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Sample records for activity heart rate

  1. Entertainment Capture through Heart Rate Activity in Physical Interactive Playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yannakakis, Georgios; Hallam, John; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2008-01-01

    children’s physiological signals, an estimator of the degree to which games provided by the playground engage the players. For this purpose children’s heart rate (HR) signals, and their expressed preferences of how much “fun” particular game variants are, are obtained from experiments using games...... that predict reported entertainment preferences given HR features. These models are expressed as artificial neural networks and are demonstrated and evaluated on two Playware games and two control tasks requiring physical activity. The best network is able to correctly match expressed preferences in 64...

  2. Heart Rates of High School Physical Education Students during Team Sports, Individual Sports, and Fitness Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.; Cullen, Robert W.; Dennis, Karen K.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how activity type influenced heart rates and time spent in target heart rate zones of high school students participating in physical education classes. Significantly higher average heart rates existed for fitness (142 plus or minus 24 beats per minute [bpm]) compared to team (118 plus or minus 24 bpm) or individual (114 plus or…

  3. Resonance of about-weekly human heart rate rhythm with solar activity change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, G; Halberg, F; Wendt, H W; Bingham, C; Sothern, R B; Haus, E; Kleitman, E; Kleitman, N; Revilla, M A; Revilla, M; Breus, T K; Pimenov, K; Grigoriev, A E; Mitish, M D; Yatsyk, G V; Syutkina, E V

    1996-12-01

    In several human adults, certain solar activity rhythms may influence an about 7-day rhythm in heart rate. When no about-weekly feature was found in the rate of change in sunspot area, a measure of solar activity, the double amplitude of a circadian heart rate rhythm, approximated by the fit of a 7-day cosine curve, was lower, as was heart rate corresponds to about-weekly features in solar activity and/or relates to a sunspot cycle.

  4. Middle School Student's Heart Rates during Different Curricular Activities in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Carson, Russell L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if students' heart rate outcomes in physical education varied as a function of activity and grade. A total of 146 sixth to eighth graders participated in different activities (i.e., walking/jogging, line dancing, soccer, and catch ball). Their average heart rate (AHR) and percentage of time in and above…

  5. Parasympathetic neural activity accounts for the lowering of exercise heart rate at high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Calbet, J A; Rådegran, G;

    2001-01-01

    In chronic hypoxia, both heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (Q) are reduced during exercise. The role of parasympathetic neural activity in lowering HR is unresolved, and its influence on Q and oxygen transport at high altitude has never been studied.......In chronic hypoxia, both heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (Q) are reduced during exercise. The role of parasympathetic neural activity in lowering HR is unresolved, and its influence on Q and oxygen transport at high altitude has never been studied....

  6. Tonic activation of peripheral chemosensory function modulates vagal heart rate control in heart failure patients with paroxysmal atrialfibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drexel, T.; Eickholt, C.; Muehlsteff, J.; Ritz, A.; Siekiera, M.; Kirmanoglou, K.; Shin, D.I.; Balzer, J.; Rassaf, T.; Kelm, M.; Meyer, C.

    2012-01-01

    Tonic activation of peripheral chemosensory function modulates vagalheart rate control in heart failure patients with paroxysmal atrialfibrillation Thomas Drexel1, Christian Eickholt1, Jens Mühlsteff2,Anita Ritz1, Markus Siekiera1, Kiriakos Kirmanoglou1, Dong-In Shin1,Jan Balzer1, Tienush Rassaf1, M

  7. Heart Rate Variability in Nonlinear Rats with Different Orientation and Exploratory Activity in the Open Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kur'yanova, E V; Teplyi, D L; Zhukova, Yu D; Zhukovina, N V

    2015-12-01

    The basic behavioral activity of nonlinear rats was evaluated from the sum of crossed peripheral and central squares and peripheral and central rearing postures in the open fi eld test. This index was low (30 episodes). Male rats with high score of orientation and exploratory activity were characterized by higher indexes of total heart rate variability than rats with low or intermediate activity. Specimens with a greater contribution of VLF waves into the total power spectrum of heart rate variability were shown to dominate among the rats with high behavioral activity. Our results are consistent with the notions of a suprasegmental nature of VLF waves.

  8. Effects of Liraglutide on Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumarathurai, Preman; Anholm, Christian; Larsen, Bjørn S;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) and increased heart rate (HR) have been associated with cardiovascular mortality. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) increase HR, and studies have suggested that they may reduce HRV. We examined the effect of the GLP-1 RA...... and reduced HRV despite significant weight loss and improvement in metabolic parameters. The increase in nightly heart rate in conjunction with a decrease in parameters of parasympathetic activity suggests that liraglutide may affect sympathovagal balance....

  9. Physical activity, resting heart rate, and atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morseth, Bente; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Jacobsen, Bjarne K;

    2016-01-01

    similar risk of AF. Vigorously active individuals showed a non-significantly higher risk of AF (adjusted HR 1.37, 95% CI 0.77-2.43). Risk of AF increased with decreasing RHR (adjusted HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86-0.98 for each 10 b.p.m. increase in RHR), and RHR b.p.m. was a risk factor for AF (P

  10. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. van der Zwan; W. de Vente; A.C. Huizink; S.M. Bögels; E.I. de Bruin

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing

  11. Wireless patch sensor for remote monitoring of heart rate, respiration, activity, and falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alexander M; Selvaraj, Nandakumar; Ferdosi, Nima; Narasimhan, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Unobtrusive continuous monitoring of important vital signs and activity metrics has the potential to provide remote health monitoring, at-home screening, and rapid notification of critical events such as heart attacks, falls, or respiratory distress. This paper contains validation results of a wireless Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) patch sensor consisting of two electrocardiography (ECG) electrodes, a microcontroller, a tri-axial accelerometer, and a BLE transceiver. The sensor measures heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), respiratory rate, posture, steps, and falls and was evaluated on a total of 25 adult participants who performed breathing exercises, activities of daily living (ADLs), various stretches, stationary cycling, walking/running, and simulated falls. Compared to reference devices, the heart rate measurement had a mean absolute error (MAE) of less than 2 bpm, time-domain HRV measurements had an RMS error of less than 15 ms, respiratory rate had an MAE of 1.1 breaths per minute during metronome breathing, posture detection had an accuracy of over 95% in two of the three patch locations, steps were counted with an absolute error of less than 5%, and falls were detected with a sensitivity of 95.2% and specificity of 100%. PMID:24111135

  12. Effects of age and physical activity on the autonomic control of heart rate in healthy men

    OpenAIRE

    R.C. Melo; M.D.B. Santos; Silva, E.; R.J. Quitério; Moreno, M. A.; Reis, M. S.; I.A. Verzola; de Oliveira, L.; L.E.B. Martins; L. Gallo-Junior; A.M. Catai

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the aging process and an active life-style on the autonomic control of heart rate (HR) were investigated in nine young sedentary (YS, 23 ± 2.4 years), 16 young active (YA, 22 ± 2.1 years), 8 older sedentary (OS, 63 ± 2.4 years) and 8 older active (OA, 61 ± 1.1 years) healthy men. Electrocardiogram was continuously recorded for 15 min at rest and for 4 min in the deep breathing test, with a breath rate of 5 to 6 cycles/min in the supine position. Resting HR and RR intervals were...

  13. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Zwan, van der, G.; Vente, de, W.; Huizink, A.C.; Bögels, S.M.; Bruin, de, B.

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing stress and its related symptoms. We randomly allocated 126 participants to PA, MM, or HRV-BF upon enrollment, of whom 76 agreed to participate. The interventions consisted of psycho-education and a...

  14. Modelling heart rate kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S Zakynthinaki

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate kinetics in response to movement (exercise. Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individual's cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women.

  15. Assessment of autonomic nervous system activity by heart rate recovery response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Zhaohui; BAI Jing

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity is a tool for diagnosing or predicting cardiovascular diseases,while heart rate recovery response (HRRR) after exercise has been promoted as a process under the regulation of ANS (sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems).Therefore,assessment of ANS activity was performed by HRRR in this study.Firstly,HRRR signal was extracted based on wavelet decomposition and difference curve of coarse component from heart rate signal.Then,HRRR was divided into quickly descending interval (QDI) and slowly descending interval (SDI).Finally,3 groups of indexes (Difference,Exponential and Quadratic Groups) from QDI and SDI were compared between 50 normotensive and 61 hypertensive subjects.The results showed that the indexes of Difference Group were better choices than others in analyzing the features of HRRR.Furthermore,parasympathetic activity is dominant in QDI,while sympathetic and parasympathetic activities affect SDI together.In conclusion,the proposed method was effective to assess ANS activity.

  16. Assessment of heart rate variability based on mobile device for planning physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirin, I. S.; Epishina, E. V.; Voronin, V. V.; Semenishchev, E. A.; Solodova, E. N.; Nabilskaya, N. V.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we present a method for the functional analysis of human heart based on electrocardiography (ECG) signals. The approach using the apparatus of analytical and differential geometry and correlation and regression analysis. ECG contains information on the current condition of the cardiovascular system as well as on the pathological changes in the heart. Mathematical processing of the heart rate variability allows to obtain a great set of mathematical and statistical characteristics. These characteristics of the heart rate are used when solving research problems to study physiological changes that determine functional changes of an individual. The proposed method implemented for up-to-date mobile Android and iOS based devices.

  17. Effects of age and physical activity on the autonomic control of heart rate in healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Melo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the aging process and an active life-style on the autonomic control of heart rate (HR were investigated in nine young sedentary (YS, 23 ± 2.4 years, 16 young active (YA, 22 ± 2.1 years, 8 older sedentary (OS, 63 ± 2.4 years and 8 older active (OA, 61 ± 1.1 years healthy men. Electrocardiogram was continuously recorded for 15 min at rest and for 4 min in the deep breathing test, with a breath rate of 5 to 6 cycles/min in the supine position. Resting HR and RR intervals were analyzed by time (RMSSD index and frequency domain methods. The power spectral components are reported in normalized units (nu at low (LF and high (HF frequency, and as the LF/HF ratio. The deep breathing test was analyzed by the respiratory sinus arrhythmia indices: expiration/inspiration ratio (E/I and inspiration-expiration difference (deltaIE. The active groups had lower HR and higher RMSSD index than the sedentary groups (life-style condition: sedentary vs active, P < 0.05. The older groups showed lower HFnu, higher LFnu and higher LF/HF ratio than the young groups (aging effect: young vs older, P < 0.05. The OS group had a lower E/I ratio (1.16 and deltaIE (9.7 bpm than the other groups studied (YS: 1.38, 22.4 bpm; YA: 1.40, 21.3 bpm; OA: 1.38, 18.5 bpm. The interaction between aging and life-style effects had a P < 0.05. These results suggest that aging reduces HR variability. However, regular physical activity positively affects vagal activity on the heart and consequently attenuates the effects of aging in the autonomic control of HR.

  18. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwan, Judith Esi; de Vente, Wieke; Huizink, Anja C; Bögels, Susan M; de Bruin, Esther I

    2015-12-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing stress and its related symptoms. We randomly allocated 126 participants to PA, MM, or HRV-BF upon enrollment, of whom 76 agreed to participate. The interventions consisted of psycho-education and an introduction to the specific intervention techniques and 5 weeks of daily exercises at home. The PA exercises consisted of a vigorous-intensity activity of free choice. The MM exercises consisted of guided mindfulness meditation. The HRV-BF exercises consisted of slow breathing with a heart rate variability biofeedback device. Participants received daily reminders for their exercises and were contacted weekly to monitor their progress. They completed questionnaires prior to, directly after, and 6 weeks after the intervention. Results indicated an overall beneficial effect consisting of reduced stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and improved psychological well-being and sleep quality. No significant between-intervention effect was found, suggesting that PA, MM, and HRV-BF are equally effective in reducing stress and its related symptoms. These self-help interventions provide easily accessible help for people with stress complaints. PMID:26111942

  19. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwan, Judith Esi; de Vente, Wieke; Huizink, Anja C; Bögels, Susan M; de Bruin, Esther I

    2015-12-01

    In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing stress and its related symptoms. We randomly allocated 126 participants to PA, MM, or HRV-BF upon enrollment, of whom 76 agreed to participate. The interventions consisted of psycho-education and an introduction to the specific intervention techniques and 5 weeks of daily exercises at home. The PA exercises consisted of a vigorous-intensity activity of free choice. The MM exercises consisted of guided mindfulness meditation. The HRV-BF exercises consisted of slow breathing with a heart rate variability biofeedback device. Participants received daily reminders for their exercises and were contacted weekly to monitor their progress. They completed questionnaires prior to, directly after, and 6 weeks after the intervention. Results indicated an overall beneficial effect consisting of reduced stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and improved psychological well-being and sleep quality. No significant between-intervention effect was found, suggesting that PA, MM, and HRV-BF are equally effective in reducing stress and its related symptoms. These self-help interventions provide easily accessible help for people with stress complaints.

  20. Heart rate variability in isolated rabbit hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, B; Heger, G; Mayer, C; Kiegler, B; Stöhr, H; Steurer, G

    1996-11-01

    The presence of heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with cardiac denervation after heart transplantation raised our interest in HRV of isolated, denervated hearts. Hearts from seven adult white ELCO rabbits were transferred to a perfusion apparatus. All hearts were perfused in the working mode and in the Langendorff mode for 20 minutes each. HRV was analyzed in the frequency domain. A computer simulated test ECG at a constant rate of 2 Hz was used for error estimation of the system. In the isolated, denervated heart, HRV was of random, broadband fluctuations, different from the well-characterized oscillations at specific frequencies in intact animals. Mean NN was 423 +/- 51 ms in the Langendorff mode, 406 +/- 33 ms in the working heart mode, and 500 ms in the test ECG. Total power was 663 +/- 207 ms2, 817 +/- 318 ms2, and 3.7 ms2, respectively. There was no significant difference in any measure of HRV between Langendorff and working heart modes. The data provide evidence for the presence of HRV in isolated, denervated rabbit hearts. Left atrial and ventricular filling, i.e., the working heart mode, did not alter HRV, indicating that left atrial or ventricular stretch did not influence the sinus nodal discharge rate.

  1. [The estimation of daily physical activity with the coefficient of variation (CV) of heart rates continuously recorded].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tono-oka, T; Kaneko, I

    1993-05-01

    The daily level of physical activity was estimated using the heart rate monitor, PE3000 (Polar Electro, Finland). The level was expressed with the coefficient of variation (CV) of heart rates recorded from waking time to dinner time. In the course of a day of intense physical activity, CV was confirmed to rise significantly. Then the CV was estimated and compared among 3 age classes, young (10-18 years), middle-aged (30-47 years), and elderly (62-76 years). The CVs of young people were significantly higher than those of middle-aged (P < 0.001) and elderly (P < 0.01), regardless of sex. However there was no significant sex difference in all age classes. These results suggest that the CV is an accurate index of daily physical activity. Thus clinicians can use the CV of heart rates to estimate the level of physical activity of individuals which closely relates to QOL.

  2. Augmented vagal heart rate modulation in active hypoestrogenic pre-menopausal women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Emma; Goodman, Jack M; Morris, Beverly L; Floras, John S; Harvey, Paula J

    2015-11-01

    Compared with eumenorrhoeic women, exercise-trained women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea (ExFHA) exhibit low heart rates (HRs) and absent reflex renin-angiotensin-system activation and augmentation of their muscle sympathetic nerve response to orthostatic stress. To test the hypothesis that their autonomic HR modulation is altered concurrently, three age-matched (pooled mean, 24 ± 1 years; mean ± S.E.M.) groups of women were studied: active with either FHA (ExFHA; n=11) or eumenorrhoeic cycles (ExOv; n=17) and sedentary with eumenorrhoeic cycles (SedOv; n=17). Blood pressure (BP), HR and HR variability (HRV) in the frequency domain were determined during both supine rest and graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP; -10, -20 and -40 mmHg). Very low (VLF), low (LF) and high (HF) frequency power spectra (ms(2)) were determined and, owing to skewness, log10-transformed. LF/HF ratio and total power (VLF + LF + HF) were calculated. At baseline, HR and systolic BP (SBP) were lower (P0.05). At each stage, HR correlated inversely (Ppost-menopausal women.

  3. Robust heart rate estimation using wrist-based PPG signals in the presence of intense physical activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengzhi Zong; Jafari, Roozbeh

    2015-08-01

    Heart rate tracking from a wrist-type photoplethysmogram (PPG) signal during intensive physical activities is a challenge that is attracting more attention thanks to the introduction of wrist-worn wearable computers. Commonly-used motion artifact rejection methods coupled with simple periodicity-based heart rate estimation techniques are incapable of achieving satisfactory heart rate tracking performance during intense activities. In this paper, we propose a two-stage solution. Firstly, we introduce an improved spectral subtraction method to reject the spectral components of motion artifacts. Secondly, instead of using heuristic mechanisms, we formalize the spectral peaks selection process as the shortest path search problem and validate its effectiveness. Analysis on the experimental results based on a published database shows that: (1) Our proposed method outperforms three other comparable methods with regards to heart rate estimation error. (2) The proposed method is a promising candidate for both offline cardiac health analysis and online heart rate tracking in daily life, even during intensive physical motions. PMID:26738168

  4. Tachycardia | Fast Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart patient sheets Arrhythmia • Home • About Arrhythmia Introduction Atrial Fibrillation Bradycardia Conduction Disorders Premature Contractions Tachycardia Ventricular Fibrillation Other Rhythm Disorders Types of ...

  5. Heart rate recovery post-exercise as an index of parasympathetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpont, G L; Stolpman, D R; Gornick, C C

    2000-05-12

    The time constant (T) obtained by fitting post-exercise heart rate (HR) recovery to a first order exponential decay curve has been promoted as an index of parasympathetic activity. However, acceptance has been limited because reported data are inadequate to assess goodness of fit for the model, determine the best exercise protocol, or optimize the duration of post exercise monitoring. Consequently, we evaluated T for nine healthy volunteers (age 24-46) following treadmill exercise at maximal (max) and two stages sub-max exercise (Bruce protocol). T stabilized only after 3 min of post-exercise monitoring. With max exercise, T varied unacceptably with small changes in onset of monitoring, e.g. -16.7+/-16.6 (-13.2%) in the first 5 s, and residuals of the fitted curve were non-random. In contrast, sub-max exercise produced consistent T values, e.g. -1.9+/-3.2 (-4.2%) in the first 5 s, and residuals were more nearly random. In conclusion, first order decay is an inadequate model for HR recovery following max exercise, but may be reasonable for sub-max levels.

  6. Integrated Wearable System for Monitoring Heart Rate and Step during Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Adi Prasetyo Joko Prawiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper integrates a heart rate (HR monitoring system with step counter for use during physical activities. Novel step counter algorithm has been developed to enable the highly accurate detection of step. The proposed system comprises a wireless wearable device, a smartphone, and a remote server. Data transmission between a wearable device and a smartphone is conducted via Bluetooth low energy (BLE. An indirect contact measurement method has also been devised to eliminate the need for direct contact electrodes and likelihood of skin irritation. The proposed system is compact, lightweight, and comfortable to wear. A smartphone application provides the interface for the display of data related to HR, step count (SC, exercise intensity, speed, distance, and calories burned, as well as waveforms related to ECG and step cycle. ECG peak detection algorithm achieved accuracy of 99.7% using the MIT-BIH ST Change Database. Accuracy of 98.89% was achieved for HR and 98.96% for SC at treadmill speeds of 1.8 to 9.0 km/h.

  7. Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Hsiung, Hansen M; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Neurons of the brain's biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate circadian rhythms of physiology (core body temperature, hormone secretion, locomotor activity, sleep/wake, and heart rate) with distinct temporal phasing when entrained by the light/dark (LD...

  8. Personal exposure to household particulate matter, household activities and heart rate variability among housewives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Li Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between indoor air pollution and heart rate variability (HRV has been well-documented. Little is known about effects of household activities on indoor air quality and HRV alteration. To investigate changes in HRV associated with changes in personal exposure to household particulate matter (PM and household activities. METHODS: We performed 24-h continuous monitoring of electrocardiography and measured household PM exposure among 50 housewives. The outcome variables were log10-transformed standard deviation of normal-to-normal (NN intervals (SDNN and the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (r-MSSD. Household PM was measured as the mass concentration of PM with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5. We used mixed-effects models to examine the association between household PM2.5 exposure and log10-transformed HRV indices. RESULTS: After controlling for potential confounders, an interquartile range change in household PM2.5 with 1- to 4-h mean was associated with 1.25-4.31% decreases in SDNN and 0.12-3.71% decreases in r-MSSD. Stir-frying, cleaning with detergent and burning incense may increase household PM2.5 concentrations and modify the effects of household PM2.5 on HRV indices among housewives. CONCLUSIONS: Indoor PM2.5 exposures were associated with decreased SDNN and r-MSSD among housewives, especially during stir-frying, cleaning with detergent and burning incense.

  9. Chronic baroreflex activation restores spontaneous baroreflex control and variability of heart rate in obesity-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliescu, Radu; Tudorancea, Ionut; Irwin, Eric D; Lohmeier, Thomas E

    2013-10-01

    The sensitivity of baroreflex control of heart rate is depressed in subjects with obesity hypertension, which increases the risk for cardiac arrhythmias. The mechanisms are not fully known, and there are no therapies to improve this dysfunction. To determine the cardiovascular dynamic effects of progressive increases in body weight leading to obesity and hypertension in dogs fed a high-fat diet, 24-h continuous recordings of spontaneous fluctuations in blood pressure and heart rate were analyzed in the time and frequency domains. Furthermore, we investigated whether autonomic mechanisms stimulated by chronic baroreflex activation and renal denervation-current therapies in patients with resistant hypertension, who are commonly obese-restore cardiovascular dynamic control. Increases in body weight to ∼150% of control led to a gradual increase in mean arterial pressure to 17 ± 3 mmHg above control (100 ± 2 mmHg) after 4 wk on the high-fat diet. In contrast to the gradual increase in arterial pressure, tachycardia, attenuated chronotropic baroreflex responses, and reduced heart rate variability were manifest within 1-4 days on high-fat intake, reaching 130 ± 4 beats per minute (bpm) (control = 86 ± 3 bpm) and ∼45% and hypertension. However, only baroreflex activation effectively attenuated the tachycardia and restored cardiac baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability. These findings suggest that baroreflex activation therapy may reduce the risk factors for cardiac arrhythmias as well as lower arterial pressure.

  10. Heart Rate Extraction from Vowel Speech Signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdelwadood Mesleh; Dmitriy Skopin; Sergey Baglikov; Anas Quteishat

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel non-contact heart rate extraction method from vowel speech signals.The proposed method is based on modeling the relationship between speech production of vowel speech signals and heart activities for humans where it is observed that the moment of heart beat causes a short increment (evolution) of vowel speech formants.The short-time Fourier transform (STFT) is used to detect the formant maximum peaks so as to accurately estimate the heart rate.Compared with traditional contact pulse oximeter,the average accuracy of the proposed non-contact heart rate extraction method exceeds 95%.The proposed non-contact heart rate extraction method is expected to play an important role in modern medical applications.

  11. Statistical Machine Learning for Automatic Assessment of Physical Activity Intensity Using Multi-axial Accelerometry and Heart Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Garcia, Fernando; García Sáez, Gema; Chausa Fernández, Paloma; Martínez Sarriegui, Iñaki; Benito Peinado, Pedro José; Gómez Aguilera, Enrique J.; Hernando Pérez, María Elena

    2011-01-01

    This work explores the automatic recognition of physical activity intensity patterns from multi-axial accelerometry and heart rate signals. Data collection was carried out in free-living conditions and in three controlled gymnasium circuits, for a total amount of 179.80 h of data divided into: sedentary situations (65.5%), light-to-moderate activity (17.6%) and vigorous exercise (16.9%). The proposed machine learning algorithms comprise the following steps: time-domain feature definition, sta...

  12. Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Jens; Hsiung, Hansen M; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Neurons of the brain's biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate circadian rhythms of physiology (core body temperature, hormone secretion, locomotor activity, sleep/wake, and heart rate) with distinct temporal phasing when entrained by the light/dark (LD) cycle. The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypetide (VIP) and its receptor (VPAC2) are highly expressed in the SCN. Recent studies indicate that VIPergic signaling plays an essential role in the maintenance of ongoing circadian rhythmicity by synchronizing SCN cells and by maintaining rhythmicity within individual neurons. To further increase the understanding of the role of VPAC2 signaling in circadian regulation, we implanted telemetric devices and simultaneously measured core body temperature, spontaneous activity, and heart rate in a strain of VPAC2-deficient mice and compared these observations with observations made from mice examined by wheel-running activity. The study demonstrates that VPAC2 signaling is necessary for a functional circadian clock driving locomotor activity, core body temperature, and heart rate rhythmicity, since VPAC2-deficient mice lose the rhythms in all three parameters when placed under constant conditions (of either light or darkness). Furthermore, although 24-h rhythms for three parameters are retained in VPAC2-deficient mice during the LD cycle, the temperature rhythm displays markedly altered time course and profile, rising earlier and peaking ∼4-6 h prior to that of wild-type mice. The use of telemetric devices to measure circadian locomotor activity, temperature, and heart rate, together with the classical determination of circadian rhythms of wheel-running activity, raises questions about how representative wheel-running activity may be of other behavioral parameters, especially when animals have altered circadian phenotype.

  13. Heart rate response to breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Pagh, K; Nielsen, J S;

    1987-01-01

    Heart rate responses to stepwise and periodic changes in lung volume were studied in seven young healthy males. Stepwise inspiration and expiration both resulted in an increase in heart rate followed by a rapid decrease in heart rate. The fastest heart rate was reached in 1.6 +/- 0.5 s and in 3.......6 +/- 1.4 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). The slowest heart rate was reached in 4.8 +/- 1.0 s and in 7.6 +/- 1.9 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). Following this biphasic change the heart rate returned to a steady...... level. The difference between the fastest and the slowest heart rates was significantly larger in response to inspiration (21.7 +/- 7.3 beats per minute) than in response to expiration (12.0 +/- 7.3 beats per minute; P less than 0.01). Periodic changes in lung volume were performed with frequencies from...

  14. Using uterine activity to improve fetal heart rate variability analysis for detection of asphyxia during labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmerdam, G J J; Vullings, R; Van Laar, J O E H; Van der Hout-Van der Jagt, M B; Bergmans, J W M; Schmitt, L; Oei, S G

    2016-03-01

    During labor, uterine contractions can cause temporary oxygen deficiency for the fetus. In case of severe and prolonged oxygen deficiency this can lead to asphyxia. The currently used technique for detection of asphyxia, cardiotocography (CTG), suffers from a low specificity. Recent studies suggest that analysis of fetal heart rate variability (HRV) in addition to CTG can provide information on fetal distress. However, interpretation of fetal HRV during labor is difficult due to the influence of uterine contractions on fetal HRV. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate whether HRV features differ during contraction and rest periods, and whether these differences can improve the detection of asphyxia. To this end, a case-control study was performed, using 14 cases with asphyxia that were matched with 14 healthy fetuses. We did not find significant differences for individual HRV features when calculated over the fetal heart rate without separating contractions and rest periods (p  >  0.30 for all HRV features). Separating contractions from rest periods did result in a significant difference. In particular the ratio between HRV features calculated during and outside contractions can improve discrimination between fetuses with and without asphyxia (p  <  0.04 for three out of four ratio HRV features that were studied in this paper). PMID:26862891

  15. The relationship between body temperature, heart rate, breathing rate, and rate of oxygen consumption, in the tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) at various levels of activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercy, Joanna; Rogers, Kip; Reichert, Michelle; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Tattersall, Glenn J; Milsom, William K

    2015-12-01

    The present study determined whether EEG and/or EMG recordings could be used to reliably define activity states in the Brazilian black and white tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and then examined the interactive effects of temperature and activity states on strategies for matching O2 supply and demand. In a first series of experiments, the rate of oxygen consumption (VO2), breathing frequency (fR), heart rate (fH), and EEG and EMG (neck muscle) activity were measured in different sleep/wake states (sleeping, awake but quiet, alert, or moving). In general, metabolic and cardio-respiratory changes were better indictors of the transition from sleep to wake than were changes in the EEG and EMG. In a second series of experiments, the interactive effects of temperature (17, 27 and 37 °C) and activity states on fR, tidal volume (VT), the fraction of oxygen extracted from the lung per breath (FIO2-FEO2), fH, and the cardiac O2 pulse were quantified to determine the relative roles of each of these variables in accommodating changes in VO2. The increases in oxygen supply to meet temperature- and activity-induced increases in oxygen demand were produced almost exclusively by increases in fH and fR. Regression analysis showed that the effects of temperature and activity state on the relationships between fH, fR and VO2 was to extend a common relationship along a single curve, rather than separate relationships for each metabolic state. For these lizards, the predictive powers of fR and fH were maximized when the effects of changes in temperature, digestive state and activity were pooled. However, the best r(2) values obtained were 0.63 and 0.74 using fR and fH as predictors of metabolic rate, respectively.

  16. Autonomic nervous activities assessed by heart rate variability in pre- and post-adolescent Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuba, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Hironori; Sakiyama, Tomomi; Yamaoka Endo, Masako; Yamada, Masako; Ueoka, Hatsumi; Miura, Akira; Koga, Shunsaku

    2009-11-01

    There are many studies with respect to the age-related change of the characteristics of beat-to-beat heart rate variability (HRV), reflected by cardiac autonomic control, especially focusing on adulthood (i.e., aging related to the incidence of metabolic syndrome) in Japanese individuals. However, it is not still clear how basic control matures during childhood. This study was, therefore, designed to explore the HRV characteristics of pre- and post-adolescent Japanese, in a cross-sectional manner. Resting HRV data was recorded in a relaxing supine position from 136 healthy individuals between 8 and 20 years (48 boys between 8 and 14 years; 88 girls between 8 and 20 years) who were instructed to breathe periodically (0.25 Hz). Frequency-domain analysis (i.e., the spectral analysis based on an autoregressive model) of short-term, stationary R-R intervals was performed to evaluate the low- (LF; below 0.15 Hz) and high- (HF; 0.15-0.40 Hz) frequency powers. The HF to total power represents the vagal control of heart rate (PNS indicator), and the ratio of LF to HF (LF/HF) is considered to relate to the sympathetic modulations (SNS indicator). Both PNS and SNS indices had substantially no effect from age and/or gender in the range between 8 and 20 years. In conclusion, the control of the cardiac autonomic nervous system in Japanese seems already to be compatible with that in adulthood before approximately 10 years. In other word, the cardiac autonomic modulation would presumably be maturated before the age of approximately 7-8 years, though further research is awaited.

  17. FPGA Implementation of Heart Rate Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, D; Rakshit, M; Sahu, P K

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of a system that calculates the heart rate from Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. After heart rate calculation, tachycardia, bradycardia or normal heart rate can easily be detected. ECG is a diagnosis tool routinely used to access the electrical activities and muscular function of the heart. Heart rate is calculated by detecting the R peaks from the ECG signal. To provide a portable and the continuous heart rate monitoring system for patients using ECG, needs a dedicated hardware. FPGA provides easy testability, allows faster implementation and verification option for implementing a new design. We have proposed a five-stage based methodology by using basic VHDL blocks like addition, multiplication and data conversion (real to the fixed point and vice-versa). Our proposed heart rate calculation (R-peak detection) method has been validated, using 48 first channel ECG records of the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. It shows an accuracy of 99.84%, the sensitivity of 99.94% and the positive predictive value of 99.89%. Our proposed method outperforms other well-known methods in case of pathological ECG signals and successfully implemented in FPGA. PMID:26643079

  18. Simulated sudden increase in geomagnetic activity and its effect on heart rate variability: Experimental verification of correlation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Joseph M.; Singh, Manraj; Persinger, Michael A.

    2016-08-01

    Previous research investigating the potential influence of geomagnetic factors on human cardiovascular state has tended to converge upon similar inferences although the results remain relatively controversial. Furthermore, previous findings have remained essentially correlational without accompanying experimental verification. An exception to this was noted for human brain activity in a previous study employing experimental simulation of sudden geomagnetic impulses in order to assess correlational results that had demonstrated a relationship between geomagnetic perturbations and neuroelectrical parameters. The present study employed the same equipment in a similar procedure in order to validate previous findings of a geomagnetic-cardiovascular dynamic with electrocardiography and heart rate variability measures. Results indicated that potential magnetic field effects on frequency components of heart rate variability tended to overlap with previous correlational studies where low frequency power and the ratio between low and high frequency components of heart rate variability appeared affected. In the present study, a significant increase in these particular parameters was noted during geomagnetic simulation compared to baseline recordings.

  19. Heart rate response to hypoxic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Møller, P; Kanstrup, I L;

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dopamine D(2)-receptor blockade on the early decrease in maximal heart rate at high altitude (4559 m). We also attempted to clarify the time-dependent component of this reduction and the extent to which it is reversed by oxygen breathing. Twelve subjects performed...... progressively decreased the maximal heart rate from day 1 and onwards; also, hypoxia by itself increased plasma noradrenaline levels after maximal exercise. Domperidone further increased maximal noradrenaline concentrations, but had no effect on maximal heart rate. On each study day at altitude, oxygen...... breathing completely reversed the decrease in maximal heart rate to values not different from those at sea level. In conclusion, dopamine D(2)-receptor blockade with domperidone demonstrates that hypoxic exercise in humans activates D(2)-receptors, resulting in a decrease in circulating levels...

  20. Heart Rate Sensor for Freshwater Mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, C. L.; Vial, D. P.; Kruger, A.; Niemeier, J. J.; Lee, H. W.; Schroer, H. W.

    2014-12-01

    Researchers have long been interested the cardiac activity of mollusks. First, it is important as a basic measure of the animal's metabolism. Further, activities such as feeding and burrowing affect heart rate, as do environmental factors such as water salinity, water temperature, exposure, and predation. We have developed a small, noninvasive sensor for measuring freshwater mussel heart rate. Its working principle is as follows. An infrared (IR) light-emitting diode is placed in contact with the mussel shell. Some of the IR penetrates through the shell, reflects off internal organs, and traverses back. A photodetector detects this IR, and electronics condition the signal. The heartbeat of the animal modulates the IR, allowing one to measure the heart rate. The technique is widely-used in finger heart-rate monitors in humans. The sensors do not have to be positioned above the heart and several locations on the mussel shell work well. The sensor is small (8 mm × 10 mm) and consumes less than 1 mA, and has a simple one-wire interface that allows for easy integration into data acquisition hardware. We present heart rate measurements for the common pocketbook (lampsilis cardium) freshwater mussel.

  1. Is Heart Rate a Norepiphenomenon in Heart Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensey, Mark; O'Neill, James

    2016-09-01

    There has been an increased focus on heart rate as a target in the management of cardiovascular disease and more specifically in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in recent years with several studies showing the benefit of a lower resting heart rate on outcomes. This review paper examines the pathophysiology behind the benefits of lowering heart rate in heart failure and also the evidence for and against the pharmacological agents available to achieve this. PMID:27457085

  2. [Application of linear and nonlinear characteristics of heart rate variability in assessment of autonomic nervous system activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ping; Yu, Hongliu

    2014-04-01

    Calculation of linear parameters, such as time-domain and frequency-domain analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), is a conventional method for assessment of autonomic nervous system activity. Nonlinear phenomena are certainly involved in the genesis of HRV. In a seemingly random signal the Poincaré plot can easily demonstrate whether there is an underlying determinism in the signal. Linear and nonlinear analysis methods were applied in the computer words inputting experiments in this study for physiological measurement. This study therefore demonstrated that Poincaré plot was a simple but powerful graphical tool to describe the dynamics of a system.

  3. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate Updated:Aug 30,2016 Blood ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  4. Reductions in carotid chemoreceptor activity with low-dose dopamine improves baroreflex control of heart rate during hypoxia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozer, Michael T; Holbein, Walter W; Joyner, Michael J; Curry, Timothy B; Limberg, Jacqueline K

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the contribution of the carotid body chemoreceptors to changes in baroreflex control of heart rate with exposure to hypoxia. We hypothesized spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (scBRS) would be reduced with hypoxia and this effect would be blunted when carotid chemoreceptor activity was reduced with low-dose dopamine. Fifteen healthy adults (11 M/4 F) completed two visits randomized to intravenous dopamine or placebo (saline). On each visit, subjects were exposed to 5-min normoxia (~99% SpO2), followed by 5-min hypoxia (~84% SpO2). Blood pressure (intra-arterial catheter) and heart rate (ECG) were measured continuously and scBRS was assessed by spectrum and sequence methodologies. scBRS was reduced with hypoxia (P  0.05). Present findings are consistent with a reduction in scBRS with systemic hypoxia. Furthermore, we show this effect is partially mediated by the carotid body chemoreceptors, given the fall in scBRS is attenuated when activity of the chemoreceptors is reduced with low-dose dopamine. However, the improvement in scBRS with dopamine appears to be specific to rising blood pressures. These results may have important implications for impairments in baroreflex function common in disease states of acute and/or chronic hypoxemia, as well as the experimental use of dopamine to assess such changes.

  5. Chronic baroreflex activation restores spontaneous baroreflex control and variability of heart rate in obesity-induced hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Iliescu, Radu; Tudorancea, Ionut; Irwin, Eric D.; Lohmeier, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    The sensitivity of baroreflex control of heart rate is depressed in subjects with obesity hypertension, which increases the risk for cardiac arrhythmias. The mechanisms are not fully known, and there are no therapies to improve this dysfunction. To determine the cardiovascular dynamic effects of progressive increases in body weight leading to obesity and hypertension in dogs fed a high-fat diet, 24-h continuous recordings of spontaneous fluctuations in blood pressure and heart rate were analy...

  6. Effect of game format on heart rate, activity profile, and player involvement in elite and recreational youth players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, T B; Rasmussen, L S;

    2014-01-01

    and 11v11 (20 min) games. Activity profile, heart rate (HR), and technical actions were measured during all games using 10 Hz GPS, video filming, and HR monitors. For U10, no difference was found in total distance covered (1754 ± 237 vs 1771 ± 314 m, P = 0.650, d = 0.06), whereas mean HR (174 ± 10 vs 168......The purpose of this study was to evaluate activity profile, aerobic load, and player involvement in two game formats of recreational and elite youth football for two age groups. A total of 152 youth players participated, with 45 U10 players playing 5v5 and 8v8 games, and 41 U13 players playing 8v8...... game format. Playing with fewer players on smaller pitches results...

  7. A Novel Time-Varying Spectral Filtering Algorithm for Reconstruction of Motion Artifact Corrupted Heart Rate Signals During Intense Physical Activities Using a Wearable Photoplethysmogram Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Salehizadeh, Seyed M. A.; Duy Dao; Jeffrey Bolkhovsky; Chae Cho; Yitzhak Mendelson; Chon, Ki H.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of heart rates from photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals during intense physical activity is a very challenging problem. This is because strenuous and high intensity exercise can result in severe motion artifacts in PPG signals, making accurate heart rate (HR) estimation difficult. In this study we investigated a novel technique to accurately reconstruct motion-corrupted PPG signals and HR based on time-varying spectral analysis. The algorithm is called Spectral filter algorit...

  8. The heart rate variability when conducting anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khmel'nitskiy I.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed on the base of 10 years of using different methods of analysis of heart rate variability as an indicator of direct and reverse connection of the sympatho-adrenal system in the preoperative diagnosis and anesthetic monitoring. The possibility of predicting the depth of anaesthesia was analyzed, for depending on significant amounts of external and internal conditions, the level of anesthesia changes significantly. In this regard the influence of drugs and technological means of influencing the condition of all life-supporting systems, and the autonomic nervous system in particular, before, during and after anesthesia is of great practical interest. The balance of the pharmacological protection of the vegetative balance in the surgical aggression is studied, as well as the use of heart rate variability as a non-specific method in relation to nosological forms of pathology, both under internal and external influences. A review of a number of sources confirms that heart rate is virtually the only high-speed method to present the sympatho-vagal regulation, the most accessible somatic parameter for estimation of the cardiovascular system functioning in anesthesiology. The heart rate variability serves as an indicator of functional condition of autonomous (vegetative nervous system. It is proposed to perform the continuous monitoring of the autonomic indices of the heart rhythm, which allows to register sympaho-vagal imbalance. Dynamic monitoring, timely interpretation of heart rate variability are constantly in the spotlight, but the approach and methodology of the domestic and foreign authors distinctly differ on the following points: heart rythmography as a visual method of assessing information about the dynamics of slow-wave processes, spectral analysis of the heart sinus rhythm as the best method of analysis of large and small wave activity, tests of functional diagnostics for subsequent measurement of the autonomic nervous

  9. Heart rate reduction in coronary artery disease and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Roberto; Fox, Kim

    2016-08-01

    Elevated heart rate is known to induce myocardial ischaemia in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and heart rate reduction is a recognized strategy to prevent ischaemic episodes. In addition, clinical evidence shows that slowing the heart rate reduces the symptoms of angina by improving microcirculation and coronary flow. Elevated heart rate is an established risk factor for cardiovascular events in patients with CAD and in those with chronic heart failure (HF). Accordingly, reducing heart rate improves prognosis in patients with HF, as demonstrated in SHIFT. By contrast, data from SIGNIFY indicate that heart rate is not a modifiable risk factor in patients with CAD who do not also have HF. Heart rate is also an important determinant of cardiac arrhythmias; low heart rate can be associated with atrial fibrillation, and high heart rate after exercise can be associated with sudden cardiac death. In this Review, we critically assess these clinical findings, and propose hypotheses for the variable effect of heart rate reduction in cardiovascular disease. PMID:27226153

  10. Heart rate reduction in coronary artery disease and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Roberto; Fox, Kim

    2016-08-01

    Elevated heart rate is known to induce myocardial ischaemia in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and heart rate reduction is a recognized strategy to prevent ischaemic episodes. In addition, clinical evidence shows that slowing the heart rate reduces the symptoms of angina by improving microcirculation and coronary flow. Elevated heart rate is an established risk factor for cardiovascular events in patients with CAD and in those with chronic heart failure (HF). Accordingly, reducing heart rate improves prognosis in patients with HF, as demonstrated in SHIFT. By contrast, data from SIGNIFY indicate that heart rate is not a modifiable risk factor in patients with CAD who do not also have HF. Heart rate is also an important determinant of cardiac arrhythmias; low heart rate can be associated with atrial fibrillation, and high heart rate after exercise can be associated with sudden cardiac death. In this Review, we critically assess these clinical findings, and propose hypotheses for the variable effect of heart rate reduction in cardiovascular disease.

  11. Assesment of Autonomic Function in Metabolic Syndrome using Combination Heart Rate Variability and Heart Rate Turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Gülay; Sarıkaya, Savaş; Turgut, Okan Onur; Şahin, Şafak; Çakmak, Nuray Yılmaz; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan; Tandoğan, İzzet

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is described as a group of various abnormal metabolic risk factors such as obesity, dyslipidemia, increased blood pressure, increased plasma glucose levels, prothrombotic condition and proinflammatory state. These parameters are related to decreased parasympathetic and increased sympathetic activity. We aimed to evaluate autonomic function using a combination with  heart rate variability (HRV) and  heart rate turbulence (HRT) in metabolic sy...

  12. Heart rate and heart rate variability responses to Tai Chi and jogging in Beijing and Graz

    OpenAIRE

    Gerhard Litscher; Weibo Zhang; Tao Huang; Lu Wang

    2011-01-01

    Background : Tai Chi is a famous training method in China, and jogging is a popular kind of exercise both in Austria and China. Nevertheless, there is little information concerning online monitoring of biosignals during both training activities in parallel. Within the last years innovative scientific monitoring tools for evaluating features of neurocardial fitness have been developed. Aims : The goal of this study was to demonstrate heart rate and heart rate variability analysis for the first...

  13. Reductions in carotid chemoreceptor activity with low-dose dopamine improves baroreflex control of heart rate during hypoxia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozer, Michael T; Holbein, Walter W; Joyner, Michael J; Curry, Timothy B; Limberg, Jacqueline K

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the contribution of the carotid body chemoreceptors to changes in baroreflex control of heart rate with exposure to hypoxia. We hypothesized spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (scBRS) would be reduced with hypoxia and this effect would be blunted when carotid chemoreceptor activity was reduced with low-dose dopamine. Fifteen healthy adults (11 M/4 F) completed two visits randomized to intravenous dopamine or placebo (saline). On each visit, subjects were exposed to 5-min normoxia (~99% SpO2), followed by 5-min hypoxia (~84% SpO2). Blood pressure (intra-arterial catheter) and heart rate (ECG) were measured continuously and scBRS was assessed by spectrum and sequence methodologies. scBRS was reduced with hypoxia (P dopamine (P dopamine (P dopamine did not attenuate the decrease in baroreflex sensitivity to falling pressures (scBRS "down-down"; P > 0.05). Present findings are consistent with a reduction in scBRS with systemic hypoxia. Furthermore, we show this effect is partially mediated by the carotid body chemoreceptors, given the fall in scBRS is attenuated when activity of the chemoreceptors is reduced with low-dose dopamine. However, the improvement in scBRS with dopamine appears to be specific to rising blood pressures. These results may have important implications for impairments in baroreflex function common in disease states of acute and/or chronic hypoxemia, as well as the experimental use of dopamine to assess such changes. PMID:27418545

  14. All about Heart Rate (Pulse)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... July 2015. Cardiovascular Conditions • Conditions Home • Arrhythmia and Atrial Fibrillation • Cardiac Arrest • Cardiac Rehab • Cardiomyopathy • Cardiovascular Conditions of Childhood • Cholesterol • Congenital Heart Defects • Diabetes • Heart Attack • Heart Failure (HF) • Heart Valve Problems and Disease • High Blood ...

  15. Facial Vibrotactile Stimulation Activates the Parasympathetic Nervous System: Study of Salivary Secretion, Heart Rate, Pupillary Reflex, and Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Hiraba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously found that the greatest salivation response in healthy human subjects is produced by facial vibrotactile stimulation of 89 Hz frequency with 1.9 μm amplitude (89 Hz-S, as reported by Hiraba et al. (2012, 20011, and 2008. We assessed relationships between the blood flow to brain via functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS in the frontal cortex and autonomic parameters. We used the heart rate (HRV: heart rate variability analysis in RR intervals, pupil reflex, and salivation as parameters, but the interrelation between each parameter and fNIRS measures remains unknown. We were to investigate the relationship in response to established paradigms using simultaneously each parameter-fNIRS recording in healthy human subjects. Analysis of fNIRS was examined by a comparison of various values between before and after various stimuli (89 Hz-S, 114 Hz-S, listen to classic music, and “Ahh” vocalization. We confirmed that vibrotactile stimulation (89 Hz of the parotid glands led to the greatest salivation, greatest increase in heart rate variability, and the most constricted pupils. Furthermore, there were almost no detectable differences between fNIRS during 89 Hz-S and fNIRS during listening to classical music of fans. Thus, vibrotactile stimulation of 89 Hz seems to evoke parasympathetic activity.

  16. Physical activity as a health factor modifying heart rate variability (HRV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowosielska-Swadzba Danuta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the research was the evaluation of the selected HRV factors of the training volleyball players in two training periods and non-training people. Materials and methods : The study involved 8 leading volleyball players aged 20-23 and 13 non-training persons aged 19-26. The study of the training players was conducted twice: in the pre-competition and in the competition period. The study for the non-training persons was conducted once. The selected factors of the spectral analysis have been evaluated: TP [ms 2], share of LF and HF power [n.u], LF/HF indicator and time analysis factors: RR [ms], HR [1/min], RMSSD [ms]. Results : Statistically significant differences appeared only in the selected time analysis factors (RR, HR, between the group of the training and non-training persons. Other differences in the evaluated parameters were not statistically significant. Conclusions : Physical activity influences on the HRV growth. HRV measurement may serve for the control of the changes taking place in the AUN under the influence of the physical activity.

  17. Physical activity, heart rate, metabolic profile, and estradiol in premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emaus, Aina; Veierød, Marit B; Furberg, Anne-Sofie;

    2008-01-01

    syndrome (zMS); total cholesterol-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, insulin resistance, total fat tissue, BP, and triglycerides] was defined. Linear regression and linear mixed models were used, and confounding factors were tested. RESULTS: Physically active women had lower fat percentage...... were also found for fat tissue, total cholesterol-HDL-C ratio, insulin resistance, and triglycerides. A dose-response relationship was observed among the three levels of LPA and HR and zMS (Ptrend = 0.03 for LPA; Ptrend = 0.004 for HR). Women in the highest tertile of the clustered metabolic risk score......PURPOSE: To study whether physical inactive women with a tendency to develop metabolic syndrome have high levels of 17beta-estradiol (E2) of importance for breast cancer risk. METHODS: Two hundred and four healthy women of reproductive age were assessed for self-reported leisure-time physical...

  18. Impact of Pubertal Development and Physical Activity on Heart Rate Variability in Overweight and Obese Children in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Ru; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Sheen, Tzong-Chi; Jeng, Chii

    2012-01-01

    Child obesity is frequently associated with dysfunction of autonomic nervous system. Children in pubertal development were suggested to be vulnerable to autonomic nervous system problems such as decrease of heart rate variability from dysregulation of metabolic control. This study explored the influence of pubertal development on autonomic nervous…

  19. Assessing resting heart rate in adolescents: determinants and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbia, F; Grosso, T; Cat Genova, G; Conterno, A; De Vito, B; Mulatero, P; Chiandussi, L; Veglio, F

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of resting heart rate and its biological and environmental determinants in adolescents. The study was cross- sectional and the population consisted of 2230 children and adolescents, age range 12-18 years, enrolled randomly from state schools in Turin, Italy. In all participants the following parameters were evaluated: heart rate, blood pressure (BP), weight, height, degree of sexual development, physical activity, parental socio-cultural level. Heart rate and BP were measured after 5, 10 and 15 min in a sitting position. Furthermore, to obtain regression equations to define heart rate as a function of the other variables available, a multiple regression analysis was performed. In both sexes BP, but not heart rate, declined significantly from the first to the last determination. Heart rate was positively and significantly correlated to BP level in both sexes; heart rate was higher in girls (3 bpm) and followed a progressive decreasing trend with age in both sexes, that was opposite to BP values. Age, sexual maturation, height, physical activity and parental socio-cultural level were independent determinants of resting heart rate. In conclusion, resting heart rate in adolescents is related to several methodological, constitutional and environmental factors that have to be taken into account when assessing heart rate values and constructing tables of normal values. PMID:12082493

  20. Effects of chronic sleep deprivation on autonomic activity by examining heart rate variability, plasma catecholamine, and intracellular magnesium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Bonpei; Akima, Takashi; Satomura, Kimio; Ohsuzu, Fumitaka; Mastui, Takemi; Ishihara, Masayuki; Kurita, Akira

    2004-10-01

    Chronic sleep deprivation is associated with cardiovascular events. In addition, autonomic activity determined from the levels of the heart rate variability (HRV), plasma catecholamine, and intracellular magnesium (Mg) are important in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular events. This study therefore aimed to determine the effects of chronic sleep deprivation on autonomic activity by examining the HRV, plasma catecholamine, and intracellular magnesium levels. Thirty (30) healthy male college students ranging in age from 20 to 24 years of age (average 22 +/- 1 years; mean +/- SD) with no coronary risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia or a family history of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) were included in the study. Over a 4-week period, the volunteers' plasma levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and erythrocyte-Mg were measured. The study was made during the 4 weeks before and immediately after college finals exams. HRV, obtained from 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring, included time and frequency domain indices. The HRV indices and erythrocyte-Mg decreased while norepinephrine increased during chronic sleep deprivation. It is concluded that chronic sleep deprivation causes an autonomic imbalance and decreases intracellular Mg, which could be associated with chronic sleep deprivation-induced cardiovascular events. PMID:15754837

  1. Music determines heart rate variability of singers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn eVickhoff

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Choir singing is known to promote wellbeing. One reason for this may be that singing demands a slower than normal respiration which may in turn affect heart activity. Coupling of heart rate variability (HRV to respiration is called Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA. This coupling has a subjective as well as a biologically soothing effect, and it is beneficial for cardiovascular function. RSA is seen to be more marked during slow-paced breathing and at lower respiration rates (0.1 Hz and below. In this study, we investigate how singing, which is a form of guided breathing, affects HRV and RSA. The study comprises a group of healthy 18 year olds of mixed gender. The subjects are asked to; (1 hum a single tone and breathe whenever they need to; (2 sing a hymn with free, unguided breathing; and (3 sing a slow mantra and breathe solely between phrases. Heart rate (HR is measured continuously during the study. The study design makes it possible to compare above three levels of song structure. In a separate case study, we examine five individuals performing singing tasks (1-(3. We collect data with more advanced equipment, simultaneously recording HR, respiration, skin conductance and finger temperature. We show how song structure, respiration and heart rate are connected. Unison singing of regular song structures makes the hearts of the singers accelerate and decelerate simultaneously. Implications concerning the effect on wellbeing and health are discussed as well as the question how this inner entrainment may affect perception and behavior.

  2. Concurrent sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal in hyperthyroidism: Evidence from detrended fluctuation analysis of heart rate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Long; Shiau, Yuo-Hsien; Tseng, Yin-Jiun; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Hsiao, Tzu-Chien; Wessel, Niels; Kurths, Jürgen; Chu, Woei-Chyn

    2010-05-01

    Despite many previous studies on the association between hyperthyroidism and the hyperadrenergic state, controversies still exist. Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is a well recognized method in the nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), and it has physiological significance related to the autonomic nervous system. In particular, an increased short-term scaling exponent α1 calculated from DFA is associated with both increased sympathetic activity and decreased vagal activity. No study has investigated the DFA of HRV in hyperthyroidism. This study was designed to assess the sympathovagal balance in hyperthyroidism. We performed the DFA along with the linear analysis of HRV in 36 hyperthyroid Graves’ disease patients (32 females and 4 males; age 30 ± 1 years, means ± SE) and 36 normal controls matched by sex, age and body mass index. Compared with the normal controls, the hyperthyroid patients revealed a significant increase ( P<0.001) in α1 (hyperthyroid 1.28±0.04 versus control 0.91±0.02), long-term scaling exponent α2 (1.05±0.02 versus 0.90±0.01), overall scaling exponent α (1.11±0.02 versus 0.89±0.01), low frequency power in normalized units (LF%) and the ratio of low frequency power to high frequency power (LF/HF); and a significant decrease ( P<0.001) in the standard deviation of the R-R intervals (SDNN) and high frequency power (HF). In conclusion, hyperthyroidism is characterized by concurrent sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal. This sympathovagal imbalance state in hyperthyroidism helps to explain the higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation and exercise intolerance among hyperthyroid patients.

  3. The Effect of the Arg389Gly Beta-1 Adrenoceptor Polymorphism on Plasma Renin Activity and Heart Rate and the Genotype-Dependent Response to Metoprolol Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten; Andersen, Jon T; Jimenez-Solem, Espen;

    2012-01-01

    A gene-drug interaction has been indicated between beta-1 selective beta-blockers and the Arg389Gly polymorphism (rs1801253) in the adrenergic beta-1 receptor gene (ADRB1). We studied the effect of the ADRB1 Arg389Gly polymorphism on plasma renin activity (PRA) and heart rate (HR) and the genotype...

  4. Comparison of Heart Rate Response to Tennis Activity between Persons with and without Spinal Cord Injuries: Implications for a Training Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, J. P.; Malone, Laurie A.; Coleman, Tristica A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) to reach a training threshold during on-court sport activity. Monitors collected heart rate (HR) data every 5 s for 11 wheelchair tennis players (WCT) with low paraplegia and 11 able-bodied controls matched on experience and skill level (ABT).…

  5. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, C-reactive protein and triglyceride are associated with heart rate variability in non-diabetic Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Intzilakis, Theodoros; Hartmann, Gro; Mouridsen, Mette R;

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. HRV is in part a function of the activity of the autonomic nervous system and has been associated with low-grade inflammation. In patients with type 2 diabetes, HRV is decreased and is a p...

  6. The Relationship between Situational and Contextual Self-Determined Motivation and Physical Activity Intensity as Measured by Heart Rates during Ninth Grade Students' Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Laakso, Timo; Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between situational and contextual self-determined motivation and physical activity intensity as measured by heart rates during a ninth-grade students' physical education (PE) class. The participants of the study were 139 Finnish ninth-grade students (15-year-olds). The data were collected…

  7. Diurnal Changes of Heart Rate and Sympathovagal Activity for Temporal Patterns of Transient Ischemic Episodes in 24-Hour Electrocardiograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jager

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We test the hypothesis that different temporal patterns of transient ST segment changes compatible with ischemia (ischemic episodes are a result of different physiologic mechanisms responsible for ischemia. We tested the hypothesis using records of the Long-Term ST Database. Each record was divided into three intervals of records: morning, day, and night intervals; and was inserted into one of three sets according to the temporal pattern of ischemia: salvo, periodic, and sporadic pattern. We derived time- and frequency-domain parameters of the heart rate time series in selected intervals in the neighborhood of ischemic episodes. We used the adaptive autoregressive method with a recursive least-square algorithm for consistent spectral tracking of heart rate time series and to study frequency-domain sympathovagal behavior during ischemia. The results support the hypothesis that there are at least two distinct populations, which differ according to mechanisms and temporal patterns of ischemia.

  8. Are Currently Available Wearable Devices for Activity Tracking and Heart Rate Monitoring Accurate, Precise, and Medically Beneficial?

    OpenAIRE

    El-Amrawy, Fatema; Nounou, Mohamed Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The new wave of wireless technologies, fitness trackers, and body sensor devices can have great impact on healthcare systems and the quality of life. However, there have not been enough studies to prove the accuracy and precision of these trackers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy, precision, and overall performance of seventeen wearable devices currently available compared with direct observation of step counts and heart rate monitoring. Methods Each partic...

  9. Acute effects of electromagnetic stimulation of the brain on cortical activity, cortical blood flow, blood pressure and heart rate in the cat: an evaluation of safety.

    OpenAIRE

    Eyre, J A; Flecknell, P. A.; Kenyon, B R; Koh, T H; Miller, S.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of repeated high intensity electromagnetic stimulation of the brain on cortical activity, cortical blood flow, blood pressure and heart rate has been investigated in the cat, to evaluate the safety of the method. The observations have been made in preparations under propofol anaesthesia before, during and after periods of anoxia. Electromagnetic stimulation of the brain evoked activity in descending motor pathways and was recorded by activity in the median nerve and by muscle tw...

  10. Acute effects of three different circuit weight training protocols on blood lactate, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion in recreationally active women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Brook L; Jones, Margaret T; Blegen, Mark; Matthews, Tracey D

    2012-01-01

    Interval and circuit weight training are popular training methods for maximizing time-efficiency, and are purported to deliver greater physiological benefits faster than traditional training methods. Adding interval training into a circuit weight-training workout may further enhance the benefits of circuit weight training by placing increased demands upon the cardiovascular system. Our purpose was to compare acute effects of three circuit weight training protocols 1) traditional circuit weight training, 2) aerobic circuit weight training, and 3) combined circuit weight-interval training on blood lactate (BLA), heart rate (HR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Eleven recreationally active women completed 7 exercise sessions. Session 1 included measurements of height, weight, estimated VO2max, and 13 repetition maximum (RM) testing of the weight exercises. Sessions 2-4 were held on non-consecutive days for familiarization with traditional circuit weight training (TRAD), aerobic circuit weight training (ACWT), and combined circuit weight-interval training (CWIT) protocols. In sessions 5-7, TRAD, ACWT, and CWIT were performed in a randomized order ≥ 72 hr apart for measures of BLA, HR, and RPE at pre-exercise and following each of three mini-circuit weight training stations. Repeated-measures ANOVAs yielded significant interactions (p workouts into exercise programming may enhance fitness benefits and maximize time-efficiency more so than traditional circuit training methods. PMID:24150076

  11. A Model of Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Vaso-Vagal Responses Produced by Vestibulo-Sympathetic Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphan, Theodore; Cohen, Bernard; Xiang, Yongqing; Yakushin, Sergei B

    2016-01-01

    Blood Pressure (BP), comprised of recurrent systoles and diastoles, is controlled by central mechanisms to maintain blood flow. Periodic behavior of BP was modeled to study how peak amplitudes and frequencies of the systoles are modulated by vestibular activation. The model was implemented as a relaxation oscillator, driven by a central signal related to Desired BP. Relaxation oscillations were maintained by a second order system comprising two integrators and a threshold element in the feedback loop. The output signal related to BP was generated as a nonlinear function of the derivative of the first state variable, which is a summation of an input related to Desired BP, feedback from the states, and an input from the vestibular system into one of the feedback loops. This nonlinear function was structured to best simulate the shapes of systoles and diastoles, the relationship between BP and Heart Rate (HR) as well as the amplitude modulations of BP and Pulse Pressure. Increases in threshold in one of the feedback loops produced lower frequencies of HR, but generated large pulse pressures to maintain orthostasis, without generating a VasoVagal Response (VVR). Pulse pressures were considerably smaller in the anesthetized rats than during the simulations, but simulated pulse pressures were lowered by including saturation in the feedback loop. Stochastic changes in threshold maintained the compensatory Baroreflex Sensitivity. Sudden decreases in Desired BP elicited non-compensatory VVRs with smaller pulse pressures, consistent with experimental data. The model suggests that the Vestibular Sympathetic Reflex (VSR) modulates BP and HR of an oscillating system by manipulating parameters of the baroreflex feedback and the signals that maintain the oscillations. It also shows that a VVR is generated when the vestibular input triggers a marked reduction in Desired BP. PMID:27065779

  12. A model of blood pressure, heart rate, and vaso-vagal responses produced by vestibulo-sympathetic activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore eRaphan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood Pressure (BP, comprised of recurrent systoles and diastoles, is controlled by central mechanisms to maintain blood flow. Periodic behavior of BP was modeled to study how peak amplitudes and frequencies of the systoles are modulated by vestibular activation. The model was implemented as a relaxation oscillator, driven by a central signal related to Desired BP. Relaxation oscillations were maintained by a second order system comprising two integrators and a threshold element in the feedback loop. The output signal related to BP was generated as a nonlinear function of the derivative of the first state variable, which is a summation of an input related to desired BP, feedback from the states, and an input from the vestibular system into one of one of the feedback loops. This nonlinear function was structured to best simulate the shapes of systoles and diastoles, the relationship between BP and Heart Rate (HR as well as the amplitude modulations of BP and Pulse Pressure. Increases in threshold in one of the feedback loops produced lower frequencies of HR, but generated large pulse pressures to maintain orthostasis, without generating a VasoVagal Response (VVR. Pulse pressures were considerably smaller in the anesthetized rats than during the simulations, but simulated pulse pressures were lowered by including saturation in the feedback loop. Stochastic changes in Threshold maintained the compensatory Baroreflex Sensitivity. Sudden decreases in Desired BP elicited non-compensatory VVRs with smaller pulse pressures, consistent with experimental data. The model suggests that the Vestibular Sympathetic Reflex modulates BP and HR of an oscillating system by manipulating parameters of the baroreflex feedback and the signals that maintain the oscillations. It also shows that a VVR is generated when the vestibular input triggers a marked reduction in Desired BP.

  13. Heart rate and heart rate variability responses to Tai Chi and jogging in Beijing and Graz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Litscher

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tai Chi is a famous training method in China, and jogging is a popular kind of exercise both in Austria and China. Nevertheless, there is little information concerning online monitoring of biosignals during both training activities in parallel. Within the last years innovative scientific monitoring tools for evaluating features of neurocardial fitness have been developed. Aims: The goal of this study was to demonstrate heart rate and heart rate variability analysis for the first time during Tai Chi and jogging. Volunteers and Methods: Continuous electrocardiographic monitoring over a period of 75 minutes was performed simultaneously in two healthy volunteers using the same type of equipment (medilog AR12 systems. Two healthy persons (both male, 49 years and 52 years, respectively, both hobby sportsmen, were monitored continuously during two resting periods before and after active sport and also during Tai Chi and jogging, respectively. Results: Data acquisition was performed without any technical problems in both subjects. Poincaré plots of sequential R-R intervals (beat to beat variability show two ellipses of different shape and magnitude. During resting periods blood pressure effects can be clearly seen in one subject (jogging. The same effects, however reduced, are obvious in the other volunteer during Tai Chi. Conclusions: The present investigations during Tai Chi and jogging highlight the potential value of heart rate and heart rate variability monitoring even under difficult conditions. The innovative kind of analysis helps to show how well the human body reacts to sport, stress and recovery.

  14. Heart rate and heart rate variability responses to Tai Chi and jogging in Beijing and Graz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Litscher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Tai Chi is a famous training method in China, and jogging is a popular kind of exercise both in Austria and China. Nevertheless, there is little information concerning online monitoring of biosignals during both training activities in parallel. Within the last years innovative scientific monitoring tools for evaluating features of neurocardial fitness have been developed. Aims : The goal of this study was to demonstrate heart rate and heart rate variability analysis for the first time during Tai Chi and jogging. Volunteers and Methods : Continuous electrocardiographic monitoring over a period of 75 minutes was performed simultaneously in two healthy volunteers using the same type of equipment (medilog AR12 systems. Two healthy persons (both male, 49 years and 52 years, respectively, both hobby sportsmen, were monitored continuously during two resting periods before and after active sport and also during Tai Chi and jogging, respectively. Results : Data acquisition was performed without any technical problems in both subjects. Poincaré plots of sequential R-R intervals (beat to beat variability show two ellipses of different shape and magnitude. During resting periods blood pressure effects can be clearly seen in one subject (jogging. The same effects, however reduced, are obvious in the other volunteer during Tai Chi. Conclusions : The present investigations during Tai Chi and jogging highlight the potential value of heart rate and heart rate variability monitoring even under difficult conditions. The innovative kind of analysis helps to show how well the human body reacts to sport, stress and recovery.

  15. Fetal heart rate patterns in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: relationship with early cerebral activity and neurodevelopmental outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murray, Deirdre M

    2012-01-31

    Despite widespread use of fetal heart rate monitoring, the timing of injury in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains unclear. Our aim was to examine fetal heart rate patterns during labor in infants with clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence of HIE and to relate these findings to neurodevelopmental outcome. Timing of onset of pathological cardiotocographs (CTGs) was determined in each case by two blinded reviewers and related to EEG grade at birth and neurological outcome at 24 months. CTGs were available in 35 infants with HIE (17 mild, 12 moderate, 6 severe on EEG). Admission CTGs were normal in 24\\/35 (69%), suspicious in 8\\/35 (23%), and pathological in 3\\/35 (8%). All CTGs developed nonreassuring features prior to delivery. Three patterns of fetal heart rate abnormalities were seen: group 1, abnormal CTGs on admission in 11\\/35 (31%); group 2, normal CTGs on admission with gradual deterioration to pathological in 20\\/35 cases (57%); and group 3, normal CTGs on admission with acute sentinel events in 4\\/35 (11.5%). The median (interquartile range) duration between the development of pathological CTGs and delivery was 145 (81, 221) minutes in group 2 and 22 (12, 28) minutes in group 3. There was no correlation between duration of pathological CTG trace and grade of encephalopathy (R = 0.09, P = 0.63) or neurological outcome (P = 0.75). However, the grade of encephalopathy was significantly worse in group 3 (P = 0.001), with a trend to worse outcomes. The majority of infants with HIE have normal CTG traces on admission but develop pathological CTG patterns within hours of delivery. More severe encephalopathy was associated with normal admission CTG and acute sentinel events shortly before delivery.

  16. Fetal heart rate patterns in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: relationship with early cerebral activity and neurodevelopmental outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murray, Deirdre M

    2009-09-01

    Despite widespread use of fetal heart rate monitoring, the timing of injury in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains unclear. Our aim was to examine fetal heart rate patterns during labor in infants with clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence of HIE and to relate these findings to neurodevelopmental outcome. Timing of onset of pathological cardiotocographs (CTGs) was determined in each case by two blinded reviewers and related to EEG grade at birth and neurological outcome at 24 months. CTGs were available in 35 infants with HIE (17 mild, 12 moderate, 6 severe on EEG). Admission CTGs were normal in 24\\/35 (69%), suspicious in 8\\/35 (23%), and pathological in 3\\/35 (8%). All CTGs developed nonreassuring features prior to delivery. Three patterns of fetal heart rate abnormalities were seen: group 1, abnormal CTGs on admission in 11\\/35 (31%); group 2, normal CTGs on admission with gradual deterioration to pathological in 20\\/35 cases (57%); and group 3, normal CTGs on admission with acute sentinel events in 4\\/35 (11.5%). The median (interquartile range) duration between the development of pathological CTGs and delivery was 145 (81, 221) minutes in group 2 and 22 (12, 28) minutes in group 3. There was no correlation between duration of pathological CTG trace and grade of encephalopathy (R = 0.09, P = 0.63) or neurological outcome (P = 0.75). However, the grade of encephalopathy was significantly worse in group 3 (P = 0.001), with a trend to worse outcomes. The majority of infants with HIE have normal CTG traces on admission but develop pathological CTG patterns within hours of delivery. More severe encephalopathy was associated with normal admission CTG and acute sentinel events shortly before delivery.

  17. Peak heart rates at extreme altitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2001-01-01

    We have measured maximal heart rate during a graded maximal bicycle exercise test to exhaustion in five healthy climbers before and during an expedition to Mt. Everest. Maximal heart rates at sea level were 186 (177-204) beats/min(-1) at sea level and 170 (169-182) beats/min(-1) with acute hypoxia....... After 1, 4 and 6 weeks of acclimatization to 5400 m, maximal heart rates were 155 (135-182), 158 (144-182), and 155 (140-183) beats/min(-1), respectively. Heart rates of two of the climbers were measured during their attempt to reach the summit of Mt. Everest without the use of supplemental oxygen....... The peak heart rates at 8,750 m for the two climbers were 142 and 144 beats/min(-1), which were similar to their maximal heart rates during exhaustive bicycle exercise at 5,400 m, the values being 144 and 148 beats/min(-1), respectively. The peak heart rates at 8,750 m are in agreement with other field...

  18. Technical actions, heart rate, and locomotor activity in 7v7 and 8v8 games for female youth soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Andersen, Thomas Bull;

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate technical performance, heart rate (HR), and activity profile in 7v7 and 8v8 soccer games for 9[FIGURE DASH]10-year-old girls (U11). A total of 24 female youth players participated in the study, all playing 20-min 7v7 and 8v8 games with 160 and 223 m per...

  19. State-related differences in the level of psychomotor activity in patients with bipolar disorder - Continuous heart rate and movement monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2016-03-30

    Measuring changes in psychomotor activity is a potential tool in the monitoring of the course of affective states in bipolar disorder. Previous studies have been cross-sectional and only some have used objective measures. The aim was to investigate state-related differences in objectively-measured psychomotor activity in bipolar disorder. During a 12 weeks study, repeated measurements of heart rate and movement monitoring over several days were collected during different affective states from 19 outpatients with bipolar disorder. Outcomes included activity energy expenditure (AEE) and trunk acceleration (ACC). Symptoms were clinically assessed using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Compared to patients in a euthymic state, patients in a manic state had significantly higher AEE. Compared to patients in a depressive state, patients in a manic state had significantly higher ACC and AEE. There was a significant diurnal variation in ACC and AEE between affective states. Finally, there was a significant correlation between the severity of manic symptoms and ACC and AEE, respectively. This first study measuring psychomotor activity during different affective states using a combined heart rate and movement sensor supports that psychomotor activity is a core symptom in bipolar disorder that is altered during affective states. PMID:26832835

  20. Evaluation of commercially available heart rate monitors.

    OpenAIRE

    Humen, D P; Boughner, D R

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy and tracking ability of nine commercially available heart rate monitors were assessed. The heart rate of 16 young healthy men was continuously monitored by a single-lead electrocardiograph while they exercised on a stationary bicycle ergometer. Readings were obtained from the devices during exercise. The devices that measured the cardiac electrical potential with a three-electrode system or that incorporated a light transmission device attached to the earlobe were the most accura...

  1. Fetal Heart Rate Response to Maternal Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monga, Manju

    2016-09-01

    Current guidelines regarding recommended exercise in pregnancy appear consistent with reported research regarding fetal heart changes in response to maternal exercise. Fetal heart rate increases during pregnancy, but maternal exercise appears well tolerated if performed in uncomplicated pregnancies and not in the supine position. Maximal levels of exercise that are well tolerated by the fetus have not yet been well defined; however, recent literature suggests that sustained exercise during pregnancy may have beneficial effects on autonomic control of fetal heart rate and variability that may lead to long-term health benefits. PMID:27388963

  2. ACUTE EFFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT CIRCUIT WEIGHT TRAINING PROTOCOLS ON BLOOD LACTATE, HEART RATE, AND RATING OF PERCEIVED EXERTION IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook L. Skidmore

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Interval and circuit weight training are popular training methods for maximizing time-efficiency, and are purported to deliver greater physiological benefits faster than traditional training methods. Adding interval training into a circuit weight-training workout may further enhance the benefits of circuit weight training by placing increased demands upon the cardiovascular system. Our purpose was to compare acute effects of three circuit weight training protocols 1 traditional circuit weight training, 2 aerobic circuit weight training, and 3 combined circuit weight-interval training on blood lactate (BLA, heart rate (HR, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE. Eleven recreationally active women completed 7 exercise sessions. Session 1 included measurements of height, weight, estimated VO2max, and 13 repetition maximum (RM testing of the weight exercises. Sessions 2-4 were held on non-consecutive days for familiarization with traditional circuit weight training (TRAD, aerobic circuit weight training (ACWT, and combined circuit weight-interval training (CWIT protocols. In sessions 5-7, TRAD, ACWT, and CWIT were performed in a randomized order > 72 hr apart for measures of BLA, HR, and RPE at pre-exercise and following each of three mini-circuit weight training stations. Repeated-measures ANOVAs yielded significant interactions (p < 0.05 in BLA, HR, and RPE. Combined circuit weight- interval training (CWIT produced higher BLA (7.31 ± 0.37 vs. TRAD: 3.99 ± 0.26, ACWT: 4.54 ± 0.31 mmol.L-1, HR (83.51 ± 1.18 vs. TRAD: 70.42 ± 1.67, ACWT: 74.13 ± 1.43 beats.min-1 and RPE (8.14 ± 0.41 vs. TRAD: 5.06 ± 0.43, ACWT: 6.15 ± 0.42 at all measures. Aerobic circuit weight training (ACWT elicited greater RPE than traditional circuit weight training (TRAD at all measures. Including combined circuit weight-interval training (CWIT workouts into exercise programming may enhance fitness benefits and maximize time-efficiency more so than traditional circuit

  3. Elevated heart rate and nondipping heart rate as potential targets for melatonin: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simko, Fedor; Baka, Tomas; Paulis, Ludovit; Reiter, Russel J

    2016-09-01

    Elevated heart rate is a risk factor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortalities in the general population and various cardiovascular pathologies. Insufficient heart rate decline during the night, that is, nondipping heart rate, also increases cardiovascular risk. Abnormal heart rate reflects an autonomic nervous system imbalance in terms of relative dominance of sympathetic tone. There are only a few prospective studies concerning the effect of heart rate reduction in coronary heart disease and heart failure. In hypertensive patients, retrospective analyses show no additional benefit of slowing down the heart rate by beta-blockade to blood pressure reduction. Melatonin, a secretory product of the pineal gland, has several attributes, which predict melatonin to be a promising candidate in the struggle against elevated heart rate and its consequences in the hypertensive population. First, melatonin production depends on the sympathetic stimulation of the pineal gland. On the other hand, melatonin inhibits the sympathetic system in several ways representing potentially the counter-regulatory mechanism to normalize excessive sympathetic drive. Second, administration of melatonin reduces heart rate in animals and humans. Third, the chronobiological action of melatonin may normalize the insufficient nocturnal decline of heart rate. Moreover, melatonin reduces the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, which are considered a crucial pathophysiological disorder of increased heart rate and pulsatile blood flow. The antihypertensive and antiremodeling action of melatonin along with its beneficial effects on lipid profile and insulin resistance may be of additional benefit. A clinical trial investigating melatonin actions in hypertensive patients with increased heart rate is warranted. PMID:27264986

  4. Inverse Correlation between Heart Rate Variability and Heart Rate Demonstrated by Linear and Nonlinear Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Henggui; Aziz, Wajid; Monfredi, Oliver; Abbas, Syed Ali; Shah, Saeed Arif; Kazmi, Syeda Sobia Hassan; Butt, Wasi Haider

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical fluctuations in the rhythms of biological systems provide valuable information about the underlying functioning of these systems. During the past few decades analysis of cardiac function based on the heart rate variability (HRV; variation in R wave to R wave intervals) has attracted great attention, resulting in more than 17000-publications (PubMed list). However, it is still controversial about the underling mechanisms of HRV. In this study, we performed both linear (time domain and frequency domain) and nonlinear analysis of HRV data acquired from humans and animals to identify the relationship between HRV and heart rate (HR). The HRV data consists of the following groups: (a) human normal sinus rhythm (n = 72); (b) human congestive heart failure (n = 44); (c) rabbit sinoatrial node cells (SANC; n = 67); (d) conscious rat (n = 11). In both human and animal data at variant pathological conditions, both linear and nonlinear analysis techniques showed an inverse correlation between HRV and HR, supporting the concept that HRV is dependent on HR, and therefore, HRV cannot be used in an ordinary manner to analyse autonomic nerve activity of a heart. PMID:27336907

  5. Influence of heavy cigarette smoking on heart rate variability and heart rate turbulence parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagirci, Goksel; Cay, Serkan; Karakurt, Ozlem;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking increases the risk of cardiovascular events related with several mechanisms. The most suggested mechanism is increased activity of sympathetic nervous system. Heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate turbulence (HRT) has been shown to be independent and powerful...... predictors of mortality in a specific group of cardiac patients. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of heavy cigarette smoking on cardiac autonomic function using HRV and HRT analyses. METHODS: Heavy cigarette smoking was defined as more than 20 cigarettes smoked per day. Heavy cigarette smokers...... than control group (23 vs 10, P = 0.006). TO was correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (r = 0.235, P = 0.004). While LF and LF/HF ratio were significantly higher, standard deviation of all NN intervals (SDNN), standard deviation of the 5-minute mean RR intervals (SDANN), root mean...

  6. A Novel Time-Varying Spectral Filtering Algorithm for Reconstruction of Motion Artifact Corrupted Heart Rate Signals During Intense Physical Activities Using a Wearable Photoplethysmogram Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehizadeh, Seyed M A; Dao, Duy; Bolkhovsky, Jeffrey; Cho, Chae; Mendelson, Yitzhak; Chon, Ki H

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of heart rates from photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals during intense physical activity is a very challenging problem. This is because strenuous and high intensity exercise can result in severe motion artifacts in PPG signals, making accurate heart rate (HR) estimation difficult. In this study we investigated a novel technique to accurately reconstruct motion-corrupted PPG signals and HR based on time-varying spectral analysis. The algorithm is called Spectral filter algorithm for Motion Artifacts and heart rate reconstruction (SpaMA). The idea is to calculate the power spectral density of both PPG and accelerometer signals for each time shift of a windowed data segment. By comparing time-varying spectra of PPG and accelerometer data, those frequency peaks resulting from motion artifacts can be distinguished from the PPG spectrum. The SpaMA approach was applied to three different datasets and four types of activities: (1) training datasets from the 2015 IEEE Signal Process. Cup Database recorded from 12 subjects while performing treadmill exercise from 1 km/h to 15 km/h; (2) test datasets from the 2015 IEEE Signal Process. Cup Database recorded from 11 subjects while performing forearm and upper arm exercise. (3) Chon Lab dataset including 10 min recordings from 10 subjects during treadmill exercise. The ECG signals from all three datasets provided the reference HRs which were used to determine the accuracy of our SpaMA algorithm. The performance of the SpaMA approach was calculated by computing the mean absolute error between the estimated HR from the PPG and the reference HR from the ECG. The average estimation errors using our method on the first, second and third datasets are 0.89, 1.93 and 1.38 beats/min respectively, while the overall error on all 33 subjects is 1.86 beats/min and the performance on only treadmill experiment datasets (22 subjects) is 1.11 beats/min. Moreover, it was found that dynamics of heart rate variability can be

  7. A Novel Time-Varying Spectral Filtering Algorithm for Reconstruction of Motion Artifact Corrupted Heart Rate Signals During Intense Physical Activities Using a Wearable Photoplethysmogram Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed M. A. Salehizadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of heart rates from photoplethysmogram (PPG signals during intense physical activity is a very challenging problem. This is because strenuous and high intensity exercise can result in severe motion artifacts in PPG signals, making accurate heart rate (HR estimation difficult. In this study we investigated a novel technique to accurately reconstruct motion-corrupted PPG signals and HR based on time-varying spectral analysis. The algorithm is called Spectral filter algorithm for Motion Artifacts and heart rate reconstruction (SpaMA. The idea is to calculate the power spectral density of both PPG and accelerometer signals for each time shift of a windowed data segment. By comparing time-varying spectra of PPG and accelerometer data, those frequency peaks resulting from motion artifacts can be distinguished from the PPG spectrum. The SpaMA approach was applied to three different datasets and four types of activities: (1 training datasets from the 2015 IEEE Signal Process. Cup Database recorded from 12 subjects while performing treadmill exercise from 1 km/h to 15 km/h; (2 test datasets from the 2015 IEEE Signal Process. Cup Database recorded from 11 subjects while performing forearm and upper arm exercise. (3 Chon Lab dataset including 10 min recordings from 10 subjects during treadmill exercise. The ECG signals from all three datasets provided the reference HRs which were used to determine the accuracy of our SpaMA algorithm. The performance of the SpaMA approach was calculated by computing the mean absolute error between the estimated HR from the PPG and the reference HR from the ECG. The average estimation errors using our method on the first, second and third datasets are 0.89, 1.93 and 1.38 beats/min respectively, while the overall error on all 33 subjects is 1.86 beats/min and the performance on only treadmill experiment datasets (22 subjects is 1.11 beats/min. Moreover, it was found that dynamics of heart rate variability

  8. A Novel Time-Varying Spectral Filtering Algorithm for Reconstruction of Motion Artifact Corrupted Heart Rate Signals During Intense Physical Activities Using a Wearable Photoplethysmogram Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehizadeh, Seyed M A; Dao, Duy; Bolkhovsky, Jeffrey; Cho, Chae; Mendelson, Yitzhak; Chon, Ki H

    2015-12-23

    Accurate estimation of heart rates from photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals during intense physical activity is a very challenging problem. This is because strenuous and high intensity exercise can result in severe motion artifacts in PPG signals, making accurate heart rate (HR) estimation difficult. In this study we investigated a novel technique to accurately reconstruct motion-corrupted PPG signals and HR based on time-varying spectral analysis. The algorithm is called Spectral filter algorithm for Motion Artifacts and heart rate reconstruction (SpaMA). The idea is to calculate the power spectral density of both PPG and accelerometer signals for each time shift of a windowed data segment. By comparing time-varying spectra of PPG and accelerometer data, those frequency peaks resulting from motion artifacts can be distinguished from the PPG spectrum. The SpaMA approach was applied to three different datasets and four types of activities: (1) training datasets from the 2015 IEEE Signal Process. Cup Database recorded from 12 subjects while performing treadmill exercise from 1 km/h to 15 km/h; (2) test datasets from the 2015 IEEE Signal Process. Cup Database recorded from 11 subjects while performing forearm and upper arm exercise. (3) Chon Lab dataset including 10 min recordings from 10 subjects during treadmill exercise. The ECG signals from all three datasets provided the reference HRs which were used to determine the accuracy of our SpaMA algorithm. The performance of the SpaMA approach was calculated by computing the mean absolute error between the estimated HR from the PPG and the reference HR from the ECG. The average estimation errors using our method on the first, second and third datasets are 0.89, 1.93 and 1.38 beats/min respectively, while the overall error on all 33 subjects is 1.86 beats/min and the performance on only treadmill experiment datasets (22 subjects) is 1.11 beats/min. Moreover, it was found that dynamics of heart rate variability can be

  9. A Novel Time-Varying Spectral Filtering Algorithm for Reconstruction of Motion Artifact Corrupted Heart Rate Signals During Intense Physical Activities Using a Wearable Photoplethysmogram Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehizadeh, Seyed M. A.; Dao, Duy; Bolkhovsky, Jeffrey; Cho, Chae; Mendelson, Yitzhak; Chon, Ki H.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of heart rates from photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals during intense physical activity is a very challenging problem. This is because strenuous and high intensity exercise can result in severe motion artifacts in PPG signals, making accurate heart rate (HR) estimation difficult. In this study we investigated a novel technique to accurately reconstruct motion-corrupted PPG signals and HR based on time-varying spectral analysis. The algorithm is called Spectral filter algorithm for Motion Artifacts and heart rate reconstruction (SpaMA). The idea is to calculate the power spectral density of both PPG and accelerometer signals for each time shift of a windowed data segment. By comparing time-varying spectra of PPG and accelerometer data, those frequency peaks resulting from motion artifacts can be distinguished from the PPG spectrum. The SpaMA approach was applied to three different datasets and four types of activities: (1) training datasets from the 2015 IEEE Signal Process. Cup Database recorded from 12 subjects while performing treadmill exercise from 1 km/h to 15 km/h; (2) test datasets from the 2015 IEEE Signal Process. Cup Database recorded from 11 subjects while performing forearm and upper arm exercise. (3) Chon Lab dataset including 10 min recordings from 10 subjects during treadmill exercise. The ECG signals from all three datasets provided the reference HRs which were used to determine the accuracy of our SpaMA algorithm. The performance of the SpaMA approach was calculated by computing the mean absolute error between the estimated HR from the PPG and the reference HR from the ECG. The average estimation errors using our method on the first, second and third datasets are 0.89, 1.93 and 1.38 beats/min respectively, while the overall error on all 33 subjects is 1.86 beats/min and the performance on only treadmill experiment datasets (22 subjects) is 1.11 beats/min. Moreover, it was found that dynamics of heart rate variability can be

  10. Clinical efficacy of efonidipine hydrochloride, a T-type calcium channel inhibitor, on sympathetic activities. Examination using spectral analysis of heart rate/blood pressure variabilities and 123I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dihydropyridine Ca antagonists cause reflex tachycardia related to their hypotensive effects. Efonidipine hydrochloride has inhibitory effects on T-type Ca channels, even as it inhibits reflex tachycardia. In the present study, the influence of efonidipine hydrochloride on heart rate and autonomic nervous function was investigated. Using an electrocardiogram and a tonometric blood pressure measurement, autonomic nervous activity was evaluated using spectral analysis of heart rate/systolic blood pressure variability. Three protocols were used: a single dose of efonidipine hydrochloride was administered orally to healthy subjects with resting heart rate values of 75 beats/min or more (high-heart rate (HR) group) and to healthy subjects with resting heart rate values less than 75 beats/min (low-HR group); efonidipine hydrochloride was newly administered to untreated patients with essential hypertension, and autonomic nervous activity was investigated after a 4-week treatment period; and patients with high heart rate values (≥75 beats/min) who had been treated with a dihydropyridine L-type Ca channel inhibitor for 1 month or more were switched to efonidipine hydrochloride and any changes in autonomic nervous activity were investigated. In all protocols, administration of efonidipine hydrochloride decreased the heart rate in patients with a high heart rate, reduced sympathetic nervous activity, and enhanced parasympathetic nervous activity. In addition, myocardial scintigraphy with 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine showed significant improvement in the washout rate and heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio of patients who were switched from other dihydropyridine Ca antagonists to efonidipine hydrochloride. Efonidipine hydrochloride inhibits increases in heart rate and has effects on the autonomic nervous system. It may be useful for treating hypertension and angina pectoris, and may also have a cardiac protective function. (author)

  11. The Use of Heart Rate Monitors in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Randall; Davis, Kathryn L.; McCord, Tim; Schmidt, Dave; Slezak, Alex M.

    2009-01-01

    The ever-rising rate of obesity and the need for increased physical activity for young children is well documented. Data suggests that today's youth are not participating in enough quality health-enhancing physical activity either in or outside of school. Heart rate monitors have been used by adult exercisers for many years to monitor and assess…

  12. Vagal heart rate control in patients with a history of atrial fibrillation: Impact of tonic activation of peripheral chemosensory function in heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muehlsteff, J.; Christian Meyer; Drexel, T.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF), emerging as two epidemics of the 21st century, are commonly associated with each other. Both have been mechanistically linked to changes in cardiac vagal control. The importance of peripheral chemosensors, residing in the carotid

  13. Resting Heart Rate and Auditory Evoked Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Fiuza Regaçone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between rest heart rate (HR and the components of the auditory evoked-related potentials (ERPs at rest in women. We investigated 21 healthy female university students between 18 and 24 years old. We performed complete audiological evaluation and measurement of heart rate for 10 minutes at rest (heart rate monitor Polar RS800CX and performed ERPs analysis (discrepancy in frequency and duration. There was a moderate negative correlation of the N1 and P3a with rest HR and a strong positive correlation of the P2 and N2 components with rest HR. Larger components of the ERP are associated with higher rest HR.

  14. Heart rate profile during exercise in patients with early repolarization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Serkan Cay; Goksel Cagirci; Ramazan Atak; Yucel Balbay; Ahmet Duran Demir; Sinan Aydogdu

    2010-01-01

    Background Both early repolarization and altered heart rate profile are associated with sudden death. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate an association between early repolarization and heart rate profile during exercise.Methods A total of 84 subjects were included in the study. Comparable 44 subjects with early repolarization and 40 subjects with normal electrocardiogram underwent exercise stress testing. Resting heart rate, maximum heart rate, heart rate increment and decrement were analyzed.Results Both groups were comparable for baseline characteristics including resting heart rate. Maximum heart rate, heart rate increment and heart rate decrment of the subjects in early repolarization group had significantly decreased maximum heart rate, heart rate increment and heart rate decrement compared to control group (all P<0.05). The lower heart rate increment (<106 beats/min) and heart rate decrement (<95 beats/min) were significantly associated with the presence of early repolarization. After adjustment for age and sex, the multiple-adjusted OR of the risk of presence of early repolarization was 2.98 (95% CI 1.21-7.34) (P=0.018) and 7.73 (95% CI 2.84-21.03) (P <0.001) for the lower heart rate increment and heart rate decrement compared to higher levels, respectively.Conclusions Subjects with early repolarization have altered heart rate profile during exercise compared to control subjects. This can be related to sudden death.

  15. Control of heart rate variability by cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity during voluntary static exercise in humans with tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Matsukawa, Kanji; Nakamoto, Tomoko; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Sakaguchi, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Kotaro; Onari, Kiyoshi

    2007-11-01

    Heart rate (HR) is controlled solely by via cardiac parasympathetic outflow in tetraplegic individuals, who lack supraspinal control of sympathetic outflows and circulating catecholamines but have intact vagal pathways. A high-frequency component (HF; at 0.15-0.40 Hz) of the power spectrum of HR variability and its relative value against total power (HF/Total) were assessed using a wavelet transform to identify cardiac parasympathetic outflow. The relative contribution of cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic outflows to controlling HR was estimated by comparing the HF/Total-HR relationship between age-matched tetraplegic and normal men. Six tetraplegic men with complete cervical spinal cord injury performed static arm exercise at 35% of the maximal voluntary contraction until exhaustion. Although resting cardiac output and arterial blood pressure were lower in tetraplegic than normal subjects, HR, HF, and HF/Total were not statistically different between the two groups. When tetraplegic subjects developed the same force during exercise as normal subjects, HF and HF/Total decreased to 67-90% of the preexercise control and gradually recovered 1.5 min after exercise. The amount and time course of the changes in HF/Total during and after exercise coincided well between both groups. In contrast, the increase in HR at the start of exercise was blunted in tetraplegic compared with normal subjects, and the HR recovery following exercise was also delayed. It is likely that, although the withdrawal response of cardiac parasympathetic outflow is preserved in tetraplegic subjects, sympathetic decentralization impairs the rapid acceleration of HR at the onset of exercise and the rapid deceleration following exercise. PMID:17761788

  16. Estimation of heart rate and heart rate variability from pulse oximeter recordings using localized model fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadehn, Federico; Carnal, David; Loeliger, Hans-Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Heart rate variability is one of the key parameters for assessing the health status of a subject's cardiovascular system. This paper presents a local model fitting algorithm used for finding single heart beats in photoplethysmogram recordings. The local fit of exponentially decaying cosines of frequencies within the physiological range is used to detect the presence of a heart beat. Using 42 subjects from the CapnoBase database, the average heart rate error was 0.16 BPM and the standard deviation of the absolute estimation error was 0.24 BPM. PMID:26737125

  17. Neuroanatomical substrates for the volitional regulation of heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Louise Jones

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The control of physiological arousal can assist in the regulation of emotional state. A subset cortical and subcortical brain regions are implicated in autonomic control of bodily arousal during emotional behaviours. Here, we combined human functional neuroimaging with autonomic monitoring to identify neural mechanisms that support the volitional regulation of heart rate, a process that may be assisted by visual feedback. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, fifteen healthy adults performed an experimental task in which they were prompted voluntarily to increase or decrease cardiovascular arousal (heart rate during true, false or absent visual feedback. Participants achieved appropriate changes in heart rate, without significant modulation of respiratory rate, and were overall not influenced by the presence of visual feedback. Increased activity in right amygdala, striatum and brainstem occurred when participants attempted to increase heart rate. In contrast, activation of ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices occurred when attempting to decrease heart rate. Biofeedback enhanced activity within occipito-temporal cortices, but there was no significant interaction with task conditions. Activity in regions including pregenual anterior cingulate and ventral striatum reflected the magnitude of successful task performance, which was negatively related to subclinical anxiety symptoms. Measured changes in respiration correlated with posterior insula activation and heart rate, at a more lenient threshold, change correlated with insula, caudate and midbrain activity. Our findings highlight a set of brain regions, notably ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, supporting volitional control of cardiovascular arousal. These data are relevant to understanding neural substrates supporting interaction between intentional and interoceptive states related to anxiety, with implications for biofeedback interventions, e.g. real-time fMRI, that target

  18. Neuroanatomical substrates for the volitional regulation of heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine L; Minati, Ludovico; Nagai, Yoko; Medford, Nick; Harrison, Neil A; Gray, Marcus; Ward, Jamie; Critchley, Hugo D

    2015-01-01

    The control of physiological arousal can assist in the regulation of emotional state. A subset cortical and subcortical brain regions are implicated in autonomic control of bodily arousal during emotional behaviors. Here, we combined human functional neuroimaging with autonomic monitoring to identify neural mechanisms that support the volitional regulation of heart rate, a process that may be assisted by visual feedback. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 15 healthy adults performed an experimental task in which they were prompted voluntarily to increase or decrease cardiovascular arousal (heart rate) during true, false, or absent visual feedback. Participants achieved appropriate changes in heart rate, without significant modulation of respiratory rate, and were overall not influenced by the presence of visual feedback. Increased activity in right amygdala, striatum and brainstem occurred when participants attempted to increase heart rate. In contrast, activation of ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices occurred when attempting to decrease heart rate. Biofeedback enhanced activity within occipito-temporal cortices, but there was no significant interaction with task conditions. Activity in regions including pregenual anterior cingulate and ventral striatum reflected the magnitude of successful task performance, which was negatively related to subclinical anxiety symptoms. Measured changes in respiration correlated with posterior insula activation and heart rate, at a more lenient threshold, change correlated with insula, caudate, and midbrain activity. Our findings highlight a set of brain regions, notably ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, supporting volitional control of cardiovascular arousal. These data are relevant to understanding neural substrates supporting interaction between intentional and interoceptive states related to anxiety, with implications for biofeedback interventions, e.g., real-time fMRI, that target emotional

  19. Analysis of Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variation During Cardiac CT Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Fletcher, Joel G.; Harmsen, W. Scott; Araoz, Philip A.; Williamson, Eric E.; Primak, Andrew N.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives We sought to examine heart rate and heart rate variability during cardiac computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods Ninety patients (59.0 ± 13.5 years) underwent coronary CT angiography (CTA), with 52 patients also undergoing coronary artery calcium scanning (CAC). Forty-two patients with heart rate greater than 70 bpm were pretreated with oral β-blockers (in five patients, use of β-blocker was not known). Sixty-four patients were given sublingual nitroglycerin. Mean heart rate and percentage of beats outside a ±5 bpm region about the mean were compared between baseline (free breathing), prescan hyperventilation, and scan acquisition (breath-hold). Results Mean scan acquisition time was 13.1 ± 1.5 seconds for CAC scanning and 14.2 ± 2.9 seconds for coronary CTA. Mean heart rate during scan acquisition was significantly lower than at baseline (CAC 58.2 ± 8.5 bpm; CTA 59.2 ± 8.8 bpm; baseline 62.8 ± 8.9 bpm; P .05). Conclusions Breath-holding during cardiac CT scan acquisition significantly lowers the mean heart rate by approximately 4 bpm, but heart rate variability is the same or less compared with normal breathing. PMID:18078905

  20. Influence of basic heart rate and sex on heart rate turbulence in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Jörg O; Eichner, Gerrit; Veit, Gudrun; Schmitt, Heiko; Lewalter, Thorsten; Lüderitz, Berndt

    2004-12-01

    Acceleration and deceleration of the heart rate after the occurrence of a ventricular premature complex is characterized as heart rate turbulence (HRT). Two parameters quantify heart rate turbulence: onset and slope. The physiological properties have not been clarified in a large cohort of persons yet. This study evaluated properties of HRT, and focused on the influence of basic heart rate and sex on HRT. Using a special protocol, 95 persons were studied prospectively. HRT and its physiological properties were determined in 95 persons using Holter ECGs. The authors found 24% with a turbulence onset 0% and 5% with a turbulence slope women and men (745 vs 817 ms, P linear, weighted regression model revealed that an increased heart rate before a ventricular premature complex is associated with a decreased turbulence onset (P men (P = 0.0022). On the contrary, the study detected no influence of the basic heart rate on turbulence slope in women (P = 0.0015 for the comparison between women and men). Basic heart rate and sex show an influence on HRT and should be considered when using HRT for noninvasive risk stratification.

  1. Effects of aerobic training on heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos B. Almeida

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical exercise is an important factor to reduce the indexes of cardiovascular and all causes morbimortality. However, there is, apparently, additional and independent benefits of the regular practice of physical exercise and the improvement of the level of aerobic condition. Heart rate (HR is mediated primarily by the direct activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS, specifically through the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches activities over the sinus node autorhythmicity, with predominance of the vagal activity (parasympathetic at rest, that is progressively inhibited since the onset of the exercise. The HR behavior has been widely studied during different conditions and protocols associated to the exercise. A reduction of the cardiac vagal tone (parasympathetic function and consequently a diminished HR variability in rest, independently of the protocol of measurement used, is related to an autonomic dysfunction, chronic-degenerative diseases and increased mortality risk. Individuals with high levels of aerobic condition have a lower resting HR, along with a larger parasympathetic activity or smaller sympathetic activity, but it is not necessarily a direct consequence of the exercise training, as long as other inherent adaptations to the aerobic conditioning can influence the resting HR. The HR response in the onset of the exercise represents the integrity of the vagus nerve, and the HR recovery on the post-exercise transient also denotes important prognostic information; by the way, individuals that have a slow HR recovery in the first minute post-exercise have increased mortality risk. In conclusion, the physiological mechanisms modulating HR during or after an exercise program are not totally clear, and further studies are needed.

  2. Being active when you have heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease - activity ... Getting regular exercise when you have heart disease is important. Exercise can make your heart muscle stronger. It may also help you be more active without chest pain or other ...

  3. Quantification of fetal heart rate regularity using symbolic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, P.; Cysarz, D.; Lange, S.; Geue, D.; Groenemeyer, D.

    2007-03-01

    Fetal heart rate complexity was examined on the basis of RR interval time series obtained in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. In each fetal RR interval time series, short term beat-to-beat heart rate changes were coded in 8bit binary sequences. Redundancies of the 28 different binary patterns were reduced by two different procedures. The complexity of these sequences was quantified using the approximate entropy (ApEn), resulting in discrete ApEn values which were used for classifying the sequences into 17 pattern sets. Also, the sequences were grouped into 20 pattern classes with respect to identity after rotation or inversion of the binary value. There was a specific, nonuniform distribution of the sequences in the pattern sets and this differed from the distribution found in surrogate data. In the course of gestation, the number of sequences increased in seven pattern sets, decreased in four and remained unchanged in six. Sequences that occurred less often over time, both regular and irregular, were characterized by patterns reflecting frequent beat-to-beat reversals in heart rate. They were also predominant in the surrogate data, suggesting that these patterns are associated with stochastic heart beat trains. Sequences that occurred more frequently over time were relatively rare in the surrogate data. Some of these sequences had a high degree of regularity and corresponded to prolonged heart rate accelerations or decelerations which may be associated with directed fetal activity or movement or baroreflex activity. Application of the pattern classes revealed that those sequences with a high degree of irregularity correspond to heart rate patterns resulting from complex physiological activity such as fetal breathing movements. The results suggest that the development of the autonomic nervous system and the emergence of fetal behavioral states lead to increases in not only irregular but also regular heart rate patterns. Using symbolic dynamics to

  4. Ear Acupressure, Heart Rate, and Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Wang; Weiping Cheng; Zhongren Sun; Yangyang Xu; Guangyu Cheng; Ingrid Gaischek; Haixue Kuang; Gerhard Litscher

    2013-01-01

    This high-tech “teleacupuncture study” describes a neurovegetative ear acupressure effect in patients with chronic insomnia by using heart rate variability analysis. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) measurements in 31 patients (mean age ± SD: 54.3 ± 10.6 years) were performed under standardized conditions in Harbin, China, and the data analysis was performed in Graz, Austria. Similar to our previous clinical and basic teleacupuncture research works, the electrocardiograms (ECG...

  5. Heart rate and heart rate variability modification in chronic insomnia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Benedetto; Dittoni, Serena; Colicchio, Salvatore; Testani, Elisa; Losurdo, Anna; Gnoni, Valentina; Di Blasi, Chiara; Brunetti, Riccardo; Contardi, Anna; Mazza, Salvatore; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Chronic insomnia is highly prevalent in the general population, provoking personal distress and increased risk for psychiatric and medical disorders. Autonomic hyper-arousal could be a pathogenic mechanism of chronic primary insomnia. The aim of this study was to investigate autonomic activity in patients with chronic primary insomnia by means of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. Eighty-five consecutive patients affected by chronic primary insomnia were enrolled (38 men and 47 women; mean age: 53.2 ± 13.6). Patients were compared with a control group composed of 55 healthy participants matched for age and gender (23 men and 32 women; mean age: 54.2 ± 13.9). Patients underwent an insomnia study protocol that included subjective sleep evaluation, psychometric measures, and home-based polysomnography with evaluation of HRV in wake before sleep, in all sleep stages, and in wake after final awakening. Patients showed modifications of heart rate and HRV parameters, consistent with increased sympathetic activity, while awake before sleep and during Stage-2 non-REM sleep. No significant differences between insomniacs and controls could be detected during slow-wave sleep, REM sleep, and post-sleep wake. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that autonomic hyper-arousal is a major pathogenic mechanism in primary insomnia, and confirm that this condition is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk.

  6. Use of an allostatic neurotechnology by adolescents with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is associated with improvements in heart rate variability and changes in temporal lobe electrical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, John E; Tegeler, Catherine L; Gerdes, Lee; Lee, Sung W; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Franco, Meghan E; Cook, Jared F; Shaltout, Hossam A; Tegeler, Charles H

    2016-03-01

    Autonomic dysregulation and heterogeneous symptoms characterize postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS). This study evaluated the effect of high-resolution, relational, resonance-based, electroencephalic mirroring (HIRREM(®)), a noninvasive, allostatic neurotechnology for relaxation and auto-calibration of neural oscillations, on heart rate variability, brain asymmetry, and autonomic symptoms, in adolescents with POTS. Seven subjects with POTS (three males, ages 15-18) underwent a median of 14 (10-16) HIRREM sessions over 13 (8-17) days. Autonomic function was assessed from 10-min continuous heart rate and blood pressure recordings, pre- and post-HIRREM. One-minute epochs of temporal high-frequency (23-36 Hz) brain electrical activity data (T3 and T4, eyes closed) were analyzed from baseline HIRREM assessment and subsequent sessions. Subjects rated autonomic symptoms before and after HIRREM. Four of seven were on fludrocortisone, which was stopped before or during their sessions. Heart rate variability in the time domain (standard deviation of the beat-to-beat interval) increased post-HIRREM (mean increase 51%, range 10-143, p = 0.03), as did baroreflex sensitivity (mean increase in high-frequency alpha 65%, range -6 to 180, p = 0.05). Baseline temporal electrical asymmetry negatively correlated with change in asymmetry from assessment to the final HIRREM session (p = 0.01). Summed high-frequency amplitudes at left and right temporal lobes decreased a median of 3.8 μV (p = 0.02). There was a trend for improvements in self-reported symptoms related to the autonomic nervous system. Use of HIRREM was associated with reduced sympathetic bias in autonomic cardiovascular regulation, greater symmetry and reduced amplitudes in temporal lobe high-frequency electrical activity, and a trend for reduced autonomic symptoms. Data suggest the potential for allostatic neurotechnology to facilitate increased flexibility in autonomic cardiovascular regulation, possibly

  7. Drowsiness detection using heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, José; Laguna, Pablo; Bartra, Ariadna; Bailón, Raquel

    2016-06-01

    It is estimated that 10-30 % of road fatalities are related to drowsy driving. Driver's drowsiness detection based on biological and vehicle signals is being studied in preventive car safety. Autonomous nervous system activity, which can be measured noninvasively from the heart rate variability (HRV) signal obtained from surface electrocardiogram, presents alterations during stress, extreme fatigue and drowsiness episodes. We hypothesized that these alterations manifest on HRV and thus could be used to detect driver's drowsiness. We analyzed three driving databases in which drivers presented different sleep-deprivation levels, and in which each driving minute was annotated as drowsy or awake. We developed two different drowsiness detectors based on HRV. While the drowsiness episodes detector assessed each minute of driving as "awake" or "drowsy" with seven HRV derived features (positive predictive value 0.96, sensitivity 0.59, specificity 0.98 on 3475 min of driving), the sleep-deprivation detector discerned if a driver was suitable for driving or not, at driving onset, as function of his sleep-deprivation state. Sleep-deprivation state was estimated from the first three minutes of driving using only one HRV feature (positive predictive value 0.80, sensitivity 0.62, specificity 0.88 on 30 drivers). Incorporating drowsiness assessment based on HRV signal may add significant improvements to existing car safety systems.

  8. Heart rate and heart rate variability in dogs with different degrees of myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Caroline Elisabeth; Falk, Bo Torkel; Zois, Nora Elisabeth;

    2011-01-01

    moderate/severe MR and in HF compared to CKCS with no/minimal and mild MR (all P<0.02). Another 10 HRV variables showed the same groupwise differences (all P<0.02), except that the difference between CKCS with mild MR and CKCS with moderate/severe MR did not reach statistical significance. Minimum HR, mean......HEART RATE AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN DOGS WITH DIFFERENT DEGREES OF MYXOMATOUS MITRAL VALVE DISEASE. CE Rasmussen1, T Falk1, NE Zois1, SG Moesgaard1, HD Pedersen2, J Häggström3 and LH Olsen1. 1. Department of Basic Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of...... Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark. 2. Novo Nordic A/S, Maaloev, Denmark. 3. Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala, Sweden. Heart rate variability (HRV) is an indirect measurement of the autonomic modulation of heart rate (HR). Reduced HRV measured from short...

  9. Parental heart rate variability during pediatric consultation

    OpenAIRE

    Wipplinger F.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research regarding communication between pediatricians and parents in pediatric consultation has mainly focused on parental satisfaction, on its influence on compliance and on communication techniques used by pediatricians. However, there is paucity in research regarding parental stress levels during pediatric consultation. Therefore, the aim of our study was to measure parental heart rate variability related as a measure of stress levels during pediatric consultation. METHODS: Vid...

  10. Visual discrimination learning in dwarf goats and associated changes in heart rate and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Jan; Nürnberg, G; Manteuffel, G

    2004-09-30

    We studied visual discrimination learning in a group of Nigerian dwarf goats using a computer-based learning device which was integrated in the animals' home pen. We conducted three consecutive learning tasks (T1, T2 and T3), each of which lasted for 13 days. In each task, a different set of four visual stimuli was presented on a computer screen in a four-choice design. Predefined sequences of stimulus combinations were presented in a pseudorandom order. Animals were rewarded with drinking water when they chose the positive stimulus by pressing a button next to it. Noninvasive measurements of goats' heartbeat intervals were carried out on the first and the last 2 days of each learning task. We analysed heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) of resting animals to study sustained physiological effects related to general learning challenge rather than acute excitement during an actual learning session. The number of trials to reach the learning criterion was 1000 in T1, when visual stimuli were presented to the goats for the first time, but decreased to 210 in T2 and 240 in T3, respectively. A stable plateau of correct choices between 70% and 80% was reached on Day 10 in T1, on Day 8 in T2 and on Day 6 in T3. We found a significant influence of the task and of the interaction between task and day on learning success. Whereas HR increased throughout T1, this relationship was inverted in T2 and T3, indicating different effects on the HR depending on how familiar goats were with the learning task. We found a significant influence of the task and the interaction between task and time within the task on HRV parameters, indicating changes of vagal activity at the heart. The results suggest that changes in HR related to learning were predominantly caused by a withdrawal of vagal activity at the heart. With regard to nonlinear processes in heartbeat regulation, increased deterministic shares of HRV indicated that the animals did not really relax until the end of T3

  11. A role for BK channels in heart rate regulation in rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy L Imlach

    Full Text Available The heart generates and propagates action potentials through synchronized activation of ion channels allowing inward Na(+ and Ca(2+ and outward K(+ currents. There are a number of K(+ channel types expressed in the heart that play key roles in regulating the cardiac cycle. Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK ion channels are not thought to be directly involved in heart function. Here we present evidence that heart rate can be significantly reduced by inhibiting the activity of BK channels. Agents that specifically inhibit BK channel activity, including paxilline and lolitrem B, slowed heart rate in conscious wild-type mice by 30% and 42%, respectively. Heart rate of BK channel knock-out mice (Kcnma1(-/- was not affected by these BK channel inhibitors, suggesting that the changes to heart rate were specifically mediated through BK channels. The possibility that these effects were mediated through BK channels peripheral to the heart was ruled out with experiments using isolated, perfused rat hearts, which showed a significant reduction in heart rate when treated with the BK channel inhibitors paxilline (1 microM, lolitrem B (1 microM, and iberiotoxin (0.23 microM, of 34%, 60%, and 42%, respectively. Furthermore, paxilline was shown to decrease heart rate in a dose-dependent manner. These results implicate BK channels located in the heart to be directly involved in the regulation of heart rate.

  12. Short duration of music modify the heart rate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Upadhayay

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are contradictory findings regarding the effect of music on heart rate variability. Reports mention that the music increases the parasympathetic markers of heart rate variability. While some report no change in it. Method: We set out to study the acute effect of music on heart rate variability in 15 healthy male medical students of age 20-36 years. Their resting heart rate variability in eyes closed state for five minutes was recorded thrice: once without listening music, secondly during listening instrumental music for five minutes and thirdly after listening it. Their subjective feeling regarding music and its influence on the brain were documented. Data was compared using the Friedman test followed by Wilcoxon-signed rank test, considering P significant at ≤ 0.05. Results: The mean respiratory rate was significantly higher during music as compared to before listening it. There was a significantly higher HF power after listening to music than during listening it [703.5 (247.25-1195 > 529 (213-699, p=0.026]. As well as, the total power of heart rate variability was significantly higher after music listening as compared to before listening it [2472.5 (1351-4178.75 > 2147.5 (1072.5-3208.25, p=0.035]. All participants felt that they were relaxed during and after the short music session. Conclusions: The instrumental-soft relaxing music for short duration (five minutes can increase the parasympathetic activity of the heart. The effect of music on vagus supply to the heart remains in higher level even after over of music. It makes people feel relaxed and helps to minimize their stress instantly in their working place.

  13. Heart rate and heart rate variability in pregnant dairy cows and their fetuses determined by fetomaternal electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenk, Lisa; Kuhl, Juliane; Aurich, Jörg; Aurich, Christine; Nagel, Christina

    2015-11-01

    In this study, fetomaternal electrocardiograms were recorded once weekly in cattle during the last 14 weeks of gestation. From the recorded beat-to-beat (RR) intervals, heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) variables standard deviation of the RR interval (SDRR) and root mean square of successive RR differences (RMSSD) were calculated. To differentiate between effects of lactation and gestation, pregnant lactating (PL) cows (n = 7) and pregnant nonlactating (PNL) heifers (n = 8) were included. We hypothesized that lactation is associated with stress detectable by HRV analysis. We also followed the hypothesis that heart rate and HRV are influenced by growth and maturation of the fetus toward term. Maternal heart rate changed over time in both groups, and in PL cows, it decreased with drying-off. During the last 5 weeks of gestation, maternal heart rate increased in both groups but was lower in PL cows than in PNL heifers. Maternal HRV did not change over time, but SDRR was significantly higher in PL cows than in PNL heifers, and significant interactions of group × time existed. On the basis of HRV, undisturbed pregnancies are thus no stressor for the dam in cattle. Fetal heart rate decreased from week 14 to week 1 before birth with no difference between groups. Gestational age thus determines heart rate in the bovine fetus. The HRV variables SDRR and RMSSD increased toward the end of gestation in fetuses carried by cows but not in those carried by heifers. The increase in HRV indicates maturation of fetal cardiac regulation which may be overrun by high sympathoadrenal activity in fetuses carried by heifers as suggested by their low HRV. PMID:26279313

  14. Relationship between SCR, heart rate and information processing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, de J.H.; Das-Smaal, E.A.

    1976-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the amount of information processing in concept learning (CL) and autonomic physiological activity as measured by skin conductance response (SCR). Heart rate (HR) was also measured. Two conceptual rules were used: a conjunctive and an i

  15. Bluetooth Heart Rate Monitors for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, R. E.; West, M. R.; Kalogera, K. L.; Hanson, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring is required for crewmembers during exercise aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be for future exploration missions. The cardiovascular system must be sufficiently stressed throughout a mission to maintain the ability to perform nominal and contingency/emergency tasks. High quality heart rate data are required to accurately determine the intensity of exercise performed by the crewmembers and show maintenance of VO2max. The quality of the data collected on ISS is subject to multiple limitations and is insufficient to meet current requirements. PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of commercially available Bluetooth heart rate monitors (BT HRM) and their ability to provide high quality heart rate data to monitor crew health aboard the ISS and during future exploration missions. METHODS: Nineteen subjects completed 30 data collection sessions of various intensities on the treadmill and/or cycle. Subjects wore several BT HRM technologies for each testing session. One electrode-based chest strap (CS) was worn, while one or more optical sensors (OS) were worn. Subjects were instrumented with a 12-lead ECG to compare the heart rate data from the Bluetooth sensors. Each BT HRM data set was time matched to the ECG data and a +/-5bpm threshold was applied to the difference between the 2 data sets. Percent error was calculated based on the number of data points outside the threshold and the total number of data points. RESULTS: The electrode-based chest straps performed better than the optical sensors. The best performing CS was CS1 (1.6% error), followed by CS4 (3.3% error), CS3 (6.4% error), and CS2 (9.2% error). The OS resulted in 10.4% error for OS1 and 14.9% error for OS2. CONCLUSIONS: The highest quality data came from CS1, but unfortunately it has been discontinued by the manufacturer. The optical sensors have not been ruled out for use, but more investigation is needed to determine how to obtain the best quality data. CS2 will be

  16. Diminished vagal activity and blunted circadian heart rate dynamics in posttraumatic stress disorder assessed through 24-h linear and unifractal analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Agorastos Agorastos; Oliver Stiedl; Boel, Judith A.; Heppner, Pia S; Torben Hager; Tobias Moeller-Bertram; Uzair Haji; Arame Motazedi; Baker, Dewleen G

    2012-01-01

    Background : Affected autonomic heart regulation is implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases and is also associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, although sympathetic hyperactivation has been repeatedly shown in PTSD, research has neglected the parasympathetic branch. The objective of this study is the long-term assessment of heart rate (HR) dynamics and its circadian changes as an index of autonomic imbalance in PTSD. Since tonic parasympathetic acti...

  17. Physical activity increases survival after heart valve surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, K.; Sibilitz, Kirstine Lærum; Kikkenborg berg, Selina;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Increased physical activity predicts survival and reduces risk of readmission in patients with coronary heart disease. However, few data show how physical activity is associated with survival and readmission after heart valve surgery. Objective were to assess the association between...... physical activity levels 6-12 months after heart valve surgery and (1) survival, (2) hospital readmission 18-24 months after surgery and (3) participation in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with registry data from The CopenHeart survey, The Danish National Patient...... of physical activity after heart valve surgery are positively associated with higher survival rates and participation in cardiac rehabilitation....

  18. High readmission rate after heart valve surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibilitz, K L; Berg, S K; Thygesen, L C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After heart valve surgery, knowledge on long-term self-reported health status and readmission is lacking. Thus, the optimal strategy for out-patient management after surgery remains unclear. METHODS: Using a nationwide survey with linkage to Danish registers with one year follow-up, we...... included all adults 6-12 months after heart valve surgery irrespective of valve procedure, during Jan-June 2011 (n = 867). Participants completed a questionnaire regarding health-status (n = 742), and answers were compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Readmission rates and mortality were...... investigated. RESULTS: After valve surgery, the self-reported health was lower (Short Form-36 (SF-36) Physical Component Scale (PCS): 44.5 vs. 50.6 and Mental Component Scale (MCS): 51.9 vs. 55.0, p

  19. The use of combined heart rate response and accelerometry to assess the level and predictors of physical activity in tuberculosis patients in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Range, N;

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: We assessed the role of tuberculosis (TB) disease and HIV infection on the level of physical activity. A combined heart rate and movement sensor was used to assess habitual physical activity in TB patients and non-TB controls. The association between sputum-negative TB, sputum-positive TB......, HIV and physical activity estimates were assessed in multivariable linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, haemoglobin and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). Sputum-positive [eB 0·43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·29-0·64] and sputum-negative (eB 0·67, 95% CI 0·47-0·94) TB as well as HIV...... infection (eB 0·59, 95% CI 0·46-0·75) were associated with reduced activity compared to controls. Anaemia accounted for a substantial part of the effects of HIV, while elevated AGP primarily mediated the TB effect. The level of physical activity is highly influenced by TB and HIV, and mainly mediated...

  20. Does a variation in self-reported physical activity reflect variation in objectively measured physical activity, resting heart rate, and physical fitness? Results from the Tromso study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emaus, Aina; Degerstrøm, Jorid; Wilsgaard, Tom;

    2010-01-01

    /kg/min) (women 0.40, p 2000 counts/min) (women 0.28, p coefficient between self-reported leisure PA and overall PA (counts/min) measured by accelerometer was 0.62 (95% CI 0.51, 0.71) for women and 0.......59 (95% CI 0.47, 0.69) for men, and for VO₂(max) the intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.86 (95% CI 0.81, 0.90) for both sexes. Among all participants, an inverse dose-response relationship was observed between self-reported leisure PA and resting heart rate for both men and women (p

  1. Behaviour, heart rate, and heart rate variability in pigs exposed to novelty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manja Zupan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present study, we investigated behavioural responses and determined parameters of heart rate variability (HRV to elucidate a relative activation of autonomic nervous system (ANS during baseline (10 min and in response to potentially stressful situations (10 min in two pig breeds and sexes. Gilts (n = 21 and barrows (n = 9 of the Landrace × Yorkshire (LY; n = 15 and Landrace/Yorkshire × Landrace/Duroc (LYLD; n = 15 breeds were subjected to a novel object test (NOT and a novel arena test (NAT. Basal ANS state differed in pigs across breeds but not sexes. Landrace × Yorkshire pigs had a significantly lower basal heart rate (HR and low-frequency band (LF with a higher root mean square of successive interbeat intervals (RMSSD and high-frequency band (HF than LYLD pigs. In the NOT, despite having similar cardiac responses, gilts had a longer duration of contact with a novel object, higher lying and standing duration, and a lower duration of walking compared with barrows. In the NAT, we found similar behaviour across sexes but a different degree of ANS state, with barrows having a significantly higher increase in LF/HF (power of the low frequency component divided by the power of the high-frequency band compared with gilts. Landrace/Yorkshire × Landrace/Duroc pigs showed longer duration of contact with a novel object in the NOT accompanied by less lying and standing than LY pigs in both tests. No difference in ANS activation between breeds was found in the NOT. In the NAT, HR increased more from baseline to testing in LY pigs than in LYLD pigs. There is a complex and often contradictory nature of relationships between behaviour and cardiac responses to novelty in pigs of different breeds and sexes.

  2. The mitochondrial uniporter controls fight or flight heart rate increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuejin; Rasmussen, Tyler P; Koval, Olha M; Joiner, Mei-Ling A; Hall, Duane D; Chen, Biyi; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Wang, Qiongling; Rokita, Adam G; Wehrens, Xander H T; Song, Long-Sheng; Anderson, Mark E

    2015-01-20

    Heart rate increases are a fundamental adaptation to physiological stress, while inappropriate heart rate increases are resistant to current therapies. However, the metabolic mechanisms driving heart rate acceleration in cardiac pacemaker cells remain incompletely understood. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) facilitates calcium entry into the mitochondrial matrix to stimulate metabolism. We developed mice with myocardial MCU inhibition by transgenic expression of a dominant-negative (DN) MCU. Here, we show that DN-MCU mice had normal resting heart rates but were incapable of physiological fight or flight heart rate acceleration. We found that MCU function was essential for rapidly increasing mitochondrial calcium in pacemaker cells and that MCU-enhanced oxidative phoshorylation was required to accelerate reloading of an intracellular calcium compartment before each heartbeat. Our findings show that MCU is necessary for complete physiological heart rate acceleration and suggest that MCU inhibition could reduce inappropriate heart rate increases without affecting resting heart rate.

  3. Time Domain Measures Of Heart Rate Variability In Heavy Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taskina Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical inactivity and low resting heart rate variability (HRV are associated with increased incidence of coronary heart disease. Heavy physical activity is associated with higher heart rate variability and reduces the risk of coronary heart diseaseObjective: To assess some time domain measures of HRV in order to compare Cardiac Autonomic Function between sedentary and heavy workers.Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University between 1st July 2008 to 30th June 2009 on 30 apparently healthy heavy workers aged 28-50 years from low socioeconomic condition (study group. For comparison 30 age, sex, BMI and socioeconomic status matched apparently healthy sedentary subjects (group A were also studied. The study subjects were selected among rickshaw-pullers living in the slum areas nearby BSMMU, Dhaka and the controls were from fourth class employee of BSMMU, Dhaka. Heart Rate Variability were assessed by a Polygraph. Several time domain measures of HRV such as mean R-R interval, mean HR, SDNN, RMSSD were analyzed. For statistical analysis, Independent-Samples t-test, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient tests were done as applicable.Results: Resting mean heart rate (P<0.01, SDNN (P<0.01 and RMSSD (P<0.001 were significantly lower but mean R-R interval (P<0.001 was significantly higher in heavy workers than those of sedentary control. The mean R-R interval (P<0.05 showed significant positive correlation in heavy workers but significant negative correlation in sedentary workers with BMI.Conclusion: Cardiac autonomic nerve function status may be higher with parasympathetic dominance by increased physical activity.

  4. A healthy heart is not a metronome: an integrative review of the heart's anatomy and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Fred; McCraty, Rollin; Zerr, Christopher L

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), the change in the time intervals between adjacent heartbeats, is an emergent property of interdependent regulatory systems that operate on different time scales to adapt to challenges and achieve optimal performance. This article briefly reviews neural regulation of the heart, and its basic anatomy, the cardiac cycle, and the sinoatrial and atrioventricular pacemakers. The cardiovascular regulation center in the medulla integrates sensory information and input from higher brain centers, and afferent cardiovascular system inputs to adjust heart rate and blood pressure via sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent pathways. This article reviews sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on the heart, and examines the interpretation of HRV and the association between reduced HRV, risk of disease and mortality, and the loss of regulatory capacity. This article also discusses the intrinsic cardiac nervous system and the heart-brain connection, through which afferent information can influence activity in the subcortical and frontocortical areas, and motor cortex. It also considers new perspectives on the putative underlying physiological mechanisms and properties of the ultra-low-frequency (ULF), very-low-frequency (VLF), low-frequency (LF), and high-frequency (HF) bands. Additionally, it reviews the most common time and frequency domain measurements as well as standardized data collection protocols. In its final section, this article integrates Porges' polyvagal theory, Thayer and colleagues' neurovisceral integration model, Lehrer et al.'s resonance frequency model, and the Institute of HeartMath's coherence model. The authors conclude that a coherent heart is not a metronome because its rhythms are characterized by both complexity and stability over longer time scales. Future research should expand understanding of how the heart and its intrinsic nervous system influence the brain.

  5. Speech Signal Analysis for the Estimation of Heart Rates Under Different Emotional States

    OpenAIRE

    Ryskaliyev, Aibek; Askaruly, Sanzhar; James, Alex Pappachen

    2016-01-01

    A non-invasive method for the monitoring of heart activity can help to reduce the deaths caused by heart disorders such as stroke, arrhythmia and heart attack. The human voice can be considered as a biometric data that can be used for estimation of heart rate. In this paper, we propose a method for estimating the heart rate from human speech dynamically using voice signal analysis and by the development of an empirical linear predictor model. The correlation between the voice signal and heart...

  6. Heart rate variability as important approach for assessment autonomic modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Maycon Jr Ferreira; Angelina Zanesco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Alterations in the heart rate recovery and heart rate variability have been associated with greater risk of mortality and early prognosis of cardiac diseases. Thus, strategies for assessing autonomic nervous system and its modulation to the heart are crucial for preventing cardiovascular events in healthy subjects as well as in cardiac patients. In this review, an update of studies examining heart rate variability (HRV) and its use as indicator of cardiac autonomic modulation will be...

  7. HEART-RATE-VARIABILITY SPECTRA BASED ON NONEQUIDISTANT SAMPLING - THE SPECTRUM OF COUNTS AND THE INSTANTANEOUS HEART-RATE SPECTRUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSTEENIS, HG; TULEN, JHM; MULDER, LJM

    1994-01-01

    This paper compares two methods to estimate heart rate variability spectra i.e., the spectrum of counts and the instantaneous heart rate spectrum. Contrary to Fourier techniques based on equidistant sampling of the interbeat intervals, the spectrum of counts of the instantaneous heart rate spectrum

  8. Heart rate awareness in patients with chronic stable heart failure. A multi-center observational study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, D

    2014-08-23

    We assessed adherence to European Society of Cardiology heart rate guidelines (i.e. heart rates less than 70bpm) in patients with chronic stable heart failure. We also investigated the percent of patients on target doses of rate controlling drugs.

  9. Being active after a heart attack (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ...

  10. High Physical Activity is Associated with an Improved Lipid Profile and Resting Heart Rate among Healthy Middle-aged Chinese People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Bo; YUAN Ju Xiang; LIU Xiao Yu; ZHENG Yao; FAN Hong Min; YIN Su Feng; GUO Chun Yue; LI Yun; WU Shou Ling; FENG Fu Min

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of physical activity (PA) on dyslipidemia and elevated resting heart rate (RHR) in a large-scale cross-sectional study in China. Methods We recruited community-based individuals who were 40-60 years old using a cluster sampling method. The PA levels of the participants were classified as low, moderate, or high, using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Dyslipidemia was defined as the detection of abnormalities in lipid indicators, and 4 lipid parameters were evaluated using fasting blood samples. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations of PA with dyslipidemia and RHR. Results A total of 10,321 participants (38.88% men) were included in this study. The percentages of individuals with high, moderate, and low PA levels were 46.5%, 43.9%, and 9.6%, respectively. In both men and women, high PA provided odds ratios of 0.88 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83, 0.94] for dyslipidemia and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.92) for elevated RHR, compared to participants with low PA. Conclusion Our data suggested that substantial health benefits (related to dyslipidemia and elevated RHR) occurred at higher intensity PA, with greater energy consumption, in middle-aged Chinese people, and particularly in men.

  11. Fighter pilots' heart rate, heart rate variation and performance during an instrument flight rules proficiency test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansikka, Heikki; Virtanen, Kai; Harris, Don; Simola, Petteri

    2016-09-01

    Increased task demand will increase the pilot mental workload (PMWL). When PMWL is increased, mental overload may occur resulting in degraded performance. During pilots' instrument flight rules (IFR) proficiency test, PMWL is typically not measured. Therefore, little is known about workload during the proficiency test and pilots' potential to cope with higher task demands than those experienced during the test. In this study, fighter pilots' performance and PMWL was measured during a real IFR proficiency test in an F/A-18 simulator. PMWL was measured using heart rate (HR) and heart rate variation (HRV). Performance was rated using Finnish Air Force's official rating scales. Results indicated that HR and HRV differentiate varying task demands in situations where variations in performance are insignificant. It was concluded that during a proficiency test, PMWL should be measured together with the task performance measurement. PMID:27109324

  12. Assessing positive emotional states in dogs using heart rate and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Manja; Buskas, Julia; Altimiras, Jordi; Keeling, Linda J

    2016-03-01

    Since most animal species have been recognized as sentient beings, emotional state may be a good indicator of welfare in animals. The goal of this study was to manipulate the environment of nine beagle research dogs to highlight physiological responses indicative of different emotional experiences. Stimuli were selected to be a more or a less positive food (meatball or food pellet) or social reward (familiar person or less familiar person). That all the stimuli were positive and of different reward value was confirmed in a runway motivation test. Dogs were tested individually while standing facing a display theatre where the different stimuli could be shown by lifting a shutter. The dogs approached and remained voluntarily in the test system. They were tested in four sessions (of 20s each) for each of the four stimuli. A test session consisted of four presentation phases (1st exposure to stimulus, post exposure, 2nd exposure, and access to reward). Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) responses were recorded during testing in the experimental room and also when lying resting in a quiet familiar room. A new method of 'stitching' short periods of HRV data together was used in the analysis. When testing different stimuli, no significant differences were observed in HR and LF:HF ratio (relative power in low frequency (LF) and the high-frequency (HF) range), implying that the sympathetic tone was activated similarly for all the stimuli and may suggest that dogs were in a state of positive arousal. A decrease of HF was associated with the meatball stimulus compared to the food pellet and the reward phase (interacting with the person or eating the food) was associated with a decrease in HF and RMSSD (root mean square of successive differences of inter-beat intervals) compared to the preceding phase (looking at the person or food). This suggests that parasympathetic deactivation is associated with a more positive emotional state in the dog. A similar reduction

  13. Music structure determines heart rate variability of singers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickhoff, Björn; Malmgren, Helge; Åström, Rickard; Nyberg, Gunnar; Ekström, Seth-Reino; Engwall, Mathias; Snygg, Johan; Nilsson, Michael; Jörnsten, Rebecka

    2013-01-01

    Choir singing is known to promote wellbeing. One reason for this may be that singing demands a slower than normal respiration, which may in turn affect heart activity. Coupling of heart rate variability (HRV) to respiration is called Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). This coupling has a subjective as well as a biologically soothing effect, and it is beneficial for cardiovascular function. RSA is seen to be more marked during slow-paced breathing and at lower respiration rates (0.1 Hz and below). In this study, we investigate how singing, which is a form of guided breathing, affects HRV and RSA. The study comprises a group of healthy 18 year olds of mixed gender. The subjects are asked to; (1) hum a single tone and breathe whenever they need to; (2) sing a hymn with free, unguided breathing; and (3) sing a slow mantra and breathe solely between phrases. Heart rate (HR) is measured continuously during the study. The study design makes it possible to compare above three levels of song structure. In a separate case study, we examine five individuals performing singing tasks (1–3). We collect data with more advanced equipment, simultaneously recording HR, respiration, skin conductance and finger temperature. We show how song structure, respiration and HR are connected. Unison singing of regular song structures makes the hearts of the singers accelerate and decelerate simultaneously. Implications concerning the effect on wellbeing and health are discussed as well as the question how this inner entrainment may affect perception and behavior. PMID:23847555

  14. The effects of hypnosis on heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Ramazan; Ozcan, Osman; Dane, Senol

    2013-01-01

    Uslu et al. (2012 ) suggested that hypnotic status can modulate cerebral blood flow. The authors investigated the effects of hypnosis on heart rate variability (HRV). In women, HRV decreased during hypnosis. Posthypnotic values were higher compared to prehypnotic and hypnotic values. Women had highest HRV parameters in the posthypnotic condition. It appears that hypnosis can produce cardiac and cognitive activations. Hypnotherapy may be useful in some cardiac clinical conditions characterized by an autonomic imbalance or some cardiac arrhythmias.

  15. Diabetes and Technology for Increased Activity (DaTA Study: The effects of exercise and technology on heart rate variability and metabolic syndrome risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie I Stuckey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the hypothesis that an eight-week exercise intervention supported by mobile health (mHealth technology would improve metabolic syndrome (MetS risk factors and heart rate variability (HRV in a population with MetS risk factors. Participants (n=12; 3 male; aged 56.9±7.0y reported to the laboratory for assessment of MetS risk factors and fitness (VO2max at baseline (V0 and after eight-weeks (V2 of intervention. Participants received an individualized exercise prescription and a mHealth technology kit for remote monitoring of blood pressure (BP, blood glucose, physical activity and body weight via smartphone. Participants underwent 24-h ambulatory monitoring of R-R intervals following V0 and V2. Low and high frequency powers of HRV were assessed from the recording and the ratio of low-to-high frequency powers and low and high frequency power in normalized units were calculated. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that waist circumference (V0: 113.1±11.0cm, V2: 108.1±14.7cm; p=0.004 and diastolic BP (V0: 81±6mmHg, V2: 76±11mmHg; p=0.04 were reduced and VO2max increased (V0: 31.3ml/kg/min, V2: 34.8ml/kg/min; p=0.02 with no changes in other MetS risk factors. Low and high frequency powers in normalized units were reduced (V0: 75.5±12.0, V2: 72.0±12.1; p=0.03 and increased (V0: 24.5±12.0, V2: 28.0±12.1; p=0.03, respectively, with no other changes in HRV. Over the intervention period, changes in systolic BP were correlated negatively with the changes in R-R interval (r=-0.600; p=0.04 and positively with the changes in heart rate (r=0.611; p=0.03, with no other associations between MetS risk factors and HRV parameters. Thus, this eight-week mHealth supported exercise intervention improved MetS risk factors and HRV parameters, but only changes in systolic BP were associated with improved autonomic function.

  16. Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawser Jahan, Noorzahan Begum, Sultana Ferdousi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Altered cardiovascular autonomic nerve function with impaired sympathovagal balance is found in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Heart Rate Variability (HRV analysis is an important tool for assessment of autonomic nerve activity.Objective: To assess cardiac autonomic nerve function status in patients with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA by time domain measures of HRV.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU, Dhaka from January to December 2010. Sixty female RA patients, age range 18-50 years were constituted study group enrolled from the Out- patient Rheumatology Wing, Department of Medicine, BSMMU. Age matched thirty apparently healthy females were studied as control. Time domain measures of Heart Rate Variability (HRV such as Mean RR intervals, Mean HR, SDNN, RMSSD, NN50% and PNN 50% were recorded for 5 minutes by a Polygraph machine to observe cardiac autonomic nerve function activity. Data were analyzed by independent sample t test.Results: Mean R-R interval, SDNN, RMSSD, PNN50%, NN50% were significantly lower (p<0.001 but heart rate was significantly (P<0.001 higher in rheumatoid arthritis patients.Conclusion: Cardiac autonomic nerve function is impaired and characterized by reduced resting parasympathetic activity in female Rheumatoid Arthritis patients.

  17. Leptin acts in the forebrain to differentially influence baroreflex control of lumbar, renal, and splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoxin; Shi, Zhigang; Cassaglia, Priscila A; Brooks, Virginia L

    2013-04-01

    Although leptin is known to increase sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), we tested the hypothesis that leptin also enhances baroreflex control of SNA and heart rate (HR). Using α-chloralose anesthetized male rats, mean arterial pressure (MAP), HR, lumbar SNA (LSNA), splanchnic SNA (SSNA), and renal SNA (RSNA) were recorded before and for 2 hours after lateral cerebroventricular leptin or artificial cerebrospinal fluid administration. Baroreflex function was assessed using a 4-parameter sigmoidal fit of HR and SNA responses to slow ramp (3-5 minutes) changes in MAP, induced by intravenous infusion of nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Leptin (3 μg) increased (P<0.05) basal LSNA, SSNA, RSNA, HR, and MAP, and the LSNA, SSNA, RSNA, and HR baroreflex maxima. Leptin also increased gain of baroreflex control of LSNA and RSNA, but not of SSNA or HR. The elevations in HR were eliminated by pretreatment with methscopalamine, to block parasympathetic nerve activity; however, after cardiac sympathetic blockade with atenolol, leptin still increased basal HR and MAP and the HR baroreflex maximum and minimum. Leptin (1.5 μg) also increased LSNA and enhanced LSNA baroreflex gain and maximum, but did not alter MAP, HR, or the HR baroreflex. Lateral cerebroventricular artificial cerebrospinal fluid had no effects. Finally, to test whether leptin acts in the brain stem, leptin (3 μg) was infused into the 4th ventricle; however, no significant changes were observed. In conclusion, leptin acts in the forebrain to differentially influence baroreflex control of LSNA, RSNA, SSNA, and HR, with the latter action mediated via suppression of parasympathetic nerve activity. PMID:23424232

  18. Genome-wide association studies and resting heart rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revolutionized the search for genetic variants regulating resting heart rate. In the last 10 years, GWASs have led to the identification of at least 21 novel heart rate loci. These discoveries have provided valuable insights into the mechanisms...... and pathways that regulate heart rate and link heart rate to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. GWASs capture majority of genetic variation in a population sample by utilizing high-throughput genotyping chips measuring genotypes for up to several millions of SNPs across the genome in thousands...... of individuals. This allows the identification of the strongest heart rate associated signals at genome-wide level. While GWASs provide robust statistical evidence of the association of a given genetic locus with heart rate, they are only the starting point for detailed follow-up studies to locate the causal...

  19. Heart rate variability with repetitive exposure to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Makoto; Kobayashi, Asami; Kawasaki, Chie

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies of physiological responses to music showed inconsistent results, which might be attributable to methodological differences. Heart rate variability has been used to assess activation of the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems. The present study aimed to examine heart rate variability with repetitive exposure to sedative or excitative music. The participants were 13 undergraduate or graduate students who were each exposed to three conditions sedative music (SM), excitative music (EM), and no music (NM) on different days. Each participant underwent four sessions of one condition in a day. Sedative music and no music each induced both high relaxation and low tension subjectively. However, excitative music decreased perceived tension and increased perceived relaxation as the number of sessions increased. The low-frequency (LF) component of heart rate variability (HRV) and the LF/HF (high-frequency) ratio increased during SM and EM sessions but decreased during NM sessions. The HF component of HRV during SM was higher than that during EM but the same as that during NM. These findings suggest that excitative music decreased the activation of the parasympathetic nervous system. PMID:16038775

  20. Heart rates of elementary physical education students during the dancing classrooms program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Larry; Evans, Melissa; Guess, Wendy; Morris, Mary; Olson, Terry; Buckwalter, John

    2011-06-01

    We examined how different types of dance activities, along with their duration, influenced heart rate responses among fifth-grade physical education students (N = 96) who participated in the Dancing Classrooms program. Results indicated that the overall Dancing Classrooms program elicits a moderate cardiovascular heart rate response (M = 124.4 bpm), in which 47% of class time was spent above a 60% maximal heart rate threshold. The swing dance in particular (M = 143.4 bpm) stimulated a much higher heart rate level than all other dances in the program, with a mean heart rate change of 52.6 bpm. Girls (127.3 bpm) achieved marginally higher heart rates (p = .059) than boys (121.1 bpm).

  1. Controlling the emotional heart: heart rate biofeedback improves cardiac control during emotional reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peira, Nathalie; Fredrikson, Mats; Pourtois, Gilles

    2014-03-01

    When regulating negative emotional reactions, one goal is to reduce physiological reactions. However, not all regulation strategies succeed in doing that. We tested whether heart rate biofeedback helped participants reduce physiological reactions in response to negative and neutral pictures. When viewing neutral pictures, participants could regulate their heart rate whether the heart rate feedback was real or not. In contrast, when viewing negative pictures, participants could regulate heart rate only when feedback was real. Ratings of task success paralleled heart rate. Participants' general level of anxiety, emotion awareness, or cognitive emotion regulation strategies did not influence the results. Our findings show that accurate online heart rate biofeedback provides an efficient way to down-regulate autonomic physiological reactions when encountering negative stimuli. PMID:24373886

  2. Combined heart rate- and accelerometer-assessed physical activity energy expenditure and associations with glucose homeostasis markers in a population at high risk of developing diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Carstensen, Bendix; Helge, Jørn Wulff;

    2013-01-01

    energy expenditure (PAEE) with detailed measures of glucose homeostasis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In 1,531 men and women, with low to high risk of developing type 2 diabetes, we measured 7 days of PAEE using a combined accelerometry and heart rate monitor (ActiHeart). Measures and indices of glucose...... homeostasis were derived from a 3-point oral glucose tolerance test in addition to measures of long-term glycemia (glycated hemoglobin A1c and advanced glycation end products). Associations of PAEE with glucose homeostasis markers were examined using linear regression models. RESULTS: Median age (IQR) was 66.......05). CONCLUSIONS: Even in an elderly population with low levels of PA, we found higher objectively measured PAEE levels to be associated with a more beneficial glucose metabolic profile. Although our findings are cross-sectional, they indicate that even without high-intensity exercise, increasing the overall level...

  3. Heart rate variability reproducibility during exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of heart rate variability (HRV) parameters during exercise is not supported by appropriate reliability studies. In 80 healthy adults, ECG was recorded during three 6 min bouts of exercise, separated by 6 min of unloaded cycling. Two bouts were at a moderate intensity while the final bout was at a heavy exercise intensity. This protocol was repeated under the same conditions on three occasions, with a controlled start time (pre-determined at the first visit). Standard time and frequency domain indices of HRV were derived. Reliability was assessed by Bland–Altman plots, 95% limits of agreement and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). The sample size required to detect a mean difference ≥30% of the between-subject standard deviation was also estimated. There was no systematic change between days. All HRV parameters demonstrated a high degree of reproducibility during baseline (ICC range: 0.58–0.75), moderate (ICC: 0.58–0.85) and heavy intensity exercise (ICC range: 0.40–0.76). The reproducibility was slightly diminished during heavy intensity exercise relative to both unloaded baseline cycling and moderate exercise. This study indicates that HRV parameters can be reliably determined during exercise, and it underlines the importance of standardizing exercise intensity with regard to fitness levels if HRV is to be reliably determined. (paper)

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF MONTELUKAST ON THE ACTIVITY OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM ESTIMATED BY HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN EXPERIMENTAL PARTIAL BLADDER OUTLET OBSTRUCTION IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrek, Łukasz; Skowron, Beata; Baranowska, Agnieszka; Zurowski, Daniel; Thor, Piotr Jan

    2016-01-01

    Due to their paracrine action, leukotrienes released from the urothelium are involved in control of the bladder function. Anti-leukotriene agents appear to exert an ameliorating effect in bladder overactivity. It is unknown, whether their possible, modulatory impact on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity may also contribute to the potentially beneficial effect of those compounds. Therefore, our aim was to indirectly estimate the ANS function using the heart rate variability (HRV) study in rats with experimental partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO), reflecting human benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), treated with leukotriene receptor antagonist - montelukast (MLKT). Twenty rats with surgically induced PBOO lasting for 14 days, divided into two groups: group 1 (10 control subjects) and group 2 (10 MLKT-treated rats; 2 mg/rat/day) were subjected to HRV recordings, preceded by daily urine collection and a subsequent cystectomy with histopathological evaluation of collected bladders. Standard HRV time and spectral parameters were calculated. MLKT-treated animals demonstrated an increase in power of non-normalized LF (low frequency) and HF (high frequency) components with no change of the total HRV power. Moreover, an increase and decrease in normalized nLF and nHF, respectively, were assessed in those animals compared to the control. Additionally, a decrease in daily diuresis measurement was demonstrated in MLKT-treated animals. Montelukast treatment resulted in the functional ANS status re-arrangement, with sympathetic overdrive and parasympathetic withdrawal. Those changes may contribute to alleviation of bladder overactivity symptoms, independently on leukotriene receptors blockade. PMID:27476297

  5. Electroencephalogram and Heart Rate Regulation to Familiar and Unfamiliar People in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Lebow, Jocelyn; Bal, Elgiz; Lamb, Damon; Harden, Emily; Kramer, Alexis; Denver, John; Bazhenova, Olga; Porges, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined whether familiarity of partner affects social responses in children with autism. This study investigated heart rate regulation (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]: The myelinated vagus nerve's regulation of heart rate) and temporal-parietal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity while nineteen 8- to 12-year-old children with…

  6. Heart Rates of Elementary Physical Education Students during the Dancing Classrooms Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Larry; Evans, Melissa; Guess, Wendy; Morris, Mary; Olson, Terry; Buckwalter, John

    2011-01-01

    We examined how different types of dance activities, along with their duration, influenced heart rate responses among fifth-grade physical education students (N = 96) who participated in the Dancing Classrooms program. Results indicated that the overall Dancing Classrooms program elicits a moderate cardiovascular heart rate response (M = 124.4…

  7. Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that—in comparison with real data—the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.

  8. HEART RATE DURING SLEEP: IMPLICATIONS FOR MONITORING TRAINING STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam R. Waldeck

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Resting heart rate has sometimes been used as a marker of training status. It is reasonable to assume that the relationship between heart rate and training status should be more evident during sleep when extraneous factors that may influence heart rate are reduced. Therefore the aim of the study was to assess the repeatability of monitoring heart rate during sleep when training status remained unchanged, to determine if this measurement had sufficient precision to be used as a marker of training status. The heart rate of ten female subjects was monitored for 24 hours on three occasions over three weeks whilst training status remained unchanged. Average, minimum and maximum heart rate during sleep was calculated. The average heart rate of the group during sleep was similar on each of the three tests (65 ± 9, 63 ± 6 and 67 ± 7 beats·min-1 respectively. The range in minimum heart rate variation during sleep for all subjects over the three testing sessions was from 0 to 10 beats·min-1 (mean = 5 ± 3 beats·min-1 and for maximum heart rate variation was 2 to 31 beats·min-1 (mean = 13 ± 9 beats·min-1. In summary it was found that on an individual basis the minimum heart rate during sleep varied by about 8 beats·min-1. This amount of intrinsic day-to-day variation needs to be considered when changes in heart rate that may occur with changes in training status are interpreted

  9. Using photoplethysmography in heart rate monitoring of patients with epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Andel, Judith; Ungureanu, Constantin; Aarts, Ronald; Leijten, Frans; Arends, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate is a useful neurophysiological sign when monitoring seizures in patients with epilepsy. In an ambulatory setting, heart rate is measured with ECG involving electrodes on the skin. This method is uncomfortable which is burdensome for patients and is sensitive to motion artifacts, which dec

  10. Fetal Behavior and Heart Rate in Twin Pregnancy : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendais, Iva; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Figueiredo, Barbara; Montenegro, Nuno; Mulder, Eduard J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal movements and fetal heart rate (FHR) are well-established markers of fetal well-being and maturation of the fetal central nervous system. The purpose of this paper is to review and discuss the available knowledge on fetal movements and heart rate patterns in twin pregnancies. There is some evi

  11. Comparison of the EPIC Physical Activity Questionnaire with combined heart rate and movement sensing in a nationally representative sample of older British adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa España-Romero

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare physical activity (PA subcomponents from EPIC Physical Activity Questionnaire (EPAQ2 and combined heart rate and movement sensing in older adults. METHODS: Participants aged 60-64y from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development in Great Britain completed EPAQ2, which assesses self-report PA in 4 domains (leisure time, occupation, transportation and domestic life during the past year and wore a combined sensor for 5 consecutive days. Estimates of PA energy expenditure (PAEE, sedentary behaviour, light (LPA and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA were obtained from EPAQ2 and combined sensing and compared. Complete data were available in 1689 participants (52% women. RESULTS: EPAQ2 estimates of PAEE and MVPA were higher than objective estimates and sedentary time and LPA estimates were lower [bias (95% limits of agreement in men and women were 32.3 (-61.5 to 122.6 and 29.0 (-39.2 to 94.6 kJ/kg/day for PAEE; -4.6 (-10.6 to 1.3 and -6.0 (-10.9 to -1.0 h/day for sedentary time; -171.8 (-454.5 to 110.8 and -60.4 (-367.5 to 246.6 min/day for LPA; 91.1 (-159.5 to 341.8 and 55.4 (-117.2 to 228.0 min/day for MVPA]. There were significant positive correlations between all self-reported and objectively assessed PA subcomponents (rho= 0.12 to 0.36; the strongest were observed for MVPA (rho = 0.30 men; rho = 0.36 women and PAEE (rho = 0.26 men; rho = 0.25 women. CONCLUSION: EPAQ2 produces higher estimates of PAEE and MVPA and lower estimates of sedentary and LPA than objective assessment. However, both methodologies rank individuals similarly, suggesting that EPAQ2 may be used in etiological studies in this population.

  12. The clinical significance of detection to heart rate deceleration capacity and heart rate variability in patients with chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-rong Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the change of heart rate deceleration capacity ( DC and heart rate variability in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF and its relationship with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF. Methods: DC, LVEF, time and frequency domain parameters of HRV were measured in 66 patients with CHF and 34 healthy adults (control group by using 24h Holter recordings and Echocardiography. The standard deviation of normal R-R intervals( SDNN, squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals ( RMSSD,low frequency power( LFn and high frequency power( HFn and the changes of LVEF were compared between  the two groups,the relationship between DC,LVEF and HRV were studied in patients with CHF. Results: The median value of DC in the patients with CHF was significantly lower than that in control group( 3.1 ± 2.4 ms vs 7.2 ± 1.3 ms,P <0.01.Incidence of abnormal DC in the CHF group was 57.5%,which was significantly higher than that in the control group (P <0.01.The HRV index, including SDNN、RMSSD、LFn、HFn, in the CHF group was significantly lower than that in normal control group (P < 0.01. Significant positive correlation between HRV index and LVEF were confirmed (P < 0.01. Conclusions: DC and HRV index are lower in patients with CHF and have a good correlation with the left ventricular ejection fraction.

  13. Predictive value of casual ECG-based resting heart rate compared with resting heart rate obtained from Holter recording

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Nicholas; Dixen, Ulrik; Marott, Jacob L;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Assessment of heart rate (HR) from Holter recording may afford a more precise estimate of the effect of RHR on cardiovascular risk, as compared to casual RHR. Comparative analysis was carried ...

  14. Job strain in relation to ambulatory blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability among female nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riese, H.; Doornen, L.J.P. van; Houtman, I.L.D.; Geus, E.J.C. de

    2004-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the effects of exposure to job strain on independent predictors of cardiovascular disease (ambulatory blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability). Methods. The participants comprised a homogeneous group of 159 healthy female nurses [mean age 35.9 (SD 8.5) y

  15. Population characteristics and impact on heart rate variability,heart rate and blood pressure of passive smoking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵菁

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the basic characteristics of passive smoking population,and the impact of passive smoking on heart rate variability,heart rate and blood pressure.Methods Eighty-six passive smokers[mean age: (52.4±7.6) years]were recruited from patients

  16. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate as a marker for coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayan J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Josef YayanDepartment of Internal Medicine, Vinzentius Hospital, Landau, GermanyBackground: Patients with angina pectoris or myocardial infarction frequently present without evidence of cardiac-specific heart enzymes by laboratory analysis or specific pathologic electrocardiogram findings. The current study analyzed the efficacy of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate as an additional potential indicator for coronary heart disease, the aim being to enable quicker identification of patients with angina pectoris or myocardial infarction so that they can be more rapidly treated.Methods: Patients with angina pectoris or myocardial infarction who had undergone a heart catheter examination were included in the study. The diagnosis of acute coronary heart disease was made by the physician who performed coronary angiography. Patients without coronary heart disease were used as a control group. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was measured in all patients. Patients with angina pectoris or myocardial infarction and an inflammatory or tumor disease were excluded.Results: The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was prolonged in 79 (58.09% of 136 patients; 69 (50.74% patients (95% confidence interval ±8.4%, 42.34%–59.14% had coronary heart disease and a prolonged erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was prolonged in ten (7.35% patients (95% confidence interval ±4.39%, 2.96%–11.74% without coronary heart disease by coronary angiography. The specificity of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate for coronary heart disease was 70.59% and the sensitivity was 67.65%.Conclusion: Erythrocyte sedimentation rate may be a useful additional diagnostic criterion for coronary heart disease.Keywords: erythrocyte sedimentation rate, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, coronary angiography

  17. The Associations of High-Density Lipoprotein Subclasses With Insulin and Glucose Levels, Physical Activity, Resting Heart Rate, and Regional Adiposity in Men With Coronary Artery Disease: The Stanford Coronary Risk Intervention Project Baseline Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Paul T.; Haskell, William L; Vranizan, Karen M; Ronald M. Krauss

    1995-01-01

    We used nondenaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis to examine the associations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses with adiposity, physical activity, resting heart rate (an indicator of sympathetic drive), and plasma insulin and glucose levels in 97 men with angiographically documented coronary artery disease. These men neither smoked nor used medications known to affect lipoproteins. The absorbency of protein stain was used as an index of mass concentrations at interv...

  18. Diurnal variations in arousal: a naturalistic heart rate study in children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imeraj, Lindita; Antrop, Inge; Roeyers, Herbert; Deschepper, Ellen; Bal, Sarah; Deboutte, Dirk

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies suggest an altered circadian regulation of arousal in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as measured by activity, circadian preference, and sleep-wake patterns. Although heart rate is an important measure to evaluate arousal profiles, to date it is unknown whether 24-h heart rate patterns differentiate between children with and without ADHD. In this study, 24-h heart rate data were collected in 30 non-medicated children with ADHD (aged 6-11) and 30 sex-, class-, and age-matched normal controls in their naturalistic home and school setting, during 5 days. Simultaneously, 24-h activity patterns were registered. Confounding effects of demographic variables (e.g., age, sex, BMI, pubertal stage) and comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems on heart rate levels were additionally assessed. Longitudinal analysis showed that heart rate levels were overall higher in the ADHD group (p children with ADHD showed higher activity levels during daytime (especially early afternoon), but not during nighttime (p children with ADHD as compared to controls, with higher heart rate levels in the ADHD group. Nighttime tachycardia in this group could not be explained by nighttime activity levels or comorbid externalizing/internalizing problems. Further research on autonomic functioning in ADHD is recommended because of the major impact of higher resting heart rate on health outcomes.

  19. Fractal and complexity measures of heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkiömäki, Juha S; Mäkikallio, Timo H; Huikuri, Heikki V

    2005-01-01

    Heart rate variability has been analyzed conventionally with time and frequency domain methods, which measure the overall magnitude of RR interval fluctuations around its mean value or the magnitude of fluctuations in some predetermined frequencies. Analysis of heart rate dynamics by methods based on chaos theory and nonlinear system theory has gained recent interest. This interest is based on observations suggesting that the mechanisms involved in cardiovascular regulation likely interact with each other in a nonlinear way. Furthermore, recent observational studies suggest that some indexes describing nonlinear heart rate dynamics, such as fractal scaling exponents, may provide more powerful prognostic information than the traditional heart rate variability indexes. In particular, the short-term fractal scaling exponent measured by the detrended fluctuation analysis method has predicted fatal cardiovascular events in various populations. Approximate entropy, a nonlinear index of heart rate dynamics, that describes the complexity of RR interval behavior, has provided information on the vulnerability to atrial fibrillation. Many other nonlinear indexes, e.g., Lyapunov exponent and correlation dimensions, also give information on the characteristics of heart rate dynamics, but their clinical utility is not well established. Although concepts of chaos theory, fractal mathematics, and complexity measures of heart rate behavior in relation to cardiovascular physiology or various cardiovascular events are still far away from clinical medicine, they are a fruitful area for future research to expand our knowledge concerning the behavior of cardiovascular oscillations in normal healthy conditions as well as in disease states.

  20. Stochastic heart-rate model can reveal pathologic cardiac dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusela, Tom

    2004-03-01

    A simple one-dimensional Langevin-type stochastic difference equation can simulate the heart-rate fluctuations in a time scale from minutes to hours. The model consists of a deterministic nonlinear part and a stochastic part typical of Gaussian noise, and both parts can be directly determined from measured heart-rate data. Data from healthy subjects typically exhibit the deterministic part with two or more stable fixed points. Studies of 15 congestive heart-failure subjects reveal that the deterministic part of pathologic heart dynamics has no clear stable fixed points. Direct simulations of the stochastic model for normal and pathologic cases can produce statistical parameters similar to those of real subjects. Results directly indicate that pathologic situations simplify the heart-rate control system.

  1. Heart Rate Variability Measures and Models

    CERN Document Server

    Teich, M C; Jost, B M; Vibe-Rheymer, K; Heneghan, C; Teich, Malvin C.; Lowen, Steven B.; Jost, Bradley M.; Vibe-Rheymer, Karin; Heneghan, Conor

    2001-01-01

    We focus on various measures of the fluctuations of the sequence of intervals between beats of the human heart, and how such fluctuations can be used to assess the presence or likelihood of cardiovascular disease. We examine sixteen such measures and their suitability for correctly classifying heartbeat records of various lengths as normal or revealing the presence of cardiac dysfunction, particularly congestive heart failure. Using receiver-operating-characteristic analysis we demonstrate that scale-dependent measures prove substantially superior to scale-independent ones. The wavelet-transform standard deviation at a scale near 32 heartbeat intervals, and its spectral counterpart near 1/32 cycles/interval, turn out to provide reliable results using heartbeat records just minutes long. We further establish for all subjects that the human heartbeat has an underlying stochastic origin rather than arising from a chaotic attractor. Finally, we develop a mathematical point process that emulates the human heartbea...

  2. Scaling Behaviour and Memory in Heart Rate of Healthy Human

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Shi-Min; PENG Hu; YANG Hui-Jie; ZHOU Tao; ZHOU Pei-Ling; WANG Bing-Hong

    2007-01-01

    We investigate a set of complex heart rate time series from healthy human in different behaviour states with the detrended fluctuation analysis and diffusion entropy (DE) method. It is proposed that the scaling properties are influenced by behaviour states. The memory detected by DE exhibits an approximately same pattern after a detrending procedure. Both of them demonstrate the long-range strong correlations in heart rate. These findings may be helpful to understand the underlying dynamical evolution process in the heart rate control system, as well as to model the cardiac dynamic process.

  3. Congenital Heart Defects and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Congenital Heart Defects and Physical Activity Updated:Apr 19,2016 Exercise Is for Everyone ... almost all patients do some form of regular physical activity. There are a few exceptions, so it's good ...

  4. Power Spectral Analysis of Heart Rate Variability of Driver Fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Kun; LI Zeng-yong; CHEN Ming; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    This investigation was to evaluate the driving fatigue based on power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) under vertical vibration. Forty healthy male subjects (29.7±3.5 years) were randomly divided into two groups, Group A (28.8±4.3 years) and Group B (30.6±2.7 years). Group A (experiment group) was required to perform the simulated driving and Group B (control group) kept calm for 90min. The frequency domain indices of HRV such as low frequency (0.040.15 Hz, LF), high frequency (0.15-0.4Hz, HF), LF/HF together with the indices of hemodynamics such as blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) of the subjects between both groups were calculated and analyzed after the simulated driving. There were significances of the former indices between both groups (P<0.05). All the data collected after experiment of Group A was observed the remarkable linear correlation (P<0.05) and parameters and errors of their linear regression equation were stated (α=0.05, P<0.001) in this paper, respectively. The present study investigated that sympathetic activity of the subjects enhanced after the simulated driving while parasympathetic activities decreased. The sympathovagal balance was also improved. As autonomic function indictors of HRV reflected fatigue level, quantitative evaluation of driving mental fatigue from physiological reaction could be possible.

  5. Heart rate variability in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Balsamo Gardim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To gather current information about the effects of type 1 diabetes mellitus on children's cardiac autonomic behavior.DATA SOURCES: The search of articles was conducted on PubMed, Ibecs, Medline, Cochrane, Lilacs, SciELO and PEDro databases using the MeSH terms: "autonomic nervous system", "diabetes mellitus", "child", "type 1 diabetes mellitus", "sympathetic nervous system" and "parasympathetic nervous system", and their respective versions in Portuguese (DeCS. Articles published from January 2003 to February 2013 that enrolled children with 9-12 years old with type 1 diabetes mellitus were included in the review.DATA SYNTHESIS: The electronic search resulted in four articles that approached the heart rate variability in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, showing that, in general, these children present decreased global heart rate variability and vagal activity. The practice of physical activity promoted benefits for these individuals.CONCLUSIONS: Children with type 1 diabetes mellitus present changes on autonomic modulation, indicating the need for early attention to avoid future complications in this group.

  6. HEART RATE AND MOTION ANALYSIS BY GPS IN BEACH SOCCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julen Castellano

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although beach soccer has become increasingly popular in recent years very little scientific research has been conducted into the sport. A pilot study was carried out with the aim of examining the physiological (heart rate and physical (motion analysis responses of beach soccer players during competitive matches. Ten players (age 25.5 ± 0.5 years; height 1.80 ± 0.08 m; weight 78.2 ± 5.6 kg. were studied over five beach soccer matches. The physiological demands were analysed by measuring heart rate (HR using telemetric devices, while the physical profile was evaluated by recording motion and speed by means of GPS devices. During competitive matches, players obtained a HRmean of 165.2 bpm (86.5% HRmax, with 59.3% of the time participating (TP corresponding to values above 90% of the HRmax. The distance covered per minute of participation was 97.7 m, with 9.5% of this distance corresponding to high-intensity running and 2.5% to sprint; the work:rest ratio was 1.4:1 and the maximum speed 21.7 km·h-1. These results showed that beach soccer is an intermittent physical activity of greater intensity than other team games. It requires a major contribution from the anaerobic system as emphasis is placed on players making quick bursts of high-intensity activity separated by brief rest periods

  7. Modeling baroreflex regulation of heart rate during orthostatic stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olufsen, Mette; Tran, Hien T.; Ottesen, Johnny T.;

    2006-01-01

    During orthostatic stress, arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflexes play a key role in maintaining arterial pressure by regulating heart rate. This study, presents a mathematical model that can predict the dynamics of heart rate regulation in response to postural change from sitting to standing....... The model uses blood pressure measured in the finger as an input to model heart rate dynamics in response to changes in baroreceptor nerve firing rate, sympathetic and parasympathetic responses, vestibulo-sympathetic reflex, and concentrations of norepinephrine and acetylcholine. We formulate an inverse...... least squares problem for parameter estimation and successfully demonstrate that our mathematical model can accurately predict heart rate dynamics observed in data obtained from healthy young, healthy elderly, and hypertensive elderly subjects. One of our key findings indicates that to successfully...

  8. Resting high frequency heart rate variability selectively predicts cooperative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beffara, Brice; Bret, Amélie G; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Mermillod, Martial

    2016-10-01

    This study explores whether the vagal connection between the heart and the brain is involved in prosocial behaviors. The Polyvagal Theory postulates that vagal activity underlies prosocial tendencies. Even if several results suggest that vagal activity is associated with prosocial behaviors, none of them used behavioral measures of prosociality to establish this relationship. We recorded the resting state vagal activity (reflected by High Frequency Heart Rate Variability, HF-HRV) of 48 (42 suitale for analysis) healthy human adults and measured their level of cooperation during a hawk-dove game. We also manipulated the consequence of mutual defection in the hawk-dove game (severe vs. moderate). Results show that HF-HRV is positively and linearly related to cooperation level, but only when the consequence of mutual defection is severe (compared to moderate). This supports that i) prosocial behaviors are likely to be underpinned by vagal functioning ii) physiological disposition to cooperate interacts with environmental context. We discuss these results within the theoretical framework of the Polyvagal Theory. PMID:27343804

  9. Signal processing methodologies for an acoustic fetal heart rate monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretlow, Robert A., III; Stoughton, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Research and development is presented of real time signal processing methodologies for the detection of fetal heart tones within a noise-contaminated signal from a passive acoustic sensor. A linear predictor algorithm is utilized for detection of the heart tone event and additional processing derives heart rate. The linear predictor is adaptively 'trained' in a least mean square error sense on generic fetal heart tones recorded from patients. A real time monitor system is described which outputs to a strip chart recorder for plotting the time history of the fetal heart rate. The system is validated in the context of the fetal nonstress test. Comparisons are made with ultrasonic nonstress tests on a series of patients. Comparative data provides favorable indications of the feasibility of the acoustic monitor for clinical use.

  10. Heart rate and estimated energy expenditure during ballroom dancing.

    OpenAIRE

    Blanksby, B A; Reidy, P W

    1988-01-01

    Ten competitive ballroom dance couples performed simulated competitive sequences of Modern and Latin American dance. Heart rate was telemetered during the dance sequences and related to direct measures of oxygen uptake and heart rate obtained while walking on a treadmill. Linear regression was employed to estimate gross and net energy expenditures of the dance sequences. A multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures on the dance factor was applied to the data to test for interact...

  11. Characterization of heart rate electrodes using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Deignan, Jennifer; McBrearty, Michael; Monedero, Javier; Coyle, Shirley; O'Gorman, Donal; Diamond, Dermot

    2014-01-01

    Wearable monitoring systems have flooded the health and sports industry in recent years. Heart rate monitors have taken many forms, relying on a wide variety of different measurement techniques to measure the heart rate signal.1-3 Despite these recent advancements, commercially available systems still require improvements in many aspects, including battery life, wearability and signal acquisition to become reliable monitoring systems, that meet current inpatient monitoring.4 Standard Ag/AgCl...

  12. Accuracy of Heart Rate Watches: Implications for Weight Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P Wallen

    Full Text Available Wrist-worn monitors claim to provide accurate measures of heart rate and energy expenditure. People wishing to lose weight use these devices to monitor energy balance, however the accuracy of these devices to measure such parameters has not been established.To determine the accuracy of four wrist-worn devices (Apple Watch, Fitbit Charge HR, Samsung Gear S and Mio Alpha to measure heart rate and energy expenditure at rest and during exercise.Twenty-two healthy volunteers (50% female; aged 24 ± 5.6 years completed ~1-hr protocols involving supine and seated rest, walking and running on a treadmill and cycling on an ergometer. Data from the devices collected during the protocol were compared with reference methods: electrocardiography (heart rate and indirect calorimetry (energy expenditure.None of the devices performed significantly better overall, however heart rate was consistently more accurate than energy expenditure across all four devices. Correlations between the devices and reference methods were moderate to strong for heart rate (0.67-0.95 [0.35 to 0.98] and weak to strong for energy expenditure (0.16-0.86 [-0.25 to 0.95]. All devices underestimated both outcomes compared to reference methods. The percentage error for heart rate was small across the devices (range: 1-9% but greater for energy expenditure (9-43%. Similarly, limits of agreement were considerably narrower for heart rate (ranging from -27.3 to 13.1 bpm than energy expenditure (ranging from -266.7 to 65.7 kcals across devices.These devices accurately measure heart rate. However, estimates of energy expenditure are poor and would have implications for people using these devices for weight loss.

  13. Changes in Heart Rate Variability in a Premature Infant with Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Uhrikova

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective - To define changes of heart rate variability in premature infant with hydrocephalus before and after drainage procedure. Study Design - The authors report a case of a premature infant with hydrocephalus with analysis of heart rate variability before and after drainage procedure. Three subsequent recordings of the electrocardiography and heart rate variability were done: the first at the age of 22 days before insertion of ventriculoperitoneal shunt, the second at the age of 36 days with functional shunt, the third at the age of 71 days (before discharge. Results - Before drainage operation, there was reduced heart rate variability in time and spectral domains, and sympathetic activity was dominant. After surgery, an increase in heart rate variability parameters was found, particularly with spectral analysis. The ratio of low-frequency/high-frequency band and relative power of the low-frequency band decreased, reflecting enhanced parasympathetic activity. Conclusion - Results of the heart rate variability analysis in a preterm infant with hydrocephalus before and after drainage procedure showed marked improvement in chronotropic cardiac regulation. Evaluation of heart rate variability in premature infants with hydrocephalus with increased intracranial pressure can be an additional method for monitoring of cardiac dysregulation and improvement of the cardiovascular control after successful drainage procedure.

  14. Prognostic significance of exercise blood pressure and heart rate in middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovský, J; Ducimetière, P; Safar, M E

    1992-09-01

    Systolic blood pressure and heart rate measured at rest and during a standardized exercise test were analyzed in the cohort of middle-aged male employees followed-up an average of 17 years in the Paris Prospective Study I. The population sample selected for the analysis included 4,907 men who completed at least 5 minutes of bicycle ergometry, who had no heart disease at entry, and whose resting blood pressure was less than or equal to 180/105 mm Hg. Exercise-induced increase in systolic blood pressure was positively correlated with resting systolic blood pressure (r = 0.104, p less than 0.0001), whereas the correlation of exercise-induced heart rate increase with resting heart rate was negative (r = -0.169, p less than 0.001). Using Cox regression analysis with the inclusion of resting systolic blood pressure and heart rate; exercise-induced elevations of systolic blood pressure and heart rate; and controlling for age, smoking, total cholesterol, body mass index, electrical left ventricular hypertrophy, and sports activities, cardiovascular mortality was found to be associated with the systolic blood pressure increase (p less than 0.05), whereas no association with resting systolic blood pressure was found. Total mortality was predicted by resting systolic blood pressure and its elevation (p less than 0.01 for both) and by resting heart rate (p less than 0.0001). The heart rate increase did not contribute to death prediction. In conclusion, the magnitude of the exercise-induced increase of systolic blood pressure, but not of heart rate, may represent a risk factor for death from cardiovascular as well as noncardiovascular causes, independently of resting blood pressure and heart rate. PMID:1387630

  15. DETECTING CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE USING HEART RATE SEQUENTIAL TREND ANALYSIS PLOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRINIVAS KUNTAMALLA,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability analysis is gaining acceptance as a potential non-invasive means of autonomic nervous system assessment in research as well as clinical domains. In this study, a nonlinear analysis method is developed to detect congestive heart failure. The data obtained from an online and widely used public database (i.e., MIT/BIH physionet database, is used for testing the performance of the method. The method developed is based on the sequential trend analysis plot of heart rate variability and correlates well with the characteristic autonomic nervous system regulations in congestive heart failure. The proposed method can be used for screening as well as diagnosing the heart failure patients. The algorithm is computationally simple and can be implemented in a real time processing hardware. This method classifies 31 out of 32 subjects and has the highest discrimination power in terms of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy.

  16. Heart rate responses to Taekwondo training in experienced practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Craig A; Jones, Michelle A; Hitchen, Peter; Sanchez, Xavier

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the heart rate (HR) responses of specific Taekwondo training activities, practiced by experienced practitioners in a natural training environment. Eight male experienced Taekwondo practitioners, with 3- 13 years (5.4 +/- 3.2 years) experience took part in a 5-day Taekwondo training camp. Continuous HR measures were recorded at 5-second intervals during 6 training sessions; each session was observed and notated, and a diary of training activities was recorded. The HR responses were assimilated into 8 fundamental training activities for analysis: elastics, technical combinations, step sparring, pad work, forms, basic techniques and forms, sparring drills, and free sparring. Taekwondo training elicited HR into 64.7-81.4% of HR maximum (%HRmax). Moderate relative exercise intensities (64.7-69.4%HRmax) were elicited by elastics, technical combinations, and step sparring. The remaining 5 training activities elicited hard relative exercise intensities (74.7-81.4%HRmax). One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance with post hoc analysis revealed that elastics, technical combinations, and step sparring elicited significantly lower relative intensities than the remaining training activities (p Taekwondo training activities in this study seemed suitable for cardiovascular conditioning, although different training activities stressed the cardiovascular system to different degrees. Practically, this suggests coaches need to structure Taekwondo training sessions based not only on the technical and tactical needs of practitioners but also in a manner that enables sufficient cardiovascular conditioning for competition.

  17. Heart rate variability: a tool to explore the sleeping brain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eChouchou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is divided into two main sleep stages: 1 non-rapid eye movement sleep (non-REMS, characterized among others by reduced global brain activity; and 2 rapid eye movement sleep (REMS, characterized by global brain activity similar to that of wakefulness. Results of heart rate variability (HRV analysis, which is widely used to explore autonomic modulation, have revealed higher parasympathetic tone during normal non-REMS and a shift toward sympathetic predominance during normal REMS. Moreover, HRV analysis combined with brain imaging has identified close connectivity between autonomic cardiac modulation and activity in brain areas such as the amygdala and insular cortex during REMS, but no connectivity between brain and cardiac activity during non-REMS. There is also some evidence for an association between HRV and dream intensity and emotionality. Following some technical considerations, this review addresses how brain activity during sleep contributes to changes in autonomic cardiac activity, organized into three parts: 1 the knowledge on autonomic cardiac control, 2 differences in brain and autonomic activity between non-REMS and REMS, and 3 the potential of HRV analysis to explore the sleeping brain, and the implications for psychiatric disorders.

  18. Time-variant coherence between heart rate variability and EEG activity in epileptic patients: an advanced coupling analysis between physiological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-variant coherence analysis between the heart rate variability (HRV) and the channel-related envelopes of adaptively selected EEG components was used as an indicator for the occurrence of (correlative) couplings between the central autonomic network (CAN) and the epileptic network before, during and after epileptic seizures. Two groups of patients were investigated, a group with left and a group with right hemispheric temporal lobe epilepsy. The individual EEG components were extracted by a signal-adaptive approach, the multivariate empirical mode decomposition, and the envelopes of each resulting intrinsic mode function (IMF) were computed by using Hilbert transform. Two IMFs, whose envelopes were strongly correlated with the HRV’s low-frequency oscillation (HRV-LF; ≈0.1 Hz) before and after the seizure were identified. The frequency ranges of these IMFs correspond to the EEG delta-band. The time-variant coherence was statistically quantified and tensor decomposition of the time-frequency coherence maps was applied to explore the topography-time-frequency characteristics of the coherence analysis. Results allow the hypothesis that couplings between the CAN, which controls the cardiovascular-cardiorespiratory system, and the ‘epileptic neural network’ exist. Additionally, our results confirm the hypothesis of a right hemispheric lateralization of sympathetic cardiac control of the HRV-LF. (paper)

  19. Helping from the heart: Voluntary upregulation of heart rate variability predicts altruistic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornemann, Boris; Kok, Bethany E; Böckler, Anne; Singer, Tania

    2016-09-01

    Our various daily activities continually require regulation of our internal state. These regulatory processes covary with changes in High Frequency Heart Rate Variability (HF-HRV), a marker of parasympathetic activity. Specifically, incidental increases in HF-HRV accompany positive social engagement behavior and prosocial action. Little is known about deliberate regulation of HF-HRV and the role of voluntary parasympathetic regulation in prosocial behavior. Here, we present a novel biofeedback task that measures the ability to deliberately increase HF-HRV. In two large samples, we find that a) participants are able to voluntarily upregulate HF-HRV, and b) variation in this ability predicts individual differences in altruistic prosocial behavior, but not non-altruistic forms of prosociality, assessed through 14 different measures. Our findings suggest that self-induction of parasympathetic states is involved in altruistic action. The biofeedback task may provide a measure of deliberate parasympathetic regulation, with implications for the study of attention, emotion, and social behavior.

  20. Blood pressure, heart rate and lipids in professional handball and water polo players

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Jovica; Jovanović Milan

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Blood pressure, heart rate and lipoprotein lipids are affected by family history, obesity, diet, smoking and physical activity habits. The aim of this paper was to estimate the values of blood pressure and heart rate in professional handball and water polo players before and after training and submaximal exercise test and to analyze the lipid state in these professional athletes in comparison with people who have never been in sports. Material and methods The investigation inclu...

  1. Estimating Respiratory and Heart Rates from the Correntropy Spectral Density of the Photoplethysmogram

    OpenAIRE

    Garde, Ainara; Karlen, Walter; Ansermino, J Mark; Dumont, Guy A.

    2014-01-01

    The photoplethysmogram (PPG) obtained from pulse oximetry measures local variations of blood volume in tissues, reflecting the peripheral pulse modulated by heart activity, respiration and other physiological effects. We propose an algorithm based on the correntropy spectral density (CSD) as a novel way to estimate respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) from the PPG. Time-varying CSD, a technique particularly well-suited for modulated signal patterns, is applied to the PPG. The respiratory...

  2. Wearable chemical sensors: characterization of heart rate electrodes using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Deignan, Jennifer; McBrearty, Michael; Monedero, Javier; Coyle, Shirley; O'Gorman, Donal; Diamond, Dermot

    2015-01-01

    Wearable monitoring systems have become very popular in the health and sports industry in recent years. Noninvasive measurements, such as speed, direction, acceleration, strain, impact and heart rate, are being utilized across countless different monitoring platforms. Heart rate monitoring is of particular interest, since this one diagnostic can provide descriptive information about the health of the user in all levels of activity. In addition, there is a recent exploration of different acq...

  3. Validity of the Polar V800 heart rate monitor to measure RR intervals at rest

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, David; Draper, Nick; Neil, William

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the validity of RR intervals and short-term heart rate variability (HRV) data obtained from the Polar V800 heart rate monitor, in comparison to an electrocardiograph (ECG). Method Twenty participants completed an active orthostatic test using the V800 and ECG. An improved method for the identification and correction of RR intervals was employed prior to HRV analysis. Agreement of the data was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland–Altman limits of a...

  4. Heart rate variability during "alarm stage" of burnout syndrome in emergency doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, A V; Revina, N E

    2012-09-01

    The parameters of heart rate variations were examined in emergency care doctors that demonstrated the initial signs of defensive psychological burnout syndrome related to their professional activity. These parameters were compared within each of two groups with different individual typological features. The differences in the heart rate variability parameters were revealed between the examinees that were at the compensation or alarm stages of the burnout syndrome.

  5. Leptin decreases heart rate associated with increased ventricular repolarization via its receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Chang; Huang, Jianying; Hileman, Stan; Martin, Karen H; Hull, Robert; Davis, Mary; Yu, Han-Gang

    2015-11-15

    Leptin has been proposed to modulate cardiac electrical properties via β-adrenergic receptor activation. The presence of leptin receptors and adipocytes in myocardium raised a question as to whether leptin can directly modulate cardiac electrical properties such as heart rate and QT interval via its receptor. In this work, the role of local direct actions of leptin on heart rate and ventricular repolarization was investigated. We identified the protein expression of leptin receptors at cell surface of sinus node, atrial, and ventricular myocytes isolated from rat heart. Leptin at low doses (0.1-30 μg/kg) decreased resting heart rate; at high doses (150-300 μg/kg), leptin induced a biphasic effect (decrease and then increase) on heart rate. In the presence of high-dose propranolol (30 mg/kg), high-dose leptin only reduced heart rate and sometimes caused sinus pauses and ventricular tachycardia. The leptin-induced inhibition of resting heart rate was fully reversed by leptin antagonist. Leptin also increased heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc), and leptin antagonist did not. In isolated ventricular myocytes, leptin (0.03-0.3 μg/ml) reversibly increased the action potential duration. These results supported our hypothesis that in addition to indirect pathway via sympathetic tone, leptin can directly decrease heart rate and increase QT interval via its receptor independent of β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. During inhibition of β-adrenergic receptor activity, high concentration of leptin in myocardium can cause deep bradycardia, prolonged QT interval, and ventricular arrhythmias.

  6. Effect of slow breathing training on heart rate, spontaneous respiratory rate and pattern of breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Ritu Adhana; Moneet Agarwal; Rani Gupta; Jyoti Dvivedi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study was performed to see the effect of slow breathing (6 breaths/minute) training on spontaneous respiratory rate, heart rate and pattern of breathing. Methods: Sixty subjects between the ages 20-50 years were included in the study. After the rest of 10-15 minutes in a comfortable sitting posture their baseline heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and pattern of breathing were recorded on digital polygraph. Then they were guided to do slow breathing maintaining rate of...

  7. Validation of Physiological Strain Index Based on Heart Rate in Experimental Hot Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoub Ghanbary Sartang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is a common problem in industrial workplaces. Thermal stress is a caused reduces concentration of and fatigue increases individuals and thermal condition can be one of accident risk factors .The purpose of this study was validation of Physiological Strain Index Based on Heart Rate in experimental condition. This Semi experimental study was conducted to 16 male in five different temperature conditions (21, 24,27,30,35ºC in the climate chamber and on the treadmill with two levels of activity 2.4 kph (light physical activity and 4.8 kph (medium physical activity.Heart rate was measured to for calculating Physiological Strain Index Based on Heart Rate, rate perceived exertion and questionnaire Heat Strain Score index was measured. The correlations between the indices were evaluated using Pearson correlation test and regression analysis. Pearson correlation test showed a significant correlation between Physiological Strain Index Based on Heart Rate and rate perceived exertion (p≤0.001,r=0.96.also a high correlation was observed between Physiological Strain Index Based on Heart Rate and wet bulb globe temperature (p≤0.001,r=0.90. A very high correlation was observed between Physiological Strain Index Based on Heart Rate and Heat Strain Score Index (p≤0.001, r=0.93. The results of this study showed Physiological Strain Index Based on Heart Rate a suitable method for strain heart evaluation is caused by thermal stress because there was an acceptable correlation with heat stress valid indices.

  8. Heart rate variability in male patients with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    A. E. Kratnov; A V Yakimova; E E Silkina

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To study the heart rate variability via 24-hours ECG monitoring in male patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and no signs of ischemic heart disease (IHD).Materials and Methods. 131 males aged 29 to 60 years with no evidence for IHD were enrolled for this study and underwent 24-hoursECG monitoring procedure.Results. We determined that MS in males is associated with dysautonomia, accompanied by decrease in sympathetic heart stimulation (specifically, in LF and VLF parameters) and left ven...

  9. Impact of age and basic heart rate on heart rate turbulence in healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Jörg Otto; Eichner, Gerrit; Shlevkov, Nikolay; Schrickel, Jan; Yang, Alexander; Balta, Osman; Lewalter, Thorsten; Lüderitz, Berndt

    2005-01-01

    Postextrasystolic acceleration of heart rate (HR), known as HR turbulence (HRT) is attenuated in patients with coronary artery disease at increased risk of adverse events. The influence of age and basic HR on HRT have not been evaluated in a large cohort of persons. In 95 healthy individuals, HRT onset (TO) and slope (TS) were calculated from 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiograms, as well as the turbulence timing (TT). Gender specific differences in TO and TS were compared in simple, linear, weighted regression model. The influence of age and the basic HR preceding ventricular premature contractions on HRT were examined. We found that, in men and women, TO decreases as basic HR increases (P men, TS decreased as basic HR increases, whereas in women, basic HR influenced TS only slightly (P linear regression model revealed a decrease in HRT with increasing age in men. In conclusion, physiological acceleration of the HR within the first 11 beats after premature ventricular complex (VPC) was observed in >75% of healthy individuals. An accelerating HR preceding the VPC influenced HRT in men. An increasing age was associated with a decrease in HRT in men and a decrease in TO in women. These results illustrate the importance of physiological modulations of HRT when used for risk stratification, especially in older populations.

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil improves heart rate variability and heart rate responses to exercise in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninio, Daniel M; Hill, Alison M; Howe, Peter R; Buckley, Jonathan D; Saint, David A

    2008-11-01

    Dietary fish oil supplementation and regular physical activity can improve outcomes in patients with established CVD. Exercise has been shown to improve heart rate variability (HRV), a predictor of cardiac death, but whether fish oil benefits HRV is controversial. Obese adults at risk of future coronary disease have impaired HRV and may benefit from these interventions. We evaluated the effect of DHA-rich tuna fish oil supplementation with and without regular exercise on HRV in sedentary, overweight adults with risk factors for coronary disease. In a randomised, double-blind, parallel comparison, sixty-five volunteers consumed 6 g fish oil/d (DHA 1.56 g/d, EPA 0.36 g/d) or sunflower-seed oil (placebo) for 12 weeks. Half of each oil group also undertook regular moderate physical activity (3 d/week for 45 min, at 75 % of age-predicted maximal heart rate (HR)). Resting HR and the HR response to submaximal exercise were measured at weeks 0, 6 and 12. In forty-six subjects, HRV was also assessed by power spectrum analysis of 20 min electrocardiogram recordings taken supine at baseline and 12 weeks. Fish oil supplementation improved HRV by increasing high-frequency power, representing parasympathetic activity, compared with placebo (P = 0.01; oil x time interaction). It also reduced HR at rest and during submaximal exercise (P = 0.008; oil x time interaction). There were no significant fish oil x exercise interactions. Dietary supplementation with DHA-rich fish oil reduced HR and modulated HRV in keeping with an improved parasympathetic-sympathetic balance in overweight adults with risk factors for future coronary disease. PMID:18339222

  11. AUTONOMIC CONTROL OF HEART RATE AFTER EXERCISE IN TRAINED WRESTLERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez, San Martín E.; Von Oetinger, A.; Cañas, Jamett R.; Ramírez, Campillo R.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish differences in vagal reactivation, through heart rate recovery and heart rate variability post exercise, in Brazilian jiu-jitsu wrestlers (BJJW). A total of 18 male athletes were evaluated, ten highly trained (HT) and eight moderately trained (MT), who performed a maximum incremental test. At the end of the exercise, the R-R intervals were recorded during the first minute of recovery. We calculated heart rate recovery (HRR60s), and performed linear and non-linear (standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability – SD1) analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), using the tachogram of the first minute of recovery divided into four segments of 15 s each (0-15 s, 15-30 s, 30-45 s, 45-60 s). Between HT and MT individuals, there were statistically significant differences in HRR60s (p <0.05) and in the non linear analysis of HRV from SD130-45s (p <0.05) and SD145-60s (p <0.05). The results of this research suggest that heart rate kinetics during the first minute after exercise are related to training level and can be used as an index for autonomic cardiovascular control in BJJW. PMID:24744476

  12. Heart rate-based lactate minimum test: a reproducible method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strupler, M.; Muller, G.; Perret, C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To find the individual intensity for aerobic endurance training, the lactate minimum test (LMT) seems to be a promising method. LMTs described in the literature consist of speed or work rate-based protocols, but for training prescription in daily practice mostly heart rate is used. The ai

  13. Metabolic rate, heart rate, and tailbeat frequency during sustained swimming in the leopard shark Triakis semifasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharold, J; Lai, N C; Lowell, W R; Graham, J B

    1989-01-01

    Heart rate, metabolic rate, and tailbeat frequency were simultaneously recorded from seven leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) during steady swimming at controlled speeds to evaluate the usefulness of heart rate as a measure of field metabolic rate. Heart rate was monitored by acoustic telemetry using a frequency modulated ECG transmitter. Metabolic rate was measured as oxygen consumption in a swimming tunnel respirometer. For instrumented sharks, mean resting oxygen consumption rate and heart rate were 105.3 +/- 35.6 (SE) mg O2.kg-1.h-1 and 36.6 +/- 1.8 (SE) beats.min-1, respectively. While swimming at the maximum sustained speed (0.84 +/- 0.03 lengths.s-1) for 30-60 min, these rates were 229.3 +/- 13.2 mg O2.kg-1.h-1 and 46.9 +/- 0.9 beats.min-1. Although a significant linear regression was obtained between metabolic rate and heart rate, a low overall correlation coefficient may result from the existence of separate individual regressions and confounding changes in stroke volume and/or arteriovenous oxygen difference. Heart rate was approximately as closely correlated with oxygen consumption rate as swimming speed was. A significant linear relationship was obtained between tailbeat frequency and swimming speed to speeds of 0.75 lengths.s-1. PMID:2776865

  14. Discrimination power of long-term heart rate variability measures for Chronic Heart Failure detection

    OpenAIRE

    Melillo, Paolo; Fusco, Roberta; Sansone, Mario; Bracale, Marcello; Pecchia, Leandro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the discrimination power of standard long-term Heart Rate Variability (HRV) measures for the diagnosis of Chronic Heart Failure (CHF). We performed a retrospective analysis on 4 public Holter databases, analyzing the data of 72 normal subjects and 44 patients suffering from CHF. To assess the discrimination power of HRV measures, we adopted an exhaustive search of all possible combinations of HRV measures and we developed classifiers based on Classi...

  15. Genome-wide association study of electrocardiographic and heart rate variability traits: the Framingham Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Guo, Chao-Yu; Wang, Thomas J.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Levy, Daniel; Larson, Martin G.

    2007-01-01

    Background Heritable electrocardiographic (ECG) and heart rate variability (HRV) measures, reflecting pacemaking, conduction, repolarization and autonomic function in the heart have been associated with risks for cardiac arrhythmias. Whereas several rare monogenic conditions with extreme phenotypes have been noted, few common genetic factors contributing to interindividual variability in ECG and HRV measures have been identified. We report the results of a community-based genomewide associati...

  16. Effect of oxygen treatment on heart rate after abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg-Adamsen, S; Lie, C; Bernhard, A;

    1999-01-01

    . METHODS: The authors studied the effect of oxygen therapy on arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate in 100 consecutive unselected patients randomly and double blindly allocated to receive air or oxygen therapy between the first and fourth day after major abdominal surgery. RESULTS: The median arterial...... supplementation were found between patients with or without an epidural catheter or between the postoperative day studied. CONCLUSION: Postoperative oxygen therapy increased arterial oxygen saturation and decreased heart rate after uncomplicated abdominal surgery in a consecutive unselected group of patients who......BACKGROUND: Cardiac complications are common during the postoperative period and may be associated with hypoxemia and tachycardia. Preliminary studies in high-risk patients after operation have shown a possible beneficial effect of oxygen therapy on arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate...

  17. Effect of Smoking on Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Jacobsen, Rikke K; Skaaby, Tea;

    2015-01-01

    included in observational and Mendelian randomisation (MR) meta-analyses of the associations of smoking status and smoking heaviness with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), hypertension, and resting heart rate. For the MR analyses, a genetic variant rs16969968/rs1051730 was used as a proxy......BACKGROUND: -Smoking is an important cardiovascular disease risk factor, but the mechanisms linking smoking to blood pressure are poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: -Data on 141,317 participants (62,666 never, 40,669 former, 37,982 current smokers) from 23 population-based studies were...... association of smoking heaviness with higher level of resting heart rate, but not with blood pressure. These findings suggest that part of the cardiovascular risk of smoking may operate through increasing resting heart rate....

  18. Visualization of heart rate variability of long-term heart transplant patient by transition networks: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna eWdowczyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a heart transplant patient at his 17th year of uncomplicated follow-up. Within a frame of routine check out several tests were performed. With such a long and uneventful follow-up some degree of graft reinnervation could be anticipated. However, the patient's electrocardiogram and exercise parameters seemed largely inconclusive in this regard. The exercise heart rate dynamics were suggestive of only mild, if any parasympathetic reinnervation of the graft with persisting sympathetic activation. On the other hand, traditional heart rate variability (HRV indices were inadequately high, due to erratic rhythm resulting from interference of the persisting recipient sinus node or nonconducted atrial parasystole. New tools, originated from network representation of time series, by visualization short-term dynamical patterns, provided a method to discern HRV increase due to reinnervation from other reasons.

  19. A healthy heart is not a metronome: An integrative review of the heart’s anatomy and heart rate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredric Bruce Shaffer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV, the change in the time intervals between adjacent heartbeats, is an emergent property of interdependent regulatory systems that operate on different time scales to adapt to challenges and achieve optimal performance. This article briefly reviews neural regulation of the heart, and its basic anatomy, the cardiac cycle, and the sinoatrial and atrioventricular pacemakers. The cardiovascular regulation center in the medulla integrates sensory information and input from higher brain centers, and afferent cardiovascular system inputs to adjust heart rate and blood pressure via sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent pathways. This article reviews sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on the heart, and examines the interpretation of HRV and the association between reduced HRV, risk of disease and mortality, and the loss of regulatory capacity. This article also discusses the intrinsic cardiac nervous system and the heart-brain connection, through which afferent information can influence activity in the subcortical and frontocortical areas, and motor cortex. It also considers new perspectives on the putative underlying physiological mechanisms and properties of the ultra-low-frequency (ULF, very-low-frequency (VLF, low-frequency (LF, and high-frequency (HF bands. Additionally, it reviews the most common time and frequency domain measurements as well as standardized data collection protocols. In its final section, this article integrates Porges’ polyvagal theory, Thayer and colleagues’ neurovisceral integration model, Lehrer, Vaschillo, and Vaschillo’s resonance frequency model, and the Institute of HeartMath’s coherence model. The authors conclude that a coherent heart is not a metronome because its rhythms are characterized by both complexity and stability over longer time scales. Future research should expand understanding of how the heart and its intrinsic nervous system influence the brain.

  20. Heart rate variability in male patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A E Kratnov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the heart rate variability via 24-hours ECG monitoring in male patients with metabolic syndrome (MS and no signs of ischemic heart disease (IHD.Materials and Methods. 131 males aged 29 to 60 years with no evidence for IHD were enrolled for this study and underwent 24-hoursECG monitoring procedure.Results. We determined that MS in males is associated with dysautonomia, accompanied by decrease in sympathetic heart stimulation (specifically, in LF and VLF parameters and left ventricular diastolic abnormalities that correlate with abdominal obesity. Conclusion. MS in males is associated with dysautonomia, accompanied by decrease in sympathetic heart stimulation (specifically, in LF and VLF parameters and left ventricular diastolic abnormalities that correlate with abdominal obesity.

  1. Peak heart rate decreases with increasing severity of acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Araoz, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2001-01-01

    , 459, and 404 mmHg) in a hypobaric chamber and while breathing 9% O(2) in N(2). These conditions were equivalent to altitudes of 3300, 4300, 5300, and 6300 m above sea level, respectively. At 4300 m, maximal exercise was also repeated after 4 and 8 h. Peak heart rate (HR) decreased from 191 (182......The purpose of the present study was to investigate the degree to which peak heart rate is reduced during exhaustive exercise in acute hypoxia. Five sea-level lowlanders performed maximal exercise at normobaric normoxia and at three different levels of hypobaric hypoxia (barometric pressures of 518...

  2. Heart rate recovery in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Karaşen, Rıza Murat; ÇİFTÇİ, Bülent; Acar, Baran; YALÇIN, Ahmet Arif; GÜVEN, Selma FIRAT

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate the effects of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) on baroregulatory function by using heart rate recovery (HRR) parameters. Materials and methods: Fifty-four moderate and severe OSAS patients were included in the study. HRR was defined as the difference in heart rate between peak exercise and 1 min later; a value of 18 beats/min was considered abnormal. OSAS patients were enrolled in the study as group 1 (normal HRR; n = 12) and group 2 (abnormal HRR, n = 42). Left ventr...

  3. Heart rate and heart rate variability in multiparous dairy cows with unassisted calvings in the periparturient period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, L; Tőzsér, J; Kézér, F L; Ruff, F; Aubin-Wodala, M; Albert, E; Choukeir, A; Szelényi, Z; Szenci, O

    2015-02-01

    Behavioural changes before calving can be monitored on farms; however, predicting the onset of calving is sometimes difficult based only on clinical signs. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) as non-invasive measures of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity were investigated in Holstein-Friesian cows (N=20) with unassisted calvings in the periparturient period to predict the onset of calving and assess the stress associated with calving. R-R-intervals were analysed in 5-min time windows during the following three main periods of measurement: 1) between 0 and 96 h before the onset of calving restlessness (prepartum period); 2) during four stages of calving: (I) early first stage; between the onset of calving restlessness and the first abdominal contractions; (II) late first stage (between the first abdominal contractions and the appearance of the amniotic sac); (III) early second stage (between the appearance of the amniotic sac and the appearance of the foetal hooves); (IV) late second stage (between the appearance of the foetal hooves and delivery of the calf), and 3) over 48 h following calving (postpartum period). Data collected between 72 and 96 h before calving restlessness was used as baseline. Besides HR, Poincaré measures [standard deviation 1 (SD1) and 2 (SD2) and SD2/SD1 ratio], the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) in R-R intervals, the high-frequency (HF) component of HRV and the ratio between the low-frequency (LF) and the HF components (LF/HF ratio) were calculated. Heart rate increased only following the onset of the behavioural signs, peaked before delivery of the calf, then decreased immediately after calving. Parasympathetic indices of HRV (RMSSD, HFnorm and SD1) decreased, whereas sympathovagal indices (LF/HF ratio and SD2/SD1 ratio) increased significantly from baseline between 12 and 24 before the onset of calving restlessness. The same pattern was observed between 0 and 1h before calving restlessness. Following

  4. Remote measurements of heart and respiration rates for telemedicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zhao

    Full Text Available Non-contact and low-cost measurements of heart and respiration rates are highly desirable for telemedicine. Here, we describe a novel technique to extract blood volume pulse and respiratory wave from a single channel images captured by a video camera for both day and night conditions. The principle of our technique is to uncover the temporal dynamics of heart beat and breathing rate through delay-coordinate transformation and independent component analysis-based deconstruction of the single channel images. Our method further achieves robust elimination of false positives via applying ratio-variation probability distributions filtering approaches. Moreover, it enables a much needed low-cost means for preventing sudden infant death syndrome in new born infants and detecting stroke and heart attack in elderly population in home environments. This noncontact-based method can also be applied to a variety of animal model organisms for biomedical research.

  5. Cortisol release, heart rate and heart rate variability in the horse and its rider: different responses to training and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lewinski, Mareike; Biau, Sophie; Erber, Regina; Ille, Natascha; Aurich, Jörg; Faure, Jean-Michel; Möstl, Erich; Aurich, Christine

    2013-08-01

    Although some information exists on the stress response of horses in equestrian sports, the horse-rider team is much less well understood. In this study, salivary cortisol concentrations, heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV), SDRR (standard deviation of beat-to-beat interval) and RMSSD (root mean square of successive beat-to-beat intervals) were analysed in horses and their riders (n=6 each) at a public performance and an identical rehearsal that was not open to the public. Cortisol concentrations increased in both horses and riders (P<0.001) but did not differ between performance and rehearsal. HR in horses and riders increased during the rehearsal and the public performance (P<0.001) but the increase in HR was more pronounced (P<0.01) in riders than in their horses during the public performance (from 91 ± 10 to 150 ± 15 beats/min) compared to the rehearsal (from 94 ± 10 to 118 ± 12 beats/min). The SDRR decreased significantly during the equestrian tasks in riders (P<0.001), but not in their horses. The RMSSD decreased in horses and riders (P<0.001) during rehearsal and performance, indicating a decrease in parasympathetic tone. The decrease in RMSSD in the riders was more pronounced (P<0.05) during the performance (from 32.6 ± 6.6 to 3.8 ± 0.3 ms) than during the rehearsal (from 27.5 ± 4.2 to 6.6 ± 0.6 ms). The study has shown that the presence of spectators caused more pronounced changes in cardiac activity in the riders than it did in their horses.

  6. Prediction of Heart Rates on a Ropes Course from Simple Physical Measures. Research Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Simon; Montelpare, William

    1995-01-01

    This study identified the highest heart rates attained on a ropes course for a corporate population; examined relationships between highest heart rate and other physical measures (basal heart rate, blood pressure, height, weight, body girths, cholesterol, maximum number of pushups, and heart rate after brisk walk); and developed an equation for…

  7. Heart rate variability in 1-day-old infants born at 4330 m altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortola, J P; León-Velarde, F; Aguero, L; Frappell, P B

    1999-02-01

    In fetuses and newborn infants heart rate variability changes in conditions of acute and chronic hypoxia; we therefore asked whether heart rate variability of infants born at high altitude differed from that of low-altitude infants. Short-term recordings (4-5 min) of inter-beat intervals were obtained in 19 infants in Lima (50 m altitude) and in 15 infants in Cerro de Pasco (4330 m, barometric pressure approximately 450 mmHg, inspired oxygen pressure approximately 94 mmHg) during quiet rest in warm conditions (ambient temperature, Ta, approximately 35 degrees C). In 12 infants from each group recordings were also obtained during cooling (Ta approximately 26 degrees C). Heart rate variability was evaluated from 512 consecutive inter-beat intervals, with analysis based on time-domain and frequency-domain methods. At warm Ta, heart rate variability did not differ between the two groups. During cooling, heart rate increased only in the low-altitude group. As in the warm, during cooling most parameters of heart rate variability did not differ between the two groups. The only exception was the inter-beat interval power of the high-frequency range of the spectrum (0.15-0.4 Hz), which, at least in adults, is believed to be a reflection of vagal activity, and was greater in the high-altitude group. It is concluded that gestation at high altitude, despite its blunting effects on fetal growth, does not have a major impact on heart rate variability of the newborn. Nevertheless, the possibility that differences in response to cooling may reflect some limitation in heart rate control needs to be examined further.

  8. Physical Activity and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Physical Activity? Español Physical activity is any body movement that works your muscles ... yoga, and gardening are a few examples of physical activity. According to the Department of Health and Human ...

  9. Effects of Exercise Training on Heart Rate Variability in Chagas Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ramos Nascimento

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heart rate variability (HRV is a marker of autonomic dysfunction severity. The effects of physical training on HRV indexes in Chagas heart disease (CHD are not well established. Objective: To evaluate the changes in HRV indexes in response to physical training in CHD. Methods: Patients with CHD and left ventricular (LV dysfunction, physically inactive, were randomized either to the intervention (IG, N = 18 or control group (CG, N = 19. The IG participated in a 12-week exercise program consisting of 3 sessions/week. Results: Mean age was 49.5 ± 8 years, 59% males, mean LVEF was 36.3 ± 7.8%. Baseline HRV indexes were similar between groups. From baseline to follow-up, total power (TP: 1653 (IQ 625 - 3418 to 2794 (1617 - 4452 ms, p = 0.02 and very low frequency power: 586 (290 - 1565 to 815 (610 - 1425 ms, p = 0.047 increased in the IG, but not in the CG. The delta (post - pre HRV indexes were similar: SDNN 11.5 ± 30.0 vs. 3.7 ± 25.1 ms. p = 0.10; rMSSD 2 (6 - 17 vs. 1 (21 - 9 ms. p = 0.43; TP 943 (731 - 3130 vs. 1780 (921 - 2743 Hz. p = 0.46; low frequency power (LFP 1.0 (150 - 197 vs. 60 (111 - 146 Hz. p = 0.85; except for high frequency power, which tended to increase in the IG: 42 (133 - 92 vs. 79 (61 - 328 Hz. p = 0.08. Conclusion: In the studied population, the variation of HRV indexes was similar between the active and inactive groups. Clinical improvement with physical activity seems to be independent from autonomic dysfunction markers in CHD.

  10. Heart Rate Variability During Early Adaptation to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.

    1994-01-01

    A recent report hypothesized that episodes of space motion sickness (SMS) were reliably associated with low frequency oscillations (less than 0.03 to less than 0.01 Hz) in heart rate variability. This paper archives a large data set for review of investigators in this field which may facilitate the evaluation of this hypothesis. Continuous recording of Electro-cardiography (ECG) and other measures were made for 6 to 12 hours per day (waking hours) of six Shuttle crewmembers for the first 3 mission days of two separate Shuttle flights. Spectral analyses of heart rate variability during approximately 200 hours of inflight is presented. In addition, nearly 200 hours of data collected on these same individuals during ground tests prior to the mission are presented. The Purpose of this Publication is to document the incidence of low frequency oscillations of heart rate in 4 people exposed to microgravity over a period of five days. In addition, this report contains spectral analyses of heart rate data collected on these same individuals during ground-based mission simulations. By archiving these data in this manner, it is our intention to make this information available to other investigators interested in studying this phenomena.

  11. Heart Rate Variability and Drawing Impairment in Hypoxemic COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli; Corsonello, Andrea; Trojano, Luigi; Pedone, Claudio; Acanfora, Domenico; Spada, Aldo; D'Addio, Gianni; Maestri, Roberto; Rengo, Franco; Rengo, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    We studied 54 patients with hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Mini Mental State Examination and the Mental Deterioration Battery were used for neuropsychological assessment. Heart rate variability (HRV) was assessed based on 24-h Holter ECG recording. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare HRV parameters of patients…

  12. Heart rate variability and sustained attention in ADHD children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börger, N.A.; Van der Meere, J.J.; Ronner, A.; Alberts, E.; Geuze, R.H.; Bogte, H

    1999-01-01

    The major goal of the current study was to investigate the association between continuous performance tests (CPTs) and the heart rate variability (HRV) of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. The HRV, specifically the 0.10-Hz component, may be considered to be a psychophysiologi

  13. Simplifying cardiovascular risk estimation using resting heart rate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-09-01

    Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is a known, independent cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, but is not included in risk estimation systems, including Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). We aimed to derive risk estimation systems including RHR as an extra variable and assess the value of this addition.

  14. Role of feedback in voluntary control of heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuck, S B; Levenson, R W; Hinrichsen, J J; Gryll, S L

    1975-06-01

    The relative effectiveness of biofeedback techniques on the voluntary control of heart rate was examined by randomly assigning 32 Ss to one of four feedback conditions in a bi-directional heart-rate control task: (1) no feedback, (2) binary feedback--S was signaled when an interbeat interval had changed in the correct direction, (3) "real-time," proportional feedback--S was provided information about the relative duration of successive interbeat intervals, and (4) numerical, proportional feedback--each interbeat interval was represented as a numeral indicating its relationship to pre-trial mean by direction and magnitude. Significant over-all heart-rate changes were evidenced for both increase and decrease directions, but no differences were found between the feedback conditions. While these data suggest that feedback may be a relatively insignificant factor in voluntary heart-rate control, it was recommended that further investigation examine the role of feedback within the context of other training, mediating and motivational variables.

  15. A PC-aided optical foetal heart rate detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oweis, Rami J; As'ad, Hala; Aldarawsheh, Amany; Al-Khdeirat, Rawan; Lwissy, Kaldoun

    2014-01-01

    Safe monitoring of foetal heart rate is a valuable tool for the healthy evolution and wellbeing of both foetus and mother. This paper presents a non-invasive optical technique that allows for foetal heart rate detection using a photovoltaic infrared (IR) detector placed on the mother's abdomen. The system presented here consists of a photoplethysmography (PPG) circuit, abdomen circuit and a personal computer equipped with MATLAB. A near IR beam having a wavelength of 880 nm is transmitted through the mother's abdomen and foetal tissue. The received abdominal signal that conveys information pertaining to the mother and foetal heart rate is sensed by a low noise photodetector. The PC receives the signal through the National Instrumentation Data Acquisition Card (NIDAQ). After synchronous detection of the abdominal and finger PPG signals, the designed MATLAB-based software saves, analyses and extracts information related to the foetal heart rate. Extraction is carried out using recursive least squares adaptive filtration. Measurements on eight pregnant women with gestational periods ranging from 35-39 weeks were performed using the proposed system and CTG. Results show a correlation coefficient of 0.978 and a correlation confidence interval between 88-99.6%. The t test results in a p value of 0.034, which is less than 0.05. Low power, low cost, high signal-to-noise ratio, reduction of ambient light effect and ease of use are the main characteristics of the proposed system. PMID:24195701

  16. Heart Rate Variability Interventions for Concussion and Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lake Conder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of Heart Rate Variability (HRV has emerged as an essential component of cardiovascular health, as well as a physiological mechanism by which one can increase the interactive communication between the cardiac and the neurocognitive systems (i.e., the body and the brain. It is well-established that lack of heart rate variability implies cardiopathology, morbidity, reduced quality-of-life, and precipitous mortality. On the positive, optimal heart rate variability has been associated with good cardiovascular health, autonomic nervous system (ANS control, emotional regulation, and enhanced neurocognitive processing. In addition to health benefits, optimal HRV has been shown to improve neurocognitive performance by enhancing focus, visual acuity and readiness, and by promoting emotional regulation needed for peak performance. In concussed athletes and soldiers, concussions not only alter brain connectivity, but also alter cardiac functioning and impair cardiovascular performance upon exertion. Altered sympathetic and parasympathetic balance in the ANS has been postulated as a critical factor in refractory Post Concussive Syndrome (PCS. This article will review both the pathological aspects of reduced heart rate variability on athletic performance, as well as the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular components of concussion and PCS. Additionally, this article will review interventions with HRV biofeedback (HRV BFB training as a promising and underutilized treatment for sports and military-related concussion. Finally, this article will review research and promising case studies pertaining to use of HRV BFB for enhancement of cognition and performance, with applicability to concussion rehabilitation.

  17. An improved method of measuring heart rate using a webcam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Ouyang, Jianfei; Yan, Yonggang

    2014-09-01

    Measuring heart rate traditionally requires special equipment and physical contact with the subject. Reliable non-contact and low-cost measurements are highly desirable for convenient and comfortable physiological self-assessment. Previous work has shown that consumer-grade cameras can provide useful signals for remote heart rate measurements. In this paper a simple and robust method of measuring the heart rate using low-cost webcam is proposed. Blood volume pulse is extracted by proper Region of Interest (ROI) and color channel selection from image sequences of human faces without complex computation. Heart rate is subsequently quantified by spectrum analysis. The method is successfully applied under natural lighting conditions. Results of experiments show that it takes less time, is much simpler, and has similar accuracy to the previously published and widely used method of Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Benefitting from non-contact, convenience, and low-costs, it provides great promise for popularization of home healthcare and can further be applied to biomedical research.

  18. Relationship between Exercise Heart Rate and Music Tempo Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorghis, Costas I.; Jones, Leighton; Low, Daniel C.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the predicted positive and linear relationship (Iwanaga, 1995a, 1995b) between exercise heart rate and music tempo preference. Initially, 128 undergraduate students (M age = 20.0 years, SD = 0.9) were surveyed to establish their three favorite music artists. A separate experimental group of 29 undergraduates (M age =…

  19. Decreased heart rate variability in surgeons during night shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, Ilda; Toftegård Andersen, Lærke; Rosenberg, Jacob;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) has been used as a measure of stress and mental strain in surgeons. Low HRV has been associated with death and increased risk of cardiac events in the general population. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of a 17-hour night shift on surgeons'...

  20. Transfer entropy analysis of maternal and fetal heart rate coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzbanrad, Faezeh; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Endo, Miyuki; Palaniswami, Marimuthu; Khandoker, Ahsan H

    2015-01-01

    Although evidence of the short term relationship between maternal and fetal heart rates has been found in previous model-based studies, knowledge about the mechanism and patterns of the coupling during gestation is still limited. In this study, a model-free method based on Transfer Entropy (TE) was applied to quantify the maternal-fetal heart rate couplings in both directions. Furthermore, analysis of the lag at which TE was maximum and its changes throughout gestation, provided more information about the mechanism of coupling and its latency. Experimental results based on fetal electrocardiograms (fECGs) and maternal ECG showed the evidence of coupling for 62 out of 65 healthy mothers and fetuses in each direction, by statistically validating against the surrogate pairs. The fetuses were divided into three gestational age groups: early (16-25 weeks), mid (26-31 weeks) and late (32-41 weeks) gestation. The maximum TE from maternal to fetal heart rate significantly increased from early to mid gestation, while the coupling delay on both directions decreased significantly from mid to late gestation. These changes occur concomitant with the maturation of the fetal sensory and autonomic nervous systems with advancing gestational age. In conclusion, the application of TE with delays revealed detailed information about the changes in fetal-maternal heart rate coupling strength and latency throughout gestation, which could provide novel clinical markers of fetal development and well-being.

  1. Individual variability in heart rate recovery after standardized submaximal exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Does, H.T.D. van der; Brink, M.S.; Visscher, C.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    To optimize performance, coaches and athletes are always looking for the right balance between training load and recovery. Therefore, closely monitoring of athletes is important. Heart rate recovery (HRR) after standardized sub maximal exercise has been proposed as a useful variable to monitor (Lamb

  2. Fetal heart rate changes associated with general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorkow, D M; Stewart, T J; Parboosingh, J

    1989-07-01

    Decreased fetal heart rate variability was noted 90 seconds after the induction of general anesthesia with sodium thiopentone and fentanyl in a patient undergoing basket extraction of a renal calculus at 30 weeks' gestation. The fetal sleep pattern lasted for 105 minutes after the anesthetic was discontinued, 45 minutes after the mother was fully awake. PMID:2730732

  3. Fetal heart rate changes associated with general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorkow, D M; Stewart, T J; Parboosingh, J

    1989-07-01

    Decreased fetal heart rate variability was noted 90 seconds after the induction of general anesthesia with sodium thiopentone and fentanyl in a patient undergoing basket extraction of a renal calculus at 30 weeks' gestation. The fetal sleep pattern lasted for 105 minutes after the anesthetic was discontinued, 45 minutes after the mother was fully awake.

  4. EMPATHY, «BURNOUT» SYNDROME AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Revina, N.; Pevtsova, E.

    2011-01-01

    The work deals with the comparative analysis of searching correlations between psychological and physiological indices of emotional «burnout» syndrome stepwise development, as well as the role of empathy in the syndrome origin. The analytical method of heart rate variability for objectification of developmental processes of emotional «burnout» symdrome has been proposed.

  5. Heart Rate Variability: A Risk Factor for Female Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amelia M; Lorenz, Tierney A; Pulverman, Carey S; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-09-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of autonomic nervous system activity, which reflects an individual's ability to adapt to physiological and environmental changes. Low resting HRV has been linked to several mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety, and alcohol dependence (Kemp et al. in Biological Psychiatry 67(11):1067-1074, 2010. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.12.012; Kemp et al. in PloS One, 7(2):e30777, 2012; Quintana et al. in Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 132(1-2):395-398, 2013. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.02.025). HRV has also been used as a method for indexing the relative balance of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity to parasympathetic nervous system activity. This balance--in particular, moderately dominant SNS activity--has been shown to play a significant role in women's genital sexual arousal in the laboratory; however, the role of SNS activity in clinically relevant sexual arousal function is unknown. The present study assessed the feasibility of using HRV as an index of women's self-reported sexual arousal function outside the laboratory. Sexual arousal function, overall sexual function, and resting HRV were assessed in 72 women, aged 18-39. Women with below average HRV were significantly more likely to report sexual arousal dysfunction (p < .001) and overall sexual dysfunction (p < .001) than both women with average HRV and women with above average HRV. In conclusion, low HRV may be a risk factor for female sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction. PMID:26081002

  6. Heart rate variability and target organ damage in hypertensive patients

    OpenAIRE

    Melillo Paolo; Izzo Raffaele; Luca De Nicola; Pecchia Leandro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background We evaluated the association between linear standard Heart Rate Variability (HRV) measures and vascular, renal and cardiac target organ damage (TOD). Methods A retrospective analysis was performed including 200 patients registered in the Regione Campania network (aged 62.4 ± 12, male 64%). HRV analysis was performed by 24-h holter ECG. Renal damage was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), vascular damage by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), and card...

  7. Heart rate detection from an electronic weighing scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a novel technique for beat-to-beat heart rate detection based on the ballistocardiographic (BCG) force signal from a subject standing on a common electronic weighing scale. The detection relies on sensing force variations related to the blood acceleration in the aorta, works even if wearing footwear and does not require any sensors attached to the body because it uses the load cells in the scale. We have devised an approach to estimate the sensitivity and frequency response of three commercial weighing scales to assess their capability to detect the BCG force signal. Static sensitivities ranged from 490 nV V−1 N−1 to 1670 nV V−1 N−1. The frequency response depended on the subject's mass but it was broad enough for heart rate estimation. We have designed an electronic pulse detection system based on off-the-shelf integrated circuits to sense heart-beat-related force variations of about 0.24 N. The signal-to-noise ratio of the main peaks of the force signal detected was higher than 30 dB. A Bland–Altman plot was used to compare the RR time intervals estimated from the ECG and BCG force signals for 17 volunteers. The error was ±21 ms, which makes the proposed technique suitable for short-term monitoring of the heart rate

  8. The use of heart rates and graded maximal test values to determine rugby union game intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Martinique; Coetzee, Ben

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the intensities of university rugby union games using heart rates and graded maximal test values. Twenty-one rugby players performed a standard incremental maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) test to the point of exhaustion in the weeks between 3 rugby matches. The heart rates that corresponded to the first and second ventilatory thresholds were used to classify the heart rates into low-, moderate-, and high-intensity zones. The heart rates recorded through heart rate telemetry during the matches were then categorized into the different zones. The average heart rates for the different intensity zones as well the percentages of the maximum heart rate (HRmax) were as follows: low, 141-152 b·min(-1) (76.2-82.0% HRmax); moderate, 153-169 b·min(-1) (82.7-91.4% HRmax); and high, 170-182 b·min(-1) (91.9-100% HRmax). The percentages of time players spent in the different intensity zones were as follows: 22.8% for the low-intensity, 33.6% for the moderate-intensity, and 43.6% for the high-intensity zones. The dependant t-test revealed significant differences (p rugby union games. It also revealed that university rugby games are categorized by significantly more high-intensity activities than was previously reported by other rugby match analyzing-related studies. Thus, sport scientists and conditioning coaches should concentrate more on high-intensity activities for longer periods during training sessions.

  9. Music close to one's heart: heart rate variability with music, diagnostic with e-bra and smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Shantala; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Rai, Pratyush; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2012-04-01

    Music is a powerful elicitor of emotions. Emotions evoked by music, through autonomic correlates have been shown to cause significant modulation of parameters like heart rate and blood pressure. Consequently, Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis can be a powerful tool to explore evidence based therapeutic functions of music and conduct empirical studies on effect of musical emotion on heart function. However, there are limitations with current studies. HRV analysis has produced variable results to different emotions evoked via music, owing to variability in the methodology and the nature of music chosen. Therefore, a pragmatic understanding of HRV correlates of musical emotion in individuals listening to specifically chosen music whilst carrying out day to day routine activities is needed. In the present study, we aim to study HRV as a single case study, using an e-bra with nano-sensors to record heart rate in real time. The e-bra developed previously, has several salient features that make it conducive for this study- fully integrated garment, dry electrodes for easy use and unrestricted mobility. The study considers two experimental conditions:- First, HRV will be recorded when there is no music in the background and second, when music chosen by the researcher and by the subject is playing in the background.

  10. General anesthesia suppresses normal heart rate variability in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Gerald; Wood, Philip

    2014-06-01

    The human heart normally exhibits robust beat-to-beat heart rate variability (HRV). The loss of this variability is associated with pathology, including disease states such as congestive heart failure (CHF). The effect of general anesthesia on intrinsic HRV is unknown. In this prospective, observational study we enrolled 100 human subjects having elective major surgical procedures under general anesthesia. We recorded continuous heart rate data via continuous electrocardiogram before, during, and after anesthesia, and we assessed HRV of the R-R intervals. We assessed HRV using several common metrics including Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), Multifractal Analysis, and Multiscale Entropy Analysis. Each of these analyses was done in each of the four clinical phases for each study subject over the course of 24 h: Before anesthesia, during anesthesia, early recovery, and late recovery. On average, we observed a loss of variability on the aforementioned metrics that appeared to correspond to the state of general anesthesia. Following the conclusion of anesthesia, most study subjects appeared to regain their normal HRV, although this did not occur immediately. The resumption of normal HRV was especially delayed on DFA. Qualitatively, the reduction in HRV under anesthesia appears similar to the reduction in HRV observed in CHF. These observations will need to be validated in future studies, and the broader clinical implications of these observations, if any, are unknown.

  11. Increased heart rate variability but normal resting metabolic rate in hypocretin/orexin-deficient human narcolepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronczek, R.; Overeem, S.; Reijntjes, R.; Lammers, G.J.; Dijk, J.G.M.; Pijl, H.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: We investigated autonomic balance and resting metabolic rate to explore their possible involvement in obesity in hypocretin/orexin-deficient narcoleptic subjects. METHODS: Resting metabolic rate (using indirect calorimetry) and variability in heart rate and blood pressure were dete

  12. A systematic review on heart rate variability in Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, Stephanie K V; Feeling, Nicole R; Vögele, Claus; Kaess, Michael; Thayer, Julian F; Koenig, Julian

    2016-04-01

    Eating disorders are associated with alterations of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Among other indices, heart rate variability (HRV) provides a readily available index of ANS function. While ANS dysfunction indexed by HRV in Anorexia Nervosa has been addressed in previous reviews, here we aimed to review the current evidence on HRV in Bulimia Nervosa (BN). A systematic literature search in Web of Science, PsycInfo, Scopus, and PubMed identified 17 studies reporting HRV in patients with BN. Studies described (i) differences in resting state HRV in patients compared to controls, (ii) alterations in the stress response in BN indexed by HRV, and (iii) treatment effects on HRV in patients with BN. Despite a number of conflicting results, we conclude that BN is characterized by increased resting state vagally-mediated HRV and an impaired stress-response. Intervention-studies suggest that altered ANS-activity in BN is at least partially reversible. Future studies on the complex relation between BN and HRV should investigate the effect of comorbid disorders, subtypes of BN, and mechanisms affecting treatment outcome. PMID:26828568

  13. Sleep Stage Dependence of Invariance Characteristics in Fluctuations of Healthy Human Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togo, Fumiharu; Kiyono, Ken; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2005-08-01

    The outstanding feature of healthy human heart rate is the robust scale invariance in the non-Gaussian probability density function (PDF), which is preserved not only in a quiescent condition, but also in a dynamic state during waking hours [K. Kiyono et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004)]. Together with 1/f like scaling, this characteristic is a strong indication of far-from-equilibrium, critical-like dynamics of heart rate regulation. Our results suggest that healthy human heart rate departs from a critical state-like operation during sleeping hours, at a rate which is heterogeneous with respect to sleep stages annotated according to traditional techniques. We study specific contributions of sleep stages to the relative departure from criticality through the analysis of sleep stage dependence of the root mean square of multiscale local energy and the multiscale PDF. There is a possibility that the involvement of cortical activity may be important for a critical state-like operation.

  14. QT measurement and heart rate correction during hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Folke; Randløv, Jette; Christensen, Leif Engmann;

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Several studies show that hypoglycemia causes QT interval prolongation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of QT measurement methodology, heart rate correction, and insulin types during hypoglycemia. Methods. Ten adult subjects with type 1 diabetes had hypoglycemia...... prolongation at hypoglycemia for QTcB (42(6) ms; P <.001) and QTcF (35(6) ms; P <.001). The MA method showed prolongation at hypoglycemia for QTcB (7(2) ms, P <.05) but not QTcF. No difference in ECG variables between the types of insulin was observed. Discussion. The method for measuring the QT interval has a...... significant impact on the prolongation of QT during hypoglycemia. Heart rate correction may also influence the QT during hypoglycemia while the type of insulin is insignificant. Prolongation of QTc in this study did not reach pathologic values suggesting that QTc prolongation cannot fully explain the dead...

  15. Respiration and heart rate in exercising land crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, C F; Lee, L W; Shah, G M

    1979-05-01

    Land Crabs, Cardisoma guanhumi, were fitted with respiratory masks and E.C.G. electrodes and run for 10 or 20 min on a treadmill at speeds of 150 and 300 cm/min. Aerobic metabolism increased linearly with the speed of locomotion. The recovery period was characterized by a large oxygen debt. The primary respiratory adjustment to exercise was an increased ventilation volume; only a minor increase in oxygen extraction occurred. The respiratory exchange ratio increased during exercise and during recovery, presumably correlated with a metabolic acidosis. These results are similar to data collected for exercising vertebrates and the net cost of locomotion of crabs appears similar to quadrupeds. However, the heart rate in exercising crabs changed in an unexpected way: during moderate exercise no change was noted, but during heavy exercise a bradycardia developed. The reduction in rate resulted from an increase in interbeat interval and frequent pauses in the heart beat.

  16. Low Cost Heart Rate Monitor Using Led-Led Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mahrous Ragib

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A high sensitivity, low power and low cost sensor has been developed for photoplethysmography (PPG measurement. The PPG principle was applied to follow the dilatation and contraction of skin blood vessels during the cardiac cycle. A standard light emitting diodes (LEDs has been used as a light emitter and detector, and in order to reduce the space, cost and power, the classical analogue-to-digital converters (ADCs replaced by the pulse-based signal conversion techniques. A general purpose microcontroller has been used for the implementation of measurement protocol. The proposed approach leads to better spectral sensitivity, increased resolution, reduction in cost, dimensions and power consumption. The basic sensing configuration presented is capable of detecting the PPG signal from a finger or toe, and it is very simple to extract the heart rate and heart rate variability from such a signal.

  17. Heart rate dynamics preceding hemorrhage in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Travis J; Clark, Matthew T; Lake, Douglas E; Moorman, J Randall; Calland, J Forrest

    2015-01-01

    Occult hemorrhage in surgical/trauma intensive care unit (STICU) patients is common and may lead to circulatory collapse. Continuous electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring may allow for early identification and treatment, and could improve outcomes. We studied 4,259 consecutive admissions to the STICU at the University of Virginia Health System. We collected ECG waveform data captured by bedside monitors and calculated linear and non-linear measures of the RR interbeat intervals. We tested the hypothesis that a transfusion requirement of 3 or more PRBC transfusions in a 24 hour period is preceded by dynamical changes in these heart rate measures and performed logistic regression modeling. We identified 308 hemorrhage events. A multivariate model including heart rate, standard deviation of the RR intervals, detrended fluctuation analysis, and local dynamics density had a C-statistic of 0.62. Earlier detection of hemorrhage might improve outcomes by allowing earlier resuscitation in STICU patients. PMID:26342251

  18. Heart Rate Variability: Why Chaos can be healthy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cancino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Body autonomic interactions, mediated by sympathetic-parasympathetic balance, have been widely associated with stress and internal homeostasis. The acquisition of data, otherwise hidden in the signal from RR interval duration in heart rate, has given scientists access to the quantification of autonomic balance in humans, as long as the appropriate mathematical analyses are performed. With this information it is possible to know and understand the chaotic behavior of RR signals; this behavior shows the existence of heart rate variability (HRV. Variability is lost in some conditions associated with the presence of pathologies. In addition, with exercise being a stress agent, HRV analysis has been used as a tool to study training load assimilation and overtraining syndrome.

  19. Scientific Comparison of Different Online Heart Rate Monitoring Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Schönfelder; Georg Hinterseher; Philipp Peter; Peter Spitzenpfeil

    2011-01-01

    Recent technical development focused on real-time heart rate monitoring instead of postexercise evaluation of recorded data. There are several systems on the market that allow direct and real-time monitoring of several individuals at the same time. The present study compared the systems of Polar, Acentas, Activio, and Suunto in a field test with twelve subjects regarding failure quota, operating distance, and ECG validity. Moreover, the installation and use of software and hardware were evalu...

  20. Fetal heart rate monitoring: from Doppler to computerized analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Ji Young; Park, In Yang

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring of fetal heart rate (FHR) status is an important method to check well-being of the baby during labor. Since the electronic FHR monitoring was introduced 40 years ago, it has been expected to be an innovative screening test to detect fetuses who are becoming hypoxic and who may benefit from cesarean delivery or operative vaginal delivery. However, several randomized controlled trials have failed to prove that electronic FHR monitoring had any benefit of reducing the perinatal mo...

  1. The Effect of Mindfulness on Heart Rate Control

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Ryan P.; Delizonna, Laura L.; Langer, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that mindful attention to change regarding heart rate (HR) would result in greater control over HR. Experimental groups monitored the changing or stable nature of HR, respectively. All participants' HR slowed during the decrease phase. Participants whose attention was directed to the stable nature of HR performed the worst on the increase phase of the HR control task. These results suggest that mindfulness, instantiated here as attention to v...

  2. Revisiting the exercise heart rate-music tempo preference relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Karageorghis, CI; Jones, L.; Priest, DL; Akers, RI; Clarke, A.; Perry, JM; Reddick, BT; Bishop, DT; Lim, HBT

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated a hypothesized quartic relationship (meaning three inflection points) between exercise heart rate (HR) and preferred music tempo. Initial theoretical predictions suggested a positive linear relationship (Iwanaga, 1995a, 1995b); however, recent experimental work has shown that as exercise HR increases, step changes and plateaus that punctuate the profile of music tempo preference may occur (Karageorghis, Jones, & Stuart, 2008). Tempi bands consisted of slo...

  3. Factors related to heart rate variability among firefighters

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Jae-Hong; Lee, Jung-Youb; Yang, Seon-Hee; Lee, Mi-Young; Chung, In-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with heart rate variability in firefighters working in a metropolitan city in South Korea. Methods Self-administered questionnaires including Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) as well as surveys collecting socio-demographic characteristics and work-related factors were given to 962 firefighters. After exclusion for missing data, 645 firefighters were included, and analysis of covaiance adjusted for the general risk f...

  4. Foetal heart rate recording: analysis and comparison of different methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffo, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring foetal health is a very important task in clinical practice to appropriately plan pregnancy management and delivery. In the third trimester of pregnancy, ultrasound cardiotocography is the most employed diagnostic technique: foetal heart rate and uterine contractions signals are simultaneously recorded and analysed in order to ascertain foetal health. Because ultrasound cardiotocography interpretation still lacks of complete reliability, new parameters and methods of interpreta...

  5. Spectral photoplethysmographic imaging sensor fusion for enhanced heart rate detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelard, Robert; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Continuous heart rate monitoring can provide important context for quantitative clinical assessment in scenarios such as long-term health monitoring and disability prevention. Photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) systems are particularly useful for such monitoring scenarios as contact-based devices pose problems related to comfort and mobility. Each pixel can be regarded as a virtual PPG sensor, thus enabling simultaneous measurements of multiple skin sites. Existing PPGI systems analyze temporal PPGI sensor uctuations related to hemodynamic pulsations across a region of interest to extract the blood pulse signal. However, due to spatially varying optical properties of the skin, the blood pulse signal may not be consistent across all PPGI sensors, leading to inaccurate heart rate monitoring. To increase the hemodynamic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), we propose a novel spectral PPGI sensor fusion method for enhanced estimation of the true blood pulse signal. Motivated by the observation that PPGI sensors with high hemodynamic SNR exhibit a spectral energy peak at the heart rate frequency, an entropy-based fusion model was formulated to combine PPGI sensors based on the sensors' spectral energy distribution. The optical PPGI device comprised a near infrared (NIR) sensitive camera and an 850 nm LED. Spatially uniform irradiance was achieved by placing optical elements along the LED beam, providing consistent illumination across the skin area. Dual-mode temporally coded illumination was used to negate the temporal effect of ambient illumination. Experimental results show that the spectrally weighted PPGI method can accurately and consistently extract heart rate information where traditional region-based averaging fails.

  6. Heart rate, startle response, and intrusive trauma memories

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, C. Y.; Marca, R. L.; Steptoe, A; Brewin, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    The current study adopted the trauma film paradigm to examine potential moderators affecting heart rate (HR) as an indicator of peritraumatic psychological states and as a predictor of intrusive memories. We replicated previous findings that perifilm HR decreases predicted the development of intrusive images and further showed this effect to be specific to images rather than thoughts, and to detail rather than gist recognition memory. Moreover, a group of individuals showing both an atypical ...

  7. Heart Rate Variability Analysis in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Ying Lan; Guo-She Lee; An-Suey Shiao; Jen-Hung Ko; Chih-Hung Shu

    2013-01-01

    Background. Very few studies investigate the role of the autonomic nervous system in allergic rhinitis. In this study, we evaluated the autonomic nervous system in allergic rhinitis patients using heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. Methods. Eleven patients with allergic rhinitis and 13 healthy controls, aged between 19 and 40 years old, were enrolled in the study. Diagnosis of allergic rhinitis was based on clinical history, symptoms, and positive Phadiatop test. Electrocardiographic reco...

  8. Eurythmy therapy increases specific oscillations of heart rate variability

    OpenAIRE

    Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Minnerop, Antje; Trapp, Barbara; Büssing, Arndt; Cysarz, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Background Mind-body therapies are beneficial for several diseases (e.g. chronic pain, arterial hypertension, mood disorders). Eurythmy therapy (EYT) is a mind-body therapy from Anthroposophic Medicine. In each EYT exercise a short sequence of body movements and simultaneous guided imagery is repeated several times. In this study, the simultaneous effects of two different EYT exercises on cardiac autonomic regulation as assessed by spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) were invest...

  9. Abnormal heart rate turbulence predicts the initiation of ventricular arrhythmias

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasa, Atsushi; Hwa, Michael; Hassankhani, Alborz; Liu, Taylor; Narayan, Sanjiv M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Abnormal heart rate turbulence (HRT) reflects autonomic derangements predicting all-cause mortality, yet has riot been shown to predict ventriculor arrhythmias in at-risk patients. We hypothesized that HRT at programmed ventricular stimulation (PVS) would predict arrhythmia initiation in patients with left ventriculor dysfunction. Methods: We studied 27 patients with coronary disease, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 26.7 +/- 9.1%, and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (B...

  10. Heart rate and blood lactate responses during competitive Olympic boardsailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guével, A; Maïsetti, O; Prou, E; Dubois, J J; Marini, J F

    1999-02-01

    The rules of competitive boardsailing events were changed before the Atlanta Olympic Games. Pumping the sail (pulling repeatedly on the rig) is now allowed and the duration of races has been shortened. Eight members of the French national team (mean age 23+/-2.7 years) participated in this study. Their cardiac and metabolic responses were assessed by measuring heart rate and blood lactate concentration during various competitive events in two strengths of wind (light vs. moderate). Heart rate was higher in light (87.4+/-4.3% HRmax; mean racing time 37 min) than in moderate wind conditions (82.9+/-5.3% HRmax; mean racing time 33 min). The mean post-race blood lactate concentration (5.2+/-1.0 mmol x l(-1)) was not affected by the wind conditions. Mean heart rate was highest during downwind legs (88.0+/-3.1% HRmax; duration 7-10 min). The races consisted of two laps, the first of which induced significantly higher cardiac demands than the second. We conclude that the changes to the rules of competitive boardsailing have increased the cardiac and metabolic efforts involved. PMID:10069270

  11. Local dynamics of heart rate: detection and prognostic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The original observation that reduced heart rate variability (HRV) confers poor prognosis after myocardial infarction has been followed by many studies of heart rate dynamics. We tested the hypothesis that an entropy-based local dynamics measure gave prognostic information in ambulatory patients undergoing 24-h electrocardiography. In this context, entropy is the probability that short templates will find matches in the time series. We studied RR interval time series from 24-h Holter monitors of 1564 consecutive patients over age 39. We generated histograms of the count of templates as a function of the number of templates matches in short RR interval time series, and found characteristic appearance of histograms for atrial fibrillation, sinus rhythm with normal HRV, and sinus rhythm with reduced HRV and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). We developed statistical models to detect the abnormal dynamic phenotype of reduced HRV with PVCs and fashioned a local dynamics score (LDs) that, after controlling for age, added more prognostic information than other standard risk factors and common HRV metrics, including, to our surprise, the PVC count and the HRV of normal-to-normal intervals. Addition of the LDs to a predictive model using standard risk factors significantly increased the ROC area and the net reclassification improvement was 27%. We conclude that abnormal local dynamics of heart rate confer adverse prognosis in patients undergoing 24-h ambulatory electrocardiography. (paper)

  12. Poincare indices for analyzing meditative heart rate signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Goshvarpour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poincare plots are commonly used to study the nonlinear behavior of physiologic signals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the Poincare plot indices of human heart rate signals during meditation. Methods: For this purpose, heart rate time series of eight Chi meditators available in Physionet database were used. Poincare plots with lags of 1 and 6 were constructed, and the ratio of the minor axis to major axis (SD1/SD2 and the area of Poincare plots were calculated for each lag. Results: The results show that the SD1/SD2 ratio increased significantly during meditation compared to that before meditation, especially the index measured from Poincare plots reconstructed with a lag of 6 (p < 0.05. In addition, in both lags, the area of Poincare plots decreased significantly during meditation compared to before meditation (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The comparative dynamic measures of the Poincare plot indices during and before meditation give more insight of the heart rate signals in a specific psychophysiological state.

  13. Stress Detection Using Low Cost Heart Rate Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Salai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The automated detection of stress is a central problem for ambient assisted living solutions. The paper presents the concepts and results of two studies targeted at stress detection with a low cost heart rate sensor, a chest belt. In the device validation study (n=5, we compared heart rate data and other features from the belt to those measured by a gold standard device to assess the reliability of the sensor. With simple synchronization and data cleaning algorithm, we were able to select highly (>97% correlated, low average error (2.2% data segments of considerable length from the chest data for further processing. The protocol for the clinical study (n=46 included a relax phase followed by a phase with provoked mental stress, 10 minutes each. We developed a simple method for the detection of the stress using only three time-domain features of the heart rate signal. The method produced accuracy of 74.6%, sensitivity of 75.0%, and specificity of 74.2%, which is impressive compared to the performance of two state-of-the-art methods run on the same data. Since the proposed method uses only time-domain features, it can be efficiently implemented on mobile devices.

  14. Local dynamics of heart rate: detection and prognostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Travis J; Lake, Douglas E; Moorman, J Randall

    2014-10-01

    The original observation that reduced heart rate variability (HRV) confers poor prognosis after myocardial infarction has been followed by many studies of heart rate dynamics. We tested the hypothesis that an entropy-based local dynamics measure gave prognostic information in ambulatory patients undergoing 24-h electrocardiography. In this context, entropy is the probability that short templates will find matches in the time series. We studied RR interval time series from 24-h Holter monitors of 1564 consecutive patients over age 39. We generated histograms of the count of templates as a function of the number of templates matches in short RR interval time series, and found characteristic appearance of histograms for atrial fibrillation, sinus rhythm with normal HRV, and sinus rhythm with reduced HRV and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). We developed statistical models to detect the abnormal dynamic phenotype of reduced HRV with PVCs and fashioned a local dynamics score (LDs) that, after controlling for age, added more prognostic information than other standard risk factors and common HRV metrics, including, to our surprise, the PVC count and the HRV of normal-to-normal intervals. Addition of the LDs to a predictive model using standard risk factors significantly increased the ROC area and the net reclassification improvement was 27%. We conclude that abnormal local dynamics of heart rate confer adverse prognosis in patients undergoing 24-h ambulatory electrocardiography. PMID:25229393

  15. Heart rate variability in patients being treated for Dengue viral infection: New insights from mathematical correction of heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERT eCARTER III

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Severe dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF is a viral infection that acts to increase permeability of capillaries, resulting in internal hemorrhage. Linear frequency domain Fourier spectral analysis represents the most published noninvasive tool for diagnosing and assessing health status via calculated heart rate variability (HRV. As such, HRV may be useful in assessing clinical status in DHF patients, but is prone to erroneous results and conclusions due to the influence of the average HR during the time period of HRV assessment (defined as the ’prevailing’ HR. We tested the hypothesis that alterations in HRV calculated with linear frequency analysis would be minimal when mathematically corrected for prevailing HR following dengue viral infection. Methods: Male (N=16 and female (N= 11 patients between the ages of 6 months and 15 years of age (10 ± 6 SD years were tracked through the progression of the dengue viral infection with treatment following the abatement of a fever (defervescence. Electrocardiographic recordings were collected and analyzed for HRV. Results: High frequency (HF, low frequency (LF, and LF/HF ratio were unaffected by correction for prevailing HR. Conclusion: HRV corrected for changes in HR did not alter the interpretations of our data. Therefore, we conclude that cardiac parasympathetic activity (HF frequency is responsible for the majority of the HR reduction following defervescence in patients with dengue viral infection.

  16. Effects of metronome breathing on the assessment of autonomic control using heart rate variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaksma, J; Brouwer, J; vandenBerg, MP; Dijk, WA; Dassen, WRM; Crijns, HJGM; Mulder, Lambertus; Mulder, Gysbertus

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of Heart Rate Variability is a non-invasive quantitative tool to study the influence of the autonomic nervous system on the heart. Rapid variations in heart rate, related to breathing are primarily mediated by the vagal limb of the autonomic nervous system. The resulting variations in heart

  17. Heart Rate Variability during Social Interactions in Children with and without Psychopathology: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrestani, Sara; Stewart, Elizabeth M.; Quintana, Daniel S.; Hickie, Ian B.; Guastella, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The inability to regulate autonomic activity during social interactions is believed to contribute to social and emotional dysregulation in children. Research has employed heart rate variability (HRV) during both socially engaging and socially disengaging dyadic tasks between children and adults to assess this. Methods: We conducted a…

  18. Bluetooth(Registered Trademark) Heart Rate Monitors for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Roxanne E.; West, Michael R.; Kalogera, Kent L.; Hanson, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring is required during exercise for crewmembers aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be for future exploration missions. The cardiovascular system must be sufficiently stressed throughout a mission to maintain the ability to perform nominal and contingency/emergency tasks. High quality heart rate data is required to accurately determine the intensity of exercise performed by the crewmembers and show maintenance of VO2max. The quality of the data collected on ISS is subject to multiple limitations and is insufficient to meet current requirements. PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of commercially available Bluetooth® heart rate monitors (BT_HRM) and their ability to provide high quality heart rate data to monitor crew health on board ISS and during future exploration missions. METHODS: Nineteen subjects completed 30 data collection sessions of various intensities on the treadmill and/or cycle. Subjects wore several BT_HRM technologies for each testing session. One electrode-based chest strap (CS) was worn, while one or more optical sensors (OS) was worn. Subjects were instrumented with a 12-lead ECG to compare the heart rate data from the Bluetooth sensors. Each BT_RHM data set was time matched to the ECG data and a +/-5bpm threshold was applied to the difference between the two data sets. Percent error was calculated based on the number of data points outside the threshold and the total number of data points. REULTS: The electrode-based chest straps performed better than the optical sensors. The best performing CS was CS1 (1.6%error), followed by CS4 (3.3%error), CS3 (6.4%error), and CS2 (9.2%error). The OS resulted in 10.4% error for OS1 and 14.9% error for OS2. CONCLUSIONS: The highest quality data came from CS1, unfortunately it has been discontinued by the manufacturer. The optical sensors have not been ruled out for use, but more investigation is needed to determine how to get the best quality data. CS2 will be used in an

  19. The relation of ambulatory heart rate with all-cause mortality among middle-aged men: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Korshøj

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the association between average 24-hour ambulatory heart rate and all-cause mortality, while adjusting for resting clinical heart rate, cardiorespiratory fitness, occupational and leisure time physical activity as well as classical risk factors. A group of 439 middle-aged male workers free of baseline coronary heart disease from the Belgian Physical Fitness Study was included in the analysis. Data were collected by questionnaires and clinical examinations from 1976 to 1978. All-cause mortality was collected from the national mortality registration with a mean follow-up period of 16.5 years, with a total of 48 events. After adjustment for all before mentioned confounders in a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, a significant increased risk for all-cause mortality was found among the tertile of workers with highest average ambulatory heart rate compared to the tertile with lowest ambulatory heart rate (Hazard ratio = 3.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.22-8.44. No significant independent association was found between resting clinic heart rate and all-cause mortality. The study indicates that average 24-hour ambulatory heart rate is a strong predictor of all-cause mortality independent from resting clinic heart rate, cardiorespiratory fitness, occupational and leisure time physical activity and other classical risk factors among healthy middle-aged workers.

  20. Relationship between exercise heart rate and music tempo preference

    OpenAIRE

    Karageorghis, CI; Jones, L.; Low, DC

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the predicted positive and linear relationship (Iwanaga, 1995a,1995b) between exercise heart rate and music tempo preference. Initially, 128 undergraduates (M 3 age = 20.0 years, SD = 0.9 years) were surveyed to establish their three favorite music artists of all time. A separate experimental group of 29 undergraduates (M age = 20.3 years, SD = 1.2 years) selected the music of a single artist from a choice of the three highest-rated artists from the earlier survey. ...

  1. Classifying work rate from heart rate measurements using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolus, Ahmet; Imbeau, Daniel; Dubé, Philippe-Antoine; Dubeau, Denise

    2016-05-01

    In a new approach based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS), field heart rate (HR) measurements were used to classify work rate into four categories: very light, light, moderate, and heavy. Inter-participant variability (physiological and physical differences) was considered. Twenty-eight participants performed Meyer and Flenghi's step-test and a maximal treadmill test, during which heart rate and oxygen consumption (VO2) were measured. Results indicated that heart rate monitoring (HR, HRmax, and HRrest) and body weight are significant variables for classifying work rate. The ANFIS classifier showed superior sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy compared to current practice using established work rate categories based on percent heart rate reserve (%HRR). The ANFIS classifier showed an overall 29.6% difference in classification accuracy and a good balance between sensitivity (90.7%) and specificity (95.2%) on average. With its ease of implementation and variable measurement, the ANFIS classifier shows potential for widespread use by practitioners for work rate assessment. PMID:26851475

  2. Loss of lag-response curvilinearity of indices of heart rate variability in congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Michael L

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart rate variability (HRV is known to be impaired in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF. Time-domain analysis of ECG signals traditionally relies heavily on linear indices of an essentially non-linear phenomenon. Poincaré plots are commonly used to study non-linear behavior of physiologic signals. Lagged Poincaré plots incorporate autocovariance information and analysis of Poincaré plots for various lags can provide interesting insights into the autonomic control of the heart. Methods Using Poincaré plot analysis, we assessed whether the relation of the lag between heart beats and HRV is altered in CHF. We studied the influence of lag on estimates of Poincaré plot indices for various lengths of beat sequence in a public domain data set (PhysioNet of 29 subjects with CHF and 54 subjects with normal sinus rhythm. Results A curvilinear association was observed between lag and Poincaré plot indices (SD1, SD2, SDLD and SD1/SD2 ratio in normal subjects even for a small sequence of 50 beats (p value for quadratic term 3 × 10-5, 0.002, 3.5 × 10-5 and 0.0003, respectively. This curvilinearity was lost in patients with CHF even after exploring sequences up to 50,000 beats (p values for quadratic term > 0.5. Conclusion Since lagged Poincaré plots incorporate autocovariance information, these analyses provide insights into the autonomic control of heart rate that is influenced by the non-linearity of the signal. The differences in lag-response in CHF patients and normal subjects exist even in the face of the treatment received by the CHF patients.

  3. Heart rate turbulence and variability in patients with ventricular arrhythmias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Tarricone

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the changes in autonomic neural control mechanisms before malignant ventricular arrhythmias, we measured heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate turbulence (HRT in patients with ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (Group I; n=6, non sustained ventricular tachycardia (Group II; n=32, frequent premature ventricular beats (Group III; n=26 and with ICD implantation (Group IV; n=11. Methods: Time domain parameters of HRV and turbulence onset (TO and slope (TS were calculated on 24 hour Holter recordings. Normal values were: SDNN > 70 msec for HRV, TO <0% and TS >2.5 msec/RR-I for HRT. Results: Whereas SDNN was within normal range and similar in all study groups, HRT parameters were significantly different in patients who experienced VT/VF during Holter recording. Abnormal TO and/or TS were present in 100% of Group I patients and only in about 50% of Group II and IV. On the contrary, normal HRT parameters were present in 40-70% of Group II, III and IV patients and none of Group I. Conclusions: These data suggest that HRT analysis is more suitable than HRV to detect those transient alterations in autonomic control mechanisms that are likely to play a major trigger role in the genesis of malignant cardiac arrhythmias. (Heart International 2007; 3: 51-7

  4. Alternate Nostril Breathing at Different Rates and its Influence on Heart Rate Variability in Non Practitioners of Yoga

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.R, Devaki; P., Saikumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Heart rate variability is a measure of modulation in autonomic input to the heart and is one of the markers of autonomic functions. Though there are many studies on the long term influence of breathing on HRV (heart rate variability) there are only a few studies on the immediate effect of breathing especially alternate nostril breathing on HRV. This study focuses on the immediate effects of alternate nostril breathing and the influence of different breathing rates on HRV. Materials and Methods The study was done on 25 subjects in the age group of 17-35 years. ECG and respiration were recorded before intervention and immediately after the subjects were asked to perform alternate nostril breathing for five minutes. Results Low frequency (LF) which is a marker of sympathetic activity increased, high frequency (HF) which is a marker of parasympathetic activity decreased and their ratio LF/HF which is a marker of sympatho/vagal balance increased immediately after 6 and 12 minutes in comparison to baseline values whereas there was no significant difference in the means of these components when both 6 and 12 minutes were compared. Conclusion Immediate effects of alternate nostril breathing on HRV in non practitioners of yogic breathing are very different from the long term influence of yogic breathing on HRV which show a predominant parasympathetic influence on the heart. PMID:26894062

  5. Effect of meditation on scaling behavior and complexity of human heart rate variability

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, A

    2006-01-01

    The heart beat data recorded from samples before and during meditation are analyzed using two different scaling analysis methods. These analyses revealed that mediation severely affects the long range correlation of heart beat of a normal heart. Moreover, it is found that meditation induces periodic behavior in the heart beat. The complexity of the heart rate variability is quantified using multiscale entropy analysis and recurrence analysis. The complexity of the heart beat during mediation is found to be more.

  6. Heart dimensions may influence the occurrence of the heart rate deflection point in highly trained cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, A.; Carvajal, A.; Boraita, A.; Serratosa, L.; Hoyos, J.; Chicharro, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the heart rate (HR) response to exercise in 21 highly trained cyclists (mean (SD) age 25 (3) years) was related to their heart dimensions. METHODS: Before performing an incremental exercise test involving a ramp protocol with workload increases of 25 W/min, each subject underwent echocardiographic evaluation of the following variables: left ventricular end diastolic internal diameter (LVIDd), left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end diastole (LVPWTd), interventricular septal wall thickness at end diastole (IVSTd), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), left atrial dimension (LAD), longitudinal left atrial (LLAD) and right atrial (LRAD) dimensions, and the ratio of early to late (E/A) diastolic flow velocity. RESULTS: The HR response showed a deflection point (HRd) at about 85% VO2MAX in 66.7% of subjects (D group; n = 14) and was linear in 33.3% (NoD group; n = 7). Several echocardiographic variables (LVMI, LAD, LLAD, LRAD) indicative of heart dimensions were similar in each group. However, mean LPWTd (p<0.01) and IVSTd (p<0.05) values were significantly higher in the D group. Finally, no significant difference between groups was found with respect to the E/A. CONCLUSIONS: The HR response is curvilinear during incremental exercise in a considerable number of highly trained endurance athletes-that is, top level cyclists. The departure of HR increase from linearity may predominantly occur in athletes with thicker heart walls. 


 PMID:10597846

  7. VASCULAR REMODELING AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN DIFFERENT ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Golovanova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of the long-term antihypertensive monotherapy with indapamide (Arifon Retard, 1,5 mg/d, metoprolol tartrate (Egilok Retard, 50 mg/d and combined therapy with indapamide and perindopril (Noliprel Forte, 1 tab/d: perindopril 4 mg and indapamide 1,25 mg on pulse wave velocity (PWV, cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI and the sympathetic system activity.Material and methods. 88 patients, aged 30-59 y.o. (32 normotensive patients, 56 with arterial hypertension [HT] of 1-2 grades were examined. Biological age (BA was determined by the linear regression and the vascular wall age (VWA was estimated with the use of volume sphygmography (“VaSera-1000”, “Fucuda Denshi”, Japan. 39 patients with HT were randomized into 3 parallel groups with studied therapies lasted for 6 months. PWV, CAVI of the vessels of elastic, muscular and mixed types, blood pressure, measured in upper and lower extremities and heart rate variability (HRV were determined before and at the end of the therapies.Results. BA and VWA were elevated in all of patients with HT as compared with normotensive patients. The reduction in PWV and CAVI of the vessels of elastic and mixed types, HRV increase were found in patients with Arifon Retard monotherapy. Monotherapy with metoprolol significantly improved HVR without any influence on the vascular remodeling. Noliprel Forte significantly decreased in blood pressure in the upper and lower extremities, PWV and CAVI of the vessels of all types, decreased in VWA and increased in parasympathetic drive.Conclusion. Long-term therapy with Arifon Retard and Noliprel Forte resulted in decrease in vascular remodeling and increase in HRV simultaneously with significant antihypertensive effect in patients with HT. Metoprolol low doses therapy resulted in normalization of autonomic drive independently on antihypertensive action.

  8. Heart rate variability in normal and pathological sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora eTobaldini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is a physiological process involving different biological systems, from molecular to organ level; its integrity is essential for maintaining health and homeostasis in human beings. Although in the past sleep has been considered a state of quiet, experimental and clinical evidences suggest a noteworthy activation of different biological systems during sleep. A key role is played by the autonomic nervous system (ANS, whose modulation regulates cardiovascular functions during sleep onset and different sleep stages. Therefore, an interest on the evaluation of autonomic cardiovascular control in health and disease is growing by means of linear and non linear heart rate variability (HRV analyses. The application of classical tools for ANS analysis, such as HRV during physiological sleep, showed that the rapid eye movement (REM stage is characterized by a likely sympathetic predominance associated with a vagal withdrawal, while the opposite trend is observed during non-REM sleep. More recently, the use of non linear tools, such as entropy-derived indices, have provided new insight on the cardiac autonomic regulation, revealing for instance changes in the cardiovascular complexity during REM sleep, supporting the hypothesis of a reduced capability of the cardiovascular system to deal with stress challenges. Interestingly, different HRV tools have been applied to characterize autonomic cardiac control in different pathological conditions, from neurological sleep disorders to sleep disordered breathing (SDB. In summary, linear and non linear analysis of HRV are reliable approaches to assess changes of autonomic cardiac modulation during sleep both in health and diseases. The use of these tools could provide important information of clinical and prognostic relevance.

  9. Time Domain Measures of Heart Rate Variability to Assess Autonomic Dysfunction In Irritable Bowel Syndrome

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    Mohammad Nayem, Noorzahan Begum, Sultana Ferdousi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Autonomic nerve function impairment is related to development of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS. Time domain measures of Heart rate variability (HRV is a useful tool to measure autonomic nerve function activity.Objective: To assess autonomic nerve function activity by time domain measures of heart rate variability in patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU, Dhaka in 2011. Ninety patients aged 20-50 years of both sex with Irritable bowel syndrome were included in the study group. They were collected from the OPD of Gastroenterology in BSMMU. Age and sex matched 30 apparently healthy subjects served as control. For assessing HRV by time domain method, Mean heart rate Mean R-R interval, Max/Min R-R interval, SDNN, RMSSD, PNN50%, NN50% were recorded by a digital Polyrite. ANOVA, independent sample t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient tests were performed as applicable.Results: Mean heart rate were significantly higher and Mean R-R interval, Max/Min R-R interval, SDNN, RMSSD, PNN50%, NN50% were significantly lower in IBS groups compared to those of control. Correlation analysis showed negative correlations of SDNN, RMSSD, PNN50%, NN50% with duration of disease.Conclusion: This study concludes that parasympathetic activity was reduced in patients of IBS. In addition, decreased vagal modulation is inversely related to the duration IBS.

  10. Heart rate responses to autonomic challenges in obstructive sleep apnea.

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    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is accompanied by structural alterations and dysfunction in central autonomic regulatory regions, which may impair dynamic and static cardiovascular regulation, and contribute to other syndrome pathologies. Characterizing cardiovascular responses to autonomic challenges may provide insights into central nervous system impairments, including contributions by sex, since structural alterations are enhanced in OSA females over males. The objective was to assess heart rate responses in OSA versus healthy control subjects to autonomic challenges, and, separately, characterize female and male patterns. We studied 94 subjects, including 37 newly-diagnosed, untreated OSA patients (6 female, age mean ± std: 52.1 ± 8.1 years; 31 male aged 54.3 ± 8.4 years, and 57 healthy control subjects (20 female, 50.5 ± 8.1 years; 37 male, 45.6 ± 9.2 years. We measured instantaneous heart rate with pulse oximetry during cold pressor, hand grip, and Valsalva maneuver challenges. All challenges elicited significant heart rate differences between OSA and control groups during and after challenges (repeated measures ANOVA, p<0.05. In post-hoc analyses, OSA females showed greater impairments than OSA males, which included: for cold pressor, lower initial increase (OSA vs. control: 9.5 vs. 7.3 bpm in females, 7.6 vs. 3.7 bpm in males, OSA delay to initial peak (2.5 s females/0.9 s males, slower mid-challenge rate-of-increase (OSA vs. control: -0.11 vs. 0.09 bpm/s in females, 0.03 vs. 0.06 bpm/s in males; for hand grip, lower initial peak (OSA vs. control: 2.6 vs. 4.6 bpm in females, 5.3 vs. 6.0 bpm in males; for Valsalva maneuver, lower Valsalva ratio (OSA vs. control: 1.14 vs. 1.30 in females, 1.29 vs. 1.34 in males, and OSA delay during phase II (0.68 s females/1.31 s males. Heart rate responses showed lower amplitude, delayed onset, and slower rate changes in OSA patients over healthy controls, and impairments may be more pronounced in

  11. Effect of Cardiac Rehabilitation Program on Heart Rate Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease

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    Leila Mahdavi Anari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been suggested that the autonomic system function and the metabolic syndrome can significantly affect patients' survival. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of the cardiac rehabilitation program on the autonomic system balance in patients with coronary artery disease.Methods: Patients with a previous diagnosis of coronary artery disease who were referred to the Cardiovascular Rehabilitation Center of Afshar Hospital (Yazd, Iran between March and November 2011 were enrolled. All the patients participated in rehabilitation sessions 3 times a week for 12 weeks. Heart rate recovery (HRR was measured as an indicator of the autonomic system balance. In order to calculate HRR, the maximum heart rate during the exercise test was recorded. At the end of the exercise test, the patients were asked to sit down without having a cooldown period and their heart rate was recorded again after 1 minute. The difference between these 2 measurements was considered as HRR.Results: A total of 108 patients, including 86 (79.6% men and 22 (20.4% women, completed the rehabilitation course. The mean age of the study participants was 58.25 ± 9.83 years. A statistically significant improvement was observed in HRR (p value = 0.040. Significant declines were also observed in the patients' waist circumference (p value < 0.001 and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p value = 0.018 and 0.003, respectively. A decreasing trend was observed in the patients' body mass index, but it failed to reach statistical significance (p value = 0.063. No statistically meaningful changes were noted in fasting blood glucose (p value = 0.171, high-density lipoprotein (p value = 0.070, or triglyceride concentrations (p value = 0.149. Conclusion: The cardiac rehabilitation program may help to improve HRR and several components of the metabolic syndrome in patients with coronary heart disease.

  12. COMPARISON OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY ADJUSTED FOR AGE AND HEART RATE IN WOMEN WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND WOMEN WITHOUT RHEUMATIC DISEASES

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    D. S. Novikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the 24-hour indicators of heart rate variability (HRV, adjusted for age and 24-hour average heart rate (HR24 in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and women of the control group.Material and methods. Women with RA (n=291 at the age of 20-60 were examined. Women without rheumatic diseases (n=125 were included into control group. The presence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the results of 24-hour ECG monitoring were assessed in addition to clinical symptoms, RA activity and severity. Transformation of the initial HRV parameters in their logarithms, and the standardization of the logarithms of age and HR24, the calculation of the exponential of the standardized logarithm were performed to remove the effects of age and heart rate on HRV.Results. Time and frequency HRV indices, adjusted for age and HP24 (HRVa in women with RA were lower than these in women of control group. HRVa decline was observed in 14–24% of women with RA. The maximum HRVa decrease was observed among the parameters that reflect an activity of parasympathetic autonomic nervous system (RMSSDn, pNN50n, HFn.Conclusion. The young and middle age women with RA differ from the women of the control group in significant decrease in the time and spectral HRV indices adjusted for age and HR24.

  13. COMPARISON OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY ADJUSTED FOR AGE AND HEART RATE IN WOMEN WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND WOMEN WITHOUT RHEUMATIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Novikova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the 24-hour indicators of heart rate variability (HRV, adjusted for age and 24-hour average heart rate (HR24 in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and women of the control group.Material and methods. Women with RA (n=291 at the age of 20-60 were examined. Women without rheumatic diseases (n=125 were included into control group. The presence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the results of 24-hour ECG monitoring were assessed in addition to clinical symptoms, RA activity and severity. Transformation of the initial HRV parameters in their logarithms, and the standardization of the logarithms of age and HR24, the calculation of the exponential of the standardized logarithm were performed to remove the effects of age and heart rate on HRV.Results. Time and frequency HRV indices, adjusted for age and HP24 (HRVa in women with RA were lower than these in women of control group. HRVa decline was observed in 14–24% of women with RA. The maximum HRVa decrease was observed among the parameters that reflect an activity of parasympathetic autonomic nervous system (RMSSDn, pNN50n, HFn.Conclusion. The young and middle age women with RA differ from the women of the control group in significant decrease in the time and spectral HRV indices adjusted for age and HR24.

  14. Effect of slow breathing training on heart rate, spontaneous respiratory rate and pattern of breathing

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    Ritu Adhana

    2016-04-01

    Results: After three months of practicing slow breathing there was statistically significant reduction in heart rate and spontaneous respiratory rate. Shifting of pattern of breathing from thoracic pattern to abdominal pattern of breathing was also very highly significant. Conclusions: The study showed that slow breathing technique causes comprehensive change in body physiology by controlling autonomic nervous system. It regularizes rate and pattern of breathing. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(4.000: 1027-1030

  15. Research progress in nonlinear analysis of heart electric activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear science research is a hot point in the world. It has deepened our cognition of determinism and randomicity, simplicity and complexity, noise and order and it will profoundly influence the progress of the study of natural science, including life science.Life is the most complex nonlinear system and heart is the core of lifecycle system. In the late more than 20 years, nonlinear research on heart electric activities has made much headway. The commonly used parameters are based on chaos and fractal theory, such as correlation dimension, Lyapunov exponent, Kolmogorov entropy and multifractal singularity spectrum. This paper summarizes the commonly used methods in the nonlinear study of heart electric signal. Then, considering the shortages of the above traditional nonlinear parameters, we mainly introduce the results on short-term heart rate variability (HRV) signal (500 R-R intervals) and HFECG signal (1-2s). Finally, we point out it is worthwhile to put emphasis on the study of the sensitive nonlinearity parameters of short-term heart electric signal and their dynamic character and clinical effectivity.

  16. Optimum Heart Rate to Minimize Pulsatile External Cardiac Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza

    2011-11-01

    The workload on the left ventricle is composed of steady and pulsatile components. Clinical investigations have confirmed that an abnormal pulsatile load plays an important role in the pathogenesis of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and progression of LVH to congestive heart failure (CHF). The pulsatile load is the result of the complex dynamics of wave propagation and reflection in the compliant arterial vasculature. We hypothesize that aortic waves can be optimized to reduce the left ventricular (LV) pulsatile load. We used an in-vitro experimental approach to investigate our hypothesis. A unique hydraulic model was used for in-vitro experiments. This model has physical and dynamical properties similar to the heart-aorta system. Different compliant models of the artificial aorta were used to test the hypothesis under various aortic rigidities. Our results indicate that: i) there is an optimum heart rate that minimizes LV pulsatile power (this is in agreement with our previous computational study); ii) introducing an extra reflection site at the specific location along the aorta creates constructive wave conditions that reduce the LV pulsatile power.

  17. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Heart Rate Variability

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    Jeppe Hagstrup Christensen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA may modulate autonomic control of the heart because omega-3 PUFA is abundant in the brain and other nervous tissue as well as in cardiac tissue. This might partly explain why omega-3 PUFA offer some protection against sudden cardiac death (SCD. The autonomic nervous system is involved in the pathogenesis of SCD. Heart rate variability (HRV can be used as a non-invasive marker of cardiac autonomic control and a low HRV is a predictor for SCD and arrhythmic events. Studies on HRV and omega-3 PUFA have been performed in several populations such as patients with ischemic heart disease, patients with diabetes mellitus, patients with chronic renal failure, and in healthy subjects as well as in children.. The studies have demonstrated a positive association between cellular content of omega-3 PUFA and HRV and supplementation with omega-3 PUFA seems to increase HRV which could be a possible explanation for decreased risk of arrhythmic events and SCD sometimes observed after omega-3 PUFA supplementation. However, the results are not consistent and further research is needed

  18. Resting heart rate, heart rate variability and functional decline in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogliari, Giulia; Mahinrad, Simin; Stott, David J;

    2015-01-01

    variability was defined as the standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR intervals (SDNN). Functional status in basic (ADL) and instrumental (IADL) activities of daily living was measured using Barthel and Lawton scales, at baseline and during follow-up. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 75...

  19. E-bra with nanosensors, smart electronics and smart phone communication network for heart rate monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Oh, Sechang; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Rai, Pratyush; Kegley, Lauren

    2011-04-01

    Heart related ailments have been a major cause for deaths in both men and women in United States. Since 1985, more women than men have died due to cardiac or cardiovascular ailments for reasons that are not well understood as yet. Lack of a deterministic understanding of this phenomenon makes continuous real time monitoring of cardiovascular health the best approach for both early detection of pathophysiological changes and events indicative of chronic cardiovascular diseases in women. This approach requires sensor systems to be seamlessly mounted on day to day clothing for women. With this application in focus, this paper describes a e-bra platform for sensors towards heart rate monitoring. The sensors, nanomaterial or textile based dry electrodes, capture the heart activity signals in form Electrocardiograph (ECG) and relay it to a compact textile mountable amplifier-wireless transmitter module for relay to a smart phone. The ECG signal, acquired on the smart phone, can be transmitted to the cyber space for post processing. As an example, the paper discusses the heart rate estimation and heart rate variability. The data flow from sensor to smart phone to server (cyber infrastructure) has been discussed. The cyber infrastructure based signal post processing offers an opportunity for automated emergency response that can be initiated from the server or the smartphone itself. Detailed protocols for both the scenarios have been presented and their relevance to the present emergency healthcare response system has been discussed.

  20. Heart rate analysis by sparse representation for acute pain detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejman-Yarden, Shai; Levi, Ofer; Beizerov, Alex; Parmet, Yisrael; Nguyen, Tu; Saunders, Michael; Rudich, Zvia; Perry, James C; Baker, Dewleen G; Moeller-Bertram, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    Objective pain assessment methods pose an advantage over the currently used subjective pain rating tools. Advanced signal processing methodologies, including the wavelet transform (WT) and the orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm (OMP), were developed in the past two decades. The aim of this study was to apply and compare these time-specific methods to heart rate samples of healthy subjects for acute pain detection. Fifteen adult volunteers participated in a study conducted in the pain clinic at a single center. Each subject's heart rate was sampled for 5-min baseline, followed by a cold pressor test (CPT). Analysis was done by the WT and the OMP algorithm with a Fourier/Wavelet dictionary separately. Data from 11 subjects were analyzed. Compared to baseline, The WT analysis showed a significant coefficients' density increase during the pain incline period (p algorithm (p algorithm (p detection of pain events. Statistical analysis proved the OMP to be by far more specific allowing the Fourier coefficients to represent the signal's basic harmonics and the wavelet coefficients to focus on the time-specific painful event. This is an initial study using OMP for pain detection; further studies need to prove the efficiency of this system in different settings. PMID:26264057

  1. Relationship between exercise heart rate and music tempo preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorghis, Costas I; Jones, Leighton; Low, Daniel C

    2006-06-01

    The present study examined the predicted positive and linear relationship (Iwanaga, 1995a, 1995b) between exercise heart rate and music tempo preference. Initially, 128 undergraduate students (M age = 20.0 years, SD = 0.9) were surveyed to establish their three favorite music artists. A separate experimental group of 29 undergraduates (M age = 20.3 years, SD = 1.2) selected the music of a single artist from the three highest-rated artists from the earlier survey. They reported their preference for slow, medium, and fast tempo selections from each artist for three treadmill walking conditions at 40%, 60%, and 75% maximal heart rate reserve. A mixed-model 3 x 3 x 2 (Exercise Intensity x Music Tempo x Gender) analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. Results indicated there was no three-way interaction for music preference. There was, however, a significant (p Music Tempo (partial eta2 = .09) and a significant (p music tempo, with large differences evident between preference for medium versus slow tempo and fast versus slow tempo music at all exercise intensities (partial eta2 = .78). Participants reported a preference for both medium and fast tempo music at low and moderate exercise intensities and for fast tempo music at high intensity. Only partial support was found for the expected linear relationship between exercise intensity and music tempo preference. PMID:16898279

  2. Heart rate variability biofeedback: How and why does it work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Lehrer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been substantial support for Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback (HRVB as a treatment for a variety of disorders and for performance enhancement (Gevirtz, 2013. Since conditions as widely varied as asthma and depression seem to respond to this form of cardiorespiratory feedback training, the issue of possible mechanisms becomes more salient. The most supported possible mechanism is the strengthening of homeostasis in the barorecptor (Vashillo, et al, 2002; Lehrer, et al, 2003. Recently, the effect on the vagal afferent pathway to the frontal cortical areas has been proposed. In this article, we review these and other possible mechanisms that might explain the positive effects of HRVB.

  3. Heart rate and estimated energy expenditure during ballroom dancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanksby, B A; Reidy, P W

    1988-06-01

    Ten competitive ballroom dance couples performed simulated competitive sequences of Modern and Latin American dance. Heart rate was telemetered during the dance sequences and related to direct measures of oxygen uptake and heart rate obtained while walking on a treadmill. Linear regression was employed to estimate gross and net energy expenditures of the dance sequences. A multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures on the dance factor was applied to the data to test for interaction and main effects on the sex and dance factors. Overall mean heart rate values for the Modern dance sequence were 170 beats.min-1 and 173 beats.min-1 for males and females respectively. During the Latin American sequence mean overall heart rate for males was 168 beats.min-1 and 177 beats.min-1 for females. Predicted mean gross values of oxygen consumption for the males were 42.8 +/- 5.7 ml.kg-1 min-1 and 42.8 +/- 6.9 ml.kg-1 min-1 for the Modern and Latin American sequences respectively. Corresponding gross estimates of oxygen consumption for the females were 34.7 +/- 3.8 ml.kg-1 min-1 and 36.1 +/- 4.1 ml.kg-1 min-1. Males were estimated to expand 54.1 +/- 8.1 kJ.min-1 of energy during the Modern sequence and 54.0 +/- 9.6 kJ.min-1 during the Latin American sequence, while predicted energy expenditure for females was 34.7 +/- 3.8 kJ.min-1 and 36.1 +/- 4.1 kJ.min-1 for Modern and Latin American dance respectively. The results suggested that both males and females were dancing at greater than 80% of their maximum oxygen consumption. A significant difference between males and females was observed for predicted gross and net values of oxygen consumption (in L.min-1 and ml.kg-1 min-1). PMID:3167503

  4. Making the Most of the "Daphnia" Heart Rate Lab: Optimizing the Use of Ethanol, Nicotine & Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corotto, Frank; Ceballos, Darrel; Lee, Adam; Vinson, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    Students commonly test the effects of chemical agents on the heart rate of the crustacean "Daphnia" magna, but the procedure has never been optimized. We determined the effects of three concentrations of ethanol, nicotine, and caffeine and of a control solution on heart rate in "Daphnia." Ethanol at 5% and 10% (v/v) reduced mean heart rate to…

  5. Behaviour of heart rate and electrical muscle activity in the simultaneous dynamic action of larger and smaller sets of muscles in the permanent performance threshold range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, H; Naumann, H J; Jentsch, A; Tröger, B; Wunderlich, H

    1987-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess more comprehensively and with greater differentiation the reduction in the absolute electrical muscle activity (aEA) determined by different investigations in the permanent performance threshold range of the cardiovascular system (HKS) by means of the behaviour of the aEA of the highly stressed leg muscles and little stressed forearm muscles. Six healthy, untrained male subjects operated a hand ergograph alone in one test, and, in four more tests, in combination with a constant bicycle ergometer load of 40, 60, 80, and 100 W, respectively. As a result of these tests, a relative reduction in aEA for the leg muscles and an absolute reduction in aEA for the forearm muscles could be identified in the permanent performance threshold range of the HKS. Therefore, aEA is also considered to be an indicator of general stress that can define the permanent performance threshold range of the HKS more completely. The reduction in aEA is probably an expression of a negative feedback from the cardiovascular system to the neuromuscular system induced by the central nervous system.

  6. Tonic arterial chemoreceptor activity contributes to cardiac sympathetic activation in mild ovine heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Daniel T; May, Clive N; Booth, Lindsea C; Ramchandra, Rohit

    2014-08-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with a large increase in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA), which has detrimental effects on the heart and promotes arrhythmias and sudden death. There is increasing evidence that arterial chemoreceptor activation plays an important role in stimulating renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity in HF. Given that sympathetic nerve activity to individual organs is differentially controlled, we investigated whether tonic arterial chemoreceptor activation contributes to the increased CSNA in HF. We recorded CSNA and RSNA in conscious normal sheep and in sheep with mild HF induced by rapid ventricular pacing (ejection fraction chemoreceptor function was evaluated by supplementing room air with 100% intranasal oxygen (2-3 l min(-1)) for 20 min, thereby deactivating chemoreceptors. The effects of hyperoxia on resting levels and baroreflex control of heart rate, CSNA and RSNA were determined. In HF, chemoreceptor deactivation induced by hyperoxia significantly reduced CSNA [90 ± 2 versus 75 ± 5 bursts (100 heart beats)(-1), P chemoreceptor deactivation reduced heart rate without a significant effect on CSNA or RSNA. In summary, deactivation of peripheral chemoreceptors during HF reduced the elevated levels of CSNA, indicating that tonic arterial chemoreceptor activation plays a critical role in stimulating the elevated CSNA in HF.

  7. Measurement of strain and strain rate in embryonic chick heart using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Shidan; Suo, Yanyan; Liang, Chengbo; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Yuqian; Liu, Jian; Xu, Tao; Wang, Ruikang; Ma, Zhenhe

    2016-03-01

    It is important to measure embryonic heart myocardial wall strain and strain rate for understanding the mechanisms of embryonic heart development. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can provide depth resolved images with high spatial and temporal resolution, which makes it have the potential to reveal the complex myocardial activity in the early stage embryonic heart. We develop a novel method to measure strain in embryonic chick heart based on spectral domain OCT images and subsequent image processing. We perform 4D(x,y,z,t) scanning on the outflow tract (OFT) of chick embryonic hearts in HH18 stage (~3 days of incubation). Only one image sequence acquired at the special position is selected based on the Doppler blood flow information where the probe beam penetrates through the OFT perpendicularly. For each image of the selected sequence, the cross-section of the myocardial wall can be approximated as an annulus. The OFT is segmented with a semi-automatic boundary detection algorithm, thus the area and mean circumference of the annular myocardial wall can be achieved. The myocardial wall thickness was calculated using the area divided by the mean circumference, and then the strain was obtained. The results demonstrate that OCT can be a useful tool to describe the biomechanical characteristics of the embryonic heart.

  8. Heart rate effects of intraosseous injections using slow and fast rates of anesthetic solution deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Louis; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel; Drum, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    The authors, using a crossover design, randomly administered, in a single-blind manner, 3 primary intraosseous injections to 61 subjects using: the Wand local anesthetic system at a deposition rate of 45 seconds (fast injection); the Wand local anesthetic system at a deposition rate of 4 minutes and 45 seconds (slow injection); a conventional syringe injection at a deposition rate of 4 minutes and 45 seconds (slow injection), in 3 separate appointments spaced at least 3 weeks apart. A pulse oximeter measured heart rate (pulse). The results demonstrated the mean maximum heart rate was statistically higher with the fast intraosseous injection (average 21 to 28 beats/min increase) than either of the 2 slow intraosseous injections (average 10 to 12 beats/min increase). There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 slow injections. We concluded that an intraosseous injection of 1.4 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine with the Wand at a 45-second rate of anesthetic deposition resulted in a significantly higher heart rate when compared with a 4-minute and 45-second anesthetic solution deposition using either the Wand or traditional syringe.

  9. High frequency chest compression effects heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Lee, Yong W; Warwick, Warren J

    2007-01-01

    High frequency chest compression (HFCC) supplies a sequence of air pulses through a jacket worn by a patient to remove excessive mucus for the treatment or prevention of lung disease patients. The air pulses produced from the pulse generator propagates over the thorax delivering the vibration and compression energy. A number of studies have demonstrated that the HFCC system increases the ability to clear mucus and improves lung function. Few studies have examined the change in instantaneous heart rate (iHR) and heart rate variability (HRV) during the HFCC therapy. The purpose of this study is to measure the change of HRV with four experimental protocols: (a) without HFCC, (b) during Inflated, (c)HFCC at 6Hz, and (d) HFCC at 21Hz. The nonlinearity and regularity of HRV was assessed by approximate entropy (ApEn), a method used to quantify the complexities and randomness. To compute the ApEn, we sectioned with a total of eight epochs and displayed the ApEn over the each epoch. Our results show significant differences in the both the iHR and HRV between the experimental protocols. The iHR was elevated at both the (c) 6Hz and (d) 21Hz condition from without HFCC (10%, 16%, respectively). We also found that the HFCC system tends to increase the HRV. Our study suggests that monitoring iHR and HRV are very important physiological indexes during HFCC therapy.

  10. Motion-compensated non-contact detection of heart rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Xiaohua

    2015-12-01

    A new non-contact heart rate detection method based on the dual-wavelength technique is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. It is a well-known fact that the differences in the circuits of two detection modules result in different responses of two modules for motion artifacts. This poses a great challenge to compensate the motion artifacts during measurements. In order to circumvent this problem, we have proposed the amplitude spectrum and phase spectrum adaptive filter. Comparing with the time-domain adaptive filter and independent component analysis, the amplitude spectrum and phase spectrum adaptive filter can suppress the interference caused by the two circuit differences and effectively compensate the motion artifacts. To make the device is much compact and portable, a photoelectric probe is designed. The measurement distance is from several centimeters up to several meters. Moreover, the data obtained by using this non-contact detection system is compared with those of the conventional finger blood volume pulse (BVP) sensor by simultaneously measuring the heart rate of the subject. The data obtained from the proposed non-contact system are consistent and comparable with that of the BVP sensor.

  11. Assessment of cardiac autonomic functions by heart rate recovery, heart rate variability and QT dynamicity parameters in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dural, Muhammet; Kabakcı, Giray; Cınar, Neşe; Erbaş, Tomris; Canpolat, Uğur; Gürses, Kadri Murat; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Oto, Ali; Kaya, Ergün Barış; Yorgun, Hikmet; Sahiner, Levent; Dağdelen, Selçuk; Aytemir, Kudret

    2014-04-01

    Cardiovascular complications are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in acromegaly. However, there is little data regarding cardiac autonomic functions in these patients. Herein, we aimed to investigate several parameters of cardiac autonomic functions in patients with acromegaly compared to healthy subjects. We enrolled 20 newly diagnosed acromegalic patients (55% female, age:45.7 ± 12.6 years) and 32 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. All participants underwent 24 h Holter recording. Heart rate recovery (HRR) indices were calculated by subtracting 1st, 2nd and 3rd minute heart rates from maximal heart rate. All patients underwent heart rate variability (HRV) and QT dynamicity analysis. Baseline characteristics were similar except diabetes mellitus and hypertension among groups. Mean HRR1 (29.2 ± 12.3 vs 42.6 ± 6.5, p = 0.001), HRR2 (43.5 ± 15.6 vs 61.1 ± 10.8, p = 0.001) and HRR3 (46.4 ± 16.2 vs 65.8 ± 9.8, p = 0.001) values were significantly higher in control group. HRV parameters as, SDNN [standard deviation of all NN intervals] (p = 0.001), SDANN [SD of the 5 min mean RR intervals] (p = 0.001), RMSSD [root square of successive differences in RR interval] (p = 0.001), PNN50 [proportion of differences in successive NN intervals >50 ms] (p = 0.001) and high-frequency [HF] (p = 0.001) were significantly decreased in patients with acromegaly; but low frequency [LF] (p = 0.046) and LF/HF (p = 0.001) were significantly higher in acromegaly patients. QTec (p = 0.009), QTac/RR slope (p = 0.017) and QTec/RR slope (p = 0.01) were significantly higher in patients with acromegaly. Additionally, there were significant negative correlation of disease duration with HRR2, HRR3, SDNN, PNN50, RMSSD, variability index. Our study results suggest that cardiac autonomic functions are impaired in patients with acromegaly. Further large scale studies are needed to exhibit the prognostic significance of impaired autonomic functions in patients with

  12. Contact-free heart rate measurement using multiple video data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Pang-Chan; Lee, Kual-Zheng; Tsai, Luo-Wei

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a contact-free heart rate measurement method by analyzing sequential images of multiple video data. In the proposed method, skin-like pixels are firstly detected from multiple video data for extracting the color features. These color features are synchronized and analyzed by independent component analysis. A representative component is finally selected among these independent component candidates to measure the HR, which achieves under 2% deviation on average compared with a pulse oximeter in the controllable environment. The advantages of the proposed method include: 1) it uses low cost and high accessibility camera device; 2) it eases users' discomfort by utilizing contact-free measurement; and 3) it achieves the low error rate and the high stability by integrating multiple video data.

  13. Puerperal endometritis and intrauterine fetal heart rate monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehu, M; Haukkamaa, M

    1980-08-01

    The incidence of puerperal endometritis in 5058 patients who were delivered during a one year study period was recorded prospectively. Caesarean section was performed in 774 cases (15.3%) and intrauterine fetal heart rate monitoring was used in 2016 cases (39.9%). After vaginal delivery, the incidence of endometritis was 1.5% in those monitored externally and 2.4% in those monitored internally (P less than 0.05). After Caesarean section, endometritis occurred in 8.0% of those monitored externally and in 16.4% of those monitored internally for varying times (P less than 0.01). The duration of monitoring had no significant effect on these infection rates. The risk of puerperal endometritis after internal fetal monitoring seemed to be the same as after one vaginal examination. PMID:7259077

  14. Discrimination power of long-term heart rate variability measures for chronic heart failure detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Paolo; Fusco, Roberta; Sansone, Mario; Bracale, Marcello; Pecchia, Leandro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the discrimination power of standard long-term heart rate variability (HRV) measures for the diagnosis of chronic heart failure (CHF). The authors performed a retrospective analysis on four public Holter databases, analyzing the data of 72 normal subjects and 44 patients suffering from CHF. To assess the discrimination power of HRV measures, an exhaustive search of all possible combinations of HRV measures was adopted and classifiers based on Classification and Regression Tree (CART) method was developed, which is a non-parametric statistical technique. It was found that the best combination of features is: Total spectral power of all NN intervals up to 0.4 Hz (TOTPWR), square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (RMSSD) and standard deviation of the averages of NN intervals in all 5-min segments of a 24-h recording (SDANN). The classifiers based on this combination achieved a specificity rate and a sensitivity rate of 100.00 and 89.74%, respectively. The results are comparable with other similar studies, but the method used is particularly valuable because it provides an easy to understand description of classification procedures, in terms of intelligible "if … then …" rules. Finally, the rules obtained by CART are consistent with previous clinical studies. PMID:21203855

  15. The Effect of Electrode Designs Based on the Anatomical Heart Location for the Non-Contact Heart Activity Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gi, Sun Ok; Lee, Young-Jae; Koo, Hye Ran; Lee, Seung Pyo; Lee, Kang-Hwi; Kim, Kyeng-Nam; Kang, Seung-Jin; Lee, Joo Hyeon; Lee, Jeong-Whan

    2015-12-01

    This research is an extension of a previous research [1] on the different effects of sensor location that is relatively suitable for heart rate sensing. This research aimed to elucidate the causes of wide variations in heart rate measurements from the same sensor position among subjects, as observed in previous research [1], and to enhance designs of the inductive textile electrode to overcome these variations. To achieve this, this study comprised two parts: In part 1, X-ray examinations were performed to determine the cause of the wide variations noted in the findings from previous research [1], and we found that at the same sensor position, the heart activity signal differed with slight differences in the positions of the heart of each subject owing to individual differences in the anatomical heart location. In part 2, three types of dual-loop-type textile electrodes were devised to overcome variations in heart location that were confirmed in part 1 of the study. The variations with three types of sensor designs were compared with that with a single-round type of electrode design, by using computer simulation and by performing a t-test on the data obtained from the experiments. We found that the oval-oval shaped, dual-loop-type textile electrode was more suitable than the single round type for determining morphological characteristics as well as for measuring appropriate heart activity signals. Based on these results, the oval-oval, dual-loop-type was a better inductive textile electrode that more effectively overcomes individual differences in heart location during heart activity sensing based on the magnetic-induced conductivity principle. PMID:26490149

  16. The Effect of Electrode Designs Based on the Anatomical Heart Location for the Non-Contact Heart Activity Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gi, Sun Ok; Lee, Young-Jae; Koo, Hye Ran; Lee, Seung Pyo; Lee, Kang-Hwi; Kim, Kyeng-Nam; Kang, Seung-Jin; Lee, Joo Hyeon; Lee, Jeong-Whan

    2015-12-01

    This research is an extension of a previous research [1] on the different effects of sensor location that is relatively suitable for heart rate sensing. This research aimed to elucidate the causes of wide variations in heart rate measurements from the same sensor position among subjects, as observed in previous research [1], and to enhance designs of the inductive textile electrode to overcome these variations. To achieve this, this study comprised two parts: In part 1, X-ray examinations were performed to determine the cause of the wide variations noted in the findings from previous research [1], and we found that at the same sensor position, the heart activity signal differed with slight differences in the positions of the heart of each subject owing to individual differences in the anatomical heart location. In part 2, three types of dual-loop-type textile electrodes were devised to overcome variations in heart location that were confirmed in part 1 of the study. The variations with three types of sensor designs were compared with that with a single-round type of electrode design, by using computer simulation and by performing a t-test on the data obtained from the experiments. We found that the oval-oval shaped, dual-loop-type textile electrode was more suitable than the single round type for determining morphological characteristics as well as for measuring appropriate heart activity signals. Based on these results, the oval-oval, dual-loop-type was a better inductive textile electrode that more effectively overcomes individual differences in heart location during heart activity sensing based on the magnetic-induced conductivity principle.

  17. Validation of pulse rate variability as a surrogate for heart rate variability in chronically instrumented rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Pellegrino, Peter R.; Schiller, Alicia M.; Zucker, Irving H.

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a function of cardiac autonomic tone that is widely used in both clinical and animal studies. In preclinical studies, HRV measures are frequently derived using the arterial pulse waveform from an implanted pressure telemetry device, termed pulse rate variability (PRV), instead of the electrocardiogram signal in accordance with clinical guidelines. The acceptability of PRV as a surrogate for HRV in instrumented animals is unknown. Using rabbits implanted with in...

  18. Heart rate variability of human in hypoxic oxygen-argon environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayrullina, Rezeda; Smoleevskiy, Alexandr; Bubeev, Yuri

    Human adaptive capacity, reliability and stability in extreme environments depend primarily on the individual resistance to stresses, includes both innate and acquired components. We have conducted studies in six healthy subjects - men aged between 24 to 42 years who psychophysiological indicators acterizing the severity of stress reactions studied directly during an emergency situation, before and after it. The subjects were in a hypoxic oxygen-argon atmosphere 10 days. Cardiovascular system is one of the first to respond to stressful reaction. The method of heart rate variability (HRV) allows us to estimate balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic parts of vegetative nervous system. In the course of the baseline study it was found that resting heart rate (HR) in the examined individuals is within normal limits. During the experiment in all subjects there was a trend towards more frequent heartbeat. Each subject at one stage or another stay in a hypoxic oxygen-argon environment heart rate go beyond the group norm, but the extent and duration of these abnormalities were significantly different. Marked increase in middle heart rate during of subjects experiment, fluctuating within a wide range (from 2.3% to 29.1%). Marked increase in middle heart rate during of subjects experiment, fluctuating within a wide range (from 2.3% to 29.1%). This suggests that the ability to adapt to living in the investigated gas environment have marked individual differences. SDNN (mean square deviation of all R-R intervals) is the integral indicator of the total effect of the sinus node to the sympathetic and parasympathetic parts of vegetative nervous system, as well as indicating the higher functional reserves of the cardiovascular systems. Increase in heart rate in the majority of subject was accompanied by an increase in individual SDNN. This suggests that the parasympathetic system is able to balance the increase in activity of the sympathetic system, and functional reserves are

  19. Classification tree for risk assessment in patients suffering from congestive heart failure via long-term heart rate variability

    OpenAIRE

    Melillo, Paolo; De Luca, Nicola; Bracale, Marcello; Pecchia, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to develop an automatic classifier for risk assessment in patients suffering from congestive heart failure (CHF). The proposed classifier separates lower risk patients from higher risk ones, using standard long-term heart rate variability (HRV) measures. Patients are labeled as lower or higher risk according to the New York Heart Association classification (NYHA). A retrospective analysis on two public Holter databases was performed, analyzing the data of 12 patients suffering...

  20. Heart rates increase after hatching in two species of Natricine snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubret, Fabien

    2013-11-29

    Experimental studies have shown heart rates to decrease from embryo to hatchling stage in turtles, remain steady in skinks, and increase in birds. However, no snake species has been studied in this regard. I recorded heart rate evolution trajectories from embryo to juvenile stage in 78 eggs from two species of European Natricine snakes. Unexpectedly, snakes behaved more like birds than turtles or lizards: heart rates increased after hatching in both N. maura and N. natrix, respectively by 43.92 ± 22.84% and 35.92 ± 24.52%. Heart rate shift was not related to an abrupt elevation of metabolism per se (snakes that increased their heart rates the most sharply grew the least after birth), but rather due to a number of smaller eggs that experienced lower than normal heart rates throughout the incubation and recovered a normal heart rate post-birth. This finding is discussed in the light of hatching synchrony benefits.

  1. "Heart Shots": A Classroom Activity to Instigate Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Reem Rachel; Vashe, Asha; Torke, Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to provide undergraduate medical students at Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus), Manipal University, in Karnataka, India, an opportunity to apply their knowledge in cardiovascular concepts to real-life situations. A group activity named "Heart Shots" was implemented for a batch of first-year…

  2. Unobtrusive heart rate monitor based on a fiber specklegram sensor and a single-board computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevides, Alessandro B.; Frizera, Anselmo; Cotrina, Anibal; Ribeiro, Moisés. R. N.; Segatto, Marcelo E. V.; Pontes, Maria José

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a portable and unobtrusive heart rate monitor based on fiber specklegram sensors. The proposed module uses the Raspberry Pi module to perform the image acquisition and the fiber specklegram sensor, which is based on multimode plastic optical fibers. The heart rate is obtained by welch power spectral density estimate and the heart beats are identified by means of a threshold analysis.

  3. Heart rate variability differs between right- and left-handed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Ramazan; Arslan, Muzeyyen; Dane, Senol

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies reported reduced longevity in left-handers with the suggestion that it may be associated with different heart diseases. Therefore, differences in heart rate variability (HRV), an index of autonomic cardiac activity, were examined for right- and left-handed individuals. 120 healthy young university students (75 women, 45 men; M age = 20.4 yr., SD = 1.5) volunteered. Handedness was assessed with the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory and HRV was measured via electrocardiography. The results suggest that the left-handers' HRV was significantly different from that of right-handers on several parameters. The atypical cerebral organization of left-handers may be related to an imbalanced autonomic system that results in higher frequencies of heart irregularities.

  4. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina N. Burns

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste (e-waste is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people’s livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA and community (70 dBA noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman’s ρ 0.46, p < 0.001. A mixed effects linear regression model indicated that a 1 dB increase in noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01 even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.

  5. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Katrina N; Sun, Kan; Fobil, Julius N; Neitzel, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people's livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA) and community (70 dBA) noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman's ρ 0.46, p < 0.001). A mixed effects linear regression model indicated that a 1 dB increase in noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01) even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage. PMID:26797626

  6. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Katrina N; Sun, Kan; Fobil, Julius N; Neitzel, Richard L

    2016-01-19

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people's livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA) and community (70 dBA) noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman's ρ 0.46, p < 0.001). A mixed effects linear regression model indicated that a 1 dB increase in noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01) even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.

  7. Equine behaviour and heart rate in temperament tests with or without rider or handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König von Borstel, U; Euent, S; Graf, P; König, S; Gauly, M

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare horses' heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (RMSSD, pNN50) and behaviour in the same temperament test when being ridden, led, and released free. Behavioural measurements included scores and linear measurements for reactivity (R), activity (A), time to calm down (T) and emotionality (E), recorded during the approach (1) and/or during confrontation with the stimulus (2). Sixty-five horses were each confronted 3 times (1 ridden, 1 led, 1 free running in balanced order) with 3 novel and/or sudden stimuli. Mixed model analysis indicated that leading resulted in the lowest (PFree running resulted either in the strongest (A2, E1, E2, R2) or in the lowest (A1, T2, HR, RMSSD, pNN50) reactions. The repeatability across tests for HR (0.57), but not for RMSSD (0.23) or pNN50 (0.25) was higher than for any behavioural measurement: the latter ranged from values below 0.10 (A1, A2, T2) to values between 0.30 and 0.45 (E1, E2, R2). Overall, the results show that a rider or handler influences, but not completely masks, the horses' intrinsic behaviour in a temperament test, and this influence appeared to be stronger on behavioural variables and heart rate variability than on the horses' heart rates. Taking both practical considerations and repeatabilities into account, reactivity appears to be the most valuable parameter. Emotionality and heart rate can also yield valid results reflecting additional dimensions of temperament although their practical relevance may be less obvious. If a combination of observed variables is chosen with care, a valid assessment of a horse's temperament may be possible in all types of tests. However, in practice, tests that resemble the practical circumstances most closely, i.e. testing riding horses under a rider, should be chosen. PMID:21616087

  8. Effect of atrioventricular conduction on heart rate variability

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Talha J.

    2011-08-01

    This paper discusses the effect of atrioventricular conduction time (AVCT) on the short-term Heart Rate Variability (HRV) by computing HRV parameters using intervals between the onsets of successive P waves (PP time series) for three groups: normal, arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death (SCD) patients. A very precise wavelet transform based ECG delineator was developed to detect PP, PR and RR time series. Mean PR variation in arrhythmia and SCD group was found to be significantly high as compared to the normal group. It was observed that when PR variations in arrhythmia and SCD cases crossed a certain threshold, RR variability no longer provided a very accurate estimate of HRV. In such cases, PP variability was able to provide a better assessment of HRV. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. Heart rate, startle response, and intrusive trauma memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Ying; La Marca, Roberto; Steptoe, Andrew; Brewin, Chris R

    2014-03-01

    The current study adopted the trauma film paradigm to examine potential moderators affecting heart rate (HR) as an indicator of peritraumatic psychological states and as a predictor of intrusive memories. We replicated previous findings that perifilm HR decreases predicted the development of intrusive images and further showed this effect to be specific to images rather than thoughts, and to detail rather than gist recognition memory. Moreover, a group of individuals showing both an atypical sudden reduction in HR after a startle stimulus and higher trait dissociation was identified. Only among these individuals was lower perifilm HR found to indicate higher state dissociation, fear, and anxiety, along with reduced vividness of intrusions. The current findings emphasize how peritraumatic physiological responses relate to emotional reactions and intrusive memory. The moderating role of individual difference in stress defense style was highlighted. PMID:24397333

  10. Heart Rate Variability Analysis Using Threshold of Wavelet Package Coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Kheder, G; Massoued, M Ben; Samet, M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new efficient feature extraction method based on the adaptive threshold of wavelet package coefficients is presented. This paper especially deals with the assessment of autonomic nervous system using the background variation of the signal Heart Rate Variability HRV extracted from the wavelet package coefficients. The application of a wavelet package transform allows us to obtain a time-frequency representation of the signal, which provides better insight in the frequency distribution of the signal with time. A 6 level decomposition of HRV was achieved with db4 as mother wavelet, and the above two bands LF and HF were combined in 12 specialized frequencies sub-bands obtained in wavelet package transform. Features extracted from these coefficients can efficiently represent the characteristics of the original signal. ANOVA statistical test is used for the evaluation of proposed algorithm.

  11. Decreased heart rate variability responses during early postoperative mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Øivind; Brinth, Louise; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    to postoperative autonomic dysfunction. Thus, based on a previous study on haemodynamic responses during mobilization before and after elective total hip arthroplasty (THA), we performed secondary analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) and aimed to identify possible abnormal postoperative autonomic responses.......2-2.6) nu when supine to 1.2 (0.8-1.8) nu when standing. CONCLUSIONS: This study observed postoperative autonomic cardiovascular dysregulation that may contribute to limited HRV responses during early postoperative mobilization. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01089946.......BACKGROUND: Intact orthostatic blood pressure regulation is essential for early mobilization after surgery. However, postoperative orthostatic hypotension and intolerance (OI) may delay early ambulation. The mechanisms of postoperative OI include impaired vasopressor responses relating...

  12. Cuff inflation during ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Skov-Madsen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mia Skov-Madsen, My Svensson, Jeppe Hagstrup ChristensenDepartment of Nephrology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, DenmarkIntroduction: Twenty four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is a clinically validated procedure in evaluation of blood pressure (BP. We hypothesised that the discomfort during cuff inflation would increase the heart rate (HR measured with 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring compared to a following HR measurement with a 24-h Holter monitor.Methods: The study population (n = 56 were recruited from the outpatient’s clinic at the Department of Nephrology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital at Aalborg, Denmark. All the patients had chronic kidney disease (CKD. We compared HR measured with a 24-h Holter monitor with a following HR measured by a 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring.Results: We found a highly significant correlation between the HR measured with the Holter monitor and HR measured with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (r = 0.77, p < 0.001. Using the Bland-Altman plot, the mean difference in HR was only 0.5 beat/min during 24 hours with acceptable limits of agreement for both high and low HR levels. Dividing the patients into groups according to betablocker treatment, body mass index, age, sex, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment, statins treatment, diuretic treatment, or calcium channel blocker treatment revealed similar results as described above.Conclusion: The results indicate that the discomfort induced by cuff inflation during 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring does not increase HR. Thus, 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring may be a reliable measurement of the BP among people with CKD.Keywords: ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, Holter monitoring, heart rate, chronic kidney disease, hypertension

  13. What is the “normal” fetal heart rate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Pildner von Steinburg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. There is no consensus about the normal fetal heart rate. Current international guidelines recommend for the normal fetal heart rate (FHR baseline different ranges of 110 to 150 beats per minute (bpm or 110 to 160 bpm. We started with a precise definition of “normality” and performed a retrospective computerized analysis of electronically recorded FHR tracings. Methods. We analyzed all recorded cardiotocography tracings of singleton pregnancies in three German medical centers from 2000 to 2007 and identified 78,852 tracings of sufficient quality. For each tracing, the baseline FHR was extracted by eliminating accelerations/decelerations and averaging based on the “delayed moving windows” algorithm. After analyzing 40% of the dataset as “training set” from one hospital generating a hypothetical normal baseline range, evaluation of external validity on the other 60% of the data was performed using data from later years in the same hospital and externally using data from the two other hospitals. Results. Based on the training data set, the “best” FHR range was 115 or 120 to 160 bpm. Validation in all three data sets identified 120 to 160 bpm as the correct symmetric “normal range”. FHR decreases slightly during gestation. Conclusions. Normal ranges for FHR are 120 to 160 bpm. Many international guidelines define ranges of 110 to 160 bpm which seem to be safe in daily practice. However, further studies should confirm that such asymmetric alarm limits are safe, with a particular focus on the lower bound, and should give insights about how to show and further improve the usefulness of the widely used practice of CTG monitoring.

  14. Heart Rate Variability and Wavelet-based Studies on ECG Signals from Smokers and Non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, K.; Goel, R.; Champaty, B.; Samantray, S.; Tibarewala, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    The current study deals with the heart rate variability (HRV) and wavelet-based ECG signal analysis of smokers and non-smokers. The results of HRV indicated dominance towards the sympathetic nervous system activity in smokers. The heart rate was found to be higher in case of smokers as compared to non-smokers ( p 90 % was achieved. The wavelet decomposition of the ECG signal was done using the Daubechies (db 6) wavelet family. No difference was observed between the smokers and non-smokers which apparently suggested that smoking does not affect the conduction pathway of heart.

  15. Heart rate variability analysis in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Calabrò

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case of 36 year old male patient with idiopathic postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS diagnosed during head-up tilt testing. Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV during the tilt test revealed that the ratio of low and high frequency powers (LF/HF increased with the onset of orthostatic intolerance. This analysis confirmed in our patient a strong activation in sympathetic tone.

  16. Heart rate variability and circulating catecholamine concentrations during steady state exercise in healthy volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    Breuer, H W; Skyschally, A; Schulz, R; C. Martin; Wehr, M.; Heusch, G

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess whether exercise induced suppression of heart rate variability in the low frequency domain (0.06-0.15 Hz) is related to the increase in circulating catecholamine concentrations. DESIGN--Randomised crossover trial of three exercise tests characterised by different workloads. Pharmacological simulation of exercise-induced changes in vagal and sympathetic activity. PARTICIPANTS--Six healthy men with a mean age of 31.2 (SD 3.0) years. INTERVENTIONS--Three different workloads...

  17. Exercise training reduces resting heart rate via downregulation of the funny channel HCN4

    OpenAIRE

    D'Sousa, Alicia; Bucchi, Annalisa; Johnsen, Anne Berit; Logantha, Sunil; Monfredi, Oliver; Yanni, Joseph; Prehar, Sukhal; Hart, George; Cartwright, Elisabeth; Wisløff, Ulrik; Dobryznski, Halina; DiFrancesco, Dario; Morris, Gwilym; Boyett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Endurance athletes exhibit sinus bradycardia, that is a slow resting heart rate, associated with a higher incidence of sinus node (pacemaker) disease and electronic pacemaker implantation. Here we show that training-induced bradycardia is not a consequence of changes in the activity of the autonomic nervous system but is caused by intrinsic electrophysiological changes in the sinus node. We demonstrate that training-induced bradycardia persists after blockade of the autonomous nervous system ...

  18. [Heart rate and outcome in patients with acute and chronic heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Fabrizio; Ammirati, Enrico; Campana, Carlo; Carubelli, Valentina; Cirò, Antonio; Di Tano, Giuseppe; Mortara, Andrea; Senni, Michele; Morandi, Fabrizio; Metra, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Heart rate (HR) is not only a physical sign but also a biomarker. High HR in several cardiac disorders is associated with increased mortality. In heart failure (HF), HR represents an important therapeutic target, both in the acute and chronic phase. Beta-blockers are a milestone of recommended treatments in HF patients with reduced ejection fraction. However, hemodynamic profile or intolerance may limit the use or the optimization of beta-blocker treatment, both during hospitalization and outpatient follow-up. More recently, ivabradine has become available, a drug that lowers HR by blocking the I(f) current in the pacemaker cells at the sinoatrial node level. In the SHIFT trial, ivabradine was shown to improve the outcome of patients with chronic HF, in sinus rhythm, with HR >70 b/min while on beta-blockers. Preliminary data have shown that this drug has a good safety profile and lowers effectively HR even during hospitalization due to worsening HF. However, further studies are warranted to understand if an earlier administration of ivabradine can lead to a better prognosis beyond symptom control and improved hemodynamics. In patients with atrial fibrillation and HF, the target is the restoration of sinus rhythm, alternatively rate control should be pursued with beta-blockers, amiodarone or digitalis, even if there is no clear evidence of an association between ventricular rate response in patients with atrial fibrillation at discharge after an HF hospitalization and major cardiovascular events. In this review, the studies that point to a role of HR both as a biomarker and a therapeutic target in patients with acute and chronic HF are described. In addition, the proportions of patients who do not reach target HR values at discharge after an acute decompensated HF episode or in the chronic phase are evaluated based on the Italian registries. PMID:27030005

  19. Effects of a complex housing environment on heart rate and blood pressure of rats at rest and after stressful challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Jody; Azar, Toni; Lawson, David

    2014-01-01

    Housing enrichment for rodents continues to be a discussion topic within the animal care community. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which a complex housing environment affects heart rate, blood pressure, and activity of rats when undisturbed and after exposure to stressful challenges and whether autonomic controls of heart rate would be affected. Male and female Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats with radiotelemetry transmitters were evaluated under nonenriched single-housing conditions and after acclimation to a complex environment of dim light and cohabitation with 3 conspecifics in large cages with hiding, food foraging, and nesting items. Telemetry data were collected when rats were undisturbed, after acute challenges (cage change, intraperitoneal injections, restraint), during a forced running protocol, and after cholinergic or adrenergic blockade. The complex environment reduced heart rate and increased activity in undisturbed rats but did not affect blood pressure. Heart rate responses to challenges were unaffected, decreased, or increased by complex housing, depending on the stock and sex of rats. Forced running was either unaffected or decreased, depending on the stock and sex of rats. Heart rate responses to cholinergic or β1-adrenergic blockade were not affected. We conclude that the complex housing did not reduce indices of stress (for example, heart rate) as compared with simpler housing. However, the possibility that some environmental elements interact negatively with each other must be considered in future studies. PMID:24411780

  20. Rate Control Management of Atrial Fibrillation: May a Mathematical Model Suggest an Ideal Heart Rate?

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmino, Matteo; Camporeale, Carlo; Saglietto, Andrea; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite the routine prescription of rate control therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF), clinical evidence demonstrating a heart rate target is lacking. Aim of the present study was to run a mathematical model simulating AF episodes with a different heart rate (HR) to predict hemodynamic parameters for each situation. Methods. The lumped model, representing the pumping heart together with systemic and pulmonary circuits, was run to simulate AF with HR of 50, 70, 90, 110 and 130 bpm, respectively. Results. Left ventricular pressure increased by 56.7%, from 33.92+-37.56 mmHg to 53.15+-47.56 mmHg, and mean systemic arterial pressure increased by 27.4%, from 82.66+-14.04 mmHg to 105.29+-7.63 mmHg, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. Stroke volume (from 77.45+-8.5 to 39.09+-8.08 mL), ejection fraction (from 61.1+-4.4 to 39.32+-5.42%) and stroke work (SW, from 0.88+-0.04 to 0.58+-0.09 J) decreased by 49.5, 35.6 and 34.2%, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. In addition, oxygen co...

  1. Pharmacological stimulation of type 5 adenylyl cyclase stabilizes heart rate under both microgravity and hypergravity induced by parabolic flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yunzhe; Tsunematsu, Takashi; Jiao, Qibin; Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Mototani, Yasumasa; Shiozawa, Kouichi; Jin, Meihua; Cai, Wenqian; Jin, Hui-Ling; Fujita, Takayuki; Ichikawa, Yasuhiro; Suita, Kenji; Kurotani, Reiko; Yokoyama, Utako; Sato, Motohiko; Iwatsubo, Kousaku; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Okumura, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that type 5 adenylyl cyclase (AC5) functions in autonomic regulation in the heart. Based on that work, we hypothesized that pharmacological modulation of AC5 activity could regulate the autonomic control of the heart rate under micro- and hypergravity. To test this hypothesis, we selected the approach of activating AC5 activity in mice with a selective AC5 activator (NKH477) or inhibitor (vidarabine) and examining heart rate variability during parabolic flight. The standard deviation of normal R-R intervals, a marker of total autonomic variability, was significantly greater under micro- and hypergravity in the vidarabine group, while there were no significant changes in the NKH477 group, suggesting that autonomic regulation was unstable in the vidarabine group. The ratio of low frequency and high frequency (HF) in heart rate variability analysis, a marker of sympathetic activity, became significantly decreased under micro- and hypergravity in the NKH477 group, while there was no such decrease in the vidarabine group. Normalized HF, a marker of parasympathetic activity, became significantly greater under micro- and hypergravity in the NKH477 group. In contrast, there was no such increase in the vidarabine group. This study is the first to indicate that pharmacological modulation of AC5 activity under micro- and hypergravity could be useful to regulate the autonomic control of the heart rate.

  2. Monitoring of heart and respiratory rates by photoplethysmography using a digital filtering technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, K; Tamura, T; Miike, H

    1996-07-01

    An apparatus for simultaneously monitoring heart and respiratory rates was developed using photoplethysmography (PPG) and digital filters, and compared with conventional methods. The PPG signal, which includes both heart and respiratory components, was measured at the earlobe with an original transmission mode photoplethysmographic device. A digital filtering technique was used to distinguish heart and respiratory signals from the PPG signal. The cut-off frequency of the respiratory signal filter was selected automatically depending on the heart rate. Using digital filtering techniques, heart and respiratory signals were separated at rest and during exercise. The digital signal processor was employed to realize an adaptive and real-time filtering. The heart rate was calculated by the zero-crossing method and the respiratory rate from the peak interval of the filtered signal. To evaluate the newly developed monitor, an ECG for heart rate and a transthoracic impedance plethysmogram for respiratory rate were monitored simultaneously. To obtain higher heart and respiratory rates, exercise was performed on an electrical bicycle ergometer. Heart and respiratory rates calculated by the new method compare to those obtained from ECG and the transthoracic impedance plethysmogram. The maximum error of heart and respiratory rates was 10 beats/min and 7 breaths/min, respectively. PMID:8818134

  3. The Effect of Valsartan on Heart Rate Variability and Heart Rate Recovery in Patients with Mild to Moderate Mitral Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Metin Esen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Atrial fibrillation (AF is known to be one of the most important complications of mitral stenosis (MS. It has been reported that autonomic nervous system (ANS had an effect on AF development, heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate recovery (HRR were under the control of ANS, and their disorders were present in MS. We studied the effect of Valsartan on HRV and HRT, and thus its effect on ANS. Methods: Eleven patients (39±8 years, 10 females with mild to moderate MS were included in the study. Sixteen volunteers (38±8 years, 14 females matched for age and sex were selected for control group. All subjects underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE, symptom-limited treadmill test and 24 hour Holter monitorization.The patients were administered 160 mg of Valsartan daily for 14 weeks. TTE, treadmill test and Holter monitorization were repeated at the end of treatment period. In Holter monitorization, the time and frequency domain analysis of HRV and in exercise test, HRR at first and third minutes (HRR1 and HRR3 were examined. Results: Before Valsartan treatment, no significant difference was found in HRR and HRV parameters between the two groups. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and also HRR1values were significantly decreased after treatment of Valsartan (117±6 vs. 107±4 mmHg p<0.002, 76±6 vs. 69±9 mmHg p<0.044, 44±14 vs. 33±12 p< 0.014, respectively, while the exercise time was significantly increased (786±114 vs. 846±95 sn p< 0.044. In Holter analysis neither time nor frequency domain of HRV parameters showed a meaningful change. Conclusion: In moderate MS, treatment with Valsartan improved the effort capacity, while autonomic function parameters have been defined on the base of HRV and HRR were not significantly different.

  4. Autonomic control of heart rate by metabolically sensitive skeletal muscle afferents in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, James P; Seifert, Thomas; Hartwich, Doreen;

    2010-01-01

    Isolated activation of metabolically sensitive skeletal muscle afferents (muscle metaboreflex) using post-exercise ischaemia (PEI) following handgrip partially maintains exercise-induced increases in arterial blood pressure (BP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), while heart rate (HR......) declines towards resting values. Although masking of metaboreflex-mediated increases in cardiac SNA by parasympathetic reactivation during PEI has been suggested, this has not been directly tested in humans. In nine male subjects (23 +/- 5 years) the muscle metaboreflex was activated by PEI following...... measured. During control PEI-M, HR was slightly elevated from rest (+3 +/- 2 beats min(-1)); however, this HR elevation was abolished with beta-adrenergic blockade (P

  5. Sexual Activity and Heart Patients: A Contemporary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Ricardo; Sardinha, Aline; Araújo, Claudio Gil S

    2016-04-01

    Sexual activity (SA) encompasses several behaviors such as kissing (Ki), touching (T), oral (O) stimulation, masturbation (M), and vaginal/anal intercourse (I). The acronym KiTOMI is proposed here to represent these behaviors. SA, particularly coitus, is a major aspect of health-related quality of life and is often considered the most pleasant and rewarding exercise performed during an entire lifetime. Although several studies have been conducted on sexuality, relatively limited information is available regarding SA in patients with heart disease. Moreover, the level of evidence of this limited information is nearly always B or C. This article provides a comprehensive and updated review of the relevant literature and offers evidence and expert-based practical messages regarding SA in patients with heart disease. Considering the rationale for exercise prescription, SA is typically well tolerated by most clinically stable patients with heart disease. Even in more debilitated and sicker individuals, KiT activities would most likely be feasible and desirable. The absolute risk of major adverse cardiovascular events during SA is typically very low. Even lower death rates have been reported for specific groups, such as women in general, aerobically fit men, and asymptomatic young adults with congenital heart disease. Finally, we emphasize the relevance of sexual counselling for patients and their partners, including the proper use of medications to treat erectile dysfunction. Counselled patients will be reassured and adequately informed regarding how to gradually resume habitual SA after a major cardiac event or procedure, starting with KiT and progressively advancing to KiTOM until all KiTOMI activities are allowed. PMID:26690295

  6. Heart Rate Variability for Quantification of Autonomic Dysfunction in Fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Hong, Seok Hyun; Lee, Chang Hyun; Choi, Byoong Yong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify autonomic dysfunction in fibromyalgia patients compared to healthy controls using heart rate variability (HRV). Methods Sixteen patients with fibromyalgia and 16 healthy controls were recruited in this case control study. HRV was measured using the time-domain method incorporating the following parameters: total heartbeats, the mean of intervals between consecutive heartbeats (R-R intervals), the standard deviation of normal to normal R-R intervals (SDNN), the square root of the mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals (RMSSD), ratio of SDNN to RMSSD (SDNN/RMSSD), and difference between the longest and shortest R-R interval under different three conditions including normal quiet breathing, rate controlled breathing, and Valsalva maneuver. The severity of autonomic symptoms in the group of patients with fibromyalgia was measured by Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale 31 (COMPASS 31). Then we analyzed the difference between the fibromyalgia and control groups and the correlation between the COMPASS 31 and aforementioned HRV parameters in the study groups. Results Patients with fibromyalgia had significantly higher SDNN/RMSSD values under both normal quiet breathing and rate controlled breathing compared to controls. Differences between the longest and shortest R-R interval under Valsalva maneuver were also significantly lower in patients with fibromyalgia than in controls. COMPASS 31 score was negatively correlated with SDNN/RMSSD values under rate controlled breathing. Conclusion SDNN/RMSSD is a valuable parameter for autonomic nervous system function and can be used to quantify subjective autonomic symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia. PMID:27152281

  7. Improvement of energy expenditure prediction from heart rate during running

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to develop new equations that predict exercise-induced energy expenditure (EE) more accurately than previous ones during running by including new parameters as fitness level, body composition and/or running intensity in addition to heart rate (HR). Original equations predicting EE were created from data obtained during three running intensities (25%, 50% and 70% of HR reserve) performed by 50 subjects. Five equations were conserved according to their accuracy assessed from error rates, interchangeability and correlations analyses: one containing only basic parameters, two containing VO2max or speed at VO2max and two including running speed with or without HR. Equations accuracy was further tested in an independent sample during a 40 min validation test at 50% of HR reserve. It appeared that: (1) the new basic equation was more accurate than pre-existing equations (R2 0.809 versus. 0,737 respectively); (2) the prediction of EE was more accurate with the addition of VO2max (R2 = 0.879); and (3) the equations containing running speed were the most accurate and were considered to have good agreement with indirect calorimetry. In conclusion, EE estimation during running might be significantly improved by including running speed in the predictive models, a parameter readily available with treadmill or GPS. (paper)

  8. Heart rate variability and target organ damage in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melillo Paolo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated the association between linear standard Heart Rate Variability (HRV measures and vascular, renal and cardiac target organ damage (TOD. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed including 200 patients registered in the Regione Campania network (aged 62.4 ± 12, male 64%. HRV analysis was performed by 24-h holter ECG. Renal damage was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, vascular damage by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT, and cardiac damage by left ventricular mass index. Results Significantly lower values of the ratio of low to high frequency power (LF/HF were found in the patients with moderate or severe eGFR (p-value  Conclusions Depressed HRV appeared to be associated with vascular and renal TOD, suggesting the involvement of autonomic imbalance in the TOD. However, as the mechanisms by which abnormal autonomic balance may lead to TOD, and, particularly, to renal organ damage are not clearly known, further prospective studies with longitudinal design are needed to determine the association between HRV and the development of TOD.

  9. Heart rate variability and renal organ damage in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Paolo; Izzo, Raffaele; De Luca, Nicola; Pecchia, Leandro

    2012-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), a noninvasive measure of autonomic dysfunction and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), has not been systematically studied in hypertensive patients in relation with renal involvement. A retrospective analysis on a cohort of hypertensive patients was performed to show differences in groups of patients categorized according to renal involvement, assessed by glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Patient with 24-h ECG Holter monitoring and other clinical information registered in the database of the Hypertension Clinic of the University of Naples Federico II were selected. Linear standard HRV measures were computed according to international guidelines on 24-h nominal ECG. A total of 200 patients were included in the present study. Decreased ratio of low to high frequency power (LF/HF) was associated with patient with moderate GFR, the highest grade of renal involvement considered in this study. These results were consistent with the findings of previous studies which concluded that depressed HRV was associated with higher risk of progression to end-stage renal disease and suggested that autonomic dysfunction may lead to kidney damage. Further research is needed to define the role of autonomic dysfunction in the development of renal disease and of HRV as a diagnostic or prognostic maker in hypertensive patients. PMID:23366762

  10. Blue 405 nm laser light mediates heart rate - investigations at the acupoint Neiguan (Pe.6 in Chinese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Litscher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In previous studies, we showed that laser needle acupuncture with red and infrared light has specific effects on bio-signals of the brain and heart. Aims : In this publication we report the effect of blue laser light on heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV before, during and after acupuncture at the acupoint Neiguan (Pe.6 in Chinese adults. These are the first data published concerning heart rate and HRV, obtained with blue laser acupuncture equipment. Patients and Methods : The investigations were carried out in 13 healthy Chinese volunteers with a mean age of 31.2 ± 7.5 years within a randomized, controlled study. Stimulation was performed with painless blue laser light (wavelength: 405 nm; activation: 10 minutes bilaterally at Pe.6. In a second session, for control reasons the laser was not activated. Results Heart rate showed a significant (p=0.008 decrease during blue laser light stimulation. In contrast, no significant changes were found when the laser was deactivated. The evaluation parameter LF/HF ratio (low frequency/high frequency ratio from the HRV spectral analysis showed a very slight increase during stimulation, however it was not significant. Conclusions : Our main conclusion is that continuous blue laser light stimulation on Neiguan significantly reduces heart rate of Chinese adults.

  11. Blue 405 nm laser light mediates heart rate – investigations at the acupoint Neiguan (Pe.6 in Chinese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Litscher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In previous studies, we showed that laser needle acupuncture with red and infrared light has specific effects on bio-signals of the brain and heart. Aims: In this publication we report the effect of blue laser light on heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV before, during and after acupuncture at the acupoint Neiguan (Pe.6 in Chinese adults. These are the first data published concerning heart rate and HRV, obtained with blue laser acupuncture equipment. Patients and Methods: The investigations were carried out in 13 healthy Chinese volunteers with a mean age of 31.2 ± 7.5 years within a randomized, controlled study. Stimulation was performed with painless blue laser light (wavelength: 405 nm; activation: 10 minutes bilaterally at Pe.6. In a second session, for control reasons the laser was not activated. Results Heart rate showed a significant (p=0.008 decrease during blue laser light stimulation. In contrast, no significant changes were found when the laser was deactivated. The evaluation parameter LF/HF ratio (low frequency/high frequency ratio from the HRV spectral analysis showed a very slight increase during stimulation, however it was not significant. Conclusions: Our main conclusion is that continuous blue laser light stimulation on Neiguan significantly reduces heart rate of Chinese adults.

  12. Approximate entropy and point correlation dimension of heart rate variability in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storella, R J; Wood, H W; Mills, K M;

    1999-01-01

    these measures and the standard deviation of the R-R intervals weak, the correlation among the nonlinear measures themselves was also weak (generally less than 0.6). This suggests that in addition to standard linear measures of heart rate variability, the use of multiple nonlinear measures of heart rate......The contribution of nonlinear dynamics to heart rate variability in healthy humans was examined using surrogate data analysis. Several measures of heart rate variability were used and compared. Heart rates were recorded for three hours and original data sets of 8192 R-R intervals created. For each...... original data set (n = 34), three surrogate data sets were made by shuffling the order of the R-R intervals while retaining their linear correlations. The difference in heart rate variability between the original and surrogate data sets reflects the amount of nonlinear structure in the original data set...

  13. Use of a prototype pulse oximeter for time series analysis of heart rate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Erika; López, Jehú; Hautefeuille, Mathieu; Velázquez, Víctor; Del Moral, Jésica

    2015-05-01

    This work presents the development of a low cost pulse oximeter prototype consisting of pulsed red and infrared commercial LEDs and a broad spectral photodetector used to register time series of heart rate and oxygen saturation of blood. This platform, besides providing these values, like any other pulse oximeter, processes the signals to compute a power spectrum analysis of the patient heart rate variability in real time and, additionally, the device allows access to all raw and analyzed data if databases construction is required or another kind of further analysis is desired. Since the prototype is capable of acquiring data for long periods of time, it is suitable for collecting data in real life activities, enabling the development of future wearable applications.

  14. Dynamics of spectral components of heart rate variability during changes in autonomic balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, M V; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Agner, E;

    1998-01-01

    Frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) has been proposed as a semiquantitative method for assessing activities in the autonomic nervous system. We examined whether absolute powers, normalized powers, and the low frequency-to-high frequency ratio (LF/HF) derived from the HRV power...... spectrum could detect shifts in autonomic balance in a setting with low sympathetic nervous tone. Healthy subjects were examined for 3 h in the supine position during 1) control conditions (n = 12), 2) acute beta-blockade (n = 11), and 3) chronic beta-blockade (n = 10). Heart rate fell during the first 40...... min of the control session (72 +/- 2 to 64 +/- 2 beats/min; P powers of all spectral areas rose during the first 60 min in all three settings, more so with beta-blockade (P

  15. Effects of breathing patterns and light exercise on linear and nonlinear heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Kristin; Rieger, Annika; Kumar, Mohit; Behrens, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Despite their use in cardiac risk stratification, the physiological meaning of nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV) measures is not well understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate effects of breathing frequency, tidal volume, and light exercise on nonlinear HRV and to determine associations with traditional HRV indices. R-R intervals, blood pressure, minute ventilation, breathing frequency, and respiratory gas concentrations were measured in 24 healthy male volunteers during 7 conditions: voluntary breathing at rest, and metronome guided breathing (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 Hz) during rest, and cycling, respectively. The effect of physical load was significant for heart rate (HR; p p p p < 0.05 to <0.01). In conclusion, while light exercise does not significantly affect short-time HRV nonlinear indices, respiratory activity has to be considered as a potential contributor at rest and during light dynamic exercise. PMID:26187271

  16. Attachment Status Affects Heart Rate Responses to Experimental Ostracism in Inpatients with Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannika De Rubeis

    Full Text Available Depression is assumed to be both a risk factor for rejection and a result of it, and as such constitutes an important factor in rejection research. Attachment theory has been applied to understand psychological disorders, such as depression, and can explain individual differences in responses to rejection. Research on autonomic nervous system activity to rejection experiences has been contradictory, with opposing strings of argumentation (activating vs. numbing. We investigated autonomic nervous system-mediated peripheral physiological responses (heart rate to experimentally manipulated ostracism (Cyberball in 97 depressed patients with organized (n = 52 and disorganized attachment status (n = 45. Controlling for baseline mean heart rate levels, depressed patients with disorganized attachment status responded to ostracism with significantly higher increases in heart rate than depressed patients with organized attachment status (p = .029; ηp2 = .051. These results suggest that attachment status may be a useful indicator of autonomic responses to perceived social threat, which in turn may affect the therapeutic process and the patient-therapist relationship.

  17. Attachment Status Affects Heart Rate Responses to Experimental Ostracism in Inpatients with Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rubeis, Jannika; Sütterlin, Stefan; Lange, Diane; Pawelzik, Markus; van Randenborgh, Annette; Victor, Daniela; Vögele, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Depression is assumed to be both a risk factor for rejection and a result of it, and as such constitutes an important factor in rejection research. Attachment theory has been applied to understand psychological disorders, such as depression, and can explain individual differences in responses to rejection. Research on autonomic nervous system activity to rejection experiences has been contradictory, with opposing strings of argumentation (activating vs. numbing). We investigated autonomic nervous system-mediated peripheral physiological responses (heart rate) to experimentally manipulated ostracism (Cyberball) in 97 depressed patients with organized (n = 52) and disorganized attachment status (n = 45). Controlling for baseline mean heart rate levels, depressed patients with disorganized attachment status responded to ostracism with significantly higher increases in heart rate than depressed patients with organized attachment status (p = .029; ηp2 = .051). These results suggest that attachment status may be a useful indicator of autonomic responses to perceived social threat, which in turn may affect the therapeutic process and the patient-therapist relationship.

  18. Attachment Status Affects Heart Rate Responses to Experimental Ostracism in Inpatients with Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rubeis, Jannika; Sütterlin, Stefan; Lange, Diane; Pawelzik, Markus; van Randenborgh, Annette; Victor, Daniela; Vögele, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Depression is assumed to be both a risk factor for rejection and a result of it, and as such constitutes an important factor in rejection research. Attachment theory has been applied to understand psychological disorders, such as depression, and can explain individual differences in responses to rejection. Research on autonomic nervous system activity to rejection experiences has been contradictory, with opposing strings of argumentation (activating vs. numbing). We investigated autonomic nervous system-mediated peripheral physiological responses (heart rate) to experimentally manipulated ostracism (Cyberball) in 97 depressed patients with organized (n = 52) and disorganized attachment status (n = 45). Controlling for baseline mean heart rate levels, depressed patients with disorganized attachment status responded to ostracism with significantly higher increases in heart rate than depressed patients with organized attachment status (p = .029; ηp2 = .051). These results suggest that attachment status may be a useful indicator of autonomic responses to perceived social threat, which in turn may affect the therapeutic process and the patient-therapist relationship. PMID:26943924

  19. HEART RATE VARIABILITY AS THE ADAPTATION RESERVE INDICATOR OF CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksana Kotava

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efectiveness of the vegetative regulation action might be controlled by the method of heart rate variability (HRV, which has been very popularly used over the last 10 years worldwide. The analysis of many clinical studies indicates that the severity of the disease might be controlled using the method of HRV. Material and methods: All the experimental and controlled group participants, which consisted of healthy students with none sports experience, underwent the examination according to the 5-minute standard protocol of HRV. In addition, all the examinees performed a bicycle stress test. After the bicycle stress test, some additional tests of HRV were also carried out. Results: It was found that some signifcant diferences, between the group of sportsmen and the group of patients, exist. The parasympathetic activity of LF is maximum in athletes and tends to decrease in patients with cardiovascular pathologies. The decreases of the activity of the vasomotor centre was noticed in both study groups. The sympathetic system activity was the lowest in athletes. Conclusions: At the high depression of the vegetative regulation, any signifcant load (physical or psycho-emotional indicates cardiovascular instability which remains beyond the capacity of adaptation. The higher the variability, the more stable the CVS is to the external loads. A sharp decrease of the variability, such as the heart vegetative innervations, causes deteriorating quality of the regulatory mechanisms and, as a result, the risk of cardiovascular diseases increases. Keywords: heart rate variability, deterministic and stochastic loads, cardiovascular system

  20. Relations between the development of patterns of sleeping heart rate and body temperature in infants

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, S.; Pratt, C; Wailoo, M

    2001-01-01

    Overnight patterns of rectal temperature and heart rate were recorded from 119 normal infants at weekly intervals from 7 to about 16 weeks of age. All data were collected in the infants' own homes. As previously reported, different infants developed an adult-like night time rectal temperature pattern abruptly at different ages. When heart rate data were collated by age, there was an apparently gradual fall in sleeping heart rate from 7 to about 14 weeks of age. This was, howeve...

  1. Changes in Heart Rate Variability in a Premature Infant with Hydrocephalus

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana Uhrikova; Branislav Kolarovszki; Kamil Javorka; Michal Javorka; Katarina Matasova; Hana Kolarovszka; Mirko Zibolen

    2012-01-01

    Objective - To define changes of heart rate variability in premature infant with hydrocephalus before and after drainage procedure. Study Design - The authors report a case of a premature infant with hydrocephalus with analysis of heart rate variability before and after drainage procedure. Three subsequent recordings of the electrocardiography and heart rate variability were done: the first at the age of 22 days before insertion of ventriculoperitoneal shunt, the second at the age of 36 d...

  2. Heart rate responses provide an objective evaluation of human disturbance stimuli in breeding birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberg, Ursula; Mattern, Thomas; Seddon, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Intuition is a poor guide for evaluating the effects of human disturbance on wildlife. Using the endangered Yellow-eyed penguin, Megadyptes antipodes, as an example, we show that heart rate responses provide an objective tool to evaluate human disturbance stimuli and encourage the wider use of this simple and low-impact approach. Yellow-eyed penguins are a flagship species for New Zealand's wildlife tourism; however, unregulated visitor access has recently been associated with reduced breeding success and lower first year survival. We measured heart rate responses of Yellow-eyed penguins via artificial eggs to evaluate a range of human stimuli regularly occurring at their breeding sites. We found the duration of a stimulus to be the most important factor, with elevated heart rate being sustained while a person remained within sight. Human activity was the next important component; a simulated wildlife photographer, crawling slowly around during his stay, elicited a significantly higher heart rate response than an entirely motionless human spending the same time at the same distance. Stimuli we subjectively might perceive as low impact, such as the careful approach of a 'wildlife photographer', resulted in a stronger response than a routine nest-check that involved lifting a bird up to view nest contents. A single, slow-moving human spending 20 min within 2 m from the nest may provoke a response comparable to that of 10 min handling a bird for logger deployment. To reduce cumulative impact of disturbance, any human presence in the proximity of Yellow-eyed penguins needs to be kept at a minimum. Our results highlight the need for objective quantification of the effects of human disturbance in order to provide a sound basis for guidelines to manage human activity around breeding birds. PMID:27293597

  3. Fetal autonomic brain age scores, segmented heart rate variability analysis, and traditional short term variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk eHoyer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances of fetal autonomic brain development can be evaluated from fetal heart rate patterns reflecting the activity of the autonomic nervous system. Although heart rate pattern analysis from cardiotocographic (CTG recordings is established for fetal surveillance, temporal resolution is low. Fetal magnetocardiography (MCG, however, provides stable continuous recordings at a higher temporal resolution combined with a more precise heart rate variability (HRV analysis. A direct comparison of CTG and MCG based HRV analysis is pending. The aims of the present study are (i to compare the fetal maturation age predicting value of the MCG based fetal Autonomic Brain Age Score (fABAS approach with that of CTG based Dawes Redman methodology and (ii to elaborate fABAS methodology by segmentation according to fetal behavioral states and heart rate patterns. We investigated MCG recordings from 418 normal fetuses, aged between 21 and 40 weeks of gestation.In linear regression models we obtained an age predicting value of CTG compatible short term variability (STV of R2=0.200 (coefficient of determination in contrast to MCG/fABAS related multivariate models with R2=0.648 in 30 minute recordings, R2=0.610 in active sleep segments of 10 minutes, and R2=0.626 in quiet sleep segments of 10 minutes. Additionally segmented analysis under particular exclusion of accelerations and decelerations in quiet sleep resulted in a novel multivariate model with R2=0.706.According to our results, fMCG based fABAS may provide a promising tool for the estimation of fetal autonomic brain age. Beside other traditional and novel HRV indices as possible indicators of developmental disturbances, the establishment of a fABAS score normogram may represent a specific reference. The present results are intended to contribute to further exploration and validation using independent data sets and multicenter research structures.

  4. [Design of Oxygen Saturation, Heart Rate, Respiration Rate Detection System Based on Smartphone of Android Operating System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingshan; Zeng, Bixin

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we designed an oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiration rate monitoring system based on smartphone of android operating system, physiological signal acquired by MSP430 microcontroller and transmitted by Bluetooth module. PMID:26524782

  5. [Design of Oxygen Saturation, Heart Rate, Respiration Rate Detection System Based on Smartphone of Android Operating System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingshan; Zeng, Bixin

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we designed an oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiration rate monitoring system based on smartphone of android operating system, physiological signal acquired by MSP430 microcontroller and transmitted by Bluetooth module.

  6. Glycyrrhizic Acid Reduces Heart Rate and Blood Pressure by a Dual Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Kailash Singh; Aung Moe Zaw; Revathi Sekar; Ahuja Palak; Allam, Ahmed A.; Jamaan Ajarem; Chow, Billy K. C.

    2016-01-01

    Beta adrenergic receptors are crucial for their role in rhythmic contraction of heart along with their role in the pathological conditions such as tachycardia and high risk of heart failure. Studies report that the levels of beta-1 adrenergic receptor tend to decrease by 50%, whereas, the levels of beta-2 adrenergic receptor remains constant during the risk of heart failure. Beta blockers—the antagonistic molecules for beta-adrenergic receptors, function by slowing the heart rate, which there...

  7. Heart Rate Variability Classification and Feature Extraction Using Support Vector Machine and PCA: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Pitale; Kapil Tajane

    2014-01-01

    In today’s era Heart Rate Variability becomes an important characteristic to determine the condition of heart. That’s why the calculation of HRV and classification to generate rules is necessary. Human Heart Generates the electrical signal. ECG is used to detect the heart beat. ECG signal contains lots of noise. To classify the signals first to decompose the signals using wavelet transform. Many Mother wavelet are used to denoise the signals. Support Vector Machine is used to ...

  8. Changes of deceleration and acceleration capacity of heart rate in patients with acute hemispheric ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu YH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Yan-Hong Xu,1 Xing-De Wang,2 Jia-Jun Yang,1 Li Zhou,2 Yong-Chao Pan1 1Department of Neurology, 2Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background and purpose: Autonomic dysfunction is common after stroke, which is correlated with unfavorable outcome. Phase-rectified signal averaging is a newly developed technique for assessing cardiac autonomic function, by detecting sympathetic and vagal nerve activity separately through calculating acceleration capacity (AC and deceleration capacity (DC of heart rate. In this study, we used this technique for the first time to investigate the cardiac autonomic function of patients with acute hemispheric ischemic stroke. Methods: A 24-hour Holter monitoring was performed in 63 patients with first-ever acute ischemic stroke in hemisphere and sinus rhythm, as well as in 50 controls with high risk of stroke. DC, AC, heart rate variability parameters, standard deviation of all normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN, and square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent normal-to-normal intervals (RMSSD were calculated. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS was used to assess the severity of stroke. We analyzed the changes of DC, AC, SDNN, and RMSSD and also studied the correlations between these parameters and NIHSS scores. Results: The R–R (R wave to R wave on electrocardiogram intervals, DC, AC, and SDNN in the cerebral infarction group were lower than those in controls (P=0.003, P=0.002, P=0.006, and P=0.043, but the difference of RMSSD and the D-value and ratio between absolute value of AC (|AC| and DC were not statistically significant compared with those in controls. The DC of the infarction group was significantly correlated with |AC|, SDNN, and RMSSD (r=0.857, r=0.619, and r=0.358; P=0.000, P=0.000, and P=0.004. Correlation analysis also showed that DC, |AC|, and SDNN

  9. New descriptors of T-wave morphology are independent of heart rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter; Xue, Joel Q; Graff, Claus;

    2008-01-01

    by means of analysis of covariance. The results showed clear heart rate dependence for the QT interval (R(2) = 0.53-0.57) and a moderate degree of heart rate dependence for the basic morphology parameters (amplitude, area, and others) (R(2) = 0.17-0.42). Both the advanced T-wave descriptors (asymmetry......, flatness, and others), ToTe intervals and TpTe intervals, were practically independent of heart rate (R(2) = 0-0.08), making heart rate correction unnecessary for these parameters....

  10. Episodic arterial oxygen desaturation and heart rate variations following major abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Dirkes, W E; Kehlet, H

    1989-01-01

    In 20 patients undergoing elective major abdominal surgery, heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation were monitored continuously during the night 2 days before operation and during the first and second nights after operation (23:00 to 07:30). Mean heart rate increased by 16 beat min-1 (P less than...... arrhythmias on the morning of the third day after operation. In another patient the episodes of desaturation correlated with increases in heart rate. There was no correlation between administration of opioids and heart rate and saturation disturbances. The mechanism and clinical relevance of episodic...

  11. Elevated Resting Heart Rate is Associated with Dyslipidemia in Middle-aged and Elderly Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ji Chao; NING Guang; HUANG Xiao Lin; DENG Xin Ru; LV Xiao Fei; LU Jie Li; CHEN Yu Hong; BI Yu Fang; WANG Wei Qing; XU Min

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between resting heart rate and blood lipid level. Methods A total of 9 415 subjects aged≥40 years were included in the present study. Their resting heart rate was monitored and their serum levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured to define dyslipidemia according to the 2007 Chinese Guidelines on Prevention and Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Adults. Results The subjects were divided into group A with their resting heart rate Conclusion Elevated resting heart rate is associated with high TG and TC in middle-aged and elderly Chinese subjects.

  12. THE EFFECT OF LISTENING TO MUSIC ON HEART RATE; BLOOD PRESSURE; PRE AND TIME OF FATIGUE

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Moghadam; Mohammad Reza Ramezn pour; Elaheh Shadi far

    2011-01-01

    To compare the effect of three types of music during activity on heart rate; blood pressure; PREand time of fatigue occured in students of University.Methods: 15 female students of physicaleducation with a mean age of 21/93±2/43 years; height 161/8±5/22 cm and weight 54/46±7/27kg among the 45 student volunteers randomly selected intensity 80 to 85 percent of maximumheart rate to exhaustion on stationary bicycle pedal border went. As follows in four differentdays (a week interval); no music; s...

  13. Extraction of Heart Rate Variability from Smartphone Photoplethysmograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Chao Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV is a useful clinical tool for autonomic function assessment and cardiovascular diseases diagnosis. It is traditionally calculated from a dedicated medical electrocardiograph (ECG. In this paper, we demonstrate that HRV can also be extracted from photoplethysmograms (PPG obtained by the camera of a smartphone. Sixteen HRV parameters, including time-domain, frequency-domain, and nonlinear parameters, were calculated from PPG captured by a smartphone for 30 healthy subjects and were compared with those derived from ECG. The statistical results showed that 14 parameters (AVNN, SDNN, CV, RMSSD, SDSD, TP, VLF, LF, HF, LF/HF, nLF, nHF, SD1, and SD2 from PPG were highly correlated (r>0.7, P<0.001 with those from ECG, and 7 parameters (AVNN, TP, VLF, LF, HF, nLF, and nHF from PPG were in good agreement with those from ECG within the acceptable limits. In addition, five different algorithms to detect the characteristic points of PPG wave were also investigated: peak point (PP, valley point (VP, maximum first derivative (M1D, maximum second derivative (M2D, and tangent intersection (TI. The results showed that M2D and TI algorithms had the best performance. These results suggest that the smartphone might be used for HRV measurement.

  14. Extraction of Heart Rate Variability from Smartphone Photoplethysmograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Rong-Chao; Zhou, Xiao-Lin; Lin, Wan-Hua; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a useful clinical tool for autonomic function assessment and cardiovascular diseases diagnosis. It is traditionally calculated from a dedicated medical electrocardiograph (ECG). In this paper, we demonstrate that HRV can also be extracted from photoplethysmograms (PPG) obtained by the camera of a smartphone. Sixteen HRV parameters, including time-domain, frequency-domain, and nonlinear parameters, were calculated from PPG captured by a smartphone for 30 healthy subjects and were compared with those derived from ECG. The statistical results showed that 14 parameters (AVNN, SDNN, CV, RMSSD, SDSD, TP, VLF, LF, HF, LF/HF, nLF, nHF, SD1, and SD2) from PPG were highly correlated (r > 0.7, P < 0.001) with those from ECG, and 7 parameters (AVNN, TP, VLF, LF, HF, nLF, and nHF) from PPG were in good agreement with those from ECG within the acceptable limits. In addition, five different algorithms to detect the characteristic points of PPG wave were also investigated: peak point (PP), valley point (VP), maximum first derivative (M1D), maximum second derivative (M2D), and tangent intersection (TI). The results showed that M2D and TI algorithms had the best performance. These results suggest that the smartphone might be used for HRV measurement. PMID:25685174

  15. Non-Contact Heart Rate Monitoring Using Lab Color Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Hamidur; Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin; Begum, Shahina

    2016-01-01

    Research progressing during the last decade focuses more on non-contact based systems to monitor Heart Rate (HR) which are simple, low-cost and comfortable to use. Most of the non-contact based systems are using RGB videos which is suitable for lab environment. However, it needs to progress considerably before they can be applied in real life applications. As luminance (light) has significance contribution on RGB videos HR monitoring using RGB videos are not efficient enough in real life applications in outdoor environment. This paper presents a HR monitoring method using Lab color facial video captured by a webcam of a laptop computer. Lab color space is device independent and HR can be extracted through facial skin color variation caused by blood circulation considering variable environmental light. Here, three different signal processing methods i.e., Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) have been applied on the color channels in video recordings and blood volume pulse (BVP) has been extracted from the facial regions. In this study, HR is subsequently quantified and compare with a reference measurement. The result shows that high degrees of accuracy have been achieved compared to the reference measurements. Thus, this technology has significant potential for advancing personal health care, telemedicine and many real life applications such as driver monitoring. PMID:27225552

  16. Multiscale analysis of heart rate variability in nonstationary environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo eGao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV is highly nonstationary, even if no perturbing influences can be identified during the recording of the data. The nonstationarity becomes more profound when HRV data are measured in intrinsically nonstationary environments, such as social stress. In general, HRV data measured in such situations are more difficult to analyze than those measured in constant environments. In this paper, we analyze HRV data measured during a social stress test using two multiscale approaches, the adaptive fractal analysis (AFA and scale-dependent Lyapunov exponent (SDLE, for the purpose of uncovering differences in HRV between chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS patients and their matched-controls. CFS is a debilitating, heterogeneous illness with no known biomarker. HRV has shown some promise recently as a non-invasive measure of subtle physiological disturbances and trauma that are otherwise difficult to assess. If the HRV in persons with CFS are significantly different from their healthy controls, then certain cardiac irregularities may constitute good candidate biomarkers for CFS. Our multiscale analyses show that there are notable differences in HRV between CFS and their matched controls before a social stress test, but these differences seem to diminish during the test. These analyses illustrate that the two employed multiscale approaches could be useful for the analysis of HRV measured in various environments, both stationary and nonstationary.

  17. Heart Rate Variability Analysis in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ying Lan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Very few studies investigate the role of the autonomic nervous system in allergic rhinitis. In this study, we evaluated the autonomic nervous system in allergic rhinitis patients using heart rate variability (HRV analysis. Methods. Eleven patients with allergic rhinitis and 13 healthy controls, aged between 19 and 40 years old, were enrolled in the study. Diagnosis of allergic rhinitis was based on clinical history, symptoms, and positive Phadiatop test. Electrocardiographic recordings on the sitting and supine positions were obtained for HRV analysis. Results. In the supine position, there were no significant statistical differences in very-low-frequency power (VLF, ≤0.04 Hz, low-frequency power (LF, 0.04–0.15 Hz, high-frequency power (HF, 0.15–0.40 Hz, and the ratio of LF to HF (LF/HF between the patient and control groups. The mean RR intervals significantly increased, while LF% and LF/HF significantly decreased in the patient group in the sitting position. Moreover, mean RR intervals, LF, and LF/HF, which were significantly different between the two positions in the control group, did not show a significant change with the posture change in the patient group. Conclusion. These suggest that patients with allergic rhinitis may have poor sympathetic modulation in the sitting position. Autonomic dysfunction may therefore play a role in the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis.

  18. Prone position craniotomy in pregnancy without fetal heart rate monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jean; Alexander, Ashish; Philip, Shoba; Thomas, Anoop

    2016-09-01

    A pregnant patient in second trimester scheduled for posterior fossa craniotomy in prone position is a challenge for the anesthesiologist. Things to consider are physiological changes during pregnancy, non-obstetric surgery in pregnant patients, neuroanesthetic principles, effects of prone positioning, and need for fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring. We have described the anesthetic management of this case and discussed intra-operative FHR monitoring including controversies about its role, indications, and various options available as per fetal gestational age. In our case we attempted intermittent intra-operative FHR monitoring to optimize maternal positioning and fetal oxygenation even though the fetus was pre-viable. However the attempt was abandoned due to practical difficulties with prone positioning. Patient made good neurological recovery following the procedure and delivered a healthy term baby 4 months later. Decisions regarding fetal monitoring should be individualized based on viability of the fetus and feasibility of emergency cesarean delivery. Good communication between a multidisciplinary team involving neurosurgeon, anesthesiologist, obstetrician, and neonatologist is important for a successful outcome for mother and fetus. We conclude that prone position neurosurgery can safely be carried out in a pregnant patient with pre-viable fetus without FHR monitoring. PMID:27555144

  19. Heart rate variability predicts the emotional state in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Maki; Kubo, Takatomi; Mogi, Kazutaka; Ikeda, Kazushi; Nagasawa, Miho; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2016-07-01

    Although it is known that heart rate variability (HRV) is a useful indicator of emotional states in animals, there are few reports of research in dogs. Thus, we investigated the relationship between HRV and emotional states in dogs. The electrocardiogram and behavior in two situations that elicited a positive and negative emotion, in addition to baseline (when dogs were not presented any social stimuli), were recorded in 33 healthy house dogs. After testing, we chose 15seconds from each situation and baseline and calculated three HRV parameters: standard deviation of normal-to-normal R-R intervals (SDNN), the root mean square of successive heartbeat interval differences (RMSSD), and mean R-R intervals (mean RRI). In comparing these parameters with baseline, only SDNN was lower in a positive situation. In contrast, only RMSSD was lower in a negative situation. A change in HRV occurred with a stimulus eliciting emotion, and was able to distinguish between positive and negative situations. Thus, HRV is useful for estimating the emotional state in dogs. PMID:27129806

  20. The structure of heart rate asymmetry: deceleration and acceleration runs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A family of new heart rate asymmetry measures is introduced, namely deceleration and acceleration runs, as well as entropic measures summarizing their distribution. We introduce the theoretical run distribution for shuffled data and use it as a reference for interpreting the results. The measures defined in the paper are applied to actual 24 h Holter ECG recordings from 87 healthy people, and it is demonstrated that the patterns of accelerations are different from those of decelerations. Acceleration runs are longer and more numerous: all runs of accelerations, with the exception of lengths 3 and 4, are more numerous than those of decelerations. These findings are reflected in the difference between the entropic measures for acceleration and deceleration runs: for 74 subjects the acceleration-related entropic parameter is greater than that of decelerations (p < 0.001). For shuffled data there is no difference in the above parameters, and there are more short runs and fewer long runs than in physiological data. The influence of the measuring equipment resolution is also discussed

  1. Estimation of human core temperature from sequential heart rate observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Core temperature (CT) in combination with heart rate (HR) can be a good indicator of impending heat exhaustion for occupations involving exposure to heat, heavy workloads, and wearing protective clothing. However, continuously measuring CT in an ambulatory environment is difficult. To address this problem we developed a model to estimate the time course of CT using a series of HR measurements as a leading indicator using a Kalman filter. The model was trained using data from 17 volunteers engaged in a 24 h military field exercise (air temperatures 24–36 °C, and 42%–97% relative humidity and CTs ranging from 36.0–40.0 °C). Validation data from laboratory and field studies (N = 83) encompassing various combinations of temperature, hydration, clothing, and acclimation state were examined using the Bland–Altman limits of agreement (LoA) method. We found our model had an overall bias of −0.03 ± 0.32 °C and that 95% of all CT estimates fall within ±0.63 °C (>52 000 total observations). While the model for estimating CT is not a replacement for direct measurement of CT (literature comparisons of esophageal and rectal methods average LoAs of ±0.58 °C) our results suggest it is accurate enough to provide practical indication of thermal work strain for use in the work place. (paper)

  2. Microwave radiation and heart-beat rate of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C K; Han, L F; Guy, A W

    1980-06-01

    Each of three adult New Zealand rabbits, 2 male and 1 female albinos, was exposed dorsally or ventrally, to 2450-MHz plane waves for 20 min under each of several field conditions: 1) to continuous waves (CW) at 5 mW/cm2; 2) to pulsed waves (PW) of 1-microsecond width that recurred 700 pps at an average of 5 mW/cm2 and at a peak of 7.1 W/cm2; 3) to PW of 10-microseconds width at a peak of 13.7 W/cm2 that were synchronized with and triggered by the R wave of the electrocardiogram (EKG) at various delay times (0, 100, and 200 ms; and 4) to CW at 80 mW/cm2. Carbon-loaded Teflon electrodes were used to record the EKG from forelimbs of an animal before, during, and after irradiation whilst it was maintained in a constant exposure geometry in a wooden squeeze box. Field induced changes in the heart-beat rate were observed at 80 mW/cm2 but not a lower average power densities, although a peak positive chronotropic effect might have been occasioned by PM introduced at 100 and 200 ms after the R wave peak. No cumulative effect was observed over a period of four months. Thermographic analysis revealed relatively little absorption of microwave energy by the myocardium irrespective of anatomical aspect of exposure.

  3. Effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on the heart rate and the heart rate variability responses to myocardial ischemia or submaximal exercise

    OpenAIRE

    George E Billman; William S. Harris

    2011-01-01

    The consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) has been reported to decrease resting heart rate (HR) and increase heart rate variability (HRV). However, the effects of n-3 PUFAs on these variables in response to a physiological stress (e.g., exercise or acute myocardial ischemia), particularly in postmyocardial infarction (MI) patients, are unknown. Therefore, HR and HRV (high frequency and total R-R interval variability) were evaluated at rest, during submaximal exercise,...

  4. Effect of Dietary Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Animals Susceptible or Resistant to Ventricular Fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    George E Billman

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) has been reported to reduce cardiac mortality following myocardial infarction as well as to decrease resting heart rate (HR) and increase heart rate variability (HRV). However, it has not been established whether n-3 PUFAs exhibit the same actions on HR and HRV in individuals known to be either susceptible or resistant to ventricular fibrillation (VF). Therefore, HR and HRV (high frequency and total R-R interval variability)...

  5. Computer Software tool for heart rate variability (HRV), T-wave alternans (TWA) and heart rate turbulence (HRT) analysis from ECGs

    OpenAIRE

    Kudryński, Krzysztof; Strumiłło, Paweł; Ruta, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background This paper presents a software package for quantitative evaluation of heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate turbulence (HRT), and T-wave alternans (TWA) from ECG recordings. The software has been developed for the purpose of scientific research rather than clinical diagnosis. Material/Methods The software is written in Matlab Mathematical Language. Procedures for evaluation of HRV, HRT and TWA were implemented. HRV analysis was carried out by applying statistical and spe...

  6. The degree of heart rate asymmetry is crucial for the validity of the deceleration and acceleration capacity indices of heart rate: A model-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Zhou, Gongzhan; Wang, Ruofan; Yu, Yihua; Li, Feng; Fang, Luping; Yan, Jing; Ning, Gangmin

    2016-09-01

    The deceleration capacity (DC) and acceleration capacity (AC) of heart rate are a pair of indices used for evaluating the autonomic nervous system (ANS). We assessed the role of heart rate asymmetry (HRA) in defining the relative performance of DC and AC using a mathematical model, which is able to generate a realistic RR interval (RRI) time series with controlled ANS states. The simulation produced a set of RRI series with random sympathetic and vagal activities. The multi-scale DCs and ACs were computed from the RRI series, and the correlation of DC and AC with the ANS functions was analyzed to evaluate the performance of the indices. In the model, the HRA level was modified by changing the inspiration/expiration (I/E) ratio to examine the influence of HRA on the performances of DC and AC. The results show that on the conventional scales (T=1, s=2), an HRA level above 50% results in a stronger association of DC with the ANS, compared with AC. On higher scales (T=4, s=6), there was no HRA and DC showed a similar performance to AC for all I/E ratios. The data suggest that the HRA level determines which of DC or AC is the optimal index for expressing ANS functions. Future clinical applications of DC and AC should be accompanied by an HRA analysis to provide a better index for assessing ANS. PMID:27392228

  7. Heart rate variability after horse trekking in leading and following horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Akihiro; Tanaka, Masaya; Irimajiri, Mami; Yamazaki, Atusi; Nakanowatari, Toshihiko; Hodate, Koichi

    2010-10-01

    Horse trekking (HT) is having a stroll on a horse along a walking trail in a forest, field, and/or sandy beach. Generally in HT, horses exercise in tandem line outside the riding facilities. Because the leading horse will be confronted with stressors in the forefront, we hypothesized that the leading horse shows higher stress responses than the following one. In order to verify the hypothesis, we compared short-term stress responses between each position in six horses. Exercise consisted of 15 min of ground riding and 45 min of HT with walking and trotting. Heart rate variability was analyzed for 5 min at 30, 60, and 90 min after the exercising period. There was no significant difference in heart rate during exercise between leading and following positions. The high frequency / low frequency power band of heart rate variability, an index of sympathetic nervous activity, after exercise, tended to be higher in the leading position than following one (P horse was in a higher stressed state than the following horse after HT.

  8. The art equipment for measuring the horse’s heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cus

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper: Heart rate is a reliable indicator of the stress. Non-invasive methods have advantage over the methods that have a negative influence on the condition of an animal. When breeding sport horses, which undergo stressful training every day, it is required, from an ethical aspect, to monitor their capabilities by using most advanced electronic devices Polar Sport Tester and Polar Equine RS800cx G3.Design/methodology/approach: The original Polar ProTrainer 5 Equine edition software facilitates the analysis of individual training phases and gives the number of heart beats, average heart rate, average speed and distance covered in individual training phases.Findings: Heart rate increased, in warming up phase, from the value associated with a resting horse (30 to 40 bpm approximately in one minute, while, during the slow cooling down phase, ten minutes were required for the heart rate to reach the afore-mentioned value. During quick trotting heart rate are 112 heart beats per minute, while during steeplechase phase, it increased to the value of 160 to 170 heart beats per minute.Research limitations/implications: To receive heart rate without disturbances already we moisten the skin on the contact spots, using a mixture of water and electrolytes (Salvana Nutrilyt. Placing receiver on the saddle close by the T56H transmitter was the optimal choice.Practical implications: Modern equipment makes monitoring the horse’s heart rate accurately and to perform, safely and without disturbances, exercises required during training. It also checks the heart rate, which indicates the horse’s health.Originality/value: Polar Sport Tester and Polar Equine RS800cx G3 are state of the art products that facilitate the receipt of the horse’s heart rate signals. The accuracy of the acquired results can be compared with those obtained with ECG measurements.

  9. Heart rate increment analysis is not effective for sleep-disordered breathing screening in patients with chronic heart failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Damy, Thibaud; d'Ortho, Marie-Pia; Estrugo, Brigitte; Margarit, Laurent; Mouillet, Gauthier; Mahfoud, Mohannad; Roudot-Thoraval, Francoise; Vermes, Emmanuelle; Hittinger, Luc; Roche, Frederic; Macquin-Mavier, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Frequency domain analysis of heart rate variation has been suggested as an effective screening tool for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in the general population. The aim of this study was to assess this method in patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). We included prospectively 84 patients with stable CHF, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) or =15 h(-1) was diagnosed in 57.4% of patients. Percent VLFI was not correlated with AHI (r = 0.12). Receiver-operating character...

  10. Heart rate variability across the menstrual cycle in young women taking oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, André L; Ramos, Plínio S; Vianna, Lauro C; Ricardo, Djalma R

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that resting heart rate variability (HRV) is modified by different phases of the menstrual cycle in nonusers of oral contraceptive pills (OCP); however, the effect of OCP on autonomic control of the heart remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate HRV during the low hormone (LH-not taking OCP) and during the high hormone (HH-active OCP use) phases of the menstrual cycle in young women. Seventeen healthy women (19-31 years) taking OCP for at least 6 consecutive months were enrolled in this study. Plasma estradiol and progesterone were verified at each visit. HRV was assessed by using one-lead electrocardiography in time and frequency domains, in which participants rested in the supine position for a 20-min period with a breathing rate of 15 cycles/min. In addition, resting heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were obtained. Both plasma estradiol (LH: 19.8 ± 4.2 pg/mL vs. HH: 12.4 ± 1.5 pg/mL; p > .05) and progesterone (LH: 0.247 ± 0.58 ng/mL vs. HH: 0.371 ± 0.08 ng/mL; p > .05) (mean ± SE) levels were similar in both phases. No significant difference was obtained for any component of HRV, heart rate, or blood pressure between the LH and HH phases (p > .05). These results provide preliminary evidence that use of OCP does not affect HRV during the menstrual cycle in healthy women.

  11. Clinical impact of evaluation of cardiovascular control by novel methods of heart rate dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huikuri, Heikki V; Perkiömäki, Juha S; Maestri, Roberto; Pinna, Gian Domenico

    2009-04-13

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been conventionally analysed with time- and frequency-domain methods, which measure the overall magnitude of RR interval fluctuations around its mean value or the magnitude of fluctuations in some predetermined frequencies. Analysis of heart rate dynamics by novel methods, such as heart rate turbulence after ventricular premature beats, deceleration capacity of heart rate and methods based on chaos theory and nonlinear system theory, have gained recent interest. Recent observational studies have suggested that some indices describing nonlinear heart rate dynamics, such as fractal scaling exponents, heart rate turbulence and deceleration capacity, may provide useful prognostic information in various clinical settings and their reproducibility may be better than that of traditional indices. For example, the short-term fractal scaling exponent measured by the detrended fluctuation analysis method has been shown to predict fatal cardiovascular events in various populations. Similarly, heart rate turbulence and deceleration capacity have performed better than traditional HRV measures in predicting mortality in post-infarction patients. Approximate entropy, a nonlinear index of heart rate dynamics, which describes the complexity of RR interval behaviour, has provided information on the vulnerability to atrial fibrillation. There are many other nonlinear indices which also give information on the characteristics of heart rate dynamics, but their clinical usefulness is not as well established. Although the concepts of nonlinear dynamics, fractal mathematics and complexity measures of heart rate behaviour, heart rate turbulence, deceleration capacity in relation to cardiovascular physiology or various cardiovascular events are still far away from clinical medicine, they are a fruitful area for research to expand our knowledge concerning the behaviour of cardiovascular oscillations in normal healthy conditions as well as in disease states.

  12. Application of Unit Time Block Entropy to Fetal Distress Heart Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, U. C.; Kim, S.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, multiple time scale characteristics of heart dynamics have received much attention for distinguishing healthy and pathologic cardiac systems. Despite structural peculiarities of the fetal cardiovascular system, the fetal heart rate(FHR) displays multiple time scale characteristics similar to the adult heart rate due to the autorhythmicity of its different oscillatory tissues and its interaction with other neural controllers. In this paper, we investigate the event and time scale cha...

  13. Repeated gentle handling in beef cattle: heart rate and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze Westerath, Heike; Probst, Johanna; Gygox, Lorenz; Hillmann, Edna

    2010-01-01

    A good animal-human relationship is one important aspect concerning cattle welfare. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gentle handling at head and neck on behaviour and heart beat parameters in beef cattle.

  14. The safety assessment of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on sympathovagal balance and heart rate variability; a comparison with amiodarone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukar, Siyavash; Dehesh, Mohammad-Moein

    2015-12-01

    Dry stigmas of the Crocus sativus L. (Saffron) are well known in world as a popular flavouring and therapeutic agent. The anxiolytic, antidepressant, anticonvulsant and antiarrhythmic effects of saffron suggest that it may affect the autonomic control of the heart. This study assessed its safety on cardiac sympathovagal balance and heart rate variability in rat. Experimental groups were control, Saf50, Saf100, Saf200 (received saffron at dosages of 50 and 100 and 200 mg/kg/d, orally, respectively) and Amio (received 30 mg/mL/kg/d of amiodarone, orally, for 7 days) groups. On day 8, the frequency domain and time domain indices of animals' electrocardiograms were calculated. The heart rate decreased and RR interval increased in Saf200 and Amio groups (Psaffron not only has no harmful effect on activity of cardiac autonomic nervous system, but it may improve the stability of heart sympathovagal balance in normal rat. PMID:27329172

  15. [Voluntary alpha-power increasing training impact on the heart rate variability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Balioz, N V; Muravleva, K B; Skoraia, M V

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of the alpha EEG power increasing training at heart rate variability (HRV) as the index of the autonomic regulation of cognitive functions there were follow tasks: (1) to figure out the impact of biofeedback in the voluntary increasing the power in the individual high-frequency alpha-band effect on heart rate variability and related characteristics of cognitive and emotional spheres, (2) to determine the nature of the relationship between alpha activity indices and heart rate variability, depending on the alpha-frequency EEG pattern at rest (3) to examine how the individual alpha frequency EEG pattern is reflected in changes HRV as a result of biofeedback training. Psychometric indicators of cognitive performance, the characteristics of the alpha-EEG activity and heart rate variability (HRV) as LF/HF and pNN50 were recorded in 27 healthy men aged 18-34 years, before, during, and after 10 sessions of training of voluntary increase in alpha power in the individual high-frequency alpha band with eyes closed. To determine the biofeedback effect on the alpha power increasing training, data subjects are compared in 2 groups: experimental (14) with the real and the control group (13 people)--with mock biofeedback. The follow up effect of trainings was studied through month over the 10 training sessions. Results showed that alpha biofeedback training enhanced the fluency and accuracy in cognitive performance, decreased anxiety and frontal EMG, increased resting frequency, width and power in individual upper alpha range only in participants with low baseline alpha frequency. While mock biofeedback increased resting alpha power only in participants with high baseline resting alpha frequency and did change neither cognitive performance, nor HRV indices. Biofeedback training eliminated the alpha power decrease in response to arithmetic task in both with high and low alpha frequency participants and this effect was followed up over the month. Mock

  16. Heart rate variability estimation in photoplethysmography signals using Bayesian learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqaraawi, Ahmed; Alwosheel, Ahmad; Alasaad, Amr

    2016-06-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has become a marker for various health and disease conditions. Photoplethysmography (PPG) sensors integrated in wearable devices such as smart watches and phones are widely used to measure heart activities. HRV requires accurate estimation of time interval between consecutive peaks in the PPG signal. However, PPG signal is very sensitive to motion artefact which may lead to poor HRV estimation if false peaks are detected. In this Letter, the authors propose a probabilistic approach based on Bayesian learning to better estimate HRV from PPG signal recorded by wearable devices and enhance the performance of the automatic multi scale-based peak detection (AMPD) algorithm used for peak detection. The authors' experiments show that their approach enhances the performance of the AMPD algorithm in terms of number of HRV related metrics such as sensitivity, positive predictive value, and average temporal resolution. PMID:27382483

  17. Cross-country skiing and postexercise heart-rate recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourot, Laurent; Fabre, Nicolas; Andersson, Erik; Willis, Sarah; Buchheit, Martin; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2015-01-01

    Postexercise heart-rate (HR) recovery (HRR) indices have been associated with running and cycling endurance-exercise performance. The current study was designed (1) to test whether such a relationship also exists in the case of cross-country skiing (XCS) and (2) to determine whether the magnitude of any such relationship is related to the intensity of exercise before obtaining HRR indices. Ten elite male cross-country skiers (mean ± SD; 28.2 ± 5.4 y, 181 ± 8 cm, 77.9 ± 9.4 kg, 69.5 ± 4.3 mL · min-1 · kg-1 maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max]) performed 2 sessions of roller-skiing on a treadmill: a 2 × 3-km time trial and the same 6-km at an imposed submaximal speed followed by a final 800-m time trial. VO2 and HR were monitored continuously, while HRR and blood lactate (BLa) were assessed during 2 min immediately after each 6-km and the 800-m time trial. The 6-km time-trial time was largely negatively correlated with VO2max and BLa. On the contrary, there was no clear correlation between the 800-m time-trial time and VO2, HR, or BLa. In addition, in no case was any clear correlation between any of the HRR indices and performance time or VO2max observed. These findings confirm that XCS performance is largely correlated with VO2max and the ability to tolerate high levels of BLa; however, postexercise HRR showed no clear association with performance. The homogeneity of the group of athletes involved and the contribution of the arms and upper body to the exercise preceding determination of HRR may explain this absence of a relationship.

  18. Categorizing Fetal Heart Rate Variability with and without Visual Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashdown, Amanda J.; Scerbo, Mark W.; Belfore, Lee A.; Davis, Stephen S.; Abuhamad, Alfred Z.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined the ability of clinicians to correctly categorize images of fetal heart rate (FHR) variability with and without the use of exemplars. Study Design A sample of 33 labor and delivery clinicians inspected static FHR images and categorized them into one of four categories defined by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) based on the amount of variability within absent, minimal, moderate, or marked ranges. Participants took part in three conditions: two in which they used exemplars representing FHR variability near the center or near the boundaries of each range, and a third control condition with no exemplars. The data gathered from clinicians were compared with those from a previous study using novices. Results Clinicians correctly categorized more images when the FHR variability fell near the center rather than the boundaries of each range, F (1,32) = 71.69, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.69. They also correctly categorized more images when exemplars were available, F (2,64) = 5.44, p = 0.007, partial η2 = 0.15. Compared with the novices, the clinicians were more accurate and quicker in their category judgments, but this difference was limited to the condition without exemplars. Conclusion The results suggest that categorizing FHR variability is more difficult when the examples fall near the boundaries of each NICHD-defined range. Thus, clinicians could benefit from training with visual aids to improve judgments about FHR variability and potentially enhance safety in labor and delivery. PMID:27722031

  19. Heart Rate Variability and Autonomic Modulations in Preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaza M Musa

    Full Text Available Although the exact pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not well understood, autonomic nervous system imbalance is suggested as one of the main factors.To investigate heart rate variability (HRV and autonomic modulations in Sudanese pregnant women with preeclampsia.A case-control study (60 women in each arm was conducted at Omdurman Maternity Hospital-Sudan, during the period from June to August, 2014. Cases were women presented with preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women were the controls. Studied groups were matched for important determinants of HRV. Natural logarithm (Ln of total power (TP, high frequency (HF, low frequency (LF and very low frequency (VLF were used to determine HRV. Normalized low and high frequencies (LF Norm and HF Norm were used to evaluate sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic modulations respectively.Patients with preeclampsia achieved significantly higher LF Norm [49.80 (16.25 vs. 44.55 (19.15, P = 0.044] and LnLF/HF [0.04 (0.68 vs. -0.28 (0.91, P = 0.023] readings, but lower HF Norm [49.08 (15.29 vs. 55.87 (19.56, P = 0.012], compared with healthy pregnant women. Although all other HRV measurements were higher in the patients with preeclampsia compared with the controls, only LnVLF [4.50 (1.19 vs. 4.01 (1.06, P = 0.017] and LnLF [4.01 (1.58 vs. 3.49 (1.23, P = 0.040] reached statistical significance.The study adds further evidence for the dominant cardiac sympathetic modulations on patients with preeclampsia, probably secondary to parasympathetic withdrawal in this group. However, the higher LnVLF and LnLF readings achieved by preeclamptic women compared with the controls are unexpected in the view that augmented sympathetic modulations usually depresses all HRV parameters including these two measures.

  20. Heart rate variability (HRV): an indicator of stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Balvinder; Durek, Joseph J.; O'Kane, Barbara L.; Tran, Nhien; Moses, Sophia; Luthra, Megha; Ikonomidou, Vasiliki N.

    2014-05-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) can be an important indicator of several conditions that affect the autonomic nervous system, including traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder and peripheral neuropathy [3], [4], [10] & [11]. Recent work has shown that some of the HRV features can potentially be used for distinguishing a subject's normal mental state from a stressed one [4], [13] & [14]. In all of these past works, although processing is done in both frequency and time domains, few classification algorithms have been explored for classifying normal from stressed RRintervals. In this paper we used 30 s intervals from the Electrocardiogram (ECG) time series collected during normal and stressed conditions, produced by means of a modified version of the Trier social stress test, to compute HRV-driven features and subsequently applied a set of classification algorithms to distinguish stressed from normal conditions. To classify RR-intervals, we explored classification algorithms that are commonly used for medical applications, namely 1) logistic regression (LR) [16] and 2) linear discriminant analysis (LDA) [6]. Classification performance for various levels of stress over the entire test was quantified using precision, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity measures. Results from both classifiers were then compared to find an optimal classifier and HRV features for stress detection. This work, performed under an IRB-approved protocol, not only provides a method for developing models and classifiers based on human data, but also provides a foundation for a stress indicator tool based on HRV. Further, these classification tools will not only benefit many civilian applications for detecting stress, but also security and military applications for screening such as: border patrol, stress detection for deception [3],[17], and wounded-warrior triage [12].

  1. Heartbeat perception, instructions, and biofeedback in the control of heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascalis, V; Palumbo, G; Ronchitelli, V

    1991-08-01

    The present study was designed to examine the possibility that individual differences in heartbeat perception and instructions to control heart rate (HR) may influence the acquisition of voluntary control. Good (n = 20) and poor (n = 20) perceivers of cardiac activity were selected on the basis of their performance according to Whitehead et al. (1977) heartbeat discrimination procedure. Measures of state and trait anxiety (the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form X-1 and Form X-2) and Tellegen's Absorption Scale (TAS) were used to assess emotionality and absorptive ability. Good and poor heartbeat perceivers (a) were given non-motivating instructions to try to either increase or decrease their heart rate (HR) with, or (b) without the use of HR-feedback, and (c) were given motivating instructions to try to either increase or decrease their HR with, or (d) without HR-feedback. Heart rate, skin conductance (SC), and EMG activity were monitored. Subjects were also requested to indicate the cognitive strategies used during their HR control training. No relationship between heartbeat perception and state-trait anxiety measures was found. The results did not support the idea that individual differences in heartbeat perception are related to individual differences in HR-control. They did indicate, however, that motivating instructions improve the capacity to increase or decrease HR. Subjects were able to voluntarily increase or decrease their HRs with or without a feedback signal. However, more pronounced HR increases were obtained in the feedback as compared with the no-feedback condition. SC and EMG activity were in accordance with arousal levels demanded by HR decrease and increase tasks. Subjects used cognitive strategies concerning activation responses during HR-increase and relaxation responses during HR-decrease conditions. PMID:1748593

  2. Heart Rate Variability as an Indicator of Chronic Stress Caused by Lameness in Dairy Cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente Kovács

    Full Text Available Most experimental studies on animal stress physiology have focused on acute stress, while chronic stress, which is also encountered in intensive dairy cattle farming--e.g. in case of lameness--, has received little attention. We investigated heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV as indicators of the autonomic nervous system activity and fecal glucocorticoid concentrations as the indicator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in lame (with locomotion scores 4 and 5; n = 51 and non-lame (with locomotion scores 1 and 2; n = 52 Holstein-Friesian cows. Data recorded during the periods of undisturbed lying--representing baseline cardiac activity--were involved in the analysis. Besides linear analysis methods of the cardiac inter-beat interval (time-domain geometric, frequency domain and Poincaré analyses non-linear HRV parameters were also evaluated. With the exception of standard deviation 1 (SD1, all HRV indices were affected by lameness. Heart rate was lower in lame cows than in non-lame ones. Vagal tone parameters were higher in lame cows than in non-lame animals, while indices of the sympathovagal balance reflected on a decreased sympathetic activity in lame cows. All geometric and non-linear HRV measures were lower in lame cows compared to non-lame ones suggesting that chronic stress influenced linear and non-linear characteristics of cardiac function. Lameness had no effect on fecal glucocorticoid concentrations. Our results demonstrate that HRV analysis is a reliable method in the assessment of chronic stress, however, it requires further studies to fully understand the elevated parasympathetic and decreased sympathetic tone in lame animals.

  3. Short- and long-term variations in non-linear dynamics of heart rate variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanters, J K; Højgaard, M V; Agner, E;

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to investigate the short- and long-term variations in the non-linear dynamics of heart rate variability, and to determine the relationships between conventional time and frequency domain methods and the newer non-linear methods of characterizing heart rate...... be described as a single chaotic system. Instead heart rate variability consists of intertwined periods with different non-linear dynamics. It is hypothesized that the heart rate is governed by a system with multiple "strange" attractors.......OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to investigate the short- and long-term variations in the non-linear dynamics of heart rate variability, and to determine the relationships between conventional time and frequency domain methods and the newer non-linear methods of characterizing heart rate...... variability. METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects were investigated by 3-h ambulatory ECG recordings repeated on 3 separate days. Correlation dimension, non-linear predictability, mean heart rate, and heart rate variability in the time and frequency domains were measured and compared with the results from...

  4. Identification of heart rate-associated loci and their effects on cardiac conduction and rhythm disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hoed, Marcel; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Esko, Tonu; Brundel, Bianca J. J. M.; Peal, David S.; Evans, David M.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Segre, Ayellet V.; Holm, Hilma; Handsaker, Robert E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Johnson, Toby; Isaacs, Aaron; Yang, Jian; Lundby, Alicia; Zhao, Jing Hua; Kim, Young Jin; Go, Min Jin; Almgren, Peter; Bochud, Murielle; Boucher, Gabrielle; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Hadley, David; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; den Heijer, Martin; Igl, Wilmar; Jackson, Anne U.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Luan, Jian'an; Kemp, John P.; Kristiansson, Kati; Ladenvall, Claes; Lorentzon, Mattias; Montasser, May E.; Njajou, Omer T.; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pourcain, Beate St.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Salo, Perttu; Tanaka, Toshiko; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Vitart, Veronique; Waite, Lindsay; Wheeler, William; Zhang, Weihua; Draisma, Harmen H. M.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Lind, Penelope A.; Mihailov, Evelin; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Song, Ci; Weedon, Michael N.; Xie, Weijia; Yengo, Loic; Absher, Devin; Albert, Christine M.; Alonso, Alvaro; Arking, Dan E.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Balkau, Beverley; Barlassina, Cristina; Benaglio, Paola; Bis, Joshua C.; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Brage, Soren; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chines, Peter S.; Chung, Mina; Darbar, Dawood; Dina, Christian; Doerr, Marcus; Elliott, Paul; Felix, Stephan B.; Fischer, Krista; Fuchsberger, Christian; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Goyette, Philippe; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Havulinna, Aki S.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hofman, Albert; Holewijn, Suzanne; Hoogstra-Berends, Femke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Jensen, Majken K.; Johansson, Asa; Junttila, Juhani; Kaeaeb, Stefan; Kanon, Bart; Ketkar, Shamika; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Knowles, Joshua W.; Kooner, Angrad S.; Kors, Jan A.; Kumari, Meena; Milani, Lili; Laiho, Paeivi; Lakatta, Edward G.; Langenberg, Claudia; Leusink, Maarten; Liu, Yongmei; Luben, Robert N.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Lynch, Stacey N.; Markus, Marcello R. P.; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Mateo Leach, Irene; McArdle, Wendy L.; McCarroll, Steven A.; Medland, Sarah E.; Miller, Kathryn A.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Navarro, Pau; Nelis, Mari; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Ong, Ken K.; Newman, Anne B.; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Pouta, Anneli; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Ring, Susan M.; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Rudan, Diana; Sanna, Serena; Scott, Robert A.; Sehmi, Jaban S.; Sharp, Stephen; Shin, Jordan T.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Smith, Albert V.; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Tim D.; Stewart, Chip; Stringham, Heather M.; Tarasov, Kirill V.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Whitfield, John B.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Wong, Andrew; Wong, Quenna; Jamshidi, Yalda; Zitting, Paavo; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Ekelund, Ulf; Forouhi, Nita G.; Froguel, Philippe; Hingorani, Aroon; Ingelsson, Erik; Kivimaki, Mika; Kronmal, Richard A.; Kuh, Diana; Lind, Lars; Martin, Nicholas G.; Oostra, Ben A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Quertermous, Thomas; Rotter, Jerome I.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Walker, Mark; Albanes, Demetrius; Arnar, David O.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Boehnke, Michael; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Bouchard, Claude; Caulfield, W. L. Mark; Chambers, John C.; Curhan, Gary; Cusi, Daniele; Eriksson, Johan; Ferrucci, Luigi; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Glorioso, Nicola; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Groop, Leif; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hsueh, Wen-Chi; Hu, Frank B.; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Hunter, David J.; Iribarren, Carlos; Isomaa, Bo; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kahonen, Mika; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kraft, Peter; Iacoviello, Licia; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lokki, Marja-Liisa L.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Navis, Gerjan; Nieminen, Markku S.; Ohlsson, Claes; Poulter, Neil R.; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rimm, Eric B.; Rioux, John D.; Rizzi, Federica; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sever, Peter S.; Shields, Denis C.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sinisalo, Juha; Stanton, Alice V.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Strachan, David P.; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tuomilehto, Jaako; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Viikari, Jorma; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Widen, Elisabeth; Cho, Yoon Shin; Olsen, Jesper V.; Visscher, Peter M.; Willer, Cristen; Franke, Lude; Erdmann, Jeanette; Thompson, John R.; Pfeufer, Arne; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Stricker, Bruno H. Ch; Metspalu, Andres; Perola, Markus; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Smith, George Davey; Stefansson, Kari; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Sibon, Ody C. M.; Milan, David J.; Snieder, Harold; Samani, Nilesh J.; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. In a 2-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in up to 181,171 individuals, we identified 14 new loci associated with heart rate and confirmed associations with all 7 previously estab

  5. Resemblances of parents and twins in sports participation and heart rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C.M. Molenaar; D.I. Boomsma; M.B.M. van den Bree

    1989-01-01

    A model that analyzes resemblances of 90 twin pairs (aged 14-20 yrs) and their parents using LISREL is outlined and applied to sports participation and heart-rate data. Results show that genetic factors influenced variation in both sports behavior and heart rate; there was no evidence for transmissi

  6. Heart rate variability as predictor of nonresponse to mirtazapine in panic disorder : a preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaap, BR; Boshuisen, ML; van Roon, AM; den Boer, JA

    2002-01-01

    Using spectral analysis of heart rate, several studies have shown that panic disorder patients are characterized by a reduced heart rate variability (HRV), indicative of abnormalities in autonomous nervous system (ANS) function. We recently reported that patients with panic disorder, who did not res

  7. Variation in heart rate during submaximal exercise : implications for monitoring training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, R.P.; Lemmink, K.A.; Durandt, J.J.; Lambert, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    A change in heart rate at a controlled submaximal exercise intensity is used as a marker of training status. However, the standard error of measurement has not been studied systematically, and therefore a change in heart rate, which can be considered relevant, has not been determined. Forty-four sub

  8. The Temporal Relationship between Infant Heart Rate Acceleration and Crying in an Aversive Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Brian; Sroufe, L. Alan

    1979-01-01

    Shows that the heart rate acceleration of 16 infants ranging in age from 8 to 16 months consistently began well before the onset of crying. This suggests that heart rate acceleration is not merely a by-product of crying but that it is associated with negative affect. (JMB)

  9. Identification of heart rate-associated loci and their effects on cardiac conduction and rhythm disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    den Hoed, Marcel; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Esko, Tõnu;

    2013-01-01

    Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. In a 2-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in up to 181,171 individuals, we identified 14 new loci associated with heart rate and confirmed associations with all 7 previously es...

  10. Heart Rate Variability in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with Different Degree of Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Caroline Elisabeth; Falk, Bo Torkel; Zois, Nora Elisabeth;

    2010-01-01

    Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark, 2Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; and 3Novo Nordic A/S, Maaloev, Denmark. Introduction: Modulation of heart rate by the autonomic nervous system can indirectly be measured by heart rate...

  11. Decreased nighttime heart rate variability is associated with increased stroke risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binici, Zeynep; Mouridsen, Mette Rauhe; Køber, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    Prediction of stroke in healthy individuals is challenging and there is a diurnal variation of stroke onset. We hypothesized that heart rate variability with a focus on nighttime heart rate variability will predict the risk of stroke in apparently healthy middle-age and elderly subjects....

  12. The Influence of Motor Impairment on Autonomic Heart Rate Modulation among Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamuner, Antonio Roberto; Cunha, Andrea Baraldi; da Silva, Ester; Negri, Ana Paola; Tudella, Eloisa; Moreno, Marlene Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    The study of heart rate variability is an important tool for a noninvasive evaluation of the neurocardiac integrity. The present study aims to evaluate the autonomic heart rate modulation in supine and standing positions in 12 children diagnosed with cerebral palsy and 16 children with typical motor development (control group), as well as to…

  13. Heart Rate Level and Antisocial Behavior in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Jame; Raine, Adrian

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether antisocial children are characterized by low heart rate. Method: A meta-analysis was conducted on 45 independent effect sizes of the resting heart rate-antisocial behavior relationship obtained from 40 studies meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies were conducted between 1971 to 2002 using a total of 5,868…

  14. Elevated resting heart rate, physical fitness and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Suadicani, Poul; Hein, Hans Ole;

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is an independent risk factor for mortality or a mere marker of physical fitness (VO2Max).......To examine whether elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is an independent risk factor for mortality or a mere marker of physical fitness (VO2Max)....

  15. Heart rate and blood pressure variability in cardiac diseases: pharmacological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloarec-Blanchard, L

    1997-01-01

    Even at rest, blood pressure and heart fluctuate continuously around their mean values. Considerable interest has recently focused on the assessment of spontaneous in fluctuations in heart rate and blood pressure, i.e., heart rate and blood pressure variability, using time or frequency domain indexes. Heart rate variability has been extensively studied in cardiovascular disease and has emerged as a valuable parameter for detecting abnormalities in autonomic cardiovascular control, evaluating the prognosis and assessing the impact of drug therapy on the autonomic nervous system in patients with myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure or a heart transplant. In contrast, until the recent development of noninvasive methods for continuous blood pressure recording, blood pressure variability received little attention, and this parameter remains to be evaluated in cardiovascular disease.

  16. Prognostic value of heart rate variability in post-infarction patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Depressed heart rate variability (HRV indicating autonomic disequilibrium and propensity to ventricular ectopy can be useful for risk stratification in patients following acute myocardial infarction (AIM. The aim of the study was to assess heart rate variability as a predictor of allcause mortality in post-infarction patients. Methods. We analyzed the 24-hour electrocardiographic (ECG recordings of 100 patients (80 males during hospitalization for AIM. The mean age of patients was 56.99 + 11.03 years. Time domain heart rate variability analysis was obtained from 8 to 13 days after index infarction by mean of a 24- hour ECG recording, and the calculated parameters were: standard deviation of all normal to normal RR intervals (SDNN, RRmax-RRmin (difference between the longest RR interval and the shortest RR interval, mean RR interval. We also analyzed ventricular premature complexes from the ECG data. The patients underwent clinical evaluation, laboratory tests and echocardiography. Results. Within a oneyear follow-up period 11 patients experienced death, 10 of them because of cardiac reason and one because of stroke. There were significantly lower values of SDNN (60.55 ± 12.84 ms vs 98.38 ± 28.21 ms, RRmax-RRmin (454.36 ± 111.00 ms vs 600.99 ± 168.72 ms and mean RR interval (695.82 ± 65.87 ms vs 840.07 ± 93.97 ms in deceased patients than in the survivors, respectively (p 10VPCs/h; p < 0.01. Multivariate Cox analysis showed that SDNN was a significant, independent predictor of all-cause mortality in postinfarction patients. The other independent predictors were clinical signs of heart failure - Killip class II and III and ventricular ectopic activity. Conclusion. Depressed HRV is an independent predictor of mortality in post-infarction patients and may provide useful additional prognostic information in non-invasive risk stratification of these patients.

  17. Natriuretic Peptides as Cardiovascular Safety Biomarkers in Rats: Comparison With Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Heart Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Steven K; Watson, David E

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) toxicity is an important cause of failure during drug development. Blood-based biomarkers can be used to detect CV toxicity during preclinical development and prioritize compounds at lower risk of causing such toxicities. Evidence of myocardial degeneration can be detected by measuring concentrations of biomarkers such as cardiac troponin I and creatine kinase in blood; however, detection of functional changes in the CV system, such as blood pressure, generally requires studies in animals with surgically implanted pressure transducers. This is a significant limitation because sustained changes in blood pressure are often accompanied by changes in heart rate and together can lead to cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial degeneration in animals, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in humans. Increased concentrations of NPs in blood correlate with higher risk of cardiac mortality, all-cause mortality, and MACE in humans. Their utility as biomarkers of CV function and toxicity in rodents was investigated by exploring the relationships between plasma concentrations of NTproANP and NTproBNP, blood pressure, heart rate, and heart weight in Sprague Dawley rats administered compounds that caused hypotension or hypertension, including nifedipine, fluprostenol, minoxidil, L-NAME, L-thyroxine, or sunitinib for 1-2 weeks. Changes in NTproANP and/or NTproBNP concentrations were inversely correlated with changes in blood pressure. NTproANP and NTproBNP concentrations were inconsistently correlated with relative heart weights. In addition, increased heart rate was associated with increased heart weights. These studies support the use of natriuretic peptides and heart rate to detect changes in blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy in short-duration rat studies. PMID:26609138

  18. Simultaneous measurement of breathing rate and heart rate using a microbend multimode fiber optic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihao; Lau, Doreen; Teo, Ju Teng; Ng, Soon Huat; Yang, Xiufeng; Kei, Pin Lin

    2014-05-01

    We propose and demonstrate the feasibility of using a highly sensitive microbend multimode fiber optic sensor for simultaneous measurement of breathing rate (BR) and heart rate (HR). The sensing system consists of a transceiver, microbend multimode fiber, and a computer. The transceiver is comprised of an optical transmitter, an optical receiver, and circuits for data communication with the computer via Bluetooth. Comparative experiments conducted between the sensor and predicate commercial physiologic devices showed an accuracy of ±2 bpm for both BR and HR measurement. Our preliminary study of simultaneous measurement of BR and HR in a clinical trial conducted on 11 healthy subjects during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also showed very good agreement with measurements obtained from conventional MR-compatible devices.

  19. Comparison of body composition, heart rate variability, aerobic and anaerobic performance between competitive cyclists and triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Erşan; Aras, Dicle

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the body composition, heart rate variability, and aerobic and anaerobic performance between competitive cyclists and triathletes. [Subjects] Six cyclists and eight triathletes with experience in competitions voluntarily participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects' body composition was measured with an anthropometric tape and skinfold caliper. Maximal oxygen consumption and maximum heart rate were determined using the incremental treadmill test. Heart rate variability was measured by 7 min electrocardiographic recording. The Wingate test was conducted to determine anaerobic physical performance. [Results] There were significant differences in minimum power and relative minimum power between the triathletes and cyclists. Anthropometric characteristics and heart rate variability responses were similar among the triathletes and cyclists. However, triathletes had higher maximal oxygen consumption and lower resting heart rates. This study demonstrated that athletes in both sports have similar body composition and aerobic performance characteristics. PMID:27190476

  20. Unobtrusive heart rate estimation during physical exercise using photoplethysmographic and acceleration data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Patrick; Kanzler, Christoph M; Lorch, Benedikt; Schroeder, Lea; Winkler, Ludwig; Laich, Larissa; Riedel, Frederik; Richer, Robert; Luckner, Christoph; Leutheuser, Heike; Eskofier, Bjoern M; Pasluosta, Cristian

    2015-08-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a non-invasive, inexpensive and unobtrusive method to achieve heart rate monitoring during physical exercises. Motion artifacts during exercise challenge the heart rate estimation from wrist-type PPG signals. This paper presents a methodology to overcome these limitation by incorporating acceleration information. The proposed algorithm consisted of four stages: (1) A wavelet based denoising, (2) an acceleration based denoising, (3) a frequency based approach to estimate the heart rate followed by (4) a postprocessing step. Experiments with different movement types such as running and rehabilitation exercises were used for algorithm design and development. Evaluation of our heart rate estimation showed that a mean absolute error 1.96 bpm (beats per minute) with standard deviation of 2.86 bpm and a correlation of 0.98 was achieved with our method. These findings suggest that the proposed methodology is robust to motion artifacts and is therefore applicable for heart rate monitoring during sports and rehabilitation. PMID:26737687

  1. Learned cardiac control with heart rate biofeedback transfers to emotional reactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Peira

    Full Text Available Emotions involve subjective feelings, action tendencies and physiological reactions. Earlier findings suggest that biofeedback might provide a way to regulate the physiological components of emotions. The present study investigates if learned heart rate regulation with biofeedback transfers to emotional situations without biofeedback. First, participants learned to decrease heart rate using biofeedback. Then, inter-individual differences in the acquired skill predicted how well they could decrease heart rate reactivity when later exposed to negative arousing pictures without biofeedback. These findings suggest that (i short lasting biofeedback training improves heart rate regulation and (ii the learned ability transfers to emotion challenging situations without biofeedback. Thus, heart rate biofeedback training may enable regulation of bodily aspects of emotion also when feedback is not available.

  2. Sex differences in healthy human heart rate variability: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Julian; Thayer, Julian F

    2016-05-01

    The present meta-analysis aimed to quantify current evidence on sex differences in the autonomic control of the heart, indexed by measures of heart rate variability (HRV) in healthy human subjects. An extensive search of the literature yielded 2020 titles and abstracts, of which 172 provided sufficient reporting of sex difference in HRV. Data from 63,612 participants (31,970 females) were available for analysis. Meta-analysis yielded a total of 1154 effect size estimates (k) across 50 different measures of HRV in a cumulated total of 296,247 participants. Females showed a significantly lower mean RR interval and standard deviation of RR intervals (SDNN). The power spectral density of HRV in females is characterized by significantly less total power that contains significantly greater high- (HF) and less low-frequency (LF) power. This is further reflected by a lower LF/HF ratio. Meta-regression revealed significant effects of age, respiration control and the length of recording available for analysis. Although women showed greater mean heart rate, they showed greater vagal activity indexed by HF power of HRV. Underlying mechanisms of these findings are discussed.

  3. Heart Rate Analysis and Telemedicine: New Concepts & Maths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Khoór

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our paper deals with some new aspects of ambulatory (Holter ECG monitoringextending its indications and using for risk management purpose. Remote sensing consistsof the transmittal of patient information, such as ECG, x-rays, or patient records, from aremote site to a collaborator in a distant site. Our earlier developed internet based ECGsystem was unique for on/off-line analysis of long-term ECG registrations. After the 5-yearexperience in a smaller region of Budapest, Hungary involving a municipal hospital andthe surrounding outpatient cardiology departments and general practitioners, we decidedto integrate into our new ECG equipment, the CardioClient the results. In the first clinicalstudy of the four was a wavelet, non-linear heart rate analysis in sudden cardiac deathpatients using the Internet and the GPRS mobile communication. After the wavelettransformation by the Haar wavelet and the Daubechies 10-tap wavelet, the phase-space ofthe wavelet-coefficient standard deviation and the scale parameters showed an excellentseparation in the scale-range of 3-6 between the two groups: in that region, the averagescaling exponents was 0.14+-0.04 for Group-A, and 1.22+-0.27 for Group-B (p<0.001. Inthe next study, we used the Internet database of long-term ambulatory, mobile, GPRSelectrocardiograms for the for risk stratification of patients through the cardiovascularcontinuum. From our ambulatory mobile GPRS ECG database the following a priorigroups were defined after a 24 months follow-up: G1: N=227 patients (without manifestcardiovascular disease, clusterized ‘boxes’ based on the age, sex, cholesterol level,diabetes, hypertension; G2: N=89 patients (postinfarction group; G3: N=66 (patientswith chronic heart failure with (+ or without (-: all-cause death (acD, myocardialinfarction (MI, malignant ventricular arrhythmia (MVA, sudden cardiac death (SCD.The actual vs. predicted values were analyzed with chi-square test. The best significancelevels

  4. Heart rate variability during sleep in healthy term newborns in the early postnatal period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normative time- and frequency-domain heart rate variability (HRV) measures were extracted during quiet sleep (QS) and active sleep (AS) periods in 30 healthy babies. All newborn infants studied were less than 12 h old and the sleep state was classified using multi-channel video EEG. Three bands were extracted from the heart rate (HR) spectrum: very low frequency (VLF), 0.01–0.04 Hz; low frequency (LF), 0.04–0.2 Hz, and high frequency (HF), >0.2 Hz. All metrics were averaged across all patients and per sleep state to produce a table of normative values. A noticeable peak corresponding to activity in the RSA band was found in 80% patients during QS and 0% of patients during AS, although some broadband activity was observed. The majority of HRV metrics showed a statistically significant separation between QS and AS. It can be concluded that (i) activity in the RSA band is present during QS in the healthy newborn, in the first 12 h of life, (ii) HRV measures are affected by sleep state and (iii) the averaged HRV metrics reported here could assist the interpretation of HRV data from newborns with neonatal illnesses

  5. The Role of the Endogenous Opioid System in the Control of Heart Rate Variability Under Cognitive Loads of Various Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parin S.B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to study the role of the endogenous opioid system (EOS in the control of the heart rate under cognitive loads of different levels. Materials and Methods. There has been given a brief historical background of the study of the role of endogenous opioid system (EOS in regulation of body functions. A comparable analysis of the heart rate variability dynamics was carried out in drug-addicts with reduction of EOS receptor apparatus and healthy volunteers in the context of cognitive loads of different levels. 135 individuals were examined: 64 patients of the narcologic clinic with addiction to opiates composed an experimental group, and 71 healthy students were included into the control group. A measured cognitive load was formed using hardware-software complex Handtracking (Russia. Long-term continuous monitoring of heart rate was carried on by means of mobile telemetry. Results. The psychophysiological markers of EOS activity during interactive communication with information images were determined on the basis of parameters of the heart rate variability and threshold characteristics of cognitive functions. It was established, that control and experimental samples were statistically significantly different by the frequency-domain indices of the heart rate variability in the stationary context of rest and in solving cognitive tasks (p<0.05, i.e. reduction of the mode of the autonomic regulation of heart rate and lack of adaptative alterations in the structure of the heart rate in case of changing the external information context, were characteristic of the examined drug-addicts. The most informative functional tests, the data of which make it possible to identify most effectively the condition of EOS and to develop noninvasive methods of diagnosing narcotization and addiction, were selected from the suggested contexts. Methods of collecting physiological data, minimizing the risks of cognitive context distortion

  6. Gender- and age-related differences in heart rate dynamics: are women more complex than men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, S. M.; Goldberger, A. L.; Pincus, S. M.; Mietus, J.; Lipsitz, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study aimed to quantify the complex dynamics of beat-to-beat sinus rhythm heart rate fluctuations and to determine their differences as a function of gender and age. BACKGROUND. Recently, measures of heart rate variability and the nonlinear "complexity" of heart rate dynamics have been used as indicators of cardiovascular health. Because women have lower cardiovascular risk and greater longevity than men, we postulated that there are important gender-related differences in beat-to-beat heart rate dynamics. METHODS. We analyzed heart rate dynamics during 8-min segments of continuous electrocardiographic recording in healthy young (20 to 39 years old), middle-aged (40 to 64 years old) and elderly (65 to 90 years old) men (n = 40) and women (n = 27) while they performed spontaneous and metronomic (15 breaths/min) breathing. Relatively high (0.15 to 0.40 Hz) and low (0.01 to 0.15 Hz) frequency components of heart rate variability were computed using spectral analysis. The overall "complexity" of each heart rate time series was quantified by its approximate entropy, a measure of regularity derived from nonlinear dynamics ("chaos" theory). RESULTS. Mean heart rate did not differ between the age groups or genders. High frequency heart rate power and the high/low frequency power ratio decreased with age in both men and women (p gender-as well as age-related differences in heart rate dynamics. Whether these gender differences are related to lower cardiovascular disease risk and greater longevity in women requires further study.

  7. Effect of Exercise Testing on Short-term Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niu, Hui-Yan; Zhang, Dai-Fu; Liang, Bo;

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of exercise testing on short term heart rate variability in patients with CHD.Methods In 12 patients with CHD and 12 age-and sex-matched healthy controls, short-term frequency domain analysis was performed at respective stage before, during and after ET.Results It sh......Objective To study the effect of exercise testing on short term heart rate variability in patients with CHD.Methods In 12 patients with CHD and 12 age-and sex-matched healthy controls, short-term frequency domain analysis was performed at respective stage before, during and after ET...

  8. Heart Disease Death Rates in Low Versus High Land Elevation Counties in the U.S

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, John

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on land elevation and cancer death rates in the U.S. revealed lower cancer death rates in higher elevations. The present study further tests the possible effect of land elevation on a diffident health outcome, namely, heart disease death rates. U.S. counties not overlapping in their land elevations according to their lowest and highest elevation points were identified. Using an ecological design, heart disease death rates for two races (black and white) corresponding to lowe...

  9. Rate control management of atrial fibrillation: may a mathematical model suggest an ideal heart rate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Anselmino

    Full Text Available Despite the routine prescription of rate control therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF, clinical evidence demonstrating a heart rate target is lacking. Aim of the present study was to run a mathematical model simulating AF episodes with a different heart rate (HR to predict hemodynamic parameters for each situation.The lumped model, representing the pumping heart together with systemic and pulmonary circuits, was run to simulate AF with HR of 50, 70, 90, 110 and 130 bpm, respectively.Left ventricular pressure increased by 57%, from 33.92±37.56 mmHg to 53.15±47.56 mmHg, and mean systemic arterial pressure increased by 27%, from 82.66±14.04 mmHg to 105.3±7.6 mmHg, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. Stroke volume (from 77.45±8.50 to 39.09±8.08 mL, ejection fraction (from 61.10±4.40 to 39.32±5.42% and stroke work (SW, from 0.88±0.04 to 0.58±0.09 J decreased by 50, 36 and 34%, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. In addition, oxygen consumption indexes (rate pressure product - RPP, tension time index per minute - TTI/min, and pressure volume area per minute - PVA/min increased from the 50 to the 130 bpm simulation, respectively, by 186% (from 5598±1939 to 15995±3219 mmHg/min, 56% (from 2094±265 to 3257±301 mmHg s/min and 102% (from 57.99±17.90 to 117.4±26.0 J/min. In fact, left ventricular efficiency (SW/PVA decreased from 80.91±2.91% at 50 bpm to 66.43±3.72% at the 130 bpm HR simulation.Awaiting compulsory direct clinical evidences, the present mathematical model suggests that lower HRs during permanent AF relates to improved hemodynamic parameters, cardiac efficiency, and lower oxygen consumption.

  10. Influence of head-down and lateral decubitus neck flexion on heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C M; Wood, R H; Welsch, M A

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the response of heart rate variability (HRV), a noninvasive index of autonomic control, to head-down neck flexion (HDNF), which engages both otoliths and neck muscle afferents, and to lateral decubitus neck flexion (LNF), in which neck afferents are activated, whereas otolith afferent input is not. HRV and forearm blood flow were evaluated in participants lying prone, during HDNF, lying in the lateral decubitus position, and during LNF. Compared with the prone position, HDNF resulted in lower high-frequency (46.9 +/- 7.1 vs. 62.3 +/- 6.2) and higher low-frequency (53.1 +/- 7.1 vs. 37.7 +/- 6.2) power, expressed as normalized units, along with higher low-frequency-to-high-frequency ratio (1.65 +/- 0.3 vs. 0.78 +/- 0.2), whereas LNF resulted in no alterations in HRV indexes. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in forearm blood flow or vascular resistance among any of the positions. Our data suggest that otolith organs influence autonomic modulation of the heart, supporting previous studies reporting that HDNF elicits increased sympathetic outflow. These data further suggest that HDNF results in a parasympathetic withdrawal from the heart in addition to sympathetic activation. PMID:11133902

  11. ROC Analysis and a Realistic Model of Heart Rate Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Thurner, S; Teich, M C; Thurner, Stefan; Feurstein, Markus C.; Teich, Malvin C.

    1998-01-01

    We have carried out a pilot study on a standard collection of electrocardiograms from patients who suffer from congestive heart failure, and subjects without cardiac pathology, using receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis. The scale-dependent wavelet-coefficient standard deviation superior to two commonly used measures of cardiac dysfunction when the two classes of patients cannot be completely separated. A jittered integrate-and-fire model with a fractal Gaussian-noise kernel provides a realistic simulation of heartbeat sequences for both heart-failure patients and normal subjects.

  12. An optical measurement method for the simultaneous assessment of respiration and heart rates in preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionni, P.; Scalise, L.; Ercoli, I.; Tomasini, E. P.

    2013-12-01

    Many conventional medical monitoring devices, while not technically invasive, are nevertheless obtrusive insofar as they require contact with the patient. This obtrusiveness sometimes poses problems in daily clinical practice. The need for contact with electrodes or transducers is particularly relevant in the case of patients recovering in intensive care units where continuous monitoring is required, in turn requiring continuous direct transducer contact for prolonged periods. Among the many physiological parameters commonly acquired, the respiratory and the cardiac rates of the patients are of primary importance. Typically these two parameters are measured respectively using spirometry and electrocardiography (ECG), both involving obtrusive measurement systems requiring contact with the patient with an air conduit and electrodes. This paper presents an optical measurement method for the simultaneous assessment of respiration and heart rates based on the measurement of the chest wall movements, associated with inspiratory/expiratory activities of the lungs and by the mechanical pumping action of the heart. The measurement method has been adapted for use with preterm infants and it has been applied to 55 patients recovering in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The method is based on the use of a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDVi) pointed at the left, ventral thoracic surface of the patient. LDVi-based measures of respiration and heart rate have been simultaneously acquired for each patient, in parallel with the same quantities acquired using conventional reference instrumentation (flow-meter and ECG) for comparison purposes. Results show that for respiration rate, differences with respect to the spirometer data are <3%, while for the cardiac rate they are <6% with respect to ECG data. The method proposed in this paper has the advantage of requiring no contact with the patient. Moreover, it supports, by means of a single instrument, the simultaneous measurement of

  13. Acute changes of blood pressure and heart rate induced by a strong earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Sen; CHEN Xiao-ping; LI Jiang-bo; LIN Jian-lan; LUO Xue-ju; LUO Xiao-jia

    2010-01-01

    @@ A high death toll during an earthquake comes not only from injuries related to the destruction of buildings or road accidents but also from sudden death resulting from cardiovascular problems, as clearly shown in reports.~(1,2) The increased rate of cardiovascular mortality during an earthquake has been ascribed to the impact of a major emotional stress on the heart, mediated through an increase in cardiac sympathetic activity~,(1,2) and probably including some other neuroendocrine mechanisms. A rise in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) may be directly responsible for the increased rate of cardiovascular mortality during an earthquake. Previously published studies about the acute changes of BP and HR used indirect information, usually collected after the events. A little direct information, such as by Parati et al,~3 is not enough for the low-incidence rate of an earthquake and has the obvious technical difficulties in measuring BP during an earthquake. Luckily, we recorded the acute changes of BP and HR of some patients during the earthquake by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, as report below.

  14. Heart rate variability in sleeping preterm neonates exposed to cool and warm thermal conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan Stéphan-Blanchard

    Full Text Available Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS remains the main cause of postneonatal infant death. Thermal stress is a major risk factor and makes infants more vulnerable to SIDS. Although it has been suggested that thermal stress could lead to SIDS by disrupting autonomic functions, clinical and physiopathological data on this hypothesis are scarce. We evaluated the influence of ambient temperature on autonomic nervous activity during sleep in thirty-four preterm neonates (mean ± SD gestational age: 31.4±1.5 weeks, postmenstrual age: 36.2±0.9 weeks. Heart rate variability was assessed as a function of the sleep stage at three different ambient temperatures (thermoneutrality and warm and cool thermal conditions. An elevated ambient temperature was associated with a higher basal heart rate and lower short- and long-term variability in all sleep stages, together with higher sympathetic activity and lower parasympathetic activity. Our study results showed that modification of the ambient temperature led to significant changes in autonomic nervous system control in sleeping preterm neonates. The latter changes are very similar to those observed in infants at risk of SIDS. Our findings may provide greater insight into the thermally-induced disease mechanisms related to SIDS and may help improve prevention strategies.

  15. Linear and nonlinear measures of fetal heart rate patterns evaluated on very short fetal magnetocardiograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed the effectiveness of linear short- and long-term variability time domain parameters, an index of sympatho-vagal balance (SDNN/RMSSD) and entropy in differentiating fetal heart rate patterns (fHRPs) on the fetal heart rate (fHR) series of 5, 3 and 2 min duration reconstructed from 46 fetal magnetocardiograms. Gestational age (GA) varied from 21 to 38 weeks. FHRPs were classified based on the fHR standard deviation. In sleep states, we observed that vagal influence increased with GA, and entropy significantly increased (decreased) with GA (SDNN/RMSSD), demonstrating that a prevalence of vagal activity with autonomous nervous system maturation may be associated with increased sleep state complexity. In active wakefulness, we observed a significant negative (positive) correlation of short-term (long-term) variability parameters with SDNN/RMSSD. ANOVA statistics demonstrated that long-term irregularity and standard deviation of normal-to-normal beat intervals (SDNN) best differentiated among fHRPs. Our results confirm that short- and long-term variability parameters are useful to differentiate between quiet and active states, and that entropy improves the characterization of sleep states. All measures differentiated fHRPs more effectively on very short HR series, as a result of the fMCG high temporal resolution and of the intrinsic timescales of the events that originate the different fHRPs. (paper)

  16. Protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B56α limits phosphatase activity in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Sean C; Curran, Jerry; Makara, Michael A; Kline, Crystal F; Ho, Hsiang-Ting; Xu, Zhaobin; Wu, Xiangqiong; Polina, Iuliia; Musa, Hassan; Meadows, Allison M; Carnes, Cynthia A; Biesiadecki, Brandon J; Davis, Jonathan P; Weisleder, Noah; Györke, Sandor; Wehrens, Xander H; Hund, Thomas J; Mohler, Peter J

    2015-07-21

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine/threonine-selective holoenzyme composed of a catalytic, scaffolding, and regulatory subunit. In the heart, PP2A activity is requisite for cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and central in adrenergic signaling. We found that mice deficient in the PP2A regulatory subunit B56α (1 of 13 regulatory subunits) had altered PP2A signaling in the heart that was associated with changes in cardiac physiology, suggesting that the B56α regulatory subunit had an autoinhibitory role that suppressed excess PP2A activity. The increase in PP2A activity in the mice with reduced B56α expression resulted in slower heart rates and increased heart rate variability, conduction defects, and increased sensitivity of heart rate to parasympathetic agonists. Increased PP2A activity in B56α(+/-) myocytes resulted in reduced Ca(2+) waves and sparks, which was associated with decreased phosphorylation (and thus decreased activation) of the ryanodine receptor RyR2, an ion channel on intracellular membranes that is involved in Ca(2+) regulation in cardiomyocytes. In line with an autoinhibitory role for B56α, in vivo expression of B56α in the absence of altered abundance of other PP2A subunits decreased basal phosphatase activity. Consequently, in vivo expression of B56α suppressed parasympathetic regulation of heart rate and increased RyR2 phosphorylation in cardiomyocytes. These data show that an integral component of the PP2A holoenzyme has an important inhibitory role in controlling PP2A enzyme activity in the heart.

  17. Discrimination power of short-term heart rate variability measures for CHF assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pecchia, Leandro; Melillo, Paolo; Bracale, Marcello

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the discrimination power of short-term Heart Rate Variability (HRV) for discriminating normal subjects versus Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) patients. We analyzed 1,914.40 hours of ECG of 83 patients of which 54 are normal and 29 are suffering from CHF with New York Heart Classification (NYHA) I, II, III, extracted by public databases. Following guidelines, we performed time and frequency analysis in order to measure HRV features. To assess the discrimination power...

  18. Associations between PM2.5 and Heart Rate Variability Are Modified by Particle Composition and Beta-Blocker Use in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    de Hartog, J J; Lanki, T; Timonen, K.L.; Hoek, G; Janssen, N.A.H.; Ibald-Mulli, A; Peters, A.; Heinrich, J.; Tarkiainen, T.; van Grieken, R.; van Wijnen, J.H.; Brunekreef, B; Pekkanen, J

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that ambient particulate air pollution is able to modify the autonomic nervous control of the heart, measured as heart rate variability (HRV). Previously we reported heterogeneous associations between particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter

  19. Incidence of atrial fibrillation in relation to changing heart rate over time in hypertensive patients: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okin, Peter M; Wachtell, Kristian; Kjeldsen, Sverre E;

    2008-01-01

    Onset of atrial fibrillation (AF) has been linked to changes in autonomic tone, with increasing heart rate (HR) immediately before AF onset in some patients suggesting a possible role of acute increases in sympathetic activity in AF onset. Although losartan therapy and decreasing ECG left...

  20. Influence of different breathing patterns on heart rate variability indices and reproducibility during experimental endotoxaemia in human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, M.; Pompe, J.C.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.; Pickkers, P.

    2011-01-01

    HRV (heart rate variability) analysis is a widely employed method to assess cardiac autonomic nervous system activity. Accurate HRV measurement is critical to its value as a diagnostic and prognostic tool. Different breathing patterns may affect HRV, but results obtained under static conditions are

  1. Amygdala and heart rate variability responses from listening to emotionally intense parts of a story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Nielsen, Andreas Højlund; Vuust, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Emotions are often understood in relation to conditioned responses. Narrative emotions, however, cannot be reduced to a simple associative relationship between emotion words and their experienced counterparts. Intensity in stories may arise without any overt emotion depicting words and vice versa....... In this fMRI study we investigated BOLD-responses to naturally fluctuating emotions evoked by listening to a story. The emotional intensity profile of the text was found through a rating study. The validity of this profile was supported by heart rate variability (HRV) data showing a significant...... correspondence across participants between intensity ratings and HRV measurements obtained during fMRI. With this ecologically valid stimulus we found that narrative intensity was accompanied by activation in temporal cortices, medial geniculate nuclei in the thalamus and amygdala, brain regions that are all...

  2. Microsoft Kinect Visual and Depth Sensors for Breathing and Heart Rate Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procházka, Aleš; Schätz, Martin; Vyšata, Oldřich; Vališ, Martin

    2016-06-28

    This paper is devoted to a new method of using Microsoft (MS) Kinect sensors for non-contact monitoring of breathing and heart rate estimation to detect possible medical and neurological disorders. Video sequences of facial features and thorax movements are recorded by MS Kinect image, depth and infrared sensors to enable their time analysis in selected regions of interest. The proposed methodology includes the use of computational methods and functional transforms for data selection, as well as their denoising, spectral analysis and visualization, in order to determine specific biomedical features. The results that were obtained verify the correspondence between the evaluation of the breathing frequency that was obtained from the image and infrared data of the mouth area and from the thorax movement that was recorded by the depth sensor. Spectral analysis of the time evolution of the mouth area video frames was also used for heart rate estimation. Results estimated from the image and infrared data of the mouth area were compared with those obtained by contact measurements by Garmin sensors (www.garmin.com). The study proves that simple image and depth sensors can be used to efficiently record biomedical multidimensional data with sufficient accuracy to detect selected biomedical features using specific methods of computational intelligence. The achieved accuracy for non-contact detection of breathing rate was 0.26% and the accuracy of heart rate estimation was 1.47% for the infrared sensor. The following results show how video frames with depth data can be used to differentiate different kinds of breathing. The proposed method enables us to obtain and analyse data for diagnostic purposes in the home environment or during physical activities, enabling efficient human-machine interaction.

  3. Influence of microwaves on the beating rate of isolated rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, K C; Chou, C K; Guy, A W

    1988-01-01

    Previous reports have shown that microwave exposure can decrease the beating rate of isolated rat hearts. These experiments were conducted at room temperature and with the hearts exposed to air. We observed arrhythmia frequently at room temperature, and the variation of heart beat was so large that it makes the results difficult to reproduce. Therefore, we employed a double-circulating system to provide perfusion through the coronary artery and around the outside of the heart to maintain the rat hearts at 37.7 degrees C. No arrhythmias were observed in our experiments, and the hearts were beating for at least 1 h. The effects of 16-Hz modulated 2,450-MHz pulsed microwaves (10 microseconds, 100 pps) on the beating rate of 50 isolated rat hearts were studied. Results showed no statistically significant changes of heart rate in exposed groups at SARs of 2 and 10 W/kg compared with the control group. The effect seen at 200 W/kg was shown to be similar to that resulting from heating the heart.

  4. Change of Diurnal Heart Rate Patterns During Pregnancy and Lactation in Dogs (Canis familiaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häggström J

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy and lactation involve great demands on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the heart rate and diurnal heart rate pattern change when dogs become pregnant or lactate. Five clinically healthy female beagle dogs were mated, and delivered three to seven healthy puppies. The heart rate was investigated with 24-h ECG (Holter once during anoestrus, at 3, 5, 7 and 9 weeks of pregnancy, and at week 4 postpartum (lactation. However, at 9 weeks, the ECG could not be recorded for the fully 24 h in 4 of 5 dogs, because labour started and the dogs then appeared disturbed by the recordings. The results at this date are not included in the statistical comparison. The heart rate increased progressively during pregnancy and was still elevated at 4 weeks of lactation. During late pregnancy the difference in heart rates between daytime and nighttime became smaller, but the heart rate was significantly higher in daytime in all periods. In conclusion, the increased heart rates during pregnancy and lactation reflect increased demands on the cardiovascular system and may be important to consider in clinical practice.

  5. Validity of a heart rate monitor during work in the laboratory and on the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A. D. Jr; Lee, S. M.; Greenisen, M. C.; Bishop, P.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate heart rate measurement during work is required for many industrial hygiene and ergonomics situations. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the validity of heart rate measurements obtained by a simple, lightweight, commercially available wrist-worn heart rate monitor (HRM) during work (cycle exercise) sessions conducted in the laboratory and also during the particularly challenging work environment of space flight. Three different comparisons were made. The first compared HRM data to simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings of varying heart rates that were generated by an ECG simulator. The second compared HRM data to ECG recordings collected during work sessions of 14 subjects in the laboratory. Finally, ECG downlink and HRM data were compared in four astronauts who performed cycle exercise during space flight. The data were analyzed using regression techniques. The results were that the HRM recorded virtually identical heart rates compared with ECG recordings for the data set generated by an ECG simulator. The regression equation for the relationship between ECG versus HRM heart rate data during work in the laboratory was: ECG HR = 0.99 x (HRM) + 0.82 (r2 = 0.99). Finally, the agreement between ECG downlink data and HRM data during space flight was also very high, with the regression equation being: Downlink ECG HR = 1.05 x (HRM) -5.71 (r2 = 0.99). The results of this study indicate that the HRM provides accurate data and may be used to reliably obtain valid data regarding heart rate responses during work.

  6. Reduced heart rate variability in social anxiety disorder: associations with gender and symptom severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail A Alvares

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polyvagal theory emphasizes that autonomic nervous system functioning plays a key role in social behavior and emotion. The theory predicts that psychiatric disorders of social dysfunction are associated with reduced heart rate variability, an index of autonomic control, as well as social inhibition and avoidance. The purpose of this study was to examine whether heart rate variability was reduced in treatment-seeking patients diagnosed with social anxiety disorder, a disorder characterized by social fear and avoidance. METHODS: Social anxiety patients (n = 53 were recruited prior to receiving psychological therapy. Healthy volunteers were recruited through the University of Sydney and the general community and were matched by gender and age (n = 53. Heart rate variability was assessed during a five-minute recording at rest, with participants completing a range of self-report clinical symptom measures. RESULTS: Compared to controls, participants with social anxiety exhibited significant reductions across a number of heart rate variability measures. Reductions in heart rate variability were observed in females with social anxiety, compared to female controls, and in patients taking psychotropic medication compared to non-medicated patients. Finally, within the clinical group, we observed significant associations between reduced heart rate variability and increased social interaction anxiety, psychological distress, and harmful alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study confirm that social anxiety disorder is associated with reduced heart rate variability. Resting state heart rate variability may therefore be considered a marker for social approach-related motivation and capacity for social engagement. Additionally, heart rate variability may provide a useful biomarker to explain underlying difficulties with social approach, impaired stress regulation, and behavioral inhibition, especially in disorders associated with

  7. Heart Rate and Energy Expenditure in Division I Field Hockey Players During Competitive Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Katie M; Ledesma, Allison B

    2016-08-01

    Sell, KM and Ledesma, AB. Heart rate and energy expenditure in Division I field hockey players during competitive play. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2122-2128, 2016-The purpose of this study was to quantify energy expenditure and heart rate data for Division I female field hockey players during competitive play. Ten female Division I collegiate field hockey athletes (19.8 ± 1.6 years; 166.4 ± 6.1 cm; 58.2 ± 5.3 kg) completed the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test to determine maximal heart rate. One week later, all subjects wore a heart rate monitor during a series of 3 matches in an off-season competition. Average heart rate (AvHR), average percentage of maximal heart rate (AvHR%), peak exercise heart rate (PExHR), and percentage of maximal heart rate (PExHR%), time spent in each of the predetermined heart rate zones, and caloric expenditure per minute of exercise (kcalM) were determined for all players. Differences between positions (backs, midfielders, and forwards) were assessed. No significant differences in AvHR, AvHR%, PExHR, PExHR%, and %TM were observed between playing positions. The AvHR% and PExHR% for each position fell into zones 4 (77-93% HRmax) and 5 (>93% HRmax), respectively, and significantly more time was spent in zone 4 compared with zones 1, 2, 3, and 5 across all players (p ≤ 0.05). The kcalM reflected very heavy intensity exercise. The results of this study will contribute toward understanding the sport-specific physiological demands of women's field hockey and has specific implications for the duration and schedule of training regimens.

  8. Heart rate changes during the Valsalva maneuver in patients with isolated aortic insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the possible relationship between left ventricular dilatation and heart rate changes provoked by the Valsalva maneuver (Valsalva ratio, we studied 9 patients with isolated chronic aortic insufficiency. Left ventricular systolic function was assessed by two-dimensional echocardiography and cardiac catheterization. All patients were asymptomatic (functional class I of the New York Heart Association. The left ventricular internal diameters and volumes were significantly increased in all patients. The asymptomatic patients had either normal or slightly depressed ejection fraction (EF>0.40. The Valsalva ratio of these asymptomatic patients showed no significant correlation with the left ventricular volumes or with the left ventricular ejection fraction. In other words, parasympathetic heart rate control, as expressed by the Valsalva ratio, was normal in the asymptomatic patients with left ventricular dilatation and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. Therefore, left ventricular dilatation may not be the major mechanism responsible for the abnormal parasympathetic heart rate control of patients with acquired heart disease

  9. Estimation of respiratory rate and heart rate during treadmill tests using acoustic sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, B; Sierra, G; Telfort, V; Agarwal, R; Lanzo, V

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to test the robustness of an acoustic method to estimate respiratory rates (RR) during treadmill test. The accuracy was assessed by the comparison with simultaneous estimates from a capnograph, using as a common reference a pneumotachometer. Eight subjects without any pulmonary disease were enrolled. Tracheal sounds were acquired using a contact piezoelectric sensor placed on the subject's throat and analyzed using a combined investigation of the sound envelope and frequency content. The capnograph and pneumotachometer were coupled to a face mask worn by the subjects. There was a strong linear correlation between all three methods (r2ranged from 0.8 to 0.87), and the SEE ranged from 1.97 to 2.36. As a conclusion, the accuracy of the respiratory rate estimated from tracheal sounds on adult subjects during treadmill stress test was comparable to the accuracy of a commercial capnograph. The heart rate (HR) estimates can also be derived from carotid pulse using the same single sensor placed on the subject's throat. Compared to the pulse oximeter the results show an agreement of acoustic method with r2=0.76 and SEE = 3.51. PMID:17281599

  10. Getting to the Heart of Emotion Regulation in Youth: The Role of Interoceptive Sensitivity, Heart Rate Variability, and Parental Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sütterlin, Stefan; Braet, Caroline; Mueller, Sven C.

    2016-01-01

    Emotion regulation and associated autonomic activation develop throughout childhood and adolescence under the influence of the family environment. Specifically, physiological indicators of autonomic nervous system activity such as interoceptive sensitivity and vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV) can inform on emotion regulation. Although the effect of parental emotion socialization on emotion regulation appears to be influenced by autonomic processes, research on physiological regulation and the influence of parental factors remains scarce. This study investigated the relationship between self-reported habitual emotion regulation strategies and HRV at rest as well as interoceptive sensitivity in forty-six youngsters (27 female; age: M = 13.00, SD = 2.13). Secondly, the association between these autonomic correlates and parental psychopathology was also studied. Whereas better interoceptive sensitivity was related to reduced maladaptive emotion regulation, specifically rumination, high HRV was related to more use of external emotion regulation strategies (i.e., support seeking). In addition, increased HRV and decreased interoceptive sensitivity were associated with maternal internalizing and there was evidence for a possible mediation effect of HRV in the relationship between maternal internalizing and child external emotion regulation. This study elucidates the link between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and underlying physiological regulation in adolescents but also indicates a putative influence of maternal internalizing symptoms on emotion regulation in their offspring. PMID:27741261

  11. Discrete Scale Invariance in the Cascade Heart Rate Variability Of Healthy Humans

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, D C

    2004-01-01

    Evidence of discrete scale invariance (DSI) in daytime healthy heart rate variability (HRV) is presented based on the log-periodic power law scaling of the heart beat interval increment. Our analysis suggests multiple DSI groups and a dynamic cascading process. A cascade model is presented to simulate such a property.

  12. Nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability in patients with eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigo, Daniel E.; Castro, Mariana N.; Dorpinghaus, Andrea; Weidema, Hylke; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Siri, Leonardo Nicola; Rovira, Bernardo; Fahrer, Rodolfo D.; Nogues, Martin; Leiguarda, Ramon C.; Guinjoan, Salvador M.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa often have signs of autonomic dysfunction potentially deleterious to the heart. The aim of this study was to ascertain the nonlinear properties of heart rate variability in patients with eating disorders. A group of 33 women with eating disorders (14

  13. Heart Rate and Treatment Effect in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Christina; Grasmann, Dorte; Fegert, Jorg M.; Holtmann, Martin; Poustka, Fritz; Schmeck, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; hyperkinetic conduct disorder, conduct disorder, hyperkinetic disorder) characterized by low heart rate profit less from an intensive cognitive behavioral intervention aimed at reducing impulsive, oppositional and aggressive behavior problems. Method: Basal heart rate…

  14. AKAP10 (I646V) Functional Polymorphism Predicts Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Apparently Healthy, Middle-aged European-Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Serina A.; Tingley, Whittemore G; Conklin, Bruce R; Shrader, Catherine J.; Peet, Eloise; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Jennings, J. Richard; Ferrell, Robert E; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2009-01-01

    Previous evidence suggests that the dual-specific A kinase-anchoring protein 2 functional polymorphism (AKAP10 (A/G) I646V) influences heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in mice and humans (N=122) with cardiovascular disease. Here, we asked whether this AKAP10 variant predicts HR and HRV in large sample of healthy humans. Resting HR and short-term time and frequency domain measures of HRV (5 min during paced and unpaced respiration conditions) were assessed in a U.S. community s...

  15. Premature Born Infant's Reaction to the Mother's Voice in Comparison to their Reaction to Music - Effect on Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Djordjevic, Dragana

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare stress-reduction effects of the mother’s voice and lullaby music in preterm infants and to explore whether the mother’s well-being affects her ability to calm down her preterm baby. It was hypothesized that both acoustic stimulation interventions can calm down the baby, i.e. decrease heart rate and increase heart rate variability (HRV) in preterm infants. Further it was hypothesized that the mother’s voice would have greater effect than lullaby m...

  16. Optimal Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Pacing Rate in Non-Ischemic Heart Failure Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghotbi, Adam Ali; Sander, Mikael; Køber, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    patients with non-ischemic heart failure (NYHA class II-III) were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial, in which the basal pacing rate was set at DDD-60 and DDD-80 for 3 months (DDD-R for 2 patients). At baseline, 3 months and 6 months, we assessed sympathetic nerve activity...... by microneurography (MSNA), peak oxygen consumption (pVO2), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (p-NT-proBNP), echocardiography and QoL. RESULTS: DDD-80 pacing for 3 months increased the mean heart rate from 77.3 to 86.1 (p = 0.001) and reduced sympathetic activity compared to DDD-60 (51±14 bursts/100 cardiac...... cycles vs. 64±14 bursts/100 cardiac cycles, pDDD-60 to 16.7±6 mL/min/kg during DDD-80, and p-NT-proBNP remained unchanged. The QoL score indicated that DDD-60 was better tolerated. CONCLUSION: In CRT patients with non...

  17. Opuntia ficus indica's effect on heart-rate variability in high-level athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Laurent; Fouillot, Jean-Pierre; Nicolet, Gerard; Midol, Alain

    2008-04-01

    Opuntia ficus indica (OFI) has many physiological effects, but a relationship between OFI and heart-rate variability (HRV) has never been established. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of a diet supplement of OFI on HRV in athletes. The first day, heart rate (HR) was measured at rest in supine (SU) and standing (ST) positions to analyze HRV in 10 athletes, followed by a randomized assignment to an OFI (5) or placebo (5) group. The next day, the athletes repeated the HRV test. One month later the crossover protocol was applied. In OFI, the high-frequency-activity HF(SU) (1,773 +/- 2,927 vs. 5,856 +/- 8,326 ms(2), p < .05), HF(ST) (295 +/- 313 vs. 560 +/- 515 ms(2), p < .05), and low-frequency LF(SU) (1,621 +/- 1,795 vs. 6,029 +/- 9,007 ms(2), p < .01) increased. HR(SU) (66 +/- 13 vs. 57 +/- 11 beats/min, p < .01) and HR(ST) (87 +/- 11 vs. 76 +/- 9 beats/min, p < .01) decreased. A diet supplement of OFI increases HF and LF activities and decreases HR.

  18. Embryos in the fast lane: high-temperature heart rates of turtles decline after hatching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Guo Du

    Full Text Available In ectotherms such as turtles, the relationship between cardiovascular function and temperature may be subject to different selective pressures in different life-history stages. Because embryos benefit by developing as rapidly as possible, and can "afford" to expend energy to do so (because they have access to the yolk for nutrition, they benefit from rapid heart (and thus, developmental rates. In contrast, hatchlings do not have a guaranteed food supply, and maximal growth rates may not enhance fitness--and so, we might expect a lower heart rate, especially at high temperatures where metabolic costs are greatest. Our data on two species of emydid turtles, Chrysemys picta, and Graptemys pseudogeographica kohnii, support these predictions. Heart rates of embryos and hatchlings were similar at low temperatures, but heart rates at higher temperatures were much greater before than after hatching.

  19. A study on cardiac autonomic modulation during pregnancy by non-invasive heart rate variability measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritesh Hariprasad Gandhi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Remarkable and uncontrollable changes with modification during pregnancy are connected with the autonomic control and consequently with the heart rate variability (HRV. Heart rate variability is a sum of different mechanisms and if pregnancy is a state of change, these modifications could be extracted from HRV analysis. Objective: To assess the effect of pregnancy on heart rate variability among pregnant mothers during first trimester of pregnancy and third trimester of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: HRV was measured for 5 minutes of continuous recording of electrocardiogram (ECG lead II, using windows based HRV analysis system variowin-HR after obtaining permission from the Institutional Review Board of Government Medical College, Bhavnagar and written consent from 30 pregnant subjects and 30 non-pregnant control subjects at autonomic function lab, Dept of Physiology, Bhavnagar. Result: Frequency domain parameters, very low frequency (VLF, low frequency (LF, high frequency (HF and HF normalized unit (nu were significantly decreased and LF (nu and LF/HF significantly increased in pregnant subject in 3 rd trimester as compared to their 1 st trimester of pregnancy. Time Domain parameters like SDNN, RMSSD, SDSD, NN50 count, pNN50, SD1/SD2, triangular HRV index and average R-R interval were significantly decreased during 3 rd trimester of pregnancy. Conclusion: The inhibition of resting parasympathetic activity or vagal blockage and an increment of the sympathetic modulation during the 3 rd third trimester of gestation in pregnancy as compared to their 1 st trimester and healthy non-pregnant subjects. Sympathovagal imbalance and abnormally low HRV may more pronounce during later stage of normal pregnancy.

  20. [A Heart Rate Variability Analysis System for Short-term Applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bo; Chen, Fasheng; Zhang, Genxuan; Cao, Mingna; Tsau, Young

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a heart rate variability analysis system is presented for short-term (5 min) applications, which is composed of an electrocardiogram signal acquisition unit and a heart rate variability analysis unit. The electrocardiogram signal acquisition unit adopts various digital technologies, including the low-gain amplifier, the high-resolution analog-digital converter, the real-time digital filter and wireless transmission etc. Meanwhile, it has the advantages of strong anti-interference capacity, small size, light weight, and good portability. The heart rate variability analysis unit is used to complete the R-wave detection and the analyses of time domain, frequency domain and nonlinear indexes, based on the Matlab Toolbox. The preliminary experiments demonstrated that the system was reliable, and could be applied to the heart rate variability analysis at resting, motion states etc. PMID:26710447

  1. Lactic acidosis, potassium, and the heart rate deflection point in professional road cyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia, A.; Hoyos, J; Santalla, A; Perez, M; Carvajal, A.; Chicharro, J.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of lactic acidosis, the Bohr effect, and exercise induced hyperkalaemia on the occurrence of the heart rate deflection point (HRDP) in elite (professional) cyclists.

  2. Anticipatory Heart Rate Deceleration and Reaction Time in Children with and without Referral for Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The finding of major significance in this study concerns the effect of stimulant drug medication on the relationship between heart rate deceleration and reaction time with the clinic children. (Authors)

  3. Heart rate modulation in bystanding geese watching social and non-social events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wascher, Claudia A. F.; Scheiber, Isabella B. R.; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Simply observing other individuals interacting has been shown to affect subsequent behaviour and also hormones in 'bystander' individuals. However, immediate physiological responses of an observer have been hardly investigated. Here we present results on individuals' heart rate (HR) responses during

  4. Development and validation of an improved smartphone heart rate acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapetyan, G.; Barseghyan, R.; Sarukhanyan, H.; Agaian, S.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we propose a robust system for touchless heart rate (HR) acquisition on mobile devices. The application allows monitor heart rate signal during usual mobile device usage such as video watching, games playing, article reading etc. The system is based on algorithm of acquiring heart rate via recording of skin color variations with built-in cameras of mobile device. The signal is acquired from different ROIs of human face, which make it more clear and the amplification of the signal improve the robustness in low lightening conditions. The effectiveness and robustness of the developed system has been demonstrated under different distances from camera source and illumination conditions. The experiments have been done with different mobile devices HRs were collected from 10 subjects, ages 22 to 65, by using the 3 devices. Moreover, we compared the developed method with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved sensors and related commercial applications of remote heart rate measurements on mobile devices.

  5. Spectral analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability in primary Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Barendregt (Pieternella); J.H.M. Tulen (Joke); A.H. van den Meiracker (Anton); H.M. Markusse

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Autonomic dysfunction has been described in primary Sjogren's syndrome (SS). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the circulatory autonomic regulation in patients with primary SS by power spectral analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability. METHODS: Forty th

  6. Heart rate changes in relation to cosmic ray intensity variability: A wide investigation in different latitudes and longitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromichalaki, Helen; Safaraly-Oghlu Babayev, Elchin; -Christina Papailiou, Maria; Dimitrova, Svetla; Kudela, Karel; Stetiarova, Jana; Giannaropoulou, Elisavet; Loucas, Panayiotis

    The increased number of recent studies over the last years, regarding the possible effect of geomagnetic disturbances and cosmic ray intensity variations may have on human physiological parameters (such as heart rate, arterial diastolic and systolic blood pressure, etc) suggests that biological objects and, particularly, human health are potentially affected by solar activity and related geophysical changes. Different scientific groups from Azerbaijan (Baku), Bulgaria (Sofia), Greece (Athens) and Slovakia (Kosice) have conducted relevant researches, separately or in cooperation with each another, using medical data from 1994 to 2008. The results of collaborative study of human heart rate changes in relation to cosmic ray intensity variations are presented in this paper. Heart rate data were digitally registered: 1) for seven functionally healthy persons on working days (including Saturdays) during experiments at the Laboratory of Heliobiology located at the Medical Centre INAM, Baku, for the time period from July 15, 2006 to March 3, 2008; 2) for 86 healthy volunteers of the Solar -Terrestrial Laboratory of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia on every working day during the autumn and spring in years of maximal solar activity, from October 1, 2001 to November 9, 2001 and from April 8, 2002 to May 28, 2002; 3) for 225 persons with no cardiac symptoms or hospital admission, of the cardiological clinic of the KAT Hospital in Athens, for the time period from 2002 to 2006; and 4) for 4018 Slovak aviators during the time period from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 2002. It should be noted that considered period covers different phases of solar activity cycles and is characterized by such time intervals of strong solar and geomagnetic activity as October -November 2003, November 2004, January and July 2005 and December 2006. The statistical methods were applied to establish a statistical significance of the effect of cosmic ray intensity variations on heart rate

  7. Nocturnal variations in peripheral blood flow, systemic blood pressure, and heart rate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Christensen, H;

    1991-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit...... were used for measurement of blood flow rates. An automatic portable blood pressure recorder and processor unit was used for measurement of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate every 15 min. The change from upright to supine position at the beginning of the night period...... was associated with a 30-40% increase in blood flow rate and a highly significant decrease in mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate (P less than 0.001 for all). Approximately 100 min after the subjects went to sleep an additional blood flow rate increment (mean 56%) and a simultaneous significant decrease...

  8. Modular continuous wavelet processing of biosignals: extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video signal

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    A novel method of extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video-based biosignal is described. The method comprises a novel modular continuous wavelet transform approach which includes: performing the transform, undertaking running wavelet archetyping to enhance the pulse information, extraction of the pulse ridge time–frequency information [and thus a heart rate (HRvid) signal], creation of a wavelet ratio surface, projection of the pulse ridge onto the ratio surface to determine t...

  9. Fetal Heart Rate and Variability: Stability and Prediction to Developmental Outcomes in Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Bornstein, Marc H; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Costigan, Kathleen; Achy-Brou, Aristide

    2007-01-01

    Stability in cardiac indicators before birth and their utility in predicting variation in postnatal development were examined. Fetal heart rate and variability were measured longitudinally from 20 through 38 weeks gestation (n = 137) and again at age 2 (n = 79). Significant within-individual stability during the prenatal period and into childhood was demonstrated. Fetal heart rate variability at or after 28 weeks gestation and steeper developmental trajectories were significantly associated w...

  10. Deterioration of Heart Rate Recovery Index in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)

    OpenAIRE

    Ozveren, Olcay; Dogdu, Orhan; SENGUL, Cihan; Cinar, Veysel; Eroglu, Elif; Kucukdurmaz, Zekeriya; Degertekin, Muzaffer

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been considered as a benign disease often associated with central obesity and insulin resistance and, in general, with factors of the metabolic syndrome. Heart rate recovery after exercise is a function of vagal reactivation, and its impairment is an independent prognostic indicator for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. The aim of our study was to evaluate the heart rate recovery index in patients with NAFLD. Material/Methods The ...

  11. Obesity and Prader-Willi Syndrome Affect Heart Rate Recovery from Dynamic Resistance Exercise in Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Castner, Diobel M.; Clark, Susan J.; Judelson, Daniel A.; Rubin, Daniela A

    2016-01-01

    Following exercise, heart rate decline is initially driven by parasympathetic reactivation and later by sympathetic withdrawal. Obesity delays endurance exercise heart rate recovery (HRR) in both children and adults. Young people with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), a congenital cause for obesity, have shown a slower 60-s endurance exercise HRR compared to lean and obese children, suggesting compromised regulation. This study further evaluated effects of obesity and PWS on resistance exercise HR...

  12. Automatic Prediction of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Events Using Heart Rate Variability Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Melillo, Paolo; Izzo, Raffaele; Orrico, Ada; Scala, Paolo; Attanasio, Marcella; Mirra, Marco; De Luca, Nicola; Pecchia, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Background There is consensus that Heart Rate Variability is associated with the risk of vascular events. However, Heart Rate Variability predictive value for vascular events is not completely clear. The aim of this study is to develop novel predictive models based on data-mining algorithms to provide an automatic risk stratification tool for hypertensive patients. Methods A database of 139 Holter recordings with clinical data of hypertensive patients followed up for at least 12 months were c...

  13. Learned Cardiac Control with Heart Rate Biofeedback Transfers to Emotional Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Peira; Gilles Pourtois; Mats Fredrikson

    2013-01-01

    Emotions involve subjective feelings, action tendencies and physiological reactions. Earlier findings suggest that biofeedback might provide a way to regulate the physiological components of emotions. The present study investigates if learned heart rate regulation with biofeedback transfers to emotional situations without biofeedback. First, participants learned to decrease heart rate using biofeedback. Then, inter-individual differences in the acquired skill predicted how well they could dec...

  14. Heart Rate Characteristics: Physiomarkers for Detection of Late-Onset Neonatal Sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Fairchild, Karen D.; O'Shea, T. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Early detection of late onset neonatal sepsis, prior to obvious and potentially catastrophic clinical signs, is an important goal in neonatal medicine. Sepsis causes a well-known series of physiologic changes including abnormalities of blood pressure, respiration, temperature, and heart rate, and less well-known changes in heart rate variability. While vital signs are frequently or continuously monitored in NICU patients, changes in these parameters are subtle in the early phase of sepsis and...

  15. Dynamic control algorithm for an analog front end in a wearable optical heart rate monitoring device

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmi, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Optical heart rate monitoring is an established technology based on photoplethysmography measurements from the surface of the skin. It has recently gained popularity among many companies in consumer targeted applications. Even though the principles of optical heart rate monitoring are fairly simple, the inherent problems of the technology and often challenging operating conditions pose serious issues for the PPG signal acquisition and consequent HR estimation. This thesis investigates the...

  16. Heart Rate Variability Frekuensi Domain Untuk Deteksi Stres Mental Dan Influenza Menggunakan SVM Classifier

    OpenAIRE

    Novani, Nefy Puteri; Prihatmanto, Ary Setijadi

    2016-01-01

    Heart Rate Variability (HRV) merupakan variasi dari beat-to-beat denyut jantung yang memberikan gambaran gejala fisiologis dari denyut jantung (heart rate) dengan variasinya dalam interval waktu. Analisis HRV memberikan suatu informasi tentang modulasi otonom jantung dan menjadi alat yang berguna untuk memahami sistem saraf otonom (ANS) yang mengatur proses-proses tertentu di dalam tubuh dengan dua komponen utama yaitu sistem saraf simpatetik dan parasimpatetik. Analisis HRV mencakup anali...

  17. Nomenclature, categorization and usage of formulae to adjust QT interval for heart rate

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Simon W; Cheng, Xin Bo

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the QT interval on a standard 12 lead electrocardiogram is of value in the recognition of a number of conditions. A critical part of its use is the adjustment for the effect of heart rate on QT interval. A systematic search was conducted to identify studies that proposed formulae to standardize the QT interval by heart rate. A nomenclature was developed for current and subsequent equations based on whether they are corrective (QTc) or predictive (QTp). QTc formulae attempt to se...

  18. Non-linear and scale-invariant analysis of the Heart Rate Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Kalda, J; Vainu, M; Laan, M

    2003-01-01

    Human heart rate fluctuates in a complex and non-stationary manner. Elaborating efficient and adequate tools for the analysis of such signals has been a great challenge for the researchers during last decades. Here, an overview of the main research results in this field is given. The following question are addressed: (a) what are the intrinsic features of the heart rate variability signal; (b) what are the most promising non-linear measures, bearing in mind clinical diagnostic and prognostic applications.

  19. Neurohumoral activation in heart failure: the role of adrenergic receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia C. Brum

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is a common endpoint for many forms of cardiovascular disease and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The development of end-stage HF often involves an initial insult to the myocardium that reduces cardiac output and leads to a compensatory increase in sympathetic nervous system activity. Acutely, the sympathetic hyperactivity through the activation of beta-adrenergic receptors increases heart rate and cardiac contractility, which compensate for decreased cardiac output. However, chronic exposure of the heart to elevated levels of catecholamines released from sympathetic nerve terminals and the adrenal gland may lead to further pathologic changes in the heart, resulting in continued elevation of sympathetic tone and a progressive deterioration in cardiac function. On a molecular level, altered beta-adrenergic receptor signaling plays a pivotal role in the genesis and progression of HF. beta-adrenergic receptor number and function are decreased, and downstream mechanisms are altered. In this review we will present an overview of the normal beta-adrenergic receptor pathway in the heart and the consequences of sustained adrenergic activation in HF. The myopathic potential of individual components of the adrenergic signaling will be discussed through the results of research performed in genetic modified animals. Finally, we will discuss the potential clinical impact of beta-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms for better understanding the progression of HF.A insuficiência cardíaca (IC é a via final comum da maioria das doenças cardiovasculares e uma das maiores causas de morbi-mortalidade. O desenvolvimento do estágio final da IC freqüentemente envolve um insulto inicial do miocárdio, reduzindo o débito cardíaco e levando ao aumento compensatório da atividade do sistema nervoso simpático (SNS. Existem evidências de que apesar da exposição aguda ser benéfica, exposições crônicas a elevadas concentra

  20. Daily Physical Activity in Stable Heart Failure Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dontje, Manon L.; van der Wal, Martje H.L; Stolk, Ronald P; Brügemann, Johan; Jaarsma, Tiny; Wijtvliet, Petra E P J; van der Schans, Cees P; Greef, Mathieu H.G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Physical activity is the only nonpharmacological therapy that is proven to be effective in heart failure (HF) patients in reducing morbidity. To date, little is known about the levels of daily physical activity in HF patients and about related factors. OBJECTIVE:: The objectives of this study were to (a) describe performance-based daily physical activity in HF patients, (b) compare it with physical activity guidelines, and (c) identify related factors of daily physical activity. ...

  1. The effects of heart rate and aiming time on performance in Turkish National Archery Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İpek Eroğlu Kolayiş

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of aiming time and heart rate on the performance. Three elite female national subject was used in this study. The shooting performance was observed only in 70 m. To evaluate heart rate, Delta Plus CP/I portable, interpreting model ECG, to determine  the releasing time double channel ME 3000 micro-processor, Muscle Tester were used. The results of the study; the shooting heart rate is116,2±7,16 bpm., aiming time is 3,56±0,59 s. And the heart rate of the time between two shooting  is 113,13±9,54 bpm. According to statistical analysis, a significant difference between shooting HR and aiming time of arrows which hit the different point on the target has been observed (p<0,05.The relationships between shooting HR-performance and shooting HR-Aiming time have been observed.While shootings come close to the center of the target (through the 10 point the shooting heart rate and aiming time has decreased and there is no change in the value of the heart rate of the time between two shooting.

  2. Heart rate calculation from ensemble brain wave using wavelet and Teager-Kaiser energy operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Jayaraman; Adithya, V

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal artifacts are caused by various factors, such as, Electro-oculogram (EOG), Electromyogram (EMG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), movement artifact and line interference. The relatively high electrical energy cardiac activity causes EEG artifacts. In EEG signal processing the general approach is to remove the ECG signal. In this paper, we introduce an automated method to extract the ECG signal from EEG using wavelet and Teager-Kaiser energy operator for R-peak enhancement and detection. From the detected R-peaks the heart rate (HR) is calculated for clinical diagnosis. To check the efficiency of our method, we compare the HR calculated from ECG signal recorded in synchronous with EEG. The proposed method yields a mean error of 1.4% for the heart rate and 1.7% for mean R-R interval. The result illustrates that, proposed method can be used for ECG extraction from single channel EEG and used in clinical diagnosis like estimation for stress analysis, fatigue, and sleep stages classification studies as a multi-model system. In addition, this method eliminates the dependence of additional synchronous ECG in extraction of ECG from EEG signal process. PMID:26737640

  3. Measuring stress level of dairy cows during milking using by geometric indices of heart rate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente Kovács

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractHeart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV were investigated in cows (n=32, age: 3.86 years, milk production: 35±2.5 kg, DIM: 150±15 milked in a parallel milking parlour. Geometric parameters of HRV (SD1 and SD2 were calculated using Poincare graphs. HRV indices of resting 1 h after midday milking (reference period were compared to those measured during the different phases of the evening milking (driving; in the holding pen; udder preparation; milking; after milking in the milking stall. There was no difference between the reference period and the different phases of milking in animal welfare terms. During the reference period SD2 (198.5 ms was significantly higher (p<0.05 than every other measured period suggesting an increasing parasympathetic tone after milking. This parasympathetic predominance decreased with time of the day (1.5 h after milking. SD2 was significantly affected by parity, by the breeding bull (p<0.01 and by milk production (p<0.05. SD2 was notably higher (102.8 ms in multiparous cows than in primiparous cows (p<0.017; α=0.005 during resting and milking. Results suggested that a conventional milking process is not really stressful for cows. Primiparous cows were more susceptible of milking process than multiparous ones. SD2 is a good marker of vagus activity and affected by several independent factors.

  4. Heart rate calculation from ensemble brain wave using wavelet and Teager-Kaiser energy operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Jayaraman; Adithya, V

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal artifacts are caused by various factors, such as, Electro-oculogram (EOG), Electromyogram (EMG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), movement artifact and line interference. The relatively high electrical energy cardiac activity causes EEG artifacts. In EEG signal processing the general approach is to remove the ECG signal. In this paper, we introduce an automated method to extract the ECG signal from EEG using wavelet and Teager-Kaiser energy operator for R-peak enhancement and detection. From the detected R-peaks the heart rate (HR) is calculated for clinical diagnosis. To check the efficiency of our method, we compare the HR calculated from ECG signal recorded in synchronous with EEG. The proposed method yields a mean error of 1.4% for the heart rate and 1.7% for mean R-R interval. The result illustrates that, proposed method can be used for ECG extraction from single channel EEG and used in clinical diagnosis like estimation for stress analysis, fatigue, and sleep stages classification studies as a multi-model system. In addition, this method eliminates the dependence of additional synchronous ECG in extraction of ECG from EEG signal process.

  5. Heart rate variability during carbachol-induced REM sleep and cataplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torterolo, Pablo; Castro-Zaballa, Santiago; Cavelli, Matías; Velasquez, Noelia; Brando, Victoria; Falconi, Atilio; Chase, Michael H; Migliaro, Eduardo R

    2015-09-15

    The nucleus pontis oralis (NPO) exerts an executive control over REM sleep. Cholinergic input to the NPO is critical for REM sleep generation. In the cat, a single microinjection of carbachol (a cholinergic agonist) into the NPO produces either REM sleep (REMc) or wakefulness with muscle atonia (cataplexy, CA). In order to study the central control of the heart rate variability (HRV) during sleep, we conducted polysomnographic and electrocardiogram recordings from chronically prepared cats during REMc, CA as well as during sleep and wakefulness. Subsequently, we performed statistical and spectral analyses of the HRV. The heart rate was greater during CA compared to REMc, NREM or REM sleep. Spectral analysis revealed that the low frequency band (LF) power was significantly higher during REM sleep in comparison to REMc and CA. Furthermore, we found that during CA there was a decrease in coupling between the RR intervals plot (tachogram) and respiratory activity. In contrast, compared to natural behavioral states, during REMc and CA there were no significant differences in the HRV based upon the standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDNN) and the mean squared difference of successive intervals (rMSSD). In conclusion, there were differences in the HRV during naturally-occurring REM sleep compared to REMc. In addition, in spite of the same muscle atonia, the HRV was different during REMc and CA. Therefore, the neuronal network that controls the HRV during REM sleep can be dissociated from the one that generates the muscle atonia during this state. PMID:25997581

  6. Heart Rate Variability Correlates to Functional Aerobic Impairment in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Magalhães de Queiroz Carreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autonomic dysfunction (AD is highly prevalent in hemodialysis (HD patients and has been implicated in their increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Objective: To correlate heart rate variability (HRV during exercise treadmill test (ETT with the values obtained when measuring functional aerobic impairment (FAI in HD patients and controls. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving HD patients and a control group. Clinical examination, blood sampling, transthoracic echocardiogram, 24-hour Holter, and ETT were performed. A symptom-limited ramp treadmill protocol with active recovery was employed. Heart rate variability was evaluated in time domain at exercise and recovery periods. Results: Forty-one HD patients and 41 controls concluded the study. HD patients had higher FAI and lower HRV than controls (p<0.001 for both. A correlation was found between exercise HRV (SDNN and FAI in both groups. This association was independent of age, sex, smoking, body mass index, diabetes, and clonidine or beta-blocker use, but not of hemoglobin levels. Conclusion: No association was found between FAI and HRV on 24-hour Holter or at the recovery period of ETT. Of note, exercise HRV was inversely correlated with FAI in HD patients and controls. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2015; [online]. ahead print, PP.0-0

  7. Biomedical Teleacupuncture between China and Austria Using Heart Rate Variability, Part 1: Poststroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acupuncture has been reported to affect the human autonomic system. Within this pilot study, teleacupuncture between China and Austria is used for the first time for quantifying the effects of heart rate variability (HRV in poststroke rehabilitation. Methods. In 29 Chinese post-stroke patients (15 f, 14 m; mean age ± SD 64.7±11.3 years; range 40–80 years electrocardiographic signals before, during, and after acupuncture at the acupoint Tongli (HT 5 were recorded in Harbin and analyzed in Graz using teleacupuncture via internet. HRV data were analyzed in the time and frequency domain, and a protocol from Austria was sent to the team in China immediately after the treatment and recording session. Results. Acupuncture does not change heart rate in the post-stroke patients; however, total HRV increased significantly (P<.05 during and 5–10 minutes after acupuncture. In addition, balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity (low frequency/high frequency HRV ratio changes markedly during treatment. Conclusions. Based on innovative HRV analysis, it could be demonstrated that teleacupuncture between China/Harbin and Austria/Graz over a distance of about 8,500 km is no longer a future vision; it has become reality.

  8. Heart rate variability during sleep following the practice of cyclic meditation and supine rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Sanjib; Telles, Shirley

    2010-06-01

    Day time activities are known to influence the sleep on the following night. Cyclic meditation (CM) has recurring cycles. Previously, the low frequency (LF) power and the ratio between low frequency and high frequency (LF/HF ratio) of the heart rate variability (HRV) decreased during and after CM but not after a comparable period of supine rest (SR). In the present study, on thirty male volunteers, CM was practiced twice in the day and after this the HRV was recorded (1) while awake and (2) during 6 h of sleep (based on EEG, EMG and EGG recordings). This was similarly recorded for the night's sleep following the day time practice of SR. Participants were randomly assigned to the two sessions and all of them practiced both CM and SR on different days. During the night following day time CM practice there were the following changes; a decrease in heart rate, LF power (n.u.), LF/HF ratio, and an increase in the number of pairs of Normal to Normal RR intervals differing by more than 50 ms divided by total number of all NN intervals (pNN50) (P sleep following CM compared with sleep following SR). No change was seen on the night following SR. Hence yoga practice during the day appears to shift sympatho-vagal balance in favor of parasympathetic dominance during sleep on the following night.

  9. Interaction between age and aerobic fitness in determining heart rate dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heart rate variability (HRV) and phase-rectified signal averaging (PRSA) estimates of heart rate dynamics are diminished in older people compared with younger people. However, it is not fully elucidated whether these differences are related to age per se or to the concomitant influence of aerobic fitness. Aerobic fitness (peak oxygen uptake, gas exchange threshold, oxygen uptake kinetics, exercise economy) was assessed in 70 healthy adults (41 male) aged 18–57 years. Participants also underwent a 24 h, ambulatory ECG for the derivation of HRV and PRSA variables. HRV was most sensitive to age and aerobic fitness when measured during the morning period (6 am–12 pm). HRV and PRSA were both diminished with age and were higher in aerobically superior participants. The decline in HRV with age was predominantly attributable to age itself (33%), with aerobic fitness representing an additional modulating factor. The present study also provides tentative evidence that assessment of the influence of aerobic fitness should not rely on .VO2peak alone. These findings demonstrate that age per se is an important factor in determining HRV. However, given the clinical importance of diminished HRV and the immutable nature of aging, the potential significance of physical activity/training to enhance cardiac regulatory function should not be underestimated. (paper)

  10. The forgotten role of central volume in low frequency oscillations of heart rate variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Ferrario

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that central volume plays a key role in the source of low frequency (LF oscillations of heart rate variability (HRV was tested in a population of end stage renal disease patients undergoing conventional hemodialysis (HD treatment, and thus subject to large fluid shifts and sympathetic activation. Fluid overload (FO in 58 chronic HD patients was assessed by whole body bioimpedance measurements before the midweek HD session. Heart Rate Variability (HRV was measured using 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram recordings starting before the same HD treatment. Time domain and frequency domain analyses were performed on HRV signals. Patients were retrospectively classified in three groups according to tertiles of FO normalized to the extracellular water (FO/ECW%. These groups were also compared after stratification by diabetes mellitus. Patients with the low to medium hydration status before the treatment (i.e. 1st and 2nd FO/ECW% tertiles showed a significant increase in LF power during last 30 min of HD compared to dialysis begin, while no significant change in LF power was seen in the third group (i.e. those with high pre-treatment hydration values. In conclusion, several mechanisms can generate LF oscillations in the cardiovascular system, including baroreflex feedback loops and central oscillators. However, the current results emphasize the role played by the central volume in determining the power of LF oscillations.

  11. Heart rate variability during carbachol-induced REM sleep and cataplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torterolo, Pablo; Castro-Zaballa, Santiago; Cavelli, Matías; Velasquez, Noelia; Brando, Victoria; Falconi, Atilio; Chase, Michael H; Migliaro, Eduardo R

    2015-09-15

    The nucleus pontis oralis (NPO) exerts an executive control over REM sleep. Cholinergic input to the NPO is critical for REM sleep generation. In the cat, a single microinjection of carbachol (a cholinergic agonist) into the NPO produces either REM sleep (REMc) or wakefulness with muscle atonia (cataplexy, CA). In order to study the central control of the heart rate variability (HRV) during sleep, we conducted polysomnographic and electrocardiogram recordings from chronically prepared cats during REMc, CA as well as during sleep and wakefulness. Subsequently, we performed statistical and spectral analyses of the HRV. The heart rate was greater during CA compared to REMc, NREM or REM sleep. Spectral analysis revealed that the low frequency band (LF) power was significantly higher during REM sleep in comparison to REMc and CA. Furthermore, we found that during CA there was a decrease in coupling between the RR intervals plot (tachogram) and respiratory activity. In contrast, compared to natural behavioral states, during REMc and CA there were no significant differences in the HRV based upon the standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDNN) and the mean squared difference of successive intervals (rMSSD). In conclusion, there were differences in the HRV during naturally-occurring REM sleep compared to REMc. In addition, in spite of the same muscle atonia, the HRV was different during REMc and CA. Therefore, the neuronal network that controls the HRV during REM sleep can be dissociated from the one that generates the muscle atonia during this state.

  12. Aerobic exercise during pregnancy and presence of fetal-maternal heart rate synchronization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available It has been shown that short-term direct interaction between maternal and fetal heart rates may take place and that this interaction is affected by the rate of maternal respiration. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal aerobic exercise during pregnancy on the occurrence of fetal-maternal heart rate synchronization.In 40 pregnant women at the 36th week of gestation, 21 of whom exercised regularly, we acquired 18 min. RR interval time series obtained simultaneously in the mothers and their fetuses from magnetocardiographic recordings. The time series of the two groups were examined with respect to their heart rate variability, the maternal respiratory rate and the presence of synchronization epochs as determined on the basis of synchrograms. Surrogate data were used to assess whether the occurrence of synchronization was due to chance.In the original data, we found synchronization occurred less often in pregnancies in which the mothers had exercised regularly. These subjects also displayed higher combined fetal-maternal heart rate variability and lower maternal respiratory rates. Analysis of the surrogate data showed shorter epochs of synchronization and a lack of the phase coordination found between maternal and fetal beat timing in the original data.The results suggest that fetal-maternal heart rate coupling is present but generally weak. Maternal exercise has a damping effect on its occurrence, most likely due to an increase in beat-to-beat differences, higher vagal tone and slower breathing rates.

  13. Sample Entropy and Traditional Measures of Heart Rate Dynamics Reveal Different Modes of Cardiovascular Control During Low Intensity Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weippert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear parameters of heart rate variability (HRV have proven their prognostic value in clinical settings, but their physiological background is not very well established. We assessed the effects of low intensity isometric (ISO and dynamic (DYN exercise of the lower limbs on heart rate matched intensity on traditional and entropy measures of HRV. Due to changes of afferent feedback under DYN and ISO a distinct autonomic response, mirrored by HRV measures, was hypothesized. Five-minute inter-beat interval measurements of 43 healthy males (26.0 ± 3.1 years were performed during rest, DYN and ISO in a randomized order. Blood pressures and rate pressure product were higher during ISO vs. DYN (p < 0.001. HRV indicators SDNN as well as low and high frequency power were significantly higher during ISO (p < 0.001 for all measures. Compared to DYN, sample entropy (SampEn was lower during ISO (p < 0.001. Concluding, contraction mode itself is a significant modulator of the autonomic cardiovascular response to exercise. Compared to DYN, ISO evokes a stronger blood pressure response and an enhanced interplay between both autonomic branches. Non-linear HRV measures indicate a more regular behavior under ISO. Results support the view of the reciprocal antagonism being only one of many modes of autonomic heart rate control. Under different conditions; the identical “end product” heart rate might be achieved by other modes such as sympathovagal co-activation as well.

  14. The effect of orthostatic stress on multiscale entropy of heart rate and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turianikova, Zuzana; Javorka, Kamil; Baumert, Mathias; Calkovska, Andrea; Javorka, Michal

    2011-09-01

    Cardiovascular control acts over multiple time scales, which introduces a significant amount of complexity to heart rate and blood pressure time series. Multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis has been developed to quantify the complexity of a time series over multiple time scales. In previous studies, MSE analyses identified impaired cardiovascular control and increased cardiovascular risk in various pathological conditions. Despite the increasing acceptance of the MSE technique in clinical research, information underpinning the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the MSE of heart rate and blood pressure is lacking. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of orthostatic challenge on the MSE of heart rate and blood pressure variability (HRV, BPV) and the correlation between MSE (complexity measures) and traditional linear (time and frequency domain) measures. MSE analysis of HRV and BPV was performed in 28 healthy young subjects on 1000 consecutive heart beats in the supine and standing positions. Sample entropy values were assessed on scales of 1-10. We found that MSE of heart rate and blood pressure signals is sensitive to changes in autonomic balance caused by postural change from the supine to the standing position. The effect of orthostatic challenge on heart rate and blood pressure complexity depended on the time scale under investigation. Entropy values did not correlate with the mean values of heart rate and blood pressure and showed only weak correlations with linear HRV and BPV measures. In conclusion, the MSE analysis of heart rate and blood pressure provides a sensitive tool to detect changes in autonomic balance as induced by postural change. PMID:21799239

  15. The effect of orthostatic stress on multiscale entropy of heart rate and blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular control acts over multiple time scales, which introduces a significant amount of complexity to heart rate and blood pressure time series. Multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis has been developed to quantify the complexity of a time series over multiple time scales. In previous studies, MSE analyses identified impaired cardiovascular control and increased cardiovascular risk in various pathological conditions. Despite the increasing acceptance of the MSE technique in clinical research, information underpinning the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the MSE of heart rate and blood pressure is lacking. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of orthostatic challenge on the MSE of heart rate and blood pressure variability (HRV, BPV) and the correlation between MSE (complexity measures) and traditional linear (time and frequency domain) measures. MSE analysis of HRV and BPV was performed in 28 healthy young subjects on 1000 consecutive heart beats in the supine and standing positions. Sample entropy values were assessed on scales of 1–10. We found that MSE of heart rate and blood pressure signals is sensitive to changes in autonomic balance caused by postural change from the supine to the standing position. The effect of orthostatic challenge on heart rate and blood pressure complexity depended on the time scale under investigation. Entropy values did not correlate with the mean values of heart rate and blood pressure and showed only weak correlations with linear HRV and BPV measures. In conclusion, the MSE analysis of heart rate and blood pressure provides a sensitive tool to detect changes in autonomic balance as induced by postural change

  16. Building trust: Heart rate synchrony and arousal during joint action increased by public goods game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitkidis, Panagiotis; McGraw, John J; Roepstorff, Andreas; Wallot, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    The physiological processes underlying trust are subject of intense interest in the behavioral sciences. However, very little is known about how trust modulates the affective link between individuals. We show here that trust has an effect on heart rate arousal and synchrony, a result consistent with research on joint action and experimental economics. We engaged participants in a series of joint action tasks which, for one group of participants, was interleaved with a PGG, and measured their heart synchrony and arousal. We found that the introduction of the economic game shifted participants' attention to the dynamics of the interaction. This was followed by increased arousal and synchrony of heart rate profiles. Also, the degree of heart rate synchrony was predictive of participants' expectations regarding their partners in the economic game. We conclude that the above changes in physiology and behavior are shaped by the valuation of other people's social behavior, and ultimately indicate trust building process. PMID:26037635

  17. A Heart and A Mind: Self-distancing Facilitates the Association Between Heart Rate Variability, and Wise Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Grossmann, Igor; Sahdra, Baljinder K.; Ciarrochi, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac vagal tone (indexed via resting heart rate variability [HRV]) has been previously associated with superior executive functioning. Is HRV related to wiser reasoning and less biased judgments? Here we hypothesize that this will be the case when adopting a self-distanced (as opposed to a self-immersed) perspective, with self-distancing enabling individuals with higher HRV to overcome bias-promoting egocentric impulses and to reason wisely. However, higher HRV may not be associated with g...

  18. A Heart and a Mind: Self-distancing Facilitates the Association between Heart Rate Variability, and Wise Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Igor eGrossmann; Baljinder Kaur Sahdra; Joseph eCiarrochi

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac vagal tone (indexed via resting heart rate variability - HRV) has been previously associated with superior executive functioning. Is HRV related to wiser reasoning and less biased judgments? Here, we hypothesize that this will be the case when adopting a self-distanced (as opposed to a self-immersed) perspective, with self-distancing enabling individuals with higher HRV to overcome bias-promoting egocentric impulses and to reason wisely. However, higher HRV may not be associated with ...

  19. Unconstrained monitoring of long-term heart and breath rates during sleep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An unconstrained method for the long-term monitoring of heart and breath rates during sleep is proposed. The system includes a sensor unit and a web-based network module. The sensor unit is set beneath a pillow to pick up the pressure variations from the head induced by inhalation/exhalation movements and heart pulsation during sleep. The measured pressure signal was digitized and transferred to a remote database server via the network module. A wavelet-based algorithm was employed to detect the heart and breath rates, as well as body movement, during sleep. The overall system was utilized for a total six-month trial operation delivered to a female subject. The profiles of the heart and breath rates on a beat-by-beat and daily basis were obtained. Movements during sleep were also estimated. The results show that the daily average percentage of undetectable periods (UPs) during 881.6 sleep hours over a 180 day period was 17.2%. A total of 89.2% of sleep hours had a UP of not more than 25%. The profile of the heart rate revealed a periodic property that corresponded to the female monthly menstrual cycle. Our system shows promise as a long-term unconstrained monitor for heart and breath rates, and for other physiological parameters related to the quality of sleep and the regularity of the menstrual cycle. (note)

  20. Effect of varying heart rate on intra-ventricular filling fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Okafor, Ikechukwu; Angirish, Yagna; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2013-11-01

    Impaired exercise tolerance is used to delineate asymptomatic patients during the clinical diagnosis of diastolic left heart failure. Examining the effects of varying heart rate on intra-ventricular filling can provide a physical understanding of the specific flow characteristics that are impacted during exercise. In this study, diastolic filling was investigated with an anatomical left ventricle (LV) physical model under normal heart rate of 70 bpm, and varying exercise conditions of 100 bpm and 120 bpm. The LV model was incorporated into a flow loop and tuned for physiological inflow rates and outflow pressures. 2D PIV measurements were conducted along 3 parallel longitudinal planes. The systemic pressure was maintained the same across all test conditions. The E/A ratio was maintained within 1.0-1.2 across all heart rates. The strength of the mitral vortex ring formed during E-wave, as well as the peak incoming jet velocity, decreased with increasing heart rate. During peak flow of the A-wave, the vortex ring propagated farther into the LV for 120 bpm as compared to 70 bpm. The results point to the heightened role of the atrial kick for optimal LV filling during exercise conditions. This study was funded by a grant from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (RO1HL70262).

  1. Validation of pulse rate variability as a surrogate for heart rate variability in chronically instrumented rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Peter R; Schiller, Alicia M; Zucker, Irving H

    2014-07-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a function of cardiac autonomic tone that is widely used in both clinical and animal studies. In preclinical studies, HRV measures are frequently derived using the arterial pulse waveform from an implanted pressure telemetry device, termed pulse rate variability (PRV), instead of the electrocardiogram signal in accordance with clinical guidelines. The acceptability of PRV as a surrogate for HRV in instrumented animals is unknown. Using rabbits implanted with intracardiac leads and chronically implanted pressure transducers, we investigated the correlation and agreement of time-domain, frequency-domain, and nonlinear indexes of HRV and PRV at baseline. We also investigated the effects of ventricular pacing and autonomic blockade on both measures. At baseline, HRV and PRV time- and frequency-domain parameters showed robust correlations and moderate to high agreement, whereas nonlinear parameters showed slightly weaker correlations and varied agreement. Ventricular pacing almost completely eliminated HRV, and spectral analysis of the PRV signal revealed a HRV-independent rhythm. After cardiac autonomic blockade with atropine or metoprolol, the changes in time- and non-normalized frequency-domain measures of PRV continued to show strong correlations and moderate to high agreement with corresponding changes in HRV measures. Blockade-induced changes in nonlinear PRV indexes correlated poorly with HRV changes and showed weak agreement. These results suggest that time- and frequency-domain measures of PRV are acceptable surrogates for HRV even in the context of changing cardiac autonomic tone, but caution should be used when nonlinear measures are a primary end point or when HRV is very low as HRV-independent rhythms may predominate. PMID:24791786

  2. Linear and nonlinear heart-rate analysis in a rat model of acute anoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was the assessment of heart-rate (HR) dynamics with linear and nonlinear methods during episodes of mechanical ventilation and acute anoxia in rats. Namely, to assess whether linear and nonlinear HR analysis was able to discriminate acute anoxia from baseline in rats and if this was consistent with human foetal and adult studies. Five HR segments of 1 min duration, during baseline recording, mechanical ventilation and first, second and third minutes of induced acute anoxia, were analysed in ten adult Wistar rats. Linear time and frequency domain and nonlinear methods were used, namely mean HR (mHR), long-term irregularity (LTI), interval index (II), low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF), approximate entropy (ApEn) and sample entropy (SampEn). New parameters for the entropy indices are proposed for the analysis of rats' HR. Bootstrap percentile confidence intervals and nonparametric statistical tests were used in the evaluation of the differences between segments. During mechanical ventilation a clear spectral band was detectable at the ventilation rate, but mHR, II and the 'new' entropy indices were the only significantly changed indices. In the transition from baseline–mechanical-ventilation to mechanical-ventilation–induced anoxia, a statistically significant decrease of mHR, II and entropy indices was observed, clearly discriminating these two instances, whereas most linear indices increased. With continued anoxia, most linear indices decreased significantly, whereas entropy remained stably low. These results are consistent with other foetal human and non-human studies and evidence that the rat model may be used for further research on linear and nonlinear analysis of heart-rate dynamics. The transition from baseline to acute anoxia was encompassed by signs of increased activation of the autonomic nervous system sympathetic branch, and decreased or blunted activity of the HR complexity regulatory centres

  3. Repeatability of heart rate variability in congenital hypothyroidism as analysed by detrended fluctuation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of heart rate fluctuations, or heart rate variability (HRV), may be applied to explore children's neurodevelopment. However, previous studies have reported poor reliability (repeatability) of HRV measures in children at rest and during light exercise. Whether the reliability can be improved by controlling variables such as physical activity, breathing rate and tidal volume, or by selecting non-conventional techniques for analysing the data remains as an open question. We evaluated the short-term repeatability of RR-interval data from medicated children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH). The α1 exponents, obtained by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), from the data of 21 children collected at two different sessions were compared. Elapsed days between sessions were 59 ± 33, and data were obtained during 10 min, trying to restrict the children's activity while being seated. We found statistical agreement between the means of α1 exponents for each session (p = 0.94) and no bias with a low-coefficient variation (9.1%); an intraclass correlation coefficient ri = 0.48 ([0.14 0.72], 95% confidence interval) was also estimated. These findings, which were compared with results obtained by conventional time and frequency techniques, indicate the existence of agreement between the α1 exponents obtained at each session, thereby providing support concerning the repeatability of HRV data as analysed by DFA in children with congenital hypothyroidism. Of particular interest was also the agreement found by using the central frequency of the high-frequency band and the parameter pNN20, both showing better or similar ri than α1 (0.77 [0.57 0.89] and 0.51 [0.17 0.74], respectively), yet considerably better repeatability than other conventional time and frequency parameters

  4. Repeatability of heart rate variability in congenital hypothyroidism as analysed by detrended fluctuation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, J C; Solís, L I; Pérez, J E; Gaitán, M J; Rivera, I R; Mandujano, M; Sánchez, M C; González-Camarena, R

    2009-10-01

    The analysis of heart rate fluctuations, or heart rate variability (HRV), may be applied to explore children's neurodevelopment. However, previous studies have reported poor reliability (repeatability) of HRV measures in children at rest and during light exercise. Whether the reliability can be improved by controlling variables such as physical activity, breathing rate and tidal volume, or by selecting non-conventional techniques for analysing the data remains as an open question. We evaluated the short-term repeatability of RR-interval data from medicated children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH). The alpha(1) exponents, obtained by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), from the data of 21 children collected at two different sessions were compared. Elapsed days between sessions were 59 +/- 33, and data were obtained during 10 min, trying to restrict the children's activity while being seated. We found statistical agreement between the means of alpha(1) exponents for each session (p = 0.94) and no bias with a low-coefficient variation (9.1%); an intraclass correlation coefficient ri = 0.48 ([0.14 0.72], 95% confidence interval) was also estimated. These findings, which were compared with results obtained by conventional time and frequency techniques, indicate the existence of agreement between the alpha(1) exponents obtained at each session, thereby providing support concerning the repeatability of HRV data as analysed by DFA in children with congenital hypothyroidism. Of particular interest was also the agreement found by using the central frequency of the high-frequency band and the parameter pNN20, both showing better or similar ri than alpha(1) (0.77 [0.57 0.89] and 0.51 [0.17 0.74], respectively), yet considerably better repeatability than other conventional time and frequency parameters.

  5. Time-variant power spectral analysis of heart-rate time series by autoregressive moving average (ARMA) method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V P S Naidu; M R S Reddy

    2003-12-01

    Frequency domain representation of a short-term heart-rate time series (HRTS) signal is a popular method for evaluating the cardiovascular control system. The spectral parameters, viz. percentage power in low frequency band (%PLF), percentage power in high frequency band (%PHF), power ratio of low frequency to high frequency (PRLH), peak power ratio of low frequency to high frequency (PPRLH) and total power (TP) are extrapolated from the averaged power spectrum of twenty-five healthy subjects, and 16 acute anterior-wall and nine acute inferior-wall myocardial infarction (MI) patients. It is observed that parasympathetic activity predominates in healthy subjects. From this observation we conclude that during acute myocardial infarction, the anterior wall MI has stimulated sympathetic activity, while the acute inferior wall MI has stimulated parasympathetic activity. Results obtained from ARMA-based analysis of heart-rate time series signals are capable of complementing the clinical examination results.

  6. Effects of hot-iron branding on heart rate, breathing rate and behaviour of anaesthetised Steller sea lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, K A; Mellish, J E; Weary, D M

    2011-10-01

    This study assessed the heart rate, breathing rate and behavioural responses of 12 juvenile Steller sea lions during hot-iron branding under isoflurane anaesthesia. Physiological and behavioural measures were recorded in four periods: baseline (five minutes), sham branding (one minute), branding (approximately 2.7 minutes) and postbranding (five minutes). No difference in heart rate was noted from baseline to sham branding, but heart rate increased from mean (sem) 78.3 (2.4) bpm in the baseline period to 85.6 (2.5) bpm in the branding period. Heart rate remained elevated in the postbranding period, averaging 84.7 (2.5) bpm. Breathing rate averaged 2.5 (1.0) breaths/minute in the baseline and sham branding periods increased to 8.9 (1.0) breaths/minute during branding, but returned to baseline by the postbranding period. Behaviourally, half of the sea lions exhibited trembling and head and shoulder movements during branding.

  7. The effect of programmed exercise on body compositions and heart rate of 11-13 years-old male students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Dashti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different forms of physical activities can play a very important role in improving health and physical fitness. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the programmed exercise on students’ body compositions and heart rate at rest.Materials and Method: Two groups each consisting of 15students, aged averagely 12.6 years were the subjects of this experimental study. The experimental group in each session took part in an exercise program consisting of 20 minutes of aerobic activity (running, 10 minutes of aerobic exercise, 30 minutes of local training and 5 minutes of free exercise. The experiment last for 24 sessions. Control group didn’t do any special practice. In both groups, weight, fat mass, fat percentage, lean body mass and heart rate were measured during rest period before and after the experiment. Results: Results showed that the fat percentage, weight, fat mass and heart rate had decreased after 8 weeks of programmed exercise in the experimental group unlike the control group. However, no significant difference was observed in lean body mass.Conclusion: The exercise program used in this study may help loosing weight and make the heart stronger

  8. Heart rate changes during partial seizures: A study amongst Singaporean patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Shih-Hui

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Studies in Europe and America showed that tachycardia, less often bradycardia, frequently accompanied partial seizures in Caucasian patients. We determine frequency, magnitude and type of ictal heart rate changes during partial seizures in non-Caucasian patients in Singapore. Methods Partial seizures recorded during routine EEGs performed in a tertiary hospital between 1995 and 1999 were retrospectively reviewed. All routine EEGs had simultaneous ECG recording. Heart rate before and during seizures was determined and correlated with epileptogenic focus. Differences in heart rate before and during seizures were grouped into 4 types: (1 >10% decrease; (2 -10 to +20% change; (3 20–50% increase; (3 >50% increase. Results Of the total of 37 partial seizures, 18 were left hemisphere (LH, 13 were right hemisphere (RH and 6 were bilateral (BL in onset. 51% of all seizures showed no significant change in heart rate (type 2, 22% had moderate sinus tachycardia (type 3, 11% showed severe sinus tachycardia (type 4, while 16% had sinus bradycardia (type 1. Asystole was recorded in one seizure. Apart from having more tachycardia in bilateral onset seizures, there was no correlation between side of ictal discharge and heart rate response. Compared to Caucasian patients, sinus tachycardia was considerably less frequent. Frequency of bradycardia was similar to those recorded in the literature. Conclusions Significant heart rate changes during partial seizures were seen in half of Singaporean patients. Although sinus tachycardia was the most common heart rate change, the frequency was considerably lower compared to Caucasian patients. This might be due to methodological and ethnic differences. Rates of bradycardia are similar to those recorded in the literature.

  9. Entrainment of chaotic activities in brain and heart during MBSR mindfulness training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Fan, Jicong; Wu, Bonnie Wai Yan; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chang, Chunqi; Hung, Yeung-Sam; Fung, Peter Chin Wan; Sik, Hin Hung

    2016-03-11

    The activities of the brain and the heart are dynamic, chaotic, and possibly intrinsically coordinated. This study aims to investigate the effect of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program on the chaoticity of electronic activities of the brain and the heart, and to explore their potential correlation. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded at the beginning of an 8-week standard MBSR training course and after the course. EEG spectrum analysis was carried out, wavelet entropies (WE) of EEG (together with reconstructed cortical sources) and heart rate were calculated, and their correlation was investigated. We found enhancement of EEG power of alpha and beta waves and lowering of delta waves power during MBSR training state as compared to normal resting state. Wavelet entropy analysis indicated that MBSR mindfulness meditation could reduce the chaotic activities of both EEG and heart rate as a change of state. However, longitudinal change of trait may need more long-term training. For the first time, our data demonstrated that the chaotic activities of the brain and the heart became more coordinated during MBSR training, suggesting that mindfulness training may increase the entrainment between mind and body. The 3D brain regions involved in the change in mental states were identified. PMID:26784361

  10. Entrainment of chaotic activities in brain and heart during MBSR mindfulness training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Fan, Jicong; Wu, Bonnie Wai Yan; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chang, Chunqi; Hung, Yeung-Sam; Fung, Peter Chin Wan; Sik, Hin Hung

    2016-03-11

    The activities of the brain and the heart are dynamic, chaotic, and possibly intrinsically coordinated. This study aims to investigate the effect of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program on the chaoticity of electronic activities of the brain and the heart, and to explore their potential correlation. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded at the beginning of an 8-week standard MBSR training course and after the course. EEG spectrum analysis was carried out, wavelet entropies (WE) of EEG (together with reconstructed cortical sources) and heart rate were calculated, and their correlation was investigated. We found enhancement of EEG power of alpha and beta waves and lowering of delta waves power during MBSR training state as compared to normal resting state. Wavelet entropy analysis indicated that MBSR mindfulness meditation could reduce the chaotic activities of both EEG and heart rate as a change of state. However, longitudinal change of trait may need more long-term training. For the first time, our data demonstrated that the chaotic activities of the brain and the heart became more coordinated during MBSR training, suggesting that mindfulness training may increase the entrainment between mind and body. The 3D brain regions involved in the change in mental states were identified.

  11. Remote sensing of heart rate using millimeter-wave interferometry and probabilistic interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhelson, Ilya V.; Bakhtiari, Sasan; Elmer, Thomas W.; Liao, Shaolin; Sahakian, Alan V.

    2013-05-01

    Using a 94-GHz homodyne interferometer employing a highly-directional quasi-optical lens antenna aimed at a human subject's chest, we can measure chest wall displacement from up to 10m away and through common clothing. Within the chest displacement signal are motions due to cardiac activity, respiration, and gross body movement. Our goal is to find the heart rate of the subject being monitored, which implies isolation of the minute movements due to cardiac activity from the much larger movements due to respiration and body movement. To accomplish this, we first find a subset of the true heartbeat temporal locations (called confident" heartbeats) in the displacement signal using a multi-resolution wavelet approach, utilizing Symlet wavelets. Although the chest displacement due to cardiac activity is orders of magnitude smaller than that due to respiration and body movement, wavelets find those heartbeat locations due to several useful properties, such as shape matching, high-pass filtering, and vanishing moments. Using the assumption that the confident" heartbeats are randomly selected from the set of all heartbeats, we are able to find the maximum a posteriori statistics of an inverse Gaussian probability distribution modeling the inter-heartbeat times. We then analyze the confident" heartbeats and decide which heartbeats are probabilistically correct and which are not, based on the inverse Gaussian distribution we calculated earlier. The union of the confident" set, after pruning, and the interpolated set forms a very close approximation to the true heartbeat temporal location set, and thus allows us to accurately calculate a heart rate.

  12. Testosterone Deficiency Increases Hospital Readmission and Mortality Rates in Male Patients with Heart Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcelo Rodrigues dos; Sayegh, Ana Luiza Carrari; Groehs, Raphaela Vilar Ramalho; Fonseca, Guilherme [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Trombetta, Ivani Credidio [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE) (Brazil); Barretto, Antônio Carlos Pereira [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Arap, Marco Antônio [Faculdade de medicina da Universidade de São Paulo - Urologia (Brazil); Negrão, Carlos Eduardo [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Escola de Educação Física e Esporte da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Middlekauff, Holly R. [Division of Cardiology - David Geffen School of Medicine - University of California (United States); Alves, Maria-Janieire de Nazaré Nunes, E-mail: janieire.alves@incor.usp.br [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Testosterone deficiency in patients with heart failure (HF) is associated with decreased exercise capacity and mortality; however, its impact on hospital readmission rate is uncertain. Furthermore, the relationship between testosterone deficiency and sympathetic activation is unknown. We investigated the role of testosterone level on hospital readmission and mortality rates as well as sympathetic nerve activity in patients with HF. Total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) were measured in 110 hospitalized male patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% and New York Heart Association classification IV. The patients were placed into low testosterone (LT; n = 66) and normal testosterone (NT; n = 44) groups. Hypogonadism was defined as TT < 300 ng/dL and FT < 131 pmol/L. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded by microneurography in a subpopulation of 27 patients. Length of hospital stay was longer in the LT group compared to in the NT group (37 ± 4 vs. 25 ± 4 days; p = 0.008). Similarly, the cumulative hazard of readmission within 1 year was greater in the LT group compared to in the NT group (44% vs. 22%, p = 0.001). In the single-predictor analysis, TT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58–4.85; p = 0.02) predicted hospital readmission within 90 days. In addition, TT (HR, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.67–8.10; p = 0.009) and readmission within 90 days (HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.23–8.69; p = 0.02) predicted increased mortality. Neurohumoral activation, as estimated by MSNA, was significantly higher in the LT group compared to in the NT group (65 ± 3 vs. 51 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats; p < 0.001). These results support the concept that LT is an independent risk factor for hospital readmission within 90 days and increased mortality in patients with HF. Furthermore, increased MSNA was observed in patients with LT.

  13. Testosterone Deficiency Increases Hospital Readmission and Mortality Rates in Male Patients with Heart Failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testosterone deficiency in patients with heart failure (HF) is associated with decreased exercise capacity and mortality; however, its impact on hospital readmission rate is uncertain. Furthermore, the relationship between testosterone deficiency and sympathetic activation is unknown. We investigated the role of testosterone level on hospital readmission and mortality rates as well as sympathetic nerve activity in patients with HF. Total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) were measured in 110 hospitalized male patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% and New York Heart Association classification IV. The patients were placed into low testosterone (LT; n = 66) and normal testosterone (NT; n = 44) groups. Hypogonadism was defined as TT < 300 ng/dL and FT < 131 pmol/L. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded by microneurography in a subpopulation of 27 patients. Length of hospital stay was longer in the LT group compared to in the NT group (37 ± 4 vs. 25 ± 4 days; p = 0.008). Similarly, the cumulative hazard of readmission within 1 year was greater in the LT group compared to in the NT group (44% vs. 22%, p = 0.001). In the single-predictor analysis, TT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58–4.85; p = 0.02) predicted hospital readmission within 90 days. In addition, TT (HR, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.67–8.10; p = 0.009) and readmission within 90 days (HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.23–8.69; p = 0.02) predicted increased mortality. Neurohumoral activation, as estimated by MSNA, was significantly higher in the LT group compared to in the NT group (65 ± 3 vs. 51 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats; p < 0.001). These results support the concept that LT is an independent risk factor for hospital readmission within 90 days and increased mortality in patients with HF. Furthermore, increased MSNA was observed in patients with LT

  14. Time-variant modelling of heart rate responses to exercise intensity during road cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefever, Joris; Berckmans, Daniel; Aerts, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if heart rate responses to training intensity during road cycling could be modelled with compact time-variant mathematical model structures. The model performance was evaluated in terms of model order (complexity), number of inputs and parameter estimation methods used (time-invariant vs. time-variant). Thirteen male cyclists performed two identical cycling tests of 27 km on the road. Uphill sections were introduced to induce dynamic variations in heart rate. The heart rate and training intensity, represented by power output and road inclination, were measured in real-time. Taking only power as system input allowed to explain the variations in heart rate in an accurate way R2 T = 0.86 ± 0.08, since adding the road inclination as an additional input did not significantly improve the modelling performance R2 T = 0.87 ± 0.08, P = 0.32. Furthermore, we demonstrated that models with first-order dynamics accurately describes the heart rate responses to power variations R2 T = 0.86 ± 0.08, but that more complex second-order model structures R2 T = 0.88 ± 0.08 were significantly better than the first-order model structures (P = 0.028). Finally, the heart rate dynamics appeared to be time-variant, since the time-variant model structures R2 T = 0.89 ± 0.07 were significantly better than the time-invariant model structures R2 T = 0.84 ± 0.08, P = 0.0002. So, compact time-variant second-order model structures could be used to model the heart rate response to training intensity as a basis for training optimisation.

  15. Heart Rate Variability and Hemodynamic Change in the Superior Mesenteric Artery by Acupuncture Stimulation of Lower Limb Points: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Soichiro Kaneko; Masashi Watanabe; Shin Takayama; Takehiro Numata; Takashi Seki; Junichi Tanaka; Seiki Kanemura; Yutaka Kagaya; Tadashi Ishii; Yoshitaka Kimura; Nobuo Yaegashi

    2013-01-01

    Objective. We investigated the relationship between superior mesenteric artery blood flow volume (SMA BFV) and autonomic nerve activity in acupuncture stimulation of lower limb points through heart rate variability (HRV) evaluations. Methods. Twenty-six healthy volunteers underwent crossover applications of bilateral manual acupuncture stimulation at ST36 or LR3 or no stimulation. Heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance index, SMA BFV, and HRV at rest and 30 mi...

  16. The Telltale Heartbeat: Heart-Rate Monitors are Taking New Shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifantini, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The pulse rate has long been considered a basic and essential window on a person?s general physical condition. A racing heart could mean a person is at risk for a heart attack or, conversely, simply stressed, excited, or exercising. An erratic heartbeat could be a sign of a thyroid condition or, rather, just an indication that a person has indulged in one too many cups of coffee that morning. A slow pulse, on the other hand, could be a sign of a serious electrical problem within the organ or suggest, to the contrary, that a heart is as strong as an ox. PMID:26799726

  17. Development of Heart Rate Variaty in the Early and Rehabilitation Phase of AMI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Tanhbalouti; Feng Jianzhang; Feng Xiuhua

    2000-01-01

    Heart rate variaty (HRV) of 85 cases with AMI was observed in the early phase after onset and rehabilitation phase at first month and sixth month, and was contrasted with six time threshold indices of 111 cases with coronary heart disease and that of 35 normal control. We found the HRV of AMI was apperantly lower in the acute phase than that of coronary heart disease and normal controls. HRV recovered gradually with inclining to be stable after half a year, but it was still lower than that of controls. Low HRV in early phase of AMI suggested the poor prognosis.

  18. What does the correlation dimension of the human heart rate measure?

    CERN Document Server

    Sakki, M; Vainu, M; Laan, M

    2001-01-01

    It is shown that for the heart rate variability, finite values of the correlation dimension D (calculated by the Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm) cannot be considered as an evidence for a deterministic chaos inside the heart. Finiteness of D is explained by finite resolving power of the recording apparatus. The correlation dimension depends both on the short-time variability of the heart rhythm, and on the resolving power of the electrocardiogram. In principle, it can be used as a certain measure of short-time variability of the signal, but its diagnostic value on test groups was negligible.

  19. Classification tree for risk assessment in patients suffering from congestive heart failure via long-term heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Paolo; De Luca, Nicola; Bracale, Marcello; Pecchia, Leandro

    2013-05-01

    This study aims to develop an automatic classifier for risk assessment in patients suffering from congestive heart failure (CHF). The proposed classifier separates lower risk patients from higher risk ones, using standard long-term heart rate variability (HRV) measures. Patients are labeled as lower or higher risk according to the New York Heart Association classification (NYHA). A retrospective analysis on two public Holter databases was performed, analyzing the data of 12 patients suffering from mild CHF (NYHA I and II), labeled as lower risk, and 32 suffering from severe CHF (NYHA III and IV), labeled as higher risk. Only patients with a fraction of total heartbeats intervals (RR) classified as normal-to-normal (NN) intervals (NN/RR) higher than 80% were selected as eligible in order to have a satisfactory signal quality. Classification and regression tree (CART) was employed to develop the classifiers. A total of 30 higher risk and 11 lower risk patients were included in the analysis. The proposed classification trees achieved a sensitivity and a specificity rate of 93.3% and 63.6%, respectively, in identifying higher risk patients. Finally, the rules obtained by CART are comprehensible and consistent with the consensus showed by previous studies that depressed HRV is a useful tool for risk assessment in patients suffering from CHF. PMID:24592473

  20. Heart Rate Responses of High School Students Participating in Surfing Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Michelle M; Cummins, Kevin M; Nessler, Jeff A; Newcomer, Sean C

    2016-06-01

    Bravo, MM, Cummins, KM, Nessler, JA, and Newcomer, SC. Heart rate responses of high school students participating in surfing physical education. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1721-1726, 2016-Despite the nation's rising epidemic of childhood obesity and diabetes, schools struggle to promote physical activities that help reduce risks for cardiovascular disease. Emerging data suggest that adopting novel activities into physical education (PE) curriculum may serve as an effective strategy for increasing physical activity in children. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize activity in the water and heart rates (HRs) of high school students participating in surf PE courses. Twenty-four male (n = 20) and female (n = 4) high school students (mean age = 16.7 ± 1.0 years) who were enrolled in surf PE courses at 2 high schools participated in this investigation. Daily measurements of surfing durations, average HR, and maximum HR were made on the students with HR monitors (PolarFT1) over an 8-week period. In addition, HR and activity in the water was evaluated during a single session in a subset of students (n = 11) using a HR monitor (PolarRCX5) and a video camera (Canon HD). Activity and HR were synchronized and evaluated in 5-second intervals during data analyses. The average duration that PE students participated in surfing during class was 61.7 ± 1.0 minutes. Stationary, paddling, wave riding, and miscellaneous activities comprised 42.7 ± 9.5, 36.7 ± 7.9, 2.9 ± 1.4, and 17.8 ± 11.4 percent of the surf session, respectively. The average and maximum HRs during these activities were 131.1 ± 0.9 and 177.2 ± 1.0 b·min, respectively. These data suggest that high school students participating in surf PE attained HRs and durations that are consistent with recommendations with cardiovascular fitness and health. In the future, PE programs should consider incorporating other action sports into their curriculum to enhance cardiovascular health. PMID:26562714