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Sample records for activity job demand-control

  1. The active learning hypothesis of the job-demand-control model: an experimental examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häusser, Jan Alexander; Schulz-Hardt, Stefan; Mojzisch, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The active learning hypothesis of the job-demand-control model [Karasek, R. A. 1979. "Job Demands, Job Decision Latitude, and Mental Strain: Implications for Job Redesign." Administration Science Quarterly 24: 285-307] proposes positive effects of high job demands and high job control on performance. We conducted a 2 (demands: high vs. low) × 2 (control: high vs. low) experimental office workplace simulation to examine this hypothesis. Since performance during a work simulation is confounded by the boundaries of the demands and control manipulations (e.g. time limits), we used a post-test, in which participants continued working at their task, but without any manipulation of demands and control. This post-test allowed for examining active learning (transfer) effects in an unconfounded fashion. Our results revealed that high demands had a positive effect on quantitative performance, without affecting task accuracy. In contrast, high control resulted in a speed-accuracy tradeoff, that is participants in the high control conditions worked slower but with greater accuracy than participants in the low control conditions.

  2. Physical activity, job demand-control, perceived stress-energy, and salivary cortisol in white-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the association between physical activity and perceived job demand, job control, perceived stress and energy, and physiological arousal reflected by morning and evening concentrations of cortisol in saliva among white-collar workers.......The aim of the present study is to examine the association between physical activity and perceived job demand, job control, perceived stress and energy, and physiological arousal reflected by morning and evening concentrations of cortisol in saliva among white-collar workers....

  3. Understanding well-being and learning of Nigerian nurses: a job demand control support model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Yvonne; van Ruysseveldt, Joris; van Dam, Karen; Mistiaen, Wilhelm; Nikolova, Irina

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated whether Nigerian nurses' emotional exhaustion and active learning were predicted by job demands, control and social support. Limited research has been conducted concerning nurses' work stress in developing countries, such as Nigeria. Accordingly, it is not clear whether work interventions for improving nurses' well-being in these countries can be based on work stress models that are developed in Western countries, such as the job demand control support model, as well as on empirical findings of job demand control support research. Nurses from Nurses Across the Borders Nigeria were invited to complete an online questionnaire containing validated scales; 210 questionnaires were fully completed and analysed. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. Emotional exhaustion was higher for nurses who experienced high demands and low supervisor support. Active learning occurred when nurses worked under conditions of high control and high supervisor support. The findings suggest that the job demand control support model is applicable in a Nigerian nursing situation; the model indicates which occupational stressors contribute to poor well-being in Nigerian nurses and which work characteristics may boost nurses' active learning. Job (re)design interventions can enhance nurses' well-being and learning by guarding nurses' job demands, and stimulating job control and supervisor support. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Job Demands-Control-Support model and employee safety performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nick; Stride, Chris B; Carter, Angela J; McCaughey, Deirdre; Carroll, Anthony E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether work characteristics (job demands, job control, social support) comprising Karasek and Theorell's (1990) Job Demands-Control-Support framework predict employee safety performance (safety compliance and safety participation; Neal and Griffin, 2006). We used cross-sectional data of self-reported work characteristics and employee safety performance from 280 healthcare staff (doctors, nurses, and administrative staff) from Emergency Departments of seven hospitals in the United Kingdom. We analyzed these data using a structural equation model that simultaneously regressed safety compliance and safety participation on the main effects of each of the aforementioned work characteristics, their two-way interactions, and the three-way interaction among them, while controlling for demographic, occupational, and organizational characteristics. Social support was positively related to safety compliance, and both job control and the two-way interaction between job control and social support were positively related to safety participation. How work design is related to employee safety performance remains an important area for research and provides insight into how organizations can improve workplace safety. The current findings emphasize the importance of the co-worker in promoting both safety compliance and safety participation. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effect of Job Demand-Control-Social Support Model on Nurses' Job Satisfaction in Specialized Teaching Hospitals, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Negussie, Nebiat; Kaur, Geetinder

    2016-01-01

    Background The job demand-control-social support model has been widely studied in western countries but has not been theoretically addressed on health workers of sub-Saharan African countries. Therefore, this study investigates the relationship between Job Demand-Control-Support Model and job satisfaction in specialized teaching hospitals in Ethiopia. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted from September 2014 to May 2015 in three public specialized teaching hospitals in Ethiopia. Among...

  6. Family nursing hospital training and the outcome on job demands, control and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Anna Olafia; Svavarsdottir, Erla Kolbrun; Juliusdottir, Sigrun

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a family systems nursing hospital training educational program (ETI program) on nurses' and midwives' perception of job demands, control, and/or support. Of the nurses and midwives who were working in the Women's and Children's Services Division at The National University Hospital in Iceland, 479 participated in the study on three time periods from 2009 to 2011. Scores for the characteristics of job demands and job control were created to categorize participants into four job types (Karasek and Theorell, 1990). These four job types are high strain (high demand, low control), passive (low demand, low control), low strain (low demand, high control), and active (high demand, high control). However, when the data were evaluated based on the proportion of job characteristics as reported by the nurses and the midwives, no significant difference was found over time (2009 to 2011) (χ(2)=5.203, p=.518). However, based on the results from the independent t-tests at time 1, a significant difference was found amongst the high strain job group regarding perceived support from administrators and colleagues among the nurses and midwives who had taken the ETI program compared to those who had not taken the program (χ(2)=2.218, p=.034). This indicates that the health care professionals who characterized their job to be of high demand but with low control evaluated the support from their administrators and colleagues to be significantly higher if they had taken the ETI program than did the nurses and midwives who did not take the ETI program. These findings are promising because they might, in the long run, increase the nurses' and midwives' autonomy and control over their own work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Job characteristics and safety climate: the role of effort-reward and demand-control-support models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Denham L; Malley, Christine; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2012-07-01

    While safety climate is widely recognized as a key influence on organizational safety, there remain questions about the nature of its antecedents. One potential influence on safety climate is job characteristics (that is, psychosocial features of the work environment). This study investigated the relationship between two job characteristics models--demand-control-support (Karasek & Theorell, 1990) and effort-reward imbalance (Siegrist, 1996)--and safety climate. A survey was conducted with a random sample of 860 British retail pharmacists, using the job contents questionnaire (JCQ), effort-reward imbalance indicator (ERI) and a measure of safety climate in pharmacies. Multivariate data analyses found that: (a) both models contributed to the prediction of safety climate ratings, with the demand-control-support model making the largest contribution; (b) there were some interactions between demand, control and support from the JCQ in the prediction of safety climate scores. The latter finding suggests the presence of "active learning" with respect to safety improvement in high demand, high control settings. The findings provide further insight into the ways in which job characteristics relate to safety, both individually and at an aggregated level.

  8. The effect of job demand-control-social support model on nurses' job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from September 2014 to May 2015 in three public specialized teaching hospitals in Ethiopia. Among 1371 nurses, 360 were selected as sample. Data was collected using Job Content Questionnaire and Job Satisfaction Survey Questionnaire. After the data was collected, ...

  9. A Daily Diary Study of Coping in the Context of the Job Demands-Control-Support Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Kevin; Harris, Claire

    2005-01-01

    We examined one of the processes thought to underpin Karasek and Theorell's job demands-control-support model (1990). This is that control and support accentuate better well-being by fostering problem-focused coping with work demands. We also examined whether other forms of coping implemented through control and support are related to indicators…

  10. Beyond the job demand control (-support) model : explaining stress reactions in nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisanti, Renato

    2012-01-01

    Nurses have been identified as having a risk of experiencing stress and burnout. The nature and organization of the job make nursing inherently difficult. Research highlights that occupational stress is largely dependent on psychosocial job characteristics, such as job demands and job resources. The

  11. Job demands-control-social support model and coping strategies: predicting burnout and wellbeing in a group of Italian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanti, R

    2012-01-01

    Nursing is generally considered to be a stressful profession. The purpose of the present study was to test the core hypotheses of the job demands-control-social support model (JDCS) of Karasek & Theorell (1990). In order to refine and extend the JDCS model, we also analyzed the direct and interactive role of three coping strategies: task- oriented, emotion-oriented, and avoidance-oriented coping. Questionnaire data from 1383 nurses (77%female) were collected. Controlling for demographic variables and non-linearity of the associations between job characteristics and outcomes (job satisfaction; burnout dimensions, psychological distress, and somatic complaints), hierarchical regression analyses indicated that job control and social support combined additively (p < 0.001) with job demands to explain the wellbeing outcomes (explained variance between 6% and 28%). Coping strategies accounted for additional variance (p < 0.001; explained variance between 4% and 15%) in all outcomes except in job satisfaction. Support was found for main effects of coping. Coping strategies did not moderate the impact of job characteristics on burnout and wellbeing. Emotion-oriented coping emerged as the most important predictor and was consistently associated with higher burnout levels and lower wellbeing levels. The results demonstrated the need to include the role of individual variables in the JDCS model. The limitations of the study, and theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  12. The demand-control model for job strain: a commentary on different ways to operationalize the exposure variable

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    Márcia Guimarães de Mello Alves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand-control has been the most widely used model to study job strain in various countries. However, researchers have used the model differently, thus hindering the comparison of results. Such heterogeneity appears in both the study instrument used and in the definition of the main exposure variable - high strain. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess differences between various ways of operationalizing job strain through association with prevalent hypertension in a cohort of workers (Pro-Health Study. No difference in the association between high job strain and hypertension was found according to the different ways of operationalizing exposure, even though prevalence varied widely, according to the adopted form, from 19.6% for quadrants to 42% for subtraction tertile. The authors recommend further studies to define the cutoff for exposure variables using combined subjective and objective data.

  13. The importance of genetic and shared environmental factors for the associations between job demands, control, support and burnout.

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    Victoria Blom

    Full Text Available Within occupational health research, one of the most influential models is the Job Demands-Control-Support model. Numerous studies have applied the model to different domains, with both physical and psychological health outcomes, such as burnout. The twin design provides a unique and powerful research methodology for examining the effects of environmental risk factors on burnout while taking familial factors (genetic and shared environment into account. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of familial factors on the associations of burnout with job demands, control and support. A total of 14,516 individuals from the Swedish Twin Registry, who were born between 1959 and 1986, and who participated in the Study of Twin Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE by responding to a web-based questionnaire in 2005, were included in the analyses. Of these, there were 5108 individuals in complete same-sex twin pairs. Co-twin control analyses were performed using linear mixed modeling, comparing between-pairs effects and within-pair effects, stratified also by zygosity and sex. The results indicate that familial factors are of importance in the association between support and burnout in both women and men, but not between job demands and burnout. There are also tendencies towards familial factors being involved in the association between control and burnout in men. These results offer increased understanding of the mechanisms involved in the associations between work stress and burnout.

  14. Job demand-control and job stress at work: A cross-sectional study among prison staff

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    Akbari, Jafar; Akbari, Rouhollah; Shakerian, Mahnaz; Mahaki, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Job stress can impose significant costs to the workplaces and organizations due to some issues such as absenteeism, less productivity, and medical costs. Job overload and lack of decision latitude can lead to job stress. The current study aimed to investigate the job demands and control as predictor of job stress and its relationship, with some of the demographic characteristics of Iranian prison staff. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 171 male employees working in four prisons located in Ilam, Iran. The sampling method was census and all four prisons’ staff were selected to respond the Job Content Questionnaires. Finally, the data were analyzed using t-test or independent samples test as well as SPSS 20. Results: The highest amount of job demand (mean = 21.28) and the lowest amount of job control on average (9.76) were reported by those staff working in Darehshahr prison. There was also a significant relationship between job post and job control among the prison staff (β = −0.375, P = 0.001). Conclusion: The level of job stress reported by prison staff was high in this study mainly caused by high job demand and low job control, especially in Darehshahr prison staff. PMID:28546980

  15. Validity test of the IPD-Work consortium approach for creating comparable job strain groups between Job Content Questionnaire and Demand-Control Questionnaire

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    Bongkyoo Choi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to test the validity of the IPD-Work Consortium approach for creating comparable job strain groups between the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ and the Demand-Control Questionnaire (DCQ. Material and Methods: A random population sample (N = 682 of all middle-aged Malmö males and females was given a questionnaire with the 14-item JCQ and 11-item DCQ for the job control and job demands. The JCQ job control and job demands scores were calculated in 3 different ways: using the 14-item JCQ standard scale formulas (method 1; dropping 3 job control items and using the 11-item JCQ standard scale formulas with additional scale weights (method 2; and the approach of the IPD Group (method 3, dropping 3 job control items, but using the simple 11-item summation-based scale formulas. The high job strain was defined as a combination of high demands and low control. Results: Between the 2 questionnaires, false negatives for the high job strain were much greater than false positives (37–49% vs. 7–13%. When the method 3 was applied, the sensitivity of the JCQ for the high job strain against the DCQ was lowest (0.51 vs. 0.60–0.63 when the methods 1 and 2 were applied, although the specificity was highest (0.93 vs. 0.87–0.89 when the methods 1 and 2 were applied. The prevalence of the high job strain with the JCQ (the method 3 was applied was considerably lower (4–7% than with the JCQ (the methods 1 and 2 were applied and the DCQ. The number of congruent cases for the high job strain between the 2 questionnaires was smallest when the method 3 was applied. Conclusions: The IPD-Work Consortium approach showed 2 major weaknesses to be used for epidemiological studies on the high job strain and health outcomes as compared to the standard JCQ methods: the greater misclassification of the high job strain and lower prevalence of the high job strain.

  16. Validity test of the IPD-Work consortium approach for creating comparable job strain groups between Job Content Questionnaire and Demand-Control Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bongkyoo; Ko, Sangbaek; Ostergren, Per-Olof

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to test the validity of the IPD-Work Consortium approach for creating comparable job strain groups between the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and the Demand-Control Questionnaire (DCQ). A random population sample (N = 682) of all middle-aged Malmö males and females was given a questionnaire with the 14-item JCQ and 11-item DCQ for the job control and job demands. The JCQ job control and job demands scores were calculated in 3 different ways: using the 14-item JCQ standard scale formulas (method 1); dropping 3 job control items and using the 11-item JCQ standard scale formulas with additional scale weights (method 2); and the approach of the IPD Group (method 3), dropping 3 job control items, but using the simple 11-item summation-based scale formulas. The high job strain was defined as a combination of high demands and low control. Between the 2 questionnaires, false negatives for the high job strain were much greater than false positives (37-49% vs. 7-13%). When the method 3 was applied, the sensitivity of the JCQ for the high job strain against the DCQ was lowest (0.51 vs. 0.60-0.63 when the methods 1 and 2 were applied), although the specificity was highest (0.93 vs. 0.87-0.89 when the methods 1 and 2 were applied). The prevalence of the high job strain with the JCQ (the method 3 was applied) was considerably lower (4-7%) than with the JCQ (the methods 1 and 2 were applied) and the DCQ. The number of congruent cases for the high job strain between the 2 questionnaires was smallest when the method 3 was applied. The IPD-Work Consortium approach showed 2 major weaknesses to be used for epidemiological studies on the high job strain and health outcomes as compared to the standard JCQ methods: the greater misclassification of the high job strain and lower prevalence of the high job strain. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  17. Job Strain and Determinants in Staff Working in Institutions for People with Intellectual Disabilities in Taiwan: A Test of the Job Demand-Control-Support Model

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    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lee, Tzong-Nan; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Wu, Jia-Ling; Chu, Cordia M.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the job strain of staff working in disability institutions. This study investigated the staff's job strain profile and its determinants which included the worker characteristics and the psychosocial working environments in Taiwan. A cross-sectional study survey was carried out among 1243 workers by means of a self-answered…

  18. A cross-sectional study of the relationship between job demand-control, effort-reward imbalance and cardiovascular heart disease risk factors

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    Söderberg Mia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This cross-sectional study explored relationships between psychosocial work environment, captured by job demand-control (JDC and effort-reward imbalance (ERI, and seven cardiovascular heart disease (CHD risk factors in a general population. Method The sampled consists of randomly-selected men and women from Gothenburg, Sweden and the city’s surrounding metropolitan areas. Associations between psychosocial variables and biomarkers were analysed with multiple linear regression adjusted for age, smoking, education and occupational status. Results The study included 638 men and 668 women aged 24–71. Analysis between JDC and CHD risk factors illustrated that, for men, JDC was associated with impaired scores in several biomarkers, especially among those in high strain jobs. For women, there were no relationships between JDC and biomarkers. In the analysis of links between ERI and CHD risk factors, most associations tested null. The only findings were raised triglycerides and BMI among men in the fourth quartile of the ERI-ratio distribution, and lowered LDL-cholesterol for women. An complementary ERI analysis, combining high/low effort and reward into categories, illustrated lowered triglycerides and elevated HDL-cholesterol values among women reporting high efforts and high rewards, compared to women experiencing low effort and high reward. Conclusions There were some associations between psychosocial stressors and CHD risk factors. The cross-sectional design did not allow conclusions about causality but some results indicated gender differences regarding sensitivity to work stressors and also how the models might capture different psychosocial dimensions.

  19. Active Job Monitoring in Pilots

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    Kuehn, Eileen; Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Recent developments in high energy physics (HEP) including multi-core jobs and multi-core pilots require data centres to gain a deep understanding of the system to monitor, design, and upgrade computing clusters. Networking is a critical component. Especially the increased usage of data federations, for example in diskless computing centres or as a fallback solution, relies on WAN connectivity and availability. The specific demands of different experiments and communities, but also the need for identification of misbehaving batch jobs, requires an active monitoring. Existing monitoring tools are not capable of measuring fine-grained information at batch job level. This complicates network-aware scheduling and optimisations. In addition, pilots add another layer of abstraction. They behave like batch systems themselves by managing and executing payloads of jobs internally. The number of real jobs being executed is unknown, as the original batch system has no access to internal information about the scheduling process inside the pilots. Therefore, the comparability of jobs and pilots for predicting run-time behaviour or network performance cannot be ensured. Hence, identifying the actual payload is important. At the GridKa Tier 1 centre a specific tool is in use that allows the monitoring of network traffic information at batch job level. This contribution presents the current monitoring approach and discusses recent efforts and importance to identify pilots and their substructures inside the batch system. It will also show how to determine monitoring data of specific jobs from identified pilots. Finally, the approach is evaluated.

  20. Job and Work Design

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Broeck, Anja; Parker, Sharon K.

    2017-01-01

    Job design or work design refers to the content, structure, and organization of tasks and activities. It is mostly studied in terms of job characteristics, such as autonomy, workload, role problems, and feedback. Throughout history, job design has moved away from a sole focus on efficiency and productivity to more motivational job designs, including the social approach toward work, Herzberg’s two-factor model, Hackman and Oldham’s job characteristics model, the job demand control model of Kar...

  1. Sex inequalities in physical and mental functioning of British, Finnish, and Japanese civil servants: role of job demand, control and work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Chandola, Tarani; Cable, Noriko; Marmot, Michael; Martikainen, Pekka; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2011-08-01

    In general, women report more physical and mental symptoms than men. International comparisons of countries with different welfare state regimes may provide further understanding of the social determinants of sex inequalities in health. This study aims to evaluate (1) whether there are sex inequalities in health functioning as measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and (2) whether work characteristics contribute to the sex inequalities in health among employees from Britain, Finland, and Japan, representing liberal, social democratic, and conservative welfare state regimes, respectively. The participants were 7340 (5122 men and 2218 women) British employees, 2297 (1638 men and 659 women) Japanese employees, and 8164 (1649 men and 6515 women) Finnish employees. All the participants were civil servants aged 40-60 years. We found that more women than men tended to have disadvantaged work characteristics (i.e. low employment grade, low job control, high job demands, and long work hours) but such sex differences were relatively smaller among employees from Finland, where more gender equal policies exist than Britain and Japan. The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of women for poor physical functioning was the largest for British women (OR = 2.08), followed by for Japanese women (OR = 1.72), and then for Finnish women (OR = 1.51). The age-adjusted OR of women for poor mental functioning was the largest for Japanese women (OR = 1.91), followed by for British women (OR = 1.45), and then for Finnish women (OR = 1.07). Thus, sex differences in physical and mental health was the smallest in the Finnish population. The larger the sex differences in work characteristics, the larger the sex differences in health and the reduction in the sex differences in health after adjustment for work characteristics. These results suggest that egalitarian and gender equal policies may contribute to smaller sex differences in health, through smaller differences in disadvantaged work

  2. An Experience Sampling Study of Learning, Affect, and the Demands Control Support Model

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    Daniels, Kevin; Boocock, Grahame; Glover, Jane; Hartley, Ruth; Holland, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The demands control support model (R. A. Karasek & T. Theorell, 1990) indicates that job control and social support enable workers to engage in problem solving. In turn, problem solving is thought to influence learning and well-being (e.g., anxious affect, activated pleasant affect). Two samples (N = 78, N = 106) provided data up to 4 times per…

  3. An experimental study of the job demand-control model with measures of heart rate variability and salivary alpha-amylase: Evidence of increased stress responses to increased break autonomy.

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    O'Donnell, Emma; Landolt, Kathleen; Hazi, Agnes; Dragano, Nico; Wright, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    We assessed in an experimental design whether the stress response towards a work task was moderated by the autonomy to choose a break during the assigned time to complete the task. This setting is defined in accordance with the theoretical framework of the job-demand-control (JDC) model of work related stress. The findings from naturalistic investigations of a stress-buffering effect of autonomy (or 'buffer hypothesis') are equivocal and the experimental evidence is limited, especially with relation to physiological indices of stress. Our objective was to investigate if increased autonomy in a particular domain (break time control) was related with adaptive physiology using objective physiological markers of stress; heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary alpha amylase (sAA). We used a within-subject design and the 60 female participants were randomly assigned to an autonomy (free timing of break) and standard conditions (fixed timing of break) of a word processing task in a simulated office environment in a random order. Participants reported increased perceptions of autonomy, no difference in demand and performed worse in the task in the break-time autonomy versus the standard condition. The results revealed support for the manipulation of increased autonomy, but in the opposing direction. Increased autonomy was related with dysregulated physiological reactivity, synonymous with typical increased stress responses. Potentially, our findings may indicate that autonomy is not necessary a resource but could become an additional stressor when it adds additional complexity while the amount of work (demands) remains unchanged. Further, our findings underscore the need to collect objective physiological evidence of stress to supplement self-reported information. Self-report biases may partially explain the inconsistent findings with the buffer hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davies, Molly [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eliseeva, Ekaterina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hong, Tienzen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sullivan, Douglas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling.

  5. Demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davies, Molly [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eliseeva, Ekaterina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hong, Tienzen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sullivan, Douglas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-06

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling.

  6. Demand controlled ventilation; Behovsstyrt ventilasjon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Henning Holm

    2006-07-01

    The terms CAV and VAV have been known terms for many years in the ventilation business. The terms are also included in building regulations, but the time is now right to focus on demand controlled ventilation (DCV). The new building regulations and the accompanying energy framework underline the need for a more nuanced thinking when it comes to controlling ventilation systems. Descriptions and further details of the ventilation systems are provided (ml)

  7. Work-related stress according to the demand-control model and minor psychic disorders in nursing workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete de Souza Urbanetto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This was a cross-sectional study that aimed to assess the association between work-related stress according to the Demand-Control Model, and the occurrence of Minor Psychic Disorder (MPD in nursing workers. The participants were 335 professionals, out of which 245 were nursing technicians, aged predominantly between 20 and 40 years. Data were collected using the Job Stress Scale and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20. The analysis was performed using descriptive and analytical statistics. The prevalence of suspected MPD was 20.6%. Workers classified in the quadrants active job and high strain of the Demand-Control Model presented higher potential for developing MPD compared with those classified in the quadrant low strain. In conclusion, stress affects the mental health of workers and the aspects related to high psychological demands and high control still require further insight in order to understand their influence on the disease processes of nursing workers.

  8. Ebola, jobs and economic activity in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Jeremy; Hjort, Jonas; Melvin, Timothy; Werker, Eric

    2016-03-01

    The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in the neighbouring West African countries of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone represents the most significant setback to the region's development in over a decade. This study provides evidence on the extent to which economic activity declined and jobs disappeared in Liberia during the outbreak. To estimate how the level of activity and number of jobs in a given set of firms changed during the outbreak, we use a unique panel data set of registered firms surveyed by the business-development non-profit organisation, Building Markets. We also compare the change in economic activity during the outbreak, across regions of the country that had more versus fewer Ebola cases in a difference-in-differences approach. We find a large decrease in economic activity and jobs in all of Liberia during the Ebola outbreak, and an especially large decline in Monrovia. Outside of Monrovia, the restaurants, and food and beverages sectors have suffered the most among the surveyed sectors, and in Monrovia, the construction and restaurant sectors have shed the most employees, while the food and beverages sectors experienced the largest drop in new contracts. We find little association between the incidence of Ebola cases and declines in economic activity outside of Monrovia. If the large decline in economic activity that occurred during the Ebola outbreak persists, a focus on economic recovery may need to be added to the efforts to rebuild and support the healthcare system in order for Liberia to regain its footing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Job control and social support as coping resources in job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Akihito; Shimazu, Miyuki; Odahara, Tsutomu

    2004-04-01

    This study examined the effects of active coping on job satisfaction in the context of the job demands-control-support model. Participants were 867 employees (811 men and 56 women, M age = 35.2 yr.) of a large electrical company in Japan. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis examined whether effects of active coping on job satisfaction might depend on the extent of coping resources, such as job control or social support (supervisor and coworker). Analysis showed that the effect of active coping on job satisfaction depended on the extent of coworkers' support, not on job control and supervisors' support.

  10. Jobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Review of the movie Jobs (Joshua Michael Stern, 2013), a drama about Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple.......Review of the movie Jobs (Joshua Michael Stern, 2013), a drama about Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple....

  11. Job stressors and job stress among teachers engaged in nursing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Shigeki; Muto, Takashi; Seo, Akihiko; Yoshida, Tsutomu; Taoda, Kazushi; Watanabe, Misuzu

    2007-01-01

    Teachers and staff members engaged in nursing activity experience more stress than other workers. However, it is unknown whether teachers engaged in nursing activity in schools for handicapped children experience even greater stress. This study evaluated job stressors and job stress among such teachers using a cross-sectional study design. The subjects were all 1,461 teachers from all 19 prefectural schools for handicapped children in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. We used a brief job stress questionnaire for the survey and 831 teachers completed the questionnaire. Job stressors among teachers engaged in nursing activity were compared with those among teachers not engaged in nursing activity. Job stress among such teachers was estimated by the score for total health risk, and was compared with the score in the Japanese general population. Male and female teachers engaged in nursing activity had a significantly higher level of job stressors for physical work load and job control compared with those not engaged in nursing activity. The scores for total health risk among male and female teachers engaged in nursing activity were 102 points and 98 points, respectively. These scores were not markedly above 100 points which is the mean score in the Japanese general population.

  12. Demand-controlling marketing of electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffee, H; Fritz, W

    1980-01-01

    In situations like the shortage of energy resources the particular autonomy of the users concerning energy demand raises more and more aggravating problems for the electric utilities (EU) and, last not least, for society (i.e. the peak-load problem, threatening bottlenecks in the supply situation). Thus the requirement for a demand-controlling marketing strategy of the EU with the help of which the individual demand should be influenced in the following manner is legitimate. The article discusses the targets, strategies, and instruments of marketing performed by the EU under the aspect of their efficiency concerning demand control. The discussion leads to e.g. the following results: that a marketing strategy for the sensible, responsible, and efficent use of energy, in the long-term, serves both the interests of the users and the interests of the EU; that such a marketing programme can have the required controlling effects especially with the help of strategies like market segmentation and cooperation. The discussion makes also clear that a demand-controlling marketing strategy of the EU can hardly be realized without a considerable change within the organization of the EU on one hand and, on the other, without expanding the marketing programme toward a marketing strategy of balance.

  13. The Demand-Control-Support model and intent to leave across six European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widerszal-Bazyl, Maria; Radkiewicz, Piotr; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Conway, Paul Maurice; van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the explanatory power of the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) model for intent to leave (ITL) a job was tested, with employment opportunities (EO) taken into consideration. It was hypothesized that, when employment opportunities are low, the explanatory power of the DCS model for ITL is

  14. Testing the strain hypothesis of the Demand Control Model to explain severe bullying at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notelaers, G.; Baillien, E.; de Witte, H.; Einarsen, S.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    Workplace bullying has often been attributed to work-related stress, and has been linked to the Job Demand Control Model. The current study aims to further these studies by testing the model for bullying in a heterogeneous sample and by using latent class (LC)-analyses to define different demands

  15. Demand controlled ventilation in a bathroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Topp, Claus

    2008-01-01

    consumption during periods where the demand for ventilation is low and poor indoor climate during periods where the demand for ventilation is high. Controlling the ventilation rate by demand can improve the energy performance of the ventilation system and the indoor climate. This paper compares the indoor...... climate and energy consumption of a Constant Air Volume (CAV) system and a Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) system for two different bathroom designs. The air change rate of the CAV system corresponded to 0.5h-1. The ventilation rate of the DCV system was controlled by occupancy and by the relative...

  16. Supply-demand controls the futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the futures market of petroleum and explains how futures operate. The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate that oil futures markets does no determine energy prices - it merely reflects the prices recorded through trades made in an open marketplace. A futures contract is an agreement between a buyer and a seller at a price that seems fair to both. High demand from buyers can push prices up; low demand or a willingness to sell pushes prices down. As a result, supply and demand control the futures exchange and not vice-versa. The paper goes on to explain some basic principals of the futures market including the differences between hedging and speculating on prices and marketing strategy

  17. 78 FR 67222 - Proposed Information Collection Activity; Comment Request: Other On-the-Job Training and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Activity; Comment Request: Other On-the-Job Training and Apprenticeship Training Agreement and Standards and Employer's Application To Provide Job Training AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... requirements for job training program. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed collection...

  18. Sensor-based demand controlled ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Almeida, A.T. [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dep. Eng. Electrotecnica; Fisk, W.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    In most buildings, occupancy and indoor pollutant emission rates vary with time. With sensor-based demand-controlled ventilation (SBDCV), the rate of ventilation (i.e., rate of outside air supply) also varies with time to compensate for the changes in pollutant generation. In other words, SBDCV involves the application of sensing, feedback and control to modulate ventilation. Compared to ventilation without feedback, SBDCV offers two potential advantages: (1) better control of indoor pollutant concentrations; and (2) lower energy use and peak energy demand. SBDCV has the potential to improve indoor air quality by increasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are high and occupants are present. SBDCV can also save energy by decreasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are low or occupants are absent. After providing background information on indoor air quality and ventilation, this report provides a relatively comprehensive discussion of SBDCV. Topics covered in the report include basic principles of SBDCV, sensor technologies, technologies for controlling air flow rates, case studies of SBDCV, application of SBDCV to laboratory buildings, and research needs. SBDCV appears to be an increasingly attractive technology option. Based on the review of literature and theoretical considerations, the application of SBDCV has the potential to be cost-effective in applications with the following characteristics: (a) a single or small number of dominant pollutants, so that ventilation sufficient to control the concentration of the dominant pollutants provides effective control of all other pollutants; (b) large buildings or rooms with unpredictable temporally variable occupancy or pollutant emission; and (c) climates with high heating or cooling loads or locations with expensive energy.

  19. Professional efficacy, exhaustion, and work characteristics among police officers: A longitudinal test of the learning-related predictions of the demand-control model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taris, T.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Heuvel, F.F.M. van den

    2010-01-01

    The present study addressed the relationships among professional efficacy, emotional exhaustion, and job characteristics (job demands and job control) in the context of a two-wave panel study among 828 Dutch police officers. Based on the demand-control model, we expected that high demands/high

  20. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development staff...

  1. Innovating job activation by involving employers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, Paul; van Berkel, Rik

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the nature of innovative employer-oriented activation policies, which aim to influence employers’ willingness to hire or possibly train and guide the unemployed. These policies may focus on responsibilities with regards to activation, which offer services to employers or

  2. Psychosocial work environment and health in U.S. metropolitan areas: a test of the demand-control and demand-control-support models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, C; Schoenbach, C

    1994-01-01

    The authors use confirmatory factor analysis to investigate the psychosocial dimensions of work environments relevant to health outcomes, in a representative sample of five U.S. metropolitan areas. Through an aggregated inference system, scales from Schwartz and associates' job scoring system and from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) were employed to examine two alternative models: the demand-control model of Karasek and Theorell and Johnson's demand-control-support model. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the two models. The two multidimensional models yielded better fits than an unstructured model. After allowing for the measurement error variance due to the method of assessment (Schwartz and associates' system or DOT), both models yielded acceptable goodness-of-fit indices, but the fit of the demand-control-support model was significantly better. Overall these results indicate that the dimensions of Control (substantive complexity of work, skill discretion, decision authority), Demands (physical exertion, physical demands and hazards), and Social Support (coworker and supervisor social supports) provide an acceptable account of the psychosocial dimensions of work associated with health outcomes.

  3. Job Search and Social Cognitive Theory: The Role of Career-Relevant Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikic, Jelena; Saks, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Social cognitive theory was used to explain the relationships between career-relevant activities (environmental and self career exploration, career resources, and training), self-regulatory variables (job search self-efficacy and job search clarity), variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior (job search attitude, subjective norm, job search…

  4. Got Skills? On-the-Job Activities of Physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2011-03-01

    It goes almost without saying that physics doctorates do a lot more than just physics research or teaching at their jobs. But what exactly do they do? First, I will share basic data showing where physics doctorates are employed. Then I will present data from two of AIP's surveys about the employment of physicists. The first set of data comes from our survey of physics PhDs one year after doctorate. We will consider how often physics doctorates do a variety of activities on the job, including management, technical writing, teamwork, design and development, programming, and advanced mathematics. The second set of data comes from AIP's new survey of PhDs in physics 10 to 13 years after graduation. Data for many of the same activities will be shown for physics doctorates who have been in the workplace about a decade. Depending on the type of job, most industrially employed physics doctorates do some type of physics at work, but they are also very likely to report managing projects, writing for technical audiences, working on a team, and collaborating with non-physicists, among many other activities. This examination of the types of activities physics doctorates perform in the workplace will provide insight on the non-scientific training that would benefit graduate students the most.

  5. Two models at work : A study of interactions and specificity in relation to the Demand-Control Model and the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegchel, N.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the relation between work and employee health, several work stress models, e.g., the Demand-Control (DC) Model and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model, have been developed. Although these models focus on job demands and job resources, relatively little attention has been devoted

  6. INPO activities/guidance with respect to on-the-job training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    The following activities of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations are described: on-the-job training and qualification; problems observed in the implementation of on-the-job training and qualification

  7. 76 FR 73019 - Proposed Information Collection (Agreement To Train on the Job Disabled Veterans) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... (Agreement To Train on the Job Disabled Veterans) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... to assure that on the job training establishments are providing veterans with the appropriate... information technology. Title: Agreement to Train on the Job Disabled Veterans, VA Form 28- 1904. OMB Control...

  8. The benefits of sustained leisure-time physical activity on job strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Telama, R; Hirvensalo, M; Hintsanen, M; Hintsa, T; Pulkki-Råback, L; Viikari, J S A

    2010-08-01

    The long-term effects of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) on job strain have not been assessed in a large prospective population-based cohort study. To examine the relationship between the LTPA and the prevalence of job strain. The participants were 861 full-time employees (406 men and 455 women), aged 24-39 years in 2001, from the ongoing Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. LTPA was assessed using a self-report questionnaire in 1992 and in 2001. The participants were grouped into four categories according to tertiles of LTPA index at two time points: persistently active, increasingly active, decreasingly active and persistently inactive. Job strain was measured in 2001 by indicators of job demands and job control. Baseline LTPA was inversely associated with job strain (P leisure may help young adults to cope with job strain. A long-term benefit of LTPA may play a role in the development of mental well-being.

  9. Energy efficient demand controlled ventilation in single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Drivsholm, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a strategy for a simple demand controlled ventilation system for single family houses where all sensors and controls are located in the air handling unit. The strategy is based on sensing CO2-concentration and moisture content in the outdoor air and exhaust air. The CO2...

  10. Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation in Residences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been used for many years in commercial buildings, the application of demand controlled ventilation in residences is limited. In this study we used occupant exposure to pollutants integrated over time (referred to as "dose") as the metric to evaluate the effectiveness and air quality...... implications of demand controlled ventilation in residences. We looked at air quality for two situations. The first is that typically used in ventilation standards: the exposure over a long term. The second is to look at peak exposures that are associated with time variations in ventilation rates and pollutant...... when occupied. We used analytical solutions to the continuity equation to determine the ventilation effectiveness and the long-term chronic dose and peak acute exposure for a representative range of occupancy periods, pollutant generation rates and airflow rates. The results of the study showed that we...

  11. Demand controlled ventilation for multi-family dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig

    for centrally balanced DCV systems with heat recovery. A design expected to fulfill this requirement was investigated in detail with regard to its electricity consumption by evaluating a control strategy that resets the static pressure set point at part load. The results showed that this control strategy can......The present thesis “Demand controlled ventilation for multi-family dwellings” constitutes the summary of a three year project period during which demand specification and system design of demand controlled ventilation for residential buildings were studied. Most standards and buildings codes...... can be reduced compared to a system with constant air flow. A literature study on indoor pollutants in homes, their sources and their impact on humans formed the basis for the demand specification. Emission of pollutants in residential buildings roughly fall into constantly emitted background sources...

  12. Does race/ethnicity moderate the association between job strain and leisure time physical activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary G; Wolin, Kathleen Y; Avrunin, Jill S; Stoddard, Anne M; Sorensen, Glorian; Barbeau, Elizabeth; Emmons, Karen M

    2006-08-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities report myriad barriers to regular leisure time physical activity (LTPA), including the stress and fatigue resulting from their occupational activities. We sought to investigate whether an association exists between job strain and LTPA, and whether it is modified by race or ethnicity. Data were collected from 1,740 adults employed in 26 small manufacturing businesses in eastern Massachusetts. LTPA and job strain data were self-reported. Adjusted mean hours of LTPA per week are reported. In age and gender adjusted analyses, reports of job strain were associated with LTPA. There was a significant interaction between job strain and race or ethnicity (p = .04). Whites experiencing job strain reported 1 less hr of LTPA per week compared to Whites not reporting job strain. Collectively, racial/ethnic minorities reporting job strain exhibited comparatively higher levels of LTPA compared to their counterparts with no job strain, although patterns for individual groups did not significantly differ. Job strain was associated with LTPA in a lower income, multiethnic population of healthy adult men and women. The association between job strain and LTPA was modified by race or ethnicity, highlighting the importance of investigating the differential effects of psychosocial occupational factors on LTPA levels by race or ethnicity.

  13. Do job demands and job control affect problem-solving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Peter N; Ahlberg, Gunnel; Johansson, Gun; Stoetzer, Ulrich; Aborg, Carl; Hallsten, Lennart; Lundberg, Ingvar

    2012-01-01

    The Job Demand Control model presents combinations of working conditions that may facilitate learning, the active learning hypothesis, or have detrimental effects on health, the strain hypothesis. To test the active learning hypothesis, this study analysed the effects of job demands and job control on general problem-solving strategies. A population-based sample of 4,636 individuals (55% women, 45% men) with the same job characteristics measured at two times with a three year time lag was used. Main effects of demands, skill discretion, task authority and control, and the combined effects of demands and control were analysed in logistic regressions, on four outcomes representing general problem-solving strategies. Those reporting high on skill discretion, task authority and control, as well as those reporting high demand/high control and low demand/high control job characteristics were more likely to state using problem solving strategies. Results suggest that working conditions including high levels of control may affect how individuals cope with problems and that workplace characteristics may affect behaviour in the non-work domain.

  14. Psychosocial risks and the job activity of banking sector employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Stańczak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychosocial risks, via stress mechanism, may negatively influence employees’ health and work activity. Both the scale and the type of these risks depend on job specificity in particular occupation or sector. The aim of the study was to characterize the categories of stressors occurring in the banking sector and their effects on employees’ performance. Material and Methods: The studied subjects were 484 employees tested with the questionnaire method. The Scale of Psychosocial Risk was used as a research tool. Results: The more the employees are exposed to threats connected with work content, work context, pathologies and specific factor, the less satisfied they are and the more frequently they declare turnover intention. However, rarely does it change their engagement or absence. The subjects felt the effects of risks, regardless of their stressfulness. It turns out that individual’s well-being is rather related to work context, e.g. relations with co-workers or salary, than to the character of tasks. It was observed, that with age, employees are less resistant to work context related to threats, which results in frequent absence. Conclusions: Most of the results comply with the literature data. The work environment diagnosis may be based only on the occurrence of psychosocial risks, regardless of the subjectively experienced stress. The conclusions can be used by both employers and specialists in occupational stress prevention. Med Pr 2014;65(4:507–519

  15. Demand Controlled Ventilation in a Combined Ventilation and Radiator System

    OpenAIRE

    Hesaraki, Arefeh; Holmberg, Sture

    2013-01-01

    With growing concerns for efficient and sustainable energy treatment in buildings there is a need for balanced and intelligent ventilation solutions. This paper presents a strategy for demand controlled ventilation with ventilation radiators, a combined heating and ventilation system. The ventilation rate was decreased from normal requirements (per floor area) of 0.375 l·s-1·m-2 to 0.100 l·s-1·m-2 when the residence building was un-occupied. The energy saving potential due to decreased ventil...

  16. 78 FR 15975 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Job Clubs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Job Clubs Study ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Department... comments on site visits to job clubs. The document contained incorrect dates. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  17. Prevalence of job strain among Indian foundry shop floor workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, G Madhan; Elangovan, S; Prasad, P S S; Krishna, P Rama; Mokkapati, Anil Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Global competition in manufacturing sector demand higher productivity levels. In this context, workers in this sector are set with high output targets, leading to job strain. In addition to the strain, hazardous conditions also prevail in some of the manufacturing processes like foundry activities. This paper attempts to appraise the prevalence of job strain among foundry shop floor workers in India with the help of Demands-Control model [8]. In this study, data was collected through a survey using 49-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) [9], a widely used and well-validated test for job strain. Then the data was subjected to statistical analysis after ascertaining the reliability. This survey has revealed that 25% of workers in foundry were experiencing high job strain. Hazardous working conditions, limited decision making authority, etc. appear to be the main contributing factors for the higher levels of strain.

  18. Job Characteristics and Off-Job Activities as Predictors of Need for Recovery, Well-Being, and Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Zijlstra, Fred R. H.

    2006-01-01

    Two empirical studies examined need for recovery (i.e., a person's desire to be temporarily relieved from demands in order to restore his or her resources) as a mediator in the relationship between poor job characteristics (high job demands, low job control) and high off-job demands, on the one hand, and fatigue and poor individual well-being, on…

  19. Relationship between hospital pharmacists' job satisfaction and involvement in clinical activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D S; Lawson, K A

    1996-02-01

    Job satisfaction among hospital pharmacists employed by a national hospital pharmacy management company was measured by using a mail questionnaire. A previously validated survey that measured pharmacists' job satisfaction was adapted for use in this study. Additional questions determined the pharmacist's clinical pharmacy training and participation in clinical pharmacy services. Questionnaires were mailed to all full-time hospital pharmacists employed by the pharmacy management company. Of the 606 mailed, deliverable questionnaires, 354 usable responses were returned, for a response rate of 58.4%. The respondent hospital pharmacists' level of job satisfaction showed a positive association with clinical pharmacy involvement. Of the nine items in the questionnaire that measured the pharmacists' involvement in clinical pharmacy services, seven items showed a positive relationship between involvement in that clinical activity and job satisfaction. Mean job satisfaction increased as the percentage of time spent performing clinical pharmacy activities increased. Job satisfaction decreased as time spent performing distributive functions increased. The percentage of time hospital pharmacists were engaged in clinical activities was significantly associated with job satisfaction.

  20. Job Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bravená, Helena

    2009-01-01

    This bacherlor thesis deals with the importance of job analysis for personnel activities in the company. The aim of this work is to find the most suitable method of job analysis in a particular enterprise, and continues creating descriptions and specifications of each job.

  1. Jobs, Jobs, Jobs!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Teaching is not the safe career bet that it once was. The thinking used to be: New students will always be entering the public schools, and older teachers will always be retiring, so new teachers will always be needed. But teaching jobs aren't secure enough to stand up to the "Great Recession," as this drawn-out downturn has been called. Across…

  2. CO2 MONITORING FOR DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David; Eliseeva, Ekaterina

    2010-03-17

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors are often deployed in commercial buildings to obtain CO{sub 2} data that are used, in a process called demand-controlled ventilation, to automatically modulate rates of outdoor air ventilation. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. Demand controlled ventilation is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. Reasonably accurate CO{sub 2} measurements are needed for successful demand controlled ventilation; however, prior research has suggested substantial measurement errors. Accordingly, this study evaluated: (a) the accuracy of 208 CO{sub 2} single-location sensors located in 34 commercial buildings, (b) the accuracy of four multi-location CO{sub 2} measurement systems that utilize tubing, valves, and pumps to measure at multiple locations with single CO{sub 2} sensors, and (c) the spatial variability of CO{sub 2} concentrations within meeting rooms. The field studies of the accuracy of single-location CO{sub 2} sensors included multi-concentration calibration checks of 90 sensors in which sensor accuracy was checked at multiple CO{sub 2} concentrations using primary standard calibration gases. From these evaluations, average errors were small, -26 ppm and -9 ppm at 760 and 1010 ppm, respectively; however, the averages of the absolute values of error were 118 ppm (16%) and 138 ppm (14%), at concentrations of 760 and 1010 ppm, respectively. The calibration data are generally well fit by a straight line as indicated by high values of R{sup 2}. The Title 24 standard specifies that sensor error must be certified as no greater than 75 ppm for a period of five years after sensor installation. At 1010 ppm, 40% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}75 ppm and 31% of sensors has errors greater than {+-}100 ppm. At 760 ppm, 47% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}75 ppm and 37% of

  3. Time management behavior as a moderator for the job demand-control interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Miranda A G; Rutte, Christel G

    2005-01-01

    The interaction effects of time management, work demands, and autonomy on burnout were investigated in a survey study of 123 elementary teachers. A 3-way interaction between time management, work demands, and autonomy was hypothesized: The combination of high work demands and low autonomy was predicted to lead to burnout for teachers low in time management and not, or to a lesser extent, for those high in time management. This hypothesis is confirmed for emotional exhaustion, the most predictive dimension of teacher burnout, and partly confirmed for the personal accomplishment dimension. Generalizability to other contactual occupations is discussed. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Time management behavior as a moderator for the job demand-control interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.A.G.; Rutte, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    The interaction effects of time management, work demands, and autonomy on burnout were investigated in a survey study of 123 elementary teachers. A 3-way interaction between time management, work demands, and autonomy was hypothesized: The combination of high work demands and low autonomy was

  5. Learning and strain among newcomers: a three-wave study on the effects of Job Demands and Job Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taris, T.W.; Feij, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The present 3-wave longitudinal study was an examination of job-related learning and strain as a function of job demand and job control. The participants were 311 newcomers to their jobs. On the basis of R. A. Karasek and T. Theorell's (1990) demand-control model, the authors predicted that high

  6. Web Based Information System for Job Training Activities Using Personal Extreme Programming (PXP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asri, S. A.; Sunaya, I. G. A. M.; Rudiastari, E.; Setiawan, W.

    2018-01-01

    Job training is one of the subjects in university or polytechnic that involves many users and reporting activities. Time and distance became problems for users to reporting and to do obligations tasks during job training due to the location where the job training took place. This research tried to develop a web based information system of job training to overcome the problems. This system was developed using Personal Extreme Programming (PXP). PXP is one of the agile methods is combination of Extreme Programming (XP) and Personal Software Process (PSP). The information system that has developed and tested which are 24% of users are strongly agree, 74% are agree, 1% disagree and 0% strongly disagree about system functionality.

  7. Social support and its interrelationships with demand-control model factors on presenteeism and absenteeism in Japanese civil servants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Yasuaki; Yoshioka, Eiji; Nakagi, Yoshihiko; Kawanishi, Yasuyuki; Hanley, Sharon J B; Yoshida, Takahiko

    2017-08-01

    To elucidate the impact of social support and its interrelations with other demand-control-support (DCS) model factors on presenteeism and absenteeism, and to determine which DCS factors were most influential. Questionnaires from 2535 local government employees were analyzed. The Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ) was used to assess DCS factors including job demand, job control, and social support from supervisors and coworkers. The Stanford Presenteeism Scale 13-item version (SPS-13) was used to evaluate both absenteeism (absent days) and presenteeism. For the latter, the Work Impairment Score (WIS) and the Work Output Score (WOS) were also used. Possible confounder-adjusted logistic and negative binomial regression analyses were performed to obtain odds ratios (ORs) for WIS and WOS and relative risks (RRs) for absenteeism according to DCS factors. Higher job control had a significantly protective effect on higher WIS in both males and females and a lower WOS in males. Based on a point estimate of an OR per 1 standard deviation change of each DCS factor, job control had the strongest effect on higher WIS in both males and females and a lower WOS in males. Higher job demand resulted in significantly higher ORs for both male and female WIS, and a lower WOS in females. Support from supervisors had a significantly protective effect on higher WIS in females and a lower WOS in males. Support from coworkers had a significantly protective effect on higher WIS in males. Higher support from coworkers had a significantly protective effect on absenteeism among both males and females, and higher job control had a significantly protective effect in females. The combination of high job strain and low support from supervisors had a significantly worsening effect, except for absenteeism in females. High job strain and low support from coworkers had a significantly worsening effect except for WOS in males. The results suggest job control was the DCS factor most related to

  8. Dimensional structure of the demand control support questionnaire: a Brazilian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hökerberg, Yara Hahr Marques; Aguiar, Odaleia Barbosa; Reichenheim, Michael; Faerstein, Eduardo; Valente, Joaquim Gonçalves; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus; Passos, Sonia Regina Lambert

    2010-04-01

    According to Karasek, job strain results from an interaction between high demands and low decision latitude. To reassess the dimensional structure and evaluate the internal consistency of demand control support questionnaire (DCSQ), a shortened version of job content questionnaire that was not sufficiently evaluated in validation studies. The study investigated 825 workers who completed the DCSQ in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; to 399 workers, the questionnaire was self-administered at a hospital (2004-2005), and 426 workers were interviewed at nine restaurants (2006-2007). Confirmatory factor analysis using structural equation models was used to test theoretical structure of dimensionality. Internal consistency was evaluated by composite reliability and convergent validity by average variance extracted. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the instrument in three dimensions: demands, skill discretion and decision authority. The best fit model was achieved by removing social support at work and the item repetitive work (skill discretion). A cross-loading from learning new things on demands and an error measurement correlation between work fast and work intense were confirmed. Composite reliability was acceptable for all dimensions, except for demands (0.58), which also showed inadequate average variance extracted (0.32). This final model was confirmed in separate analyses according to work setting, but the loadings of demands were lower for restaurant workers. Our results indicated that skill discretion and decision authority formed two distinct dimensions. Additionally, the item repetitive work should be removed, as well as one of the items work fast or work intense (demands). Future research is still required to confirm these findings.

  9. Cross-lagged relationships between workplace demands, control, support, and sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Linda L Magnusson; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Näswall, Katharina; Leineweber, Constanze; Theorell, Töres; Westerlund, Hugo

    2011-10-01

    Sleep problems are experienced by a large part of the population. Work characteristics are potential determinants, but limited longitudinal evidence is available to date, and reverse causation is a plausible alternative. This study examines longitudinal, bidirectional relationships between work characteristics and sleep problems. Prospective cohort/two-wave panel. Sweden. 3065 working men and women approximately representative of the Swedish workforce who responded to the 2006 and 2008 waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). N/A. Bidirectional relationships between, on the one hand, workplace demands, decision authority, and support, and, on the other hand, sleep disturbances (reflecting lack of sleep continuity) and awakening problems (reflecting feelings of being insufficiently restored), were investigated by structural equation modeling. All factors were modeled as latent variables and adjusted for gender, age, marital status, education, alcohol consumption, and job change. Concerning sleep disturbances, the best fitting models were the "forward" causal model for demands and the "reverse" causal model for support. Regarding awakening problems, reciprocal models fitted the data best. Cross-lagged analyses indicates a weak relationship between demands at Time 1 and sleep disturbances at Time 2, a "reverse" relationship from support T1 to sleep disturbances T2, and bidirectional associations between work characteristics and awakening problems. In contrast to an earlier study on demands, control, sleep quality, and fatigue, this study suggests reverse and reciprocal in addition to the commonly hypothesized causal relationships between work characteristics and sleep problems based on a 2-year time lag.

  10. Job Accommodations Availability and Utilization Among People With Lupus: An Examination of Workplace Activity Limitations and Work Context Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dhanhani, Ali M; Gignac, Monique A M; Beaton, Dorcas E; Su, Jiandong; Fortin, Paul R

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the availability of diverse job accommodations (or flexible working arrangements) and to describe their use among people with systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus), as well as to examine factors associated with the use of job accommodations. A mail survey was sent to adult lupus patients receiving care from a lupus clinic based in Toronto, Canada. The survey assessed demographic information, self-reported disease activity, work history, workplace activity limitations, job strain, and the availability and use of job accommodations. Standard multivariable linear regression analysis was used to examine factors associated with the use of job accommodations. We received 362 responses of 604 mailed surveys (60% response rate). Participants who were employed within the last 5 years, but who were not currently working, were less likely than currently employed participants to report having had job accommodations available to them at their last place of employment. The use of job accommodations was reported by 70% of currently employed respondents and by 72% of those not currently employed. The most common job accommodation used was sick leave days. Factors positively associated with the use of job accommodations among those who were employed included higher levels of education, being diagnosed with fibromyalgia, at least 1 episode of short-term work disability, not belonging to a union, greater workplace activity limitations, and greater job strain. The use of job accommodations among people with lupus is common. Work context factors, such as workplace activity limitations and job strain, are the main factors associated with the use of job accommodations. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  11. The Effects of Participating in Recreational Activities on Quality of Life and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Yener; Çankaya, Soner; Tasmektepligil, M. Yalçin

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the differences and determine the relationships between the scores obtained from Minnesota job-satisfaction and quality-of-life scales applied to males' ages 18 to 40 who participate in recreational activities and those who do not. The samples of the study consisted of 282 volunteers (148 of whom participate…

  12. 77 FR 7242 - Agency Information Collection (Agreement To Train on the Job Disabled Veterans): Activity Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ..., OMB Human Resources and Housing Branch, New Executive Office Building, Room 10235, Washington, DC... (Agreement To Train on the Job Disabled Veterans): Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and comment. The PRA submission describes the...

  13. Students' Use of Extra-Curricular Activities for Positional Advantage in Competitive Job Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulin, Nicolas; Bangerter, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    With the rise of mass higher education, competition between graduates in the labour market is increasing. Students are aware that their degree will not guarantee them a job and realise they should add value and distinction to their credentials to achieve a positional advantage. Participation in extra-curricular activities (ECAs) is one such…

  14. Rank, job stress, psychological distress and physical activity among military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Lilian Cristina X; Lopes, Claudia S

    2013-08-03

    Physical fitness is one of the most important qualities in armed forces personnel. However, little is known about the association between the military environment and the occupational and leisure-time dimensions of the physical activity practiced there. This study assessed the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity levels (overall and by dimensions). This a cross-sectional study among 506 military service personnel of the Brazilian Army examined the association of rank, job stress and psychological distress with physical activity through multiple linear regression using a generalized linear model. The adjusted models showed that the rank of lieutenant was associated with most occupational physical activity (β = 0.324; CI 95% 0.167; 0.481); "high effort and low reward" was associated with more occupational physical activity (β = 0.224; CI 95% 0.098; 0.351) and with less physical activity in sports/physical exercise in leisure (β = -0.198; CI 95% -0.384; -0.011); and psychological distress was associated with less physical activity in sports/exercise in leisure (β = -0.184; CI 95% -0.321; -0.046). The results of this study show that job stress and rank were associated with higher levels of occupational physical activity. Moreover job stress and psychological distress were associated with lower levels of physical activity in sports/exercises. In the military context, given the importance of physical activity and the psychosocial environment, both of which are related to health, these findings may offer input to institutional policies directed to identifying psychological distress early and improving work relationships, and to creating an environment more favorable to increasing the practice of leisure-time physical activity.

  15. Associate residency training directors in psychiatry: demographics, professional activities, and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, Melissa R; Degolia, Sallie G; Esposito, Karin; Miller, Deborah A; Weinberg, Michael; Brenner, Adam M

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize associate training director (ATD) positions in psychiatry. An on-line survey was e-mailed in 2009 to all ATDs identified through the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training (AADPRT). Survey questions elicited information regarding demographics, professional activities, job satisfaction, and goals. Of 170 ATDs surveyed, 73 (42.9%) completed the survey. Most respondents (71.3%) had been in their positions for 3 years or less. Many ATDs indicated that they were involved in virtually all aspects of residency training; 75% of respondents agreed that they were happy with their experience. However, specific concerns included inadequate time and compensation for the ATD role in addition to a lack of mentorship and unclear job expectations. Thoughtful attention to the construction of the ATD role may improve job satisfaction.

  16. Why the long hours? Job demands and social exchange dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genin, Emilie; Haines, Victor Y; Pelletier, David; Rousseau, Vincent; Marchand, Alain

    2016-11-22

    This study investigates the determinants of long working hours from the perspectives of the demand-control model [Karasek, 1979] and social exchange theory [Blau, 1964; Goulder, 1960]. These two theoretical perspectives are tested to understand why individuals work longer (or shorter) hours. The hypotheses are tested with a representative sample of 1,604 employed Canadians. In line with Karasek's model, the results support that high job demands are positively associated with longer work hours. The social exchange perspective would predict a positive association between skill discretion and work hours. This hypothesis was supported for individuals with a higher education degree. Finally, the results support a positive association between active jobs and longer work hours. Our research suggests that job demands and social exchange dynamics need to be considered together in the explanation of longer (or shorter) work hours.

  17. The Use of Social Networking Sites in Job Related Activities: A Cross-cultural Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Bartosik-Purgat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of the paper is to identify the use of Social Networking Sites (SNSs in job related activities and indicate the interdependencies between these activities and age, gender, as well as education in culturally diversified markets (China, Poland, Turkey, the United States. Research Design & Methods: In the exploratory empirical study the authors used two research methods: PAPI (Paper and Pen Personal Interview and CAWI (Computer Assisted Web Interview. The empirical data were collected in 2016 and the total number of respondents from four culturally diversified countries was 1246. Findings: The analysis with the use of Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn post-hoc tests showed that the Turkish respondents most often use SNSs for job related activities, while it is the least often done by the studied Americans. Moreover, from among the studied factors (gender, age and education level that differentiate the SNSs usage for job related activities in a statistically significant way age is of greatest importance. Implications & Recommendations: The results of the research provide implications for the recruitment policy of multinational enterprises (MNEs. Since more and more enterprises use SNSs in order to look for new employees and advertise themselves as employers (employer branding, the identified interdependencies between the SNSs activities and the analysed factors can support firm attempts to develop the proper recruitment policy taking into account the cultural diversity of potential workers. Contribution & Value Added: There are not many studies in the literature which present the usage of SNSs for job related activities from the perspective of individual users in the cross-cultural approach. The majority of studies are related to the usage of SNSs by enterprises in the recruitment process.

  18. A multidisciplinary approach of workload assessment in real-job situations: Investigation in the field of aerospace activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine eMélan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution presents two field studies combining tools and methods from cognitive psychology and from occupational psychology in order to perform a thorough investigation of workload in employees. Cognitive load theory proposes to distinguish different load categories of working memory, in a context of instruction. Intrinsic load is inherent to the task, extraneous load refers to components of a learning environment that may be modified to reduce total load, and germane load enables schemas construction and thus efficient learning. We showed previously that this theoretical framework may be successfully extended to working memory tasks in non instructional designs. Other theoretical models, issued from the field of occupational psychology, account for an individual’s perception of work demands or requirements in the context of different psychosocial features of the (work environment. Combining these approaches is difficult as workload assessment by job-perception questionnaires explore an individual’s overall job-perception over a large time-period, whereas cognitive load investigations in working memory tasks are typically performed within short time-periods. We proposed an original methodology enabling investigation of workload and load factors in a comparable time-frame. We report two field studies investigating workload on different shift-phases and between work-shifts, with two custom-made tools. The first one enabled workload assessment by manipulating intrinsic load (task difficulty and extraneous load (time pressure in a working-memory task. The second tool was a questionnaire based on the theoretical concepts of work-demands, control and psychosocial support. Two additional dimensions suspected to contribute to job-perception, i.e. work-family conflicts and availability of human and technical resources were also explored. Results of workload assessments were discussed in light of operators’ alertness and job-performance.

  19. A multidisciplinary approach of workload assessment in real-job situations: investigation in the field of aerospace activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélan, Claudine; Cascino, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    The present contribution presents two field studies combining tools and methods from cognitive psychology and from occupational psychology in order to perform a thorough investigation of workload in employees. Cognitive load theory proposes to distinguish different load categories of working memory, in a context of instruction. Intrinsic load is inherent to the task, extraneous load refers to components of a learning environment that may be modified to reduce total load, and germane load enables schemas construction and thus efficient learning. We showed previously that this theoretical framework may be successfully extended to working memory tasks in non-instructional designs. Other theoretical models, issued from the field of occupational psychology, account for an individual's perception of work demands or requirements in the context of different psychosocial features of the (work) environment. Combining these approaches is difficult as workload assessment by job-perception questionnaires explore an individual's overall job-perception over a large time-period, whereas cognitive load investigations in working memory tasks are typically performed within short time-periods. We proposed an original methodology enabling investigation of workload and load factors in a comparable time-frame. We report two field studies investigating workload on different shift-phases and between work-shifts, with two custom-made tools. The first one enabled workload assessment by manipulating intrinsic load (task difficulty) and extraneous load (time pressure) in a working-memory task. The second tool was a questionnaire based on the theoretical concepts of work-demands, control, and psychosocial support. Two additional dimensions suspected to contribute to job-perception, i.e., work-family conflicts and availability of human and technical resources were also explored. Results of workload assessments were discussed in light of operators' alertness and job-performance.

  20. A systematic review of job-specific workers' health surveillance activities for fire-fighting, ambulance, police and military personnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plat, M. J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    Some occupations have tasks and activities that require monitoring safety and health aspects of the job; examples of such occupations are emergency services personnel and military personnel. The two objectives of this systematic review were to describe (1) the existing job-specific workers' health

  1. 20 CFR 670.430 - What entities conduct outreach and admissions activities for the Job Corps program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What entities conduct outreach and admissions activities for the Job Corps program? 670.430 Section 670.430 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Recruitment...

  2. Occupational stress in (inter)action: the interplay between job demands and job resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegchel, van N.; Jonge, de J.; Landsbergis, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study addresses theoretical issues involving different interaction effects between job demands and job resources, accompanied by a thorough empirical test of interaction terms in the demand-control (DC) model and the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model in relation to employee health and

  3. Railing for safety: job demands, job control, and safety citizenship role definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nick; Chmiel, Nik; Walls, Melanie

    2005-10-01

    This study investigated job demands and job control as predictors of safety citizenship role definition, that is, employees' role orientation toward improving workplace safety. Data from a survey of 334 trackside workers were framed in the context of R. A. Karasek's (1979) job demands-control model. High job demands were negatively related to safety citizenship role definition, whereas high job control was positively related to this construct. Safety citizenship role definition of employees with high job control was buffered from the influence of high job demands, unlike that of employees with low job control, for whom high job demands were related to lower levels of the construct. Employees facing both high job demands and low job control were less likely than other employees to view improving safety as part of their role orientation. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. A systematic review of job-specific workers' health surveillance activities for fire-fighting, ambulance, police and military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plat, M J; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2011-12-01

    Some occupations have tasks and activities that require monitoring safety and health aspects of the job; examples of such occupations are emergency services personnel and military personnel. The two objectives of this systematic review were to describe (1) the existing job-specific workers' health surveillance (WHS) activities and (2) the effectiveness of job-specific WHS interventions with respect to work functioning, for selected jobs. The search strategy systematically searched the PubMed, PsycINFO and OSH-update databases. The search strategy consisted of several synonyms of the job titles of interest, combined with synonyms for workers' health surveillance. The methodological quality was checked. At least one study was found for each of the following occupations fire fighters, ambulance personnel, police personnel and military personnel. For the first objective, 24 studies described several job-specific WHS activities aimed at aspects of psychological, 'physical' (energetic, biomechanical and balance), sense-related, environmental exposure or cardiovascular requirements. The seven studies found for the second objective measured different outcomes related to work functioning. The methodological quality of the interventions varied, but with the exception of one study, all scored over 55% of the maximum score. Six studies showed effectiveness on at least some of the defined outcomes. The studies described several job-specific interventions: a trauma resilience training, healthy lifestyle promotion, physical readiness training, respiratory muscle training, endurance and resistance training, a physical exercise programme and comparing vaccines. Several examples of job-specific WHS activities were found for the four occupations. Compared to studies focusing on physical tasks, a few studies were found that focus on psychological tasks. Effectiveness studies for job-specific WHS interventions were scarce, although their results were promising. We recommend studying

  5. Impact of job characteristics on psychological health of Chinese single working women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, D Y; Tang, C S

    2001-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the impact of individual and contextual job characteristics of control, psychological and physical demand, and security on psychological distress of 193 Chinese single working women in Hong Kong. The mediating role of job satisfaction in the job characteristics-distress relation is also assessed. Multiple regression analysis results show that job satisfaction mediates the effects of job control and security in predicting psychological distress; whereas psychological job demand has an independent effect on mental distress after considering the effect of job satisfaction. This main effect model indicates that psychological distress is best predicted by small company size, high psychological job demand, and low job satisfaction. Results from a separate regression analysis fails to support the overall combined effect of job demand-control on psychological distress. However, a significant physical job demand-control interaction effect on mental distress is noted, which reduces slightly after controlling the effect of job satisfaction.

  6. 78 FR 67198 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Job Corps...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Job Corps Application Data ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of... collection request (ICR) titled, ``Job Corps Application Data,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... Job Corps application data collected on three forms (ETA-652, Job Corps Data Sheet; ETA-655, Statement...

  7. 77 FR 35059 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Job Corps...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Job Corps Process Study ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of... collection request (ICR) proposal titled, ``Job Corps Process Study,'' to the Office of Management and Budget... conduct site visits to Job Corps centers and a survey of center directors for a process study of the Job...

  8. The Effect of the Demand Control and Effort Reward Imbalance Models on the Academic Burnout of Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jayoung; Puig, Ana; Lee, Sang Min

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the Demand Control Model (DCM) and the Effort Reward Imbalance Model (ERIM) on academic burnout for Korean students. Specifically, this study identified the effects of the predictor variables based on DCM and ERIM (i.e., demand, control, effort, reward, Demand Control Ratio, Effort Reward…

  9. Predicting flow at work: investigating the activities and job characteristics that predict flow states at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Karina; Cleal, Bryan

    2010-04-01

    Flow (a state of consciousness where people become totally immersed in an activity and enjoy it intensely) has been identified as a desirable state with positive effects for employee well-being and innovation at work. Flow has been studied using both questionnaires and Experience Sampling Method (ESM). In this study, we used a newly developed 9-item flow scale in an ESM study combined with a questionnaire to examine the predictors of flow at two levels: the activities (brainstorming, planning, problem solving and evaluation) associated with transient flow states and the more stable job characteristics (role clarity, influence and cognitive demands). Participants were 58 line managers from two companies in Denmark; a private accountancy firm and a public elder care organization. We found that line managers in elder care experienced flow more often than accountancy line managers, and activities such as planning, problem solving, and evaluation predicted transient flow states. The more stable job characteristics included in this study were not, however, found to predict flow at work. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between job stress, occupational position and job satisfaction using a brief job stress questionnaire (BJSQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Tomoyuki; Otsuka, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Subjects with higher occupational position are speculated to have higher ability to handle with stress, and they were less affected by job stress. This study focused on the relationship between job satisfaction and three sub-scales of a brief job stress questionnaire (BJSQ) related to workload. This self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 371 employees of a company, and all the workers sent back their responses. Among the 57 items graded on a 4-point Likert-type scale to measure job stressors, psycho-physical complaints, and support for workers, the authors studied the influence of quantitative and qualitative job overload (six items), job control (three items), and support port (six items). The job satisfaction score estimated on a 4-point Likert-type scale was also used in relation to job stress determined using a 15-item scale from the BJSQ based on demand-control-support model. Occupational positions were classified into directors, managers, and general workers, and the content of job was classified into clerical workers, skilled technicians, and unskilled manual workers. All the scales on job stress presented acceptable alpha coefficients reflecting high internal consistency (job demand: 0.855, job control: 0.644, and support: 0.878, respectively). Principal axis factor analysis was conducted, and three factors were extracted; support, job demand and job control. There was a significant difference in the mean score among four groups divided by the job satisfaction level as evaluated by Dunnett's multiple comparison, and members who were dissatisfied with their job showed a high job demand, limited job control, and poor support. The mean score of support for managers were significantly higher (lower support) than that for general workers. The logistic regression analysis revealed that job control and support contributed significantly to job satisfaction. In addition, unskilled manual workers showed significantly higher job dissatisfaction compared

  11. 75 FR 74088 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Job Corps...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Job Corps Enrollee Allotment Determination ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Administration (ETA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Job Corps Enrollee Allotment... number) or by e-mail at [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Job Corps enrollees may elect...

  12. 75 FR 72841 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Job Corps...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Job Corps Health Questionnaire ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Job Corps Health Questionnaire,'' to the Office of... an applicant to the Job Corps. The information is obtained from the applicant during an interview...

  13. 77 FR 16265 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Job...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... request (ICR) revision titled, ``Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey,'' (JOLTS) to the Office [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The JOLTS collects data on job vacancies, labor hires...

  14. 75 FR 74082 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Job Corps...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Job Corps Placement and Assistance Record ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Administration (ETA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Job Corps Placement and Assistance... obtain information about student training for placement of students in jobs, further education or...

  15. Application of Demand-Control Theory to Sign Language Interpreting: Implications for Stress and Interpreter Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Robyn K.; Pollard, Robert Q., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    This article uses the framework of demand-control theory to examine the occupation of sign language interpreting. It discusses the environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal demands that impinge on the interpreter's decision latitude and notes the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders, turnover, and burnout in the interpreting profession.…

  16. Demand controllers with optimized programing; Controladores de demanda com programacao otimizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.H.M.; Haddad, J.; Almeida, A.T.L. [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Devienne, R.F. [Universidade de Taubate (UNITAU), SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This work presents a methodological proposal for load re-allocation strategy in opposition to the empiric methodology presently used by demand controllers. Through the utilization of dynamic programing techniques associated to fuzzy theory it is possible to modulate the electric power consumers load curve, incorporating different objectives resulting in the global energy consumption rationing 6 figs., 5 tabs., 8 refs.

  17. The Very Best of the Millennium: Longitudinal Research and the Demand-Control-(Support) Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, A.H.de; Taris, T.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Bongers, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study addressed the methodological quality of longitudinal research examining R. Karasek and T. Theorell's (1990) demand-control-(support) model and reviewed the results of the best of this research. Five criteria for evaluating methodological quality were used: type of design, length of time

  18. "The very best of the Millennium": Longitudinal research and the Demand-Control-(Support) model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, A.H.; Taris, T.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Bongers, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study addressed the methodological quality of longitudinal research examining R. Karasek and T. Theorell's (1990) demand-control-(support) model and reviewed the results of the best of this research. Five criteria for evaluating methodological quality were used: type of design, length of time

  19. The very best of the millennium: Longitudinal research and the demands-control (-support) model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, A.H. de; Taris, T.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Bongers, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study addressed the methodological quality of longitudinal research examining R. Karasek and T. Theorell’s (1990) demand-control-(support) model and reviewed the results of the best of this research. Five criteria for evaluating methodological quality were used: type of design, length of time

  20. Predicting and Explaining Students' Stress with the Demand-Control Model: Does Neuroticism Also Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Laura I.; Sieverding, Monika; Scheiter, Fabian; Obergfell, Julia

    2015-01-01

    University students often report high stress levels, and studies even suggest a recent increase. However, there is a lack of theoretically based research on the structural conditions that influence students' perceived stress. The current study compared the effects of Karasek's demand-control dimensions with the influence of neuroticism to address…

  1. A hard day's night : a longitudinal study on the relationships among job demands and job control, sleep quality and fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, Annet H.; Kompier, Michiel A. J.; Taris, Toon W.; Geurts, Sabine A. E.; Beckers, Debby G. J.; Houtman, Irene L. D.; Bongers, Paulien M.

    This prospective four-wave study examined (i) the causal direction of the longitudinal relations among job demands, job control, sleep quality and fatigue; and (ii) the effects of stability and change in demand-control history on the development of sleep quality and fatigue. Based on results of a

  2. A hard day's night: a longitudinal study on the relationships among job demands and job control, sleep quality and fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, A.H. de; Kompier, M.A.J.; Taris, T.W.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Beckers, D.G.J.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Bongers, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    This prospective four-wave study examined (i) the causal direction of the longitudinal relations among job demands, job control, sleep quality and fatigue; and (ii) the effects of stability and change in demand-control history on the development of sleep quality and fatigue. Based on results of a

  3. A hard day's night: a longitudinal study on the relationships among job demands and job control, sleep quality and fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, A.H.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Taris, T.W.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Beckers, D.G.J.; Houtman, I.L.H.; Bongers, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary This prospective four-wave study examined (i) the causal direction of the longitudinal relations among job demands, job control, sleep quality and fatigue; and (ii) the effects of stability and change in demand-control history on the development of sleep quality and fatigue. Based on results

  4. A hard day's night: A longitudinal study on the relationships among job demands and job control, sleep quality and fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, A.H.de; Kompier, M.A.J.; Taris, T.W.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Beckers, D.G.J.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Bongers, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    This prospective four-wave study examined (i) the causal direction of the longitudinal relations among job demands, job control, sleep quality and fatigue; and (ii) the effects of stability and change in demand-control history on the development of sleep quality and fatigue. Based on results of a

  5. Effects of Active Labor Market Programs on the Transition Rate from Unemployment into Regular Jobs in the Slovak Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubyova, M.; van Ours, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The system of active labor market policies (ALMP) in the Slovak Republic consists to a large extent of the creation of socially purposeful and publicly useful jobs and of retraining of unemployed workers. So far, the effects of these types of active labor market policies have hardly been analyzed.

  6. On-the-job-training, job search and job mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Josef Zweimüller; Rudolf Winter-Ebmer

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of formal training on worker mobility. Using data from the Swiss Labor Force Survey, we find that both general and specific training significantly affects on-the-job search activities. The effect of training on actual job mobility differs between searchers and non-searchers. In line with human capital theory, we find that specific (general) training has a negative (positive) impact on job mobility for previous non-searchers. For individuals who have been looking...

  7. Effect of Active Workstation on Energy Expenditure and Job Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chunmei; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Weimo; Ma, Jiangjun

    2016-05-01

    Recently developed active workstation could become a potential means for worksite physical activity and wellness promotion. The aim of this review was to quantitatively examine the effectiveness of active workstation in energy expenditure and job performance. The literature search was conducted in 6 databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscuss, Web of Science, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, and Scopuse) for articles published up to February 2014, from which a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. The cumulative analysis for EE showed there was significant increase in EE using active workstation [mean effect size (MES): 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22 to 1.72, P job performance indicated 2 findings: (1) active workstation did not affect selective attention, processing speed, speech quality, reading comprehension, interpretation and accuracy of transcription; and (2) it could decrease the efficiency of typing speed (MES: -0.55; CI: -0.88 to -0.21, P job performance were significantly lower, others were not. As a result there was little effect on real-life work productivity if we made a good arrangement of job tasks.

  8. The development of motivation of professional activity of managers of preschool as a factor in job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Сергіївна Кравчинська

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article satisfaction of leaders of preschool educational establishments is analysed by the profession and various aspects of professional activity.The results of empiric research are presented in relation to the degree of satisfaction of leaders of preschool educational establishments by the profession and various aspects of professional activity: work with teachers, parents and the material component. It is proven the influence of job satisfaction at the development of motivation of professional activity

  9. The extent to which ATP demand controls the glycolytic flux depends strongly on the organism and conditions for growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Købmann, Brian Jensen; Westerhoff, H.V.; Snoep, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Using molecular genetics we have introduced uncoupled ATPase activity in two different bacterial species, Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis, and determined the elasticities of the growth rate and glycolytic flux towards the intracellular [ATP]/[ADP] ratio. During balanced growth in batch...... cultures of E. coli the ATP demand was found to have almost full control on the glycolytic flux (FCC=0.96) and the flux could be stimulated by 70%. In contrast to this, in L. lactis the control by ATP demand on the glycolytic flux was close to zero. However, when we used non-growing cells of L. lactis...... (which have a low glycolytic flux) the ATP demand had a high flux control and the flux could be stimulated more than two fold. We suggest that the extent to which ATP demand controls the glycolytic flux depends on how much excess capacity of glycolysis is present in the cells....

  10. Estresse ocupacional e saúde: contribuições do Modelo Demanda-Controle Occupational stress and health: contributions of the Demand-Control Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria de Araújo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos registra-se marcado esforço de construção de modelos teórico-metodológicos para avaliar características do trabalho e efeitos à saúde dos trabalhadores. Dentre os modelos propostos, o Modelo Demanda-Controle tem alcançado destaque. Esse modelo recorta duas dimensões no ambiente laboral: as demandas psicológicas e o controle do trabalhador sobre o próprio trabalho. O Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ é o instrumento proposto para medir essas dimensões do trabalho. Este estudo objetiva apresentar as bases teóricas e metodológicas do modelo demanda-controle, e discutir sua capacidade para identificar diferentes situações de trabalho no contexto brasileiro, a partir do uso do JCQ. Achados preliminares de dois estudos epidemiológicos, de corte transversal, são apresentados e discutidos. Os estudos avaliaram aspectos psicossociais do trabalho, utilizando o JCQ, e a saúde mental dos trabalhadores, usando o SRQ-20. Os resultados apontaram boa capacidade do modelo demanda-controle para identificar diferentes situações de risco à saúde mental dos trabalhadores. Aspectos relacionados à demanda psicológica do trabalho estavam mais fortemente associados a elevadas prevalências de distúrbios psíquicos menores do que os aspectos referentes ao controle.In the last years, strong efforts have been made to construct theoretical and methodological models that evaluate work characteristics and health effects in occupational groups. Among the proposed models, the Demand-Control Model has had a worldwide use. This model identifies two job dimensions in the work situation: psychological job demand and job control. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ has been proposed as an instrument for measuring these work dimensions. This study aim to present the theoretical and methodological bases of the Demand-Control Model and to discuss this model capability to identify different work situations in the Brazilian context, using the JCQ

  11. The Influence Of Monetary And Non-Monetary Poverty Of Economically Active People’s Households On Job Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Bobkov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to reveal the relationship between poverty of economically active people’s households (monetary and non-monetary and job satisfaction of workers from these households. Thus, the object of the study is economically active population in Russia and the subject — peculiarities of its poorest part’s attitude towards career. The study of the empirical side of the object in Russia is conducted on RLMS data, using pooled samples of its 21st wave (November-December 2012. The entire set of working individuals is divided into strata on the basis of per capita income or deprivation experienced by their households. Then we conduct a statistical study of job satisfaction of employees from these strata, with a special emphasis on the poorest stratum. During our study we compute the correlation coefficients, carry out a frequency analysis and t-tests for independent samples, construct contingency tables and calculate mean values. On the basis of these calculations, some conclusions about the degree of influence of monetary and non-monetary poverty on job satisfaction in Russia are made. The paper concludes with a number of recommendations aimed at reducing household poverty while improving job satisfaction of the economically active people living in poor households of Russia

  12. The moderating role of decision authority and coworker- and supervisor support on the impact of job demands in nursing homes: A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, B.M.; de Jonge, J.; Smit, D.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Pot, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Healthcare workers in nursing homes are faced with high job demands that can have a detrimental impact on job-related outcomes, such as job satisfaction. Job resources may have a buffering role on this relationship. The Demand-Control-Support (DCS) Model offers a theoretical framework to

  13. Does work-site physical activity improve self-reported psychosocial workplace factors and job satisfaction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roessler, K K; Rugulies, R; Bilberg, R

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether a work-site strength-training program has a positive effect on self-reported psychosocial workplace factors and job satisfaction. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial among laboratory technicians implementing neck and shoulder exercises for pain relief......, with 199 participants in the training group and 228 in the control group. Influence at work, sense of community, time pressure, and job satisfaction were measured with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire at baseline and post-intervention after 20 weeks. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant...... of a work-site strength-training program on self-reported psychosocial workplace factors and job satisfaction....

  14. The effect of alternative work arrangements on women's well-being: a demand-control model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelloway, E K; Gottlieb, B H

    1998-01-01

    The growth of women's participation in the labor force and evidence of the conflict they experience between job and family demands have spurred many employers to introduce alternative work arrangements such as flextime, job sharing, and telecommuting. Drawing on data gained from a sample of women (N = 998) in two large Canadian organizations, this study evaluates two mediational models of the impact of alternative work arrangements on women's stress and family role competence. Specifically, it tests and finds support for the hypotheses that (a) work arrangements involving scheduling flexibility (telecommuting and flextime) promote these aspects of women's well-being by increasing their perceived control over their time, and (b) arrangements involving reduced hours of employment (part-time employment and job sharing) promote well-being by reducing perceived job overload. Discussion of these findings centers on their implications for employed women, their employers, and future research.

  15. Working in group living homes for older people with dementia: the effects on job satisfaction and burnout and the role of job characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Boekhorst, S.; Willemse, B.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Eefsting, J.A.; Pot, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Group living homes are a fast-growing form of nursing home care for older people with dementia. This study seeks to determine the differences in job characteristics of nursing staff in group living homes and their influence on well-being. Methods: We examined the Job Demand Control

  16. Motivation of health professionals and associates to perform daily job activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvada Švrakić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motivation is one of the most complex elements of human behavior, it is the subject of debates by which we answer to the question of why someone behaves in a certain way. The aim of this study wasto examine the factors of motivation for health workers and staff in working with diffi cult patients in intensive care units and to evaluate implementation of motivation factors by managers in their daily work with a team of health professionals.Methods: The study was designed as prospective. It was conducted on 27 employees who work in intensive care units in Clinical Center of Sarajevo University. The survey questionnaire was used with a clear andconcise questions , aimed at testing the factors of motivation for daily work with diffi cult patients, as well as implementation of motivational factors by managers in the organizational unit (OU.Results: Respondents indicated that motivates them, good organization of work - 10 of them (37%, while 26% of respondents indicated that they are motivated by fi nancial gain. In our study 21 (77% of respondentssaid that their managers infuenced the motivation for a better job. Mobbing at the workplace did not had 80% of respondents, while 8% of respondents stated that they had some form of mobbing, and 12% of respondents give partial response.Conclusions: The survey showed that most respondents have a good motivation factors for the performance of daily activities to work with diffi cult patients. As the main motivating factors respondents reportedgood organization of work, as well as positive examples of their managers.

  17. Learning and strain among newcomers: a three-wave study on the effects of job demands and job control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taris, Toon W; Feij, Jan A

    2004-11-01

    The present 3-wave longitudinal study was an examination of job-related learning and strain as a function of job demand and job control. The participants were 311 newcomers to their jobs. On the basis of R. A. Karasek and T. Theorell's (1990) demand-control model, the authors predicted that high demand and high job control would lead to high levels of learning; low demand and low job control should lead to low levels of learning; high demand and low job control should lead to high levels of strain; and low demand and high job control should lead to low levels of strain. The relation between strain and learning was also examined. The authors tested the hypotheses using ANCOVA and structural equation modeling. The results revealed that high levels of strain have an adverse effect on learning; the reverse effect was not confirmed. It appears that Karasek and Theorell's model is very relevant when examining work socialization processes.

  18. Community College Faculty Who Conduct Industry Training Activities: A Job Satisfaction Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konicek, Dale George

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between industry-related training assignments and faculty job satisfaction, presenting findings from a study of faculty in 37 Texas community colleges. Highlights demographic and work environment variables. Reports general faculty satisfaction with the work but dissatisfaction with working conditions. Presents teachers'…

  19. 78 FR 13086 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Job Clubs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... church ministries; volunteer-run networking groups that meet at coffee shops or public libraries; and online networking sites such as LinkedIn. There have been past evaluations of the effects of job clubs... Policy, U.S. Department of Labor. [FR Doc. 2013-04391 Filed 2-25-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4510-23-P ...

  20. Job Creation and Job Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We extend earlier analyses of the job creation of start-ups versus established firms by considering the educational content of the jobs created and destroyed. We define education-specific measures of job creation and job destruction at the firm level, and we use these measures to construct a meas...

  1. Job Creation and Job Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    We extend earlier analyses of the job creation of start-ups vs. established firms by taking into consideration the educational content of the jobs created and destroyed. We define educationspecific measures of job creation and job destruction at the firm level, and we use these to construct a mea...

  2. Job Creation and Job Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    We extend earlier analyses of the job creation of start-ups vs. established firms by taking into consideration the educational content of the jobs created and destroyed. We define educationspecific measures of job creation and job destruction at the firm level, and we use these to construct...... a measure of “surplus job creation” defined as jobs created on top of any simultaneous destruction of similar jobs in incumbent firms in the same region and industry. Using Danish employer-employee data from 2002-7, which identify the start-ups and which cover almost the entire private sector......, these measures allow us to provide a more nuanced assessment of the role of entrepreneurial firms in the job-creation process than previous studies. Our findings show that while start-ups are responsible for the entire overall net job creation, incumbents account for more than a third of net job creation within...

  3. Job crafting: Towards a new model of individual job redesign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tims

    2010-12-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to fit job crafting in job design theory. Motivation for the study: The study was an attempt to shed more light on the types of proactive behaviours of individual employees at work. Moreover, we explored the concept of job crafting and its antecedents and consequences. Research design, approach and method: A literature study was conducted in which the focus was first on proactive behaviour of the employee and then on job crafting. Main findings: Job crafting can be seen as a specific form of proactive behaviour in which the employee initiates changes in the level of job demands and job resources. Job crafting may be facilitated by job and individual characteristics and may enable employees to fit their jobs to their personal knowledge, skills and abilities on the one hand and to their preferences and needs on the other hand. Practical/managerial implications: Job crafting may be a good way for employees to improve their work motivation and other positive work outcomes. Employees could be encouraged to exert more influence on their job characteristics. Contribution/value-add: This article describes a relatively new perspective on active job redesign by the individual, called job crafting, which has important implications for job design theories.

  4. The Influence of Job Characteristics and Self-Directed Learning Orientation on Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raemdonck, Isabel; Gijbels, David; van Groen, Willemijn

    2014-01-01

    Given the increasing importance of learning at work, we set out to examine the factors which influence workplace learning behaviour. The study investigated the influence of the job characteristics from Karasek's Job Demand Control Support model and the personal characteristic self-directed learning orientation on workplace learning. A total…

  5. A hard day's night: a longitudinal study on the relationships among job demands and job control, sleep quality and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Annet H; Kompier, Michiel A J; Taris, Toon W; Geurts, Sabine A E; Beckers, Debby G J; Houtman, Irene L D; Bongers, Paulien M

    2009-09-01

    This prospective four-wave study examined (i) the causal direction of the longitudinal relations among job demands, job control, sleep quality and fatigue; and (ii) the effects of stability and change in demand-control history on the development of sleep quality and fatigue. Based on results of a four-wave complete panel study among 1163 Dutch employees, we found significant effects of job demands and job control on sleep quality and fatigue across a 1-year time lag, supporting the strain hypothesis (Demand-Control model; Karasek and Theorell, Basic Books, New York, 1990). No reversed or reciprocal causal patterns were detected. Furthermore, our results revealed that cumulative exposure to a high-strain work environment (characterized by high job demands and low job control) was associated with elevated levels of sleep-related complaints. Cumulative exposure to a low-strain work environment (i.e. low job demands and high job control) was associated with the highest sleep quality and lowest level of fatigue. Our results revealed further that changes in exposure history were related to changes in reported sleep quality and fatigue across time. As expected, a transition from a non-high-strain towards a high-strain job was associated with a significant increase in sleep-related complaints; conversely, a transition towards a non-high-strain job was not related to an improvement in sleep-related problems.

  6. The job demands-resources model : state of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to give a state-of-the art overview of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model Design/methodology/approach - The strengths and weaknesses of the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model regarding their predictive value for employee well being

  7. The radiology job market: analysis of the ACR jobs board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Anand M; Oklu, Rahmi; Harvey, H Benjamin; Harisinghani, Mukesh G; Rosman, David A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the status of the radiology job market as represented by the ACR Jobs Board from October 2010 to June 2013. With the assistance of the ACR, data from the ACR Jobs Board from October 2010 through June 2013, including the numbers of monthly new job seekers, new job postings, and job posting clicks, were gathered and used to calculate a monthly competitive index, defined as the ratio of new job seekers to new job postings. During the study period, the mean number of new job seekers was 168 per month, which was significantly greater than the 84 average new job postings for any given month (P = .0002). There was no significant difference between 2011 and 2012 with regard to the number of new job seekers or job postings. Over the time period assessed, more new job seekers registered in October and November 2010, August to November 2011, and October and November 2012. These periods were also associated with the highest competitive index values. There were less job seekers in the winter and spring of 2011, 2012, and 2013, periods associated with lower competitive index values. ACR Jobs Board activity, measured by job posting clicks, was significantly higher in 2012 than in 2011 (P Jobs Board, there were consistently more new job seekers than job postings throughout the study period, and fall is the period in the year most associated with the highest competitive index for radiologist employment. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Jobs API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This Jobs API returns job openings across the federal government and includes all current openings posted on USAJobs.gov that are open to the public and located in...

  9. Job satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    PODROUŽKOVÁ, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    Bachelor thesis deals with job satisfaction. It is often given to a context with the attitude to work which is very much connected to job satisfaction. Thesis summarises all the pieces of information about job satisfacion, factors that affect it negatively and positively, interconnection of work satisfaction and work motivation, work behaviour and performance of workers, relationship of a man and work and at last general job satisfaction and its individual aspects. In the thesis I shortly pay...

  10. Influencing Work-Related Learning: The Role of Job Characteristics and Self-Directed Learning Orientation in Part-Time Vocational Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijbels, David; Raemdonck, Isabel; Vervecken, Dries

    2010-01-01

    Based on the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) model, the present paper aims to investigate the influence of job characteristics such as job demands, job control, social support at work and self-directed learning orientation on the work-related learning behaviour of workers. The present study was conducted in a centre for part-time vocational education…

  11. Effects of dynamic-demand-control appliances on the power grid frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchuisseu, E. B. Tchawou; Gomila, D.; Brunner, D.; Colet, P.

    2017-08-01

    Power grid frequency control is a demanding task requiring expensive idle power plants to adapt the supply to the fluctuating demand. An alternative approach is controlling the demand side in such a way that certain appliances modify their operation to adapt to the power availability. This is especially important to achieve a high penetration of renewable energy sources. A number of methods to manage the demand side have been proposed. In this work we focus on dynamic demand control (DDC), where smart appliances can delay their switchings depending on the frequency of the system. We introduce a simple model to study the effects of DDC on the frequency of the power grid. The model includes the power plant equations, a stochastic model for the demand that reproduces, adjusting a single parameter, the statistical properties of frequency fluctuations measured experimentally, and a generic DDC protocol. We find that DDC can reduce small and medium-size fluctuations but it can also increase the probability of observing large frequency peaks due to the necessity of recovering pending task. We also conclude that a deployment of DDC around 30-40% already allows a significant reduction of the fluctuations while keeping the number of pending tasks low.

  12. Job demands, job resources, and work engagement of Japanese employees: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsuno, Kanami; Shimazu, Akihito; Tomioka, Kimiko; Nakanishi, Mayuko

    2013-05-01

    Research on the prospective association of job demands and job resources with work engagement is still limited in Asian countries, such as Japan. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prospective association of job demands (i.e., psychological demands and extrinsic effort) and job resources (i.e., decision latitude, supervisor support, co-worker support, and extrinsic reward), based on the job demands-control (JD-C) [or demand-control-support (DCS)] model and the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model, with work engagement among Japanese employees. The participants included 423 males and 672 females from five branches of a manufacturing company in Japan. Self-administered questionnaires, including the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (ERIQ), the nine-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), and demographic characteristics, were administered at baseline (August 2009). At one-year follow-up (August 2010), the UWES-9 was used again to assess work engagement. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and work engagement at baseline, higher psychological demands and decision latitude were positively and significantly associated with greater work engagement at follow-up (β = 0.054, p = 0.020 for psychological demands and β = 0.061, p = 0.020 for decision latitude). Having higher psychological demands and decision latitude may enhance work engagement among Japanese employees.

  13. Rural-urban migration, urban unemployment and underemployment, and job-search activity in LDCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, G S

    1975-06-01

    A quantity adjustment framework is used to analyze unemployment and underemployment in less developed countries (LDCs). The basic premise of the formal theoretical model presented is that the same kinds of forces that explain the choices of workers between the rural and urban sectors can also explain thier choices between 1 labor market and another within an urban area and are most likely made simultaneously. The decision makers, whether family units or individuals, are presumed to consider the various labor market opportunities available to them and to choose the one which maximizes their expected future income. In the model the primary equilibrating force is taken to be the movement of workers between labor markets, not changes in wages. The point of departure is the received theory of rural urban migration in LDS, which is the model of Harris and Todaro (1970). The 1st step is a summary of the basic features of the model. While accepting their basic approach emphasizing movement of workers rather than changes in wages, it is shown that the particular implication of the model with respect to the equilibrium urban unemployment rate substantially overstates the rates actually observed by Turnham (1971) and others. The analysis is then extended to consider several important factors which have previously been neglected--a more generalized approach to the job search process, the possibility of underemployment in the so-called urban "murky sector," preferential treatment by employers of the better educated, and consideration of labor turnover--and demonstrate that the resulting framework gives predictions closer to actual experience. Harris and Todaro in their original discussion concluded that a combination of a wage subsidy in the modern sector and physical restriction of migration would be required to realize a first best state lying on the economy's production possibility frontier. Subsequently Bhagwati and Srinivasan (1974) challenged them and demonstrated that a

  14. Examining differences in physical activity levels by employment status and/or job activity level: Gender-specific comparisons between the United States and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Lydia; Berrigan, David; Van Domelen, Dane; Sjöström, Michael; Hagströmer, Maria

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between employment status and job activity level with physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, stratified by gender and country. Cross-sectional study design. Data from working age adults (18-65 years) from two cross-sectional studies, the Swedish 2001-2002 and 2007-2008 Attitude Behavior and Change Study (ABC; n=1165) and the 2003-2006 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n=4201), were stratified by employment status (employed and not employed) and job activity level (active, sedentary and mixed). PA in counts×min(-1) and time spent in sedentary, low and moderate or higher intensity were measured with accelerometers. Analyses were conducted in 2012-2013. In NHANES, the employed had significantly higher counts×min(-1) and spent more time in moderate or higher intensity PA than those not employed. In ABC, no significant differences were observed between employed and unemployed. Adults with active versus sedentary occupations had higher counts×min(-1) and less sedentary time in both the USA and Sweden and in both men and women. For example, counts×min(-1) were 20-40% greater in active versus sedentary jobs. Employment status is related to PA and sedentary time among men and women in the USA but not in Sweden. Among the employed, occupational PA is associated with total PA and sedentary time for both genders and in both countries. Comparisons of PA levels based on objective measurements can refine understanding of country differences in activity. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  15. Presenting automatic demand control (ADC) as a new frequency control method in smart grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameli, Mohammad Taghi; Ameli, Ali; Maleki, Hamed [Power and Water Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mobarhani, Alireza [Amir Kabir Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Electric power is the most important part of human energy consumption, and since it has a low storage coefficient it is of particular importance to establish a balance in demand and generation in order to modify and optimize consumption patterns. The expression ''Smart Grid'' can be used to describe technologies which are applied for the automation and optimization of the generation, transmission and distribution network management. This technology requires the integration of information and communication technology in electrical network operation. This paper will study how the Smart Grid capabilites can be used to manage and optimize power network consumption, as well as how the consumers collaboration process using an AGC (Automatic Generation Control) system acts to provide secondary frequency control through consumed load shedding. Reestablishing the balance between demand and generation in critical network operation is also investigated. In other words, utilizing the above method, a new system, ADC (Automatic Demand Control), is offered for use alongside the AGC system in Smart Grids to restore the frequency value to its nominal value. This can lead to a more competitive electricity market and reduce the system storage while maintaining adequate security and network reliability. One of the benefits of the proposed methods described in this paper, in addition to restoring the frequency value to its nominal value, is lower costs and a more economic network operation through reducing fuel and CO2 emission by managing and controlling the amount of the consumed load in the Smart Grid. Also consumers are given the capability to have a specific timetable to economize on their energy requirements which will also reduce the load peak and the network losses. (orig.)

  16. COMPARISON BETWEEN JOB STRESS PREDICTORS BASED ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, AGE, GENDER AND SENIORITY IN A GROUP OF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICERS FROM THE COSTA RICAN PUBLIC SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Alberto Azofeifa Mora

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to relate and compare job stress predictors with physical activity levels, age, seniority, and gender in administrative employees in the Costa Rican public sector. A total of 395 individuals from this sector were surveyed. Subjects answered a socio-demographic questionnaire (age, gender, seniority, and marital status. In order to assess job stress predictors, the Job Stress Survey (JSS was applied, which was comprised of two dimensions (intensity and frequency and including predictors such as pressure at work (PT, lack of social support (FA, lack of organization (FO, and lack of personal accomplishment (FRP. To determine the level of physical activity, a short version of the IPAQ was applied. Results indicate that male subjects have a slightly higher level of physical activity compared to female subjects. In addition, females show higher levels of job pressure as a stress predictor. Subjectively, the higher the physical activity level the lower the stressors, compared to lower levels of physical activity. We conclude that the high levels of physical inactivity exhibited may be associated with higher job stress perceived and that role overload could be an important factor to consider as a source of stress in females.

  17. The impact of nursing education and job characteristics on nurse's perceptions of their family nursing practice skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svavarsdottir, Erla Kolbrun; Sigurdardottir, Anna Olafia; Konradsdottir, Elisabet; Tryggvadottir, Gudny Bergthora

    2018-04-25

    Implementing family system nursing in clinical settings is on the rise. However, little is known about the impact of graduate school education as well as continuing education in family systems nursing (FSN) on nurses' perceptions of their family nursing practice. To evaluate the level of nursing education, having taken a continuing hospital educational course in family system nursing (FN-ETI programme), and the impact of job characteristics on nurses' perceptions of their family nursing practice skills. Participants were 436 nurses with either a BSc degree or graduate degree in nursing. The Job Demand, Control and Support model guided the study (R. Karasek and T. Theorell, 1992, Healthy Work: Stress, Productivity, and the Reconstruction of Working Life, Basic Books, New York, NY). Scores for the characteristics of job demands and job control were created to categorise participants into four job types: high strain (high demand, low control), passive (low demand, low control), low strain (low demand, high control) and active (high demand, high control). Nurses with a graduate education who had taken the FN-ETI programme scored significantly higher on the Family Nursing Practice Scale than nurses with an undergraduate education. Nurses who were characterised as low strain or active scored significantly higher on the Family Nursing Practice Scale than the nurses who were characterised as high strain. Further, the interaction of education by job type was significant regarding family nursing practice skills. Hierarchical regression revealed 25% of the variance in family nursing practice skills was explained by job control, family policy on the unit, graduate education and employment on the following divisions: Maternal-Child, Emergency, Mental Health or Internal Medicine. Graduate education plus continuing education in FSN can offer nurses increased job opportunities more control over one's work as well as increased skills working with families in clinical settings.

  18. Job stress and mortality in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Brzyski, Piotr; Florek, Marzena; Brzyska, Monika

    2013-06-01

    This paper aims to assess the relationship between the determinants of the psychosocial work environment, as expressed in terms of JDC or ERI models, and all-cause mortality in older individuals. The baseline study was conducted on a cohort comprising a random sample of 65-year-old community-dwelling citizens of Kraków, Poland. All of the 727 participants (410 women, 317 men) were interviewed in their households in the period between 2001 and 2003; a structured questionnaire was used regarding their occupational activity history, which included indexes measuring particular dimensions of their psychosocial work environment based on Karasek's Job Demand-Control model and Siegrist's Effort-Reward Imbalance model, as well as health-related quality of life and demographic data. Mortality was ascertained by monitoring City Vital Records for 7 years. Analyses were conducted separately for men and women, with the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. During a 7-year follow-up period, 59 participants (8.1%) died, including 21 women (5.1% of total women) and 38 men (12%) (p quality of life (HRQoL) level at the beginning of old age; however, the relationship between efforts and rewards or demands and control and mortality was not fully confirmed.

  19. [Psychosocial stress and disease risks in occupational life. Results of international studies on the demand-control and the effort-reward imbalance models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, J; Dragano, N

    2008-03-01

    Given the far-reaching changes of modern working life, psychosocial stress at work has received increased attention. Its influence on stress-related disease risks is analysed with the help of standardised measurements based on theoretical models. Two such models have gained special prominence in recent years, the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. The former model places its emphasis on a distinct combination of job characteristics, whereas the latter model's focus is on the imbalance between efforts spent and rewards received in turn. The predictive power of these models with respect to coronary or cardiovascular disease and depression was tested in a number of prospective epidemiological investigations. In summary, twofold elevated disease risks are observed. Effects on cardiovascular disease are particularly pronounced among men, whereas no gender differences are observed for depression. Additional evidence derived from experimental and ambulatory monitoring studies supplements this body of findings. Current scientific evidence justifies an increased awareness and assessment of these newly discovered occupational risks, in particular by occupational health professionals. Moreover, structural and interpersonal measures of stress prevention and health promotion at work are warranted, with special emphasis on gender differences.

  20. The Influence of Recognition and Social Support on European Health Professionals' Occupational Stress: A Demands-Control-Social Support-Recognition Bayesian Network Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Herrero, Susana; Lopez-Garcia, Jose R; Herrera, Sixto; Fontaneda, Ignacio; Báscones, Sonia Muñoz; Mariscal, Miguel A

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare professionals undergo high levels of occupational stress as a result of their working conditions. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop a model that focuses on healthcare professionals so as to analyze the influence that job demands, control, social support, and recognition have on the likelihood that a worker will experience stress. The data collected correspond to 2,211 healthcare workers from 35 countries, as reported in the sixth European Working Condition Survey (EWCS). The results obtained from this study allow us to infer stress under several working condition scenarios and to identify the more relevant variables in order to reduce this stress in healthcare professionals, which is of paramount importance to managing the stress of workers in this sector. The Bayesian network proposed indicates that emotional demands have a greater influence on raising the likelihood of stress due to workload than do family demands. The results show that the support of colleagues, in general, has less effect on reducing stress than social support from superiors. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis shows that, in high-demand and low-control situations, recognition clearly impacts stress, drastically reducing it.

  1. Learning about Job Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Jäger, Simon

    strategies and the consequences of unemployment, and motivated them to actively look for new employment. We study the causal impact of the brochure by comparing labor market outcomes of treated and untreated job seekers in administrative data containing comprehensive information on individuals’ employment...... findings indicate that targeted information provision can be a highly effective policy tool in the labor market.......We conduct a large-scale field experiment in the German labor market to investigate how information provision affects job seekers’ employment prospects and labor market outcomes. Individuals assigned to the treatment group of our experiment received a brochure that informed them about job search...

  2. Management job ads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2014-01-01

    jobs by discursively constructing job ads that appeal to both sexes. This argument is part of the broader field of corporate social responsibility, corporate citizenship, and stakeholder management, which involves discussions of the obligations of corporations to acknowledge and mitigate...... the increasingly widespread impact that their activities have on communities and social structures. The article emphasises the need for more active engagement on the part of corporations by analysing the discursive construction of preferred candidates in a small sample of Danish management job ads. By means...... that this agreement reflects a high degree of conservatism in the system where men enjoy a considerable advantage and where procedures that ensure male dominance are perpetuated even in the linguistic and discursive construction of job ads....

  3. Application of Karasek's demand/control model a Canadian occupational setting including shift workers during a period of reorganization and downsizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, J; Green, L W; Olsen, L; Kruse, K; Cargo, M

    1997-01-01

    To apply Karasek's Job Content Model to an analysis of the relationships between job type and perceived stress and stress behaviors in a large company during a period of reorganization and downsizing. Cross-sectional mail-out, mail-back survey. A large Canadian telephone/telecommunications company. Stratified random sample (stratified by job category) of 2200 out of 13,000 employees with a response rate of 48.8%. Responses to 25 of Karasek's core questions were utilized to define four job types: low-demand and high control = "relaxed"; high demand and high control = "active"; low demand and low control = "passive", and high demand and low control = "high strain." These job types were compared against self-reported stress levels, perceived general level of health, absenteeism, alcohol use, exercise level, and use of medications and drugs. Similar analyses were performed to assess the influence of shift work. Employees with "passive" or "high strain" job types reported higher levels of stress (trend test p Karasek and Theorell was validated in this setting with respect to stress and some stress-associated attitudes and behaviors.

  4. Levels and correlates of physical activity, inactivity and body mass index among Saudi women working in office jobs in Riyadh city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albawardi, Nada M; Jradi, Hoda; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M

    2016-06-20

    Physical inactivity is among the leading risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Saudi Arabia has just begun to address physical inactivity as recent studies have shown an alarming prevalence of insufficiently physically active adults. Saudi women are identified as among the most overweight/obese and least active worldwide. With an increase in the number of women in office based jobs, the risk of physical inactivity is likely to increase. Identifying the level and correlates for high BMI and physical inactivity in Saudi women will help to plan more effective public health strategies. The aim of this study is to assess the level of physical activity, inactivity and body mass index among Saudi women working in office based jobs in Riyadh city and identify the correlates for overweight, obesity and low physical activity. A cross- sectional study was conducted on 420 Saudi women aged 18 to 58 years working in office based jobs in eight worksites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Body mass index was determined using weight and height measurements and physical activity was assessed based on a validated self-administered questionnaire. The majority of the subjects were overweight or obese (58.3 %). Overweight/obesity was associated with increased age, lower income and with those working in the public versus private sector. More than half of the sample (52.1 %) were insufficiently physically active. Participants working seven or more hours per day and those working in private versus public sector were significantly associated with low physical activity. This study identified Saudi women working in office based jobs as a high risk group for overweight, obesity and physical inactivity. As sedentary jobs may compound the risk for obesity and physical inactivity, this may support the use of workplace health programs to reduce sitting time and promote physical activity as a viable public health initiative.

  5. A novel algorithm for demand-control of a single-room ventilation unit with a rotary heat exchanger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Kevin Michael; Jansen, Anders Lund; Svendsen, Svend

    in the indoor environment. Based on these values, a demand-control algorithm varies fan speeds to change airflow rates and varies the rotational speed of the heat exchanger to modulate heat and moisture recovery. The algorithm varies airflow rates to provide free cooling and limit CO2 concentrations and varies...... moisture recovery by varying the rotational speed and then safely unbalances airflows in a worst-case scenario. In the algorithm, frost protection and minimum supply temperature take the highest priority and override other controls. This paper documents the proposed demand control algorithm and analyses...... its impacts on compliance of building regulations in Denmark. The paper presents an algorithm that manufacturers can program into their controls. The commercially available single-room ventilation unit with a rotary heat exchanger uses this algorithm coded in the C language. Future work will document...

  6. Longitudinal assessment of daily activity patterns on weight change after involuntary job loss: the ADAPT study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L. Haynes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization has identified obesity as one of the most visible and neglected public health problems worldwide. Meta-analytic studies suggest that insufficient sleep increases the risk of developing obesity and related serious medical conditions. Unfortunately, the nationwide average sleep duration has steadily declined over the last two decades with 25% of U.S. adults reporting insufficient sleep. Stress is also an important indirect factor in obesity, and chronic stress and laboratory-induced stress negatively impact sleep. Despite what we know from basic sciences about (a stress and sleep and (b sleep and obesity, we know very little about how these factors actually manifest in a natural environment. The Assessing Daily Activity Patterns Through Occupational Transitions (ADAPT study tests whether sleep disruption plays a key role in the development of obesity for individuals exposed to involuntary job loss, a life event that is often stressful and disrupting to an individual’s daily routine. Methods This is an 18-month closed, cohort research design examining social rhythms, sleep, dietary intake, energy expenditure, waist circumference, and weight gain over 18 months in individuals who have sustained involuntary job loss. Approximately 332 participants who lost their job within the last 3 months are recruited from flyers within the Arizona Department of Economic Security (AZDES Unemployment Insurance Administration application packets and other related postings. Multivariate growth curve modeling will be used to investigate the temporal precedence of changes in social rhythms, sleep, and weight gain. Discussion It is hypothesized that: (1 unemployed individuals with less consistent social rhythms and worse sleep will have steeper weight gain trajectories over 18 months than unemployed individuals with stable social rhythms and better sleep; (2 disrupted sleep will mediate the relationship between

  7. Longitudinal assessment of daily activity patterns on weight change after involuntary job loss: the ADAPT study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Patricia L; Silva, Graciela E; Howe, George W; Thomson, Cynthia A; Butler, Emily A; Quan, Stuart F; Sherrill, Duane; Scanlon, Molly; Rojo-Wissar, Darlynn M; Gengler, Devan N; Glickenstein, David A

    2017-10-10

    The World Health Organization has identified obesity as one of the most visible and neglected public health problems worldwide. Meta-analytic studies suggest that insufficient sleep increases the risk of developing obesity and related serious medical conditions. Unfortunately, the nationwide average sleep duration has steadily declined over the last two decades with 25% of U.S. adults reporting insufficient sleep. Stress is also an important indirect factor in obesity, and chronic stress and laboratory-induced stress negatively impact sleep. Despite what we know from basic sciences about (a) stress and sleep and (b) sleep and obesity, we know very little about how these factors actually manifest in a natural environment. The Assessing Daily Activity Patterns Through Occupational Transitions (ADAPT) study tests whether sleep disruption plays a key role in the development of obesity for individuals exposed to involuntary job loss, a life event that is often stressful and disrupting to an individual's daily routine. This is an 18-month closed, cohort research design examining social rhythms, sleep, dietary intake, energy expenditure, waist circumference, and weight gain over 18 months in individuals who have sustained involuntary job loss. Approximately 332 participants who lost their job within the last 3 months are recruited from flyers within the Arizona Department of Economic Security (AZDES) Unemployment Insurance Administration application packets and other related postings. Multivariate growth curve modeling will be used to investigate the temporal precedence of changes in social rhythms, sleep, and weight gain. It is hypothesized that: (1) unemployed individuals with less consistent social rhythms and worse sleep will have steeper weight gain trajectories over 18 months than unemployed individuals with stable social rhythms and better sleep; (2) disrupted sleep will mediate the relationship between social rhythm disruption and weight gain; and (3

  8. Managerial leadership is associated with employee stress, health, and sickness absence independently of the demand-control-support model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Hugo; Nyberg, Anna; Bernin, Peggy; Hyde, Martin; Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Jäppinen, Paavo; Väänänen, Ari; Theorell, Töres

    2010-01-01

    Research on health effects of managerial leadership has only taken established work environment factors into account to a limited extent. We therefore investigated the associations between a measure of Attentive Managerial Leadership (AML), and perceived stress, age-relative self-rated health, and sickness absence due to overstrain/fatigue, adjusting for the dimensions of the Demand-Control-Support model. Blue- and white-collar workers from Finland, Germany and Sweden employed in a multi-national forest industry company (N=12,622). Cross-sectional data on leadership and health from a company-wide survey analysed with logistic regression in different subgroups. AML was associated with perceived stress, age-relative self-rated health, and sickness absence due to overstrain/fatigue after controlling for the Demand-Control-Support model. Lack of AML was significantly associated with a high stress level in all subgroups (OR=1.68-2.67). Associations with age-relative self-rated health and sickness absence due to overstrain/fatigue were weaker, but still significant, and in the expected direction for several of the subgroups studied, suggesting an association between lack of AML and negative health consequences. The study indicates that managerial leadership is associated with employee stress, health, and sickness absence independently of the Demand-Control-Support model and should be considered in future studies of health consequences for employees, and in work environment interventions.

  9. What is the job satisfaction and active participation of medical staff in public hospital reform: a study in Hubei province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Pengqian; Luo, Zhenni; Fang, Zi

    2015-05-16

    In China, public hospital reform has been underway for almost 5 years, and 311 pilot county hospitals are the current focus. This study aimed to assess the job satisfaction and active participation of medical staff in the reform. A total of 2268 medical staff members in pilot and non-pilot county hospitals in Hubei, China, were surveyed. Questionnaires were used to collect data. The Pearson chi-square statistical method was used to assess the differences between pilot and non-pilot county hospitals and identify the factors related to job satisfaction as well as the understanding and perception of the reform. Binary logistic regression was performed to determine the significant factors that influence the job satisfaction of medical staff in pilot county hospitals. Medical staff members in pilot county hospitals expressed higher satisfaction on current working situation, performance appraisal system, concern showed by leaders, hospital management, and compensation packages (P job and they have evidently less satisfaction on compensation packages and learning and training opportunities. The working hours and work stress were negatively related to the job satisfaction (P Satisfaction on the performance appraisal system, hospital management, compensation packages, and learning and training opportunities were positively related to job satisfaction (P pay attention to influencing factors of job satisfaction and focus on the reasonable demands of medical staff. In addition, the medical staff in pilot county hospitals exhibited a better understanding of the public hospital reform programme and showed more firm confidence, but there still were some medical staff members who hold negative attitude. The publicity and education of the public hospital reform still need improvement.

  10. Job stress and job satisfaction: home care workers in a consumer-directed model of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, Linda; Wallace, Steven P; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Muntaner, Carles

    2010-08-01

    To investigate determinants of job satisfaction among home care workers in a consumer-directed model. Analysis of data collected from telephone interviews with 1,614 Los Angeles home care workers on the state payroll in 2003. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds of job satisfaction using job stress model domains of demands, control, and support. Abuse from consumers, unpaid overtime hours, and caring for more than one consumer as well as work-health demands predict less satisfaction. Some physical and emotional demands of the dyadic care relationship are unexpectedly associated with greater job satisfaction. Social support and control, indicated by job security and union involvement, have a direct positive effect on job satisfaction. Policies that enhance the relational component of care may improve workers' ability to transform the demands of their job into dignified and satisfying labor. Adequate benefits and sufficient authorized hours of care can minimize the stress of unpaid overtime work, caring for multiple consumers, job insecurity, and the financial constraints to seeking health care. Results have implications for the structure of consumer-directed models of care and efforts to retain long-term care workers.

  11. Examination of arthritis-related work place activity limitations and intermittent disability over four-and-a-half years and its relationship to job modifications and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac, Monique A M; Cao, Xingshan; Tang, Kenneth; Beaton, Dorcas E

    2011-07-01

    To examine the type, degree, and episodic nature of arthritis-related work place activity limitations and the consistency of the relationship of activity limitations to job modifications and work place outcomes. Using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire, individuals with osteoarthritis (OA) or inflammatory arthritis (IA) were interviewed at 4 time points, 18 months apart. At baseline, all participants (n = 490; 381 women, 109 men) were employed. Respondents were recruited using community advertising and from rheumatology and rehabilitation clinics. The Workplace Activity Limitations Scale (WALS) assessed arthritis-related disability with job tasks. Job modifications/accommodations (e.g., scheduling changes), work place outcomes (e.g., absenteeism), demographics, illness, and work context were also measured. Repeated cross-sectional logistic regressions examined levels of WALS disability with job modifications and outcomes at each time point. Similar levels of activity limitations were found comparing OA and IA with fewer difficulties with global aspects of work (e.g., scheduling) than with specific tasks (e.g., working with hands). Three-quarters of the participants had episodic or intermittent WALS difficulty over time. Medium and high levels of work place activity limitations were significantly associated with job modifications, and high WALS difficulty was consistently related to negative work outcomes. Many individuals with arthritis report some difficulty with work place activities. However, these difficulties are often intermittent and may not result in changes to work productivity until they are consistently high. This is important for designing work place interventions and for employers, insurers, and the government to understand to avoid viewing individuals with arthritis as a permanent drain on work place and health resources. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  12. Job crafting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.; Bakker, A.B.; Peeters, M.; Jonge, de J.; Taris, T.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing popularity of self-managing teams, re-engineering and other organizational innovations, coupled with the increased flexibility in work arrangements made possible by advances in information technology, has considerably expanded the complexity of professional jobs. Consequently, each

  13. Using Gamma and Quantile Regressions to Explore the Association between Job Strain and Adiposity in the ELSA-Brasil Study: Does Gender Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Juvanhol, Leidjaira Lopes; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Griep, Rosane Härter; Alves, Márcia Guimarães de Mello; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Giatti, Luana; Nunes, Maria Angélica; Aquino, Estela M L; Chor, Dóra

    2017-11-17

    This paper explores the association between job strain and adiposity, using two statistical analysis approaches and considering the role of gender. The research evaluated 11,960 active baseline participants (2008-2010) in the ELSA-Brasil study. Job strain was evaluated through a demand-control questionnaire, while body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were evaluated in continuous form. The associations were estimated using gamma regression models with an identity link function. Quantile regression models were also estimated from the final set of co-variables established by gamma regression. The relationship that was found varied by analytical approach and gender. Among the women, no association was observed between job strain and adiposity in the fitted gamma models. In the quantile models, a pattern of increasing effects of high strain was observed at higher BMI and WC distribution quantiles. Among the men, high strain was associated with adiposity in the gamma regression models. However, when quantile regression was used, that association was found not to be homogeneous across outcome distributions. In addition, in the quantile models an association was observed between active jobs and BMI. Our results point to an association between job strain and adiposity, which follows a heterogeneous pattern. Modelling strategies can produce different results and should, accordingly, be used to complement one another.

  14. Job satisfaction and intention to quit the job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suadicani, P; Bonde, J P; Olesen, K; Gyntelberg, F

    2013-03-01

    Negative psychosocial work conditions may influence the motivation of employees to adhere to their job. To elucidate the perception of psychosocial work conditions among Danish hospital employees who would quit their job if economically possible and those who would not. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of hospital employees. The questionnaire gave information on elements of the psychosocial work environment (job demands, job influence, job support, management quality, exposure to bullying), general health status, sick-leave during the preceding year, life style (leisure time physical activity, alcohol intake and smoking habits), age, sex and profession. There were 1809 participants with a response rate of 65%. About a quarter (26%) reported that they would quit their job if economically possible; this rose to 40% among the 17% who considered their health mediocre or bad. In a final logistic regression model, six factors were identified as independently associated with the wish to quit or not: self-assessed health status, meaningfulness of the job, quality of collaboration among colleagues, age, trustworthiness of closest superior(s) and exposure to bullying. Based on these factors it was possible to identify groups with fewer than 15% wishing to quit, and similarly, groups where 50% or more would quit if this was economically possible. Psychosocial work conditions, in particular meaningfulness of the job, were independently associated with intention to quit the job if economically possible and relevant within different job categories.

  15. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interstate clearance of job order. 655.150... job order. (a) SWA posts in interstate clearance system. The SWA must promptly place the job order in... transmit a copy of its active job order to all States listed in the job order as anticipated worksites...

  16. Rural nurse job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, D L; Monserud, M A

    2008-01-01

    hiring nurses with rural connections, experience and preferences. Rural nurses considered lifestyle and personal life issues when choosing a job. Concepts like time away from work, rural lifestyle, recreation opportunities, climate and social activities influenced the intention to stay on the job. Rural nurses with the most job satisfaction preferred rural lifestyles and possessed rural backgrounds. Since the generalist nurse role requires autonomy and task variability, recruiting nurses who prefer these job characteristics might enhance nurse retention. Other findings were tied to rural health and nursing theories. It is unknown why the most dissatisfied nurses had 1-3 years of experience. Similar studies with larger samples are suggested.

  17. Job strain and unhealthy lifestyle: results from the baseline cohort study, Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griep, Rosane Härter; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Alves, Márcia Guimarães de Mello; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Giatti, Luana; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Toivanen, Susanna; Chor, Dóra

    2015-03-31

    Unhealthy lifestyle choices, such as smoking and sedentary behavior, are among the main modifiable risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. The workplace is regarded as an important site of potential health risks where preventive strategies can be effective. We investigated independent associations among psychosocial job strain, leisure-time physical inactivity, and smoking in public servants in the largest Brazilian adult cohort. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)-a multicenter prospective cohort study of civil servants. Our analytical samples comprised 11,779 and 11,963 current workers for, respectively, analyses of job strain and leisure-time physical activity and analyses of job strain and smoking. Job strain was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire; physical activity was evaluated using a short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. We also examined smoking status and number of cigarettes smoked per day. The association reported in this paper was assessed by means of multinomial and logistic regression, stratified by sex. Among men, compared with low-strain activities (low demand and high control), job strain showed an association with physical inactivity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-1.64) or with the practice of physical activities of less than recommended duration (OR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.15-1.82). Among women, greater likelihood of physical inactivity was identified among job-strain and passive-job groups (OR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.22-1.77 and OR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.20-1.67, respectively). Greater control at work was a protective factor for physical inactivity among both men and women. Social support at work was a protective factor for physical inactivity among women, as was smoking for both genders. We observed no association

  18. The Moderating Role of Self-Regulated Learning in Job Characteristics and Attitudes towards Web-Based Continuing Learning in the Airlines Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-fan; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Hu, Qintai

    2018-01-01

    With the increasing importance of adult and continuing education, the present study aimed to examine the factors that influence continuing web-based learning at work. Three questionnaires were utilised to investigate the association of the job characteristics from Karasek et al.'s (1998) job demand-control-support model and the self-regulated…

  19. A sedentary job? Measuring the physical activity of emergency medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Elaine B; Caputo, Nicholas D; Pedraza, Solimar; Reynolds, Toussaint; Sharifi, Rahim; Waseem, Muhammad; Kornberg, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The debate on the quality of health care provided in the United States has continued to be waged as concerns have grown over the years. Stress, sleep deprivation, poor diet, and lack of exercise may lead to inadequate work performance by physicians. This study was undertaken to determine whether Emergency Medicine (EM) residents satisfy daily recommendations for total number of steps taken per day set forth by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Surgeon General in a 12-h shift. An observational prospective cohort study was conducted between August 2009 and November 2009 at an urban Level I trauma center with an annual census of over 165,000 Emergency Department (ED) visits per year. The mean number of steps taken by EM residents during 12-h shifts was measured. Mean steps taken during a shift were 7333 (95% confidence interval 6901-7764). Only nine (9.9%) pedometer readings reached the target level of 10,000 (10 K) steps or above. A t-test was used to compare steps with the hypothesized 10 K steps target. Recordings of 10K steps or greater were not correlated with ED sections (p=0.60) shift (medical vs. surgical, p=0.65) or ED census (r(2)physical activity regimens may help improve the overall well-being of EM residents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The moderating role of decision authority and coworker- and supervisor support on the impact of job demands in nursing homes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse, Bernadette M; de Jonge, Jan; Smit, Dieneke; Depla, Marja F I A; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2012-07-01

    Healthcare workers in nursing homes are faced with high job demands that can have a detrimental impact on job-related outcomes, such as job satisfaction. Job resources may have a buffering role on this relationship. The Demand-Control-Support (DCS) Model offers a theoretical framework to study how specific job resources can buffer the adverse effects of high demands, and can even activate positive consequences of high demands. The present study tests the moderating (i.e. buffering and activating) effects of decision authority and coworker- and supervisor support that are assumed by the hypotheses of the DCS Model. A national cross-sectional survey was conducted with an anonymous questionnaire. One hundred and thirty six living arrangements that provide nursing home care for people with dementia in the Netherlands. Fifteen healthcare workers per living arrangement. In total, 1147 people filled out the questionnaires (59% response rate). Hierarchical multilevel regression analyses were conducted to test the assumption that the effect of job demands on the dependent variables is buffered or activated the most when both decision authority and social support are high. This moderation is statistically represented by three-way interactions (i.e. demands×authority×support), while lower-order effects are taken into account (i.e. two-way interactions). The hypotheses are supported when three-way interaction effects are found in the expected direction. The dependent variables studied are job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment. The proposed buffering and activation hypotheses of the DCS Model were not supported in our study. Three-way interaction effects were found for emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment, though not in the expected direction. In addition, two-way interaction effects were found for job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Decision authority was found to buffer the adverse effect of job demands and to activate

  1. Experimental analysis of fuzzy controlled energy efficient demand controlled ventilation economizer cycle variable air volume air conditioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopalan Parameshwaran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for energy conservative building design, there is now a great opportunity for a flexible and sophisticated air conditioning system capable of addressing better thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency, that are strongly desired. The variable refrigerant volume air conditioning system provides considerable energy savings, cost effectiveness and reduced space requirements. Applications of intelligent control like fuzzy logic controller, especially adapted to variable air volume air conditioning systems, have drawn more interest in recent years than classical control systems. An experimental analysis was performed to investigate the inherent operational characteristics of the combined variable refrigerant volume and variable air volume air conditioning systems under fixed ventilation, demand controlled ventilation, and combined demand controlled ventilation and economizer cycle techniques for two seasonal conditions. The test results of the variable refrigerant volume and variable air volume air conditioning system for each techniques are presented. The test results infer that the system controlled by fuzzy logic methodology and operated under the CO2 based mechanical ventilation scheme, effectively yields 37% and 56% per day of average energy-saving in summer and winter conditions, respectively. Based on the experimental results, the fuzzy based combined system can be considered to be an alternative energy efficient air conditioning scheme, having significant energy-saving potential compared to the conventional constant air volume air conditioning system.

  2. Independent Children's Social Work Practice Pilots: Evaluating Practitioners' Job Control and Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Shereen; Manthorpe, Jill; Ridley, Julie; Austerberry, Helen; Farrelly, Nicola; Larkins, Cath; Bilson, Andy; Stanley, Nicky

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether a new model that delegates some out-of-home care services from the public to the private and not-for-profit sectors in England enhances practitioners' job control and stress levels. Methods: A 3-year longitudinal matched-control evaluation examined changes in Karasek demand-control model and Maslach burnout…

  3. Job Satisfaction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Job Satisfaction: Rural Versus Urban Primary Health Care Workers'. Perception in ... doing it well, and being suitably rewarded for one's efforts. Several ... community recognition of their work and improved staff relationship. ..... study found important differences about attractors to ... their work, work-life balance, bureaucracy.

  4. ATLAS job monitoring in the Dashboard Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Sargsyan, L; The ATLAS collaboration; Campana, S; Karavakis, E; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Saiz, P; Schovancova, J; Tuckett, D

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of the large-scale data processing of the ATLAS experiment includes monitoring of production and user analysis jobs. The Experiment Dashboard provides a common job monitoring solution, which is shared by ATLAS and CMS experiments. This includes an accounting portal as well as real-time monitoring. Dashboard job monitoring for ATLAS combines information from PanDA job processing database, Production system database and monitoring information from jobs submitted through GANGA to Workload Management System (WMS) or local batch systems. Usage of Dashboard-based job monitoring applications will decrease load on the PanDA database and overcome scale limitations in PanDA monitoring caused by the short job rotation cycle in the PanDA database. Aggregation of the task/job metrics from different sources provides complete view of job processing activity in ATLAS scope.

  5. ATLAS job monitoring in the Dashboard Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, J; Campana, S; Karavakis, E; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Saiz, P; Tuckett, D; Sargsyan, L; Schovancova, J

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of the large-scale data processing of the ATLAS experiment includes monitoring of production and user analysis jobs. The Experiment Dashboard provides a common job monitoring solution, which is shared by ATLAS and CMS experiments. This includes an accounting portal as well as real-time monitoring. Dashboard job monitoring for ATLAS combines information from the PanDA job processing database, Production system database and monitoring information from jobs submitted through GANGA to Workload Management System (WMS) or local batch systems. Usage of Dashboard-based job monitoring applications will decrease load on the PanDA database and overcome scale limitations in PanDA monitoring caused by the short job rotation cycle in the PanDA database. Aggregation of the task/job metrics from different sources provides complete view of job processing activity in ATLAS scope.

  6. Socioeconomic inequalities in physical and mental functioning of British, Finnish, and Japanese civil servants: role of job demand, control, and work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Michikazu; Chandola, Tarani; Martikainen, Pekka; Marmot, Michael; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2009-11-01

    This study aims to evaluate whether the pattern of socioeconomic inequalities in physical and mental functioning as measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) differs among employees in Britain, Finland, and Japan and whether work characteristics contribute to some of the health inequalities. The participants were 7340 (5122 men and 2218 women) British employees, 2297 (1638 men and 659 women) Japanese employees, and 8164 (1649 men and 6515 women) Finnish employees. All the participants were civil servants aged 40-60 years. Both male and female low grade employees had poor physical functioning in all cohorts. British and Japanese male low grade employees tended to have poor mental functioning but the associations were significant only for Japanese men. No consistent employment-grade differences in mental functioning were observed among British and Japanese women. Among Finnish men and women, high grade employees had poor mental functioning. In all cohorts, high grade employees had high control, high demands and long work hours. The grade differences in poor physical functioning and disadvantaged work characteristics among non-manual workers were somewhat smaller in the Finnish cohort than in the British and Japanese cohorts. Low control, high demands, and both short and long work hours were associated with poor functioning. When work characteristics were adjusted for, the socioeconomic differences in poor functioning were mildly attenuated in men, but the differences increased slightly in women. This study reconfirms the generally observed pattern of socioeconomic inequalities in health for physical functioning but not for mental functioning. The role of work characteristics in the relationship between socioeconomic status and health differed between men and women but was modest overall. We suggest that these differences in the pattern and magnitude of grade differences in work characteristics and health among the 3 cohorts may be attributable to the different welfare regimes among the 3 countries.

  7. Job autonomy and job satisfaction: new evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J; Bradley, S; Nguyen, A N

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of perceived job autonomy on job satisfaction. We use the fifth sweep of the National Educational Longitudinal Study (1988-2000), which contains personally reported job satisfaction data for a sample of individuals eight years after the end of compulsory education. After controlling for a wide range of personal and job-related variables, perceived job autonomy is found to be a highly significant determinant of five separate domains of job satisfaction (pay, ...

  8. Exports and Job Training

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Paulo; Silva, Joana; Proenca, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines whether export participation matters for job training. The paper draws on longitudinal worker-firm data for Brazilian manufacturing, linked with detailed records on training activity from the main provider. The analysis uses industry-specific exchange rate movements to generate exogenous variation in export status at the firm-level. The findings indicate that export par...

  9. Job Hazard Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Establishing proper job procedures is one of the benefits of conducting a job hazard analysis carefully studying and recording each step of a job, identifying existing or potential job hazards...

  10. Job stress and mortality in older age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Tobiasz-Adamczyk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper aims to assess the relationship between the determinants of the psychosocial work environment, as expressed in terms of JDC or ERI models, and all-cause mortality in older individuals. Materials and Methods: The baseline study was conducted on a cohort comprising a random sample of 65-year-old community-dwelling citizens of Kraków, Poland. All of the 727 participants (410 women, 317 men were interviewed in their households in the period between 2001 and 2003; a structured questionnaire was used regarding their occupational activity history, which included indexes measuring particular dimensions of their psychosocial work environment based on Karasek's Job Demand-Control model and Siegrist's Effort-Reward Imbalance model, as well as health-related quality of life and demographic data. Mortality was ascertained by monitoring City Vital Records for 7 years. Analyses were conducted separately for men and women, with the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Results: During a 7-year follow-up period, 59 participants (8.1% died, including 21 women (5.1% of total women and 38 men (12% (p < 0.05. Significant differences in the number of deaths occurred regarding disproportion between physical demands and control in men: those with low physical demands and low control died three times more often than those with high control, regardless of the level of demands. The multivariate Cox proportional hazard model showed that significantly higher risk of death was observed only in men with low physical demands and low control, compared to those with low physical demands and high control (Exp(B = 4.65, 95% CI: 1.64-13.2. Conclusions: Observed differences in mortality patterns are similar to the patterns of relationships observed in health-related quality of life (HRQoL level at the beginning of old age; however, the relationship between efforts and rewards or demands and control and mortality was not fully confirmed.

  11. Fairness perceptions as a moderator in the curvilinear relationships between job demands, and job performance and job satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, O

    2001-01-01

    Activation theory suggests that intermediate rather than low or high levels of quantitative job demands benefit job performance and job satisfaction among managers. Using an equity theory framework, I hypothesize that perceptions of effort-reward fairness moderate these inverted U-shaped

  12. Performance of a demand controlled mechanical extract ventilation system for dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pollet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of ventilation is to guarantee a good indoor air quality, related to the energy consumed for heating and fan(s. Active or passive heat recovery systems seem to focus on the reduction of heating consumption at the expense of fan electricity consumption and maintenance. In this study, demandcontrolled mechanical extract ventilation systems of Renson (DCV1 and DCV2, based on natural supply in the habitable rooms and mechanical extraction in the wet rooms (or even the bedrooms, was analysed for one year by means of multi-zone Contam simulations on a reference detached house and compared with standard MEV and mechanical extract ventilation systems with heat recovery (MVHR. To this end, IAQ, total energy consumption, CO2 emissions and total cost of the systems are determined. The results show that DCV systems with increased supply air flow rates or direct mechanical extract from bedrooms can significantly improve IAQ, while reducing total energy consumption compared to MEV. Applying DCV reduces primary heating energy consumption and yearly fan electricity consumption at most by 65% to 50% compared to MEV. Total operational energy costs and CO2 emissions of DCV are similar when compared to MVHR. Total costs of DCV systems over 15 years are smaller when compared to MVHR due to lower investment and maintenance costs.

  13. Working Vacations: Jobs in Tourism and Leisure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2011-01-01

    Vacation jobs often mix work and play. For some, the job is their ticket to career happiness. The article's first section describes four jobs specific to entertainment and leisure: (1) cruise ship musician; (2) destination marketing manager; (3) resort activities director; and (4) river rafting guide. The second section helps a person decide if a…

  14. Conceptualizing On-the-Job Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berings, Marjolein G. M. C.; Poell, Rob F.; Simons, P. Robert-Jan

    2005-01-01

    The broad aims of this study are to gain insight into employees' on-the-job learning activities to help them improve their on-the-job learning. The authors define on-the-job learning styles and operationalize the concept to include both mental and overt learning styles and both interpersonal and intrapersonal learning styles. Organizations and…

  15. Demand controlled ventilation in single-family homes; Behovstyret ventilation til enfamiliehuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rammer Nielsen, T.; Drivsholm, C.; Rudolph Hansen, M.P.; Kragh, J.

    2009-12-15

    This project investigated two different control strategies: A simple and cheap strategy and an advanced and expensive strategy: 1. Simple control: The ventilation rate is varied only on the whole building level giving an average ventilation rate of either 0.1 l/(s m{sup 2}) or 0.35 l/(s m{sup 2}). The air change rate is controlled by sensors in the air handling unit measuring relative humidity, temperature and CO{sub 2}. The control is based on the CO{sub 2}-concentration and absolute humidity in the supply air and exhaust air. A fixed set point for the difference in CO{sub 2}-concentration between the exhaust and supply is used to decide if the ventilation rate is low or high. As supplement to the CO{sub 2} control the difference in absolute humidity between exhaust and supply is used to assure that the ventilation remain at the high level if there is a high level of humidity in the house. 2. Advanced control: The air change rate is varied dynamically for all living rooms giving an average air change for the house between 0.1 l/(s m{sup 2}) and 0.35 l/(s m{sup 2}). The air change rate in the living rooms is controlled by CO{sub 2}-sensors in each room and dampers in the room supply duct. Relative humidity is measured in the rooms with high moisture production to ensure that the highest air exchange is activated if the relative humidity in one of these rooms is too high. Even though the two strategies have been implemented and tested for a long period of time, only the simple control can be recommended. The simple control ensures that the air quality is almost the same as if the house was ventilated constantly at the high ventilation rate. Also the simple control only requires two CO{sub 2} sensors, two relative humidity sensors and two temperature sensors in the air handling unit. These sensors should be checked from time to time e.g. when filters are exchanged. The simple control is today used in meeting rooms, office rooms and daycare facilities in a modified

  16. Demand control on room level of the supply air temperature in an air heating and ventilation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polak, Joanna; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2017-01-01

    air heating and ventilation system in a high performance single family house using BSim simulation software. The provision of the desired thermal conditions in different rooms was examined. Results show that the new control strategy can facilitate maintaining of desired temperatures in various rooms......The aim of this study was to investigate a new strategy for control of supply air temperature in an integrated air heating and ventilation system. The new strategy enables demand control of supply air temperature in individual rooms. The study is based on detailed dynamic simulations of a combined....... Moreover, this control strategy enables controlled temperature differentiation between rooms within the house and therefore provides flexibility and better balance in heat delivery. Consequently, the thermal conditions in the building can be improved....

  17. STTR Phase I: Low-Cost, High-Accuracy, Whole-Building Carbon Dioxide Monitoring for Demand Control Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallstrom, Jason; Ni, Zheng Richard

    2018-05-15

    This STTR Phase I project assessed the feasibility of a new CO2 sensing system optimized for low-cost, high-accuracy, whole-building monitoring for use in demand control ventilation. The focus was on the development of a wireless networking platform and associated firmware to provide signal conditioning and conversion, fault- and disruptiontolerant networking, and multi-hop routing at building scales to avoid wiring costs. Early exploration of a bridge (or “gateway”) to direct digital control services was also explored. Results of the project contributed to an improved understanding of a new electrochemical sensor for monitoring indoor CO2 concentrations, as well as the electronics and networking infrastructure required to deploy those sensors at building scales. New knowledge was acquired concerning the sensor’s accuracy, environmental response, and failure modes, and the acquisition electronics required to achieve accuracy over a wide range of CO2 concentrations. The project demonstrated that the new sensor offers repeatable correspondence with commercial optical sensors, with supporting electronics that offer gain accuracy within 0.5%, and acquisition accuracy within 1.5% across three orders of magnitude variation in generated current. Considering production, installation, and maintenance costs, the technology presents a foundation for achieving whole-building CO2 sensing at a price point below $0.066 / sq-ft – meeting economic feasibility criteria established by the Department of Energy. The technology developed under this award addresses obstacles on the critical path to enabling whole-building CO2 sensing and demand control ventilation in commercial retrofits, small commercial buildings, residential complexes, and other highpotential structures that have been slow to adopt these technologies. It presents an opportunity to significantly reduce energy use throughout the United States a

  18. Personality, personnel selection, and job performance

    OpenAIRE

    Linden, Dimitri; Pelt, Dirk; Dunkel, Curtis; Born, Marise

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractJob Performance: The term job performance can either refer to the objective or subjective outcomes one achieves in a specific job (e.g., the profit of a sales persons, the number of publications of a scientist, the number of successful operations of a surgeon) or to work-related activities (e.g., writing an article, conducting specific surgical acts). In the majority of research on this topic, job performance as an outcome is used. Personnel selection: Personnel selection refe...

  19. Steve Jobs

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Julie Sophie; Nielsen, Jonas; Mørk, Maj Keum Ji Helweg; Mammen, Diana; Kristiansen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Welch, Nadia Guldbæk

    2013-01-01

    Apple is perhaps today one of the most successful technological brands on the market. This company has introduced various products to the consumers, which in a relatively short time has managed to establish a world wide trend based on a functional and aesthetic design. In this project, the primary interest lies in how Apple has achieved this kind of success revolved around the late founder Steve Jobs, who undoubtedly appears as one of the central figures in creating the status that Apple has ...

  20. UH-1 Helicopter Mechanic (MOS 67N20) Job Description Survey: Background, Training, and General Maintenance Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Russel E.; And Others

    The report, the first of two documents examining the relationship among job requirements, training, and manpower considerations for Army aviation maintenance Personnel, discusses the development of task data gathering techniques and procedures for incorporating this data into training programs for the UH-1 helicopter mechanic sPecialty (MOS…

  1. Mediating effects of emotional exhaustion on the relationship between job demand–control model and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hwa; Du, Pey-Ian; Chen, Chin-Hui; Yang, Chin-Ann; Huang, Ing-Chung

    2011-04-01

    This study attempted to investigate the role of emotional exhaustion as a mediator on the relationship between job demands-control (JDC) model and mental health. Three-wave data from 297 employees were collected. The results showed that job demands were positively related to emotional exhaustion, and increasing job demands will increase the level of emotional exhaustion. Job control was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion; therefore, increasing job control will decrease the level of emotional exhaustion. Emotional exhaustion was negatively related to mental health. Emotional exhaustion fully mediated the relationship between job demands and mental health, and partially mediated the positive relationship between job control and mental health. In addition, job control was positively associated with mental health directly. The remarkable finding of the present study was that emotional exhaustion served as the key mediator between the JDC model and mental health. Theoretical and managerial implications and limitations were discussed.

  2. Associations between healthcare worker participation in workplace wellness activities and job satisfaction, occupational stress and burnout: a cross-sectional study in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledikwe, Jenny H; Kleinman, Nora Joelle; Mpho, Maureen; Mothibedi, Heather; Mawandia, Shreshth; Semo, Bazghina-Werq; O'Malley, Gabrielle

    2018-03-16

    Healthcare workers (HWs) are prone to high levels of stress and burnout, particularly when caring for people with HIV/AIDS. This study assessed whether participation in Botswana's Workplace Wellness Programme (WWP) for HWs was associated with job satisfaction, occupational stress, well-being and burnout. Using multistage sampling, a paper-based questionnaire was distributed to 1856 randomly selected HWs at 135 public facilities across Botswana. Well-validated scales assessed key outcomes. Analysis of covariance models were built for psychosocial factors associated with WWP participation, controlling for associated demographics. Response rate was 73% (n=1348). The majority of respondents were female (62%), not married (65%) and had children (84%). Mean age was 40.0 years (SD±9.9). Respondents were roughly split between participation in no WWP activities (29.4%), 1-6 WWP activities (38.9%) and seven or more WWP activities (31.7%) in the past year. High participation was associated with older age, being a doctor or other professional, working at hospitals or District Health Management Teams, working longer in health services or working longer at a facility. In unadjusted analyses, high participation was significantly associated (Psatisfaction with overall job, work, supervision, promotion, pay and professional efficacy and lower stress, exhaustion and cynicism. All associations remained significant in controlled analyses except cynicism. Results from this study suggest that participation in workplace wellness activities is associated with higher satisfaction with multiple job facets and lower stress, exhaustion and cynicism. Introduction of these activities may help ameliorate high occupational stress levels among HWs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Active Duty Military Deployments: A Respite from Job Stressors and Burnout for Air Force Acquisition Support Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-23

    being” ( Lazarus & Folkman , 1984). These environmental conditions can be persistent (i.e., chronic stress) or discrete periods of time (i.e., acute...event that serves as an acute source of stress. Given that stress that is said to jeopardize the well-being of the individual ( Lazarus & Folkman ...226. Etzion, D., Eden, D., & Lapidot, Y . (1998). Relief from job stressors and burnout: Reserve service as a respite. Journal of Applied Psychology

  4. The Unique Role of the Survivalist Retail Entrepreneur in Job Creation and Poverty Reduction. Implications for Active Stakeholder Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This is an applied study endeavour with the aim of exploring the specific role of survivalist retail entrepreneurship in job creation and poverty reduction. Two hundred (200 subjects were sampled using snowballing technique. Structured questionnaires as well as semi-structured interviews were employed to collect data. 182 usable questionnaires were analysed with the help of SPSS version 23. The results indicate that retail entrepreneurship is evolving in Khayelitsha, especially when one does not only focus on spaza shops, but looks at the entire survivalist retail industry. This sector is capable of creating jobs, reducing poverty and aiding economic growth of the country even more, should measures to boost motivation levels and self-efficacy of the entrepreneurs emerge. These measures, among others could include support programmes for survivalist entrepreneurial ventures that present greater potential for growth and job creation. Part of the support programmes should include business skills training (such as simple bookkeeping practices and human resource management. Importantly, this study is the first of its kind in the community of Khayelitsha; an emerging black-populated township in South Africa, indicating a new vista for retail entrepreneurship research.

  5. Linear and nonlinear relations between psychosocial job characteristics, subjective outcomes, and sickness absence : baseline results from SMASH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, J. de; Houtman, I.L.D.; Bongers, P.M.; Reuvers, M.M.E.N.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the demand-control-support (DCS) model by (a) using a more focused measure of job control, (b) testing for interactive and nonlinear relationships, and (c) further extending the model to the prediction of an objective outcome measure (i.e., company-administrated sickness

  6. Linear and non-linear relations between psychosocial job characteristics, subjective outcomes, and sickness absence: baseline results from SMASH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, J. de; Reuvers, M.M.E.N.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Bongers, P.M.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the demand-control-support (DCS) model by (a) using a more focused measure of job control, (b) testing for interactive and nonlinear relationships, and (c) further extending the model to the prediction of an objective outcome measure (i.e., company-administrated sickness

  7. Overcoming job stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000884.htm Overcoming job stress To use the sharing features on this page, ... stay healthy and feel better. Causes of Job Stress Although the cause of job stress is different ...

  8. Physicians' Job Satisfaction.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AmL

    doctors and retention of the existing doctors, in addition to the ... an employee's well-being Examples of job resources are job ..... increase physician job satisfaction for ensuring the .... both pay and benefits physicians at private hospitals.

  9. Second Job Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenert, Jeffrey C.

    1999-01-01

    Data from the Current Population Survey reveal characteristics of second-job entrepreneurs, occupations in which these workers hold their second jobs, and the occupational and earnings relationships between their second and primary jobs. (Author)

  10. Job burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslach, C; Schaufeli, W B; Leiter, M P

    2001-01-01

    Burnout is a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors on the job, and is defined by the three dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy. The past 25 years of research has established the complexity of the construct, and places the individual stress experience within a larger organizational context of people's relation to their work. Recently, the work on burnout has expanded internationally and has led to new conceptual models. The focus on engagement, the positive antithesis of burnout, promises to yield new perspectives on interventions to alleviate burnout. The social focus of burnout, the solid research basis concerning the syndrome, and its specific ties to the work domain make a distinct and valuable contribution to people's health and well-being.

  11. Jobs for girls?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard-Hansen, Lone; Hudson, Ray; Schech, Susanne

    1992-01-01

    , it was argued that "the majority of the area's prevailing social and economic difficulties are traced to the massive decline which the coal industry has suffered" (Durham County Council 1990, 41). Despite the devastation resulting from past colliery closures, these went largely uncontested, in part because...... of promises of alternative jobs. But these earlier efforts to counter the collapse of coal mining via the construction of an alternative branch plant economy had only had a limited effect. Thus the not entirely unexpected closure of the Consett works, which despite previous employment reductions was still far...... manufacturing to services, it was to service activities that were also dominated by the public sector, with central and local government and the services that these controlled and supplied providing the majority of such jobs. This was very much a legacy of both local and national political histories. At local...

  12. Supporting SMEs in creating jobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PASNICU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available SMEs are the most dynamic sector of the economy, representing a key factor in employment growth. Although SMEs have been severely affected by the economic crisis from 2008, they continue to be a more and more important source of generating jobs, regardless of size class. Given the differentiated contribution of SMEs to job creation as a result of their heterogeneity, the article analyses the dynamics of staff in enterprises by size classes and activities of the national economy. The statistical analysis is followed by a SWOT analysis of policies and tools to support SMEs in creating jobs both with direct action - management, recruitment, training and indirectly action by addressing general business issues. Measures that support the economic growth of SMEs through internationalization, innovation and improved access to finance foster competitiveness and, implicitly, the creation of new jobs.

  13. A multilevel analysis of the demands-control model: Is stress at work determined by factors at the group level or the individual level?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Snijders, T.A.B.

    2000-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which negative health-related outcomes are associated with differences between work groups and with differences between individuals within work groups using R. A. Karasek's (1979) demands-control model. The sample consisted of 260 employees in 31 working groups of a

  14. Incorporation of Emotional Labor in the Demand-Control-Support Model: The relation with Emotional Exhaustion and Personal Accomplishment in Nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Näring, Gérard; van Droffelaar, Annemarie

    2008-01-01

    Nursing comprises interactions with patients which may require emotional labor. This study clarifies the relation of emotional labor with the three burnout dimensions within the context of the Demand Control Support model in nurses. We used the Dutch Questionnaire on Emotional Labor (D-QEL) to

  15. CO2 sensor versus Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) sensor – analysis of field measurement data and implications for demand controlled ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated performance of two commercially available non-selective metal oxide semiconductor VOC sensors and two commercially available non dispersive infrared CO2 sensors installed in one person office. The office was equipped with demand controlled ventilation. The signals from VOC...

  16. Aged care nurses' job control influence satisfaction and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kate-Ellen J; Rodwell, John; Martin, Angela J

    2017-10-01

    Relationships exist between aged care nurses' perceptions of psychosocial work characteristics, job satisfaction and mental health, suggesting these characteristics may be important for the management of aged care services. An expanded demand-control-support model that included justice perceptions was examined to determine its impact on multiple types of psychological and organisational well-being outcomes (i.e. job satisfaction, psychological distress and depression). Data were collected from a sample of 173 aged care nurses using a self-report survey and analysed using hierarchical multiple regression. A significant proportion (27-28%) of the variance in aged care nurses' satisfaction, depression and psychological distress was explained by the psychosocial factors included in the model. Job control had the most consistent impact with direct effects on job satisfaction, psychological distress and depression. Informational justice was associated with both psychological distress and depression. Targeting job control may provide the biggest response for nurse managers in aged care, as it is likely to influence nurses' job satisfaction, psychological distress and depression. Facility managers should implement organisational policies and procedures that promote higher levels of control over how nurses perform their work in order to improve nurse well-being in aged care settings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Spanish version of Bus Drivers' Job Demands Scale (BDJD-24).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada-Grau, Joan; Prizmic-Kuzmica, Aldo-Javier; González-Fernández, Marcos-David; Vigil-Colet, Andreu

    2013-01-01

    Karasek and Theorell's Job Demands-Control Model argues that adverse health-related outcomes, both psychological and physiological, arise from a combination of high job demand and a low level of job control. The objective was to adapt Meijman and Kompier's Bus Drivers' Job Demands Scale (BDJD-24), which enables us to assess the job demands of bus drivers, to Spanish. The final version of the Spanish adaptation was applied to a sample made up of 287 bus drivers living in Spain (80.1% men and 19.9% women), whose average age was 40.44 (SD= 11.78). The results yielded a three-factor structure for the scale used: Time Pressure, Safety, and Passengers. These findings confirm that the Spanish version replicates the factor structure of the original English scale. The reliability of the three subscales was acceptable, ranging from .75 to .84. Furthermore, the subscales were also related to different external correlates and to other scales and showed good convergent and criterion validity. The present instrument can be used to evaluate job demands of bus drivers, as its psychometrics are substantially sound.

  18. Revisiting Symbiotic Job Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Eyerman , Stijn; Michaud , Pierre; Rogiest , Wouter

    2015-01-01

    International audience; —Symbiotic job scheduling exploits the fact that in a system with shared resources, the performance of jobs is impacted by the behavior of other co-running jobs. By coscheduling combinations of jobs that have low interference, the performance of a system can be increased. In this paper, we investigate the impact of using symbiotic job scheduling for increasing throughput. We find that even for a theoretically optimal scheduler, this impact is very low, despite the subs...

  19. Job search requirements for older unemployed workers

    OpenAIRE

    Bloemen, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Many OECD countries have, or have had, a policy that exempts older unemployed people from the requirement to search for a job. An aging population and low participation by older workers in the labor market increasingly place public finances under strain, and spur calls for policy measures that activate labor force participation by older workers. Introducing job search requirements for the older unemployed aims to increase their re-employment rates. Abolishing the exemption from job search req...

  20. Is Job Control a Double-Edged Sword? A Cross-Lagged Panel Study on the Interplay of Quantitative Workload, Emotional Dissonance, and Job Control on Emotional Exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konze, Anne-Kathrin; Rivkin, Wladislaw; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut

    2017-12-20

    Previous meta-analytic findings have provided ambiguous evidence on job control as a buffering moderator of the adverse impact of job demands on psychological well-being. To disentangle these mixed findings, we examine the moderating effect of job control on the adverse effects of quantitative workload and emotional dissonance as distinct work-related demands on emotional exhaustion over time. Drawing on the job demands-control model, the limited strength model of self-control, and the matching principle we propose that job control can facilitate coping with work-related demands but at the same time may also require employees' self-control. Consequently, we argue that job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance, which also necessitates self-control. We examine the proposed relations among employees from an energy supplying company ( N = 139) in a cross-lagged panel study with a six-month time lag. Our results demonstrate a mix of causal and reciprocal effects of job characteristics on emotional exhaustion over time. Furthermore, as suggested, our data provides evidence for contrasting moderating effects of job control. That is, job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance on emotional exhaustion.

  1. Is Job Control a Double-Edged Sword? A Cross-Lagged Panel Study on the Interplay of Quantitative Workload, Emotional Dissonance, and Job Control on Emotional Exhaustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Kathrin Konze

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous meta-analytic findings have provided ambiguous evidence on job control as a buffering moderator of the adverse impact of job demands on psychological well-being. To disentangle these mixed findings, we examine the moderating effect of job control on the adverse effects of quantitative workload and emotional dissonance as distinct work-related demands on emotional exhaustion over time. Drawing on the job demands-control model, the limited strength model of self-control, and the matching principle we propose that job control can facilitate coping with work-related demands but at the same time may also require employees’ self-control. Consequently, we argue that job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance, which also necessitates self-control. We examine the proposed relations among employees from an energy supplying company (N = 139 in a cross-lagged panel study with a six-month time lag. Our results demonstrate a mix of causal and reciprocal effects of job characteristics on emotional exhaustion over time. Furthermore, as suggested, our data provides evidence for contrasting moderating effects of job control. That is, job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance on emotional exhaustion.

  2. Relationship Of Core Job Characteristics To Job Satisfaction And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to clarify the conceptual and empirical distinction between job satisfaction and job involvement constructs, this study investigates the relationship between construction workers core job characteristics, job satisfaction and job involvement. It also investigates the mediating role of job satisfaction between core job ...

  3. 25 CFR 26.11 - What type of Job Placement and Training assistance may be approved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What type of Job Placement and Training assistance may be... JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.11 What type of Job Placement and... supplemental assistance that supports job placement or training activities (see subpart B of this part for Job...

  4. Job Satisfaction and Job Performance at the Work Place

    OpenAIRE

    Vanden Berghe, Jae Hyung

    2011-01-01

    The topic of the thesis is job satisfaction and job performance at the work place. The aim is to define the determinants for job satisfaction and to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance and the influence of job satisfaction on job performance. First we look into the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour to account for the relationship between attitudes and behaviour. Job satisfaction is then explained as a function of job feature...

  5. Job strain and blood pressure in employed men and women: a pooled analysis of four northern italian population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesana, Giancarlo; Sega, Roberto; Ferrario, Marco; Chiodini, Paolo; Corrao, Giovanni; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    The extent to which psychosocial stress concurs to raise blood pressure is still uncertain. Here the association between job strain and office blood pressure in a pooled analysis of four population samples from northern Italy is assessed. Four surveys assessing prevalence of major coronary risk factors were performed in 1986, 1990, 1991, and 1993 in area "Brianza" (Milan), a World Health Organization-MONItoring cardiovascular disease (WHO-MONICA) Project collaborating center. Ten year age- and gender-stratified independent samples were randomly recruited from the 25- to 64-year-old residents. The methods used to assess coronary risk factors strictly adhered to the MONICA manual, were kept constant, and underwent internal and external quality controls. Job strain was investigated through the administration to employed participants of a questionnaire derived from the Karasek model, assessing job demand/control latitude. Analysis was restricted to 25- to 54-year-old participants, untreated for hypertension (1799 men and 1010 women). Among men, there was a 3 mm Hg increase of systolic blood pressure (pjob categories. This difference was independent from age, education, body mass index, alcohol intake, smoking habits, leisure time physical activity, and survey. No relevant differences among job strain categories were found in women and for diastolic blood pressure in both gender groups. These results carried out on a large population-based sample confirm previous findings obtained adopting ambulatory blood pressure measurements in more restricted samples of population or patients. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between perceived work stress and blood pressure in women.

  6. Measuring green jobs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Martinsen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The report reviews the different initiatives aiming to measure aspects of “green” sectors, jobs and technologies. The report discusses whether the statistics collected under the present initiatives aimed at measuring these aspects increase insights into the fundamental questions motivating...... the initiatives. An alternative framework is suggested, as it appears fundamentally impossible to make consistent frameworks for a division of the economy into “green” and “non-green” activities. The analysis has been carried out during the period September 2011 – March 2012 by Vista Analysis AS, Gaia Consulting...

  7. The double meaning of control: three-way interactions between internal resources, job control, and stressors at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Laurenz L; Semmer, Norbert K; Elfering, Achim; Jacobshagen, Nicola

    2008-07-01

    The Job Demand-Control model postulates that job control attenuates the effects of job demands on health and well-being. Support for this interactive effect is rather weak. Conceivably, it holds only when there is a match between job control and individual characteristics that relate to exercising control options, such as locus of control, or self-efficacy. This three-way interaction was tested in a sample of 96 service employees, with affective strain and musculoskeletal pain as dependent variables. As hypothesized, job control attenuated the effects of stressors only for people with an internal locus of control. For people with an external locus of control, job control actually predicted poorer well-being and health as stressors increased. For self-efficacy, the corresponding three-way interaction was significant with regard to affective strain. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Job and career satisfaction among pharmacy preceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payakachat, Nalin; Ounpraseuth, Songthip; Ragland, Denise; Murawski, Matthew M

    2011-10-10

    To examine the perceived benefit of job and career satisfaction among pharmacist preceptors and to explore other factors that might influence satisfaction. A cross-sectional self-administered survey instrument was mailed to pharmacists in the South Central region of the United States who had active 2010 licenses to investigate whether being a pharmacist preceptor increases job and career satisfaction. Twenty-three percent of the 363 respondents were active preceptors and 62% of these reported that they had been preceptors at some point in the past. Being an active preceptor was significantly related to increased job satisfaction (p = 0.01) but not to career satisfaction. Having a perceived benefit of continuing education and being professionally challenged at work also were associated with increased job and career satisfaction (p job satisfaction.

  9. Job Sharing in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Wilma; Kline, Susan

    1979-01-01

    The author presents the advantages of job sharing for all school personnel, saying that education is particularly adaptable to this new form of employment. Current job sharing programs in Massachusetts, California, and New Jersey schools are briefly discussed. (SJL)

  10. Pre-employment job orientation seminar - after two years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petullo, C.F.

    1988-01-01

    Formerly, applicants for the Radiation Monitor job were primarily individuals with 4-yr degrees in the sciences or engineering, because of upgraded education requirements. Reynolds found, however, that they lost a very high percentage of such hirees within 4 months after training and going into the field - since they had felt they were hired for a white collar job. Therefore, they instituted the Pre-Employment Job Training Seminar for all applicants - a 40-minute slide presentation showing the Nevada Test Site Terrain; Radiation Monitor job locations such as tunnels, drill rigs, and a decontamination facility; and Radiation Monitors active in their job functions. In other words the earthy side of the job is depicted. Applicants still interested in the job after initial orientation stay for a 3-hour examination. The author expects future hiring at the technician level, with job requirements a high school diploma and science and math skills necessary for good job performance

  11. [Investigation on job stress of pediatricians and nurses working in pediatric department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, San-qiao; Tian, Ling; Pang, Bao-dong; Bai, Yu-ping; Fan, Xue-yun; Shen, Fu-hai; Jin, Yu-lan

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the occupational stressors and modifiers of pediatricians and nurses in order to find the measurements for control of the job stress. 427 pediatricians and nurses working in five hospitals of a city served as subjects. Of them, the staff in section of pharmacy and toll offices in each hospital mentioned above served as control group. The General Job Stress Questionnaire was used to investigate the job stress by self-assessment. The scores of job demand, job risk, drug using, daily job stress, positive feelings, patient A behavior, physical environment and feeling balance in pediatricians and nurses were higher than those of control group, but the scores of job-person conflict, environmental control, technology utility, mental health, responsibility on things were lower than those of control group (Pdepression in nurses were higher than those of pediatricians, and non-work activities, job risk and daily life stress were lower than those of doctors (Pwork job, lower job control, more job risk, job future ambiguous, poorer social support, lower job locus control and lower self-esteem. The stress degree of pediatric staff is higher than that of controls. The pediatricians have more job stress than that of nurses. The main stressors of pediatric staff are job monotony, higher job demand, more non-worker activity, lower job control, higher job risk and ambiguous job future. The main modifiers are good social support, external job locus of control and higher self-esteem.

  12. Three job stress models/concepts and oxidative DNA damage in a sample of workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Ishizaki, Masao; Tabata, Masaji; Tsuchiya, Masao; Akiyama, Miki; Kitazume, Akiko; Kuroda, Mitsuyo; Shimazu, Akihito

    2009-04-01

    Three job stress models/concepts (the job demands-control [DC] model, the effort-reward imbalance [ERI] model, and organizational justice) have been linked to coronary heart disease (CHD) at work. In recent years, oxidative DNA damage has been identified as a new risk factor for CHD. However, evidence for the association between these job stressors and oxidative DNA damage is limited. The present cross-sectional study investigated the association between these job stress models/concepts and oxidative DNA damage as a possible mediator of the adverse health effects of job stress. A total of 166 male and 51 female workers of a manufacturing factory in Japan were surveyed using a mailed questionnaire regarding job stressors and demographic, occupational, and lifestyle variables. Urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, were also measured. In male subjects, the urinary concentrations of 8-OHdG were significantly higher among the group with lower interactional justice, one of the two components of organizational justice; however, no association was observed with the DC model or the ERI model. In female subjects, high job demands/control ratio was significantly and positively associated with the urinary concentrations of 8-OHdG. Interactional justice among male workers and the DC model-based strain among female workers may be associated with increased urinary concentrations of 8-OHdG which possibly reflects oxidative DNA damage.

  13. Association of work-related factors with psychosocial job stressors and psychosomatic symptoms among Japanese pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehara, Katsura; Ohya, Yukihiro; Kawakami, Norito; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Fujimura, Masanori

    2007-11-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore what work-related factors were associated with job stress among pediatricians in Japan, as determined by the demand-control-support model and psychosomatic symptoms. We sent an anonymous questionnaire to a random sample of 3,000 members selected from the nationwide register of the Japan Pediatric Society and received 850 responses (response rate, 28%). Data from the 590 respondents who worked more than 35 h per week as a pediatrician and had no missing responses in the questionnaire were analyzed. We measured workload-related variables (e.g. working hours, work schedule) and recovery-related variables (e.g. workdays with no overtime, days off with no work in the past month) as exposure variables, and psychosocial job stressors (the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire) and psychosomatic symptoms as outcome variables. Longer working hours per week was significantly associated with greater job demand, lower job control and more psychosomatic symptoms (pworking hours, more workdays with no overtime was significantly associated with lower job demand, greater job control and fewer psychosomatic symptoms (plong working hours is a risk factor for job stressors and psychosomatic symptoms, and that workdays with no overtime is a protective factor which may facilitate recovery. Controlling working hours and encouraging non-overtime workdays may be important for reducing job stressors and psychosomatic symptoms among pediatricians in Japan.

  14. Job Prospects for Civil Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Government programs and renewed industrial activity have combined with stable enrollments to create bright job prospects for civil engineers. Areas with good opportunities include highway reconstruction and rehabilitation, water-resource management, and new factory construction. The subspecialty of structural engineering has a growing need in…

  15. Buffering effects of job resources on the association of overtime work hours with psychological distress in Japanese white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Ayako; Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsuno, Kanami; Tomioka, Kimiko; Nakanishi, Mayuko; Mafune, Kosuke; Hiro, Hisanori

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the buffering effects of job resources, utilizing the job demands-control (or demand-control-support) and effort-reward imbalance models (i.e., job control, workplace social support, and extrinsic reward), on the association of overtime work hours with psychological distress in Japanese employees. A total of 1,198 participants (valid response rate = 93.7 %) from five branches of a manufacturing company in Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire comprising the scales assessing job resources, psychological distress, and demographic characteristics. We obtained the information on working hours in the most recent month from the personnel records of the surveyed company. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. In a series of analyses, interaction term of overtime work hours with each job resource was included in the model. Significant interaction effect of overtime work hours with job control was observed. Among the low job control group, the long overtime (80 h or more) subgroup had a significantly higher prevalence odds ratio of psychological distress compared to the short overtime (44 h or less) subgroup. No significant association of overtime work hours with psychological distress was found among the high job control group. On the other hand, there was no significant interaction effect of overtime work hours with workplace social support or extrinsic reward. The present findings suggest that high job control has an effect on reducing psychological distress in relation to overtime work hours in Japanese employees.

  16. Job Sharing in Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jeanne

    1982-01-01

    Job sharing is an employment alternative in which two qualified individuals manage the responsibilities of a single position. Discusses the barriers to and the potential, advantages, disadvantages, pitfalls, and challenges of job sharing. Focuses on job sharing in the geography profession. (Author/JN)

  17. Hybrid job shop scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling jobs in a hybrid job shop. We use the term 'hybrid' to indicate that we consider a lot of extensions of the classic job shop, such as transportation times, multiple resources, and setup times. The Shifting Bottleneck procedure can be generalized to deal with

  18. Practical job shop scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Shifting Bottleneck procedure is an intuitive and reasonably good approximation algorithm for the notoriously difficult classical job shop scheduling problem. The principle of decomposing a classical job shop problem into a series of single-machine problems can also easily be applied to job shop

  19. Mobility into favourable jobs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice Gesthuizen; Jaco Dagevos

    2005-01-01

    Original title: Arbeidsmobiliteit in goede banen. Hundreds of thousands of employees change jobs each year. Why do they do this, and what benefits do they derive from it? Many employees are not in the right jobs. Job dissatisfaction is found to be a key reason for labour mobility. These

  20. Tanzania : Productive Jobs Wanted

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 18 months, the World Bank has been working on a comprehensive plan to address the challenge of productive jobs in Tanzania. This study represents a step towards a better understanding of how to promote job creation in Tanzania. Indeed, the growth of productive jobs is vital for alleviating poverty and promoting shared prosperity - two important goals of Tanzania's economic st...

  1. Assessment of job stress factors and organizational personality types for procedure-based jobs in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Lee, Yong-Hee; Lee, Jung-Woon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the organizational types and the job stress factors that affect procedure-based job performances in nuclear power plants. We derived 24 organizational factors affecting job stress level in nuclear power plants from the job stress analysis models developed by NIOSH, JDI, and IOR. Considering the safety characteristics in the operating tasks of nuclear power plants, we identified the job contents and characteristics through the analyses of job assignments that appeared in the organizational chart and the results of an activity-based costing. By using questionnaire surveys and structured interviews with the plant personnel and expert panels, we assessed 70 jobs among the 777 jobs managed officially in accordance with the procedures. They consist of the representative jobs of each department and are directly related to safety. We utilized the organizational personality type indicators to characterize the personality types of each organization in nuclear power plants. (author)

  2. IFC Jobs Study : Assessing Private Sector Contributions to Job Creation and Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This report is the result of an open-source study to assess the direct and indirect effects of private sector activity on job creation. The report examines how and under what conditions the private sector can best contribute to job creation and poverty reduction. The private sector, which provides some 90 percent of jobs in developing countries, must be at the core of any response to this ...

  3. 32 CFR 196.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Job classification and structure. 196.520 Section 196.520 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... Activities Prohibited § 196.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job...

  4. 45 CFR 2555.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Job classification and structure. 2555.520 Section 2555.520 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND... Activities Prohibited § 2555.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job...

  5. 36 CFR 1211.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Job classification and structure. 1211.520 Section 1211.520 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Activities Prohibited § 1211.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job...

  6. 24 CFR 3.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Job classification and structure. 3.520 Section 3.520 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and... Activities Prohibited § 3.520 Job classification and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as...

  7. Steve Jobs: Nobel Laureate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable achievements of one of the world's greatest entrepreneurs offer profound insights into the fundamental nature of economy and essential missing links in prevailing economic theory. The career of Steve Jobs dramatically illustrates the central importance of human capital in modern economy and the almost incalculable contribution that a single individual can make to technological advancement, social innovation and wealth creation, while enhancing the lifestyle of hundreds of millions of people. Jobs demonstrated that the real basis of economic value is providing valuable products and services that fulfill human needs and aspirations, not unregulated markets and financial speculation. His apparent failures point to the dual nature of uncertainty that presides over all human activity - both the ever present threat of error and the untold opportunities hidden behind the veil. Widely regarded as a genius for inventing better products, his greatest commercial achievement has been in recognizing the central importance of services in modern society and fashioning integrated social service systems within which products act as an enabling technology.

  8. Employees Use Of Empathy To Improve Their Job Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Singh

    2014-01-01

    Being simply cognitively capable would be inadequate for employees to satisfy job performance requirements associated with their job behaviour. Before an employee performs his job, he must understand what it entails because the activities and behaviours associated with a particular job are defined largely by the expectations and demands of other people, both inside and outside any organization. For instance, a teachers role is defined by the expectations of his or her pupils, their parents, s...

  9. Get a Job! Active Labour Market Policies and Persons with Disabilities in Danish and European Union Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waddington, Lisa; Pedersen, Mads; Ventegodt Liisberg, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the overall level of employment is a goal of the Europe 2020 strategy and Active Labour Market Policies (ALMPs) have become a key tool used by the European Union and its Member States with a view to increasing employment. This article examines the use of ALMPs, with a special focus on

  10. JOB ANXIETY, ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND JOB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and work experience with job satisfaction. ... were more likely to perceive the appraisal as unfair and inappropriate (Desai and ... Working freedom, salary and fringe benefits are the major factors ..... Men, women and attitudinal commitment:.

  11. Do Job Demands of Chinese Manufacturing Employees Predict Positive or Negative Outcomes? A Test of Competing Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Janelle H; Sinclair, Robert R; Shi, Junqi; Wang, Mo

    2015-12-01

    Karasek's job demands-control (JDC) model posits that job control can buffer against the harmful effects of demands experienced by employees. A large volume of JDC research has obtained support for the main effects of demands and control, but not the interactive effects. Recent research on the challenge-hindrance stressors framework, however, found that work stressors may not always be deleterious, suggesting alternative hypotheses about the effects of demands and control. The present study therefore examined competing hypotheses concerning the effects of job demands on occupational health outcomes. Using a sample of 316 employees in a Chinese manufacturing company, we found that, consistent with the challenge-hindrance framework, production demands were challenge stressors associated with favourable outcomes (i.e. job satisfaction and psychological well-being). In addition, results showed that the interactive role of job control depended on the nature of outcome variables. Future recommendations and implications of findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The Application of Activity-based Costing (ABC) and Job Order Costing (JOC) at Wisata Bahari Restaurant Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Pangemanan, Sifrid; Ramintang, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    ABC is used to determine more accurate product costs by tracing activities required, especially for the purpose of decision making. ABC can show to management about the high cost of low-volume products. Smokie Crab and Grilled Squid from Wisata Bahari Restaurant, Manado, are the sample. The purpose of this research is make more accurate calculation of the cost, which can provide information on the cost of production is more clear for owner of Wisata Bahari Restaurant Manado, so as to obtain ...

  13. Job Sharing in the Endomembrane System: Vacuolar Acidification Requires the Combined Activity of V-ATPase and V-PPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegel, Anne; Andrés, Zaida; Medzihradszky, Anna; Krüger, Falco; Scholl, Stefan; Delang, Simon; Patir-Nebioglu, M Görkem; Gute, Gezahegn; Yang, Haibing; Murphy, Angus S; Peer, Wendy Ann; Pfeiffer, Anne; Krebs, Melanie; Lohmann, Jan U; Schumacher, Karin

    2015-12-01

    The presence of a large central vacuole is one of the hallmarks of a prototypical plant cell, and the multiple functions of this compartment require massive fluxes of molecules across its limiting membrane, the tonoplast. Transport is assumed to be energized by the membrane potential and the proton gradient established by the combined activity of two proton pumps, the vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase (V-PPase) and the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase). Exactly how labor is divided between these two enzymes has remained elusive. Here, we provide evidence using gain- and loss-of-function approaches that lack of the V-ATPase cannot be compensated for by increased V-PPase activity. Moreover, we show that increased V-ATPase activity during cold acclimation requires the presence of the V-PPase. Most importantly, we demonstrate that a mutant lacking both of these proton pumps is conditionally viable and retains significant vacuolar acidification, pointing to a so far undetected contribution of the trans-Golgi network/early endosome-localized V-ATPase to vacuolar pH. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  14. Job-Structure and Job-Related Information

    OpenAIRE

    川上, 善郎

    1981-01-01

    The requirements of job-related information in many domain, such as personnel selection, placement, training, personnel appraisal, job evaluation, job design etc, have developed many techniques of job analysis.In this paper, several approaches to analyze the job characteristics are reviewed; (a) conventional approach, (b) worker-oriented approach, and (c) perceived job characteristics approach.In addition, new direction of job-related information is discussed.

  15. Evidence of Validity of the Job Crafting Behaviors Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Silva de Carvalho Chinelato

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractJob crafting behavior refers to the changes made by workers in their job context for adjusting their activities to their preferences. We sought to adapt and collect validity evidences of the Job Crafting Behaviors Scale for the Brazilian context, in a sample of 491 workers, with a mean age of 26.7 years. Factor analysis revealed that the final instrument consisted of three dimensions (increasing structural job resources, increasing social job resources, increasing challenging job demands, which showed good internal consistency indexes. These dimensions showed low or moderate correlations with work engagement, positive psychological capital, positive job affect, and in-role performance. The scale showed evidence of validity, the use of which is recommended for future research on the changes that people make in their jobs.

  16. Do Job Security Guarantees Work?

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Bryson; Lorenzo Cappellari; Claudio Lucifora

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the effect of employer job security guarantees on employee perceptions of job security. Using linked employer-employee data from the 1998 British Workplace Employee Relations Survey, we find job security guarantees reduce employee perceptions of job insecurity. This finding is robust to endogenous selection of job security guarantees by employers engaging in organisational change and workforce reductions. Furthermore, there is no evidence that increased job security through job...

  17. Job sharing. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K; Forbes, R

    1989-01-01

    This article is the first of a three part series discussing the impact of nurses job sharing at University Hospital, London, Ontario. This first article explores the advantages and disadvantages of job sharing for staff nurses and their supervising nurse manager, as discussed in the literature. The results of a survey conducted on a unit with a large number of job sharing positions, concur with literature findings. The second article will present the evaluation of a pilot project in which two nurses job share a first line managerial position in the Operating Room. The third article will relate the effects of job sharing on women's perceived general well being. Job sharing in all areas, is regarded as a positive experience by both nurse and administrators.

  18. Exploring job embeddedness' antecedents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadeer Mohamed Badr ElDin Aboul-Ela

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Employees are the key resources of organizational success. Developing and maintaining job embeddedness is a cornerstone success in the workplace. The purpose of this research study is to analyze selected antecedents of job embeddedness. Role ambiguity, training, and demographics (age groups, gender and education were identified from the extant literature as the selected antecedents for this study. An in-depth statistical analysis of the job embeddedness sub-dimensions was conducted in relation to the selected antecedents. Questionnaires were administered among the employees working in the private banks in Egypt. Results revealed a negative relationship between role ambiguity and job embeddedness, a positive relationship between training and job embeddedness, elder employees held higher level of embeddedness compared to young employees, females possessed higher level of embeddedness compared to males, and no significant differences among the various education levels and job embeddedness.

  19. Job Strain and Cognitive Decline: A Prospective Study of the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Agbenyikey

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Workplace stress is known to be related with many behavioral and disease outcomes. However, little is known about its prospective relationship with measures of cognitive decline. Objective: To investigate the association of job strain, psychological demands and job control on cognitive decline. Methods: Participants from Framingham Offspring cohort (n=1429, were assessed on job strain, and received neuropsychological assessment approximately 15 years and 21 years afterwards. Results: High job strain and low control were associated with decline in verbal learning and memory. Job strain was associated with decline in word recognition skills. Active job and passive job predicted decline in verbal learning and memory relative to low strain jobs in the younger subgroup. Active job and demands were positively associated with abstract reasoning skills. Conclusions: Job strain and job control may influence decline in cognitive performance.

  20. Job Satisfaction and the Neglected Variable of Job Seniority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Simcha

    1978-01-01

    This research investigates the hypotheses that the relationship between job seniority and job satisfaction will resemble a curvilinear function of a U-shaped curve, while age and job level will be linearly related to job satisfaction; and that intrinsic rather than extrinsic aspects of job satisfaction will be the major contributor to the U-shaped…

  1. Assessment of job satisfaction, job stress and psychological health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... Aim: The study assessed the job satisfaction, perception of job stress and psychological ... on the work-health balance of journalists in. Nigeria. ..... Life. New York: Basic Books,1990. 15. Lu L. Work Motivation, Job Stress and.

  2. When Does Social Capital Matter? Non-Searching for Jobs across the Life Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Steve; Elder, Glen H., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Non-searchers--people who get their jobs without engaging in a job search--are often excluded from investigations of the role of personal relationships in job finding processes. This practice fails to capture the scope of informal job matching activity and underestimates the effectiveness of social capital. Moreover, studies typically obtain…

  3. Job characteristics as determinants of job satisfaction and labour mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelißen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of detailed job characteristics on job satisfaction, job search and quits using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) in a fixed effects framework. Using a factor analysis, seventeen job characteristics are reduced to seven factors that describe different aspects of a job, which are qualified as status, physical strain, autonomy, advancement opportunities, social relations at the work place, work time and job security. The effects of these facto...

  4. Association between job strain (high demand-low control and cardiovascular disease risk factors among petrochemical industry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Poorabdian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the practical models for assessment of stressful working conditions due to job strain is "job demand and control" or Karasek's job strain model. This model explains how adverse physical and psychological effects including cardiovascular disease risk factors can be established due to high work demand. The aim was to investigate how certain cardiovascular risk factors including body mass index (BMI, heart rate, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol levels, and cigarette smoking are associated with job demand and control in workers. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, 500 subjects completed "job demand and control" questionnaires. Factor analysis method was used in order to specify the most important "job demand and control" questions. Health check-up records of the workers were applied to extract data about cardiovascular disease risk factors. Ultimately, hypothesis testing, based on Eta, was used to assess the relationship between separated working groups and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension and serum total cholesterol level. Results: A significant relationship was found between the job demand-control model and cardiovascular risk factors. In terms of chisquared test results, the highest value was assessed for heart rate (Chi2 = 145.078. The corresponding results for smoking and BMI were Chi2 = 85.652 and Chi2 = 30.941, respectively. Subsequently, Eta result for total cholesterol was 0.469, followed by hypertension equaling 0.684. Moreover, there was a significant difference between cardiovascular risk factors and job demand-control profiles among different working groups including the operational group, repairing group and servicing group. Conclusion: Job control and demand are significantly related to heart disease risk factors including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cigarette smoking.

  5. Job Instruction Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Richard H.

    Job Instruction Training (JIT) is a step-by-step, relatively simple technique used to train employees on the job. It is especially suitable for teaching manual skills or procedures; the trainer is usually an employee's supervisor but can be a co-worker. The JIT technique consists of a series of steps that a supervisor or other instructor follows…

  6. Job control and coworker support improve employee job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagami, Makiko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2010-01-01

    We examined the prospective association of psychosocial job characteristics with employee job performance among 777 full-time employees at a manufacturing company in Japan, using data from a one-year follow-up survey. Psychosocial job characteristics were measured by the Job Content Questionnaire in 2008; job performance was evaluated using the item from the World Mental Health Survey Instrument in 2008 and 2009. The association between psychosocial job characteristics and job performance was tested using multiple regression analysis, controlling for demographic variables, work status, average working hours per day, job type and job performance in 2008. Job control and coworker support in 2008 were positively related to job performance in 2009. Stratified analyses revealed that job control for staff and coworker support for managers were positively related to job performance in 2009. These associations were prominent among men; however, supervisor support in 2008 was negatively related to job performance in 2009 among men. Job demand was not significantly related to job performance. Our findings suggest that it is worthwhile to enhance employees' job control and provide a mutually supportive environment to ensure positive employee job performance.

  7. Sense of coherence and job characteristics in predicting burnout in a South African sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire S. Johnston

    2013-10-01

    Research purpose: This study examines the contribution of sense of coherence (SOC and job characteristics to predicting burnout by considering direct and moderating effects. Motivation for this study: Understanding the relationships of individual and job characteristics with burnout is necessary for preventing burnout. It also informs the design of interventions. Research design, approach and method: The participants were 632 working adults (57% female in South Africa. The measures included the Job Content Questionnaire, the Sense of Coherence Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The authors analysed the data using hierarchical multiple regression with the enter method. Main findings: Job characteristics and SOC show the expected direct effects on burnout. SOC has a direct negative effect on burnout. Job demands and supervisor social support show nonlinear relationships with burnout. SOC moderates the effect of demands on burnout and has a protective function so that the demands-burnout relationship differs for those with high and low SOC. Practical/managerial implications: The types of effects, the shape of the stressor-strain relationship and the different contributions of individual and job characteristics have implications for designing interventions. Contribution/value add: SOC functions differently when combined with demands, control and support. These different effects suggest that it is not merely the presence or absence of a job characteristic that is important for well-being outcomes but how people respond to its presence or absence.

  8. Current issues relating to psychosocial job strain and cardiovascular disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell, T; Karasek, R A

    1996-01-01

    The authors comment on recent reviews of cardiovascular job strain research by P. L. Schnall and P. A. Landsbergis (1994), and by T. S. Kristensen (1995), which conclude that job strain as defined by the demand-control model (the combination of contributions of low job decision latitudes and high psychological job demands) is confirmed as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in a large majority of studies. Lack of social support at work appears to further increase risk. Several still-unresolved research questions are examined in light of recent studies: (a) methodological issues related to use of occupational aggregate estimations and occupational career aggregate assessments, use of standard scales for job analysis and recall bias issues in self-reporting; (b) confounding factors and differential strengths of association by subgroups in job strain-cardiovascular disease analyses with respect to social class, gender, and working hours; and (c) review of results of monitoring job strain-blood pressure associations and associated methodological issues.

  9. Job Stress Across Gender: The Importance of Emotional and Intellectual Demands and Social Support in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Montero-Simó

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyse whether any differences exist between the genders with respect to the effect of perceived Job Demands, Control and Support (JDCS model on how individuals reach high levels of job stress. To do this, the perceived risk of suffering an illness or having an accident in the workplace is used as an outcome measure. The study is based on the First Survey on Working Conditions in Andalusia, which has a sample of 5,496 men and 2,779 women. We carry out a multi-sample analysis with structural equation models, controlling for age and sector. The results show that the generation of job stress has a different pattern in men and women. In the case of men, the results show that only one dimension of the job demands stressor is significant (quantitative demands, whose effect on job stress is weakened slightly by the direct effects of control and support. With women, in contrast, emotional and intellectual aspects (qualitative demands are also statistically significant. Moreover, social support has a greater weakening effect on the levels of job stress in women than in men. These results suggest that applying the JDCS model in function of the gender will contribute to a greater understanding of how to reduce the levels of job stress in men and women, helping the design of more effective policies in this area.

  10. Job demands-resources model

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Arnold; Demerouti, Eva

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007; Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001) and is inspired by job design and job stress theories. JD-R theory explains how job demands and resources have unique and multiplicative e...

  11. Job Security as an Endogenous Job Characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    This paper develops a hedonic model of job security (JS). Workers with hetero-geneous JS-preferences pay the hedonic price for JS to employers, who incur labor-hoarding costs from supplying JS. In contrast to the Wage-Bill Argument, equilibrium unemployment is strictly positive, as workers with w...

  12. Jobs in Public Service. Job Family Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The booklet describes jobs in public service. The introductory chapter provides a definition and overview of public service work. Following chapters describe various levels of public service including: (1) neighborhood workers--letter carriers and postal employees, fire fighters, police officers, service repair workers, and bus drivers; (2) city…

  13. Job strain and informal caregiving as predictors of long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jesper; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the individual, joint and interactive effects of job strain and informal caregiving on long-term sickness absence with special attention to gender differences. METHODS: The study comprised a prospective cohort study of 6798 working adults from...... France, 14 727 from Finland, and 5275 from the UK. A total of 26 800 participants, age 52 (interquartile range 47-56) years participated in the study. Job strain was assessed using the demand-control model. Informal caregiving was defined as care for a sick, disabled, or elderly person. Long......-term sickness absence spells defined as absence >14 consecutive days were registered during two years follow-up. We used recurrent-events Cox regression in random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: A total of 12% men and 21% women had ≥1 long-term sickness absence spell. Among women, both high job strain [hazard...

  14. JOB SATISFACTION OF MIDWIVES: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Nedvědová

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aims of the literature review were to identify and analyze factors affecting job satisfaction of midwives. Design: A literature review. Methods: Included in the literature review were full texts of papers published in English language from 1990 to 2014. The search for relevant data was performed using the electronic databases CINAHL, Medline, Science Direct and Wiley Online Library. From a total of 43 studies found, 11were analyzed as quantitative studies that fulfilled the specified criteria. Results: Job satisfaction of midwives is affected by a lack of support from the management of healthcare facilities, low salary, understaffing, insufficient time for professional activities, work-family imbalance, high workload, physical demands, inadequate professional development, working environment, stress and low autonomy at work. Midwives showed signs of exhaustion, fatigue, hostility and depression, contributing to job turnover. Conclusion: The literature review presents the factors influencing job satisfaction of midwives. This is affected by many variable determinants, which create a feeling of job satisfaction of midwives, but can also lead to job dissatisfaction and, consequently, high turnover. Keywords: midwives, job satisfaction.

  15. [Job burnout and contributing factors for nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Zhi-ming; Wang, Mian-zhen; Lan, Ya-jia; Wu, Si-ying

    2006-07-01

    To investigate the degree of job burnout and contributing factors for nurses. A total of 495 nurses from three provincial hospitals were randomly selected. The MBI-GS, EPQ-RSC and OSI-R were administered to measure job burnout, personality traits and occupational stress, respectively. The medical and surgical nurses had significant greater scores of job burnout than others (P < 0.05). The poorer educational background was correlated with lower professional efficacy. The younger nurses had stronger feeling of job burnout. The scores of job burnout changed with different personality traits. The main contributing variables to exhaustion were overload, sense of responsibility, role insufficient and self-care (P < 0.05). The main contributing variables to cynicism were role insufficiency, role boundary, sense of responsibility and self-care (P < 0.05). The main contributing variables to professional inefficacy were role insufficiency, social support and rational/cognitive coping (P < 0.05). Job burnout for nurses can be prevented by reducing or keeping moderate professional duties and responsibility, making clearer job descriptions, promoting leisure activities, and enhancing self-care capabilities.

  16. JOB MISMATCH – EFFECTS ON WORK PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Velciu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Job matching and finding the best person to the right job inside the right company has become one of the most important and actual challenges of productivity. Not only full employment but the match between the employee and the job, in terms of educational level or field of activity, qualifications and skills of workforce; all have been the new gain of work productivity. Present article synthesizes the theoretical and empirical findings on effects of job mismatch by selecting the main findings about influence of job mismatches on work productivity including both employees and companies sides. on short term overeducation and overqualification could have a positive effect on productivity for one company, but on long term, mismatched worker would be affected by decreasing job satisfaction and lower wages. Also, at macroeconomic level, from a perspective of economy as a whole, job mismatches mean a loss of resources and human capital and could have negative effects on overall productivity. The opposite effects stay at the crossing between the employees, companies, policies and future development. In fact the effects of skill mismatch and productivity is a lost of work potential through inefficient resource (reallocation.

  17. Gender Differences in the Effects of Job Control and Demands on the Health of Korean Manual Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HeeJoo; Kim, Ji Hye; Jang, Yeon Jin; Bae, Ji Young

    2016-01-01

    We used the job-demand-control model to answer our two research questions concerning the effects of working conditions on self-rated health and gender differences and the association between these working conditions and health among Korean manual workers. Since a disproportionate representation of women in nonstandard work positions is found in many countries, including Korea, it is important to examine how working conditions explain gender inequality in health. We used data from the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and analyzed a total sample of 1,482 men and 1,350 women using logistic regression. We found that job control was positively related to self-rated health, while both physical and mental job demands were negatively related to self-rated health. We also found significant interaction effects of job demands, control, and gender on health. Particularly, female workers' health was more vulnerable to mentally demanding job conditions. We discussed theoretical and practice implications based on these findings.

  18. The God of Job

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Mare

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available God is often portrayed extremely negatively in the Old Testament. For example, in the Book of Nahum God is pictured as being responsible for the most horrifying violence imaginable. This negative portrayal of God is also found in the Book of Job. God is responsible for the suffering that his righteous servant Job, has to endure. He is even manipulated by the satan to allow him free reign in attacking Job. God even acknowledges that the misery and pain inflicted on Job, was for no reason. Job�s children are killed in order for God to prove a point, and in his response to Job�s suffering, he doesn�t even address the issue of Job�s suffering. This is a picture of a very cruel, vicious God. This article investigates the negative, disturbing images of God in the Book of Job. Are these images of God who God really is, or is the God of Job a literary construct of the author? The focus of this study is on the prologue and epilogue to the book, as well as the speeches of God in Job 38�41.

  19. Job satisfaction in the European union: the role of macroeconomic, personal, and job-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augner, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    Job satisfaction is influenced by many factors. Most of them are attributed to personality or company features. Little research has been conducted identifying the relationship of job satisfaction with macroeconomic parameters. We used data collected by European Commission (Eurostat, Eurofound) and World Health Organization (WHO) for personal (eg, subjective health, physical activity), company (eg, career advancement perspectives, negative health effects of work), or macroeconomic parameters (eg, Gross Domestic Product, unemployment rate) on state level. Correlation analysis and a stepwise linear regression model were obtained. Gross domestic product (GDP) was the best predictor for job satisfaction across the European Union member states ahead of good career perspectives, and WHO-5 score (depressive symptoms). Beside personal, job-related, and organizational factors that influence job satisfaction, the macroeconomic perspective has to be considered, too.

  20. On Job Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Metin M. Cosgel; Thomas J. Miceli

    1998-01-01

    A fundamental principle of economics with which Adam Smith begins The Wealth of Nations is the division of labor. Some firms, however, have been pursuing a practice called job rotation, which assigns each worker not to a single and specific task but to a set of several tasks among which he or she rotates with some frequency. We examine the practice of job rotation as a serious alternative to specialization, with three objectives. The first is to consider current and historical examples of job...

  1. Relationships between followers’ behaviors and job satisfaction in a sample of nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Gatti, Paola; Ghislieri, Chiara; Cortese, Claudio G.

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated two followership behaviors, followers' active engagement and followers' independent critical thinking, and their relationship with job satisfaction in a sample of nurses. In addition, the study also considered a number of control variables and classical job demands and job resources-workload and emotional dissonance for job demands, and meaningful work for job resources-which have an impact on well-being at work. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was administered to 425 ...

  2. Job monitoring on the WLCG scope: Current status and new strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, Julia; Casey, James; Gaidioz, Benjamin; Karavakis, Edward; Kokoszkiewicz, Lukasz; Lanciotti, Elisa; Maier, Gerhild; Rodrigues, Daniele Filipe Rocha Da Cuhna; Rocha, Ricardo; Saiz, Pablo; Sidorova, Irina; Boehm, Max; Belov, Sergey; Tikhonenko, Elena; Dvorak, Frantisek; Krenek, Ales; Mulac, Milas; Sitera, Jiri; Kodolova, Olga; Vaibhav, Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Job processing and data transfer are the main computing activities on the WLCG infrastructure. Reliable monitoring of the job processing on the WLCG scope is a complicated task due to the complexity of the infrastructure itself and the diversity of the currently used job submission methods. The paper will describe current status and the new strategy for the job monitoring on the WLCG scope, covering primary information sources, job status changes publishing, transport mechanism and visualization.

  3. The Job Training and Job Satisfaction Survey Technical Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    Job training has become an important aspect of an employee's overall job experience. However, it is not often called out specifically on instruments measuring job satisfaction. This technical manual details the processes used in the development and validation of a survey instrument to measure job training satisfaction and overall job…

  4. Job anxiety, organizational commitment and job satisfaction: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Job anxiety, organizational commitment and job satisfaction: An empirical assessment of supervisors in the state of Eritrea. ... The findings of the present research revealed that (i) recognition and self-esteem facets of job anxiety were found to be significantly related to job satisfaction, (ii) facets of organizational commitment ...

  5. The Relationship of Job Involvement, Motivation and Job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study found that job involvement had significant relationship with work motivation and job satisfaction of the respondents. It was also found that work motivation and job satisfaction jointly and individually predict job involvement of the respondents. Nevertheless, it was established that there was significant difference in ...

  6. Impact of external job mobility and occupational job mobility on earnings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.; Cheng, M.Y.; Lau, T.C.

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between external job mobility and occupational job mobility on earnings among engineers in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: Using curricular vitae data from a job agency, this paper tracks job mobility through job histories and examine how it affects earnings. Findings: Results obtained from regression analysis indicate that higher external job mobility will contribute to higher earnings, but occupational mobility will have adverse effect on earnings. Research limitations/implications: Limitation of the study is that the results are extrapolated from a self-report dataset. Practical implications: Nonetheless, the results give important implications to the Malaysian job market on how firm-specific skills and occupational specific skills are rewarded among engineers who actively seek for alternative employment online, and a guide to job applicants in career planning. Originality/value: The findings has also revealed important variables to be included in explaining high skill labor earnings in the context of Malaysian engineers, it serves as an important reference for future in modeling earnings.

  7. Impact of external job mobility and occupational job mobility on earnings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.; Cheng, M.Y.; Lau, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between external job mobility and occupational job mobility on earnings among engineers in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: Using curricular vitae data from a job agency, this paper tracks job mobility through job histories and examine how it affects earnings. Findings: Results obtained from regression analysis indicate that higher external job mobility will contribute to higher earnings, but occupational mobility will have adverse effect on earnings. Research limitations/implications: Limitation of the study is that the results are extrapolated from a self-report dataset. Practical implications: Nonetheless, the results give important implications to the Malaysian job market on how firm-specific skills and occupational specific skills are rewarded among engineers who actively seek for alternative employment online, and a guide to job applicants in career planning. Originality/value: The findings has also revealed important variables to be included in explaining high skill labor earnings in the context of Malaysian engineers, it serves as an important reference for future in modeling earnings.

  8. Job satisfaction of registered dental practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzi, L; Spencer, A J; Jones, K; Teusner, D

    2005-09-01

    This study was designed to measure job satisfaction among registered clinical dentists so as to identify issues which may influence recruitment and retention of dentists in active clinical practice. A questionnaire measuring dimensions of job satisfaction was mailed to a stratified random sample of 80 private and 80 public sector dentists selected from the 1999 Victorian Dental Register. An adjusted response rate of 60 per cent was achieved (n = 87). Analyses showed significant differences (ANOVA; p satisfaction for various dimensions of job satisfaction by gender, age group and practice type. Differences in job satisfaction between male and female dentists related to the personal time dimension. Differences in satisfaction between dentists of different age groups were attributable to six dimensions: relationships with colleagues, relationships with patients, relationships with staff, personal time, community and administrative responsibilities. Differences between levels of satisfaction among private and public dentists related to the autonomy, relationships with patients, pay and resources dimensions. There are various dimensions of job satisfaction that may be pertinent to issues influencing recruitment and retention of dentists. Differences that exist between levels of job satisfaction among private and public sector dentists, between male and female dentists and dentists of different age groups need to be addressed in order to improve recruitment and retention rates of dentists in active clinical practice in different sectors of the dental care system.

  9. Job Accommodation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TTY) Email JAN Subscribe to Newsletters Share Through Social Networks Newsletter Live Help Link to Us Toolkit Webcasts FOR EMPLOYERS Private Employers Federal Employers State & Local Government FOR INDIVIDUALS Employees Job Seekers Entrepreneurs FOR OTHERS ...

  10. "Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)

  11. Job stress and occupational health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanc, Le P.M.; Jonge, de J.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Chmiel, N.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter focuses on job stress in relation to workers’ physical and psycho logical health. We begin with an outline of job stress as a social problem, fol lowed by a discussion of the main perspectives on (job) stress, resulting in a process model of job stress that will be used as a frame of

  12. Job satisfaction of older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen van den Brink, H.; Groot, W.J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Using data for The Netherlands, this paper analyzes the relation between allocation, wages and job satisfaction. Five conclusions emerge from the empirical analysis: satisfaction with the job content is the main factor explaining overall job satisfaction; the effects of individual and job

  13. Does workplace social capital buffer the effects of job stress? A cross-sectional, multilevel analysis of cigarette smoking among U.S. manufacturing workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Amy L.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Sorensen, Glorian; LaMontagne, Anthony D.; Subramanian, S.V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether workplace social capital buffers the association between job stress and smoking status. Methods As part of the Harvard Cancer Prevention Project’s Healthy Directions-Small Business Study, interviewer-administered questionnaires were completed by 1740 workers and 288 managers in 26 manufacturing firms (84% and 85% response). Social capital was assessed by multiple items measured at the individual-level among workers, and contextual-level among managers. Job stress was operationalized by the demand-control model. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate associations between job stressors and smoking, and test for effect modification by social capital measures. Results Workplace social capital (both summary measures) buffered associations between high job demands and smoking. One compositional item—worker trust in managers—buffered associations between job strain and smoking. Conclusion Workplace social capital may modify the effects of psychosocial working conditions on health behaviors. PMID:20595910

  14. Job design and job stress in office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, P

    1993-05-01

    A model to look at various job components that affect individual well-being and health was developed drawing from the job design and job stress literature. Briefly stated, the model proposes job control to be a primary causal determinant of the stress outcomes. The effects of perceived demands, job content, and career/future concerns were hypothesized to influence the stress outcomes only to the extent of their influence on job control. This was tested in a population of government office employees in various clerical, professional, and managerial jobs all of which involve the use of computers. Results indicated that job control was not a crucial determinant of the stress outcomes, that job demands and career/future concerns were consistent determinants of the stress outcomes, and that job content, demands, and career/future concerns did not influence the stress outcomes through job control as described by the proposed model. The differentiation of job control levels to define specific relationships with stress outcomes and other job elements was shown to be useful because different levels of job control were associated with different stress outcomes and job elements.

  15. Does Work-Family Conflict Mediate the Associations of Job Characteristics With Employees’ Mental Health Among Men and Women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia S. Carvalho

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Job characteristics are important to work-family conflict (WFC. Additionally, is well established that WFC has a negative impact on mental health. As such, this research aims to examine the role of WFC as a mechanism that explains the relationship between job characteristics (i.e., those establishing by the Job Demands-Control-Support Model and workers’ mental health. Moreover, based on gender inequalities in work and non-work roles, this study analyzed gender as moderator of this mediation. Specifically, the relationship between job characteristics and WFC and the relationship between WFC and mental health could be stronger for women than for men. With a sample of 254 workers from a Portuguese services company, (61% males, and based on a multiple-group analysis, the results indicated that the WFC mediates the relationship between job characteristics (i.e., job demands and job control and mental health. It was reinforced that job demands and lack of control could contribute to employees’ stress and, once individual’ energy was drained, the WFC could emerge. Ultimately, may be due to the presence of this conflict that individuals mental health’ is negatively affected. Contrary to our expectations, this relationship is not conditioned by gender (Z-scores were non-significant. The study results have implications for human resource management, enhancing the knowledge on the relationship between the WFC and workers’ mental health.

  16. Risk Aversion and Job Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    van Huizen, T.M.; Alessie, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Job mobility is inherently risky as workers have limited ex ante information about the quality of outside jobs. Using a large longitudinal Dutch dataset, which includes data on risk preferences elicited through (incentivized) experiments, we examine the relation between risk aversion and job mobility. The results for men show that risk averse workers are less likely to move to other jobs. For women, the evidence that risk aversion affects job mobility is weak. Our empirical findings indicate ...

  17. Job Satisfaction of Nursing Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Petrosova, Liana; Pokhilenko, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to research levels of job satisfaction, factors affecting job satisfaction/dissatisfaction, and ways to improve job satisfaction among nursing managers. The purposes of the study were to extend knowledge in the field of healthcare management, to raise awareness about factors that affect job satisfaction in nursing management career, and to provide suggestions regarding how to increase job satisfaction among nursing managers. The method of this study is literature r...

  18. Estimating Equilibrium Effects of Job Search Assistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Muller, Paul; van der Klaauw, Bas

    that the nonparticipants in the experiment regions find jobs slower after the introduction of the activation program (relative to workers in other regions). We then estimate an equilibrium search model. This model shows that a large scale role out of the activation program decreases welfare, while a standard partial...... microeconometric cost-benefit analysis would conclude the opposite....

  19. Job and organizational determinants of nursing home employee commitment, job satisfaction and intent to turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsh, B; Booske, B C; Sainfort, F

    2005-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether job characteristics, the work environment, participation in quality improvement activities and facility quality improvement environment predicted employee commitment and job satisfaction in nursing homes, and whether those same predictors and commitment and satisfaction predicted turnover intention. A total of 6,584 nursing home employees from 76 nursing homes in a midwestern state participated. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. The results supported the hypotheses that job and organizational factors predicted commitment and satisfaction while commitment and satisfaction predicted turnover intentions. The implications for retaining nursing home employees are discussed.

  20. Psychosocial work environment, job mobility and gender differences in turnover behaviour: a prospective study among the Swedish general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, Mia; Härenstam, Annika; Rosengren, Annika; Schiöler, Linus; Olin, Anna-Carin; Lissner, Lauren; Waern, Margda; Torén, Kjell

    2014-06-14

    Throughout the literature, substantial evidence supports associations between poor psychosocial work characteristics and a variety of ill-health outcomes. Yet, few reports strategies workers carry out to improve detrimental work conditions and consequently their health, such as changing jobs. The aim of this study was to examine if adverse psychosocial work exposure, as measured with the job demand-control and effort-reward imbalance models, could predict job mobility over a 5 years observation period. Participants were working men and women (n = 940; 54.3% women), aged 24-60 years from the population of Gothenburg and surrounding metropolitan area. Job demand-control and effort-reward variables were compared with independent t-tests and chi2-test in persons with and without job mobility. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse whether psychosocial factors could predict job mobility. All regression analyses were stratified by gender. Exposure to a combination of high demands-low control or high imbalance between effort and reward was related to increased odds of changing jobs (OR 1.63; CI 1.03-2.59 and OR 1.46; CI 1.13-1.89 respectively). When analysing men and women separately, men had a higher OR of changing jobs when exposed to either high demands-low control (OR 2.72; CI 1.24-5.98) or high effort-reward imbalance (OR 1.74; CI 1.11-2.72) compared to reference values. The only significant associations for women was slightly decreased odds for turnover in high reward jobs (OR 0.96; CI 0.92-0.99). The results indicate that workers will seek to improve poor work environment by changing jobs. There were notable gender differences, where men tended to engage in job mobility when exposed to adverse psychosocial factors, while women did not. The lack of measures for mechanisms driving job mobility was a limitation of this study, thus preventing conclusions regarding psychosocial factors as the primary source for job mobility.

  1. The impact of job crafting on job demands, job resources, and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tims, M.; Bakker, A.B.; Derks, D.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether employees can impact their own well-being by crafting their job demands and resources. Based on the Job Demands-Resources model, we hypothesized that employee job crafting would have an impact on work engagement, job satisfaction, and burnout through changes

  2. Job satisfaction among Arizona adult nurse practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiestel, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    A literature review for studies of job satisfaction among nurse practitioners (NPs) suggests that the true determinants of job satisfaction have not been discovered. The purpose of this study was to determine job satisfaction among adult health NPs (ANPs) practicing in Arizona. The Misener nurse practitioner job satisfaction scale was mailed to 329 Arizona ANPs who were certified by the Arizona State Board of Nursing (47% response rate). The mean overall satisfaction score was 4.69 out of a possible score of 6.0 for very satisfied. Differences in employer type, gender, annual income, membership in professional nursing organization, or full-time versus part-time employment status did not result in significantly different scores on the job satisfaction scale in this group. A deep and sustained nursing shortage, the exodus of experienced nurses from the profession, and a projected shortage of primary care providers have generated interest among professional groups, private and government healthcare commissions, and the healthcare industry in determining what factors may influence an individual to choose and remain active in nursing practice. Researchers, educators, employers, and the healthcare industry must look beyond well-worn assumptions about job satisfaction to explore what the individual NP finds satisfying about his or her role.

  3. Does low job satisfaction lead to job mobility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nicolai; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    This paper seeks to analyse the role of job satisfaction and actual job change behaviour. The analysis is based on the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) data for Danish families 1994-2000. The results show that inclusion of job satisfaction, which is a subjective measure, does improve...... the ability to predict actual quit behaviour: Low overall job satisfaction significantly increases the probability of quit. Various job satisfaction domains are ranked according to their ability to predict quits. Satisfaction with Type of Work is found to be the most important job characteristic while...... satisfaction with Job Security is found to be insignificant. These results hold across age, gender and education sub-groups and are opposed to results for UK, where job security is found to be the most important job domain. This discrepancy between UK and Denmark might be due to differences in unemployment...

  4. Emotional intelligence, teamwork effectiveness, and job performance: the moderating role of job context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farh, Crystal I C Chien; Seo, Myeong-Gu; Tesluk, Paul E

    2012-07-01

    We advance understanding of the role of ability-based emotional intelligence (EI) and its subdimensions in the workplace by examining the mechanisms and context-based boundary conditions of the EI-performance relationship. Using a trait activation framework, we theorize that employees with higher overall EI and emotional perception ability exhibit higher teamwork effectiveness (and subsequent job performance) when working in job contexts characterized by high managerial work demands because such contexts contain salient emotion-based cues that activate employees' emotional capabilities. A sample of 212 professionals from various organizations and industries indicated support for the salutary effect of EI, above and beyond the influence of personality, cognitive ability, emotional labor job demands, job complexity, and demographic control variables. Theoretical and practical implications of the potential value of EI for workplace outcomes under contexts involving managerial complexity are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Factor structure and longitudinal measurement invariance of the demand control support model: an evidence from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Ingre, Michael; Karasek, Robert; Westerlund, Hugo; Theorell, Töres

    2013-01-01

    To examine the factor structure and to evaluate the longitudinal measurement invariance of the demand-control-support questionnaire (DCSQ), using the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) models within the framework of structural equation modeling (SEM) have been used to examine the factor structure and invariance across time. Four factors: psychological demand, skill discretion, decision authority and social support, were confirmed by CFA at baseline, with the best fit obtained by removing the item repetitive work of skill discretion. A measurement error correlation (0.42) between work fast and work intensively for psychological demands was also detected. Acceptable composite reliability measures were obtained except for skill discretion (0.68). The invariance of the same factor structure was established, but caution in comparing mean levels of factors over time is warranted as lack of intercept invariance was evident. However, partial intercept invariance was established for work intensively. Our findings indicate that skill discretion and decision authority represent two distinct constructs in the retained model. However removing the item repetitive work along with either work fast or work intensively would improve model fit. Care should also be taken while making comparisons in the constructs across time. Further research should investigate invariance across occupations or socio-economic classes.

  6. Factor structure and longitudinal measurement invariance of the demand control support model: an evidence from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holendro Singh Chungkham

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the factor structure and to evaluate the longitudinal measurement invariance of the demand-control-support questionnaire (DCSQ, using the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH. METHODS: A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA models within the framework of structural equation modeling (SEM have been used to examine the factor structure and invariance across time. RESULTS: Four factors: psychological demand, skill discretion, decision authority and social support, were confirmed by CFA at baseline, with the best fit obtained by removing the item repetitive work of skill discretion. A measurement error correlation (0.42 between work fast and work intensively for psychological demands was also detected. Acceptable composite reliability measures were obtained except for skill discretion (0.68. The invariance of the same factor structure was established, but caution in comparing mean levels of factors over time is warranted as lack of intercept invariance was evident. However, partial intercept invariance was established for work intensively. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that skill discretion and decision authority represent two distinct constructs in the retained model. However removing the item repetitive work along with either work fast or work intensively would improve model fit. Care should also be taken while making comparisons in the constructs across time. Further research should investigate invariance across occupations or socio-economic classes.

  7. Applications and Energy Consumption of Demand Controlled Ventilation Systems. Modelling, Simulation and Implementation of Modular Built Dynamical VAV Systems and Control Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Bjoern R.

    2002-07-01

    This thesis discusses many topics of heating and ventilation. This is because the ventilation system is an integrated part of its host building. The functionality and effectiveness of the ventilation system are very much dependent on the building's architectural design, its internal materials, its occupants, its air tightness characteristics and its placement in the terrain. Although this thesis emphasizes strongly on VAV (Variable Air Volume) systems and, in particular, modelling and simulation of such systems, it touches a range of important HVAC related issues. The scope is however, limited to the field of comfort ventilation. That is because ventilation in industrial environments often is subject to separate regulations, and requires other and specialized methods of design and evaluation of ventilation performance. The main objectives have been to: (1) Develop mathematical models for VAV components and systems. (2) Evaluate existing and develop new strategies for VAV demand controlled ventilation by system simulation. (3) Investigate the potential for saving energy and the impact on indoor climate. The development of mathematical models and simulation of VAV systems are given quite much attention compared to the other topics discussed.

  8. Job demands, job control, psychological climate, and job satisfaction: a cognitive dissonance perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Karanika-Murray, M; Michaelides, G; Wood, S

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Research into job design and employee outcomes has tended to examine job design in isolation of the wider organizational context, leading to calls to attend to the context in which work is embedded. This study examines the effects of the interaction between job design and psychological climate on job satisfaction.\\ud \\ud Design/approach: Cognitive Dissonance Theory was used to explore the nature of this relationship and its effect on job satisfaction. We hypothesized that psychologic...

  9. Job Hunting, Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Ed; Stringer, Susan

    1998-05-01

    The AAS is again sponsoring a career workshop for Astronomers seeking employment. The workshop will cover a wide range of tools needed by a job seeker with a background in astronomy. There are increasingly fewer job opportunities in the academic areas. Today, astronomers need placement skills and career information to compete strongly in a more diversified jobs arena. The workshop will offer practical training on preparing to enter the job market. Topics covered include resume and letter writing as well as how to prepare for an interview. Advice is given on resources for jobs in astronomy, statistics of employment and education, and networking strategies. Workshop training also deals with a diverse range of career paths for astronomers. The workshop will consist of an two approximately three-hour sessions. The first (1-4pm) will be on the placement tools and job-search skills described above. The second session will be for those who would like to stay and receive personalized information on individual resumes, job search problems, and interview questions and practice. The individual appointments with Ed Goldin and Susan Stringer that will take place during the second session (6-9pm) will be arranged on-site during the first session. A career development and job preparation manual "Preparing Physicists for Work" will be on sale at the workshop for \\9.00. TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION: How to prepare an effective resume How to research prospective employers Interviewing skills Networking to uncover employment Job prospects present and future Traditional and non-traditional positions for astronomers This workshop will be presented by Ed Goldin and Susan Stringer of the American Institute of Physics. The cost of the workshop is \\15.00 which includes a packet of resource materials supporting the workshop presentation. Please send your request for attendance by 8 May 1998 to the Executive Office along with a check, payable to the AAS, for the fee. Credit cards will not be

  10. Job Security as an Endogenous Job Characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    JS-preferences trade JS for higher wages. The relation between optimal job insecurity and the perceived dismissal probability is hump-shaped. If firms observe demand, but workers do not, separation is not contractible and firms dismiss workers at-will. Although the workers are risk-averse......, they respond to the one-sided private information by trading wage-risk for a higher JS. With two-sided private information, even JS-neutral workers pay the price for a JS guarantee, if their risk premium associated with the wage-replacement risk is larger than the social net loss from production....

  11. Job insecurity and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, P

    2000-01-01

    As employers respond to new competitive pressures of global capitalism through layoffs and the casualization of labor, job insecurity affects a growing number of workers. It appears to harm mental health, but less is known about its effects on physical health and health behaviors and the mechanisms through which it may act. The prevailing individual-centered conceptualization of job insecurity as the perception of a threat to job continuity precludes systematic investigation of the social patterning of its health effects. Analysis of data from a 1994 Canadian national probability sample of adults determined that high levels of job insecurity lowered self-rated health and increased distress and the use of medications, but had no impact on heavy drinking. The findings support one possible mechanism of action whereby job insecurity reduces feelings of control over one's environment and opportunities for positive self-evaluation; these psychological experiences, in turn, have deleterious health consequences. There is little evidence of social patterning of this relationship by gender, education, household income, age, marital status, and social support at work.

  12. Job Quality by Entrepreneurial Spinoffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    We study whether entrepreneurial spinoffs are important drivers of industry dynamics. More precisely, we investigate whether the quality of jobs in spinoff entrepreneurs are higher than for other entrepreneurs. We distinguish spinoff firms by different types and distinguish between growing...... for worker heterogeneity and industry and region clusters characteristics. An important feature of the analysis is that we measure the entrepreneur as the organic new firm. By organic new firm, we mean new firms that are not the result of restructurings or organising existing or additional activities...

  13. Job satisfaction among public health nurses: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Elizabeth A; Glacken, Michele

    2014-07-01

    Despite increasing interest in nurses' job satisfaction relatively few studies have investigated job satisfaction among public health nurses. To establish current level of job satisfaction among public health nurses and identify the main contributing variables/factors to job satisfaction among this population. Quantitative descriptive design. A simple random sample of 1000 public health nurses was conducted yielding a response rate of 35.1% (n = 351). Data was collected using the Index of Work Satisfaction Questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were deployed. Low levels of job satisfaction among public health nurses emerged. Professional status, interaction and autonomy contributed most to job satisfaction while pay and task-related activities contributed least. Age and tenure were the only biographic factors that correlated significantly with job satisfaction. Public health nurse managers/leaders need to find creative ways of improving the factors that contribute to job satisfaction and address robustly those factors that result in low job satisfaction. The critical issue for public health nurse managers is to determine how job satisfaction can be improved. Greater collaboration and consultation between managers and public health nurses can be regarded as a useful way to begin this process, especially if contemporary nursing is to embrace a responsive approach within the profession. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Job Sharing: A Part-Time Career for a Fuller Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblinsky, Sally A.; Mikitka, Kathleen F.

    1984-01-01

    Describes job sharing as a rewarding alternative for those who wish to combine a career with child rearing, education, avocations, or leisure activities. Advantages and drawbacks for employers and suggestions for prospective job sharers are elaborated. (SK)

  15. Job attributes, job satisfaction and the return to health after breast cancer diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Andrew J; Robert, Nicholas; Bradley, Cathy J

    2014-02-01

    As detection and treatment of cancer has advanced, the number of working age women with breast cancer has increased. This study provides new information on the intersection of breast cancer treatment and job tasks and how, together, they impact employed and newly diagnosed women. The sample comprised 493 employed women within 2 months of initiating treatment. Job satisfaction and demands were assessed by a pre-diagnosis recall along with measures of mental and physical health and assessed again 9 months after initiating treatment. Using seemingly unrelated regression, we tested the effect of job tasks and satisfaction on mental and physical health 9 months post-treatment initiation, controlling for pre-diagnosis health status, patient characteristics, and job tasks. Physical job demands prior to diagnosis were not significantly associated with mental or physical health 9 months after treatment initiation. Employment in cognitively demanding and less satisfying jobs was associated with decreases in mental health and increases in problems with work or daily activities 9 months post-treatment initiation (pWomen who received five or more cycles of chemotherapy reported lower vitality, social functioning, and worse measures of physical health compared with those who did not receive chemotherapy (pjobs may impede mental health recovery, particularly in patients who receive longer chemotherapy regimens. Such information may be used by patients and clinicians in deciding when to undergo chemotherapy and whether job tasks can be restructured to hasten recovery. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Job stress and job satisfaction of physicians in private practice: comparison of German and Norwegian physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltmer, Edgar; Rosta, Judith; Siegrist, Johannes; Aasland, Olaf G

    2012-10-01

    This study examined job satisfaction and job stress of German compared to Norwegian physicians in private practice. A representative sample of physicians in private practice of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany (N = 414) and a nationwide sample of Norwegian general practitioners and private practice specialists (N = 340) were surveyed in a cross-sectional design in 2010. The questionnaire comprised the standard instruments "Job Satisfaction Scale (JSS)" and a short form of the "Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (ERI)". Norwegian physicians scored significantly higher (job satisfaction scale compared to German physicians (M 5.57, SD 0.74 vs. M 4.78, SD 1.01). The effect size was highest for the items freedom to choose method (d = 1.012), rate of pay (d = 0.941), and overall job satisfaction (d = 0.931). While there was no significant difference in the mean of the overall effort scale between German and Norwegian physicians, Norwegian physicians scored significantly higher (p job satisfaction. Job satisfaction and reward were significantly higher in Norwegian than in German physicians. An almost threefold higher proportion of German physicians exhibited a high level of work-related stress. Findings call for active prevention and health promotion among stressed practicing physicians, with a special focus on improved working conditions.

  17. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...... a substantial share of their workers, for workers with at least three years of tenure. Displaced workers are more likely to commit offenses leading to conviction (probation, prison terms) for property crimes and for alcohol-related traffic violations in the two years following displacement. We find no evidence...... that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....

  18. Job Crafting, Employee Well-being, and Quality of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Romeo, Marina; Westerberg, Kristina; Nordin, Maria

    2018-01-01

    The main objective is to study the effects of job crafting activities of elder care and nursing home employees on their perceived well-being and quality of care in two European countries, Spain and Sweden. The Job Crafting, the General Health, and the Quality of Care questionnaires were administered to 530 employees. Correlations and hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Results confirm the effects of job crafting on quality of care ( r = .291, p employees' well-being ( r = .201, p well-being in Spain and Sweden and with quality of care in Spain. On the contrary, in Sweden, the relationship between job crafting and well-being was not linear. Job crafting contributes significantly to employees' and residents' well-being. Management should promote job crafting to co-create meaningful and productive work. Cultural effects are proposed to explain the differences found.

  19. Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction Among Long-Term Care Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Kelly; Resnick, Barbara; Swanberg, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    We assessed the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and organizational factors that predicted job satisfaction among long-term care employees. Baseline data were used to describe characteristics that influence job satisfaction. Using a forced linear regression model, while controlling for age and job title, we assessed if higher physical activity levels, fewer symptoms of depression, stress, and/or anxiety (ie, decreased mood), less back pain, stronger social support, and reports of low work demands were associated with higher job satisfaction. Mood (β = -0.412, P = 0.003) explained 17% of the variance in job satisfaction. This information can be used to guide facility wide programs and interventions aimed at increasing job satisfaction among all long-term care staff.

  20. THE JOB DIMENSIONS OF ’WORKER ORIENTED’ JOB VARIABLES AND OF THEIR ATTRIBUTE PROFILES AS BASED ON DATA FROM THE POSITION ANALYSIS QUESTIONNAIRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PAQ ). Two major data sources were developed and structured in terms of the behavioral job elements comprising the PAQ . One set of data consisted...of 536 jobs analyzed with the PAQ , while the second set of data consisted of the ratings of the relevance of 67 different human attributes to each of...the job activities and work situations described in the PAQ . Three different multivariate procedures were used to construct several sets of job

  1. Remote control of workers' activities under the "JobsAct" (art. 23 D.Lgs. 151/2015: ideas to a debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Carinci

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The introduction aims at giving an overview of the new article 4 of the Worker’s Statute (Law no. 300/1970, concerning the employer’s monitoring powers, as recently reformed by the latest Italian Labour Reform (the so called Jobs Act.In particular, after a brief explanation of the rationale underlying the new rule, in order to make the employer’s control power compatible with the improvement of technological tools in the workplace, the Author critically lists and takes into consideration the heterogeneous and complicated interpretative issues raised by the brand new reform.

  2. Ecobuilding and job creation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kolev, M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available directly or indirectly from the renewable energy sector. Million Jobs Geothermal 25 000 Small Hydro 39 000 Biomass 1 174 000 Solar Thermal 645 000 Solar PV 170 000 Wind Power 300 000 Figure 1: Worldwide employment in renewable energy... threat to the way we live our lives. We need to change the way we travel, build, cook, generate and consume energy, and heat and cool our living and office spaces. We need to change the way we think about our surroundings, our families and our jobs...

  3. Branding McJobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noppeney, Claus; Endrissat, Nada; Kärreman, Dan

    Traditionally, employer branding has been considered relevant for knowledge intensive firms that compete in a ‘war for talent’. However, the continuous rise in service sector jobs and the negative image of these so-called McJobs has motivated a trend in rebranding service work. Building on critical...... oriented branding literature, our contribution to this stream of research is twofold: We provide an empirical account of employer branding of a grocery chain, which has repeatedly been voted among the ‘100 best companies to work for’. Second, we outline the role of symbolic compensation that employees...... of employer branding....

  4. Job satisfaction and intention to quit the job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Bonde, J P; Olesen, K

    2013-01-01

    Negative psychosocial work conditions may influence the motivation of employees to adhere to their job.......Negative psychosocial work conditions may influence the motivation of employees to adhere to their job....

  5. Job Creation and Job Destruction, Worker Reallocation, and Wages.

    OpenAIRE

    Belzil, Christian

    2000-01-01

    Using Danish firm (workplace) data on employment reallocation merged with individual records, the effects of job creation/destruction and worker reallocation on wages are estimated using fixed effects techniques. After controlling for business cycle fluctuations, job creation is found to increase male wages. The effect of net job creation seems present at all phases of the business cycle. Entry wages as well as wages of low tenure workers appear much more sensitive to idiosyncratic job creati...

  6. Physician job satisfaction related to actual and preferred job size

    OpenAIRE

    Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    Background: Job satisfaction is essential for physicians' well-being and patient care. The work ethic of long days and hard work that has been advocated for decades is acknowledged as a threat for physicians' job satisfaction, well-being, and patient safety. Our aim was to determine the actual and preferred job size of physicians and to investigate how these and the differences between them influence physicians' job satisfaction. Method: Data were retrieved from a larger, longitudinal study a...

  7. Mental health, job satisfaction, and job stress among general practitioners.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, C. L.; Rout, U.; Faragher, B.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To identify sources of job stress associated with high levels of job dissatisfaction and negative mental wellbeing among general practitioners in England. DESIGN--Multivariate analysis of large database of general practitioners compiled from results of confidential questionnaire survey. Data obtained on independent variables of job stress, demographic factors, and personality. Dependent variables were mental health, job satisfaction, alcohol consumption, and smoking. SETTING--Natio...

  8. Physician job satisfaction related to actual and preferred job size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Borleffs, Jan C C; Stewart, Roy E; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna

    2017-05-11

    Job satisfaction is essential for physicians' well-being and patient care. The work ethic of long days and hard work that has been advocated for decades is acknowledged as a threat for physicians' job satisfaction, well-being, and patient safety. Our aim was to determine the actual and preferred job size of physicians and to investigate how these and the differences between them influence physicians' job satisfaction. Data were retrieved from a larger, longitudinal study among physicians starting medical training at Groningen University in 1982/83/92/93 (N = 597). Data from 506 participants (85%) were available for this study. We used regression analysis to investigate the influence of job size on physicians' job satisfaction (13 aspects) and ANOVA to examine differences in job satisfaction between physicians wishing to retain, reduce or increase job size. The majority of the respondents (57%) had an actual job size less than 1.0 FTE. More than 80% of all respondents preferred not to work full-time in the future. Respondents' average actual and preferred job sizes were .85 FTE and .81 FTE, respectively. On average, respondents who wished to work less (35% of respondents) preferred a job size reduction of 0.18 FTE and those who wished to work more (12%) preferred an increase in job size of 0.16 FTE. Job size influenced satisfaction with balance work-private hours most (β = -.351). Physicians who preferred larger job sizes were - compared to the other groups of physicians - least satisfied with professional accomplishments. A considerable group of physicians reported a gap between actual and preferred job size. Realizing physicians' preferences as to job size will hardly affect total workforce, but may greatly benefit individual physicians as well as their patients and society. Therefore, it seems time for a shift in work ethic.

  9. Job Creation, Job Destruction and Plant Turnover in Norwegian Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Tor Jakob Klette; Astrid Mathiassen

    1995-01-01

    The labour market in Norway, as in other Scandinavian countries, is often claimed to be overregulated and incapable of adjustment to changes in job opportunities. The results presented in this paper suggest to the contrary that in terms of job creation and job reallocation between plants, the manufacturing sector in Norway is surprisingly flexible, and similar to the manufacturing sector in other OECD countries such as the U.S. We show that 8.4 percent of the manufacturing jobs are eliminated...

  10. 22 CFR 146.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Job classification and structure. 146.520... IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the... and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for males or for females; (b...

  11. 49 CFR 25.520 - Job classification and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Job classification and structure. 25.520 Section... IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the... and structure. A recipient shall not: (a) Classify a job as being for males or for females; (b...

  12. Combined effects of positive and negative affectivity and job satisfaction on job performance and turnover intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouckenooghe, Dave; Raja, Usman; Butt, Arif Nazir

    2013-01-01

    Capturing data from employee-supervisor dyads (N = 321) from eight organizations in Pakistan, including human service organizations, an electronics assembly plant, a packaging material manufacturing company, and a small food processing plant, we used moderated regression analysis to examine whether the relationships between trait affect (positive affectivity [PA] and negative affectivity [NA]) and two key work outcome variables (job performance and turnover) are contingent upon the level of job satisfaction. We applied the Trait Activation Theory to explain the moderating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between affect and performance and between affect and turnover. Overall, the data supported our hypotheses. Positive and negative affectivity influenced performance and the intention to quit, and job satisfaction moderated these relationships. We discuss in detail the results of these findings and their implications for research and practice.

  13. Job Characteristics, Work Involvement, and Job Performance of Public Servants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Johanim; Yahya, Khulida Kirana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to assess the predicting role of job characteristics on job performance. Dimensions in the job characteristics construct are skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. Further, work involvement is tested as a mediator in the hypothesized link. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  14. Relationship Between Job Characteristics And Job Performance Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agricultural extension agent is a key stakeholder in extension systems. The nature of their work is so important that it has overriding effect on their job performance. This study investigates the relationship between job characteristics and job performance of agricultural extension agents in Imo and Rivers States, Nigeria.

  15. Assessment of job satisfaction, job stress and psychological health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... employees, feels a tension of anxiety caused by their jobs.[4] ... [13] High job stress creates negative psychological effects ... where product quality is largely dependent ... on the work-health balance of journalists in. Nigeria. ..... Life. New York: Basic Books,1990. 15. Lu L. Work Motivation, Job Stress and.

  16. Job flexibility and job insecurity : the Dutch case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, D.J.; Vuuren, T. van

    1999-01-01

    Since the 1970s the flexible workforce in the Netherlands has been an important factor of labour force growth. The question raised in this article is whether job flexibility gives rise to feelings of job security. It appears that flexiworkers experience more job insecurity than workers with

  17. Youth job market specific features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Yu. Zhuravleva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers youth job market peculiarities, its specific features and regulation means, determines theoretical and application tasks of qualitative and quantitative comparison of vocations, which are highly in demand at the job market.

  18. Books for the Job Hunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Amy

    1992-01-01

    Reviews new and classic titles on career choice, job search methods, executive/professional job search, resume writing, and interviewing. Advises avoiding books with simplistic formulas and exercises or overt sales pitches for software, videos, and other products. (SK)

  19. Community Resources and Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jim

    1977-01-01

    In cooperation with the chamber of commerce, various businesses, associations, and other community agencies, the Sarasota schools (Florida) supplement their own job placement and follow-up efforts with community job development strategies for placing high school graduates. (JT)

  20. ATLAS Job Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, G A; The ATLAS collaboration; Maddocks, H J; Harenberg, T; Sandhoff, M; Sarrazin, B

    2013-01-01

    The need to run complex workflows for a high energy physics experiment such as ATLAS has always been present. However, as computing resources have become even more constrained, compared to the wealth of data generated by the LHC, the need to use resources efficiently and manage complex workflows within a single grid job have increased. In ATLAS, a new Job Transform framework has been developed that we describe in this paper. This framework manages the multiple execution steps needed to `transform' one data type into another (e.g., RAW data to ESD to AOD to final ntuple) and also provides a consistent interface for the ATLAS production system. The new framework uses a data driven workflow definition which is both easy to manage and powerful. After a transform is defined, jobs are expressed simply by specifying the input data and the desired output data. The transform infrastructure then executes only the necessary substeps to produce the final data products. The global execution cost of running the job is mini...

  1. ATLAS Job Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, G A; The ATLAS collaboration; Maddocks, H J; Harenberg, T; Sandhoff, M; Sarrazin, B

    2013-01-01

    The need to run complex workflows for a high energy physics experiment such as ATLAS has always been present. However, as computing resources have become even more constrained, compared to the wealth of data generated by the LHC, the need to use resources efficiently and manage complex workflows within a single grid job have increased. In ATLAS, a new Job Transform framework has been developed that we describe in this paper. This framework manages the multiple execution steps needed to 'transform' one data type into another (e.g., RAW data to ESD to AOD to final ntuple) and also provides a consistent interface for the ATLAS production system. The new framework uses a data driven workflow definition which is both easy to manage and powerful. After a transform is defined, jobs are expressed simply by specifying the input data and the desired output data. The transform infrastructure then executes only the necessary substeps to produce the final data products. The global execution cost of running the job is mini...

  2. Job prioritization in LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Castellani, G

    2007-01-01

    LHCb is one of the four high-energy experiments running in the near future at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. LHCb will try to answer some fundamental questions about the asymmetry between matter and anti-matter. The experiment is expected to produce about 2PB of data per year. Those will be distributed to several laboratories all over Europe and then analyzed by the Physics community. To achieve this target LHCb fully uses the Grid to reprocess, replicate and analyze data. The access to the Grid happens through LHCb's own distributed production and analysis system, DIRAC (Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control). Dirac implements the ‘pull’ job scheduling paradigm, where all the jobs are stored in a central task queues and then pulled via generic grid jobs called Pilot Agents. The whole LHCb community (about 600 people) is divided in sets of physicists, developers, production and software managers that have different needs about their jobs on the Grid. While a Monte Carlo simulation...

  3. Jobs Plan Highlights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    President Barack Obama is putting new money to save educators' jobs and help states refurbish aging school facilities at the center of a nearly $450 billion plan to jump-start the sluggish economy. The author talks about the president's plan which is sure to face hurdles in a politically polarized Washington where one house of Congress is…

  4. Predicting Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Psychological theories about human motivation and accommodation to environment can be used to achieve a better understanding of the human factors that function in the work environment. Maslow's theory of human motivational behavior provided a theoretical framework for an empirically-derived method to predict job satisfaction and explore the…

  5. Enhancing Job Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The impact of the Self-Determined Career Development Model (hereafter called the Self-Determined Career Model) on the job performance of four adults with moderate intellectual disability employed in competitive work settings was examined. Employees learned to set work-related goals, develop an action plan, implement the plan, and adjust their…

  6. Better Pay, More Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Vicki L.; Wohlmuth, Sonia Ramirez

    2000-01-01

    Reports the results of the 1999 survey of library schools that investigated salaries and job placement. Highlights include status of graduates; average starting salaries; discrepancies between salaries of men and women; and views of graduates regarding the placement process and their library school preparation. (LRW)

  7. Stress Management: Job Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Job stress can be all-consuming — but it doesn't have to be. Address your triggers, keep perspective and ... stress triggers, it's often helpful to improve time management skills — especially if you tend to feel overwhelmed ...

  8. What is Job Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke. Edwin A.

    Despite considerable interest in the study of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction, our understanding of these phenomena has not increased substantially in the past 30 years. It is argued that a major reason for this lack of progress is the implicit conception of casuality accepted by most psychologists. It is called the policy of "correlation…

  9. Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    The article consists of a literary reading of three Old Testament wisdom books, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and the Book of Job. The reading strategies employed are analysis of imagery and intertextual reading. The articles concludes in a presenatation of images of God in wisdom literature....

  10. Determinants of Job Satisfaction among Healthcare Workers at a Tertiary Care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopalekha Jathanna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction can be defined as "the extent to which people like or dislike their jobs". This definition suggests job satisfaction is a general or global affective reaction that individuals hold about their job. Family Roles are patterns of behavior by which individuals fulfill family functions and needs. Family role changes may affect their daily activities including a person’s work. Unlike traditional job satisfaction surveys, this study was trying to explore the correlation between employee’s personal profile and their satisfaction in their job. The personal profile determinants which were compared with overall job satisfaction were - Age, Gender, Work experience, marital status, dependent children and parents. It revealed that majority of the determinants studied were having positive impact on the job satisfaction. It is interesting to note that comparatively young employees with dependents were more satisfied with their job. They were feeling satisfied and motivated to work as they were contributing to the family.

  11. Psychosocial work conditions, unemployment, and leisure-time physical activity: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sadiq Mohammad; Lindström, Martin

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the association between psychosocial work conditions and unemployment, and low leisure-time physical activity. The 2000 public health survey in Scania is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study with a 59% participation rate. A total of 5,180 persons aged 18-64 years who belonged to the workforce and the unemployed were included in this study. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between psychosocial factors at work and unemployment, and low leisure-time physical activity. Psychosocial conditions at work were defined according to the Karasek-Theorell demand-control/decision latitudes into relaxed, active, passive, and job strain categories. The multivariate analyses included age, country of birth, education, economic stress, and social participation. In total, 16.1% of men and 14.8% of women had low leisure-time physical activity. The job strain (high demands/low control) and unemployed categories had significantly higher odds ratios of low leisure-time physical activity among both men and women compared with the relaxed (low demands/high control) reference category. However, the significant differences between the job strain, the unemployed, and the relaxed categories disappeared in the multivariate models. Respondents with job strain or unemployment have significantly higher odds ratios of low leisure-time physical activity than the relaxed category. However, after adjustments for education in particular the differences disappear. Nevertheless, the results suggest that the association between psychosocial work conditions, which are often dependent on education, and leisure-time physical activity may be interesting to study in more detail.

  12. The correlation of mentoring and job satisfaction: a pilot study of mental health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheryl D; del Carmen Montiel, Eliette

    2011-08-01

    A pilot study examined the relationship between job satisfaction and perceived mentoring among 56 mental health supervisors and practitioners in a county mental health agency. Participants completed the Alleman Mentoring Activities Questionnaires and the Job Descriptive Index and Job in General Scale. Practitioners who perceived they were involved in mentoring relationships with supervisors were more satisfied with their jobs than those who perceived that they were not involved in mentoring relationships. The mentoring functions of sponsoring, assigning challenging tasks, and demonstrating trust predicted job satisfaction. Recommendations include incorporating mentoring functions in supervisory training to increase mental health professionals' job satisfaction.

  13. Social Interactions in Job Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Tumen, Semih; Zeydanli, Tugba

    2015-01-01

    The literature documents that job satisfaction is positively correlated with worker performance and pro- ductivity. We examine whether aggregate job satisfaction in a certain labor market environment can have an impact on individual-level job satisfaction. If the answer is yes, then policies targeted to increase job satisfaction can increase productivity not only directly, but through spillover externalities too. We seek an answer to this question using two different data sets from the United...

  14. Jobs from Agriculture in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Leao, Izabela; Ahmed, Mansur; Kar, Anuja

    2018-01-01

    The agriculture sector can play an important role in poverty reduction and sustained growth in Afghanistan, primarily through job creation, improved productivity, and inclusiveness. Using an 'agricultural jobs lens' and multidimensional approach, this report explores the sector’s direct and indirect roles in explaining the dynamics of rural employment. The report critically examines three dimensions. First, it evaluates the current jobs structure in rural areas and finds that rural jobs are c...

  15. The impact of job crafting on job demands, job resources, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, Maria; Bakker, Arnold B; Derks, Daantje

    2013-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether employees can impact their own well-being by crafting their job demands and resources. Based on the job demands-resources model, we hypothesized that employee job crafting would have an impact on work engagement, job satisfaction, and burnout through changes in job demands and job resources. Data was collected in a chemical plant at three time points with one month in between the measurement waves (N = 288). The results of structural equation modeling showed that employees who crafted their job resources in the first month of the study showed an increase in their structural and social resources over the course of the study (2 months). This increase in job resources was positively related to employee well-being (increased engagement and job satisfaction, and decreased burnout). Crafting job demands did not result in a change in job demands, but results revealed direct effects of crafting challenging demands on increases in well-being. We conclude that employee job crafting has a positive impact on well-being and that employees therefore should be offered opportunities to craft their own jobs.

  16. How Changes in Psychosocial Job Characteristics Impact Burnout in Nurses: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanti, Renato; van der Doef, Margot; Maes, Stan; Meier, Laurenz Linus; Lazzari, David; Violani, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this longitudinal study was to test the Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) model and to analyze whether changes in psychosocial job characteristics are related to (changes in) burnout. Previous studies on the effects of JDCS variables on burnout dimensions have indicated that the iso-strain hypothesis (i.e., high job demands, low control, and low support additively predict high stress reactions) and the buffer hypotheses (i.e., high job control and/or social support is expected to moderate the negative impact of high demands on stress reactions) have hardly been examined concurrently in a longitudinal design; and that the effects of changes of psychosocial job variables on burnout dimensions have hardly been analyzed. This two wave study was carried out over a period of 14 months in a sample of 217 Italian nurses. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test the cross lagged main and interactive effects of JDCS variables, and to analyse the across-time effects of changes in JDCS dimensions on burnout variables. The Time 1 job characteristics explained 2-8% of the variance in the Time 2 burnout dimensions, but no support for the additive, or the buffer hypothesis of the JDCS model was found. Changes in job characteristics explained an additional 3-20% of variance in the Time 2 burnout dimensions. Specifically, high levels of emotional exhaustion at Time 2 were explained by high levels of social support at Time 1, and unfavorable changes in demands, control, and support over time; high depersonalization at Time 2 was explained by high social support at time 1 and by an increase in demands over time; and high personal accomplishment at Time 2 was predicted by high demands, high control, interactive effect demands × control × social support, at Time 1, and by a decrease in demands over time. No reversed effects of burnout on work characteristics have been found. Our findings suggest that the work environment is subject to changes: the majority of

  17. Helping young migrant job seekers | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-03-16

    Mar 16, 2015 ... Image. PAUL KARAIMU / ILRI. The low productivity of agro-pastoral activities in ... Migration in West Africa is driven by a jobs crisis that stems from a ... light on how changes in land ownership affect productivity and migration.

  18. For a new challenge: Jobs @ CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Did you realise that there are often new opportunities in many areas at CERN? Take a look at the HR website and spread the word! Currently there are positions open in the following activities: 5 Physicists / 26 Engineers / 7 Technical Engineers / 23 Technicians / 15 Administrative work For further information and to apply, please go to: http://www.cern.ch/jobs HR Department

  19. Job Satisfaction: An International Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    An international comparison of job satisfaction levels strongly suggests that the idea of job satisfaction as a gauge of well-being at the workplace should be rejected, but that workers' reactions to aspects of their jobs may be meaningful. The article presents data from national surveys of managers, workers, and trade unions to explain this…

  20. Job strain and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjollund, Niels Henrik I; Bonde, Jens Peter E; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Giwercman, Aleksander; Olsen, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Job strain, defined as high job demands and low job control, has not previously been explored as a possible determinant of male fertility. We collected prospective data on job strain among men, and describe the associations with semen quality and probability of conceiving a clinical pregnancy during a menstrual cycle. Danish couples (N = 399) who were trying to become pregnant for the first time were followed for up to 6 menstrual periods. All men collected semen samples, and a blood sample was drawn from both partners. Job demand and job control were measured by a self-administered questionnaire at entry, and in each cycle the participants recorded changes in job control or job demand during the previous 30 days. In adjusted analyses, no associations were found between any semen characteristic or sexual hormones and any job strain variable. The odds for pregnancy were not associated with job strain. Psychologic job strain encountered in normal jobs in Denmark does not seem to affect male reproductive function.

  1. Risk Aversion and Job Mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huizen, T.M.; Alessie, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Job mobility is inherently risky as workers have limited ex ante information about the quality of outside jobs. Using a large longitudinal Dutch dataset, which includes data on risk preferences elicited through (incentivized) experiments, we examine the relation between risk aversion and job

  2. Job demands-resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Bakker (Arnold); E. Demerouti (Eva)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker &

  3. Jobs for Two Million Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VocEd, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The outlook for jobs in the computer industry is excellent for people with appropriate training. The shortage of computer personnel is expected to continue, resulting in higher wages, more job mobility, increasing job security and generally greater opportunities for two million Americans by 1990. (CT)

  4. Job Migration: A Collaborative Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Cynthia L.

    2012-01-01

    Music teachers often change jobs several times during their careers. Reasons for job changes vary, but regardless, these changes bring a different set of challenges. Sharing knowledge and learning are part and parcel of collaboration. So what if, as education professionals, music teachers decided to collaborate during job migrations? For all music…

  5. [Job satisfaction among Norwegian doctors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylenna, Magne; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw

    2010-05-20

    Doctors' job satisfaction has been discussed internationally in recent years based on reports of increasing professional dissatisfaction. We have studied Norwegian doctors' job satisfaction and their general satisfaction with life. A survey was conducted among a representative sample of practicing Norwegian doctors in 2008. The validated 10-item Job Satisfaction Scale was used to assess job satisfaction. 1,072 (65 %) doctors responded. They reported a mean job satisfaction of 5.3 on a scale from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). Job satisfaction increased with increasing age. Private practice specialists reported the highest level of job satisfaction (5.8), and general practitioners reported higher job satisfaction (5.5) than hospital doctors (5.1). Among specialty groups, community doctors scored highest (5.6) and doctors in surgical disciplines lowest (5.0). While long working hours was negatively correlated with job satisfaction, the perception of being professionally updated and having part-time affiliation(s) in addition to a regular job were positively correlated with job satisfaction. 52.9 % of doctors reported a very high general satisfaction. Norwegian doctors have a high level of job satisfaction. Satisfaction with life in general is also high and at least in line with that in the Norwegian population.

  6. Job satisfaction among recreation practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Parks; Andrew Holdnak

    2002-01-01

    Job satisfaction among recreation professionals can be affected by many working conditions. This study has investigated the impact fourteen variables had on the job satisfaction of recreation practitioners. The sample consisted of 106 responses from members of the Resort and Commercial Recreation Association (RCRA). The results of the regression analysis for job...

  7. Modelling job support, job fit, job role and job satisfaction for school of nursing sessional academic staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowin, Leanne S; Moroney, Robyn

    2018-01-01

    Sessional academic staff are an important part of nursing education. Increases in casualisation of the academic workforce continue and satisfaction with the job role is an important bench mark for quality curricula delivery and influences recruitment and retention. This study examined relations between four job constructs - organisation fit, organisation support, staff role and job satisfaction for Sessional Academic Staff at a School of Nursing by creating two path analysis models. A cross-sectional correlational survey design was utilised. Participants who were currently working as sessional or casual teaching staff members were invited to complete an online anonymous survey. The data represents a convenience sample of Sessional Academic Staff in 2016 at a large school of Nursing and Midwifery in Australia. After psychometric evaluation of each of the job construct measures in this study we utilised Structural Equation Modelling to better understand the relations of the variables. The measures used in this study were found to be both valid and reliable for this sample. Job support and job fit are positively linked to job satisfaction. Although the hypothesised model did not meet model fit standards, a new 'nested' model made substantive sense. This small study explored a new scale for measuring academic job role, and demonstrated how it promotes the constructs of job fit and job supports. All four job constructs are important in providing job satisfaction - an outcome that in turn supports staffing stability, retention, and motivation.

  8. Whose Job Goes Abroad? International Outsourcing and Individual Job Separations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the adjustment costs of globalisation by studying the effects of international outsourcing on individual transitions out of jobs in the Danish manufacturing sector for the period 1990-2003. A competing risks duration model that distinguishes between job-to-job and job......-to-unemployment transitions is estimated. Outsourcing is found to increase the unemployment risk of low-skilled workers, but the quantitative impact is modest. Outsourcing is also found to reduce the job change hazard rate for all education groups. Thus, the paper provides evidence for small adjustment costs of globalisation....

  9. [Occupational stress and job burnout in doctors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Mian-Zhen; Lan, Ya-Jia; Wu, Si-Ying

    2006-03-01

    To investigate the status of job burnout in doctors and its relationship with occupational stress. A total of 561 doctors from three provincial hospitals were randomly selected. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) was used to identify job burnout. The occupation stress inventory revised edition (OSI-R) was used to evaluate the level of occupational stress. Surgeon and doctors working in the internal medicine wards scored significantly higher in job burnout than their colleagues (P < 0.05). The 30-40 years of age group scored highest in exhaustion. The score of professional efficacy decreased with age and increased with educational levels. Role overload, responsibility, physical environment, reaction and self-care were major predictors for exhaustion. Role insufficiency, role overload and responsibility were major predictors for cynicism. Role insufficiency, social support and rational/cognitive were major predictors for professional efficacy. Maintaining moderate professional duty and responsibility, clearly defining job requirements, enriching leisure activities, and improving self-care ability are important measures to preventing job burnout.

  10. Mediated definite delegation - Certified Grid jobs in ALICE and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Steffen; Grigoras, Costin; Litmaath, Maarten; Betev, Latchezar; Buchmann, Johannes

    2012-12-01

    Grid computing infrastructures need to provide traceability and accounting of their users’ activity and protection against misuse and privilege escalation, where the delegation of privileges in the course of a job submission is a key concern. This work describes an improved handling of Multi-user Grid Jobs in the ALICE Grid Services. A security analysis of the ALICE Grid job model is presented with derived security objectives, followed by a discussion of existing approaches of unrestricted delegation based on X.509 proxy certificates and the Grid middleware gLExec. Unrestricted delegation has severe security consequences and limitations, most importantly allowing for identity theft and forgery of jobs and data. These limitations are discussed and formulated, both in general and with respect to an adoption in line with Multi-user Grid Jobs. A new general model of mediated definite delegation is developed, allowing a broker to dynamically process and assign Grid jobs to agents while providing strong accountability and long-term traceability. A prototype implementation allowing for fully certified Grid jobs is presented as well as a potential interaction with gLExec. The achieved improvements regarding system security, malicious job exploitation, identity protection, and accountability are emphasized, including a discussion of non-repudiation in the face of malicious Grid jobs.

  11. Mediated definite delegation - Certified Grid jobs in ALICE and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, Steffen; Buchmann, Johannes; Grigoras, Costin; Litmaath, Maarten; Betev, Latchezar

    2012-01-01

    Grid computing infrastructures need to provide traceability and accounting of their users’ activity and protection against misuse and privilege escalation, where the delegation of privileges in the course of a job submission is a key concern. This work describes an improved handling of Multi-user Grid Jobs in the ALICE Grid Services. A security analysis of the ALICE Grid job model is presented with derived security objectives, followed by a discussion of existing approaches of unrestricted delegation based on X.509 proxy certificates and the Grid middleware gLExec. Unrestricted delegation has severe security consequences and limitations, most importantly allowing for identity theft and forgery of jobs and data. These limitations are discussed and formulated, both in general and with respect to an adoption in line with Multi-user Grid Jobs. A new general model of mediated definite delegation is developed, allowing a broker to dynamically process and assign Grid jobs to agents while providing strong accountability and long-term traceability. A prototype implementation allowing for fully certified Grid jobs is presented as well as a potential interaction with gLExec. The achieved improvements regarding system security, malicious job exploitation, identity protection, and accountability are emphasized, including a discussion of non-repudiation in the face of malicious Grid jobs.

  12. Job insecurity and risk of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrie, Jane E.; Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus

    2016-01-01

    participating in the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations Consortium. We calculated study-specific estimates of the association between job insecurity reported at baseline and incident diabetes over the follow-up period. We pooled the estimates in a meta-analysis to produce a summary...... risk estimate. Results: The 19 studies involved 140 825 participants from Australia, Europe and the United States, with a mean follow-up of 9.4 years and 3954 incident cases of diabetes. In the preliminary analysis adjusted for age and sex, high job insecurity was associated with an increased risk...... of incident diabetes compared with low job insecurity (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09–1.30). In the multivariable-adjusted analysis restricted to 15 studies with baseline data for all covariates (age, sex, socioeconomic status, obesity, physical activity, alcohol and smoking...

  13. No time for the gym? Housework and other non-labor market time use patterns are associated with meeting physical activity recommendations among adults in full-time, sedentary jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsey P; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-11-01

    low financial and time resources. Consideration of non-labor market time use patterns may improve strategies to increase physical activity and decrease inactivity among full-time employed adults in sedentary jobs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mental and physical health-related functioning mediates between psychological job demands and sickness absence among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné; van Rhenen, Willem; Schaufeli, Wilmar; van der Klink, Jac; Magerøy, Nils; Moen, Bente; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-08-01

    To investigate whether health-related functioning mediates the effect of psychological job demands on sickness absence in nurses. Nurses face high job demands that can have adverse health effects resulting in sickness absence. Prospective cohort study with 1-year follow-up. Data for 2964 Norwegian nurses were collected in the period 2008-2010. At baseline, psychological job demands were measured with the Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Health-related functioning was assessed by the Mental Composite Score and the Physical Composite Score of the SF-12 Health Survey (2nd version). Sickness absence (no = 0, yes = 1) was self-reported at 1-year follow-up. Interaction and mediation analyses were conducted stratified by tenure (6 years) as a registered nurse. A total of 2180 nurses (74%) with complete data were eligible for analysis. A significant three-way interaction between job demands, control and support was found in newly licensed nurses (tenure sickness absence at 1-year follow-up. This association was substantially weakened when Mental Composite Score and Physical Composite Score were introduced as mediator variables, indicating a partial mediation effect that was particularly pronounced in newly licensed nurses. Psychological job demands did not modify the effect of health-related functioning on sickness absence. Both mental and physical health-related functioning mediated between psychological job demands and sickness absence. Nurse managers should pay attention to health-related functioning, because poor health-related functioning may predict sickness absence, especially in newly licensed nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Markets, jobs, and energetic challenge of activities related to renewable energies and to energy efficiency. Situation in 2007-2008. Perspectives for 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    This study proposes an annual evolution survey of markets and jobs related to the development of renewable energies and to the improvement of energy efficiency in the housing and transport sectors. Markets are related to wind energy, thermal and photovoltaic energy, heat pumps, wood, bio-diesel, bio-ethanol, biogas, waste energetic valorization, geothermal energy, and hydro-energy. Energy efficiency improvements in the housing sector are related to energetic improvement of existing dwellings, condensing boilers, energetically performing household electrical appliances, and compact fluorescent lamps. In the transport sector, energy efficiency improvements concern rail transports and tramways as well as individual vehicles. New markets are identified and discussed: research and development for renewable energies, energy consultancy and diagnosis, energy efficiency in the office building sector and in the industrial sector

  16. Comparison of wrist and head TLD doses with whole body TLD doses during high active jobs at RAPS-5 and 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Ravi Kant; Abhishek, Neel; Kakkar, Amandeep; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    In nuclear power plant radiation dose monitoring and assessment is done to control the individual dose and station collective doses. While performing a radioactive job on systems or equipment with significant radiation levels of non uniform and beaming radiation; there is potential of localized exposure to extremities hands in particular and lens of the eye in comparison to other body parts. Keeping in view of this, separate equivalent dose limit to the extremities (hands and feet) and lens of the eye are defined by ICRP. A study has been carried out during Biennial Shutdown (BSD) of RAPS-6 in the month of October-2015 to establish the correlation between the doses received by chest TLDs which is being used to estimate the effective whole body dose of the radiation worker and the doses received in wrist TLD and head TLDs which are being used to monitor the equivalent dose received by hands and lens of the eye with applying a suitable correction factor

  17. Job Demands, Job Resources, and Job Performance in Japanese Workers: A Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    NAKAGAWA, Yuko; INOUE, Akiomi; KAWAKAMI, Norito; TSUNO, Kanami; TOMIOKA, Kimiko; NAKANISHI, Mayuko; MAFUNE, Kosuke; HIRO, Hisanori

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-sectional association of job demands (i.e., psychological demands) and job resources (i.e., decision latitude, supervisor support, co-worker support, and extrinsic reward) with job performance. A total of 1,198 workers (458 males and 740 females) from a manufacturing company in Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the Job Content Questionnaire, Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, World Health Organization Health and Work Performa...

  18. Person-job fit: an exploratory cross-sectional analysis of hospitalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinami, Keiki; Whelan, Chad T; Miller, Joseph A; Wolosin, Robert J; Wetterneck, Tosha B

    2013-02-01

    Person-job fit is an organizational construct shown to impact the entry, performance, and retention of workers. Even as a growing number of physicians work under employed situations, little is known about how physicians select, develop, and perform in organizational settings. Our objective was to validate in the hospitalist physician workforce features of person-job fit observed in workers of other industries. The design was a secondary survey data analysis from a national stratified sample of practicing US hospitalists. The measures were person-job fit; likelihood of leaving practice or reducing workload; organizational climate; relationships with colleagues, staff, and patients; participation in suboptimal patient care activities. Responses to the Hospital Medicine Physician Worklife Survey by 816 (sample response rate 26%) practicing hospitalists were analyzed. Job attrition and reselection improved job fit among hospitalists entering the job market. Better job fit was achieved through hospitalists engaging a variety of personal skills and abilities in their jobs. Job fit increased with time together with socialization and internalization of organizational values. Hospitalists with higher job fit felt they performed better in their jobs. Features of person-job fit for hospitalists conformed to what have been observed in nonphysician workforces. Person-job fit may be a useful complementary survey measure related to job satisfaction but with a greater focus on function. Copyright © 2012 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  19. The Complete Guide to Job Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, Marcia D.

    This booklet provides information on job sharing that resulted from the research and experience of the Merrimack Valley Job Sharing Project. An overview of the topic considers the need for job sharing, employer benefits, types of jobs shared, job division, benefits, employer costs and savings, financial considerations for job sharers, perspectives…

  20. Job Sharing--Opportunities or Headaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Patricia

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the issue of job sharing as a new alternative available to workers. Topics covered include (1) a profile of job sharers, (2) response to job sharing, (3) establishing a job share, (4) job sharing in operation, and (5) legal analysis of job sharing. (CH)

  1. Table-top job analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to establish general training program guidelines for training personnel in developing training for operation, maintenance, and technical support personnel at Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. TTJA is not the only method of job analysis; however, when conducted properly TTJA can be cost effective, efficient, and self-validating, and represents an effective method of defining job requirements. The table-top job analysis is suggested in the DOE Training Accreditation Program manuals as an acceptable alternative to traditional methods of analyzing job requirements. DOE 5480-20A strongly endorses and recommends it as the preferred method for analyzing jobs for positions addressed by the Order.

  2. Impact of financial pressure on unemployed job search, job find success and job quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Ruud; Welters, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that financial pressure – implied as a consequence of benefit sanctions or exhaustion – prompts the unemployed to intensify their job search. However, there is less agreement about whether that intensified job search produces better quality job outcomes. Building on Self-Determination

  3. Effectiveness of a physical activity program on weight, physical fitness, occupational stress, job satisfaction and quality of life of overweight employees in high-tech industries: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yun-Ya; Huang, Chien-Yuan; Hsu, Mei-Chi

    2018-03-27

    This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a physical activity (PA) program on weight control, physical fitness, occupational stress, job satisfaction and quality of life of overweight and sedentary employees in high-tech industries. Participants in the intervention group (n = 37) were instructed to carry out a PA program at moderate intensity for 60 min/session, 3 sessions/week for 12 weeks. Those in the control group (n = 38) received no PA program and were asked to continue their routine lifestyle. Evaluations were performed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Results of structured questionnaires and blood biochemistry tests and evaluations of physical fitness were analyzed. The PA program effectively reduced the number of risk factors for metabolic syndrome and body fat percentage, and improved physical fitness such as flexibility, muscular strength and endurance and cardiorespiratory endurance. The intervention also significantly decreased levels of serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Significant positive effects on work control, interpersonal relationships at work, global job satisfaction and quality of life were also demonstrated. This study showed that a PA program can be helpful in improving physical, physiological and psychological outcomes for overweight and sedentary employees in high-tech industries.

  4. Seek and Ye shall Find : How Search Requirements Affect Job Finding Rates of Older Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullegie, P.G.J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Unemployment insurance recipients in the Netherlands were for a long time exempted from the requirement to actively search for a job when they reached the age of 57.5. We study how this exemption affected the job finding rates of the recipients involved. We find evidence that the job

  5. Seek and ye shall find : How search requirements affect job finding rates of older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullegie, P.G.J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Unemployment insurance recipients in the Netherlands were for many years exempted from the requirement to actively search for a job after they reached the age of 57.5. We study how this exemption affected the job finding rates of the recipients involved. Our results indicate that the job finding

  6. 75 FR 62188 - Proposed Information Collection (Other On-The-Job Training and Apprenticeship Training Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... On-The-Job Training and Apprenticeship Training Agreement and Standards and Employer's Application To Provide Job Training) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of... for job training program. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed collection of...

  7. 75 FR 78807 - Agency Information Collection (Other On-The-Job Training and Apprenticeship Training Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ...-The-Job Training and Apprenticeship Training Agreement and Standards and Employer's Application To Provide Job Training) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of...-The-Job Training and Apprenticeship Training Agreement and Standards, (Training Programs Offered Under...

  8. Job stress is associated with migraine in current workers: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, I S; Griep, R H; Alves, M G M; Goulart, A C; Lotufo, P A; Barreto, S M; Chor, D; Benseñor, I M

    2014-10-01

    Migraine is an important source of social burden and work-related costs. Studies addressing the association of migraine with job stress are rare. The aim of this paper was to study the association of job stress components and migraine using structured, validated questionnaires that were part of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ELSA-Brasil is a multicentre cohort of 15,105 civil servants (12,096 current workers) in Brazil. Job strain was assessed using the 17-item Brazilian version of the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Headache episodes in the preceding 12 months were assessed using a questionnaire based on the International Headache Society criteria. We analysed the association between job stress domains and migraine in men and women using adjusted logistic regression and interaction models. We included 3113 individuals without headache and 3259 migraineurs. Low job control [odds ratio (OR) 1.30; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.10-1.53], high job demands (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.18-1.59) and low social support (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.29-1.71) were associated with migraine. Job control was more strongly associated with migraine in women (p for interaction = 0.02). High-strain (high demand and low control) jobs were associated with migraine in both men (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.11-1.97) and women (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.17-1.95). We observed a strong association between high-strain jobs and migraine. Job control was a stronger migraine-related factor for women. Low social support was associated with migraine in both sexes. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  9. Talking about the job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte; Strunck, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Talking about the job: The influence of management on leadership discourses Over the past decades, much research has been carried out to detail and analyse the uneven distribution of men and women in management positions (Acker 1990; Billing and Alvesson 2000; Österlind and Haake 2010). In Denmark......, this has been visible in banks and building societies where men would occupy the vast majority of senior positions, and women would be predominant in lower-ranking jobs, making it extremely difficult to climb the career ladder (Ellehave and Søndergaard 2006; Holmgreen 2009; Strunck 2013). One...... of the reasons for this is that gender inequalities continue to exist because they are deeply embedded in social structures and organisational processes, and not least upheld by the male managers whose positions are challenged by women’s entry into management (Schein 2007). In studies, this is referred...

  10. Jobs masonry in LHCb with elastic Grid Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagni, F.; Charpentier, Ph

    2015-12-01

    In any distributed computing infrastructure, a job is normally forbidden to run for an indefinite amount of time. This limitation is implemented using different technologies, the most common one being the CPU time limit implemented by batch queues. It is therefore important to have a good estimate of how much CPU work a job will require: otherwise, it might be killed by the batch system, or by whatever system is controlling the jobs’ execution. In many modern interwares, the jobs are actually executed by pilot jobs, that can use the whole available time in running multiple consecutive jobs. If at some point the available time in a pilot is too short for the execution of any job, it should be released, while it could have been used efficiently by a shorter job. Within LHCbDIRAC, the LHCb extension of the DIRAC interware, we developed a simple way to fully exploit computing capabilities available to a pilot, even for resources with limited time capabilities, by adding elasticity to production MonteCarlo (MC) simulation jobs. With our approach, independently of the time available, LHCbDIRAC will always have the possibility to execute a MC job, whose length will be adapted to the available amount of time: therefore the same job, running on different computing resources with different time limits, will produce different amounts of events. The decision on the number of events to be produced is made just in time at the start of the job, when the capabilities of the resource are known. In order to know how many events a MC job will be instructed to produce, LHCbDIRAC simply requires three values: the CPU-work per event for that type of job, the power of the machine it is running on, and the time left for the job before being killed. Knowing these values, we can estimate the number of events the job will be able to simulate with the available CPU time. This paper will demonstrate that, using this simple but effective solution, LHCb manages to make a more efficient use of

  11. Work-related factors, job satisfaction and intent to leave the current job among United States nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kihye; Trinkoff, Alison M; Gurses, Ayse P

    2015-11-01

    To examine the relationships of work-related factors (e.g., autonomy, work schedule, supervisory and peer support) to nurses' job satisfaction and intent to leave their current position. Low job satisfaction and high turnover of nurses are major problems for health care. To improve nurse retention, work-related factors associated with job satisfaction and intent to leave should be investigated. A cross-sectional secondary data analysis. Data were obtained in 2004 from Wave 3 of the Nurses' Worklife and Health Study. A random sample of 5000 actively licenced nurses in Illinois and North Carolina (two U.S. states) were sent the survey in wave 1, of which 1641 actively working bedside nurses participated in wave 3. We examined associations of various work-related factors with job satisfaction and intent to leave the current position. Nurses who were dissatisfied with their job reported significantly higher psychological demands and lower autonomy than nurses who were satisfied. Nurses were significantly less satisfied with their jobs when they worked longer hours with inadequate breaks or sick days. Lack of support from peers and supervisors was also related to significantly lower odds of job satisfaction. For intention to leave, nurses who said they planned to leave their current job reported significantly lower autonomy and less support from their peers than nurses who intended to stay. A variety of modifiable work-related factors were significantly related to job satisfaction and intention to leave the current job among nurses. Future research should focus on developing interventions that could mitigate these factors (e.g., by improving work schedules, increasing autonomy and/or nurse support). The impact of such interventions on job satisfaction and intention to leave the current position could then be evaluated. To increase nurse retention, improved schedules, autonomy and supportive work environments should be promoted. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Pengaruh Total Reward Terhadap Job Engagement Serta Dampaknya Terhadap Kinerja Pegawai

    OpenAIRE

    Widodo, Chresno Wahyu

    2014-01-01

    Total Reward combines Transactional Reward and Relational Reward can meet any level of employee‘s needs therefore will foster employee to invest their Job involvement (cognitive energy), Job satisfaction (emotional reaction), Intrinsic motivation (physical energy) actively into complete work role performance. If employee shows Job Engagement during work in turn will create superior performance that are directly involved in the accomplishment of core job tasks involved in organization‘s =techn...

  13. Steve Jobs: Nobel Laureate

    OpenAIRE

    Garry Jacobs

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable achievements of one of the world's greatest entrepreneurs offer profound insights into the fundamental nature of economy and essential missing links in prevailing economic theory. The career of Steve Jobs dramatically illustrates the central importance of human capital in modern economy and the almost incalculable contribution that a single individual can make to technological advancement, social innovation and wealth creation, while enhancing the lifestyle of hundreds of milli...

  14. Zambia Jobs Diagnostic : Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Merotto, Dino

    2017-01-01

    One of the world’s most youthful countries, Zambia’s economy has been booming since the early 2000s on the back of record high copper prices and private sector investment response to the better business environment. But poverty rose from 2010 to 2015 and remains very high in rural areas. Economic transformation is underway with workers moving to off-farm jobs, but these are heavily skewed ...

  15. Job hindrances, job resources, and safety performance: The mediating role of job engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhenyu; Li, Yongjuan; Tetrick, Lois E

    2015-11-01

    Job engagement has received widespread attention in organizational research but has rarely been empirically investigated in the context of safety. In the present study, we examined the mediating role of job engagement in the relationships between job characteristics and safety performance using self-reported data collected at a coal mining company in China. Most of our study hypotheses were supported. Job engagement partially mediated the relationships between job resources and safety performance dimensions. Theoretical and practical implications and directions for future research are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Job stress and its related factors in Tehran firefighters in year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdi SM

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Job stress results from a mismatch between job requirements and capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker. Physiological, psychological and behavioral outcomes caused by job stress not only hurt the person but also impose expensive costs on organizations. Firefighting is a job that exposes workers to job stress. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of job stress and some related factors in firefighters of Tehran safety services and firefighters organization. This cross sectional study includes 155 male firefighters whom had selected randomly. In this research we used Leiden University Questionnaire. Also Karasek Questionnaire is used for classification of workers according to karasek’s model. Collected data were analyzed by spss9 software. The final grade of firefighter’s job stress shows a significant positive relationship with second job and a significant negative relationship with age. The level of job satisfaction have a significant negative relationship with job insecurity and lack of meaningfulness, and a significant positive relationship with skill discretion, social support supervisor and social support co-workers. According to karasek classification this job is grouped in active not in high strain grup. The highest level of job stress was seen in physical exertion and hazardous exposure factors. Also in work and time pressure factor, job stress level is high. But job stress is in a moderate or low level in other factors. The level of job stress in younger firefighters and in individuals with a second job indicate a significant increase. However, in western country’s studies, this job is classified as high-strain but in this research it is classified as active group.

  17. Job strain among blue-collar and white-collar employees as a determinant of total mortality: a 28-year population-based follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitsamo, Jorma; von Bonsdorff, Monika E; Ilmarinen, Juhani; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Rantanen, Taina

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of job demand, job control and job strain on total mortality among white-collar and blue-collar employees working in the public sector. Design 28-year prospective population-based follow-up. Setting Several municipals in Finland. Participants 5731 public sector employees from the Finnish Longitudinal Study on Municipal Employees Study aged 44–58 years at baseline. Outcomes Total mortality from 1981 to 2009 among individuals with complete data on job strain in midlife, categorised according to job demand and job control: high job strain (high job demands and low job control), active job (high job demand and high job control), passive job (low job demand and low job control) and low job strain (low job demand and high job control). Results 1836 persons died during the follow-up. Low job control among men increased (age-adjusted HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.42) and high job demand among women decreased the risk for total mortality HR 0.82 (95% CI 0.71 to 0.95). Adjustment for occupational group, lifestyle and health factors attenuated the association for men. In the analyses stratified by occupational group, high job strain increased the risk of mortality among white-collar men (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.13) and passive job among blue-collar men (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.47) compared with men with low job strain. Adjustment for lifestyle and health factors attenuated the risks. Among white-collar women having an active job decreased the risk for mortality (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.00). Conclusion The impact of job strain on mortality was different according to gender and occupational group among middle-aged public sector employees. PMID:22422919

  18. Job longevity as a situational factor in job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R

    1978-06-01

    This study investigates the relationships between overall job satisfaction and the five task dimensions of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback-from-job for employees at different stages of their careers, as measured by their length of employment on their current jobs, as well as in their current organizations. Basically, the analysis shows that the strength of the relationships between job satisfaction and each of the task dimensions depends on both the job longevity and organizational longevity of the sampled individuals. For employees new to an organization, for example, only task significance is related positively to job satisfaction, while autonomy has a strongly negative correlation. The study presents other significant correlational differences and discusses the implications of its findings for task design, as well as for managing new employees. Approximately 3500 respondents from four different governments--two metropolitan, one county, and one state--participated in the collection of survey data.

  19. Perspectives of development of green jobs in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyanova Zornitsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transformation to green sectors of the economy in Bulgaria leads after it the need of new type of professions, which would be capable to cope with the new conditions and requirements which different businesses are facing. The knowledge of creation of green jobs in Bulgaria is insufficient, which makes this paper state of art. Green jobs in Bulgaria are connected with transfer of business activities to green ones. The paper analyzes and evaluates the current conditions of creation of green jobs in Bulgaria. It is proposed analysis of the requirements in Bulgaria about the eligible criteria to apply for funding under the measurement of green jobs; based on research SWOT analysis of creation of green jobs. The results are systematized in findings, conclusions and policy recommendations, as changing conditions of applying to measurement, payment connected to employees, and etc. As well is proposed cooperation between other existing measurements for reaching sustainable employment in Bulgaria.

  20. Do time-invariant confounders explain away the association between job stress and workers' mental health? Evidence from Japanese occupational panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Inoue, Akiomi

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that job stress is negatively related to workers' mental health, but most recent studies have not controlled for unobserved time-invariant confounders. In the current study, we attempted to validate previous observations on the association between job stress and workers' mental health, by removing the effects of unobserved time-invariant confounders. We used data from three to four waves of an occupational Japanese cohort survey, focusing on 31,382 observations of 9741 individuals who participated in at least two consecutive waves. We estimated mean-centered fixed effects models to explain psychological distress in terms of the Kessler 6 (K6) scores (range: 0-24) by eight job stress indicators related to the job demands-control, effort-reward imbalance, and organizational injustice models. Mean-centered fixed effects models reduced the magnitude of the association between jobs stress and K6 scores to 44.8-54.2% of those observed from pooled ordinary least squares. However, the association remained highly significant even after controlling for unobserved time-invariant confounders for all job stress indicators. In addition, alternatively specified models showed the robustness of the results. In all, we concluded that the validity of major job stress models, which link job stress and workers' mental health, was robust, although unobserved time-invariant confounders led to an overestimation of the association. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Are Green Jobs Real Jobs? The Case of Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Lavecchia, Luciano; Stagnaro, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The European Union is strongly promoting the adoption of renewable energy sources (RES). This policy relies mostly on environmental reasons, but its promoters also claim that RES subsidies will result into the creation of a significant number of jobs. This papers takes into examination the case of Italian policies with regard to solar panels and wind turbines. The number of RES-related jobs is estimated and it is compared with the number of jobs that are displaced by higher energy prices, due...

  2. Using Job Analysis Techniques to Understand Training Needs for Promotores de Salud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Javier H; Langford, Toshiko A; Henry, Kimberly L; Nelson, Tristan Q

    2018-04-01

    Despite the value of community health worker programs, such as Promotores de Salud, for addressing health disparities in the Latino community, little consensus has been reached to formally define the unique roles and duties associated with the job, thereby creating unique job training challenges. Understanding the job tasks and worker attributes central to this work is a critical first step for developing the training and evaluation systems of promotores programs. Here, we present the process and findings of a job analysis conducted for promotores working for Planned Parenthood. We employed a systematic approach, the combination job analysis method, to define the job in terms of its work and worker requirements, identifying key job tasks, as well as the worker attributes necessary to effectively perform them. Our results suggest that the promotores' job encompasses a broad range of activities and requires an equally broad range of personal characteristics to perform. These results played an important role in the development of our training and evaluation protocols. In this article, we introduce the technique of job analysis, provide an overview of the results from our own application of this technique, and discuss how these findings can be used to inform a training and performance evaluation system. This article provides a template for other organizations implementing similar community health worker programs and illustrates the value of conducting a job analysis for clarifying job roles, developing and evaluating job training materials, and selecting qualified job candidates.

  3. Job Strain and Health-Related Lifestyle : Findings From an Individual-Participant Meta-Analysis of 118 000 Working Adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Fransson, Eleonor I; Nyberg, Solja T; Zins, Marie; Westerlund, Hugo; Westerholm, Peter; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi; Suominen, Sakari; Steptoe, Andrew; Salo, Paula; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Nordin, Maria; Marmot, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the associations of job strain, an indicator of work-related stress, with overall unhealthy and healthy lifestyles. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of individual-level data from 11 European studies (cross-sectional data: n = 118 701; longitudinal data: n = 43 971). We analyzed job strain as a set of binary (job strain vs no job strain) and categorical (high job strain, active job, passive job, and low job strain) variables. Factors used to define healthy and unhe...

  4. Job Matching and On-the-Job Training.

    OpenAIRE

    Barron, John M; Black, Dan A; Loewenstein, Mark A

    1989-01-01

    Conventional analysis predicts that workers pay part of their on-the-job training costs by accepting a lower starting wage and subsequently realize a return to this investment in the form of greater wage growth. Missing from the conventional treatment of on-the-job training is a discussion of the process by which heterogeneous worker s are matched to jobs requiring varying amounts of training. This matching process constitutes a key feature of the on-the-job training model that is presented i...

  5. The indirect association of job strain with long-term sickness absence through bullying: a mediation analysis using structural equation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Janssens

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this longitudinal study the complex interplay between both job strain and bullying in relation to sickness absence was investigated. Following the “work environment hypothesis”, which establishes several work characteristics as antecedents of bullying, we assumed that job strain, conceptualized by the Job-Demand-Control model, has an indirect relation with long-term sickness absence through bullying. Methods The sample consisted of 2983 Belgian workers, aged 30 to 55 years, who participated in the Belstress III study. They completed a survey, including the Job Content Questionnaire and a bullying inventory, at baseline. Their sickness absence figures were registered during 1 year follow-up. Long-term sickness absence was defined as at least 15 consecutive days. A mediation analysis, using structural equation modeling, was performed to examine the indirect association of job strain through bullying with long-term sickness absence. The full structural model was adjusted for several possible confounders: age, gender, occupational group, educational level, company, smoking habits, alcohol use, body mass index, self-rated health, baseline long-term sickness absence and neuroticism. Results The results support the hypothesis: a significant indirect association of job strain with long-term sickness absence through bullying was observed, suggesting that bullying is an intermediate variable between job strain and long-term sickness absence. No evidence for the reversed pathway of an indirect association of bullying through job strain was found. Conclusions Bullying was observed as a mediating variable in the relation between job strain and sickness absence. The results suggest that exposure to job strain may create circumstances in which a worker risks to become a target of bullying. Our findings are generally in line with the work environment hypothesis, which emphasizes the importance of organizational work factors in the

  6. The indirect association of job strain with long-term sickness absence through bullying: a mediation analysis using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Heidi; Braeckman, Lutgart; De Clercq, Bart; Casini, Annalisa; De Bacquer, Dirk; Kittel, France; Clays, Els

    2016-08-22

    In this longitudinal study the complex interplay between both job strain and bullying in relation to sickness absence was investigated. Following the "work environment hypothesis", which establishes several work characteristics as antecedents of bullying, we assumed that job strain, conceptualized by the Job-Demand-Control model, has an indirect relation with long-term sickness absence through bullying. The sample consisted of 2983 Belgian workers, aged 30 to 55 years, who participated in the Belstress III study. They completed a survey, including the Job Content Questionnaire and a bullying inventory, at baseline. Their sickness absence figures were registered during 1 year follow-up. Long-term sickness absence was defined as at least 15 consecutive days. A mediation analysis, using structural equation modeling, was performed to examine the indirect association of job strain through bullying with long-term sickness absence. The full structural model was adjusted for several possible confounders: age, gender, occupational group, educational level, company, smoking habits, alcohol use, body mass index, self-rated health, baseline long-term sickness absence and neuroticism. The results support the hypothesis: a significant indirect association of job strain with long-term sickness absence through bullying was observed, suggesting that bullying is an intermediate variable between job strain and long-term sickness absence. No evidence for the reversed pathway of an indirect association of bullying through job strain was found. Bullying was observed as a mediating variable in the relation between job strain and sickness absence. The results suggest that exposure to job strain may create circumstances in which a worker risks to become a target of bullying. Our findings are generally in line with the work environment hypothesis, which emphasizes the importance of organizational work factors in the origin of bullying. This study highlights that remodeling jobs to reduce

  7. Mentorship and job satisfaction among Navy family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saperstein, Adam K; Viera, Anthony J; Firnhaber, Gina C

    2012-08-01

    Among civilian academic physicians, having a mentor is associated with greater job satisfaction. Whether this is true for military physicians is unknown. We sought to examine whether having a mentor is associated with positive job satisfaction among Navy family physicians. A web-based survey was sent to all Navy family physicians in the Specialty leader's database in May 2008. Our main outcome variable was "positive job satisfaction," and our main exposure variable was being in a mentor relationship. Chi-square was used to test for difference in frequencies in categorical variables and logistic regression was used to adjust for covariates. The response rate was 60.2% (186/309). Among respondents, 73.7% reported positive job satisfaction. Factors associated with positive job satisfaction included having a mentor, being >9 years postresidency, spending <50% of time in patient care, higher rank, male gender, and being active in research. After adjustment for these factors, having a mentor remained significantly associated with positive job satisfaction (odds ratio 2.86, 95% confidence interval 1.22-6.71). Having a mentor is associated with positive job satisfaction among Navy family physicians, even after adjusting for multiple other factors. An implication is that a mentorship program may be a strategy for improving job satisfaction.

  8. [Application of job demands-resources model in research on relationships between job satisfaction, job resources, individual resources and job demands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocka, Adrianna; Waszkowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between job demands, job resourses, personal resourses and job satisfaction and to assess the usefulness of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model in the explanation of these phenomena. The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers. The "Psychosocial Factors" and "Job satisfaction" questionnaires were used to test the hypothesis. The results showed that job satisfaction increased with increasing job accessibility and personal resources (r = 0.44; r = 0.31; p job resources and job demands [F(1.474) = 4.004; F(1.474) = 4.166; p job satisfaction. Moreover, interactions between job demands and job resources [F(3,474) = 2.748; p job demands and personal resources [F(3.474) = 3.021; p job satisfaction. The post hoc tests showed that 1) in low job demands, but high job resources employees declared higher job satisfaction, than those who perceived them as medium (p = 0.0001) or low (p = 0.0157); 2) when the level of job demands was perceived as medium, employees with high personal resources declared significantly higher job satisfaction than those with low personal resources (p = 0.0001). The JD-R model can be used to investigate job satisfaction. Taking into account fundamental factors of this model, in organizational management there are possibilities of shaping job satisfaction among employees.

  9. An ideal job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Kurt J

    2012-01-01

    A brief personal history illustrates how fortunate I was to have stumbled into a career in plant pathology, which turned out to be the ideal job for me. Several of the people who steered me or facilitated my development in research on plant diseases are mentioned. Starting with my PhD research, I have had the good fortune to indulge a career-long fascination with epidemiology and genetics of disease resistance in plants, particularly coevolution of gene-for-gene host-pathogen systems. I hope that my example may inspire others of like minds to consider a research career in plant pathology.

  10. Health effects of job insecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Green, F.

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that job insecurity affects both mental and physical health, though the effects are lower when employees are easily re-employable. The detrimental effects of job insecurity can also be partly mitigated by employers allowing greater employee participation in workplace decision-making in order to ensure fair procedures. But as job insecurity is felt by many more people than just the unemployed, the negative health effects during recessions are multiplied and extend through th...

  11. Relationship between job demand and burnout in nurses: does it depend on work engagement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sierra, Rosa; Fernández-Castro, Jordi; Martínez-Zaragoza, Fermín

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to deepen the understanding of the relationships among job demands, control, social support, burnout and engagement in nurses. Burnout is a prevalent phenomenon among nurses because of the interaction between high demands and low resources, according to the job demands-resources model. A descriptive, correlational design was used in a stratified random sample of 100 nurses recruited from two Spanish hospitals. Job demand, social support, control, engagement, and burnout were measured. Data were analysed by hierarchical regression analysis. Social support is a significant predictor of nurses' engagement and demands is a predictor of nurses' burnout. Work engagement moderates the relationship between job demands and burnout. The process that leads to burnout and the process that leads to engagement are not isolated processes; engagement acts as a moderator of burnout. The prevailing paradigm in combating burnout in nursing can be changed and could be based on the enhancement of nurses' strengths through increasing engagement. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in a specialized health institution in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjević, Dragan; Petrović, Dejan; Vuković, Dejana; Mihailović, Dobrivoje; Dimić, Aleksandar

    2015-08-01

    Health care system is specific for each country, and therefore involves different motivation and job satisfaction factors. The aim of this study was to confirm the validity and applicability of the General Nordic Questionnaire translated into Serbian for analyzing motivation and job satisfaction, as well as to analyze the motivation factors and job satisfaction of health workers at the Institute for Treatment and Rehabilitation "Niska Banja". The General Nordic Questionnaire was translated into Serbian. It included 73 questions (5 answers by the Likert scale), which formed 24 scales. In May, 2012, 196 (82.3%) health workers filled in the questionnaire. A correlation of Ceronbach's alpha values between the Scandinavian study results and the results of Serbian study was statistically significant (r = 0.424; p motivation positively correlated with all the scales of organizational module, apart from inequality. Within this module, the degree of extrinsic motivation correlated with the support from the superior and coworkers, with fair leadership and human resources primacy. A negative correlation appeared with inequality. The general Nordic Questionnaire can be applied to a great extent to the conditions in our country. Our study shows a low consistency of the scales learning job demands, control of decision, control of work pacing, so the questions in them should be adjusted to the conditions in our country. Extrinsic motivation resulted in higher values than the values of intrinsic motivation in our workers, which is opposite to the results of the original questionnaire.

  13. The association of educational attainment, cognitive level of job, and leisure activities during the course of adulthood with cognitive performance in old age: the role of openness to experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Oris, Michel; Fagot, Delphine; Maggiori, Christian; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    The relevance of mental health for everyday life functioning and well-being is crucial. In this context, higher educational attainment, higher cognitive level of one's occupation, and more engaging in stimulating leisure activities have been found to be associated with better cognitive functioning in old age. Yet, the detailed pattern of the potential interplay of such a cognitively engaged lifestyle with personality dimensions, such as openness to experience, in their relations to cognitive functioning remains unclear. Two thousand eight hundred and twelve older adults served as sample for the present study. Psychometric tests on verbal abilities and processing speed were administered. In addition, individuals were retrospectively interviewed on their educational attainment, occupation, and regarding 18 leisure activities that had been carried out in mid-life. Moreover, openness to experience was assessed. We found that the effect of openness to experience on cognitive functioning was mediated by educational attainment, cognitive level of job, and engaging in different leisure activities. Data were not better described by alternative moderation models testing for interactive (i.e. dependent) effects of openness to experience and cognitively stimulating engagement. To explain interindividual differences in cognitive functioning in old age, present data are in line with a mechanism in which individuals with high openness to experience may have been more engaged in stimulating activities in early and mid-life. Possibly by increasing their cognitive reserve throughout adulthood, this may finally enhance their cognitive performance level later in old age.

  14. Canadian nurse practitioner job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMarche, Kimberley; Tullai-McGuinness, Susan

    2009-01-01

    To examine the level of job satisfaction and its association with extrinsic and intrinsic job satisfaction characteristics among Canadian primary healthcare nurse practitioners (NPs). A descriptive correlational design was used to collect data on NPs' job satisfaction and on the factors that influence their job satisfaction. A convenience sample of licensed Canadian NPs was recruited from established provincial associations and special-interest groups. Data about job satisfaction were collected using two valid and reliable instruments, the Misener Nurse Practitioner Job Satisfaction Survey and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and regression analysis were used to describe the results. The overall job satisfaction for this sample ranged from satisfied to highly satisfied. The elements that had the most influence on overall job satisfaction were the extrinsic category of partnership/collegiality and the intrinsic category of challenge/autonomy. These findings were consistent with Herzberg's Dual Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction. The outcomes of this study will serve as a foundation for designing effective human health resource retention and recruitment strategies that will assist in enhancing the implementation and the successful preservation of the NP's role.

  15. Job share a consultant post.

    OpenAIRE

    Thornicroft, G.; Strathdee, G.

    1992-01-01

    Job sharing offers advantages to both employer and employee but it is still uncommon in medicine. Based on the experiences of two psychiatrists sharing a consultant post this article describes some of the problems in obtaining a job share. The most difficult part can be getting an interview, and once a post has been obtained the terms and conditions of service may have to be modified to suit job sharing. Getting on well with your job sharing partner and good communication will not only help o...

  16. 45 CFR 287.120 - What work activities may be provided under the NEW Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... employment services, job retention services, unsubsidized employment, subsidized public or private sector..., alternative education, post secondary education, job readiness activity, job search, job skills training, training and employment activities, job development and placement, on-the-job training (OJT), employer work...

  17. Nuclear energy and jobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfinger, N.

    1976-01-01

    Mr. Goldfinger, Research Director of AFL-CIO, examines the problem of energy in general, nuclear in particular, and the employment relationship. The energy shortages in the U.S. and its dependence on oil are cited. Directly connected with this serious problem relating to energy are jobs, income, and living standards. If energy is not available, industries will be unable to expand to meet the needs of the growing population; and prices of goods will rise. From an evaluation of what experts have said, Mr. Goldfinger concludes that increased coal production and better coal technology cannot meet energy demands; so the sharp increase both in volume and as a percentage of total energy needed in the future will have to come from nuclear power. Development of alternative sources is necessary, he feels, and intense research on these is needed now. The employment impact in the nuclear energy scenario is analyzed according to the trades involved. It is estimated that 1.5 million jobs in the nuclear industry would be open by the year 2000 if nuclear is to provide one-fourth of energy supplies. The employment picture, assuming abandonment of nuclear energy, is then discussed

  18. Good Jobs, Bad Jobs: Workers' Evaluations in Five Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Joseph A.; Anker, Richard

    2002-01-01

    A study of workers from Argentina (n=2,920), Brazil (n=4,000), Chile (n=1,188), Hungary (1,000), and the Ukraine (n=8,099) examined relationships between job satisfaction and employee and employer characteristics. Satisfaction was related to job security, perceptions of workplace safety, higher education, and employer attitudes. (Contains 17…

  19. Religiousness in times of job insecurity: job demand or resource?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, B.; van Emmerik, H.; De Cuyper, N.; Probst, T.; van den Heuvel, M.; Demerouti, E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Departing from the job demands resources model, the purpose of this paper is to investigate whether religion, defined as strength of religious faith, can be viewed as resource or as demand. More specifically, the authors addressed the question as to how job insecurity and religion interact

  20. Religiousness in times of job insecurity : job demand or resource?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, B.H.J.; Emmerik, van I.J.H.; Cuyper, De N.; Probst, T.; van den Heuvel, Machteld; Demerouti, E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose : Departing from the job demands resources model, the purpose of this paper is to investigate whether religion, defined as strength of religious faith, can be viewed as resource or as demand. More specifically, the authors addressed the question as to how job insecurity and religion interact

  1. Job satisfaction and job performance – impacts on human capital

    OpenAIRE

    Gotvassli, Kjell-Åge; Haugset, Anne Sigrid

    2010-01-01

    Within macroeconomics it is a well established point of view that investments in human capital is important for the economic growth of a region. In this paper we will look at the connection between job satisfaction and job performance and its impact on the “use” of human capital.

  2. Physician job satisfaction related to actual and preferred job size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    Background: Job satisfaction is essential for physicians' well-being and patient care. The work ethic of long days and hard work that has been advocated for decades is acknowledged as a threat for physicians' job satisfaction, well-being, and patient safety. Our aim was to determine the actual and

  3. Job Analysis, Job Descriptions, and Performance Appraisal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Johnnie M.; Foxley, Cecelia H.

    1980-01-01

    Job analysis, job descriptions, and performance appraisal can benefit student services administration in many ways. Involving staff members in the development and implementation of these techniques can increase commitment to and understanding of the overall objectives of the office, as well as communication and cooperation among colleagues.…

  4. Jobs masonry in LHCb with elastic Grid Jobs

    CERN Document Server

    Stagni, F

    2015-01-01

    In any distributed computing infrastructure, a job is normally forbidden to run for an indefinite amount of time. This limitation is implemented using different technologies, the most common one being the CPU time limit implemented by batch queues. It is therefore important to have a good estimate of how much CPU work a job will require: otherwise, it might be killed by the batch system, or by whatever system is controlling the jobs' execution. In many modern interwares, the jobs are actually executed by pilot jobs, that can use the whole available time in running multiple consecutive jobs. If at some point the available time in a pilot is too short for the execution of any job, it should be released, while it could have been used efficiently by a shorter job. Within LHCbDIRAC, the LHCb extension of the DIRAC interware, we developed a simple way to fully exploit computing capabilities available to a pilot, even for resources with limited time capabilities, by adding elasticity to production MonteCarlo (MC) si...

  5. Job Stress, Job Dissatisfaction and Stress Related Illnesses Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between self-reported job stress and job dissatisfaction and the prevalence of stress related illnesses and risk factors amongst educators. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative sample of 21,307 educators from public schools in South Africa.

  6. Perceived Job Insecurity, Job Satisfaction And Intention To Quit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the relationships between perceived job insecurity, job satisfaction and intention to quit among employees of selected banks in Nigeria. A total of two hundred and nine (n = 209) randomly selected employees of Guaranty Trust Bank, Oceanic International Bank, Zenith Bank, First Bank of Nigeria, Union ...

  7. Job Searchers, Job Matches and the Elasticity of Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, L.; van Ours, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper stresses the importance of a specification of the matching function in which the measure of job matches corresponds to the measure of job searchers. In many empirical studies on the matching function this requirement has not been fulfilled because it is difficult to find information about

  8. Home ownership, job duration, and wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobility both in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labor market. In addition, there is a clear negative...

  9. Home Ownership, Job Duration, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobility both in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labour market. In addition, there is a clear negative...

  10. Home Ownership, Job Duration, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobilityboth in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labourmarket. In addition, there is a clear negative...

  11. Job satisfaction amongst agricultural extension personnel in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    something about organization and some psychological factors as well as job satisfaction. Job satisfaction broadly is considered to be as attitude of a person reflecting the degree to which his/her important needs are satisfied by this job. To study the job satisfaction level and factors associated with job satisfaction of ...

  12. Job Attitudes of Agricultural Middle Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Bitsch, Vera

    2006-01-01

    The paper analyzes middle managers' job attitudes, in particular job satisfaction, based on case studies. Employees' job satisfaction is expected to reduce human resource management risks, leading to higher loyalty, organizational commitment and motivation and resulting in less turnover. Components of job satisfaction include achievement, recognition, work itself, job security, supervision, interpersonal relationships, compensation, organization, personal life and working conditions. They cau...

  13. Automation and Job Satisfaction among Reference Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlatch, Jo Bell

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of job satisfaction and the level of job performance focuses on the effect of automation on job satisfaction among reference librarians. The influence of stress is discussed, a job strain model is explained, and examples of how to design a job to reduce the stress caused by automation are given. (12 references) (LRW)

  14. Job disamenities, job satisfaction, and on-the-job search: is there a nexus?

    OpenAIRE

    Petri Böckerman; Pekka Ilmakunnas

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the potential role of adverse working conditions at the workplace in the determination of on-the-job search in the Finnish labour market. The results reveal that workers currently facing adverse working conditions have greater intentions to switch jobs and they are also more willing to stop working completely. In addition, those workers search new matches more frequently. There is evidence that adverse working conditions consistently increase the level of job dissatisfacti...

  15. The Effect Working Environment, Job Characteristic and Job Motivation to Job Satisfaction at Lecture Jambi Universitas

    OpenAIRE

    Rosmiati, Rosmiati; Ekawarna, Ekawarna; Haryanto, Eddy

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research is to obtain information on the effect of working environment, job Characteristic and job motivation to job satisfaction. The population of this research is the Lecture Jambi University. The total number of the research sample was 273 Official Member of Lecture Jambi University and they were taken randomly. Data analysis technique was used path analisys with SPSS and LISREL program.The formulation of this research are: 1) Is the work environment (X1) directly in...

  16. Accumulative job demands and support for strength use: Fine-tuning the job demands-resources model using conservation of resources theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Woerkom, Marianne; Bakker, Arnold B; Nishii, Lisa H

    2016-01-01

    Absenteeism associated with accumulated job demands is a ubiquitous problem. We build on prior research on the benefits of counteracting job demands with resources by focusing on a still untapped resource for buffering job demands-that of strengths use. We test the idea that employees who are actively encouraged to utilize their personal strengths on the job are better positioned to cope with job demands. Based on conservation of resources (COR) theory, we hypothesized that job demands can accumulate and together have an exacerbating effect on company registered absenteeism. In addition, using job demands-resources theory, we hypothesized that perceived organizational support for strengths use can buffer the impact of separate and combined job demands (workload and emotional demands) on absenteeism. Our sample consisted of 832 employees from 96 departments (response rate = 40.3%) of a Dutch mental health care organization. Results of multilevel analyses indicated that high levels of workload strengthen the positive relationship between emotional demands and absenteeism and that support for strength use interacted with workload and emotional job demands in the predicted way. Moreover, workload, emotional job demands, and strengths use interacted to predict absenteeism. Strengths use support reduced the level of absenteeism of employees who experienced both high workload and high emotional demands. We conclude that providing strengths use support to employees offers organizations a tool to reduce absenteeism, even when it is difficult to redesign job demands. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. [Job performance in work organizations: the effects of management by group goals and job interdependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Hisataka

    2015-04-01

    cThis study examined the interactive effect of management by group goals and job interdependence on employee's activities in terms of task and contextual performance. A survey was conducted among 140 Japanese employees. Results indicated that management by group goals was related only to contextual performance. Job interdependence, however, had a direct effect on both task and contextual performance. Moreover, moderated regression analyses revealed that for work groups requiring higher interdependence among employees, management by group goals had a positive relation to contextual performance but not to task performance. When interdependence was not necessarily required, however, management by group goals had no relation to contextual performance and even negatively impacted task performance, respectively. These results show that management by group goals affects task and contextual performance, and that this effect is moderated by job interdependence. This provides a theoretical extension as well as a practical application to the setting and management of group goals.

  18. The importance of job autonomy, cognitive ability, and job-related skill for predicting role breadth and job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgeson, Frederick P; Delaney-Klinger, Kelly; Hemingway, Monica A

    2005-03-01

    Role theory suggests and empirical research has found that there is considerable variation in how broadly individuals define their jobs. We investigated the theoretically meaningful yet infrequently studied relationships between incumbent job autonomy, cognitive ability, job-related skill, role breadth, and job performance. Using multiple data sources and multiple measurement occasions in a field setting, we found that job autonomy, cognitive ability, and job-related skill were positively related to role breadth, accounting for 23% of the variance in role breadth. In addition, role breadth was positively related to job performance and was found to mediate the relationship between job autonomy, cognitive ability, job-related skill, and job performance. These results add to our understanding of the factors that predict role breadth, as well as having implications for how job aspects and individual characteristics are translated into performance outcomes and the treatment of variability in incumbent reports of job tasks.

  19. Asthma history, job type and job changes among US nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Orianne; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Zock, Jan Paul; Henneberger, Paul K; Speizer, Frank E; Wiley, Aleta S; Le Moual, Nicole; Camargo, Carlos A

    2015-07-01

    Nurses are at increased risk of occupational asthma, an observation that may be related to disinfectants exposure. Whether asthma history influences job type or job changes among nurses is unknown. We investigated this issue in a large cohort of nurses. The Nurses' Health Study II is a prospective study of US female nurses enrolled in 1989 (ages 24-44 years). Job status and asthma were assessed in biennial (1989-2011) and asthma-specific questionnaires (1998, 2003). Associations between asthma history at baseline (diagnosis before 1989, n=5311) and job type at baseline were evaluated by multinomial logistic regression. The relations of asthma history and severity during follow-up to subsequent job changes were evaluated by Cox models. The analytic cohort included 98 048 nurses. Compared with nurses in education/administration (likely low disinfectant exposure jobs), women with asthma history at baseline were less often employed in jobs with likely high disinfectant exposure, such as operating rooms (odds ratio 0.73 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.86)) and emergency room/inpatient units (0.89 (0.82 to 0.97)). During a 22-year follow-up, nurses with a baseline history of asthma were more likely to move to jobs with lower exposure to disinfectants (HR 1.13 (1.07 to 1.18)), especially among those with more severe asthma (HR for mild persistent: 1.13; moderate persistent 1.26; severe persistent: 1.50, compared with intermittent asthma, p trend: 0.004). Asthma history was associated with baseline job type and subsequent job changes among nurses. This may partly reflect avoidance of tasks involving disinfectant use, and may introduce bias in cross-sectional studies on disinfectant exposure and asthma in nurses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Assessment of green jobs in Dubai

    OpenAIRE

    Lehr, Ulrike; Walter, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment method for measuring green jobs in Dubai. Firstly, we describe the economic structure of Dubai and identify, which part of the economic sectors can be accounted for as green by international standards. Secondly, we describe the labor market in Dubai and assign the green economy’s activities to the respective labor force. Finally we conclude with a comparison with the literature and an outlook on future development.

  1. Job-demand for learning and job-related learning: the mediating effect of job performance improvement initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Loon, M; Bartram, T

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether job-performance-improvementinitiatives mediate the relationship between individuals’ job-demand for learning and job-related learning. Data were obtained from 115 full-time\\ud employees in a diverse range of occupations. A partial least squares analysis revealed that job-performance-improvement-initiatives mediate partially the effects of job-demand for learning on job-related learning. Several implications\\ud for future research and policy are drawn from the findi...

  2. Leader–member exchange fosters work engagement: The mediating role of job crafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Radstaak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The right balance between job demands and job resources are essential for employees to bring energy and enthusiasm to work. Employees who experience high-quality relationships with their supervisors may actively craft their job demands and job resources and feel more engaged. Research purpose: The current study examined the associations between leader–member exchange (LMX, job crafting and work engagement. Motivation: This study attempts to gain more insight in the associations between LMX, job crafting and work engagement. It was hypothesised that high-quality relationships with supervisors fosters work engagement because it stimulates employees to craft their jobs by increasing social and structural job resources and challenging job demands and by decreasing hindering job demands. Research approach, design and methodology: Participants (N = 402 working for a leading mail and parcels company in the Netherlands completed questionnaires measuring LMX, work engagement and job crafting. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the hypotheses. Main findings: Increasing social job resources (β = 0.01, SE = 0.00, p < 0.001 and increasing challenging job demands (β = 0.08, SE = 0.04, p < 0.05 were significant mediators in the association between LMX and work engagement. Increasing structural job resources (β = 0.00, SE = 0.00, p = 0.92 and decreasing hindering job demands (β = -0.00, SE 0.00, p = 0.09 were not significant mediators. Practical and managerial implications: Supervisors who are capable of building high-quality relationships with their employees based on trust, respect and loyalty will foster a positive, fulfilling work-related state of mind among employees because they are more willing to proactively craft a challenging and resourceful work environment. Contribution or value-add: The findings of this study showed the importance of high-quality relationships with supervisors and were unique in examining the

  3. Job Satisfaction of People with Intellectual Disability: Associations with Job Characteristics and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P.

    2018-01-01

    To obtain an understanding of factors associated with job satisfaction of people with intellectual disability (ID), this study investigates the associations of job satisfaction with job characteristics (i.e., job demands, job resources) and personality, using the job demands-resources model. Data were gathered from 117 people and their employment…

  4. Job Analysis and the Preparation of Job Descriptions. Mendip Papers MP 037.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Bob

    This document provides guidelines for conducting job analyses and writing job descriptions. It covers the following topics: the rationale for job descriptions, the terminology of job descriptions, who should write job descriptions, getting the information to write job descriptions, preparing for staff interviews, conducting interviews, writing the…

  5. Academics Job Satisfaction and Job Stress across Countries in the Changing Academic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung Cheol; Jung, Jisun

    2014-01-01

    This study examined job satisfaction and job stress across 19 higher education systems. We classified the 19 countries according to their job satisfaction and job stress and applied regression analysis to test whether new public management has impacts on either or both job satisfaction and job stress. According to this study, strong market driven…

  6. The Effects of Heat Stress on Job Satisfaction, Job Performance and Occupational Stress in Casting Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan; Mobinyzadeh; Habibi

    2016-01-01

    Background Job satisfaction, job performance, job stress and heat stress affect the productivity of workers. Objectives This research aimed to study the relationship between heat stress indices with job satisfaction, job performance and job stress in casting workers. Patients and Methods This descriptive-analytical cross sectional survey was performed during summer 2013 on one hund...

  7. Young Children and Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Sandra L.; Sloane, Douglas M.

    1992-01-01

    Used data from General Social Surveys to examine effect of young children on job satisfaction of men and women. Findings suggest that young children have no effect on job satisfaction of male or female workers regardless of time period, work status, or marital status. This was true for women working in labor market as well as in home. (Author/NB)

  8. A Guide to Job Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, T. H.

    There is considerable evidence that a large number of recently appointed training specialists would welcome a straightforward account of job analysis. It is in the hope of providing such an account and of providing practical guidance that this booklet has been written. Major sections of this guide include: (1) Job Analysis--A Process, (2)…

  9. An Introduction to Job Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, T. H.

    1970-01-01

    Job training involves preparing a job description and specification, and, if necessary, further analyses of skills, knowledge, and attitudes in order to identify areas of difficulty which will affect the choice of what must be learned and appropriate training techniques. (DM)

  10. Job Satisfaction of University Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuoha, Alphonso R. A.

    1980-01-01

    In testing Herzberg's two-factor theory of job satisfaction, it was found that theories of job satisfaction may be closely related to the methods used in collecting data; hence, the results of studies employing different methods raise questions about the validity of a particular theory. (Author/IRT)

  11. Job Sharing in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Barbara; And Others

    Job sharing is defined as "two people sharing the responsibilities of one full-time position with salary and benefits prorated"; the concept focuses on positions usually offered only as full-time jobs, often in professional and managerial categories. This book is a guide for teachers and administrators on the implementation and use of…

  12. Job-Sharing the Principalship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shelley; Feltham, Wendy

    1997-01-01

    The coprincipals of a California elementary school share their ideas for building a successful job-sharing partnership. They suggest it is important to find the right partner, develop and present a job-sharing proposal, establish systems of communication with each other, evaluate one's progress, focus on the principalship, and provide leadership…

  13. Job stress and productivity increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaramola, Samson Sunday

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines mental and physical pressures that workers bear at work. The authors discuss how on the-job stress affects a person's capabilities and productivity, and how such pressures lend to higher incidences of accidents at work. The paper also discuss methods of reducing job-related stress and increasing productivity. An intervention was conducted amongst workers in a private firm. It shows mental and emotional pressure can affect performance and productivity of a worker on the job. One of the biggest influences of today's worker is on the-job stress. Job stress occurs when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker. This consequently affects how a person would normally deal with customer service problems, grievances, violence, conflict, and decisions on the job. Stress is an inevitable part of everyday life, and is therefore a distinct part of a person's job. To properly control the outcome of stress, there are certain precautions and methods that should be taken that will boost productivity.

  14. Experience with Remote Job Execution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, Vickie E.; Cobb, John W; Green, Mark L.; Kohl, James Arthur; Miller, Stephen D.; Ren, Shelly; Smith, Bradford C.; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S.

    2008-01-01

    The Neutron Science Portal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory submits jobs to the TeraGrid for remote job execution. The TeraGrid is a network of high performance computers supported by the US National Science Foundation. There are eleven partner facilities with over a petaflop of peak computing performance and sixty petabytes of long-term storage. Globus is installed on a local machine and used for job submission. The graphical user interface is produced by java coding that reads an XML file. After submission, the status of the job is displayed in a Job Information Service window which queries globus for the status. The output folder produced in the scratch directory of the TeraGrid machine is returned to the portal with globus-url-copy command that uses the gridftp servers on the TeraGrid machines. This folder is copied from the stage-in directory of the community account to the user's results directory where the output can be plotted using the portal's visualization services. The primary problem with remote job execution is diagnosing execution problems. We have daily tests of submitting multiple remote jobs from the portal. When these jobs fail on a computer, it is difficult to diagnose the problem from the globus output. Successes and problems will be presented

  15. Job Satisfaction in Fisheries Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollnac, Richard; Bavinck, Maarten; Monnereau, Iris

    2012-01-01

    This article draws comparative lessons from seven job satisfaction studies on marine capture fishing that were recently carried out in nine countries and three geographical regions--Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean. The seven studies made use of an identical job satisfaction assessment tool and present information on a selection of metiers mainly…

  16. Mistral Supercomputer Job History Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zasadziński, Michał; Muntés-Mulero, Victor; Solé, Marc; Ludwig, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    In this technical report, we show insights and results of operational data analysis from petascale supercomputer Mistral, which is ranked as 42nd most powerful in the world as of January 2018. Data sources include hardware monitoring data, job scheduler history, topology, and hardware information. We explore job state sequences, spatial distribution, and electric power patterns.

  17. Junior College Faculty Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Joanne

    Some of the research done to date concerning job satisfaction of junior college faculty is reviewed in this "Brief." Part I of the "Brief" describes four frameworks that have been applied to the analysis of job satisfaction: the traditional approach, the two-factor approach, the need hierarchy, and the cognitive dissonance approach. Part II…

  18. Gender, job authority, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Karraker, Amelia

    2014-12-01

    Using the 1957-2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we explore the effect of job authority in 1993 (at age 54) on the change in depressive symptoms between 1993 and 2004 (age 65) among white men and women. Within-gender comparisons indicate that women with job authority (defined as control over others' work) exhibit more depressive symptoms than women without job authority, whereas men in authority positions are overall less depressed than men without job authority. Between-gender comparisons reveal that although women have higher depression than men, women's disadvantage in depression is significantly greater among individuals with job authority than without job authority. We argue that macro- and meso-processes of gender stratification create a workplace in which exercising job authority exposes women to interpersonal stressors that undermine health benefits of job authority. Our study highlights how the cultural meanings of masculinities and femininities attenuate or amplify health-promoting resources of socioeconomic advantage. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  19. Psychosocial risks and job performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, J.; Oeij, P.; Kraan, K.O.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we concentrate on explaining job performance from the perspective of psychosocial risks in the work environment. Many risks may hinder good job performance. The article does not concentrate on physical (such as, carrying heavy loads) or environmental risks (such as, extreme heat or

  20. Job satisfaction and preference drift.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen van den Brink, H.; Groot, W.J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Most empirical studies do not find that higher wages lead to more job satisfaction. In this paper we argue that the insignificant effect of wages on job satisfaction is due to preference drift. We adapt the standard ordered response model to allow for preference shifts. The empirical results support

  1. Job satisfaction and contingent employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf-Zijl, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses job satisfaction as an aggregate of satisfaction with several job aspects, with special focus on the influence of contingent-employment contracts. Fixed-effect analysis is applied on a longitudinal sample of Dutch employees in four work arrangements: regular, fixed-term, on-call

  2. Job Prospects for Industrial Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Discusses 1987 statistics from the College Placement Council regarding new job offers to graduating industrial engineers. Identifies trends in hiring in the field. Describes several issues that will face industrial engineers. States that the industrial engineers most likely to win jobs are those with good basic mathematics and communications…

  3. School Nurses Share a Job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwin, Elizabeth G.; Voss, Sondra

    1981-01-01

    Job sharing is a relatively new idea in which two or more people share the hours, the work, and the responsibilities of one job. Advantages and disadvantages to this situation are discussed in relation to the experiences of two nurses who shared a position as district nurse. (JN)

  4. Job satisfaction of nursing assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Nancy; Resnick, Barbara; Galik, Elizabeth; Flynn, Linda

    2011-11-01

    This secondary data analysis explored factors influencing job satisfaction in a sample of nursing assistants employed in Maryland skilled nursing facilities. Multiple factors have been shown to affect job satisfaction and turnover in nursing assistants (NAs), but the problem of turnover persists in skilled nursing facility environments affecting quality of care. An existing data set of 556 nursing assistants from 12 Maryland skilled nursing facilities was used. To explore factors found to influence job satisfaction from other studies, a multiple regression analysis was performed. Nine dependent variables previously shown to affect job satisfaction were used. Of these variables, only years of experience (β = .230) and performance of restorative care (β = .095) were found to be positively associated with job satisfaction. Self-esteem (β = -.094) was found to be negatively associated with job satisfaction. Only length of experience and exemplary care as evidenced by the performance of restorative care were associated with job satisfaction. These results mirror results found in other studies. Self-esteem was negatively associated with job satisfaction in this population, a finding needing further study. Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  5. Gender discrimination and job characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbelt, L.; Rispens, S.; Demerouti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between gender discrimination and the perceived job demands and job resources of women and men. This is important because it may provide insight into what factors contribute to women’s disadvantaged position at work.

  6. Job Quality in the Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine; Watt, Andrew; Finn, Mairéad

    -time and fixed-term contracts and/or in the extent to which workers reported that they were working in such jobs involuntarily. Moreover, the numbers of workers who are afraid to lose their job have increased markedly which are clear signs of the declining bargaining power of labour brought on by the crisis....

  7. Benchmark job – Watch out!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    On 12 December 2016, in Echo No. 259, we already discussed at length the MERIT and benchmark jobs. Still, we find that a couple of issues warrant further discussion. Benchmark job – administrative decision on 1 July 2017 On 12 January 2017, the HR Department informed all staff members of a change to the effective date of the administrative decision regarding benchmark jobs. The benchmark job title of each staff member will be confirmed on 1 July 2017, instead of 1 May 2017 as originally announced in HR’s letter on 18 August 2016. Postponing the administrative decision by two months will leave a little more time to address the issues related to incorrect placement in a benchmark job. Benchmark job – discuss with your supervisor, at the latest during the MERIT interview In order to rectify an incorrect placement in a benchmark job, it is essential that the supervisor and the supervisee go over the assigned benchmark job together. In most cases, this placement has been done autom...

  8. A Guide to Job Enrichment and Redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, J. Barton; Eberle, Ted

    1990-01-01

    Describes job design alternatives--job enrichment, the job characteristics model, Japanese style management, and quality-of-worklife approaches. Focuses on the problems that human resources professionals may encounter when attempting to implement these approaches. (Author/JOW)

  9. Job strain, effort-reward imbalance and employee well-being: a large-scale cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, J; Bosma, H; Peter, R; Siegrist, J

    2000-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of the Job Demand-Control (JD-C) Model and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model on employee well-being. A cross-sectional survey was conducted comprising a large representative sample of 11,636 employed Dutch men and women. Logistic regression analyses were used. Controlling for job sector, demographic characteristics (including educational level) and managerial position, employees reporting high job demands (i.e. psychological and physical demands) and low job control had elevated risks of emotional exhaustion, psychosomatic and physical health complaints and job dissatisfaction (odds ratios ranged from 2.89 to 10.94). Odds ratios were generally higher in employees reporting both high (psychological and physical) efforts and low rewards (i.e. poor salary, job insecurity and low work support): they ranged from 3.23 to 15.43. Furthermore, overcommitted people had higher risks of poor well-being due to a high effort-low reward mismatch (ORs: 3.57-20.81) than their less committed counterparts (ORs: 3.01-12.71). Finally, high efforts and low occupational rewards were stronger predictors of poor well-being than low job control when both job stress models were simultaneously adjusted. In conclusion, our findings show independent cumulative effects of both the JD-C Model and the ERI Model on employee well-being and are not significantly different in men and women as well as in young and old people. In particular, high (psychological and physical) efforts and low rewards adversely affected employee well-being. Preliminary findings also indicate excess risks of poor well-being in overcommitted persons suffering from high cost--low gain conditions at work.

  10. Application of Job Demands-Resources model in research on relationships between job satisfaction, job resources, individual resources and job demands

    OpenAIRE

    Adrianna Potocka; Małgorzata Waszkowska

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between job demands, job resourses, personal resourses and job satisfaction and to assess the usefulness of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model in the explanation of these phenomena. Materials and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers. The "Psychosocial Factors" and "Job satisfaction" questionnaires were used to test the hypothesis. Results: The results showed that job satisfaction increased with...

  11. Workplace bullying could play important roles in the relationships between job strain and symptoms of depression and sleep disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Jiro; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Fukuoka, Etsuko; Fujii, Yasuhito; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Nakajima, Kazuo; Hirokawa, Kumi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether workplace bullying mediates between job strain, evaluated by the job demand-control model, and symptoms of depression and sleep disturbance. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from all the workers (N=2,634) at 50 organizations in Japan. Due to missing data, the numbers of subjects included in the analyses varied from 1,646 to 2,062 (response rates varied from 62.5% to 78.2%). Job strain and workplace social support, workplace bullying, depression, and sleep disturbance were assessed using the Japanese versions of the Job Content Questionnaire, the Negative Acts Questionnaire, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, respectively. Mediation analysis followed the approach outlined by Baron and Kenny. We quantitatively estimated the mediation effects and tested their significance after adjustment for various combinations of demographic variables and workplace social support. Total effects of job strain index on depression or sleep disturbance were all positive and significant (pwomen, but remained significant (pjob strain with depression or sleep disturbance in both genders.

  12. Associations between psychological demands, decision latitude, and job strain with smoking in female hotel room cleaners in Las Vegas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Scherzer, Teresa; Krause, Niklas

    2008-01-01

    Little is known of the impact of the work environment on smoking among women holding low-paid jobs in the service sector. To study the associations between the components of the demand-control model with smoking in hotel room cleaners. We conducted a survey on work and health among 776 female hotel room cleaners in Las Vegas. Associations between psychosocial work characteristics and smoking were analyzed with multivariate regression analyses. Psychosocial work characteristics were associated with smoking after adjustment for covariates. Effect estimates were substantially reduced by additional adjustment for ethnicity, but remained significant for high psychological demands and smoking prevalence (OR = 1.97, p = 0.02), high job strain and smoking prevalence (OR = 1.87, p = 0.04), and high job strain and smoking intensity (coefficient = 3.52, p = 0.03). When analyses were restricted to Hispanic workers and further adjusted for place of birth, low decision latitude (coefficient = 3.94, p = 0.04) and high job strain (coefficient = 4.57, p = 003) were associated with smoking intensity but not with smoking status. Workplace smoking cessation programs may benefit from a primary prevention component reducing job strain among service workers. More research is needed on perceived and objective differences in psychosocial work characteristics across ethnic, immigrant, and other social groups within the same occupation.

  13. The moderating effect of control over work scheduling and overtime on the relationship between workload demands and perceived job risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näswall, Katharina; Burt, Christopher D B; Pearce, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of workload demands on perceived job risk using the Job Demand-Control model as a research framework. The primary objective was to test the hypothesis that employee control over work scheduling and overtime would moderate the relationship between workload demands and perceived job risk. Ninety-six participants working in a variety of industries completed measures of workload demands, and of control over work scheduling and overtime, and a measure of perceived job risk. Workload demands predicted higher perceptions of job risk. However, the results also suggest that control over overtime moderated this relationship, where those with the combination of high workload demands and low control over overtime reported higher levels of perceived risk. The results indicate that the JDC model is applicable to safety research. The results suggest that employee control over workload demands is an important variable to consider in terms of managing workplace safety. The present study also points to important areas for future research to explore in order to further understand the connection between demands and safety.

  14. The Influence of Domestic Overload on the Association between Job Strain and Ambulatory Blood Pressure among Female Nursing Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Fernandes Portela

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that the workplace plays an important etiologic role in blood pressure (BP alterations. Associations in female samples are controversial, and the domestic environment is hypothesized to be an important factor in this relationship. This study assessed the association between job strain and BP within a sample of female nursing workers, considering the potential role of domestic overload. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a group of 175 daytime workers who wore an ambulatory BP monitor for 24 h during a working day. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were calculated. Job strain was evaluated using the Demand-Control Model. Domestic overload was based on the level of responsibility in relation to four household tasks and on the number of beneficiaries. After adjustments no significant association between high job strain and BP was detected. Stratified analyses revealed that women exposed to both domestic overload and high job strain had higher systolic BP at home. These results indicate a possible interaction between domestic overload and job strain on BP levels and revealed the importance of domestic work, which is rarely considered in studies of female workers.

  15. Job satisfaction and job content in Dutch dental hygienists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerković-Ćosić, K; van Offenbeek, M A G; van der Schans, C P

    2012-08-01

    This study compares the scope of practice of Dutch dental hygienists (DHs) educated through a 2- or 3-year curriculum ('old-style DHs') with that of hygienists educated through a new extended 4-year curriculum leading to a bachelor's degree ('new-style DHs'), with the aim to investigate whether an extended scope of practice positively affects perceived skill variety, autonomy and job satisfaction. The questionnaires were obtained from old- and new-style DHs (n = 413, response 38%; n = 219, response 59%, respectively), in which respondents had recorded their dental tasks, perceived skill variety, autonomy and job satisfaction. T -tests were used to analyse differences between old- and new-style DHs, and regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between scope of practice and skill variety, autonomy and job satisfaction. New-style DHs have a more extended scope of practice compared with old-style DHs. Despite their more complex jobs, which are theoretically related to higher job satisfaction, new-style DHs perceive lower autonomy and job satisfaction (P job satisfaction (β = 0.462), followed by autonomy (β = 0.202) and caries decisive tasks, the last affecting job satisfaction negatively (β = -0.149). Self-employment is the strongest significant predictor for autonomy (β = 0.272). The core business of DHs remains the prevention and periodontology services. New-style DHs combine these tasks with extended tasks in the caries field, which can lead to comparatively less job satisfaction, because of a lower experienced autonomy in performing these extended tasks. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Are Job Search Programs a Promising Tool? : A Microeconometric Evaluation for Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Andrea Maria; Hofer, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    In Austria job search programs were introduced on a large scale in 1999. These programs aim at activating unemployed at an early stage and bringing them back to work by training job search related skills. We evaluate the impact of active labour market programs in Austria on individual unemployment durations, and allow program effects to vary between job search programs and formal training programs. We use the timing-of-events method which estimates the program effect as a shift in the transit...

  17. Job-to-job Transitions, Sorting, and Wage Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinkins, David; Morin, Annaïg

    unemployment, for whom the exogenous mobility assumption is not rejected, to estimate firm fixed effects. We then decompose the variance of wage growth of all job movers. We find that 66% of the variance of wage growth experienced by job movers can be attributed to variance in match quality. Expected match......We measure the contribution of match quality to the wage growth experienced by job movers. We reject the exogenous mobility assumption needed to estimate a standard fixed-effects wage regression in the Danish matched employer-employee data. We exploit the sub-sample of workers hired from...... quality growth is higher for higher-skilled occupations....

  18. Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Job Involvement: The Mediating Role of Job Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćulibrk, Jelena; Delić, Milan; Mitrović, Slavica; Ćulibrk, Dubravko

    2018-01-01

    We conducted an empirical study aimed at identifying and quantifying the relationship between work characteristics, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, job involvement and organizational policies and procedures in the transition economy of Serbia, South Eastern Europe. The study, which included 566 persons, employed by 8 companies, revealed that existing models of work motivation need to be adapted to fit the empirical data, resulting in a revised research model elaborated in the paper. In the proposed model, job involvement partially mediates the effect of job satisfaction on organizational commitment. Job satisfaction in Serbia is affected by work characteristics but, contrary to many studies conducted in developed economies, organizational policies and procedures do not seem significantly affect employee satisfaction.

  19. Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Job Involvement: The Mediating Role of Job Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćulibrk, Jelena; Delić, Milan; Mitrović, Slavica; Ćulibrk, Dubravko

    2018-01-01

    We conducted an empirical study aimed at identifying and quantifying the relationship between work characteristics, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, job involvement and organizational policies and procedures in the transition economy of Serbia, South Eastern Europe. The study, which included 566 persons, employed by 8 companies, revealed that existing models of work motivation need to be adapted to fit the empirical data, resulting in a revised research model elaborated in the paper. In the proposed model, job involvement partially mediates the effect of job satisfaction on organizational commitment. Job satisfaction in Serbia is affected by work characteristics but, contrary to many studies conducted in developed economies, organizational policies and procedures do not seem significantly affect employee satisfaction. PMID:29503623

  20. Job stress, fatigue, and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers: towards an occupation specific model of job demands and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Croon, E M; Blonk, R W B; de Zwart, B C H; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Broersen, J P J

    2002-06-01

    Building on Karasek's model of job demands and control (JD-C model), this study examined the effects of job control, quantitative workload, and two occupation specific job demands (physical demands and supervisor demands) on fatigue and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers. From 1181 lorry drivers (adjusted response 63%) self reported information was gathered by questionnaire on the independent variables (job control, quantitative workload, physical demands, and supervisor demands) and the dependent variables (fatigue and job dissatisfaction). Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the main effects of job demands and job control and the interaction effect between job control and job demands on fatigue and job dissatisfaction. The inclusion of physical and supervisor demands in the JD-C model explained a significant amount of variance in fatigue (3%) and job dissatisfaction (7%) over and above job control and quantitative workload. Moreover, in accordance with Karasek's interaction hypothesis, job control buffered the positive relation between quantitative workload and job dissatisfaction. Despite methodological limitations, the results suggest that the inclusion of (occupation) specific job control and job demand measures is a fruitful elaboration of the JD-C model. The occupation specific JD-C model gives occupational stress researchers better insight into the relation between the psychosocial work environment and wellbeing. Moreover, the occupation specific JD-C model may give practitioners more concrete and useful information about risk factors in the psychosocial work environment. Therefore, this model may provide points of departure for effective stress reducing interventions at work.

  1. Change in job stress and job satisfaction over a two-year interval using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Tomoyuki; Otsuka, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between job stress and job satisfaction by the follow-up study should be more evaluated for workers' health support. Job stress is strongly affected by the content of the job and the personality of a worker. This study was focused on determining the changes of the job stress and job satisfaction levels over a two-year interval, using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ). This self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the same 310 employees of a Japanese industrial company in 2009 and 2011. Sixty-one employees were lost from 371 responders in 2009. Data of 16 items from 57 items graded on a four-point Likert-type scale to measure the job stressors, psycho-physical complaints and support for workers, job overload (six items), job control (three items), support (six items) and job satisfaction score (one item) were selected for the analysis. The age-adjusted partial correlation coefficients for job overload, job control and support were 0.684 (pjob overload, job control and support were 0.681 (0.616-0.736), 0.473 (0.382-0.555), and 0.623 (0.549-0.687), respectively. There were no significant differences in the mean score for job overload, job control or support, although significant decline in the job satisfaction level was apparent at the end of the two-year period (pjob satisfaction in 2009 and in 2011 for subjects with keeping low job strain. No significant changes in the scores on the three elements of job stress were observed over the two-year study period, and the job satisfaction level deteriorated significantly during this period. There was a decline in the job satisfaction in the two-year period, although subjects did not suffer from job stress at the same period.

  2. Network effects across the earnings distribution: payoffs to visible and invisible job finding assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study makes three critical contributions to the "Do Contacts Matter?" debate. First, the widely reported null relationship between informal job searching and wages is shown to be mostly the artifact of a coding error and sample selection restrictions. Second, previous analyses examined only active informal job searching without fully considering the benefits derived from unsolicited network assistance (the "invisible hand of social capital") - thereby underestimating the network effect. Third, wage returns to networks are examined across the earnings distribution. Longitudinal data from the NLSY reveal significant wage returns for network-based job finding over formal job searching, especially for individuals who were informally recruited into their jobs (non-searchers). Fixed effects quantile regression analyses show that contacts generate wage premiums among middle and high wage jobs, but not low wage jobs. These findings challenge conventional wisdom on contact effects and advance understanding of how social networks affect wage attainment and inequality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Exposure control during high maintenance jobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinson, C.S.; Wigginton, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Occupational radiation doses at US light-water-cooled reactors (LWRs) have been decreasing every year since 1983. In 1989, the LWR average dose per reactor reached its lowest point since 1973. Historically, maintenance-related activities have accounted for between 70 and 75% of the total occupational doses at US LWRs, and most of this maintenance-related dose is accrued during plant outages. This paper will focus on high dose maintenance jobs such as steam generator replacement, recirculation pipe replacement/crack repair, induction heating stress improvement, and steam generator tube plugging/sleeving and will discuss how the doses associated with these jobs have declined over the past several years through the implementation of various ALARA techniques

  4. Effect of musculoskeletal pain of care workers on job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, DeokJu

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the musculoskeletal pain of care workers and investigate its effect on their job satisfaction. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 87 care workers working at C elderly care service center in P region. The average age of men was 62.5 ± 3.4 years and that of women was 57.3 ± 2.7 years. The 'Guidelines for Risk Factor Survey on Tasks with Musculoskeletal Burden' of the KOSHA CODE (H-30-2003) of the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) was used for measurement of musculoskeletal pain. This survey tool for job satisfaction consisted of 12 questions including the areas of wage satisfaction, professional satisfaction, job performance satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction. [Results] Study results showed that musculoskeletal pain varied depending on professional satisfaction, job performance satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction. The correlation between the areas of musculoskeletal pain and job satisfaction was examined and the following was revealed. Professional satisfaction was correlated with arm/elbow pain and lower back pain, job performance satisfaction with lower back pain, and relationship satisfaction with shoulder pain and lower back pain. [Conclusion] In this study, subjects were older and could have been easily exposed to diseases because of their age. To improve job efficiency among care workers, continuing education related to the job should take precedence. In addition, social support is required that can alleviate the heavy workload related to physical activity support, which is among the responsibilities of care workers. Moreover, application standards and coverage of industrial insurance for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders of care workers should be extended further to relieve the burden of medical costs. A series of such measures will have a positive effect on improving the job satisfaction of care workers.

  5. [Personal resources and nursing work: a research on coping strategies and job satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentin, Silvia; Dallago, Lorenza; Negrisolo, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    The coping (ability to face a difficult situation), is an essential resource for nurses, because it increases the effective functioning in the working environment, job satisfaction and individual level of wellness. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between coping strategies and job satisfaction. A self report questionnaire was administered to all the nurses working in health services and hospitals of Padua province and to free lance nurses members of the College of Nurses, to collect information on coping strategies and job satisfaction. 2264 questionnaires were returned (71%). Active coping strategies are adopted mainly from older nurses while avoiding strategies are prevalent among younger. An association was observed between job satisfaction and active coping strategies, aimed at problem solving: active strategies increase job satisfaction while avoiding strategies descrease it. Individual coping strategies implemented to face difficult situations are associated to job satisfaction.

  6. Are peer specialists happy on the job?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sarah; Chenneville, Tiffany; Salnaitis, Christina

    2018-03-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of role clarity and job training on job satisfaction among peer specialists. A 3-part survey assessing job training, job satisfaction, and role clarity was administered online to 195 peer specialists who are members of the International Association of Peer Specialists. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlational analyses to include multiple linear regressions and analysis of variance. Self-study and online training methods were negatively correlated with job satisfaction while job shadowing was positively correlated with job satisfaction. Role clarity was positively correlated with job satisfaction and job training satisfaction as well as job shadowing and one-on-one training. The use of self-study and online training for peer specialists is contraindicated by current findings, which suggest the need to utilize job shadowing or training methods that allow for personal interaction between peer specialists and their colleagues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Job-to-Job Transitions, Sorting, and Wage Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinkins, David; Morin, Annaïg

    in the quality of the worker-firm match rather than transitions to better firms. Also, 66% of the variance of wage growth experienced by job movers can be attributed to variance in match quality. Expected match quality growth is higher for higher-skilled occupations and high-educated workers.......In this paper, we measure the contribution of match quality to the wage growth experienced by job movers. Using the Danish matched employer-employee data, we reject the exogenous mobility assumption needed to estimate a standard fixedeffects wage regression. To estimate firm fixed effects, we...... exploit the sub-sample of workers hired from unemployment, for whom the exogenous mobility assumption is not rejected. Then we decompose the mean and the variance of wage growth of jobto-job movers. We find that most of the wage growth experienced by job movers is attributable to an improvement...

  8. Determining Composite Validity Coefficients for Army Jobs and Job Families

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zeidner, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    ...) is to compute composite validity coefficients. using criterion data derived from the 1987 - 1989 Skill Qualifications Test program, for the 7-test ASVAB for 150, 17, and 9 job family structures...

  9. Stress, mental health, and job performance among active duty military personnel: findings from the 2002 Department of Defense Health-Related Behaviors Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourani, Laurel L; Williams, Thomas V; Kress, Amii M

    2006-09-01

    This study examined the extent to which high levels of occupational and family stress were associated with mental health problems and productivity loss among active duty military personnel. We analyzed data from the 2002 Department of Defense Survey of Health-Related Behaviors among Military Personnel, which provided extensive population-based information on 12,756 active duty personnel in all branches of the military worldwide. Military personnel reported higher levels of stress at work than in their family life. The personnel reporting the highest levels of occupational stress were those 25 or younger, those who were married with spouses not present, and women. Personnel with high levels of stress had significantly higher rates of mental health problems and productivity loss than those with less stress. We recommend that prevention and intervention efforts geared toward personnel reporting the highest levels of stress be given priority for resources in this population.

  10. Relationships between followers' behaviors and job satisfaction in a sample of nurses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gatti

    Full Text Available The study investigated two followership behaviors, followers' active engagement and followers' independent critical thinking, and their relationship with job satisfaction in a sample of nurses. In addition, the study also considered a number of control variables and classical job demands and job resources-workload and emotional dissonance for job demands, and meaningful work for job resources-which have an impact on well-being at work. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was administered to 425 nurses in an Italian hospital, and a hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypotheses. In addition to the job demands and job resources considered, followers' active engagement had a significant impact on job satisfaction. Moreover, it showed a significant linear and curvilinear relationship with the outcome variable. Followers' independent critical thinking has a non significant relationship with job satisfaction, confirming the mixed results obtained in the past for this dimension. These findings bore out the importance of analyzing followers' behaviors as potential resources that people can use on the job to increase their own well-being. Looking at followers not just as passive recipients but as active and proactive employees can also benefit the organization.

  11. Relationships between followers’ behaviors and job satisfaction in a sample of nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Cortese, Claudio G.

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated two followership behaviors, followers’ active engagement and followers’ independent critical thinking, and their relationship with job satisfaction in a sample of nurses. In addition, the study also considered a number of control variables and classical job demands and job resources—workload and emotional dissonance for job demands, and meaningful work for job resources—which have an impact on well-being at work. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was administered to 425 nurses in an Italian hospital, and a hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypotheses. In addition to the job demands and job resources considered, followers’ active engagement had a significant impact on job satisfaction. Moreover, it showed a significant linear and curvilinear relationship with the outcome variable. Followers’ independent critical thinking has a non significant relationship with job satisfaction, confirming the mixed results obtained in the past for this dimension. These findings bore out the importance of analyzing followers’ behaviors as potential resources that people can use on the job to increase their own well-being. Looking at followers not just as passive recipients but as active and proactive employees can also benefit the organization. PMID:28982186

  12. Relationships between followers' behaviors and job satisfaction in a sample of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Paola; Ghislieri, Chiara; Cortese, Claudio G

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated two followership behaviors, followers' active engagement and followers' independent critical thinking, and their relationship with job satisfaction in a sample of nurses. In addition, the study also considered a number of control variables and classical job demands and job resources-workload and emotional dissonance for job demands, and meaningful work for job resources-which have an impact on well-being at work. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was administered to 425 nurses in an Italian hospital, and a hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypotheses. In addition to the job demands and job resources considered, followers' active engagement had a significant impact on job satisfaction. Moreover, it showed a significant linear and curvilinear relationship with the outcome variable. Followers' independent critical thinking has a non significant relationship with job satisfaction, confirming the mixed results obtained in the past for this dimension. These findings bore out the importance of analyzing followers' behaviors as potential resources that people can use on the job to increase their own well-being. Looking at followers not just as passive recipients but as active and proactive employees can also benefit the organization.

  13. Jobs: women's double burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Whereas international conventions and national laws provide equal opportunities for women in employment, the reality of women's lives keeps a disproportionate number of women unemployed, underemployed, and living in poverty. The UN itself, which officially is working toward equity among its employees, has a staff composed of just 32.6% women, and women comprise only 10.5% of the top end of the hierarchy. In areas where women's labor force participation has increased dramatically, women typically earn 30-40% less than men doing the same job or else their employment is limited to "traditional female" service positions. The fact that women and girls have received an inadequate education makes it extremely difficult to break the barriers of discrimination in developing countries. The empowerment of women will break the education barrier, and, when that falls, many other barriers will follow suit. Efforts are already underway to break structural barriers caused by economic and social policies. For example, a more flexible pattern of work has been proposed which will include the voluntary assumption of flexible hours, job-sharing, and part-time work. The concept of work is also being broadened to include the important human services that women traditionally provide on a volunteer basis. This will lead to a valuation of women's contribution to society which can be added to calculations of gross domestic product. Women also need protection as they attempt to eke out a living in the informal sector which has been the traditional avenue for women to earn money. This sector is not protected by law and is subject to extortion by officials and by male competitors. A variety of measures is under consideration to increase the protection of informal sector workers. Women also need protection in the conventional work place, especially as they enter fields traditionally reserved for men. These questions are important even in the context of global unemployment because these issues

  14. The effect of discrimination on job performance and job satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfaye, Yodit

    2011-01-01

    Discrimination is one of the most controversial phenomena to challenge the Human Resources (HR) function in the work place. It has been discussed in depth by sociologists, politicians and lawyers and remains a topical issue. Despite advances gender discrimination still persists, and continues to be experienced by women in the contemporary work space. Purpose - As job satisfaction has been shown to directly affect business performance, there has been increased interest in how job satisfact...

  15. Examining the mediating effect of work-to-family conflict on the associations between job stressors and employee psychological distress: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Inoue, Akiomi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2017-08-03

    The mediating effect of work-to-family conflict (WFC) on the associations between eight types of job stressors (measured based on the job demands-control, effort-reward imbalance and organisational justice models) and psychological distress in employees was examined. This study employed a prospective design. An occupational cohort study in Japan (Japanese Study of Health, Occupation, and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity; J-HOPE). 5859 men and 1560 women who were working for 11 firms and participated at three consecutive waves of J-HOPE, at 1-year intervals, from 2010 to 2013. Psychological distress, as measured by Kessler 6 scores. Mediation analysis using data on job stressors at baseline, WFC at 1-year follow-up and psychological distress at 2-year follow-up showed that WFC mediated 39.1% (95% CI 29.1% to 49.1%) and 44.5% (95% CI 31.4% to 51.7%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively, for men. The mediating effect of WFC was smaller for job stressors indicating reduced job resources, compared with job demands and effort. The mediating effect of WFC was somewhat larger for women than it was for men, with WFC mediating 47.5% (95% CI 22.5% to 72.6%) and 64.0% (95% CI 24.3% to 100.0%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively. WFC was a key mediator in the associations between most job stressors and employee psychological distress. Results suggest that policy measures and support from supervisors, to prevent job stressors from adding to WFC, are needed to reduce employee psychological distress. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Examining the mediating effect of work-to-family conflict on the associations between job stressors and employee psychological distress: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Inoue, Akiomi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The mediating effect of work-to-family conflict (WFC) on the associations between eight types of job stressors (measured based on the job demands-control, effort–reward imbalance and organisational justice models) and psychological distress in employees was examined. Design This study employed a prospective design. Setting An occupational cohort study in Japan (Japanese Study of Health, Occupation, and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity; J-HOPE). Participants 5859 men and 1560 women who were working for 11 firms and participated at three consecutive waves of J-HOPE, at 1-year intervals, from 2010 to 2013. Main outcome measures Psychological distress, as measured by Kessler 6 scores. Results Mediation analysis using data on job stressors at baseline, WFC at 1-year follow-up and psychological distress at 2-year follow-up showed that WFC mediated 39.1% (95% CI 29.1% to 49.1%) and 44.5% (95% CI 31.4% to 51.7%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively, for men. The mediating effect of WFC was smaller for job stressors indicating reduced job resources, compared with job demands and effort. The mediating effect of WFC was somewhat larger for women than it was for men, with WFC mediating 47.5% (95% CI 22.5% to 72.6%) and 64.0% (95% CI 24.3% to 100.0%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively. Conclusions WFC was a key mediator in the associations between most job stressors and employee psychological distress. Results suggest that policy measures and support from supervisors, to prevent job stressors from adding to WFC, are needed to reduce employee psychological distress. PMID:28775183

  17. A personality trait-based interactionist model of job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tett, Robert P; Burnett, Dawn D

    2003-06-01

    Evidence for situational specificity of personality-job performance relations calls for better understanding of how personality is expressed as valued work behavior. On the basis of an interactionist principle of trait activation (R. P. Tett & H. A. Guterman, 2000), a model is proposed that distinguishes among 5 situational features relevant to trait expression (job demands, distracters, constraints, releasers, and facilitators), operating at task, social, and organizational levels. Trait-expressive work behavior is distinguished from (valued) job performance in clarifying the conditions favoring personality use in selection efforts. The model frames linkages between situational taxonomies (e.g., J. L. Holland's [1985] RIASEC model) and the Big Five and promotes useful discussion of critical issues, including situational specificity, personality-oriented job analysis, team building, and work motivation.

  18. Employed and unemployed job search methods: Australian evidence on search duration, wages and job stability

    OpenAIRE

    Colin Green

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the use and impact of job search methods of both unemployed and employed job seekers. Informal job search methods are associated with relativel high level of job exit and shorter search duration. Job exists through the public employment agency (PEA) display positive duration dependence for the unemployed. This may suggest that the PEA is used as a job search method of last resort. Informal job search methods have lower associated duration in search and higher wages than th...

  19. Job stress, fatigue, and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers: towards an occupation specific model of job demands and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croon, E.M. de; Blonk, R.W.B.; Zwart, B.C.H. de; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.; Broersen, J.P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Building on Karasek's model of job demands and control (JD-C model), this study examined the effects of job control, quantitative workload, and two occupation specific job demands on fatigue and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers. From 1181 lorry drivers self reported information was

  20. Job stress, fatigue, and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers: towards an occupation specific model of job demands and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Croon, E. M.; Blonk, R. W. B.; de Zwart, B. C. H.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Broersen, J. P. J.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Building on Karasek's model of job demands and control (JD-C model), this study examined the effects of job control, quantitative workload, and two occupation specific job demands (physical demands and supervisor demands) on fatigue and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers.

  1. The influence of frontline manager job strain on burnout, commitment and turnover intention: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carol A; Spence Laschinger, Heather K

    2015-12-01

    The frontline clinical manager role in healthcare is pivotal to the development of safe and healthy working conditions and optimal staff and patient care outcomes. However, in today's dynamic healthcare organizations managers face constant job demands from wider spans of control and complex role responsibilities but may not have adequate decisional authority to support effective work performance resulting in unnecessary job strain. Prolonged job strain can lead to burnout, health complaints, and increased turnover intention. Yet, there is limited research that examines frontline manager job strain and its impact on their well-being and work outcomes. The substantial cost associated with replacing experienced managers calls attention to the need to address job strain in order to retain this valuable organizational asset. Using Karasek's Job Demands-Control theory of job strain, a model was tested examining the effects of frontline manager job strain on their burnout (emotional exhaustion and cynicism), organizational commitment and ultimately, turnover intentions. Secondary analysis of data collected in an online cross-sectional survey of frontline managers was conducted using structural equation modeling. All 500 eligible frontline managers from 14 teaching hospitals in Ontario, Canada, were invited to participate and 159 responded for a 32% response rate. Participants received an email invitation with a secure link for the online survey. Ethics approval was obtained from the university ethics board and the respective ethics review boards of the 14 organizations involved in the study. The model was tested using path analysis techniques within structural equation modeling with maximum likelihood estimation. The final model fit the data acceptably (χ(2)=6.62, df=4, p=.16, IFI=99, CFI=.99, SRMR=.03, RMSEA=.06). Manager job strain was significantly positively associated with burnout which contributed to both lower organizational commitment and higher turnover

  2. Job demands, job resources, and job performance in japanese workers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yuko; Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsuno, Kanami; Tomioka, Kimiko; Nakanishi, Mayuko; Mafune, Kosuke; Hiro, Hisanori

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-sectional association of job demands (i.e., psychological demands) and job resources (i.e., decision latitude, supervisor support, co-worker support, and extrinsic reward) with job performance. A total of 1,198 workers (458 males and 740 females) from a manufacturing company in Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the Job Content Questionnaire, Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, and demographic survey. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, decision latitude (β=0.107, p=0.001) and extrinsic reward (β=0.158, pjob performance while supervisor support (β=-0.102, p=0.002) was negatively and significantly associated with job performance. On the other hand, psychological demands or co-worker support was not significantly associated with job performance. These findings suggest that higher decision latitude and extrinsic reward enhance job performance among Japanese employees.

  3. Among Musculoskeletal Surgeons, Job Dissatisfaction Is Associated With Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wulfften Palthe, Olivier D R; Neuhaus, Valentin; Janssen, Stein J; Guitton, Thierry G; Ring, David

    2016-08-01

    Burnout is common in professions such as medicine in which employees have frequent and often stressful interpersonal interactions where empathy and emotional control are important. Burnout can lead to decreased effectiveness at work, negative health outcomes, and less job satisfaction. A relationship between burnout and job satisfaction is established for several types of physicians but is less studied among surgeons who treat musculoskeletal conditions. We asked: (1) For surgeons treating musculoskeletal conditions, what risk factors are associated with worse job dissatisfaction? (2) What risk factors are associated with burnout symptoms? Two hundred ten (52% of all active members of the Science of Variation Group [SOVG]) surgeons who treat musculoskeletal conditions (94% orthopaedic surgeons and 6% trauma surgeons; in Europe, general trauma surgeons do most of the fracture surgery) completed the Global Job Satisfaction instrument, Shirom-Malamed Burnout Measure, and provided practice and surgeon characteristics. Most surgeons were male (193 surgeons, 92%) and most were academically employed (186 surgeons, 89%). Factors independently associated with job satisfaction and burnout were identified with multivariable analysis. Greater symptoms of burnout (β, -7.13; standard error [SE], 0.75; 95% CI, -8.60 to -5.66; p job satisfaction. Having children (β, -0.45; SE, 0.0.21; 95% CI, -0.85 to -0.043; p = 0.030; adjusted R(2), 0.046) was the only factor independently associated with fewer symptoms of burnout. Among an active research group of largely academic surgeons treating musculoskeletal conditions, most are satisfied with their job. Efforts to limit burnout and job satisfaction by optimizing engagement in and deriving meaning from the work are effective in other settings and merit attention among surgeons. Level II, prognostic study.

  4. Job Quality by Entrepreneurial Spinoffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    We study whether entrepreneurial spinoffs are important drivers of industry dynamics. More precisely, we investigate whether the quality of jobs in spinoff entrepreneurs are higher than for other entrepreneurs. We distinguish spinoff firms by different types and distinguish between growing...

  5. Job Assignments under Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    Inefficient job assignments are usually explained with incomplete information about employees' abilities or contractual imperfections. We show that inefficient assignments arise even without uncertainty about the employee's ability and with complete contracts. Building on this result we provide...

  6. The Recent Pathology Residency Graduate Job Search Experience: A Synthesis of 5 Years of College of American Pathologists Job Market Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratzinger, Dita; Johnson, Kristen A; Brissette, Mark D; Cohen, David; Rojiani, Amyn M; Conran, Richard M; Hoffman, Robert D; Post, Miriam D; McCloskey, Cindy B; Roberts, Cory A; Domen, Ronald E; Talbert, Michael L; Powell, Suzanne Z

    2018-04-01

    - Pathology residents and fellows tailor their training and job search strategies to an actively evolving specialty in the setting of scientific and technical advances and simultaneous changes in health care economics. - To assess the experience and outcome of the job search process of pathologists searching for their first non-fellowship position. - The College of American Pathologists (CAP) Graduate Medical Education Committee has during the past 5 years sent an annual job search survey each June to CAP junior members and fellows in practice 3 years or less who have actively searched for a non-fellowship position. - Job market indicators including job interviews, job offers, positions accepted, and job satisfaction have remained stable during the 5 years of the survey. Most survey respondents who had applied for at least 1 position had accepted a position at the time of the survey, and most applicants who had accepted a position were satisfied or very satisfied. However, most attested that finding a non-fellowship position was difficult. Despite a perceived push toward subspecialization in surgical pathology, the reported number of fellowships completed was stable. Respondent demographics were not associated with job search success with 1 significant exception: international medical school graduate respondents reported greater perceived difficulty in finding a position, and indeed, fewer reported having accepted a position. - Pathology residents and fellows seeking their first position have faced a relatively stable job market during the last 5 years, with most accepting positions with which they were satisfied.

  7. Motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in a specialized health institution in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Health care system is specific for each country, and therefore involves different motivation and job satisfaction factors. The aim of this study was to confirm the validity and applicability of the General Nordic Questionnaire translated into Serbian for analyzing motivation and job satisfaction, as well as to analyze the motivation factors and job satisfaction of health workers at the Institute for Treatment and Rehabilitation "Niška Banja". Methods. The General Nordic Questionnaire was translated into Serbian. It included 73 questions (5 answers by the Likert scale, which formed 24 scales. In May, 2012, 196 (82.3% health workers filled in the questionnaire. Results. A correlation of Ceronbach’s alpha values between the Scandinavian study results and the results of Serbian study was statistically significant (r = 0.424; p < 0.05. The lowest Cronbach’ alfa coefficient was for the scale “learning demand in job demands” (alpha 0.28. The other scale with no satisfactory reliability was “control of work pacing” (alpha 0.46. Intrinsic motivation positively correlated with all the scales of organizational module, apart from inequality. Within this module, the degree of extrinsic motivation correlated with the support from the superior and coworkers, with fair leadership and human resources primacy. A negative correlation appeared with inequality. Conclusion. The general Nordic Questionnaire can be applied to a great extent to the conditions in our country. Our study shows a low consistency of the scales learning job demands, control of decision, control of work pacing, so the questions in them should be adjusted to the conditions in our country. Extrinsic motivation resulted in higher values than the values of intrinsic motivation in our workers, which is opposite to the results of the original questionnaire.

  8. Associations of Job Stress Indicators with Oxidative Biomarkers in Japanese Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiro Takaki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Some researchers have suggested that oxidative damage may be one of the mechanisms linking job stress with coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between job stress indicators and oxidative biomarkers. The study included 567 subjects (272 men, 295 women who answered questionnaires related to their work and underwent a medical examination. Job stress evaluated using the demands-control-support model was measured using the Job Content Questionnaire. Effort-reward imbalance was measured using the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire. Urinary hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG were measured by the modified ferrous ion oxidation xylenol orange version-1 method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. In men, the changes in the odds ratios for high urinary H2O2 associated with a 1-standard-deviation (SD increase in worksite social support were 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.53, 0.91 univariately and 0.68 (95%CI 0.51, 0.90 after adjustment for covariates. The change in the odds ratio for high urinary H2O2 associated with a 1-SD increase in effort-reward ratio was 1.35 (95% CI 1.03, 1.78 after adjustment for covariates. In women, there were no significant associations of the two job stress indicators with urinary H2O2 and 8-OHdG levels after adjustment for covariates (p > 0.05.

  9. Minus 30% of CO2 equal 684000 additional jobs. The winning equation for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report proposes an assessment of job creations and destructions in relationship with a strategy based on low energy consumption, energy efficiency and renewable energies, which would allow a decrease of 30% of CO 2 emissions by 2020. This investigation takes the whole set of activity sectors into account, as well as the most important economical impacts like direct or indirect job creation in sectors displaying a growing activity, job destruction in those displaying a declining one, but also job destruction and creation induced by the impact on household purchasing power. The assessment methodology and the hypotheses are described in appendix

  10. Analysis of job satisfaction, burnout, and intent of respiratory care practitioners to leave the field or the job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelledy, D C; Mikles, S P; May, D F; Youtsey, J W

    1992-01-01

    Increased stress, burnout, and lack of job satisfaction may contribute to a decline in work performance, absenteeism, and intent to leave one's job or field. We undertook to determine organizational, job-specific, and personal predictors of level of burnout among respiratory care practitioners (RCPs). We also examined the relationships among burnout, job satisfaction (JS), absenteeism, and RCPs' intent to leave their job or the field. A pilot-tested assessment instrument was mailed to all active NBRC-credentialed RCPs in Georgia (n = 788). There were 458 usable returns (58% response rate). A random sample of 10% of the nonrespondents (n = 33) was then surveyed by telephone, and the results were compared to those of the mail respondents. Variables were compared to burnout and JS scores by correlational analysis, which was followed by stepwise multiple regression analyses to determine the ability of the independent variables to predict burnout and JS scores when used in combination. There were no significant differences between respondents and sampled nonrespondents in burnout scores (p = 0.56) or JS (p = 0.24). Prediction of burnout: The coefficient of multiple correlation, R2, indicated that in combination the independent variables accounted for 61% of the variance in burnout scores. The strongest predictor of burnout was job stress. Other job-related predictors of burnout were size of department, satisfaction with work, satisfaction with co-workers and co-worker support, job independence and job control, recognition by nursing, and role clarity. Personal-variable predictors were age, number of previous jobs held, social support, and intent to leave the field of respiratory care. Prediction of job satisfaction: R2 indicated that, in combination, the independent variables accounted for 63% of the variance observed in satisfaction with work, 36% of the variance observed in satisfaction with pay, 36% of the variance in satisfaction with promotions, 62% of the variance

  11. Job market signals and signs

    OpenAIRE

    Streb, Jorge M.

    2006-01-01

    What happens to job market signaling under two-dimensional asymmetric information? With 2 types of productivity and noise, the equilibrium remains separating if an extended single-crossing condition is satisfied. If not, there are partially pooling equilibria where only extreme types can be distinguished, and supplementary information is needed. On-the-job interaction gives employers private information on productivity, which employment relationships may reveal to the market. While sticky wag...

  12. Job loss and broken partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the accumulated number of job losses and broken partnerships (defined as the end of cohabitation) on the risk of fatal and nonfatal events of ischemic heart disease (IHD).......The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the accumulated number of job losses and broken partnerships (defined as the end of cohabitation) on the risk of fatal and nonfatal events of ischemic heart disease (IHD)....

  13. Motivators of teacher job satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Juozaitienė, Agnė; Simonaitienė, Berita

    2011-01-01

    Article is seeking to answer these questions: what factors function as motivators and enhance teacher job satisfaction and which of the motivators are manifested at school? These questions are significant from a theoretical as well as practical point of view. The research problem addressed in the article encompasses three fields and is revealed in three parts of the article. The first part analyzes the notion of teacher job satisfaction and influencing factors. The second part is dedicated to...

  14. Application of Job Demands-Resources model in research on relationships between job satisfaction, job resources, individual resources and job demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Potocka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between job demands, job resourses, personal resourses and job satisfaction and to assess the usefulness of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R model in the explanation of these phenomena. Materials and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers. The "Psychosocial Factors" and "Job satisfaction" questionnaires were used to test the hypothesis. Results: The results showed that job satisfaction increased with increasing job accessibility and personal resources (r = 0.44; r = 0.31; p < 0.05. The analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated that job resources and job demands [F(1.474 = 4.004; F(1.474 = 4.166; p < 0.05] were statistically significant sources of variation in job satisfaction. Moreover, interactions between job demands and job resources [F(3,474 = 2.748; p < 0.05], as well as between job demands and personal resources [F(3.474 = 3.021; p < 0.05] had a significant impact on job satisfaction. The post hoc tests showed that 1 in low job demands, but high job resources employees declared higher job satisfaction, than those who perceived them as medium (p = 0.0001 or low (p = 0.0157; 2 when the level of job demands was perceived as medium, employees with high personal resources declared significantly higher job satisfaction than those with low personal resources (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: The JD-R model can be used to investigate job satisfaction. Taking into account fundamental factors of this model, in organizational management there are possibilities of shaping job satisfaction among employees. Med Pr 2013;64(2:217–225

  15. Job strain and time to pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Kold Jensen, T; Bonde, Jens Peter

    1998-01-01

    The association between fertility and job strain defined as high job demands and low job control has not previously been studied. A follow-up study was conducted with prospective collection of information on job strain among women, achievement of pregnancy, and potential confounding variables....

  16. Education, underemployment and job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujaat Farooq

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Education is an effective vehicle for producing the required skills to maintain economic growth. The benefits of education range from human to economic, social and cultural. In Pakistan, there is significant rise in the average level of education, but over time, more and more workers incapable to use their educational background on the job. Supply of labor may have outstripped the demand of labor in some professions, and high qualified peoples taking job on low positions. Such underemployment/overeducation has not been fully explored in Pakistan. The theme of paper is “underemployment symbolizes an inefficient usage of human resources and lost output for society”.The research is based on case study on clerical workers of SNGPL. By comparing their educational backgrounds with their nature of job, this paper examines the impact of overeducation on job satisfaction. Our results show that underemployment/overeducation is correlated with higher level of job dissatisfaction, reduced job involvement, impaired co-worker relationship, and more emphasis on future aspirations.

  17. Job creation potential of solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMonagle, R.

    2005-01-01

    This document defines the size of the job market within Canada's solar industry and presents a preliminary forecast of the employment opportunities through to 2025. The issue of job potential within Canada's solar technologies is complicated by the wide range of different fields and technologies within the solar industry. The largest energy generator of the solar technologies is passive solar, but the jobs in this sector are generally in the construction trades and window manufacturers. The Canadian Solar Industries Association estimates that there are about 360 to 500 firms in Canada with the primary business of solar technologies, employing between 900 to 1,200 employees. However, most solar manufacturing jobs in Canada are for products exports as demonstrated by the 5 main solar manufacturers in Canada who estimate that 50 to 95 per cent of their products are exported. The main reason for their high export ratio is the lack of a Canadian market for their products. The 3 categories of job classifications within the solar industry include manufacturing, installation, and operations and maintenance. The indirect jobs include photovoltaic system hardware, solar hot water heating, solar air ventilation, and glass/metal framing. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  18. Volunteers in Circles of Support and Accountability Job Demands, Job Resources, and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höing, Mechtild; Bogaerts, Stefan; Vogelvang, Bas

    2017-09-01

    In Circles of Support and Accountability (CoSA), volunteers support a medium- to high-risk sex offender in his process toward desistance by developing a long-term empathic relationship. More knowledge is needed about the impact of this work on volunteers themselves. In a sample of 40 Dutch CoSA volunteers-at the time constituting 37% of the national population of 108 then active CoSA volunteers-we measured outcome in terms of volunteer satisfaction, determination to continue, compassion satisfaction, burnout and secondary stress, vicarious growth, civic capacities, and professional skills. We explored theoretically derived predictors of positive and negative outcome, and conceptualized them within the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R). Volunteers reported mainly positive effects, especially high levels of volunteer satisfaction, compassion satisfaction, and determination to continue. Results indicated that job demands and most of the internal job resources were of minor importance. External job resources, especially social support and connectedness, were associated with positive outcome. Connectedness mediated the effect of social support on compassion satisfaction.

  19. Job Satisfaction of People With Intellectual Disability: Associations With Job Characteristics and Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Alma; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P

    2018-01-01

    To obtain an understanding of factors associated with job satisfaction of people with intellectual disability (ID), this study investigates the associations of job satisfaction with job characteristics (i.e., job demands, job resources) and personality, using the job demands-resources model. Data were gathered from 117 people and their employment support workers, using structured questionnaires adapted from well-established instruments. Job resources and age were positively associated with job satisfaction. Job demands and personality showed no significant direct associations with job satisfaction. Moderation analyses showed that for people with ID with high conscientiousness, enhanced job demands were associated with reduced job satisfaction, which was not the case for those with low conscientiousness. This study emphasizes the importance of job design.

  20. A Boy with Relentless Pruritus: Job's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kamran; Wozniak, Susan E; Giannone, Anna Lucia; Abdulmassih, Maria Elena

    2016-02-21

    Job's syndrome (hyper IgE syndrome) is a very rare primary immunodeficiency disease that has an annual approximate incidence of less than 1/1,000,000. This manuscript aims to provide education regarding diagnosis and management strategies of this syndrome worldwide. A 6-year-old boy was seen at the clinic secondary to persistent pruritus interfering with sleep. At the age of 2 months, the patient developed diffuse eczematous and desquamating skin lesions. He was subsequently diagnosed with atopic dermatitis and managed conservatively. From 2 months to 7 years of age, intermittent exacerbations of dermatitis persisted despite an aggressive treatment regimen. The serum IgE level increased exponentially over a period of 7 years, with a peak value of 57,400 IU/ml. Molecular genetic testing revealed a dominant negative mutation within the SH2 domain of the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT3) gene. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with Job's syndrome. Management included proper skin care, prophylactic antibiotics, immunomodulating agents, and psychotherapy. Job's syndrome can often go unrecognized and masquerade as atopic dermatitis. Therefore, genetic testing for this condition should be obtained in all patients with treatment-refractory AD. Additionally, psychotherapy can be a successful management strategy for the grating psychological impact that can be imposed on children with excessive pruritus.