by different plant species [Juncus maritimus Lam and Spartina maritima (Curtis Fernald (Sp]. In both soils, the enzymatic activities were much lower than the levels typically found in terrestrial ecosystems. The enzymatic activities were measured both in air-dried and in re-moistened and incubated soil samples. In air-dried samples, the enzymatic activities were higher in Juncus than in Spartina soil and tended to decrease with depth, being sharper the decrease in Juncus than in Spartina soil. Re-moistened and pre-incubated soils showed a general increase in all the enzymatic activities and throughout the whole soil profile, especially in Spartina soils. Hydrolase activities showed a strong and positive relationship with organic matter content both in air-dried and in re-moistened soil samples, higher in these latter. In general, oxidoreductase activities only showed this relationship in re-moistened soil samples. More studies, preferably using freshly collected soil samples, are needed to understand the relationship between enzymatic activities and these environmental conditions.

  20. Caries-free subjects have high levels of urease and arginine deiminase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn REYES

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study investigated the relationship between urease and arginine deiminase system (ADS activities and dental caries through a cross-sectional study. Material and Methods: Urease and ADS activities were measured in saliva and plaque samples from 10 caries-free subjects and 13 caries-active. Urease activity was obtained from the ammonia produced by incubation of plaque and saliva samples in urea. ADS activity was obtained from the ammonia generated by the arginine-HCl and Tris-maleate buffer. Specific activity was defined as micromoles of ammonia per minute per milligram of protein. Shapiro-Wilk statistical test was used to analyze the distribution of the data, and Mann-Whitney test was used to determine the significance of the data. Results: The specific urease activity in saliva and plaque was significantly higher in individuals with low DMFT scores. ADS activity in saliva (6.050 vs 1.350, p=0.0154 and plaque (8.830 vs 1.210, p=0.025 was also higher in individuals with low DMFT scores. Conclusions: Caries-free subjects had a higher ammonia generation activity by urease and arginine deiminase system for both saliva and plaque samples than low caries-active subjects. High levels of alkali production in oral environment were related to caries-free subjects.

  1. Quantitative measurement of membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity using thallium-201: comparison with rubidium-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Tae; Shon, Sang Kyun; Lee, Kyu Bo; Lee, In Kyu

    1998-01-01

    Na + -K + ATPase activity has been estimated by the degree of inhibition of cation transport by cardiac glycosides (ouabain) using Rb-86 as a substrate. The biological characteristics of Tl-201 is known to be similar to those of potassium as a transport substrate in the presence of glucose, insulin or phobol myristate acetate (PMA). The purpose of this study was to measure ouabain sensitive Na + -K + ATPase activity using Tl-201 and compare with that using Rb-86. Smooth muscle cells isolated from rat aorta or human placental umbilical artery were cultured, and used to measure cellular Na + -K + ATPase activity. Na + -K + ATPase activity was measured as a percentage decrease in cellular uptake of Tl-201 or Rb-86 by ouabain under the presence of glucose, insulin or PMA in media. Na + -K + ATPase activity measured with Tl-201, as a transport substrate, was not different from those measured with Rb-86 in rat or human smooth muscle cell preparation. Incubation with high concentration glucose resulted in about 30% decrease in enzyme activity. In contrast, insulin or PMA resulted in 50-70% or 28% increase from baseline activity, respectively. These results suggests that Tl-201 could replace Rb-86 in measurement of ouabain sensitive Na + -K + ATPase activity in vitro. High level of glucose concentration decreased cellular Na + -K + ATPase activity, but insulin or PMA increased it

  2. Association of day length and weather conditions with physical activity levels in older community dwelling people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles D Witham

    Full Text Available Weather is a potentially important determinant of physical activity. Little work has been done examining the relationship between weather and physical activity, and potential modifiers of any relationship in older people. We therefore examined the relationship between weather and physical activity in a cohort of older community-dwelling people.We analysed prospectively collected cross-sectional activity data from community-dwelling people aged 65 and over in the Physical Activity Cohort Scotland. We correlated seven day triaxial accelerometry data with daily weather data (temperature, day length, sunshine, snow, rain, and a series of potential effect modifiers were tested in mixed models: environmental variables (urban vs rural dwelling, percentage of green space, psychological variables (anxiety, depression, perceived behavioural control, social variables (number of close contacts and health status measured using the SF-36 questionnaire.547 participants, mean age 78.5 years, were included in this analysis. Higher minimum daily temperature and longer day length were associated with higher activity levels; these associations remained robust to adjustment for other significant associates of activity: age, perceived behavioural control, number of social contacts and physical function. Of the potential effect modifier variables, only urban vs rural dwelling and the SF-36 measure of social functioning enhanced the association between day length and activity; no variable modified the association between minimum temperature and activity.In older community dwelling people, minimum temperature and day length were associated with objectively measured activity. There was little evidence for moderation of these associations through potentially modifiable health, environmental, social or psychological variables.

  3. Neighborhood Environments and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in 11 Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli L; Conway, Terry L

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Environmental changes are potentially effective population-level physical activity (PA) promotion strategies. However, robust multi-site evidence to guide international action for developing activity-supportive environments is lacking. We estimated pooled associations of perceived......, lending support for international recommendations for designing PA-friendly built environments.This is an open access article distributed under the creative commons attribution license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly...

  4. Physical Activity Levels in Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder When Playing Active and Sedentary Xbox Kinect Videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Daphne; Getchell, Nancy

    2017-04-01

    We compare physical activity during bouts of sedentary videogaming (SVG), active videogaming (AVG), and paced walking in children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to determine the effectiveness of AVG in providing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Participants included nine males (8-11 years old) with ASD and eight age-matched males who were typically developing. Both groups had anthropometric and motor proficiency (Movement Assessment Battery for Children II) measures taken before testing. Participants attended three randomly assigned acquisition sessions: 20 minutes of paced walking at 4.5 metabolic equivalents, AVG, and SVG. Videogaming occurred on an Xbox ® Kinect. An Actical accelerometer provided activity counts (AC) and percentage of time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA). These were compared using 3 × 2 repeated measures analysis of variance for each measure. Main effects for conditions existed for %MVPA (P < 0.0001) and AC (P < 0.0001). Post hoc Bonferroni comparisons indicated that AVG had significantly higher AC (P < 0.001) and % MVPA (P < 0.001) than SVG, but was significantly lower than paced walking (AC P < 0.001; %MVPA P < 0.01). Overall, participants spent 76.25% of their time in MVPA during AVG compared to 99.4% during paced walking and 2.31% in SVG. No main effects for groups or group by condition interaction effects were found for either measure. AVG may provide an appealing means by which all individuals can increase their overall physical activity levels, although AVG should not be seen as a replacement for walking or other forms of PA. Although further research is necessary, the finding that both groups performed similarly in AVG suggests that games can potentially be played without modifications or adaptations to gaming units, which may provide several advantages in terms of social/cost/ease of accessing unit.

  5. Liquid level measurement on coolant pipeline using Raman distributed temperature sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasinathan, M.; Sosamma, S.; Babu Rao, C.; Murali, N.; Jayakumar, T.

    2011-01-01

    Optical fibre based Raman Distributed Temperature Sensor (RDTS) has been widely used for temperature monitoring in oil pipe line, power cable and environmental monitoring. Recently it has gained importance in nuclear reactor owing to its advantages like continuous, distributed temperature monitoring and immunity from electromagnetic interference. It is important to monitor temperature based level measurement in sodium capacities and in coolant pipelines for Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). This particular application is used for filling and draining sodium in storage tank of sodium circuits of Fast breeder reactor. There are different conventional methods to find out the sodium level in the storage tank of sodium cooled reactors. They are continuous level measurement and discontinuous level measurement. For continuous level measurement, mutual inductance type level probes are used. The disadvantage of using this method is it needs a temperature compensation circuit. For discontinuous level measurement, resistance type discontinuous level probe and mutual inductance type discontinuous level probe are used. In resistance type discontinuous level probe, each level needs a separate probe. To overcome these disadvantages, RDTS is used for level measurement based distributed temperature from optical fibre as sensor. The feasibility of using RDTS for measurement of temperature based level measurement sensor is studied using a specially designed test set-up and using hot water, instead of sodium. The test set-up consist of vertically erected Stainless Steel (SS) pipe of length 2m and diameter 10cm, with provision for filling and draining out the liquid. Bare graded index multimode fibre is laid straight along the length of the of the SS pipe. The SS pipe is filled with hot water at various levels. The hot water in the SS pipe is maintained at constant temperature by insulating the SS pipe. The temperature profile of the hot water at various levels is measured using RDTS. The

  6. Objective measures of the environment and physical activity--results of the environment and physical activity study in English adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Charlie; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Jones, Andy; Grundy, Chris; Wilkinson, Paul; White, Martin; Sheehan, Bart; Wareham, Nick; Thorogood, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity has been positively associated with a range of objectively measured environmental variables. We explored the relationship of walking and other categories of physical activity with objectively measured activity specific environmental variables in a U.K. population. We used a geographical information system (GIS) and gender specific multivariate models to relate 13,927 participants' reported levels of physical activity with a range of measures of the environment. Access to green space and area levels of crime were not associated with walking for recreation. Distance to facilities had either no or only a small effect on the uptake of different activities. Odds ratios of cycling for leisure dropped as local traffic density increased for both genders. Compared with the lowest quartile for traffic density the likelihood of reporting any cycling for leisure was OR 0.42, (95% CI 0.32 to 0.52, P < .001) for women and OR 0.41, (95% CI 0.33 to 0.50, P < .001) for men in the highest quartile. We were unable to reproduce results observed in previous studies. Future research should use large representative population samples from multiple areas to maximize environmental variability and if feasible use both objective and subjective measures of physical activity and the environment.

  7. A novel multipoint measuring system of photosynthetically active radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palva, L.; Garam, E.; Manoochehri, F.; Sepponen, R.; Hari, P.; Rajala, K.; Ruotoistenmaki, H.; Seppala, I.

    1998-01-01

    A novel multipoint measuring system of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) has been designed. It is used as a component of a field measurement system of photosynthesis. The system consists of a multichannel fiberoptic sensor, Intel 486-based microcomputer (PC) with software for control and analysis and interface electronics. The fiberoptic sensor comprises 800 measuring points which are arranged in a regular grid on a plane. This grid is attached to a cuvette to observe the spatial and temporal distribution of PAR falling on the needles along with simultaneous measurements of CO 2 exchange. PAR is registered through a fiberoptic bundle using a charge coupled device (CCD) sensor. The system has been in operation between July and October 1996 within a Scots pine canopy. The results demonstrate that the obtained regression between the photosynthetic rate estimated with the multipoint PAR measuring system and the measured CO 2 exchange rate is as tight within a canopy as in unshaded conditions. (author)

  8. Measuring Levels of Work in Academic Libraries: A Time Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Donald P.

    1985-01-01

    Using Stratified Systems Theory, which focuses on the manager-subordinate relationship in the bureaucratic structure, a study was conducted to measure level of responsibility in work of 37 professional and nonprofessional positions in four academic library technical services departments. Three levels of work were measured in "time-spans of…

  9. Low-level waste research and development activities of the Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barainca, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the technical activities of the Department of Energy's Defense and Nuclear Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Programs (LLWPs). Although each Program was established with a different purpose, the technologies developed and demonstrated by each are transferable for use in both the commercial and DOE sectors. This paper presents an overview of the technical activities being pursued through both the Defense and Nuclear Energy LLWP's. These technologies have been placed in the following categories; Criteria and Standards, Systems Analysis, Information and Technology Transfer, Waste Treatment and Wast Form, Improved Near Surface Disposal, Greater Confinement Disposal, Corrective Measures, and Monitoring

  10. Activation measurements for thermal neutrons. Part J. Evaluation of thermal neutron transmission factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbert, Stephen D.

    2005-01-01

    In order to relate thermal neutron activation measurements in samples to the calculated free-in-air thermal neutron activation levels given in Chapter 3, use is made of sample transmission factors. Transmission factors account for the modification of the fluence and activation at each sample's in situ location. For the purposes of this discussion, the transmission factor (TF) is defined as the ratio of the in situ sample activation divided by the free-in-air (FIA) activation at a height of 1 m above ground at the same ground range. The procedures for calculation of TF's and example results are presented in this section. (author)

  11. Challenges of Measuring a Faculty Member Activity in Medical Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, A; Mojtahedzadeh, R; Emami Razavi, S H

    2011-01-01

    Background One of the features of Mission Based Management is measuring the activities of faculty members and departments and their contributions to the school's mission. As it is important to assess the school's readiness for such a system, in this study we assessed the view points of Tehran Medical School's department chairs about faculty members’ activities. Methods We used focus group technique to identify participants' view points. We divided 30 department chairs into homogenous groups o...

  12. Unibert - PC software for radiometric level gauging - the LB440 measuring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, H.; Bickert, M.

    2001-01-01

    In almost all industrial branches radiometric measuring systems are being used today for a lot of different tasks. The most common field of this application are level gauging measurements by use of gamma radiation, i.e. for level detection as well as for level gauging over ranges of up to several meters. For our level gauge measuring system LB440 we developed a clearly arranged PC software, which allows starting, measuring and service of the level gauge. Over the RS232-interface the industrial computer can be connected with a Laptop or PC. The software is a supplemental or even a substitute for the operation over the frontpanel. The measuring system can be completely controlled by the Unibert PC-Software, realised by LabVIEW 5.1.1, which offers an interactive graphical user interface. The same functionality as in the ''embedded - software'' is available, completed with some additional functions. (orig.) [de

  13. Software for a measuring facility for activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Keyser, A.; De Roost, E.

    1985-01-01

    A software package has been developed for an APPLE P.C. The programs are intended to control an automated measuring station for photon activation analysis at GELINA, the linear accelerator of C.B.N.M. at Geel (Belgium). They allow to set-up a measuring scheme, to execute it under computer control, to accumulate and store 2 K-spectra using a built-in ADC and to output the results as listings, plots or evaluated reports

  14. Plastic optical fiber sensor based on in-fiber microholes for level measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaehee; Park, Young June; Shin, Jong-Dug

    2015-02-01

    A plastic optical fiber (POF) sensor with in-fiber microholes for level measurement is investigated. The sensor has eight 0.9-mm-diameter holes spaced 5 cm apart and fabricated by micro-drilling. When water is poured into a measuring cylinder equipped with a POF sensor for level measurement, the sensor transmittance increases with the number of holes immersed in water. The experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical data. The research results show that a POF sensor with in-fiber micro-holes can be used to measure liquid level.

  15. Measurement of GPCR-G protein activity in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Kasun; Kankanamge, Dinesh; Senarath, Kanishka; Siripurapu, Praneeth; Weis, Nicole; Tennakoon, Mithila; Payton, John L; Karunarathne, Ajith

    2017-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of cell surface receptors in eukaryotic genomes. They control a variety of cellular and physiological processes such as hormone secretion and heart rate, and therefore are associated with a majority of pathological conditions including cancer and heart diseases. Currently established assays to measure ligand-induced activation of GPCRs and G proteins possess limitations such as being time consuming, indirect, and expensive. Thus, an efficient method to measure GPCR-G protein activation is required to identify novel pharmacological modulators to control them and gain insights about molecular underpinnings of the associated pathways. Activation of GPCRs induces dissociation of G protein heterotrimers to form GαGTP and free Gβγ. Free Gβγ subunits have been shown to translocate reversibly from the plasma membrane to internal membranes. Gβγ translocation therefore represents the GPCR-G protein activation, and thus, imaging of this process can be used to quantify the kinetics and magnitude of the pathway activation-deactivation in real time in living cells. The objective of this chapter is to elaborate the protocols of (i) generation and optimization of the required sensor constructs; (ii) development of cell culture, transient transfection, imaging, and optogenetic procedures; (iii) imaging and data analysis methods; and (iv) stable cell line generation, pertaining to this assay to measure GPCR-G protein activation. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Measuring the Enzyme Activity of Arabidopsis Deubiquitylating Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowska, Kamila; Nagel, Marie-Kristin; Isono, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Deubiquitylating enzymes, or DUBs, are important regulators of ubiquitin homeostasis and substrate stability, though the molecular mechanisms of most of the DUBs in plants are not yet understood. As different ubiquitin chain types are implicated in different biological pathways, it is important to analyze the enzyme characteristic for studying a DUB. Quantitative analysis of DUB activity is also important to determine enzyme kinetics and the influence of DUB binding proteins on the enzyme activity. Here, we show methods to analyze DUB activity using immunodetection, Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining, and fluorescence measurement that can be useful for understanding the basic characteristic of DUBs.

  17. Characterization of sediment and measurement of groundwater levels and temperatures, Camas National Wildlife Refuge, eastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Rattray, Gordon W.

    2016-11-02

    The Camas National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) in eastern Idaho, established in 1937, contains wetlands, ponds, and wet meadows that are essential resting and feeding habitat for migratory birds and nesting habitat for waterfowl. Initially, natural sources of water supported these habitats. However, during the past few decades, climate change and changes in surrounding land use have altered and reduced natural groundwater and surface water inflows such that the wetlands, ponds, and wet meadows are now maintained through water management and groundwater pumping. These water management activities have proven to be inefficient and costly, prompting the Refuge to develop alternative water management options that are more efficient and less expensive. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, is studying the hydrogeology at the Refuge to provide information for developing alternative water management options.The hydrogeologic studies at the Refuge included characterizing the type, distribution, and hydraulic conductivity of surficial sediments and measuring water levels and temperatures in monitoring wells. Four monitoring wells and seven soil probe coreholes were drilled at the Refuge. Seven water level and temperature data loggers were installed in the wells and water levels and temperatures were continuously recorded from November 2014 to June 2016. Sediment cores were collected from the coreholes and sediment type and distribution were characterized from drillers’ notes, geophysical logs, corehole samples, and particle grain-size analysis. The hydraulic conductivities of sediments were estimated using the measured average grain size and the assumed textural maturity of the sediment, and ranged from about 20 to 290 feet per day.

  18. Measuring Entrepreneurial Activity in the Middle East and North Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to contribute to a better understanding of the factors influencing the level of entrepreneurial activity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and benchmark country and regional performance against that of other developing and developed economies. IDRC will contract a survey company to gather ...

  19. Performance tests for instruments measuring radon activity concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.R.; Buchroeder, H.; Schmidt, V.

    2009-01-01

    Performance tests of electronic instruments measuring the activity concentration of 222 Rn have been carried out with respect to the standard IEC 61577-2. In total, 9 types of instrument operating with ionization chambers or electrostatic collection have been tested for the influence of different climatic and radiological factors on the measurement characteristics. It is concluded that all types of instrument, which are commercially available, are suitable for indoor radon measurements. Because of the dependence on climatic conditions, the outdoor use is partly limited.

  20. Circulating leptin levels are associated with physical activity or physical fitness in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Haruka; Kawakami, Ryoko; Tabata, Izumi; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the link between circulating leptin levels and physical activity and/or physical fitness in apparently healthy Japanese. A total of 85 men and 111 women who were not taking any medication were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Circulating leptin levels, physical activity measured by tri-axial accelerometers and peak oxygen uptake were evaluated. We also assessed anthropometric data, blood pressure, blood examinations and energy intake. Circulating leptin levels were 3.2 ± 2.3 ng/mL in men and 5.9 ± 3.8 ng/mL in women. Circulating leptin levels were significantly and positively correlated with body weight, body mass index, abdominal circumference, insulin and the homeostasis model assessment index, and significantly and negatively correlated with peak oxygen uptake in both sexes. Stepwise multiple regression showed that peak oxygen uptake in men and physical activity evaluated by Σ[metabolic equivalents h per week(METs h/w)]. in women were determinant factors for circulating leptin levels after adjusting for confounding factors.

  1. Physical activity levels and activity preferences of a cohort of South African individuals living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Roos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is a risk factor for many lifestyle diseases. It is still poorly understood in individuals living with HIV. The aims of this study were to evaluate the physical activity levels of individuals living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ARV and to assess their physical activity preferences. An observation study was done from October 2010 to June 2012 at a large urban HIV clinic in Johannesburg where 205 individuals were consecutively sampled. Physical activity was assessed with the Yamax SW200 pedometer over a seven-day period. The mean age of the sample was 38 (± 9.5 years, CD4 count 285.1 (± 157.9 and time on ARV 8.7 (± 2.3 months. Physical activity of the sample was reduced at 7673.2 (± 4017.7 steps per day with women walking less than men [6993.3 (± 3462.6 and 10076.3 (± 4885.6 respectively]. Eight individuals (3.9% did formal sporting activities and a hundred and twenty-three individuals (60% did some form of exercise. Walking (45.5%, n=56 and running (26.8%, n=33 were most frequently reported. Physical inactivity was present in the majority of the sample and interventions including activity preferences of individuals could be strategies to address this health concern.

  2. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ashley R; Goodman, Anna; Page, Angie S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in youth have been reported to vary by sex, age, weight status and country. However, supporting data are often self-reported and/or do not encompass a wide range of ages or geographical locations. This study aimed to describe objectively......-measured physical activity and sedentary time patterns in youth. METHODS: The International Children's Accelerometry Database (ICAD) consists of ActiGraph accelerometer data from 20 studies in ten countries, processed using common data reduction procedures. Analyses were conducted on 27,637 participants (2......, overweight/obese participants were less active than their normal weight counterparts. Physical activity varied between samples from different countries, with a 15-20 % difference between the highest and lowest countries at age 9-10 and a 26-28 % difference at age 12-13. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity...

  3. A comparison of subjective and objective measures of physical activity from the Newcastle 85+ study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innerd, Paul; Catt, Michael; Collerton, Joanna; Davies, Karen; Trenell, Michael; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Jagger, Carol

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about physical activity (PA) in the very old, the fastest growing age group in the population. We aimed to examine the convergent validity of subjective and objective measures of PA in adults aged over 85 years. A total of 484 participants aged 87-89 years recruited to the Newcastle 85+ study completed a purpose-designed physical activity questionnaire (PAQ), which categorised participants as mildly active, moderately active and very active. Out of them, 337 participants wore a triaxial, raw accelerometer on the right wrist over a 5-7-day period to obtain objective measures of rest/activity, PA intensity and PA type. Data from subjective and objective measurement methods were compared. Self-reported PA was significantly associated with objective measures of the daily sedentary time, low-intensity PA and activity type classified as sedentary, activities of daily living and walking. Objective measures of PA were significantly different when low, moderate and high self-reported PA categories were compared (all P PAQ demonstrated convergent validity with objective measures of PA. Our findings suggest that this PAQ can be used in the very old to rank individuals according to their level of total PA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  4. Measurement of nuclear activity with Ge detectors and its uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes P, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this work is to analyse the influence magnitudes which affect the activity measurement of gamma transmitter isolated radioactive sources. They prepared by means of the gravimetric method, as well as, determining the uncertainty of such measurement when this is carried out with a gamma spectrometer system with a germanium detector. This work is developed in five chapters: In the first one, named Basic principles it is made a brief description about the meaning of the word Measurement and its implications and the necessaries concepts are presented which are used in this work. In the second chapter it is exposed the gravimetric method used for the manufacture of the gamma transmitter isolated radioactive sources, it is tackled the problem to determine the main influence magnitudes which affect in the measurement of their activity and the respective correction factors and their uncertainties are deduced. The third chapter describes the gamma spectrometry system which is used in this work for the measurement of the activity of isolated sources and also its performance and experimental arrangement that it is used. In the fourth chapter are applied the three previous items with the object of determining the uncertainty which would be obtained in the measurement of an isolated radioactive source elaborated with the gravimetric method in the experimental conditions less favourable predicted above the obtained results from the chapter two. The conclusions are presented in the fifth chapter and they are applied to establish the optimum conditions for the measurement of the activity of a gamma transmitter isolated radioactive source with a spectrometer with germanium detector. (Author)

  5. Comparison of self-report and objective measures of physical activity in US adults with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shao-Hsien; Eaton, Charles B; Driban, Jeffrey B; McAlindon, Timothy E; Lapane, Kate L

    2016-10-01

    To describe levels of daily physical activity and examine the extent of agreement between self-reported and objectively measured indices of physical activity, and characteristics associated with under or overestimated physical activity among persons with osteoarthritis (OA). Using cross-sectional data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we identified 533 adults ≥45 years of age with self-reported OA who completed physical activity questionnaires and had accelerometry data collected using Actigraph AM-7164. Average daily minutes of moderate to vigorous activity and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) using self-reported and objective measures were compared across sociodemographic and clinical subgroups and Spearman's rank correlations were calculated. Differences between self-reported and objectively measured moderate to vigorous activity across various personal characteristics were also estimated. Most persons with OA were non-Hispanic white (87.9 %) and women (68.9 %) with an average age of 65 years old. Self-reported measure of daily moderate to vigorous activity was on average 7 min higher compared to objective measure (17.9 vs. 10.8 min/day). Correlations between self-reported and objective measures across sociodemographic groups were mostly weak to moderate ranging from 0.01 to 0.48. Participants with higher education and better self-reported health status were more likely to over-estimate their moderate to vigorous activity using self-reported measures. Measurement methods and sociodemographic and health factors are associated with differences in reporting physical activity among persons with OA. Future research examining relationships between physical activity and health outcomes in OA should be aware of measurement issues and differences of reporting in subgroups.

  6. Non-invasive measurement of adrenocortical activity in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring physiological stress reactions through the quantification of plasma cortisol often involves physical restraint, which acts as a stressor itself. Here, we present the validation of a non-invasive method for assessing adrenocortical activity as an indicator of stress in the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis). By conducting ...

  7. An instrumentation for control and measurement of activated mineral samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaarup, P.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of an instrumentation for control of a pneumatic tube system used to transport mineral samples for activation in a reactor and from there to a detector arrangement. A possible content of uranium in the samples can be seen from the radiation measured. The instrumentation includes a PDP-11 computer and a CAMAC crate

  8. Voluntary activation of trapezius measured with twitch interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Janet L; Olsen, Henrik Baare; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of measuring voluntary activation of the trapezius muscle with twitch interpolation. Subjects (n=8) lifted the right shoulder or both shoulders against fixed force transducers. Stimulation of the accessory nerve in the neck was used to evoke maximal twitche...

  9. Simple and efficient methods for isolation and activity measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple purification approach of the recombinant hirudin variant 3 from the Bacillus subtilis was established, by which the hirudin could be purified to the purity of 95% through one-step chromatography with the total recovery rate of 83.9%. A modified Markwardt thrombin titration method for measuring hirudin activity was ...

  10. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, Jan; Koleska, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 116, NOV (2015), s. 56-59 ISSN 0969-806X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010237; GA MŠk LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : fluorescent lamp * mercury measurement * neutron activation analysis * research reactor Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2015

  11. Resilience of Infrastructure Systems to Sea-Level Rise in Coastal Areas: Impacts, Adaptation Measures, and Implementation Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Azevedo de Almeida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Expansive areas of low elevation in many densely populated coastal areas are at elevated risk of storm surges and flooding due to torrential precipitation, as a result of sea level rise. These phenomena could have catastrophic impacts on coastal communities and result in the destruction of critical infrastructure, disruption of economic activities and salt water contamination of the water supply. The objective of the study presented in this paper was to identify various impacts of sea level rise on civil infrastructures in coastal areas and examine the adaptation measures suggested in the existing literature. To this end, a systemic review of the existing literature was conducted in order to identify a repository of studies addressing sea level rise impacts and adaptation measures in the context of infrastructure systems. The study focused on three infrastructure sectors: water and wastewater, energy, and road transportation. The collected information was then analyzed in order to identify different categories of sea level rise impacts and corresponding adaptation measures. The findings of the study are threefold: (1 the major categories of sea level rise impacts on different infrastructure systems; (2 measures for protection, accommodation, and retreat in response to sea level rise impacts; and (3 challenges related to implementing adaptation measures.

  12. Cellular telephones measure activity and lifespace in community-dwelling adults: proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Ana Katrin; Witbrodt, Bradley C; Hoarty, Carrie A; Carlson, Richard H; Goulding, Evan H; Potter, Jane F; Bonasera, Stephen J

    2011-02-01

    To describe a system that uses off-the-shelf sensor and telecommunication technologies to continuously measure individual lifespace and activity levels in a novel way. Proof of concept involving three field trials of 30, 30, and 21 days. Omaha, Nebraska, metropolitan and surrounding rural region. Three participants (48-year-old man, 33-year-old woman, and 27-year-old male), none with any functional limitations. Cellular telephones were used to detect in-home position and in-community location and to measure physical activity. Within the home, cellular telephones and Bluetooth transmitters (beacons) were used to locate participants at room-level resolution. Outside the home, the same cellular telephones and global positioning system (GPS) technology were used to locate participants at a community-level resolution. Physical activity was simultaneously measured using the cellular telephone accelerometer. This approach had face validity to measure activity and lifespace. More importantly, this system could measure the spatial and temporal organization of these metrics. For example, an individual's lifespace was automatically calculated across multiple time intervals. Behavioral time budgets showing how people allocate time to specific regions within the home were also automatically generated. Mobile monitoring shows much promise as an easily deployed system to quantify activity and lifespace, important indicators of function, in community-dwelling adults. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Habitual physical activity levels and health outcomes of Ontario youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klentrou, Panagiota; Hay, John; Plyley, Michael

    2003-06-01

    Physical activity, sport participation, attitude towards physical education, aerobic fitness, body composition and frequency of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) were investigated in 256 adolescents [mean age 14.3 (0.3) years] from the Niagara Region Public Schools in Canada. Subjects performed the 20-m shuttle run for prediction of aerobic fitness, and bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to assess relative body fat (%BF). Standardized questionnaires were used to determine physical activity-related variables and frequency of URTI. Males were more active, demonstrated higher shuttle run score, lower %BF and recorded fewer sickness days. In the complete cohort and in males, those who spent less time in sporting activities showed significantly (Pfitness and higher URTI frequency. Active females differed from hypoactive females only in %BF. Girls also showed significantly (Pphysical education than boys, which may explain their lack (P<0.05) of participation in sporting activities.

  14. Active children through individual vouchers – evaluation (ACTIVE: protocol for a mixed method randomised control trial to increase physical activity levels in teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela James

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many teenagers are insufficiently active despite the health benefits of physical activity (PA. There is strong evidence to show that inactivity and low fitness levels increase the risk of non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD, type 2 diabetes and breast and colon cancers (Lee et al. Lancet 380:219–29, 2012. A major barrier facing adolescents is accessibility (e.g. cost and lack of local facilities. The ACTIVE project aims to tackle this barrier through a multi-faceted intervention, giving teenagers vouchers to spend on activities of their choice and empowering young people to improve their fitness and PA levels. Design ACTIVE is a mixed methods randomised control trial in 7 secondary schools in Swansea, South Wales. Quantitative and qualitative measures including PA (cooper run test (CRT, accelerometery over 7 days, cardiovascular (CV measures (blood pressure, pulse wave analysis and focus groups will be undertaken at 4 separate time points (baseline, 6 months,12 months and follow-up at 18 months. Intervention schools will receive a multi-component intervention involving 12 months of £20 vouchers to spend on physical activities of their choice, a peer mentor scheme and opportunities to attend advocacy meetings. Control schools are encouraged to continue usual practice. The primary aim is to examine the effect of the intervention in improving cardiovascular fitness. Discussion This paper describes the protocol for the ACTIVE randomised control trial, which aims to increase fitness, physical activity and socialisation of teenagers in Swansea, UK via a voucher scheme combined with peer mentoring. Results can contribute to the evidence base on teenage physical activity and, if effective, the intervention has the potential to inform future physical activity interventions and policy. Trial registration ISRCTN75594310 (Assigned 06/03/2017.

  15. Active children through individual vouchers - evaluation (ACTIVE): protocol for a mixed method randomised control trial to increase physical activity levels in teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Michaela; Christian, Danielle; Scott, Samantha; Todd, Charlotte; Stratton, Gareth; McCoubrey, Sarah; Halcox, Julian; Audrey, Suzanne; Ellins, Elizabeth; Brophy, Sinead

    2017-07-11

    Many teenagers are insufficiently active despite the health benefits of physical activity (PA). There is strong evidence to show that inactivity and low fitness levels increase the risk of non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD), type 2 diabetes and breast and colon cancers (Lee et al. Lancet 380:219-29, 2012). A major barrier facing adolescents is accessibility (e.g. cost and lack of local facilities). The ACTIVE project aims to tackle this barrier through a multi-faceted intervention, giving teenagers vouchers to spend on activities of their choice and empowering young people to improve their fitness and PA levels. ACTIVE is a mixed methods randomised control trial in 7 secondary schools in Swansea, South Wales. Quantitative and qualitative measures including PA (cooper run test (CRT), accelerometery over 7 days), cardiovascular (CV) measures (blood pressure, pulse wave analysis) and focus groups will be undertaken at 4 separate time points (baseline, 6 months,12 months and follow-up at 18 months). Intervention schools will receive a multi-component intervention involving 12 months of £20 vouchers to spend on physical activities of their choice, a peer mentor scheme and opportunities to attend advocacy meetings. Control schools are encouraged to continue usual practice. The primary aim is to examine the effect of the intervention in improving cardiovascular fitness. This paper describes the protocol for the ACTIVE randomised control trial, which aims to increase fitness, physical activity and socialisation of teenagers in Swansea, UK via a voucher scheme combined with peer mentoring. Results can contribute to the evidence base on teenage physical activity and, if effective, the intervention has the potential to inform future physical activity interventions and policy. ISRCTN75594310 (Assigned 06/03/2017).

  16. Recommended physical activity and intensity levels to reduce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between physical activities and body fat percentage. Result from this study highlighted that total time per week of commuting (OR = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.18-7.31, p < 0.05) and the activity score of leisure time activities (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.37-5.34, p < 0.05) are ...

  17. Triton burnup measurements in KSTAR using a neutron activation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jungmin; Cheon, MunSeong; Kim, Jun Young; Rhee, T.; Kim, Junghee; Shi, Yue-Jiang; Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of the time-integrated triton burnup for deuterium plasma in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) have been performed following the simultaneous detection of the d-d and d-t neutrons. The d-d neutrons were measured using a 3He proportional counter, fission chamber, and activated indium sample, whereas the d-t neutrons were detected using activated silicon and copper samples. The triton burnup ratio from KSTAR discharges is found to be in the range 0.01%-0.50% depending on the plasma conditions. The measured burnup ratio is compared with the prompt loss fraction of tritons calculated with the Lorentz orbit code and the classical slowing-down time. The burnup ratio is found to increase as plasma current and classical slowing-down time increase.

  18. [Higher nitric oxide levels are associated with disease activity in Egyptian rheumatoid arthritis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Adel Mahmoud; Habeeb, Reem Abdelmonem; El-Azizi, Noran Osama; Khattab, Dina Aziz; Abo-Shady, Rania Ahmed; Elkabarity, Rania Hamdy

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress generated within inflammatory joints can produce autoimmune phenomena and joint destruction. Radical species with oxidative activity, including reactive nitrogen species, represent mediators of inflammation and cartilage damage. To assess serum nitric oxide as a marker of oxidative stress in Egyptian patients with rheumatoid arthritis and its relation to disease activity. 80 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were divided into 2 groups, according to the DAS-28 score: Group I: 42 patients with disease activity, and Group II: 38 patients with no disease activity. Forty age- and sex-matched individuals were included as control group (Group III). Routine laboratory investigations were done, and nitric oxide was measured using Elisa. Hand plain radiographies were done for radiological status scoring using the Sharp method. A comparison between nitric oxide in all three groups showed a highly significant difference (p < 0.001), significantly higher levels were obtained among rheumatoid arthritis patients in comparison to controls, and higher levels were obtained in patients with active disease (mean±SD 82.38±20.46) in comparison to patients without active disease (35.53±7.15). Nitric oxide in Group I showed a significant positive correlation with morning stiffness (r=0.45), arthritis (r=0.43), platelet count (r=0.46), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r=0.83), C-reactive protein (r=0.76) and Disease Activity Score (r=0.85). Nitric oxide showed a significant positive correlation (r=0.43) with hand radiographies (Sharp score) in Group I. There are increased levels of nitric oxide in the serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Nitric oxide correlates significantly with disease activity, inflammatory markers and radiological joint status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of different levels of sharpness processing filter on the measurement accuracy of endodontic file length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Farhadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different levels of sharpness processing filter on the accuracy of endodontic file length determination using digital periapical radiography. Materials and Methods: Forty human single-rooted permanent teeth were selected and International Organization for Standardization (ISO #08 K-files were inserted into the root canals of the teeth. The file lengths were measured with a digital caliper as the gold standard. Digital periapical images were obtained using a phosphor storage plate as a detector. Three levels of sharpness tool of Scanora software program version 5.1 was used to produce enhanced images: Sharpen 1 (mild level, Sharpen 2 (moderate level, and Sharpen 3 (high level. Two radiologists and two endodontists measured file lengths on the original and enhanced images. The measurements were compared using repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni tests (α = 0.05. Results: There were no significant differences between the measurement accuracy of original images and that of the Sharpen 1 and Sharpen 2 enhanced images (P > 0.05. However, significant differences were found between the measurement accuracy of original and that of the Sharpen 3 enhanced images (P 0.05. Conclusion: The application of mild and moderate levels of sharpness processing filter did not influence the accuracy of endodontic file length determination. However, high-level sharpness processing filter is not recommended due to its unfavorable effects on measurement accuracy.

  20. Temperament and Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time among Canadian Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Irwin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to assess the influence of preschoolers' temperament on their objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time. Actical™ accelerometers were used to measure preschoolers' from London, Canada's (n = 216; 2.5–5 years physical activity and sedentary levels during childcare hours (5 consecutive days; 15 s epoch. The Child Temperament Questionnaire (CTQ was used to assess child temperament via parent/guardian report. The six subscales of the CTQ (i.e., reaction to food, soothability, attention span, activity, sociability, and emotionality were correlated with Actical data (i.e., sedentary time, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and total physical activity. The five items of the activity subscale were correlated with these three measures of sedentary time and physical activity. Pearson product–moment correlation coefficients were employed for both sets of analyses. Of the correlations examined, few had an absolute value greater than 0.10, and none were statistically significant after taking multiple comparison bias into account. The results of this work might provide additional indirect support for the conclusion that the childcare environment should be a primary focus with regard to the promotion of increased physical activity and decreased sedentary time among preschoolers. Additional research is required to confirm the relationship between preschoolers' temperament and levels of physical activity and sedentary time.

  1. Electromyography Activation Levels of the 3 Gluteus Medius Subdivisions During Manual Strength Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Roald; Tol, Johannes L; Holmich, Per; Whiteley, Rodney

    2015-08-01

    Cross-sectional. Gluteus medius (GM) muscle dysfunction is associated with overuse injury. The GM is functionally composed of 3 separate subdivisions: anterior, middle, and posterior. Clinical assessment of the GM subdivisions is relevant to detect strength and activation deficits and guide specific rehabilitation programs. However, the optimal positions for assessing the strength and activation of these subdivisions are unknown. The first aim was to establish which strength-testing positions produce the highest surface electromyography (sEMG) activation levels of the individual GM subdivisions. The second aim was to evaluate differences in sEMG activation levels between the tested and contralateral (stabilizing) leg. Twenty healthy physically active male subjects participated in this study. Muscle activity using sEMG was recorded for the GM subdivisions in 8 different strength-testing positions and analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Significant differences between testing positions for all 3 GM subdivisions were found. There were significant differences between the tested and the contralateral anterior and middle GM subdivisions (P guide specific GM rehabilitation.

  2. Upper Limb Muscle and Brain Activity in Light Assembly Task on Different Load Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadry, Hilma Raimona; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md.; Taha, Zahari

    2010-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of load on upper limb muscles and brain activities in light assembly task. The task was conducted at two levels of load (Low and high). Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure upper limb muscle activities of twenty subjects. Electroencephalography (EEG) was simultaneously recorded with EMG to record brain activities from Fz, Pz, O1 and O2 channels. The EMG Mean Power Frequency (MPF) of the right brachioradialis and the left upper trapezius activities were higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task. The EMG MPF values also decrease as time increases, that reflects muscle fatigue. Mean power of the EEG alpha bands for the Fz-Pz channels were found to be higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task, while for the O1-O2 channels, they were higher on the low-load task than on the high-load task. These results indicated that the load levels effect the upper limb muscle and brain activities. The high-load task will increase muscle activities on the right brachioradialis and the left upper tapezius muscles, and will increase the awareness and motivation of the subjects. Whilst the low-load task can generate drowsiness earlier. It signified that the longer the time and the more heavy of the task, the subjects will be more fatigue physically and mentally.

  3. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Levels and Patterns of Objectively Measured Sedentary Time in Adolescent Females

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harrington, Deirdre M.

    2011-10-28

    Abstract Background Adolescent females have been highlighted as a particularly sedentary population and the possible negative effects of a sedentary lifestyle are being uncovered. However, much of the past sedentary research is based on self-report or uses indirect methods to quantity sedentary time. Total time spent sedentary and the possible intricate sedentary patterns of adolescent females have not been described using objective and direct measure of body inclination. The objectives of this article are to examine the sedentary levels and patterns of a group of adolescent females using the ActivPAL™ and to highlight possible differences in sedentary levels and patterns across the week and within the school day. A full methodological description of how the data was analyzed is also presented. Methods One hundred and eleven adolescent females, age 15-18 yrs, were recruited from urban and rural areas in the Republic of Ireland. Participants wore an ActivPAL physical activity monitor for a 7.5 day period. The ActivPAL directly reports total time spent sitting\\/lying every 15 seconds and accumulation (frequency and duration) of sedentary activity was examined using a customized MATLAB ® computer software programme. Results While no significant difference was found in the total time spent sitting\\/lying over the full 24 hour day between weekday and weekend day (18.8 vs. 18.9 hours; p = .911), significantly more sedentary bouts of 1 to 5 minutes and 21 to 40 minutes in duration were accumulated on weekdays compared to weekend days (p < .001). The mean length of each sedentary bout was also longer (9.8 vs. 8.8 minutes; p < .001). When school hours (9 am-3 pm) and after school hours (4 pm-10 pm) were compared, there was no difference in total time spent sedentary (3.9 hours; p = .796) but the pattern of accumulation of the sedentary time differed. There were a greater number of bouts of > 20 minutes duration during school hours than after school hours (4.7 vs. 3

  4. Indirect measurement of molten steel level in tundish based on laser triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhiqi; He, Qing; Xie, Zhi

    2016-03-01

    For real-time and precise measurement of molten steel level in tundish during continuous casting, slag level and slag thickness are needed. Among which, the problem of slag thickness measurement has been solved in our previous work. In this paper, a systematic solution for slag level measurement based on laser triangulation is proposed. Being different from traditional laser triangulation, several aspects for measuring precision and robustness have been done. First, laser line is adopted for multi-position measurement to overcome the deficiency of single point laser range finder caused by the uneven surface of the slag. Second, the key parameters, such as installing angle and minimum requirement of the laser power, are analyzed and determined based on the gray-body radiation theory to fulfill the rigorous requirement of measurement accuracy. Third, two kinds of severe noises in the acquired images, which are, respectively, caused by heat radiation and Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI), are cleaned via morphological characteristic of the liquid slag and color difference between EMI and the laser signals, respectively. Fourth, as false target created by stationary slag usually disorders the measurement, valid signals of the slag are distinguished from the false ones to calculate the slag level. Then, molten steel level is obtained by the slag level minus the slag thickness. The measuring error of this solution is verified by the applications in steel plants, which is ±2.5 mm during steady casting and ±3.2 mm at the end of casting.

  5. Objectively Measured Activity Patterns among Adults in Residential Aged Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Reid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the feasibility of using the activPAL3TM activity monitor, and, to describe the activity patterns of residential aged care residents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Randomly selected aged care facilities within 100 km of the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. Participants: Ambulatory, older (≥60 years residential aged care adults without cognitive impairment. Measurements: Feasibility was assessed by consent rate, sleep/wear diary completion, and through interviews with staff/participants. Activity patterns (sitting/lying, standing, and stepping were measured via activPAL3TM monitors worn continuously for seven days. Times spent in each activity were described and then compared across days of the week and hours of the day using linear mixed models. Results: Consent rate was 48% (n = 41. Activity patterns are described for the 31 participants (mean age 84.2 years who provided at least one day of valid monitor data. In total, 14 (45% completed the sleep/wear diary. Participants spent a median (interquartile range of 12.4 (1.7 h sitting/lying (with 73% of this accumulated in unbroken bouts of ≥30 min, 1.9 (1.3 h standing, and 21.4 (36.7 min stepping during their monitored waking hours per day. Activity did not vary significantly by day of the week (p ≥ 0.05; stepping showed significant hourly variation (p = 0.018. Conclusions: Older adults in residential aged care were consistently highly sedentary. Feasibility considerations for objective activity monitoring identified for this population include poor diary completion and lost monitors.

  6. Plasma levels of intact and cleaved urokinase receptor decrease in HIV-1-infected patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, S R; Katzenstein, T L; Pedersen, M

    2006-01-01

    Elevated blood levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) measured by ELISA decrease in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-infected patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). As the suPAR ELISA measures both three- and two-domain suPAR [suPAR(I-III), suPAR(II-III)] an...

  7. Physical Activity Level, Nutritional Intake, Functional Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Participation in physical activity (PA) and healthy nutrition are important factors that affects muscle and bone strength and the resultant functioning in the activities of daily living (ADL) skills including the overall quality of life (QoL) of geriatric individuals. However, the relationships between all these parameters ...

  8. Physical activity level in pediatric population: A comprehensive review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical activity (PA) is a key component in the maintenance and attainment of healthy, active, well-nourished and psycho-social well-being of a society. Hence, the reduction of sedentary lifestyle has featured in many countries as an important arm of policy designed to address childhood chronic diseases of lifestyle risk ...

  9. Serum paraoxonase activity and lipid hydroperoxide levels in adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Low serum paraoxononase–1 (PON1) activity is with an associated risk of atherosclerotic disease. ... a special diet. Control subjects were young men who had a sedentary lifestyle and did not regularly participate in physical activity. Control subjects ... L and defined as 1 mmol phenol generated per.

  10. Pedometer based physical activity levels and cardiometabolic risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that physical activity behaviour during working hours in pharmacy employees is adequate enough to meet international daily physical activity recommendations. This has important implications for health and of course productivity and absenteeism as much research has shown the benefits of ...

  11. Measurement of laser welding pool geometry using a closed convex active contour model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Rui; Zhang, Pu; Duan, Aiqing; Xiao, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a computer vision method to measure geometric parameters of the weld pool in a deep penetration CO 2 laser welding system. Accurate measurement was achieved by removing a huge amount of interference caused by spatter, arc light and plasma to extract the true weld pool contour. This paper introduces a closed convex active contour (CCAC) model derived from the active contour model (snake model), which is a more robust high-level vision method than the traditional low-level vision methods. We made an improvement by integrating an active contour with the information that the weld pool contour is almost a closed convex curve. An effective thresholding method and an improved greedy algorithm are also given to complement the CCAC model. These influences can be effectively removed by using the CCAC model to acquire and measure the weld pool contour accurately and relatively fast. (paper)

  12. Millimeter-Wave Measurements of High Level and Low Level Activity Glass Melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woskov, Paul

    2005-01-01

    EMSP supported research of millimeter-wave technology for nuclear waste glass melter monitoring has been very productive in establishing this field and showing great progress. This work has garnered significant recognition, winning an R and D 100 Award for viscosity monitoring, a Best Paper Award by the American Ceramic Society for nuclear waste glass monitoring, investment by the Glass Plus industry consortium to test this technology for glass fiber manufacture, investment by Savannah River Technology Center in purchasing key hardware components for additional tests, and Japanese initiated exchange visits between MIT and the vitrification facilities at Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in Tokai to review this technology. There are also potentially important spin offs to other areas including nuclear and fossil fuel power production, and National Institute of Health sponsored research as indicated below. Consequently, this work has the potential of becoming a major inter nationally recognized EMSP success story. A summary of the main accomplishments follows. The readers are referred to the cited reference publications for more details, many of which were EMSP supported by this work

  13. Phase Method of Invariant Measurement of Active-Inductive Measuring Two-Pole Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris MAMIKONYAN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been given the solution of the technical problem of separate measurement of parameters of inductance coils and inductive primary converters on alternating current without application of potential-current signals. As a measuring circuit the scheme of voltage divider with active-inductive two-pole is used, and as an output signal there has been used the angle of phase shift between two output voltages of the measuring circuit. For forming the output signal temporal separation of measurement channel is used. The advantages of phase method are mostly due to capacity of using microcontrollers. In the technical solutions under consideration the microcontroller regulates the measuring process and develops the measurement results.

  14. Monthly measures of salivary testosterone predict sexual activity in adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, C T; Udry, J R; Suchindran, C

    1998-10-01

    Strong relationships between one-time serum testosterone (T) measures and sexual activity have been demonstrated in cross-sectional analyses of adolescent males. However, a subsequent longitudinal study of a separate adolescent sample, using semiannual plasma measures, failed to replicate cross-sectional findings. The present study reexamined the relationship between T and sexual activity using more frequently collected measures of salivary T and behavior. Saliva samples and weekly behavior checklists were collected over a 2-year period from the same panel sample of males on which semiannual analyses were based. Saliva samples representing measures approximately every fourth week of study participation were selected for T assay. The association between these monthly salivary T measures and weekly reports of incidents of sexual activity was assessed with repeated measures analyses. Higher levels of salivary T were significantly associated with an increasing hazard of coital initiation, and with more frequent coital and noncoital activity. Within-individual change analyses demonstrated that increases in salivary T were associated with increased sexual activity. Comparisons of models that varied specimen type, schedule of T measurement, and type of behavioral report indicated that all three factors contribute to the varying magnitude of hormone/behavior relationships that are demonstrated. These findings are consistent with a biosocial model of adolescent sexual development that pubertal changes in T are a causal factor in the timing of sexual initiation and the frequency of activity during adolescence.

  15. School and class-level variations and patterns of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenholt, Carina Bjørnskov; Pisinger, Veronica Sofie Clara; Danquah, Ida Høgstedt

    2018-01-01

    of perceived ethnic minority represent vulnerable groups in relation to participation in several forms of PA during leisure time. The ICCs indicate that schools, in particular, have the potential to influence participation in PA at school during leisure time and active transportation to and from school. Thus....... Multilevel logistic regressions were applied to evaluate the association between socio-demographic variables and patterns of PA, and to assess the impact of schools and classes on PA measures. RESULTS: Students whose parents have achieved a lower level of education, older students and girls of perceived...... ethnic minority generally participated less in several forms of PA during leisure time. Substantial variations between schools were observed in terms of participation in PA at school during leisure time and in terms of use of active transportation to and from school. The school-level accounted for 9...

  16. Expression levels of microRNAs are not associated with their regulatory activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jiarui

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate their targets by triggering mRNA degradation or translational repression. The negative relationship between miRNAs and their targets suggests that the regulatory effect of a miRNA could be determined from the expression levels of its targets. Here, we investigated the relationship between miRNA activities determined by computational programs and miRNA expression levels by using data in which both mRNA and miRNA expression from the same samples were measured. We found that different from the intuitive expectation one might have, miRNA activity shows very weak correlation with miRNA expression, which indicates complex regulating mechanisms between miRNAs and their target genes. Reviewers This manuscript was reviewed by an anonymous reviewer and Dr Yuriy Gusev.

  17. A unique automation platform for measuring low level radioactivity in metabolite identification studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Krauser

    Full Text Available Generation and interpretation of biotransformation data on drugs, i.e. identification of physiologically relevant metabolites, defining metabolic pathways and elucidation of metabolite structures, have become increasingly important to the drug development process. Profiling using (14C or (3H radiolabel is defined as the chromatographic separation and quantification of drug-related material in a given biological sample derived from an in vitro, preclinical in vivo or clinical study. Metabolite profiling is a very time intensive activity, particularly for preclinical in vivo or clinical studies which have defined limitations on radiation burden and exposure levels. A clear gap exists for certain studies which do not require specialized high volume automation technologies, yet these studies would still clearly benefit from automation. Use of radiolabeled compounds in preclinical and clinical ADME studies, specifically for metabolite profiling and identification are a very good example. The current lack of automation for measuring low level radioactivity in metabolite profiling requires substantial capacity, personal attention and resources from laboratory scientists. To help address these challenges and improve efficiency, we have innovated, developed and implemented a novel and flexible automation platform that integrates a robotic plate handling platform, HPLC or UPLC system, mass spectrometer and an automated fraction collector.

  18. A Unique Automation Platform for Measuring Low Level Radioactivity in Metabolite Identification Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauser, Joel; Walles, Markus; Wolf, Thierry; Graf, Daniel; Swart, Piet

    2012-01-01

    Generation and interpretation of biotransformation data on drugs, i.e. identification of physiologically relevant metabolites, defining metabolic pathways and elucidation of metabolite structures, have become increasingly important to the drug development process. Profiling using 14C or 3H radiolabel is defined as the chromatographic separation and quantification of drug-related material in a given biological sample derived from an in vitro, preclinical in vivo or clinical study. Metabolite profiling is a very time intensive activity, particularly for preclinical in vivo or clinical studies which have defined limitations on radiation burden and exposure levels. A clear gap exists for certain studies which do not require specialized high volume automation technologies, yet these studies would still clearly benefit from automation. Use of radiolabeled compounds in preclinical and clinical ADME studies, specifically for metabolite profiling and identification are a very good example. The current lack of automation for measuring low level radioactivity in metabolite profiling requires substantial capacity, personal attention and resources from laboratory scientists. To help address these challenges and improve efficiency, we have innovated, developed and implemented a novel and flexible automation platform that integrates a robotic plate handling platform, HPLC or UPLC system, mass spectrometer and an automated fraction collector. PMID:22723932

  19. Assessing causality in the association between child adiposity and physical activity levels: a Mendelian randomization analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Richmond

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional studies have shown that objectively measured physical activity is associated with childhood adiposity, and a strong inverse dose-response association with body mass index (BMI has been found. However, few studies have explored the extent to which this association reflects reverse causation. We aimed to determine whether childhood adiposity causally influences levels of physical activity using genetic variants reliably associated with adiposity to estimate causal effects.The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children collected data on objectively assessed activity levels of 4,296 children at age 11 y with recorded BMI and genotypic data. We used 32 established genetic correlates of BMI combined in a weighted allelic score as an instrumental variable for adiposity to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on activity. In observational analysis, a 3.3 kg/m² (one standard deviation higher BMI was associated with 22.3 (95% CI, 17.0, 27.6 movement counts/min less total physical activity (p = 1.6×10⁻¹⁶, 2.6 (2.1, 3.1 min/d less moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity (p = 3.7×10⁻²⁹, and 3.5 (1.5, 5.5 min/d more sedentary time (p = 5.0×10⁻⁴. In Mendelian randomization analyses, the same difference in BMI was associated with 32.4 (0.9, 63.9 movement counts/min less total physical activity (p = 0.04 (∼5.3% of the mean counts/minute, 2.8 (0.1, 5.5 min/d less moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity (p = 0.04, and 13.2 (1.3, 25.2 min/d more sedentary time (p = 0.03. There was no strong evidence for a difference between variable estimates from observational estimates. Similar results were obtained using fat mass index. Low power and poor instrumentation of activity limited causal analysis of the influence of physical activity on BMI.Our results suggest that increased adiposity causes a reduction in physical activity in children and support research into the targeting of BMI in efforts to

  20. Absolute alpha activity measurements of some plants growing in monazite bearing soils in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahawatte, P.; Hewamanna, R. (Colombo Univ. (Sri Lanka). Radioisotope Centre)

    1991-01-01

    Deposits of monazite bearing soils occur along the Southwest, West and East Coasts of Sri Lanka. High levels of gamma activity in some plant species growing in the West Coast have been reported. The high levels were due to the presence of the daughter nuclides of {sup 232}Th, most of which are alpha emitters. Absolute alpha activity measurements of ash samples of some plants growing in monazite bearing soils were carried out using the alpha sensitive polymeric nuclear track detector CR-39. The values ranged from 60-1900 mBq/g and were in good agreement with the values obtained from conventional scintillation counting method. The activity concentration of {sup 228}Th in the ash samples was also calculated by measuring the activity concentration of emanated thoron trapped inside a glass bottle with the use of a CR-39 track detector. (author).