Sample records for activity disease characteristics

  1. Women, men, and rheumatoid arthritis: analyses of disease activity, disease characteristics, and treatments in the QUEST-RA study

    Sokka, Tuulikki; Toloza, Sergio; Cutolo, Maurizio


    different therapies. CONCLUSIONS : In this large multinational cohort, RA disease activity measures appear to be worse in women than in men. However, most of the gender differences in RA disease activity may originate from the measures of disease activity rather than from RA disease activity itself....... remission. Therefore, we aimed to study possible associations of gender and disease activity, disease characteristics, and treatments of RA in a large multinational cross-sectional cohort of patients with RA called Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with RA (QUEST-RA). METHODS : The cohort...... includes clinical and questionnaire data from patients who were seen in usual care, including 6,004 patients at 70 sites in 25 countries as of April 2008. Gender differences were analyzed for American College of Rheumatology Core Data Set measures of disease activity, DAS28 (disease activity score using 28...

  2. Danish cohort of monozygotic inflammatory bowel disease twins: Clinical characteristics and inflammatory activity

    Moller, Frederik Trier; Knudsen, Lina; Harbord, Marcus; Satsangi, Jack; Gordon, Hannah; Christiansen, Lene; Christensen, Kaare; Jess, Tine; Andersen, Vibeke


    AIM: To describe the establishment of a Danish inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) twin cohort with focus on concordance of treatment and inflammatory markers. METHODS: We identified MZ twins, likely to be discordant or concordant for IBD, by merging information from the Danish Twin Register and the National Patient Register. The twins were asked to provide biological samples, questionnaires, and data access to patient files and public registries. Biological samples were collected via a mobile laboratory, which allowed for immediate centrifugation, fractionation, and storage of samples. The mean time from collection of samples to storage in the -80 °C mobile freezer was less than one hour. The diagnoses where validated using the Copenhagen diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: We identified 159 MZ IBD twin pairs, in a total of 62 (39%) pairs both twins agreed to participate. Of the supposed 62 IBD pairs, the IBD diagnosis could be confirmed in 54 pairs. The cohort included 10 concordant pairs, whereof some were discordant for either treatment or surgery. The 10 concordant pairs, where both pairs suffered from IBD, included eight CD/CD pairs, one UC/UC pair and one UC/IBDU pair. The discordant pairs comprised 31 UC, 5 IBDU (IBD unclassified), and 8 CD discordant pairs. In the co-twins not affected by IBD, calprotectin was above 100 μg/g in 2 participants, and above 50 μg/g in a further 5 participants. CONCLUSION: The presented IBD twin cohorts are an excellent resource for bioinformatics studies with proper adjustment for disease-associated exposures including medication and inflammatory activity in the co-twins. PMID:27275097

  3. Characteristics and outcomes of end-stage renal disease patients with active tuberculosis followed in intensive care units

    Ulasli Sevinc


    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a common problem in patients with chronic renal failure. In intensive care units, misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis of TB is common. Therefore, a description of characteristics of active TB in patients with renal failure followed in intensive care units is important to reduce mortality and transmission of the disease. This study was performed to describe the characteristics of patients with renal failure admitted to the intensive care units and having active TB and evaluate predictive factors for in hospital mortality. The hospital records of 24 patients (11 women, 13 men having ESRD and TB between 2001-2006 were reviewed. Clinical, radiological, and laboratory data on admission were recorded. Possible parameters contributing to in-hospital mortality were obtained from the medical records. In-hospital mortality rate was 66.6%. Factors associated with mortality were decreased partial pressure of oxygen and malnutrition. Fever was reported in 8 patients and hemoptysis was reported in 3 patients. Eight patients had consolidation on chest radiograph, while 4 had normal findings Seventeen patients had pulmonary involvement, and 11 had extra pulmonary involvement. The mortality rate in TB patients followed in intensive care units is high, with 3 factors contributing to in-hospital mortality. Clinicians should consider active TB in renal failure patients being followed in the intensive care unit, even when results of a chest radiograph are normal especially in patients with unexplained poor general health or respiratory failure.

  4. Clinical characteristics of caroli's disease

    Ozlem Yonem; Yusuf Bayraktar


    Caroli's disease is a rare congenital condition characterized by non-obstructive saccular or fusiform dilatation of larger intrahepatic bile ducts. Cholangitis,liver cirrhosis, and cholangiocarcinoma are its potential complications. The diagnosis of Caroli's disease depends on demonstrating that the cystic lesions are in continuity with the biliary tree which can be showed by ultrasonography, computerized tomography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. Treatment of Caroli's disease relies on the location of the biliary abnormalities. While localized forms confined to one lobe can be treated with surgery, liver transplantation is the only effective modality for diffuse forms. Although a rare disorder;Caroli's disease should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic cholestasis of unknown cause.

  5. Importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity and exercise in the management of cardiovascular health in individuals with cardiovascular disease (Part III)

    Vanhees, L; Rauch, B; Piepoli, M


    Association on Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation are formulated regarding frequency, intensity, time and type of PA, and safety aspects during exercise inpatients with cardiovascular disease. This paper is the third in a series of three papers, all devoted to the same theme: the importance...... of the exercise characteristics in the management of cardiovascular health. Part I is directed to the general population and Part II to individuals with cardiovascular risk factors. In general, PA recommendations and exercise training programmes for patients with coronary artery disease or chronic heart failure...... on type, dosage, and intensity of exercise in some other cardiovascular diseases, such as congenital heart disease, valve disease, cardiomyopathies, channelopathies, and patients with implanted devices....

  6. Predicting Endoscopic Disease Activity in Crohn's Disease : A New and Validated Noninvasive Disease Activity Index (The Utrecht Activity Index)

    Minderhoud, Itta M.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; van Bodegraven, Ad A.; van der Woude, C. Janneke; Hommes, Daniel W.; Dijkstra, Gerard; Fidder, Herma H.; Schwartz, Matthijs P.; Oldenburg, Bas


    Background:Mucosal healing is presently considered one of the primary goals in treatment of Crohn's disease (CD), but this can only be confirmed by endoscopy. We aimed to design and validate a new disease activity index based on a combination of clinical characteristics and readily available laborat

  7. Molecular characteristics versus biological activity

    Applegate, Vernon C.; Smith, Manning A.; Willeford, Bennett R.


    The molecular characteristics of mononitrophenols containing halogens not only play a key role in their biological activity but provide a novel example of selective toxicity among vertebrate animals. It has been reported that efforts to control the parasitic sea lamprey in the Great Lakes are directed at present to the applications of a selective toxicant to streams inhabited by lamprey larvae. Since 1961, the larvicide that has been used almost exclusively in the control program has been 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM). However, this is only one of about 15 closely related compounds, all halogen-containing mononitrophenols, that display a selectively toxic action upon lampreys. Although not all of the halogenated mononitrophenols are selectively toxic to lampreys (in fact, fewer than half of those tested), no other group of related compounds has displayed any useful larvicidal activity except for the substituted nitrosalicylanilides.

  8. Unusual imaging characteristics of complicated hydatid disease

    Turgut, Ahmet Tuncay [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail:; Altin, Levent [Department of Radiology, Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Topcu, Salih [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli University, Izmit (Turkey); Kilicoglu, Buelent [Department of 4th General Surgery, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Altinok, Tamer [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Kaptanoglu, Erkan [Department of Neurosurgery, Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Karademir, Alp [Department of Radiology, Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Kosar, Ugur [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)


    Hydatid disease, a worldwide zoonosis, is caused by the larval stage of the Echinococcus tapeworm. Although the liver and the lungs are the most frequently involved organs in the body, hydatid cysts of other organs are unusual. Radiologically, they usually demonstrate typical imaging findings, but unusual imaging characteristics of complicated cyst of hydatid disease, associated with high morbidity and mortality, are rarely described in the literature. The purpose of this study is to review the general features of hydatidosis and to discuss atypical imaging characteristics of the complicated hydatid disease in the human, with an emphasis on structure and rupture of the cystic lesion as well as ultrasonography (USG), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the disease. In our study, the available literature and images of the cases with complicated hydatidosis involving liver, lung, brain, spine and orbit were reviewed retrospectively. In hydatid disease, there are many potential local and systemic complications due to secondary involvement in almost any anatomic location in humans. Radiologically, in addition to the presence of atypical findings such as perifocal edema, non-homogenous contrast enhancement, multiplicity or septations and calcification, various unusual manifestations due to rupture or infection of the cyst have been observed in our cases with complicated hydatid disease. To prevent subsequent acute catastrophic results and the development of recurrences in various organs, it should be kept in mind that complicated hydatid cysts can cause unusual USG, CT, and MRI findings, in addition to typical ones, in endemic areas. Therefore, familiarity with atypical radiological appearances of complicated hydatid disease may be valuable in making a correct diagnosis and treatment.

  9. [Epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease].

    Li, Jiandong; Li, Dexin


    Zika virus disease is an emerging mosquito-borne acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus, so far there have been no available vaccine or specific treatment. Currently, the outbreaks of Zika virus disease mainly occurs in the Americas, but the regional distribution of the disease is in rapid expansion, 34 countries and territories have reported autochthonous transmission of the virus. The illness is usually mild with very rarely death, but increased reports of birth defects and neurologic disorders in the areas affected by Zika virus has caused extensive concern worldwide. In China, the competent vectors for Zika virus are widely distributed, imported viraemic cases may become a source of local transmission of the virus. However, Zika virus disease is preventable, the spread of virus could be stopped when the effective prevention measures are taken. This paper summarizes the retrieval results from Medline database and the information from the reports of the governments of countries affected or health organizations about the epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease.

  10. Functional capacity of Brazilian patients with Parkinson's disease (PD): relationship between clinical characteristics and disease severity.

    Barbieri, Fabio A; Rinaldi, Natalia M; Santos, Paulo Cezar R; Lirani-Silva, Ellen; Vitório, Rodrigo; Teixeira-Arroyo, Cláudia; Stella, Florindo; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa B


    The present study had three objectives: (a) to characterize the functional capacity of patients with PD, (b) to assess the relationship between the physical fitness components of functional capacity with clinical characteristics and disease severity, and (c) to compare the physical fitness components of functional capacity with clinical characteristics according to disease severity. The study included 54 patients with idiopathic PD who were distributed into two groups according to PD severity: unilateral group (n=35); and bilateral group (n=19). All patients underwent psychiatric assessment by means of the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) staging of PD, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A and HADS-D, respectively), and The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The physical fitness components of functional capacity were evaluated over a 2-day period, using recommendations by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple regressions were calculated to test the correlation between functional capacity and clinical characteristics, and to predict clinical scores from physical performance, respectively. Clinical variables and physical component data were compared between groups using analysis of variance to determine the effects of disease severity. Patients with advanced disease showed low levels of functional capacity. Interestingly, patients with good functional capacity in one of the physical fitness components also showed good capacities in the other components. Disease severity is a major factor affecting functional capacity and clinical characteristics. Medical providers should take disease severity into consideration when prescribing physical activity for PD patients, since the relationship between functional capacity and clinical characteristics is dependent on disease severity.

  11. Gender differences in Parkinson's disease: clinical characteristics and cognition.

    Miller, Ivy N; Cronin-Golomb, Alice


    More men than women are diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD), and a number of gender differences have been documented in this disorder. Examples of clinical characteristics that appear in men more often than women include rigidity and rapid eye movement behavior disorder, whereas more women than men exhibit dyskinesias and depression. Differences between men and women in cognition have not been extensively examined, though there are reports of deficits in men in aspects of cognition that contribute to activities of daily living, in verbal fluency, and in the recognition of facial emotion, and deficits in women in visuospatial cognition. Side of disease onset may interact with gender to affect cognitive abilities. One possible source of male-female differences in the clinical and cognitive characteristics of PD is the effect of estrogen on dopaminergic neurons and pathways in the brain. This effect is not yet understood, as insight into how the fluctuation of estrogen over the lifetime affects the brain is currently limited. Further attention to this area of research will be important for accurate assessment and better management of PD. Attention should also be directed to multiple covariates that may affect clinical characteristics and cognition. Knowledge about differences in the presentation of PD symptoms in men and women and about the pathophysiology underlying those differences may enhance the accuracy and effectiveness of clinical assessment and treatment of the disease.

  12. Schoolyard Characteristics, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior

    Van Kann, Dave H H; de Vries, Sanne I; Schipperijn, Jasper


    BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is decreasing among children, while sedentary behavior (SB) is increasing. Schoolyards seem suitable settings to influence children's PA behavior. This study investigated the associations between schoolyard characteristics and moderate-to-vigorous physical...

  13. Huntington's disease: clinical characteristics, pathogenesis and therapies.

    Nakamura, Ken; Aminoff, Michael J


    Huntington's disease is a devastating disorder with no known cure. The disease results from an expanded sequence of CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene and leads to a movement disorder with associated cognitive and systemic deficits. Huntington's disease is diagnosed by genetic testing and disease progression can be followed with a variety of imaging modalities. The accumulation of aggregated huntingtin with associated striatal degeneration is evident at autopsy. The pathophysiology of Huntington's disease remains unknown, although protein aggregation, excitotoxicity, deficits in energy metabolism, transcriptional dysregulation and apoptosis may all be involved. Current pharmacologic therapy for Huntington's disease is limited and exclusively symptomatic. However, the disease is being heavily researched, and a wide range of disease-modifying therapies is currently under development. The efficacy of these therapies is being evaluated in transgenic models of Huntington's disease and in preliminary clinical trials.

  14. The risk characteristics of solar and geomagnetic activity

    Podolska, Katerina


    The main aim of this contribution is a deeper analysis of the influence of solar activity which is expected to have an impact on human health, and therefore on mortality, in particular civilization and degenerative diseases. We have constructed the characteristics that represent the risk of solar and geomagnetic activity on human health on the basis of our previous analysis of association between the daily numbers of death on diseases of the nervous system and diseases of the circulatory system and solar and geomagnetic activity in the Czech Republic during the years 1994 - 2013. We used long period daily time series of numbers of deaths by cause, long period time series of solar activity indices (namely R and F10.7), geomagnetic indicies (Kp planetary index, Dst) and ionospheric parameters (foF2 and TEC). The ionospheric parameters were related to the geographic location of the Czech Republic and adjusted for middle geographic latitudes. The risk characteristics were composed by cluster analysis in time series according to the phases of the solar cycle resp. the seasonal insolation at mid-latitudes or the daily period according to the impact of solar and geomagnetic activity on mortality by cause of death from medical cause groups of death VI. Diseases of the nervous system and IX. Diseases of the circulatory system mortality by 10th Revision of International Classification of Diseases WHO (ICD-10).

  15. Characteristics of six otologic diseases involving vertigo.

    Kentala, E


    To characterize otologic causes for vertigo, data on 564 patients with the six most common diseases involving vertigo were retrieved from the database of a computer-aided diagnostic system for neurotologic diseases. The diseases were Meniere's disease, vestibular schwannoma, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, vestibular neuritis, sudden deafness, and traumatic vertigo. The prevalence of tinnitus in the study population was 76%. The most severe forms of vertigo and nausea were found in vestibular neuritis, whereas the most severe case of tinnitus appeared in Meniere's disease. Of the patients with vestibular schwannoma, 49% had had vertigo. A linear discrimination analysis using case history classified 90% of the patients into correct groups. The key questions discriminating between the diseases concerned the frequency and duration of vertigo attacks, the duration of hearing loss and vertigo, and the occurrence of head injury. Making a correct diagnosis during the first office visit can be difficult, especially for sudden deafness, vestibular schwannoma, and Meniere's disease. Neurotologic and audiometric information was of minor value in distinguishing between these six diseases. Vestibular schwannoma had significantly greater asymmetry in electronystagmography and smaller gains in smooth pursuit in comparison with the other disease. Factorial analysis did not aid the clustering of these diseases.

  16. Basic characteristics of active tectonics of China

    DENG; Qidong(邓起东); ZHANG; Peizhen(张培震); RAN; Yongkang(冉勇康); YANG; Xiaoping(杨晓平); MIN; Wei(闵伟); CHU; Quanzhi(楚全芝)


    During the last 20 years, studies on active tectonics in China have entered a new quantitative research stage and made a great progress. Summing up the quantitative results, a Map of Active Tectonics of China on the scale of 1︰4 million has been compiled. In the map all types of active tectonics and their kinematic parameters are reflected in possible detail, such as active faults, active folds, active basins, active blocks, volcanoes, and earthquakes. This paper summarizes the basic characteristics of active tectonics of China. The Himalaya Mountains and Taiwan Island are major plate boundaries where the slip rates are larger than 15 mm/a. Tectonic activity in the continental intraplate region is characterized by block motion. The crust and lithosphere in the region were dissected into blocks with different orders. Of them the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet), Xin- jiang, and North China block regions exhibit the most recent tectonic activity. The kinematic characteristics of more than 200 active tectonic zones indicate that the intraplate tectonic activity represents a block motion at a limited low rate. Horizontal slip rate along the tectonic boundary belts between the blocks is generally less than 10 mm/a, and 10-15 mm/a in maximum, and hence it does not support the continental escape theory of high rate of slip.


    Dr. Sheikh Sajjadieh Mohammad Reza


    Full Text Available Patients with advanced hepatic failure may present with the entire spectrum of coagulation factor deficiencies. This study was designed to determine laboratory abnormalities in coagulation in chronic liver disease and the association of these abnormalities with the extent of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Coagulation markers were assayed in 60 participants: 20 patients with chronic hepatitis, 20 patients with cirrhosis, and 20 healthy individuals (control. Plasma levels of anti-thrombin III were determined by a chromogenic substrate method, and plasma concentrations of fibrinogen were analyzed by the Rutberg method. Commercially available assays were used for laboratory coagulation tests. The levels of coagualation activity markers in patients with chronic liver disease were significantly different in comparison to those in healthy participants. These results indicate the utility of measuring markers for coagulation activity in determining which cirrhosis patients are more susceptible to disseminated intravascular coagulation.

  18. Regional characteristics, opportunity perception and entrepreneurial activities

    Stuetzer, Michael; Obschonka, Martin; Brixy, Udo


    This article seeks to better understand the link between regional characteristics and individual entrepreneurship. We combine individual-level Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data for Western Germany with regional-level data, using multilevel analysis to test our hypotheses. We find no direct lin...... creation, the economic context and an entrepreneurial culture have an effect on the individual perception of founding opportunities, which in turn predicted start-up intentions and activity. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York....... between regional knowledge creation, the economic context and an entrepreneurial culture on the one side and individual business start-up intentions and start-up activity on the other side. However, our findings point to the importance of an indirect effect of regional characteristics as knowledge...

  19. Intestinal permeability and its association with the patient and disease characteristics in Crohn's disease

    Jaya Benjamin; Govind K Makharia; Vineet Ahuja; Mani Kalaivani; Yogendra K Joshi


    AIM:To assess the intestinal permeability (IP) in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and study the association of IP with the patient and disease characteristics.METHODS:One hundred and twenty five consecutive patients of CD (Males:66) were diagnosed on the basis of a combination of standard clinical,endoscopic,imaging and histological features.CD activity index (CDAI) was used to calculate the activity of the disease while the behavior of the disease was assessed by the modified Montreal classification.IP was measured by the ratio of the percentage excretion of ingested doses of lactulose and mannitol in urine (LMR).The upper limit of normality of LMR (0.037) was derived from 22 healthy controls.RESULTS:Thirty six percent of patients with CD had increased IP.There was no significant difference in mannitol excretion (patients vs controls = 12.5% vs 14.2%,P = 0.4652),but lactulose excretion was significantly higher in patients compared to healthy controls (patients vs controls = 0.326% vs 0.293%,P = 0.0391).The mean LMR was also significantly higher in the patients as compared to healthy controls [0.027(0.0029-0.278) vs 0.0164 (0.0018-0.0548),P = 0.0044].Male patients had a higher LMR compared to females [0.036 (95% CI 0.029,0.046) vs 0.022 (95% CI 0.0178,0.028) (P = 0.0024),though there was no difference in the number of patients with abnormal IP in both the sexes.Patients with an ileo-colonic disease had a higher LMR than those with only colonic disease [0.045(95% CI 0.033,0.06) vs 0.021 (95% CI 0.017,0.025)(P<0.001)].Of patients with ileo-colonic disease,57.8% had an abnormal IP,compared to 26.7% with colonic and 15.6% with small intestinal disease.Patients with a stricturing disease had significantly higher LMR compared to non-fistulising non-stricturing disease [0.043(95% CI 0.032,0.058) vs 0.024 (95% CI 0.019,0.029)(P = 0.0062)].There was no correlation of IP with age,disease activity,duration of illness,D-xylose absorption,upper GI involvement

  20. Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: Student Awareness Activities.

    Meyer, James H., Comp.

    Awareness activities pertaining to cancer and cardiovascular disease are presented as a supplement for high school science classes. The exercises can be used to enrich units of study dealing with the circulatory system, the cell, or human diseases. Eight activities deal with the following topics: (1) cardiovascular disease risk factors; (2)…

  1. Gastric emptying and disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease

    Keller, Jutta; Binnewies, Ulrich; Rösch, Marie;


    BACKGROUND: Gastric emptying (GE) is delayed in a subset of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We have shown before that altered release of gastrointestinal hormones may contribute to GE disturbances, but overall effects of disease activity remain unclear. Thus, we aimed to evaluate GE...... in patients with IBD during active disease and following therapy. DESIGN: A total of 20 healthy subjects (HC) and 26 patients with IBD hospitalized because of an acute episode of their disease (Crohn's disease (CD) n = 13, ulcerative colitis (UC) n = 13) underwent a standardized (13) C-octanoic acid GE breath...


    Aristizabal, Jose Fernando


      It was considered that physical inactivity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease independent (1), for this reason today is given much importance to the activityPhysics for this concept becomes protective factor against coronary heart disease. In relation to physical activity and cardiovascular disease, applying the concept ofprimary cardiovascular prevention, authors like Paffenbarger, Morris, have stated that this is beneficial in terms of reducing risk of coronary heart disease (2-3...

  3. Electrocardiographic characteristics of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Warnier, Miriam J; Rutten, Frans H; Numans, Mattijs E;


    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Electrocardiography (ECG) carries information about cardiac disease and prognosis, but studies comparing ECG characteristics between patients with and without COPD are lacking. We related ECG...... the most common ECG abnormality in COPD patients (28%) being significantly more prevalent than in patients without COPD (11%, p heart rate was higher in COPD patients (72 bpm (SD 14)) compared to controls (65 bpm (SD 13), p ... the importance of an integrated-care approach for COPD patients, paying attention to early detection of unrecognized coexisting cardiac disorders....

  4. Common Diseases and Some Demographic Characteristics among Saudi Women

    Al-Haramlah, Ahmed Abdulrahman; Al-Bakr, Fawziah; Merza, Haniah


    This study aimed to detect the common diseases among Saudi women and their relationship with the level of physical activity and some variables. This study was applied to 1233 Saudi woman in different regions of the Kingdom, and adopted to explore the common diseases: obesity, hypertension, diabetes, cholesterol and asthma. The study results showed…

  5. Habitual physical activity in mitochondrial disease.

    Shehnaz Apabhai

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Mitochondrial disease is the most common neuromuscular disease and has a profound impact upon daily life, disease and longevity. Exercise therapy has been shown to improve mitochondrial function in patients with mitochondrial disease. However, no information exists about the level of habitual physical activity of people with mitochondrial disease and its relationship with clinical phenotype. METHODS: Habitual physical activity, genotype and clinical presentations were assessed in 100 patients with mitochondrial disease. Comparisons were made with a control group individually matched by age, gender and BMI. RESULTS: Patients with mitochondrial disease had significantly lower levels of physical activity in comparison to matched people without mitochondrial disease (steps/day; 6883±3944 vs. 9924±4088, p = 0.001. 78% of the mitochondrial disease cohort did not achieve 10,000 steps per day and 48% were classified as overweight or obese. Mitochondrial disease was associated with less breaks in sedentary activity (Sedentary to Active Transitions, % per day; 13±0.03 vs. 14±0.03, p = 0.001 and an increase in sedentary bout duration (bout lengths/fraction of total sedentary time; 0.206±0.044 vs. 0.187±0.026, p = 0.001. After adjusting for covariates, higher physical activity was moderately associated with lower clinical disease burden (steps/day; r(s = -0.49; 95% CI -0.33, -0.63, P<0.01. There were no systematic differences in physical activity between different genotypes mitochondrial disease. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate for the first time that low levels of physical activity are prominent in mitochondrial disease. Combined with a high prevalence of obesity, physical activity may constitute a significant and potentially modifiable risk factor in mitochondrial disease.

  6. Vitamin D Is a Good Marker for Disease Activity of Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease

    Firas Sultan Azzeh


    Full Text Available Aim. This study was conducted to find out the optimal vitamin D cutoff point in predicting activity of RA disease. Materials and Methods. One hundred and two rheumatoid arthritis Saudi patients of both genders were recruited in this study. Vitamin D as 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OHD] was measured and serum level less than 20 ng/mL defined as deficient patient. Disease activity was measured based on the disease activity score index of a 28-joint count (DAS28 using serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate levels. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were used to determine the optimal vitamin D cutoff points for identifying disease activity. Results. It has been observed that vitamin D levels were lower (P < 0.05 in patients with high disease activity. A significant inverse correlation between serum 25(OHD levels and DAS28 (r = −0.277, P = 0.014 was shown. ROC curves results showed that vitamin D less than 12.3 ng/mL predicted high disease activity, and vitamin D more than 17.9 ng/mL predicted low disease activity, with good sensitivity and accuracy results regarding vitamin D. Conclusion. Study results concluded that vitamin D is a good predictor of RA disease activity in Saudi patients.

  7. Prevalence of acute and chronic viral seropositivity and characteristics of disease in patients with psoriatic arthritis treated with cyclosporine: a post hoc analysis from a sex point of view on the observational study of infectious events in psoriasis complicated by active psoriatic arthritis

    Colombo, Delia; Chimenti, Sergio; Grossi, Paolo Antonio; Marchesoni, Antonio; Bardazzi, Federico; Ayala, Fabio; Simoni, Lucia; Vassellatti, Donatella; Bellia, Gilberto


    Background Sex medicine studies have shown that there are sex differences with regard to disease characteristics in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis, in immune response and susceptibility to viral infections. We performed a post hoc analysis of the Observational Study of infectious events in psoriasis complicated by active psoriatic arthritis (SYNERGY) study in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) treated with immunosuppressive regimens including cyclosporine, in order to evaluate potential between-sex differences in severity of disease and prevalence of viral infections. Methods SYNERGY was an observational study conducted in 24 Italian dermatology clinics, which included 238 consecutively enrolled patients with PsA, under treatment with immunosuppressant regimens including cyclosporin A. In this post hoc analysis, patients’ demographical data and clinical characteristics of psoriasis, severity and activity of PsA, prevalence of seropositivity for at least one viral infection, and treatments administered for PsA and infections were compared between sexes. Results A total of 225 patients were evaluated in this post hoc analysis, and 121 (54%) were males. Demographic characteristics and concomitant diseases were comparable between sexes. Statistically significant sex differences were observed at baseline in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score (higher in males), mean number of painful joints, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, and the global activity of disease assessed by patients (all higher in females). The percentage of patients with at least one seropositivity detected at baseline, indicative of concomitant or former viral infection, was significantly higher among women than among men. No between-sex differences were detected in other measures, at other time points, and in treatments. Patients developed no hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus reactivation during cyclosporine treatment. Conclusion Our post hoc

  8. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease: Clinical and laboratory characteristics and outcome

    P S Rakesh


    Full Text Available Introduction: Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is an uncommon disorder with worldwide distribution, characterized by fever and benign enlargement of the lymph nodes, primarily affecting young adults. Awareness about this disorder may help prevent misdiagnosis and inappropriate investigations and treatment. The objective of the study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory characteristics of histopathologically confirmed cases of Kikuchi′s disease from a tertiary care center in southern India. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of all adult patients with histopathologically confirmed Kikuchi′s disease from January 2007 to December 2011 in a 2700-bed teaching hospital in South India was done. The clinical and laboratory characteristics and outcome were analyzed. Results: There were 22 histopathologically confirmed cases of Kikuchi′s disease over the 5-year period of this study. The mean age of the subjects′ was 29.7 years (SD 8.11 and majority were women (Male: female- 1:3.4. Apart from enlarged cervical lymph nodes, prolonged fever was the most common presenting complaint (77.3%. The major laboratory features included anemia (54.5%, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (31.8%, elevated alanine aminotransferase (27.2% and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH (31.8%. Conclusion: Even though rare, Kikuchi′s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of young individuals, especially women, presenting with lymphadenopathy and prolonged fever. Establishing the diagnosis histopathologically is essential to avoid inappropriate investigations and therapy.


    Miller, Ivy N.; Cronin-Golomb, Alice


    More men than women are diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD), and a number of gender differences have been documented in this disorder. Examples of clinical characteristics that appear in men more often than women include rigidity and rapid eye movement behavior disorder, whereas more women than men exhibit dyskinesias and depression. Differences between men and women in cognition have not been extensively examined, though there are reports of deficits in men in aspects of cognition that c...

  10. Characteristics of Monoclonal Antibody Against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    LiYan-Fei; WangWei; 等


    Thirteen strains of monoclonal antibodies(McAbs) against infections bursal disease virus(IBDV) were obtained by using hydridoma technique and their characteristics were studied by double immunodiffusion,enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA),virus neutralization test(VNT) and Western-blotting assay (WBA).The result showed that nine of the thirteen McAbs belonged to IgG class and four of them belonged to IgM class.No crossreactions were detected betwween the McAbs and Newscastle disease virus (NDV),infectious bronchitis virus(IBV) and Marek's disease virus(MDV).All of McAbs were positively specific reactive with IBDV and five of them can neutralize viral infectivity.Their recognized epitopes of the neutralizing McAbs were all presented on VP2 of the IBDV.

  11. Characteristics of Monoclonal Antibody Against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus


    Thirteen strains of monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were obtained by using hybridoma technique and their characteristics were studied by double immunodiffusion,en- zyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), virus neutralization test (VNT) and Western- blotting assay (WBA). The result showed that nine of the thirteen McAbs belonged to IgG class and four of them belonged to IgM class. No crossreactions were detected betwween the McAbs and Newscastle disease virus (NDV) ,in- fectious bronchitis virus(IBV) and Marek's disease virus(MDV). All of McAbs were positively specific reac- tive with IBDV and five of them can neutralize viral infectivity. Their recognized epitopes of the neutralizing McAbs were all presented on VP2 of the IBDV.

  12. Neuroelectrophysiological characteristics of Hirayama disease:report of 14 cases

    GUO Xiu-ming; QIN Xin-yue; HUANG Cheng


    Background Hirayama disease is a juvenile muscular atrophy of the distal upper extremities and affects mainly young males.The present study aimed to investigate the neuroelectrophysiological characteristics of Hirayama disease.Methods We retrospectively analyzed the neural conduction velocity (NCV) parameters and needle-electrode electromyograms (EMG) of 14 patients with Hirayama disease.According to the clinical features of the patients,NCV was performed on affected upper-limb including median nerves and ulnar nerves,while EMG was selectively performed on upper and lower extremities,sternocleidomast and thoracic paraspinal muscles.Results The median nerves of all affected upper limbs of patients with Hirayama disease had normal conduction velocities and compound motor action potentials (CMAPs).The ulnar nerves of all affected upper limbs also had normal conduction velocities.Of the 16 measured ulnar nerves of the affected upper limbs,eight had normal CMAPS,while the other eight showed CMAPs below the normal value by >20%.All patients had neurogenic injury on the affected side in muscles innervated by anterior horn cells at the lower cervical region (C7-8,T1).Four patients had unilateral upper-limb muscle neurogenic injury on the affected side.Seven patients had bilateral upper-limb muscle neurogenic injury,while only two patients experienced bilateral upper-limb muscle atrophy / weakness.The other three patients showed extensive neurogenic injury (unilateral upper-limb muscle atrophy/weakness in one patient,bilateral symptoms in the other two patients).Conclusions Electromyographic examination showed that the majority of Hirayama disease patients exhibited characteristic segmental injury in the anterior horn of the lower cervical region,while a few patients exhibited extensive neurogenic injury.These data suggest that the actual influence of Hirayama disease may be more extensive than indicated by the clinical presentations.

  13. Adsorption characteristics of activated carbon hollow fibers


    Carbon hollow fibers were prepared with regenerated cellulose or polysulfone hollow fibers by chemical activation using sodium phosphate dibasic followed by the carbonization process. The activation process increases the adsorption properties of fibers which is more prominent for active carbone fibers obtained from the cellulose precursor. Chemical activation with sodium phosphate dibasic produces an active carbon material with both mesopores and micropores.

  14. Alzheimer’s disease: characteristics and guidelines in dentistry

    Alexandre Franco Miranda


    Full Text Available Dementia is classified as a mental disorder of a neurodegenerative nature that affects the Central Nervous System. Alzheimer’s disease is the most prevalent form of dementia that affects elderly people and it is defined as a progressive and persistent loss of multiple areas of intellectual functions. It gradually promotes deterioration in memory, learning, orientation, emotional stability and ability to communicate. Moreover, abstract thinking (paranoia and hallucinations and the decline of personal care such as bathing and performing oral hygiene are common, interfering in the individual’s social and daily life. According to its development, Alzheimer’s disease is divided into three distinct stages: initial, intermediate and terminal stage. The aim of this study was to approach the characteristics and suggest guidelines for dental attendance in the representative stages in the development of this dementia condition. The dentist should be aware of the different stages of this disease and its characteristics to provide patients with individual oral health attention. The participation of caregivers, family, and the health team is fundamental and it is also necessary to maintain oral health of these elderly patients.

  15. The suggestion of common cause of disease, characteristics of human body, and medical treatment

    Byung-Jun Cho


    Full Text Available Objectives & Methods: This suggestion was attempted to be elevated the recognition of common characteristics in disease. So, we performed to analyze the correlation of common cause of disease, characteristics of human body, and medical treatment. And the results are as follows. Results: 1. The cause of disease is consist of genetic factor, aging, habit, food of not good in health, weather, environment, deficit of the physical activity, stress and so on. 2. Generally, human has common and individual weakness. Individual weakness is appeared similar to the occurrence of volcano and lapse. 3. The correlation of disease and medical treatments is possible to explain using the quotation of the law of motion made by Isaac Newton, the great physicist. 4. When the process of the medical treatment was not progressed, the prognosis is determined by the correlation of the homeostasis(H' in human body and the homeostasis(H of disease. 5. The prognosis of disease is determined by the relationship between the energy of disease(F and medical treatment(F'. 6. The exact diagnosis is possible to predict the treatment sequence, and the facts that homeostasis in human body and disease, relationship between the energy of disease(F and medical treatment(F', action and reaction are important to determine the prognosis. 7. The careful observation of improving response and worsening action of disease becomes available for exact prognosis. Conclusion: The above described contents may be useful in clinical studies, and the concrete clinical reports about this will be made afterward.

  16. Prevalence of acute and chronic viral seropositivity and characteristics of disease in patients with psoriatic arthritis treated with cyclosporine: a post hoc analysis from a sex point of view on the observational study of infectious events in psoriasis complicated by active psoriatic arthritis

    Colombo D


    Full Text Available Delia Colombo,1 Sergio Chimenti,2 Paolo Antonio Grossi,3 Antonio Marchesoni,4 Federico Bardazzi,5 Fabio Ayala,6 Lucia Simoni,7 Donatella Vassellatti,1 Gilberto Bellia1 On behalf of SYNERGY Study Group 1Novartis Farma Italia, Origgio (VA, 2Tor Vergata Polyclinic Rome, 3Macchi Hospital and Foundation, Varese, 4Orthopaedic Institute Pini, Milan, 5S Orsola-Malpighi Polyclinic, Bologna, 6University Federico II Naples, 7MediData srl, Modena, Italy Background: Sex medicine studies have shown that there are sex differences with regard to disease characteristics in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis, in immune response and susceptibility to viral infections. We performed a post hoc analysis of the Observational Study of infectious events in psoriasis complicated by active psoriatic arthritis (SYNERGY study in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA treated with immunosuppressive regimens including cyclosporine, in order to evaluate potential between-sex differences in severity of disease and prevalence of viral infections.Methods: SYNERGY was an observational study conducted in 24 Italian dermatology clinics, which included 238 consecutively enrolled patients with PsA, under treatment with immunosuppressant regimens including cyclosporin A. In this post hoc analysis, patients' demographical data and clinical characteristics of psoriasis, severity and activity of PsA, prevalence of seropositivity for at least one viral infection, and treatments administered for PsA and infections were compared between sexes.Results: A total of 225 patients were evaluated in this post hoc analysis, and 121 (54% were males. Demographic characteristics and concomitant diseases were comparable between sexes. Statistically significant sex differences were observed at baseline in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score (higher in males, mean number of painful joints, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, and the global activity of disease

  17. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of children with Kawasaki disease

    Fatih Akın


    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to evaluate clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD in Konya region of Turkey. Methods: The hospital records of patients who were hospitalized with the diagnosis of KD in the Pediatrics Clinics of Konya Training and Research Hospital between May 2010 and June 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. Results: Seven cases were found to have the diagnosis of KD, two of whom were incomplete KD. Oropharynx changes were the most common (100% feature in our patients. Five (71% patients had bulbar conjunctivitis. Three (43% patients had erythema at the site of BCG inoculation. Adenopathy was present in all of our patients with the classical form. A desquamation was observed in one case at the seventh day of fever. No cardiac manifestation was seen. Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and thrombocytosis were present in all patients. All of the patients were received intravenous immunoglobulin in the first ten days of the fever. Conclusion: KD should be considered as a possible diagnosis in any child presenting with prolonged fever. BCG reaction can be attributed as a diagnostic criterion for incomplete form of the disease especially in countries where BCG vaccination is routinely performed. Early treatment is essential to prevent cardiovascular complications.

  18. Ferric cycle activity and Alzheimer disease.

    Dwyer, Barney E; Takeda, Atsushi; Zhu, Xiongwei; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A


    Elevated plasma homocysteine is an independent risk factor for the development of Alzheimer disease, however, the precise mechanisms underlying this are unclear. In this article, we expound on a novel hypothesis depicting the involvement of homocysteine in a vicious circle involving iron dysregulation and oxidative stress designated as the ferric cycle (Dwyer et al., 2004). Moreover, we suspect that the development of a critical heme deficiency in vulnerable neurons is an additional consequence of ferric cycle activity. Oxidative stress and heme deficiency are consistent with many pathological changes found in Alzheimer disease including mitochondrial abnormalities and impaired energy metabolism, cell cycle and cell signaling abnormalities, neuritic pathology, and other features of the disease involving alterations in iron homeostasis such as the abnormal expression of heme oxygenase-1 and iron response protein 2. Based on the ferric cycle concept, we have developed a model of Alzheimer disease development and progression, which offers an explanation for why sporadic Alzheimer disease is different than normal aging and why familial Alzheimer disease and sporadic Alzheimer disease could have different etiologies but a common end-stage.

  19. Nutritional therapy for active Crohn's disease


    Nutritional therapy for active Crohn's disease (CD) is an underutilised form of treatment in adult patients, though its use is common in the paediatric population. There is evidence that nutritional therapy can effectively induce remission of CD in adult patients. Enteral nutrition therapy is safe and generally well tolerated, leta-analysis data suggest that corticosteroids are superior to nutritional treatment for induction of remission in active CD. However, the potential side effects of such pharmacotherapy must be taken into consideration. This review examines the evidence for the efficacy of elemental and polymeric diets, and the use of total parenteral nutrition in active CD.

  20. Characteristics of hormonal profile of children with allergic diseases

    Shumna T.Ye.


    Full Text Available With the purpose to determine features of hormonal type in children with allergic diseases, the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and cortisol were investigated in 110 children in the age from 6 to 17 years. Of them 79 children with allergic diseases (40 children from Zaporozhye and 39 children – from eco¬friendly clean Primorsk and Berdyansk districts of the Zaporozhye area and 31 healthy children (16 children - from Zaporozhye and 15 - with conventionally ecofriendly clean districts of the Zaporozhye area. Levels of hormones (ACTH (pg/ml, TSH (mkIU/ml, cortisol (ng/ml were determined through diagnostic test systems by a standard method in laboratories of the Zaporozhуe state medical university. By research results it is set, that in the conditions of large industrial city Zaporozhуe, forming of allergic pathology in children took place during activating of the hypophysis-adrenal system with the increase of TSH, cortisol, ACTH secretion with a high risk of exhaustion of immunoreactions and persistence of antigens; this was confir¬med by increase of values of their medians in relation to healthy children. In children with allergic diseases, habitants of ecologically favourable Primorsk and Berdyansk districts of the Zaporozhye area, vice versa, lower indexes of medians of ACTH, TSH and cortisol were registered; this testifies to sup¬pression of hypothalamus function and hypophysis system with violation of protective reaction and adaptation mechanisms in response to forming of allergic inflammation. Thus, adjusting of hormonal activity by principle of ne¬gative reverse link in children with allergic diseases was not executed, regardless of place of residence. In addition, indexes of median of ACTH, TSH, cortisol in children with different clinical forms of allergic diseases (bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis in comparison to healthy ones, testified that for children with

  1. Paraoxonase 1 Activity in Endocrine Diseases

    Özlem Tarçın


    Full Text Available Paraoxonase is an esterase bound to high-density lipoproteins which by metabolizing lipid peroxides, prevents their accumulation on low-density lipoproteins. It also hydrolyzes various organophosphorus compounds. Considering the role of PON1 in hydrolyzing phospholipid and cholesteryl-ester hydroperoxides and thus protecting lipoproteins against oxidative modification, it can be concluded that PON1 may be an indicator of the risk of atherosclerosis/coronary artery disease development. Recent studies have also shown that PON activity was related to several disorders, including endocrine disorders as well. In this paper, we review the relation of PON1 activity with endocrine diseases like diabetes, thyroid dysfunction, osteoporosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, obesity and dyslipidemia. Turk Jem 2011; 15: 33-8

  2. Symptoms in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: pathophysiologic aspects and their relation with disease activity

    Minderhoud, I.M.


    Symptoms in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: pathophysiologic aspects and their relation with disease activity Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). IBD patients frequently complain of fatigue, and a substantial proportion of the patients have gastro

  3. Spontaneous Activity Characteristics of 3D “Optonets”

    Marom, Anat; Shor, Erez; Levenberg, Shulamit; Shoham, Shy


    Sporadic spontaneous network activity emerges during early central nervous system (CNS) development and, as the number of neuronal connections rises, the maturing network displays diverse and complex activity, including various types of synchronized patterns. These activity patterns have major implications on both basic research and the study of neurological disorders, and their interplay with network morphology tightly correlates with developmental events such as neuronal differentiation, migration and establishment of neurotransmitter phenotypes. Although 2D neural cultures models have provided important insights into network activity patterns, these cultures fail to mimic the complex 3D architecture of natural CNS neural networks and its consequences on connectivity and activity. A 3D in-vitro model mimicking early network development while enabling cellular-resolution observations, could thus significantly advance our understanding of the activity characteristics in the developing CNS. Here, we longitudinally studied the spontaneous activity patterns of developing 3D in-vitro neural network “optonets,” an optically-accessible bioengineered CNS model with multiple cortex-like characteristics. Optonet activity was observed using the genetically encodable calcium indicator GCaMP6m and a 3D imaging solution based on a standard epi-fluorescence microscope equipped with a piezo-electric z-stage and image processing-based deconvolution. Our results show that activity patterns become more complex as the network matures, gradually exhibiting longer-duration events. This report characterizes the patterns over time, and discusses how environmental changes affect the activity patterns. The relatively high degree of similarity between the network's spontaneously generated activity patterns and the reported characteristics of in-vivo activity, suggests that this is a compelling model system for brain-in-a chip research. PMID:28119555

  4. Enhanced Capacitive Characteristics of Activated Carbon by Secondary Activation

    YANG Hui; LU Tian-hong; Yoshio Masaki


    The effect of the improvement of commercial activated carbon(AC) on its specific capacitance and high rate capability of double layer(dl) charging/discharging process has been studied. The improvement of AC was carried out via a secondary activation under steam in the presence of catalyst NiCl2, and the suitable condition was found to be a heat treatment at about 875 ℃ for 1 h. Under those conditions, the discharge specific capacitance of the improved AC increases up to 53.67 F/g, showing an increase of about 25% as compared with that of as-received AC. The good rectangular-shaped voltammograms and A.C. impedance spectra prove that the high rate capability of the capacitor made of the improved AC is enhanced significantly. The capacitance resistance(RC) time constant of the capacitor containing the improved AC is 1.74 s, which is much lower than that of the one containing as-received AC(an RC value of 4. 73 s). It is noted that both kinds of AC samples show a similar specific surface area and pore size distribution, but some changes have taken place in the carbon surface groups, especially a decrease in the concentration of surface carbonyl groups after the improvement, which have been verified by means of X-photoelectron spectroscopy. Accordingly, it is suggested that the decrease in the concentration of surface carbonyl groups for the improved AC is beneficial to the organic electrolyte ion penetrating into the pores, thus leading to the increase in both the specific capacitance and high rate capability of the supercapacitor.

  5. Serum cryoglobulins and disease activity in systematic lupus erythematosus

    Mansoor Karimifar


    Full Text Available Background: To determine the prevalence of cryoglobulins in Iranian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and evaluate the correlation of cryoglobulins with disease activity in these patients. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we investigated 80 consecutive women who fulfilled the 1982 revised criteria of the American College of Rheumatology for the classification of SLE. All the patients had undergone a medical interview and general physical examination by a rheumatologist for clinical and serologic characteristics of SLE. For the determination of cryoglobulins, sera were collected by a standard protocol at 37°C, and after incubation at 4°C for seven days, the level of cryoglobulins was estimated for each patient. Results: Cryoglobulins were detected in the sera of 39 (48.8% patients. All of these patients had cryocrit over 5%. Disease was active in 30 patients [SLEDAI ≥6 (DAI: disease activity index] and inactive in 50 (SLEDAI <6. There was no significant difference between active and inactive patients for the presence of serum cryoglobulins (r = 0.086, P = 0.56. A significant positive correlation was observed between antinuclear antibody (ANA, anti-dsDNA (dsDNA: Double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid, CH50 (CH50: total hemolytic complement assay, and C-reactive protein (CRP (r = 0.21, P = 0.004, r = 0.65, P = 0.001, r = 0.45, P = 0.023, r = 0.38, P = 0.036, respectively. Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection was not detected in any of the SLE patients. Conclusion: Although the presence of cryoglobulins in the SLE patients correlated with positive anti-ds DNA and low CH50, it could not be predict activity of the disease.

  6. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M;


    Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder......, be disease specific, mirror the disease activity and, finally, be easily applicable for routine clinical purposes. However, no such disease markers have yet been identified for IBD. In this article, classical disease markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, acute phase proteins (especially...

  7. Characteristics of Missing Physical Activity Data in Children and Youth

    Zhuang, Jie; Chen, Peijie; Wang, Chao; Huang, Liang; Zhu, Zheng; Zhang, Wenjie; Fan, Xiang


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of missing physical activity (PA) data of children and youth. Method: PA data from the Chinese City Children and Youth Physical Activity Study ("N" = 2,758; 1,438 boys and 1,320 girls; aged 9-17 years old) were used for the study. After the data were sorted by the…

  8. Exploring variation in active network size : Constraints and ego characteristics

    Roberts, Sam G. B.; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Pollet, Thomas V.; Kuppens, Toon


    Studies of active personal networks have primarily focused on providing reliable estimates of the size of the network. In this study, we examine how compositional properties of the network and ego characteristics are related to Variation in network size. There was a negative relationship between mea

  9. Prevalence and characteristics of dementia in Parkinson disease

    Aarsland, Dag; Andersen, Kjeld; Larsen, Jan P


    Few longitudinal studies of dementia in Parkinson disease (PD) have been reported, and the proportion of patients with PD who eventually develop dementia is unknown.......Few longitudinal studies of dementia in Parkinson disease (PD) have been reported, and the proportion of patients with PD who eventually develop dementia is unknown....

  10. The Disease Activity Score and the EULAR response criteria.

    Fransen, J.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van


    The Disease Activity Score (DAS), its modified version the DAS28, and the DAS-based European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria are well-known measures of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The DAS is a clinical index of RA disease activity that combines information from

  11. Hippocampal novelty activations in schizophrenia: disease and medication effects.

    Tamminga, Carol A; Thomas, Binu P; Chin, Ronald; Mihalakos, Perry; Youens, Kenneth; Wagner, Anthony D; Preston, Alison R


    We examined hippocampal activation in schizophrenia (SZ) with fMRI BOLD in response to the presentation of novel and familiar scenes. Voxel-wise analysis showed no group differences. However, anatomical region-of-interest analyses contrasting normal (NL), SZ-on-medication (SZ-ON), SZ-off-medication (SZ-OFF) showed substantial differences in MTL-based novelty responding, accounted for by the reduction in novelty responses in the SZ-OFF predominantly in the anterior hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex. These differences in novelty-based activation in the SZ-OFF group represent disease characteristics of schizophrenia without confounding effects of antipsychotic medication and illustrate the tendency of antipsychotic drug treatment to improve memory functions in schizophrenia.

  12. Molecular and genetic characteristics of hereditary autoinflammatory diseases.

    Tunca, Mehmet; Ozdogan, Huri


    Autoinflammatory diseases are defined as recurrent "unprovoked" inflammatory events which do not produce high-titer autoantibodies or antigen-specific T cells. There are currently eight hereditary forms of these diseases: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), hyperimmunoglobulinemia D with periodic fever syndrome (HIDS), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS), familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS), chronic infantile neurologic cutaneous articular (CINCA) syndrome or neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID), pyogenic sterile arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne (PAPA) and Blau syndrome. Apart from FMF (which has a prevalence of about 0.1 percent among non-Ashkenazi Jews, Armenians, Turks and Arabs), they are very rare disorders. FMF and HIDS are autosomal recessive diseases, all the other members of the family are autosomal and dominantly transmitted. Their common clinical features are recurrent and usually short attacks of synovitis and various skin eruptions; abdominal pain and fever are also frequently observed. The genes of all of these diseases have been discovered and, with the exception of HIDS, it was found that the proteins they encode share certain domains taking part in innate immunity and apoptosis. Thus it was evident that hereditary autoinflammatory diseases may help us understand better a number of important and prevalent pathologic events. We have reviewed the recent and rapidly accumulating knowledge on the molecular aspects of these disorders.

  13. Discovery of structural characteristics of RIP1K for activity control using the combination method

    Song, Eun Ju; Do, Yun-Ju; Lee, Myoung Hwi; Kim, Eunhee; Kang, Nam Sook


    Receptor-interacting protein kinases 1 (RIPK1) plays an important role in necroptotic disease; it is therefore useful to identify structural characteristics controlling RIPK1 activity. Serine residues such as Ser89 and Ser161 have been reported to be important for RIPK1 activity. ATP binding to the RIPK1 hinge region occurs prior to the transfer of the phosphate group to serine residues. We therefore investigated the regulatory function of residues in the RIPK1 hinge region using a combination of molecular modeling and protein stability experiments. We analyzed the structure and evaluated the kinetic activity and stability of RIPK1 hinge region mutants. In this way, we identified Glu93 and Glu96 as key residues that regulate RIP1K activity, suggesting that mutation of these residues might be related to necroptotic diseases. The presence of a clinical mutation in RIPK1 Glu93 in endometritis patients is consistent with our data.

  14. Anosognosia in Alzheimer's disease: association with patient characteristics, psychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits.

    Kashiwa, Yukiko; Kitabayashi, Yurinosuke; Narumoto, Jin; Nakamura, Kaeko; Ueda, Hideki; Fukui, Kenji


    Anosognosia is one of the major problems in the treatment and care of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The aim of the study was to determine the patient characteristics, psychiatric symptoms, and cognitive deficits associated with anosognosia, because these are currently poorly understood. Eighty-four patients who met the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disease and Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria for probable AD were examined for anosognosia based on the difference between questionnaire scores of the patient and their caregiver. The relationship of anosognosia with patient characteristics (age, age at onset, duration of illness, education, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), Hyogo Activities of Daily Living Scale (HADLS)), psychiatric symptoms (Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)), and cognitive function (Digit Span, Word Fluency Test, Trail Making Test, Stroop Test, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices Test) were studied. Anosognosia showed positive correlations with age, age at onset, duration of illness, CDR, HADLS, and NPI disinhibition, and negative correlations with MMSE and GDS. Regarding cognitive function, only Part III of the Stroop Test was a predictor of anosognosia. The severity of anosognosia increased with disease progression and with a later age at onset. Subjective complaints of depression requiring self-monitoring of mood tended to decrease and, in contrast, inhibition of socially unsuitable behavior became more difficult as anosognosia worsened. Regarding cognitive function, anosognosia appeared to be associated with response inhibition impairment. Both disinhibition, as a psychiatric symptom, and response inhibition impairment are known to be correlated with disturbance of orbitofrontal function, which therefore may be associated with anosognosia.

  15. A case of Wilson's disease with characteristic laparoscopic findings.

    Muro, Shin-Ichiro; Yasunaka, Tetsuya; Wada, Nozomu; Morimoto, Yuki; Ikeda, Fusao; Shiraha, Hidenori; Takaki, Akinobu; Noso, Kazuhiro; Iwasaki, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide


    A 44-year-old male was pointed out liver function abnormality by medical check-up. Blood examination and computed tomography showed liver cirrhosis. Then, he was referred to our hospital for further examination. After blood test, viral markers revealed previous infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV). We estimated the etiology of his liver disease as previous HBV infection. On laparoscopic examination, his liver surface was nodular with mixed yellowish nodules and ash gray to copper-colored nodules in the diameter of 3-10 mm. There were large regenerative nodules in segments 3 and 4. Large regenerative nodules and irregular steatosis were contradictory to HBV-related liver cirrhosis, so then we supposed Wilson's disease. The amount of copper excretion in the urine was 326.6 μg (>100 μg/24 h). After D-penicillamine administration, urinary copper excretion increased to 2151.5 μg/24 h. Though hepatic copper concentration was 174.5 μg/g wet tissue (>200 μg/g wet tissue), his laboratory data fulfilled the Leipzig diagnostic criteria proposed by EASL. Laparoscopic examination with liver biopsy has advantages to survey many disease-specific findings on liver surface and to obtain adequate liver sample. Laparoscopic examination is one of the effective procedures for diagnosing relatively rare liver disease like Wilson's disease.

  16. Characteristics and Patterns of Metastatic Disease from Chordoma

    Victoria A. Young


    Full Text Available Chordoma is a rare, slow-growing malignant tumor arising from notochordal remnants. A retrospective review of patient records at two major referral centers was undertaken to assess the incidence, location, and prognostic factors of metastatic disease from chordoma. 219 patients with chordoma (1962–2009 were identified. 39 patients (17.8% developed metastatic disease, most frequently to lung (>50%. Median survival from the time of initial diagnosis was 130.4 months for patients who developed metastatic disease and 159.3 months for those who did not (P=0.05. Metastatic disease was most common in the youngest patients (P=0.07, and it was 2.5 times more frequent among patients with local recurrence (26.3% than in those without (10.8% (P=0.003. Patient survival with metastatic disease was highly variable, and it was dependent on both the location of the tumor primary and the site of metastasis. Metastasis to distal bone was the most rapid to develop and had the worst prognosis.

  17. Aerodynamic Characteristic of the Active Compliant Trailing Edge Concept

    Nie, Rui; Qiu, Jinhao; Ji, Hongli; Li, Dawei


    This paper introduces a novel Morphing Wing structure known as the Active Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE). ACTE structures are designed using the concept of “distributed compliance” and wing skins of ACTE are fabricated from high-strength fiberglass composites laminates. Through the relative sliding between upper and lower wing skins which are connected by a linear guide pairs, the wing is able to achieve a large continuous deformation. In order to present an investigation about aerodynamics and noise characteristics of ACTE, a series of 2D airfoil analyses are established. The aerodynamic characteristics between ACTE and conventional deflection airfoil are analyzed and compared, and the impacts of different ACTE structure design parameters on aerodynamic characteristics are discussed. The airfoils mentioned above include two types (NACA0012 and NACA64A005.92). The computing results demonstrate that: compared with the conventional plane flap airfoil, the morphing wing using ACTE structures has the capability to improve aerodynamic characteristic and flow separation characteristic. In order to study the noise level of ACTE, flow field analysis using LES model is done to provide noise source data, and then the FW-H method is used to get the far field noise levels. The simulation results show that: compared with the conventional flap/aileron airfoil, the ACTE configuration is better to suppress the flow separation and lower the overall sound pressure level.

  18. Inflammatory bowel diseases activity in patients undergoing pelvic radiation therapy

    Seisen, Thomas; Klotz, Caroline; Mazeron, Renaud; Maroun, Pierre; Petit, Claire; Deutsch, Eric; Bossi, Alberto; Haie-Meder, Christine; Chargari, Cyrus; Blanchard, Pierre


    Background Few studies with contradictory results have been published on the safety of pelvic radiation therapy (RT) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods From 1989 to 2015, a single center retrospective analysis was performed including all IBD patients who received pelvic external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BT) for a pelvic malignancy. Treatment characteristics, IBD activity and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity were examined. Results Overall, 28 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) (n=13) or ulcerative colitis (n=15) were included in the present study. Median follow-up time after irradiation was 5.9 years. Regarding IBD activity, only one and two patients experienced a severe episode within and after 6 months of follow-up, respectively. Grade 3/4 acute GI toxicity occurred in 3 (11%) patients, whereas one (3.6%) patient experienced late grade 3/4 GI toxicity. Only patients with rectal IBD location (P=0.016) or low body mass index (BMI) (P=0.012) experienced more severe IBD activity within or after 6 months following RT, respectively. Conclusions We report an acceptable tolerance of RT in IBD patients with pelvic malignancies. Specifically, a low risk of uncontrolled flare-up was observed. PMID:28280621

  19. Characteristics of Bacterial Strains from Pseudomonas Genera Isolated from Diseased Plum Trees

    Veljko Gavrilović


    Full Text Available Characteristics of Pseudomonas syringae strains isolated from diseased plum trees are presented is this paper. Based on pathogenic, biochemical and physiological characteristics, isolated starins were divided into two groups: First group of strains, isolated from diseased plum branches with symptoms of suden decay, was simillar to Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae; second group of strains, isolated from necrotic flower buds on plum trees, exhibited characteristics simillar to Pseudomonas syringae pv. morsprunorum. In addition, phytopathogenic fungi belonging to genera Phomopsis, Botryosphaeria and Leucostoma, were also isolated from diseased plum trees. Further study of these pathogens and their role in the epidemiology of suden plum trees decay is in progress.

  20. Alveolar hemorrhage and kidney disease: characteristics and therapy.

    Fatma, Lilia Ben; El Ati, Zohra; Lamia, Rais; Aich, Dorra Ben; Madiha, Krid; Wided, Smaoui; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Beji, Somaya; Karim, Zouaghi; Moussa, Fatma Ben


    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis and Goodpasture's glomerular basement membrane disease are the most common causes of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, a life-threatening disease. Systemic lupus erythematosus and the antiphospholipid syndrome are also causes of alveolar hemorrhage. We retrospectively reviewed 15 cases of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) associated with renal diseases. Diagnosis of DAH was based on the presence of bloody bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. There were three men and 12 women, with a mean age of 50.5 years (extremes: 24-74 years). Proteinuria and hematuria were observed, respectively, in 15 and 14 cases. Six patients revealed arterial hypertension. Crescentic glomerulonephritis was diagnosed with kidney biopsies in ten cases. The etiology of renal disease was microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) in seven cases, Wegener disease in four cases, systemic lupus erythematous in one case, cryoglobulinemia in one case, myeloma in one case and propyl-thiouracil-induced MPA in one case. Hemoptysis occurred in 14 cases. The mean serum level of hemoglobin was 7.1 g/dL (5.1-10 g/dL). The mean serum creatinine concentration was 7.07 mg/dL (2.4-13.7 mg/dL). Gas exchange was severely compromised, with an oxygenation index <80 mmHg in 14 patients and <60 mmHg in seven patients. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in 11 cases, and had positive findings for hemorrhage in all. Methylprednisolone pulses and cyclophosphamide were used in 14 patients. Plasmapheresis was performed in three cases. One patient received cycles of Dexamethasome-Melphalan. Three patients died as a result of DAH. The mortality rate in our study was 20%.

  1. Alveolar hemorrhage and kidney disease: Characteristics and therapy

    Lilia Ben Fatma


    Full Text Available Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis and Goodpasture′s glomerular basement membrane disease are the most common causes of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, a life-threatening disease. Systemic lupus erythematosus and the antiphospholipid syndrome are also causes of alveolar hemorrhage. We retrospectively reviewed 15 cases of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH associated with renal diseases. Diagnosis of DAH was based on the presence of bloody bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. There were three men and 12 women, with a mean age of 50.5 years (extremes: 24-74 years. Proteinuria and hematuria were observed, respectively, in 15 and 14 cases. Six patients revealed arterial hypertension. Crescentic glomerulonephritis was diagnosed with kidney biopsies in ten cases. The etiology of renal disease was microscopic polyangiitis (MPA in seven cases, Wegener disease in four cases, systemic lupus erythematous in one case, cryoglobulinemia in one case, myeloma in one case and propyl-thiouracil-induced MPA in one case. Hemoptysis occurred in 14 cases. The mean serum level of hemoglobin was 7.1 g/dL (5.1-10 g/dL. The mean serum creatinine concentration was 7.07 mg/dL (2.4-13.7 mg/dL. Gas exchange was severely compromised, with an oxygenation index <80 mmHg in 14 patients and <60 mmHg in seven patients. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in 11 cases, and had positive findings for hemorrhage in all. Methylprednisolone pulses and cyclophosphamide were used in 14 patients. Plasmapheresis was performed in three cases. One patient received cycles of Dexamethasome-Melphalan. Three patients died as a result of DAH. The mortality rate in our study was 20%.

  2. Bronchodilator responsiveness as a phenotypic characteristic of established chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Albert, Paul; Agusti, Alvar; Edwards, Lisa


    Bronchodilator responsiveness is a potential phenotypic characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We studied whether change in lung function after a bronchodilator is abnormal in COPD, whether stable responder subgroups can be identified, and whether these subgroups experien...

  3. Limited effect of patient and disease characteristics on compliance with hospital antimicrobial guidelines

    Mol, PGM; Denig, P; Gans, ROB; NannanPanday, PV; Degener, JE; Laseur, M; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM


    Objective: Physicians frequently deviate from guidelines that promote prudent use of antimicrobials. We explored to what extent patient and disease characteristics were associated with compliance with guideline recommendations for three common infections. Methods: In a 1-year prospective observation

  4. Clinical characteristics of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease in several centers of Northwest China



    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in several endoscopy centers of Northwest China.Methods From September 2008 to September 2009,a questionnaire survey was carried out in the endoscopy centers of four hospitals

  5. Change in the characteristics of EEG color noise in Alzheimer's disease.

    Vysata, Oldrich; Procházka, Ales; Mares, Jan; Rusina, Robert; Pazdera, Ladislav; Valis, Martin; Kukal, Jaromír


    Neurophysiological experiments support the hypothesis of the presence of critical dynamics of brain activity. This is also manifested by power law of electroencephalography (EEG) power spectra, which can be described by the relation 1/f(alpha). This dependence is a result of internal interactions between parts of the brain and is probably required for optimal processing of information. In Alzheimer's disease, changes in the functional organization of the brain occur, which may be manifested by changes in the alpha coefficient. We compared the average values of alpha for 19 electrodes in the resting EEG record in 110 patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] score = 10-19) with 110 healthy controls. Statistically, the most significant differences are present in the prefrontal areas. In addition to the prefrontal and frontal areas, the largest separation value in the evaluation of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves was recorded in the temporal area. The coefficient alpha has few false-positive results in the optimal operating point of the ROC curve, and is thereby highly specific for Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Disease activity in pregnant women with Crohn's disease and birth outcomes: a regional Danish cohort study

    Nørgård, Bente; Hundborg, Heidi H; Jacobsen, Bent Ascanius


    OBJECTIVES: CD is associated with increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, but existing studies have not assessed the impact of disease activity during pregnancy. We examined the impact of disease activity on birth outcomes: LBW, preterm birth, LBW at term, and CAs. METHODS: All births by CD women...... of clinical details (including disease activity and drug therapy during pregnancy). The exposed cohort (N = 71) constituted pregnancies with low/moderate-high disease activity during pregnancy, and the unexposed cohort (N = 86) those with inactive disease. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate...... the adjusted relative risks (with 95% confidence intervals) for adverse birth outcomes associated with disease activity in CD pregnancies. In subanalysis, we examined the impact of moderate-high activity. RESULTS: In women with disease activity, the adjusted risks of LBW, LBW at term, preterm birth, and CAs...

  7. Human severe combined immunodeficiency disease: phenotypic and functional characteristics of peripheral B lymphocytes.

    Gougeon, M L; Drean, G; Le Deist, F; Dousseau, M; Fevrier, M; Diu, A; Theze, J; Griscelli, C; Fischer, A


    Human severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) includes an X-chromosome-linked type characterized by a complete absence of mature T cells, hypogammaglobulinemia but normal or elevated number of B cells, suggesting that the disease results from a block in early T cell differentiation. It has been shown that B cells from obligate carrier women of this disorder exhibit the preferential use of the nonmutant X chromosome as the active X (as shown for T cells), suggesting that the SCID gene product has a direct effect on B cells as well as on T cells. To examine this question, we analyzed the phenotypic and functional characteristics of peripheral B cells from nine infants with SCID. We found a constant absence of spontaneously expressed activation Ag on B cell membrane from all SCID patients tested which contrasts with the phenotypic pattern exhibited by age-matched infants whom all cells bearing surface Ig express the 4F2 Ag and to a lesser extent the transferrin receptor. Concurrently, B cells from SCID patients have a profound impairment in their responses to stimuli that induce in vitro B cell proliferation and differentiation. Although rIL-2 and low-Mr B cell growth factor are potent inducers of proliferation on age-matched infants' B cells, they are poorly efficient in inducing proliferation of anti-mu-activated SCID B cells. This impairment is not related to the resting B cell phenotype of SCID B cells as shown by comparison with normal resting B cells. Furthermore, we observed an apparent block in B cell differentiation inasmuch as neither rIL-2 nor rIL-6 could support SAC-activated SCID B cell differentiation, both lymphokines being very efficient in inducing SAC-activated age-matched infants' B cell or purified resting B cell differentiation. These results suggest that the SCID gene defect has a direct effect on B cells and is required during B cell maturation.

  8. Activity Specific Knowledge Characteristics in the Internationalization Process

    Søberg, Peder Veng


    /methodology/approach – The paper presents a framework primarily based on knowledge management theory, which is illustrated in relation to interesting cases of four companies that are global leaders. Findings – An R&D knowledge gap still exists in China and India. Differences across business activities exist in terms......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate differences in the characteristics of knowledge, which is very important for the internationalization of different business activities. In particular, the focus is on internationalization in emerging markets such as China and India. Design...... is developed that illustrates differences between the most important knowledge for the internationalization of key business activities within MNCs. It is proposed that the technical dimension of tacit knowledge is more easily codified than the cognitive dimension of tacit knowledge. The cognitive dimension...

  9. Development of a multi-biomarker disease activity test for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Michael Centola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disease activity measurement is a key component of rheumatoid arthritis (RA management. Biomarkers that capture the complex and heterogeneous biology of RA have the potential to complement clinical disease activity assessment. OBJECTIVES: To develop a multi-biomarker disease activity (MBDA test for rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: Candidate serum protein biomarkers were selected from extensive literature screens, bioinformatics databases, mRNA expression and protein microarray data. Quantitative assays were identified and optimized for measuring candidate biomarkers in RA patient sera. Biomarkers with qualifying assays were prioritized in a series of studies based on their correlations to RA clinical disease activity (e.g. the Disease Activity Score 28-C-Reactive Protein [DAS28-CRP], a validated metric commonly used in clinical trials and their contributions to multivariate models. Prioritized biomarkers were used to train an algorithm to measure disease activity, assessed by correlation to DAS and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for classification of low vs. moderate/high disease activity. The effect of comorbidities on the MBDA score was evaluated using linear models with adjustment for multiple hypothesis testing. RESULTS: 130 candidate biomarkers were tested in feasibility studies and 25 were selected for algorithm training. Multi-biomarker statistical models outperformed individual biomarkers at estimating disease activity. Biomarker-based scores were significantly correlated with DAS28-CRP and could discriminate patients with low vs. moderate/high clinical disease activity. Such scores were also able to track changes in DAS28-CRP and were significantly associated with both joint inflammation measured by ultrasound and damage progression measured by radiography. The final MBDA algorithm uses 12 biomarkers to generate an MBDA score between 1 and 100. No significant effects on the MBDA score were found for

  10. Characteristics of atheromatous renovascular disease in Dubai: a single-center experience.

    Jebur, Wael Lateef; Abdulla, Khalid; Tomaraei, Sohrab


    To determine the characteristics of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) in a cohort of patients who attended the Nephrology Department of NMC Specialty Hospital in Dubai from 2006 through 2010, including their clinical and investigational features and their response to various remedial modalities, we studied 20 patients with a diagnosis of ARAS based on magnetic resonance angiography. Three (15%) patients developed acute renal failure (ARF) after the initiation of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers and 13 (65%) patients presented with chronic kidney disease (CKD) of either ischemic nephropathy or nephroangiosclerosis etiology. Four (20%) patients presented with resistant arterial hypertension (RAH). Plasma renin activity was elevated in all the patients. Fifteen (75%) patients were diabetics. We conclude that CKD was the main presentation of ARAS followed by RAH and ARF in our study. Diabetes Mellitus was the main risk factor for ARAS found in our study.

  11. Characteristics of atheromatous renovascular disease in Dubai: A single-center experience

    Wael Lateef Jebur


    Full Text Available To determine the characteristics of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS in a cohort of patients who attended the Nephrology Department of NMC Specialty Hospital in Dubai from 2006 through 2010, including their clinical and investigational features and their response to various remedial modalities, we studied 20 patients with a diagnosis of ARAS based on magnetic resonance angiography. Three (15% patients developed acute renal failure (ARF after the initiation of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers and 13 (65% patients presented with chronic kidney disease (CKD of either ischemic nephropathy or nephroangiosclerosis etiology. Four (20% patients presented with resistant arterial hypertension (RAH. Plasma renin activity was elevated in all the patients. Fifteen (75% patients were diabetics. We conclude that CKD was the main presentation of ARAS followed by RAH and ARF in our study. Diabetes Mellitus was the main risk factor for ARAS found in our study.

  12. The Disease Activity Score and the EULAR response criteria.

    Fransen, J.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van


    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory activity cannot be measured using one single variable. For this reason the Disease Activity Score (DAS). has been developed. The DAS is a clinical index of RA disease activity that combines information from swollen joints, tender joints, the acute phase res

  13. Clinical and electrophysiological characteristics of neuropathy associated with Tangier disease.

    Zyss, Julie; Béhin, Anthony; Couvert, Philippe; Bouhour, Françoise; Sassolas, Agnès; Kolev, Ivan; Denys, Violaine; Vial, Christophe; Lacour, A; Carrié, Alain; Stojkovic, Tanya


    Tangier disease (TD) (OMIM#205400) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from mutations in the ABCA1 gene, leading to decreased levels of plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Peripheral neuropathy is a common finding in this disease, and may present as relapsing/remitting mono/polyneuropathies or as syringomyelia-like neuropathy. We retrospectively analyzed four patients, and report here their clinical, biological, electrophysiological, imaging, and genetic findings. Three patients had a typical pseudosyringomyelic neuropathy including facial diplegia, but asymmetrical onset was observed in one patient who had first been misdiagnosed with Lewis-Sumner syndrome. Electrophysiological pattern was heterogeneous, showing both signs of demyelination and axonal degeneration. Truncating mutations of the ABCA1 gene, including two previously undescribed mutations, were constantly found. Atypical symptom onset and demyelinating features on electrophysiological examination can be misleading in case of pseudosyringomyelic neuropathy. These reports illustrate two different neurological phenotypes in TD, namely the pseudosyringomyelic type and the Lewis-Sumner-like type, and advocate for a systematic assessment of lipid profile including HDL cholesterol in demyelinating neuropathies.

  14. Serum YKL-40, a potential new marker of disease activity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Vind, Ida; Johansen, J S; Price, P A


    BACKGROUND: YKL-40 is secreted by macrophages and neutrophils and is a growth factor for vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Elevated serum concentrations of YKL-40 are found in patients with diseases characterized by inflammation or ongoing fibrosis. The aim of this study was to seek...... association between serum YKL-40 in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD) and clinical disease activity. METHODS: One-hundred-and-sixty-four patients with UC and 173 patients with CD were studied. The Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI) and the Harvey-Bradshaw (H-B) score...... were used to assess disease activity. Serum YKL-40 (determined by ELISA) was related to C-reactive protein (CRP) and disease activity. RESULTS: In patients with UC, the median serum YKL-40 rose with increasing disease activity, and patients with severe active disease had higher serum YKL-40 (median 59...

  15. Active Crohn's disease is associated with low vitamin D levels

    Jørgensen, Søren Peter; Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Agnholt, Jørgen


    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Crohn's disease prevalence increases with increasing latitude. Because most vitamin D comes from sunlight exposure and murine models of intestinal inflammation have demonstrated beneficial effects of 1,25-(OH)(2) vitamin D treatment, we hypothesised that Crohn's disease...... activity is associated with low vitamin D levels. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 182 CD patients and 62 healthy controls, we measured serum 25-OH vitamin D. Stratified analysis was used to compare 25-OH vitamin D levels with Crohn's disease activity index, C-reactive protein, smoking status, intake...... of oral vitamin D supplements and seasonal variation in CD patients and healthy controls. RESULTS: Serum 25-OH vitamin D was inversely associated with disease activity: Median 25-OH vitamin D levels of Crohn's disease in remission, mildly, and moderately active diseases evaluated by Crohn's disease...

  16. Baseline characteristics in the Bardoxolone methyl EvAluation in patients with Chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Chertow, Glenn M; Akizawa, Tadao


    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most important contributing cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. Bardoxolone methyl, a nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 activator, augments estimated glomerular filtration. The Bardoxolone methyl EvAluation in patients with Chronic k...... kidney disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Occurrence of renal eveNts (BEACON) trial was designed to establish whether bardoxolone methyl slows or prevents progression to ESRD. Herein, we describe baseline characteristics of the BEACON population....

  17. [Physical activity in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases].

    Mirat, Jure


    Cardiovascular diseases represent the leading health problem of the modern age. They are the first cause of mortality in developed as well as in transition countries. Physical activity has a beneficial impact on the cardiovascular system, both directly by improving endothelial function and indirectly by normalizing risk factors of atherosclerosis, such as dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, obesity and by positive effects on coagulation mechanism. The impact of physical activity on the cardiovascular system is manifested by immediate changes in hemodynamics, blood pressure and heart rate during physical training. After some time, consequences of continuous training are manifested as a decrease in the basal heart rate, blood pressure and heart rate responsiveness to physical activity stress, which indicates good conditioning i.e. increased physical capacity. Prospective epidemiological studies have shown that sedentary style of life has a twice-higher risk of sudden death and cardiovascular mortality. Physical activity should be permanent to have positive effects on the cardiovascular system; it means 4 to 5 times weekly depending on duration and intensity of exercises. In case of exercises 60-75% of the maximum, duration should be 30 to 45 minutes. Evidence based data show a 20-25 % lower mortality rate after myocardial infarction in the patients submitted to rehabilitation program of physical exercises. Physical activity in patients with coronary artery disease must be individualized, quantified and under control. In subjects with impaired function of the heart muscle, physical activity is limited with characteristic symptoms - dyspnea and stenocardia. These patients are classified into groups with mild, moderate and high risk, and based on this the allowed intensity of their physical activity is assessed, as well as the grade of its control. Physical exercises must be without range of tolerance and must not exceed this limit of symptoms. The aim of physical

  18. Characteristics and Roles of Exosomes in Cardiovascular Disease.

    Zhang, Yuan; Hu, Yan-Wei; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Qian


    Exosomes are nano-sized biological membrane-enclosed vesicles that contain a cell-specific cargo of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids that are released and taken up by most cell types, thereby inducing expression and functional changes via horizontal transfer of cargos between cells. Thus, exosomes present a largely unknown "cell-to-cell" communication system, which is now increasingly being investigated for diagnostic and therapeutic use in cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on the properties and roles of exosomes in a variety of physiological and pathological settings related to CVD. We focus on available information on exosome-mediated intercellular communication relevant to myocardial injury, repair, and regeneration. Finally, we address the promise of exosomes as valuable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and their potential use as therapeutic tools in CVD. Exosomes remain largely unexplored for therapeutic use in the field of cardiovascular diagnosis and medicine. A more detailed characterization of cardiac exosomes shed by different components of the heart will be of fundamental importance to address specific changes in the profile of exosomal microRNAs and proteins, which will enable the clinical use of exosomes as minimally invasive diagnostic tools and vehicles for delivery of targeted therapies for CVD.

  19. Clinical disease presentation and ECG characteristics of LMNA mutation carriers

    Ollila, Laura; Nikus, Kjell; Holmström, Miia; Jalanko, Mikko; Jurkko, Raija; Kaartinen, Maija; Koskenvuo, Juha; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kärkkäinen, Satu; Palojoki, Eeva; Reissell, Eeva; Piirilä, Päivi; Heliö, Tiina


    Objective Mutations in the LMNA gene encoding lamins A and C of the nuclear lamina are a frequent cause of cardiomyopathy accounting for 5–8% of familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Our aim was to study disease onset, presentation and progression among LMNA mutation carriers. Methods Clinical follow-up data from 27 LMNA mutation carriers and 78 patients with idiopathic DCM without an LMNA mutation were collected. In addition, ECG data were collected and analysed systematically from 20 healthy controls. Results Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed no difference in event-free survival (death, heart transplant, resuscitation and appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy included as events) between LMNA mutation carriers and DCM controls (p=0.5). LMNA mutation carriers presented with atrial fibrillation at a younger age than the DCM controls (47 vs 57 years, p=0.003). Male LMNA mutation carriers presented with clinical manifestations roughly a decade earlier than females. In close follow-up non-sustained ventricular tachycardia was detected in 78% of LMNA mutation carriers. ECG signs of septal remodelling were present in 81% of the LMNA mutation carriers, 21% of the DCM controls and none of the healthy controls giving a high sensitivity and specificity for the standard ECG in distinguishing LMNA mutation carriers from patients with DCM and healthy controls. Conclusions Male LMNA mutation carriers present clinical manifestations at a younger age than females. ECG septal remodelling appears to distinguish LMNA mutation carriers from healthy controls and patients with DCM without LMNA mutations. PMID:28123761

  20. Value of Computerized Tomography Enterography in Predicting Crohn’s Disease Activity: Correlation with Crohn’s Disease Activity Index and C-Reactive Protein

    Park, Eun Kyung; Han, Na Yeon; Park, Beom Jin; Sung, Deuk Jae; Cho, Sung Beom; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Keum, Bora; Kim, Min Ju


    Background The accurate evaluation of Crohn’s disease activity is important for the treatment of the disease and for monitoring the response. Computerized tomography (CT) enterography is a useful imaging modality that reflects enteric inflammation, as well as extramural complications. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CT enterographic (CTE) findings of active Crohn’s disease and the Crohn’s disease activity index (CDAI) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Patients and Methods Fifty CT enterographies of 39 patients with Crohn’s disease in the small bowel were used in our study. The CDAI was assessed through clinical and laboratory variables. Multiple CT parameters, including mural hyperenhancement, mural thickness, mural stratification, comb sign, and mesenteric fat attenuation, were evaluated with a four-point scale. The presence or absence of enhanced lymph nodes, fibrofatty proliferation, sinus or fistula, abscess, and stricture were also assessed. Two gastrointestinal radiologists independently reviewed all CT images, and inter-observer agreement was examined. Correlations between CT findings, CRP, and CDAI were assessed using Spearman’s rank correlation and logistic regression analysis. To assess the predictive accuracy of the model, a receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis for the sum of CT enterographic scores was used. Results Mural hyperenhancement, mural thickness, comb sign, mesenteric fat density, and fibrofatty proliferation were significantly correlated with CDAI and CRP (P < 0.05). The binary logistic regression model demonstrated that mesenteric fat density, mural stratification, and the presence of enhanced lymph nodes (P < 0.05) had an influence on CDAI severity. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of the CTE index for predicting disease activity was 0.85. Using a cut-off value of 8, the sensitivity and negative predictive values were 95% and 94%, respectively

  1. Rapid fecal calprotectin testing to assess for endoscopic disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease: A diagnostic cohort study

    Lukasz Kwapisz


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: With increasing numbers of patients diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, it is important to identify noninvasive methods of detecting disease activity. The aim of this study is to examine the diagnostic accuracy of fecal rapid calprotectin (FC testing in the detection of endoscopically active IBD. Patients and Methods: All consecutive patients presenting to outpatient clinics with lower gastrointestinal symptoms were prospectively recruited. Patients provided FC samples. Sensitivity (Sn, specificity (Sp, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV for FC were calculated. Receiver–operator characteristics (ROC curve was used to identify the ideal FC cutoff that predicts endoscopic disease activity. Correlation between FC and endoscopic disease activity, disease location, and C-reactive protein (CRP levels were measured. Results: One hundred and twenty-six patients, of whom 52% were females, were included in the final analysis with a mean age of 44.4 ± 16.7 years. Comparing FC to endoscopic findings, the following results were calculated: A cutoff point of 100 μg/g showed Sn = 83%, Sp = 67%, PPV = 65%, and NPV = 85%; and 200 μg/g showed Sn = 66%, Sp = 82%, PPV = 73%, and NPV = 77%. Based on ROC curve, the best FC cutoff point to predict endoscopic disease activity was 140 μg/g. Using this reference, FC levels strongly correlated with colorectal, ileocolonic, and ileal disease and predicted endoscopic activity. Conclusions: FC is an accurate test when used as an initial screening tool for patients suspected of having active IBD. Given its noninvasive nature, it may prove to reduce the need for colonoscopy and be an added tool in the management of IBD.

  2. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M;


    Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder...... molecules. It is concluded that none of the pertinent laboratory surrogate markers of disease activity in IBD are specific or sensitive enough to replace basic clinical observation such as the number of daily bowel movements, general well-being, and other parameters in parallel. Further studies are highly...... warranted to identify and assess the clinical importance and applicability of new laboratory markers for the diagnosis or the disease activity of IBD....

  3. Neuropsychological Characteristics and Their Association with Higher-Level Functional Capacity in Parkinson's Disease

    Kayoko Miura


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Little is known about the relationship between cognitive functions and higher-level functional capacity (e.g. intellectual activity, social role, and social participation in Parkinson's disease (PD. The purpose of this study was to clarify neuropsychological characteristics and their association with higher-level functional capacity in PD patients. Methods: Participants were 31 PD patients and 23 demographically matched healthy controls. Neuropsychological tests were conducted. One year later, a questionnaire survey evaluated higher-level functional capacity in daily living. Results: The PD group scored significantly lower than the control group in all cognitive domains, particularly executive function and processing. Executive function, processing speed, language, and memory were significantly correlated with higher-level functional capacity in PD patients. Stepwise regression showed that only executive function (Trail Making Test-B, together with disease severity (HY stage, predicted the higher-level functional capacity. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence of a relationship between executive function and higher-level functional capacity in patients with PD.

  4. Being active when you have heart disease

    ... P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 42. Thompson PD. Exercise-based, comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation. In: Mann DL, Zipes ...

  5. Measuring disease activity to predict therapeutic outcome in Graves' ophthalmopathy

    Terwee, C.B.; Prummel, M.F.; Gerding, M.N.; Kahaly, G.J.; Dekker, F.W.; Wiersinga, W.M.


    OBJECTIVE: The concept of disease activity in Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) might explain why as many as one-third of patients do not respond to immunosuppressive treatment, because only patients in the active stage of disease are expected to respond. The hypothesis was adopted that a parameter used t

  6. Validity of the disease activity score in undifferentiated arthritis.

    Fransen, J.; Visser, K.; Dongen, H. van; Huizinga, T.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Heijde, D.M.F.M. van der


    OBJECTIVE: To study whether the Disease Activity Score (DAS) is a valid measure of disease activity in undifferentiated arthritis (UA). METHODS: Data from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of methotrexate (MTX) and placebo involving 110 patients with UA were used. Data included ba

  7. Disease activity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: CT and pathologic correlation.

    Müller, N L; Staples, C A; Miller, R R; Vedal, S; Thurlbeck, W M; Ostrow, D N


    Computed tomography (CT) scans were compared with pathologic determinants of disease activity in 12 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The theory was that intraalveolar and interstitial cellularity would result in areas of opacification of air spaces on CT scans. All patients underwent open lung biopsy, and disease activity was assessed with a pathologic grading system. Seven patients had mild disease activity, five had moderate to marked disease activity. Opacification of air spaces was patchy in distribution, predominantly peripheral, and seen better on 1.5-mm rather than 10-mm collimation scans. Disease activity on CT scans was graded independently from 0 to 3 based on the presence and relative density of the areas of air space consolidation compared with the surrounding parenchyma. The pathologic score was significantly greater in the patients with high CT scores than in those with low CT scores (P = .001). Five patients with marked disease activity and five of seven patients with mild disease activity were correctly identified. CT may be useful in the assessment of disease activity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  8. Neuropsychology test and P300 detection characteristics analysis in early-onset Parkinson’s disease



    Objective To investigate the clinical and cognitive characteristics of early-onset Parkinson’s disease(EOPD).Methods Two hundred and forty-two Parkinson’s disease(PD)patients were divided into EOPD(≤50 year-old,n=76)and late-onset Parkinson’s disease(LOPD;>50 year-old,n=1 66)according to their age.The age,disease duration,family history and other general clinical features were compared between EOPD and LOPD groups.Global and various aspects of cognitive dysfunction were

  9. Characteristics of motorized spindle supported by active magnetic bearings

    Xie Zhenyu; Yu Kun; Wen Liantang; Wang Xiao; Zhou Hongkai


    A motorized spindle supported by active magnetic bearings (AMBs) is generally used for ultra-high-speed machining. Iron loss of radial AMB is very great owing to high rotation speed, and it will cause severe thermal deformation. The problem is particularly serious on the occasion of large power application, such as all electric aero-engine. In this study, a prototype motorized spin-dle supported by five degree-of-freedom AMBs is developed. Homopolar and heteropolar AMBs are independently adopted as radial bearings. The influences of the two types of radial AMBs on the dynamic characteristics of the motorized spindle are comparatively investigated by theoretical analysis, test modal analysis and actual operation of the system. The iron loss of the two types of radial AMBs is analyzed by finite element software and verified through run-down experiments of the system. The results show that the structures of AMB have less influence on the dynamic char-acteristics of the motorized spindle. However, the homopolar structure can effectively reduce the iron loss of the radial AMB and it is useful for improving the overall performance of the motorized spindle.

  10. Characteristics of motorized spindle supported by active magnetic bearings

    Xie Zhenyu


    Full Text Available A motorized spindle supported by active magnetic bearings (AMBs is generally used for ultra-high-speed machining. Iron loss of radial AMB is very great owing to high rotation speed, and it will cause severe thermal deformation. The problem is particularly serious on the occasion of large power application, such as all electric aero-engine. In this study, a prototype motorized spindle supported by five degree-of-freedom AMBs is developed. Homopolar and heteropolar AMBs are independently adopted as radial bearings. The influences of the two types of radial AMBs on the dynamic characteristics of the motorized spindle are comparatively investigated by theoretical analysis, test modal analysis and actual operation of the system. The iron loss of the two types of radial AMBs is analyzed by finite element software and verified through run-down experiments of the system. The results show that the structures of AMB have less influence on the dynamic characteristics of the motorized spindle. However, the homopolar structure can effectively reduce the iron loss of the radial AMB and it is useful for improving the overall performance of the motorized spindle.

  11. The role of disease characteristics in the ethical debate on personal genome testing

    Bunnik Eline M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Companies are currently marketing personal genome tests directly-to-consumer that provide genetic susceptibility testing for a range of multifactorial diseases simultaneously. As these tests comprise multiple risk analyses for multiple diseases, they may be difficult to evaluate. Insight into morally relevant differences between diseases will assist researchers, healthcare professionals, policy-makers and other stakeholders in the ethical evaluation of personal genome tests. Discussion In this paper, we identify and discuss four disease characteristics - severity, actionability, age of onset, and the somatic/psychiatric nature of disease - and show how these lead to specific ethical issues. By way of illustration, we apply this framework to genetic susceptibility testing for three diseases: type 2 diabetes, age-related macular degeneration and clinical depression. For these three diseases, we point out the ethical issues that are relevant to the question whether it is morally justifiable to offer genetic susceptibility testing to adults or to children or minors, and on what conditions. Summary We conclude that the ethical evaluation of personal genome tests is challenging, for the ethical issues differ with the diseases tested for. An understanding of the ethical significance of disease characteristics will improve the ethical, legal and societal debate on personal genome testing.

  12. Relationship between perinatal characteristics and later activities of daily living in Chinese elderly people

    XU Tao; ZHANG Zhen-xin; HAN Shao-mei; XIAO Xin-hua; GONG Xiao-ming; CHEN Xia; HU Hong-tao; WANG Zi-shi; LIU Ai-min


    Background There are no reports on the association between perinatal characteristics and comprehensive physical function in Chinese elderly people. In this study, we traced 875 subjects who were born at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) of China from 1921 to 1941. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of perinatal characteristics on activities of daily living (ADL) function in the geriatric period. Methods Birth data of 875 subjects were obtained from obstetric birth records of PUMCH. Adulthood data collection was conducted in the outpatient clinics of PUMCH. During the clinic visits, trained research staff administered physical examinations, activities of daily living scale and a demographic questionnaire. ADLs of all subjects were assessed with the activities of daily living scale.Results There were 101 subjects whose ADL function was limited and the rate of ADL limitation was 11.5%. Binary logistic regression analyses results showed that the main influencing factors of ADL were age, maternal age at birth, occupation, daily exercise and chronic disease. Subjects whose maternal age at their birth exceeded 35 years were at 2.202 times (1.188-4.083) greater risk of ADL limitation when we applied multivariate logistic regression models. Conclusions This study validated the relationship between perinatal characteristics and ADL in the geriatric period. An older maternal age at birth could predict a higher ADL limitation rate in the geriatric period.

  13. Reductions in disease activity in the AMPLE trial: clinical response by baseline disease duration

    Schiff, Michael; Weinblatt, Michael E; Valente, Robert; Citera, Gustavo; Maldonado, Michael; Massarotti, Elena; Yazici, Yusuf; Fleischmann, Roy


    Objectives To evaluate clinical response by baseline disease duration using 2-year data from the AMPLE trial. Methods Patients were randomised to subcutaneous abatacept 125 mg weekly or adalimumab 40 mg bi-weekly, with background methotrexate. As part of a post hoc analysis, the achievement of validated definitions of remission (Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) ≤2.8, Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) ≤3.3, Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 (RAPID3) ≤3.0, Boolean score ≤1), low disease activity (CDAI 6 months). Disease Activity Score 28 (C-reactive protein) 6 months) across multiple clinical measures. Conclusions Abatacept or adalimumab with background methotrexate were associated with similar onset and sustainability of response over 2 years. Patients treated early or later in the disease course achieved comparable clinical responses. Trial registration number NCT00929864, Post-results. PMID:27110385

  14. Characteristics of depression in Parkinson's disease: evaluating with Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale.

    Kanda, Fumio; Oishi, Kenichi; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Kuga, Atsushi; Kobessho, Hiroshi; Shirafuji, Toshihiko; Higuchi, Masatsugu; Ishihara, Hiroyuki


    The purpose of the study was to elucidate characteristics of depression in Parkinson's disease (PD). Fifty-eight PD patients were evaluated with Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Scores for "suicidal ideation" on the SDS correlated with posture and gait disturbances on the UPDRS. Twenty-six patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) were also evaluated with the SDS. SDS scores for "indecisiveness" and "constipation" were significantly higher in PD patients than SCD patients. Our results suggest that depression is common in disabled persons but PD patients might have a characteristic clinical presentation.

  15. Asthma characteristics and biomarkers from the Airways Disease Endotyping for Personalized Therapeutics (ADEPT) longitudinal profiling study

    Silkoff, P E; Strambu, I; Laviolette, M;


    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease and development of novel therapeutics requires an understanding of pathophysiologic phenotypes. The purpose of the ADEPT study was to correlate clinical features and biomarkers with molecular characteristics, by profiling asthma (NCT01274507). This re......BACKGROUND: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease and development of novel therapeutics requires an understanding of pathophysiologic phenotypes. The purpose of the ADEPT study was to correlate clinical features and biomarkers with molecular characteristics, by profiling asthma (NCT01274507......, were stable over 12 months. Use of the ADEPT data should prove useful in defining biological phenotypes to facilitate personalized therapeutic approaches....

  16. Remote Physical Activity Monitoring in Neurological Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Valerie A J Block

    Full Text Available To perform a systematic review of studies using remote physical activity monitoring in neurological diseases, highlighting advances and determining gaps.Studies were systematically identified in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS from January 2004 to December 2014 that monitored physical activity for ≥24 hours in adults with neurological diseases. Studies that measured only involuntary motor activity (tremor, seizures, energy expenditure or sleep were excluded. Feasibility, findings, and protocols were examined.137 studies met inclusion criteria in multiple sclerosis (MS (61 studies; stroke (41; Parkinson's Disease (PD (20; dementia (11; traumatic brain injury (2 and ataxia (1. Physical activity levels measured by remote monitoring are consistently low in people with MS, stroke and dementia, and patterns of physical activity are altered in PD. In MS, decreased ambulatory activity assessed via remote monitoring is associated with greater disability and lower quality of life. In stroke, remote measures of upper limb function and ambulation are associated with functional recovery following rehabilitation and goal-directed interventions. In PD, remote monitoring may help to predict falls. In dementia, remote physical activity measures correlate with disease severity and can detect wandering.These studies show that remote physical activity monitoring is feasible in neurological diseases, including in people with moderate to severe neurological disability. Remote monitoring can be a psychometrically sound and responsive way to assess physical activity in neurological disease. Further research is needed to ensure these tools provide meaningful information in the context of specific neurological disorders and patterns of neurological disability.

  17. Glucocerebrosidase activity in Parkinson's disease with and without GBA mutations.

    Alcalay, Roy N; Levy, Oren A; Waters, Cheryl C; Fahn, Stanley; Ford, Blair; Kuo, Sheng-Han; Mazzoni, Pietro; Pauciulo, Michael W; Nichols, William C; Gan-Or, Ziv; Rouleau, Guy A; Chung, Wendy K; Wolf, Pavlina; Oliva, Petra; Keutzer, Joan; Marder, Karen; Zhang, Xiaokui


    Glucocerebrosidase (GBA) mutations have been associated with Parkinson's disease in numerous studies. However, it is unknown whether the increased risk of Parkinson's disease in GBA carriers is due to a loss of glucocerebrosidase enzymatic activity. We measured glucocerebrosidase enzymatic activity in dried blood spots in patients with Parkinson's disease (n = 517) and controls (n = 252) with and without GBA mutations. Participants were recruited from Columbia University, New York, and fully sequenced for GBA mutations and genotyped for the LRRK2 G2019S mutation, the most common autosomal dominant mutation in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Glucocerebrosidase enzymatic activity in dried blood spots was measured by a mass spectrometry-based assay and compared among participants categorized by GBA mutation status and Parkinson's disease diagnosis. Parkinson's disease patients were more likely than controls to carry the LRRK2 G2019S mutation (n = 39, 7.5% versus n = 2, 0.8%, P Parkinson's risk but not with Gaucher disease (E326K, P = 0.009; T369M, P Parkinson's disease were considered, they had lower mean glucocerebrosidase enzymatic activity than controls (11.14 µmol/l/h versus 11.85 µmol/l/h, P = 0.011). Difference compared to controls persisted in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (after exclusion of all GBA and LRRK2 carriers; 11.53 µmol/l/h, versus 12.11 µmol/l/h, P = 0.036) and after adjustment for age and gender (P = 0.012). Interestingly, LRRK2 G2019S carriers (n = 36), most of whom had Parkinson's disease, had higher enzymatic activity than non-carriers (13.69 µmol/l/h versus 11.93 µmol/l/h, P = 0.002). In patients with idiopathic Parkinson's, higher glucocerebrosidase enzymatic activity was associated with longer disease duration (P = 0.002) in adjusted models, suggesting a milder disease course. We conclude that lower glucocerebrosidase enzymatic activity is strongly associated with GBA mutations, and modestly with idiopathic Parkinson

  18. Factor analysis in predominantly severe COPD : Identification of disease heterogeneity by easily measurable characteristics

    Postma, Dirkje S.; Anzueto, Antonio R.; Jenkins, Christine; Make, Barry J.; Similowski, Thomas; Ostlund, Ollie; Eriksson, Goran S.; Calverley, Peter M.


    Background: The clinical and demographic variables defining the heterogeneity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are unclear. A post-hoc analysis of five randomised studies in patients with a history of previous exacerbations examined the clinical and demographic characteristics describ

  19. The Interaction of Lexical Characteristics and Speech Production in Parkinson's Disease

    Chiu, Yi-Fang; Forrest, Karen


    Purpose: This study sought to investigate the interaction of speech movement execution with higher order lexical parameters. The authors examined how lexical characteristics affect speech output in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy control (HC) speakers. Method: Twenty speakers with PD and 12 healthy speakers read sentences…

  20. Association between self-reported health and sociodemographic characteristics with cardiovascular diseases in adults

    Guilherme Oliveira de Arruda


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the association of sociodemographic and self-rated health in the presence of cardiovascular diseases and the association of this perception with the type of disease. METHODS A cross-sectional population survey study carried out with 1,232 individuals aged between 20 and 59 years of both genders living in the metropolitan region of Maringá-PR. Data were analyzed using multiple and simple logistic regression. RESULTS In multivariate analysis, the age range and self-rated health were associated with cardiovascular disease, and in the univariate analysis self-rated regular health was associated with arterial hypertension, while self-rated poor health was associated to heart failure, stroke, and to acute myocardial infarction (heart attack. CONCLUSION The differences in association of self-rated health with these diseases can indicate how individuals with certain characteristics cope with the disease, allowing for more individualized and specific health care.

  1. Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease: characteristics and treatment in an Irish patient cohort.

    Judge, EP


    The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease is increasing globally. However, reliable national and international data relating to its epidemiology and management is lacking. During the period 2003-2014, MAC was isolated from the pulmonary samples of 75 patients at the Irish Mycobacteria Reference Laboratory (IMRL). Most patients (42, 56%) had underlying pulmonary disease, and 37 (49%) had clinical\\/radiographic characteristics consistent with MAC pulmonary disease. However, only 18 patients (24%) fulfilled internationally accepted criteria for diagnosis\\/treatment of this disease. Treatment was started in 13 (72%) of these cases, which is similar to internationally published treatment rates. The diagnosis of significant MAC pulmonary disease can be difficult, and treatment is not always warranted even when diagnostic criteria are met.

  2. Data-driven modeling of sleep EEG and EOG reveals characteristics indicative of pre-Parkinson's and Parkinson's disease

    Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Zoetmulder, Marielle; Koch, Henriette


    Background: Manual scoring of sleep relies on identifying certain characteristics in polysomnograph (PSG) signals. However, these characteristics are disrupted in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. New method: This study evaluates sleep using a topic modeling and unsupervised learning appr...

  3. Quantitative analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the bowel wall can predict disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease

    Romanini, Laura, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Spedali Civili di Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Passamonti, Matteo, E-mail: [Department of Radiology-AO Provincia di Lodi, Via Fissiraga, 15, 26900 Lodi (Italy); Navarria, Mario, E-mail: [Department of Radiology-ASL Vallecamonica-Sebino, Via Manzoni 142, 25040 Esine, BS (Italy); Lanzarotto, Francesco, E-mail: [Department of Gastroenterology, Spedali Civili di Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Villanacci, Vincenzo, E-mail: [Department of Pathology, Spedali Civili di Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Grazioli, Luigi, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Spedali Civili di Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Calliada, Fabrizio, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, University of Pavia, Viale Camillo Golgi 19, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Maroldi, Roberto, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, University of Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy)


    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of quantitative analysis of bowel wall enhancement in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) by comparing the results with vascular density in a biopsy sample from the same area of the intestinal tract, and to determine the usefulness of this analysis for the prediction of disease activity. Materials and methods: This prospective study was approved by our institute's ethics committee and all patients gave written informed consent. We enrolled 33 consecutive adult patients undergoing colonoscopy and biopsy for IBD. All patients underwent CEUS and the results were quantitatively analyzed. Vessel count per high-power field on biopsy specimens was compared with colonoscopy, baseline ultrasonography, and CEUS findings, and with analysis of peak intensity, time to peak, regional blood volume, mean transit time, and regional blood flow. Results in patients with high and low vascular density were compared using Fisher's test, t-test, Pearson's correlation test, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. Cutoff values were determined using ROC analysis, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Results: High vascular density (>265 vessels per field) on histological examination was significantly correlated with active disease on colonoscopy, baseline ultrasonography, and CEUS (p < .0001). Quantitative analysis showed a higher enhancement peak, a shorter time to peak enhancement, a higher regional blood flow and regional blood volume in patients with high vascular density than in those with low vascular density. Cutoff values to distinguish between active and inactive disease were identified for peak enhancement (>40.5%), and regional blood flow (>54.8 ml/min). Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of CEUS data correlates with disease activity as determined by vascular density. Quantitative parameters of CEUS can be used to predict active disease with high sensitivity and

  4. Causes and consequences of increased sympathetic activity in renal disease

    Joles, JA; Koomans, HA


    Much evidence indicates increased sympathetic nervous activity (SNA) in renal disease. Renal ischemia is probably a primary event leading to increased SNA. Increased SNA often occurs in association with hypertension. However, the deleterious effect of increased SNA on the diseased kidney is not only

  5. Low serum alkaline phosphatase activity in Wilson's disease.

    Shaver, W A; Bhatt, H; Combes, B


    Low values for serum alkaline phosphatase activity were observed early in the course of two patients with Wilson's disease presenting with the combination of severe liver disease and Coombs' negative acute hemolytic anemia. A review of other cases of Wilson's disease revealed that 11 of 12 patients presenting with hemolytic anemia had values for serum alkaline phosphatase less than their respective sex- and age-adjusted mean values; in eight, serum alkaline phosphatase activity was less than the lower value for the normal range of the test. Low values for serum alkaline phosphatase were much less common in Wilson's disease patients with more chronic forms of presentation. Copper added in high concentration to serum in vitro did not have an important effect on serum alkaline phosphatase activity. The mechanism responsible for the decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase activity in patients is uncertain.

  6. Epidemiological models to support animal disease surveillance activities

    Willeberg, Preben; Paisley, Larry; Lind, Peter


    Epidemiological models have been used extensively as a tool in improving animal disease surveillance activities. A review of published papers identified three main groups of model applications: models for planning surveillance, models for evaluating the performance of surveillance systems...

  7. Cardiovascular Comorbidities Relate More than Others with Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Gloria Crepaldi

    Full Text Available To explore the influence of comorbidities on clinical outcomes and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA.In patients included in the cross-sectional observational multicenter international study COMORA, demographics, disease characteristics and comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, renal failure, ischemic heart disease, stroke, cancer, gastro-intestinal ulcers, hepatitis, depression, chronic pulmonary disease, obesity were collected. Multivariable linear regression models explored the relationship between each comorbidity and disease activity measures: 28-swollen joint count (SJC, 28-tender joint count (TJC, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, patient's and physician's global assessment (PtGA, PhGA, patient reported fatigue and 28-Disease Activity Score (DAS28. Results are expressed as mean difference (MD adjusted for the main confounders (age, gender, disease characteristics and treatment.A total of 3,920 patients were included: age (mean ±SD 56.27 ±13.03 yrs, female 81.65%, disease duration median 7.08 yrs (IQR 2.97-13.27, DAS28 (mean ±SD 3.74 ± 1.55. Patients with diabetes had more swollen and tender joints and worse PtGA and PhGA (MD +1.06, +0.93, +0.53 and +0.54, respectively. Patients with hyperlipidemia had a lower number of swollen and tender joints, lower ESR and better PtGA and PhGA (MD -0.77, -0.56, -3.56, -0.31 and -0.35, respectively. Patients with history of ischemic heart disease and obese patients had more tender joints (MD +1.27 and +1.07 and higher ESR levels (MD +5.64 and +5.20. DAS28 is influenced exclusively by cardiovascular comorbidities, in particular diabetes, hyperlipidemia, ischemic heart disease and obesity.Cardiovascular comorbidities relate more than others with disease activity in RA. Diabetes and hyperlipidemia in particular seem associated with higher and lower disease activity respectively influencing almost all considered outcomes, suggesting a special importance of this pattern of

  8. Evaluation of inflammatory activity in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis

    Eduardo Garcia Vilela; Henrique Osvaldo da Gama Torres; Fabiana Paiva Martins; Maria de Lourdes de Abreu Ferrari; Marcella Menezes Andrade; Aloísio Sales da Cunha


    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis evolve with a relapsing and remitting course.Determination of infiammatory state is crucial for the assessment of disease activity and for tailoring therapy.However,no simple diagnostic test for monitoring intestinal inflammation is available.Noninvasive markers give only indirect assessments of disease activity.Histopathological or endoscopical examinations accurately assess inflammatoryactivity,but they are invasive,time consuming and expensive and therefore are unsuitable for routine use.Imaging procedures are not applicable for ulcerative colitis.The usefulness of ultrasound and Doppler imaging in assessing disease activity is still a matter of discussion for Crohn's disease,and an increased interest in computed tomography enterograph (CTE) has been seen,mainly because it can delineate the extent and severity of bowel wall inflammation,besides detecting extraluminal findings.Until now,the available data concerning the accuracy of magnetic resonance enterography in detecting disease activity is less than CTE.Due to this,clinical activity indices are still commonly used for both diseases.

  9. Clinical characteristics and peripheral T cell subsets in Parkinson's disease patients with constipation.

    Chen, Yuhua; Yu, Meiling; Liu, Xiaolin; Qu, Hongdang; Chen, Qiming; Qian, Weidong; Wei, Daoxiang; Xu, Wenfang; Ma, Bo; Wu, Wei


    Constipation is frequently reported in Parkinson's disease (PD). We evaluated the characteristics of patients with PD and constipation and explored the role of T cell subsets in PD-associated constipation. One hundred and two patients with PD treated at the First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College were enrolled in this study between January 2012 and October 2013. All patients completed KESS questionnaires and constipation was rated. The proportions of peripheral blood Thl7 and Treg cells were assessed by flow cytometry in 45 patients. Colonoscopies were performed in six patients. Thirty-one patients with PD reported slow-transit constipation (STC), 15 rectal evacuation disorder (RED) and 33 mixed constipation (Mixed). STC most frequently occurred before onset of PD motor symptoms, while Mixed occurred before or after motor symptoms, and RED occurred most frequently after motor symptoms. CD4+ T cell infiltration in the colonic mucosa was observed in patients with PD and constipation. The frequency of Th17 and Treg cells in patients with PD and constipation was significantly higher than in those without constipation (Pconstipation, the frequency of Th17 and Treg cells in STC was the highest. However, there was no difference in the ratio of Th17/Tregs between the patients with PD with and without constipation, or patients with PD and different types of constipations (P>0.05). Constipation reported before the onset of PD motor symptoms was most often STC or Mixed, and PD constipation may be associated with immune activation in the colonic mucosa.

  10. Ramiprilate inhibits functional matrix metalloproteinase activity in Crohn's disease fistulas

    Efsen, Eva; Saermark, Torben; Hansen, Alastair


    Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -3 and -9 has been demonstrated in Crohn's disease fistulas, but it is unknown whether these enzymes are biologically active and represent a therapeutic target. Therefore, we investigated the proteolytic activity of MMPs in fistula tissue...... and examined the effect of inhibitors, including clinically available drugs that beside their main action also suppress MMPs. Fistula specimens were obtained by surgical excision from 22 patients with Crohn's disease and from 10 patients with fistulas resulting from other causes. Colonic endoscopic biopsies......-diamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA), the synthetic broad-spectrum inhibitor, GM6001, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ramiprilate, and the tetracycline, doxycycline. In Crohn's disease fistulas, about 50% of the total protease activity was attributable to MMP activity. The average total MMP activity...

  11. Downregulation of sulfotransferase expression and activity in diseased human livers.

    Yalcin, Emine B; More, Vijay; Neira, Karissa L; Lu, Zhenqiang James; Cherrington, Nathan J; Slitt, Angela L; King, Roberta S


    Sulfotransferase (SULT) function has been well studied in healthy human subjects by quantifying mRNA and protein expression and determining enzyme activity with probe substrates. However, it is not well known if sulfotransferase activity changes in metabolic and liver disease, such as diabetes, steatosis, or cirrhosis. Sulfotransferases have significant roles in the regulation of hormones and excretion of xenobiotics. In the present study of normal subjects with nonfatty livers and patients with steatosis, diabetic cirrhosis, and alcoholic cirrhosis, we sought to determine SULT1A1, SULT2A1, SULT1E1, and SULT1A3 activity and mRNA and protein expression in human liver tissue. In general, sulfotransferase activity decreased significantly with severity of liver disease from steatosis to cirrhosis. Specifically, SULT1A1 and SULT1A3 activities were lower in disease states relative to nonfatty tissues. Alcoholic cirrhotic tissues further contained lower SULT1A1 and 1A3 activities than those affected by either of the two other disease states. SULT2A1, on the other hand, was only reduced in alcoholic cirrhotic tissues. SULT1E1 was reduced both in diabetic cirrhosis and in alcoholic cirrhosis tissues, relative to nonfatty liver tissues. In conclusion, the reduced levels of sulfotransferase expression and activity in diseased versus nondiseased liver tissue may alter the metabolism and disposition of xenobiotics and affect homeostasis of endobiotic sulfotransferase substrates.

  12. Serum Renalase Levels Correlate with Disease Activity in Lupus Nephritis.

    Chaojun Qi

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis (LN is among the most serious complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Renalase is a novel, kidney-secreted cytokine-like protein that promotes cell survival. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship of serum renalase levels with LN and its role in the disease progression of LN.For this cross-sectional study, 67 LN patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Seventeen active LN patients who received standard therapies were followed up for six months. Disease activity was determined by the SLE Disease Activity-2000 (SLEDAI-2K scoring system and serum renalase amounts were determined by ELISA. Predictive value of renalase for disease activity was assessed. Furthermore, the expression of renalase in the kidneys of patients and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry.Serum renalase amounts were significantly higher in LN patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, patients with proliferative LN had more elevated serum renalase levels than Class V LN patients. In proliferative LN patients, serum renalase levels were significantly higher in patients with active LN than those with inactive LN. Serum renalase levels were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K, 24-h urine protein excretion, ds-DNA and ESR but inversely correlated with serum albumin and C3. Renalase amounts decreased significantly after six-months of standard therapy. The performance of renalase as a marker for diagnosis of active LN was 0.906 with a cutoff value of 66.67 μg/ml. We also observed that the amount of renalase was significantly higher in glomerular of proliferative LN along with the co-expression of macrophages.Serum renalase levels were correlated with disease activity in LN. Serum renalase might serve as a potential indicator for disease activity in LN. The marked increase of glomerular renalase and its association with macrophages suggest that it might play an

  13. Three-dimensional reconstruction and analysis of structure characteristics on senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease

    YE Wei; LIU Jianwu; ZHOU Jiangning; HU Xiangyou; TANG Xiaowei


    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neuro- degenerative disorder characterized by the presence of senile plaques primarily composed of amyloid ( in brain. Abnormal secretion and aggregation of amyloid ( are the key events in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Reduction of amyloid ( production and inhibition of amyloid ( aggregation to form senile plaques are hopeful strategies for the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, the silver and immunohistochemical staining methods were applied to discover senile plaques in the hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease patients, and then images were processed and three-dimensionally reconstructed by Matlab and AVS software. The structure characteristics of senile plaques were measured through correlation function calculation and fractal dimension by a computer-aided method. Diffuse plaque had no amyloid center, but classic plaque presented compact central core structure; two types of plaques were both of porous structure, but the sizes of their pores were significantly different. Furthermore, there was difference in fractal dimension value between the diffuse plaque and classic plaque in the two staining methods. The comparison of structure characteristics between two types of plaques indicated that they developed independently. Establishment of the methods for reconstructing the three-dimen- sional structure of senile plaque and analyzing their structure characteristics is helpful for further study on the aggregation mechanism of senile plaque.

  14. Influence of medical treatment, smoking and disease activity on pregnancy outcomes in Crohn's disease

    Julsgaard, Mette; Nørgaard, Mette; Hvas, Christian Lodberg


    Objective. Little is known about predictors for adverse pregnancy outcomes among women with Crohn’s disease (CD). In this population-based study, we examined pregnancy outcomes in CD stratified by medical treatment and smoking status while accounting for disease activity. Methods. In two Danish...


    李建初; 张缙熙; 白耀; 程玉芳; 蔡胜; 孙宏宇


    Color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) was performed in 24 patients with Graves′ disease and the resulths were compared with those from 8 patients with Hashimoto′s disease,6 patients with simple diffuse goiter,and 15 nor-mal volunteers.All cases were confirmed by clinical,laboratory tests or pathology.CDFI of Graves′ disease showed diffuse or localized hypoechoes within the thyroid glands,rich flow signals in the hypoechoes,accelerated flow velocity,and decreased resistance in the superior thyroid arteries(STA)and arteries within the glands.These appearances were characteristic as compared with the controls.The rate of flow in STA of Graves′ disease patients was 8 to 10 times higher than that in the normal volunteers.Tthis study demonstrates that CDFI is convenient and efficient as compared with isotope scan and some other laboratory tests,and can be widely used in the diagnosis of Graves′ disase.

  16. Transferrin microheterogeneity in rheumatoid arthritis - Relation with disease activity and anemia of chronic disease

    R.A. Feelders (Richard); G. Vreugdenhil (Gerard); G. de Jong (G.); A.J.G. Swaak (Antonius); H.G. van Eijk (Henk)


    textabstractWe studied the relation between disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the microheterogeneity of transferrin. Using crossed immuno isoelectric focusing, transferrin microheterogeneity patterns were analyzed in sera of healthy individuals, nonanemic RA patients, iron deficient

  17. Liposomes for Targeted Delivery of Active Agents against Neurodegenerative Diseases (Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease

    Carlos Spuch


    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease represent a huge unmet medical need. The prevalence of both diseases is increasing, but the efficacy of treatment is still very limited due to various factors including the blood brain barrier (BBB. Drug delivery to the brain remains the major challenge for the treatment of all neurodegenerative diseases because of the numerous protective barriers surrounding the central nervous system. New therapeutic drugs that cross the BBB are critically needed for treatment of many brain diseases. One of the significant factors on neurotherapeutics is the constraint of the blood brain barrier and the drug release kinetics that cause peripheral serious side effects. Contrary to common belief, neurodegenerative and neurological diseases may be multisystemic in nature, and this presents numerous difficulties for their potential treatment. Overall, the aim of this paper is to summarize the last findings and news related to liposome technology in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and demonstrate the potential of this technology for the development of novel therapeutics and the possible applications of liposomes in the two most widespread neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

  18. Characteristics and antimicrobial activity of copper-based materials

    Li, Bowen

    In this study, copper vermiculite was synthesized, and the characteristics, antimicrobial effects, and chemical stability of copper vermiculite were investigated. Two types of copper vermiculite materials, micron-sized copper vermiculite (MCV) and exfoliated copper vermiculite (MECV), are selected for this research. Since most of the functional fillers used in industry products, such as plastics, paints, rubbers, papers, and textiles prefer micron-scaled particles, micron-sized copper vermiculite was prepared by jet-milling vermiculite. Meanwhile, since the exfoliated vermiculite has very unique properties, such as high porosity, specific surface area, high aspect ratio of laminates, and low density, and has been extensively utilized as a functional additives, exfoliated copper vermiculite also was synthesized and investigated. The antibacterial efficiency of copper vermiculite was qualitatively evaluated by the diffusion methods (both liquid diffusion and solid diffusion) against the most common pathogenic species: Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae). The result showed that the release velocity of copper from copper vermiculite is very slow. However, copper vermiculite clearly has excellent antibacterial efficiency to S. aureus, K. pneumoniae and E. coli. The strongest antibacterial ability of copper vermiculite is its action on S. aureus. The antibacterial efficiency of copper vermiculite was also quantitatively evaluated by determining the reduction rate (death rate) of E. coli versus various levels of copper vermiculite. 10 ppm of copper vermiculite in solution is sufficient to reduce the cell population of E. coli, while the untreated vermiculite had no antibacterial activity. The slow release of copper revealed that the antimicrobial effect of copper vermiculite was due to the strong interactions between copper ions and bacteria cells. Exfoliated copper vermiculite has even stronger

  19. Decreased Heme Oxygenase Activity in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    Berkay Cataloglu


    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized with progressive im-pairment of cognitive functions. Heme oxygenase is an enzyme that degrades the heme molecule resulting in equimolar amounts of the carbon monoxide, ferrous iron, and bili-verdin. Up to now, heme oxygenase activity and its metabolic effects in Alzheimer's dis-ease have been investigated in so many studies; most of them were performed in post-mortem brain tissues of Alzheimer's disease patients or in animal models. Therefore, we aimed to investigate heme oxygenase activity in leukocytes of Alzheimer's disease pa-tients as a peripheral sample. Mean heme oxygenase activity was significantly lower in patients with Alzheimer's disease (0.53 +/- 0.32 nmol/h/mg protein compared to control sucjects (1.19 +/- 0.84 nmol/h/mg protein (p= 0.001. We think that reduction in leukocyte heme oxygenase activity may limit disease progression through preserving peripheral mitochondrial function by reducing the formation of free iron and carbon monoxide. [Dis Mol Med 2013; 1(2.000: 31-34

  20. Serum YKL-40, a potential new marker of disease activity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Vind, Ida; Johansen, J S; Price, P A;


    BACKGROUND: YKL-40 is secreted by macrophages and neutrophils and is a growth factor for vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Elevated serum concentrations of YKL-40 are found in patients with diseases characterized by inflammation or ongoing fibrosis. The aim of this study was to seek...... association between serum YKL-40 in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD) and clinical disease activity. METHODS: One-hundred-and-sixty-four patients with UC and 173 patients with CD were studied. The Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI) and the Harvey-Bradshaw (H-B) score...

  1. Ramiprilate inhibits functional matrix metalloproteinase activity in Crohn's disease fistulas

    Efsen, Eva; Saermark, Torben; Hansen, Alastair


    Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -3 and -9 has been demonstrated in Crohn's disease fistulas, but it is unknown whether these enzymes are biologically active and represent a therapeutic target. Therefore, we investigated the proteolytic activity of MMPs in fistula tissue...... from six controls were also included. Total functional MMP activity was measured by a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based, fluorogenic MMP-substrate cleavage assay, and the specific activity of MMP-2, -3 and -9 by the MMP Biotrak Activity Assay. The MMP inhibitors comprised ethylene...... activity by 72%, which is comparable to the effect of GM6001 (87%). Moreover, MMP-9 activity was completely blunted by ramiprilate. Doxycycline had no effect on MMP activity. Increased functional MMP activity, notably MMP-3 and -9, is present in Crohn's fistulas and may be inhibited by ramiprilate...

  2. Occurrence, Characteristics, and Predictors of Pain in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Christensen, Vivi Lycke; Holm, Are Martin; Kongerud, Johny; Bentsen, Signe Berit; Paul, Steven M; Miaskowski, Christine; Rustøen, Tone


    Few studies have provided a detailed characterization of pain in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aims of this cross-sectional study were to describe the occurrence, intensity, locations, and level of interference associated with pain, as well as pain relief; to identify differences in demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics between COPD patients with and without pain; and to determine which demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics were associated with average pain, worst pain, and pain interference. A total of 258 patients with COPD provided information on demographic characteristics; comorbidities; respiratory parameters including dyspnea; body mass index; and symptom characteristics (i.e., anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance, and fatigue). Pain was measured using the Brief Pain Inventory. Of these 258 COPD patients, 157 (61%) reported pain. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine which demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics were associated with average pain severity, worst pain severity, and mean pain interference. Lower stages of COPD were associated with higher worst pain and higher pain interference scores. Higher depression scores were associated with higher average pain and higher pain interference scores. In addition, higher number of pain locations was associated with higher average and higher worst pain severity scores. Findings from this study confirm that pain is a significant problem and highlights the need for specific pain management interventions for patients with COPD. More research is needed about specific pain characteristics and symptoms to gain an increased knowledge about the causes of pain in these patients.

  3. Sleep disorders and inflammatory disease activity: chicken or the egg?

    Parekh, Parth J; Oldfield Iv, Edward C; Challapallisri, Vaishnavi; Ware, J Catsby; Johnson, David A


    Sleep dysfunction is a highly prevalent condition that has long been implicated in accelerating disease states characterized by having an inflammatory component such as systemic lupus erythematosus, HIV, and multiple sclerosis. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, debilitating disease that is characterized by waxing and waning symptoms, which are a direct result of increased circulating inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have demonstrated sleep dysfunction and the disruption of the circadian rhythm to result in an upregulation of inflammatory cytokines. Not only does this pose a potential trigger for disease flares but also an increased risk of malignancy in this subset of patients. This begs to question whether or not there is a therapeutic role of sleep cycle and circadian rhythm optimization in the prevention of IBD flares. Further research is needed to clarify the role of sleep dysfunction and alterations of the circadian rhythm in modifying disease activity and also in reducing the risk of malignancy in patients suffering from IBD.

  4. Inflammation, immune activation, and cardiovascular disease in HIV.

    Nou, Eric; Lo, Janet; Grinspoon, Steven K


    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV. Several epidemiological studies have shown an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke compared to uninfected controls. Although traditional risk factors contribute to this increased risk of cardiovascular disease, HIV-specific mechanisms likely also play a role. Systemic inflammation has been linked to cardiovascular disease in several populations suffering from chronic inflammation, including people living with HIV. Although antiretroviral therapy reduces immune activation, levels of inflammatory markers remain elevated compared to uninfected controls. The causes of this sustained immune response are likely multifactorial and incompletely understood. In this review, we summarize the evidence describing the relationship between inflammation and cardiovascular disease and discuss potential anti-inflammatory treatment options for cardiometabolic disease in people living with HIV.

  5. Study on dynamic characteristics' change of hippocampal neuron reduced models caused by the Alzheimer's disease.

    Peng, Yueping; Wang, Jue; Zheng, Chongxun


    In the paper, based on the electrophysiological experimental data, the Hippocampal neuron reduced model under the pathology condition of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been built by modifying parameters' values. The reduced neuron model's dynamic characteristics under effect of AD are comparatively studied. Under direct current stimulation, compared with the normal neuron model, the AD neuron model's dynamic characteristics have obviously been changed. The neuron model under the AD condition undergoes supercritical Andronov-Hopf bifurcation from the rest state to the continuous discharge state. It is different from the neuron model under the normal condition, which undergoes saddle-node bifurcation. So, the neuron model changes into a resonator with monostable state from an integrator with bistable state under AD's action. The research reveals the neuron model's dynamic characteristics' changing under effect of AD, and provides some theoretic basis for AD research by neurodynamics theory.

  6. Veterinary public health activities at FAO: echinococcosis/hydatid disease.

    Eddi, C; de Balogh, K; Lubroth, J; Amanfu, W; Speedy, A; Battaglia, D


    Cystic hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease that remain as a significant cause of human morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. The disease has veterinary public health implications. FAO is involved with some activities in the control of echinococcosis/hydatid disease: within the Animal Production and Health Division the Veterinary Public Health (VHP) Programme is constituted by members of the different Services (Animal Health, Animal Production, and Livestock Policy) within the Division. FAO regular programme has also established a global network of professionals directly involved in VPH. Furthermore FAO's Technical Cooperation Projects (TCP) is a tool to assist member countries in responding to urgent and unforeseen demands.

  7. Relation of chaos activity characteristics of the cardiac system with the evolution of species


    According to the nonlinear theory, the experiments have been conducted on sample ECG (electrocardiogram) signals of healthy human beings, coronary heart disease patients and adult canines. On the basis of the analyses of the power spectra, the computation of the correlation dimension and the Lyapunov exponent to a large number of ECG signals, the following conclusions are shown: through the comparative research, (1( the analyses of the power spectra, the computation of the correlation dimension and the Lyapunov exponent to the ECG signals reflect the whole dynamic characteristics of the hearts, and they may become a new method of researching ECG quantitatively to an early diagnose of heart disease. (2( Under normal physiological conditions the cardiac activities are chaotic, while under pathologic conditions the cardiac activities approach regularity. (3( On the basis of the comparative research of human beings and canines, it is revealed that chaos may be a quantitative index to measure the evolution of species. This conclusion would supply a new cut-in point to elaborate the Darwin theory, and it would enable us to explain the life theory renewably using the basic principle of nonlinear theory.

  8. IL-18 Serum Level in Adult Onset Still’s Disease: A Marker of Disease Activity

    Serena Colafrancesco


    Conclusions. Higher levels of IL-18 are detected in active AODS patients and correlate with disease activity and inflammatory laboratory features. ROC-AUC analysis of the serum concentration of IL-18 suggests that it can be considered a diagnostic marker of AOSD. This paper supports the targeting of this cytokine as a possible therapeutic option in AOSD.

  9. An overview of prostate diseases and their characteristics specific to Asian men

    Shu-Jie Xia; Di Cui; Qi Jiang


    In this paper,we reviewed the features of common prostate diseases,such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH),prostate cancer (PCa)and chronic prostatitis (CP) that are specific to Asian men.Compared to the Westerners,Asians exhibit particular characteristics of prostate diseases.Through summarizing the epidemiology,symptomatology,diagnostics and therapeutics of these diseases,we find that Asians have a lower incidence of PCa than whites,but the incidences of BPH and CP are similar.Asian men with CP often suffer from fewer disease sites,but have a higher frequency of pain during urination rather than after sexual climax.Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a widely used marker for the diagnosis of PCa in both Asian and Western countries.Although the PSA level may be lower in Asians,the threshold used is based on whites.After reviewing the treatments available for these diseases,we did not find a fundamental difference between Asians and whites.Furthermore,the selection for the most appropriate treatment based on the individual needs of patients remains a challenge to urologists in Asia.After considering the traits of prostate diseases that are specific to Asian men,we hope to pave the way for the development of specific diagnostic and therapeutic strategies targeted specifically to Asian men.

  10. Characteristics of brain stem auditory evoked potentials in children with hearing impairment due to infectious diseases.

    Ječmenica, Jovana Radovan; Opančina, Aleksandra Aleksandar Bajec


    Among objective audiologic tests, the most important were tests of brain stem auditory evoked potentials. The objective of the study was to test the configuration, degree of hearing loss, and response characteristics of auditory brain stem evoked potentials in children with hearing loss occurred due to infectious disease. A case control study design was used. The study group consisted of 54 patients referred for a hearing test because of infectious diseases caused by other agents or that occurred as congenital infection. Infectious agents have led to the emergence of various forms of sensorineural hearing loss. We have found deviations from the normal values of absolute and interwave latencies in some children in our group. We found that in the group of children who had the diseases such as purulent meningitis, or were born with rubella virus and cytomegalovirus infection, a retrocochlear damage was present in children with and without cochlear damage.

  11. Measuring disease activity in Crohn's disease: what is currently available to the clinician

    D’Incà R


    Full Text Available Renata D'Incà, Roberta Caccaro Department of Surgical, Oncological and Gastroenterological Sciences, Gastroenterology Section, University of Padua, Padua, Italy Abstract: Crohn's disease (CD is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease characterized by a relapsing-remitting clinical behavior and dominated by intestinal inflammation. Being a chronic disorder that with time develops into a disabling disease, it is important to monitor the severity of inflammation to assess the efficacy of medication, rule out complications, and prevent progression. This is particularly true now that the goals of treatment are mucosal healing and deep remission. Endoscopy has always been the gold standard for assessing mucosal activity in CD, but its use is limited by its invasiveness and its inability to examine the small intestine, proximal to the terminal ileum. Enteroscopy and the less invasive small bowel capsule endoscopy enable the small bowel to be thoroughly explored and scores are emerging for classifying small bowel disease activity. Cross-sectional imaging techniques (ultrasound, magnetic resonance, computed tomography are emerging as valid tools for monitoring CD patients, assessing inflammatory activity in the mucosa and the transmucosal extent of the disease, and for excluding extra-intestinal complications. Neither endoscopy nor imaging are suitable for assessing patients frequently, however. Noninvasive markers such as C-reactive protein, and fecal biomarkers such as calprotectin and lactoferrin, are therefore useful to confirm the inflammatory burden of the disease and to identify patients requiring further investigations. Keywords: activity, biomarkers, Crohn, endoscopy, imaging, monitoring

  12. Comparing Levels of Depression in Healthy Active and Inactive Elders versus Those with Knee Osteoarthritis Disease

    Amir Shams


    Full Text Available Knee osteoarthritis can have negative effects on the physical and mental conditions, social and family relations, general health and positive feelings of elders. For example, severe limitation of motion and increased depression, which are results of this disease, can have negative impacts on elders. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of depression in healthy active and inactive elders versus those with knee osteoarthritis disease. Two hundred and twenty (220 elders with knee osteoarthritis disease (110 active and 110 inactive patients and 220 healthy elders (110 active and 110 inactive were voluntarily selected, and they filled the questionnaire about elders’ personal characteristics, physical activity and depression levels. Four groups had differences with respect to education, age and gender. The results of chi-square test revealed that women with knee osteoarthritis disease had increased levels of depression compared to men with the same condition (p<0.05. Older patients had increased levels of depression and educated elders reported lower levels of depression. The results of the one way analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed that there exist a significant difference in depression scores of healthy active and healthy inactive elders and those with knee osteoarthritis disease. The results of Tukey’s test revealed that healthy active elder had lower depression scores compared to inactive elders with knee osteoarthritis disease. Carrying out exercises and physical activities can help improve the health state of patients with knee osteoarthritis problem and can also improve the elders’ mental condition and thus decrease their pain and depression.

  13. Behçet’s disease: The clinical and demographic characteristics of 182 patients

    Ercan Karabacak


    Full Text Available Background and Design: Behçet’s disease (BD is a multisystem inflammatory disorder that is an important cause of morbidity worldwide. In this study, we aimed to investigate the clinical and demographic characteristics of Turkish patients diagnosed with BD. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the hospital records of patients with BD who attended the Dermatoveneorology Department at the GATA Haydarpaşa Teaching and Research Hospital between 2001 and 2012. One hundred eighty-two male patients who met the diagnostic criteria of the International Study Group for BD were included in the study. The clinical and demographic characteristics, including symptoms and age at onset, systemic symptoms, duration of the disease and initial signs were recorded. Results: The ages of the 182 male patients included in the study varied from 20 to 53. The mean age at disease onset was 20.59±4.55 years. The leading clinical features were aphthous ulcers (100% followed by genital ulcers (86.8% and papulopustular lesions (80.3%. The pathergy test was positive in 57.3% of the patients. Ocular involvement was present in 527%, vascular involvement in 22.5%, and neurological manifestations was found in 7.1% of the patients. Joint involvement was reported in 18.1% of the subjects. Only 0.5% had genitourinary involvement. There was no relationship of BD with the age at onset and disease duration. Conclusion: We assume that the present study will contribute to the data on demographic and clinical characteristics of especially male BD patients in Turkey

  14. Cloud Activation Characteristics of Airborne Erwinia carotovora Cells.

    Franc, Gary D.; Demott, Paul J.


    Several strains of plant pathogenic bacteria, Erwinia carotovora carotovora and E. carotovora atroseptica, were observed to be active as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The CCN supersaturation spectra of bacterial aerosols were measured in the laboratory and compared to the activity of ammonium sulfate. Approximately 25%-30% of the aerosolized bacterial cells activated droplets at 1% water supersaturation compared to 80% activation of the ammonium sulfate aerosol. Physical and numerical simulations of cloud droplet activation and growth on bacteria were also performed. Both simulations predict that aerosolized bacteria will be incorporated into cloud droplets during cloud formation. Results strongly support the hypothesis that significant numbers of the tested bacterial strains are actively involved in atmospheric cloud formation and precipitation processes following natural aerosolization and vertical transport to cloud levels.

  15. Characteristics of induced activity from medical linear accelerators.

    Wang, Yi Zhen; Evans, Michael D C; Podgorsak, Ervin B


    A study of the induced activity in a medical linear accelerator (linac) room was carried out on several linac installations. Higher beam energy, higher dose rate, and larger field size generally result in higher activation levels at a given point of interest, while the use of multileaf collimators (MLC) can also increase the activation level at the isocenter. Both theoretical and experimental studies reveal that the activation level in the morning before any clinical work increases from Monday to Saturday and then decreases during the weekend. This weekly activation picture keeps stable from one week to another during standard clinical operation of the linac. An effective half-life for a given point in the treatment room can be determined from the measured or calculated activity decay curves. The effective half-life for points inside the treatment field is longer than that for points outside of the field in the patient plane, while a larger field and longer irradiation time can also make the effective half-life longer. The activation level reaches its practical saturation value after a 30 min continuous irradiation, corresponding to 12 000 MU at a "dose rate" of 400 MU/min. A "dose" of 300 MU was given 20 times in 15 min intervals to determine the trends in the activation level in a typical clinical mode. As well, a long-term (85 h over a long weekend) decay curve was measured to evaluate the long-term decay of room activation after a typical day of clinical linac use. A mathematical model for the activation level at the isocenter has been established and shown to be useful in explaining and predicting the induced activity levels for typical clinical and experimental conditions. The activation level for a 22 MeV electron beam was also measured and the result shows it is essentially negligible.

  16. A preliminary score for the assessment of disease activity in hereditary recurrent fevers : results from the AIDAI (Auto-Inflammatory Diseases Activity Index) Consensus Conference

    Piram, Maryam; Frenkel, Joost; Gattorno, Marco; Ozen, Seza; Lachmann, Helen J.; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Hentgen, Veronique; Neven, Benedicte; Stojanovic, Katia Stankovic; Simon, Anna; Kuemmerle-Deschner, Jasmin; Hoffman, Hal; Stojanov, Silvia; Duquesne, Agnes; Pillet, Pascal; Martini, Alberto; Pouchot, Jacques; Kone-Paut, Isabelle


    Background The systemic autoinflammatory disorders (SAID) share many clinical manifestations, albeit with variable patterns, intensity and frequency. A common definition of disease activity would be rational and useful in the management of these lifelong diseases. Moreover, standardised disease acti

  17. A preliminary score for the assessment of disease activity in hereditary recurrent fevers: results from the AIDAI (Auto-Inflammatory Diseases Activity Index) Consensus Conference.

    Piram, M.; Frenkel, J.; Gattorno, M.; Ozen, S.; Lachmann, H.J.; Goldbach-Mansky, R.; Hentgen, V.; Neven, B.; Stojanovic, K.S.; Simon, A.; Kuemmerle-Deschner, J.; Hoffman, H.; Stojanov, S.; Duquesne, A.; Pillet, P.; Martini, A.; Pouchot, J.; Kone-Paut, I.


    BACKGROUND: The systemic autoinflammatory disorders (SAID) share many clinical manifestations, albeit with variable patterns, intensity and frequency. A common definition of disease activity would be rational and useful in the management of these lifelong diseases. Moreover, standardised disease act

  18. Specific Energy Characteristics of Nanoporous Carbon Activated by Orthophosphoric Acid

    B.I. Rachiy


    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of the amount of phosphoric acid on the structure nanoporous carbon materials (NCM obtained from raw materials of plant origin. The results voltammetry defined specific capacitance characteristics of NCM and conditions its synthesis with optimal energy parameters established. It is shown that reducing the number of lignin-cellulose materials in precursor volume due to carbonization leads to a decline in specific capacity of NCM approximately 6-20 %.

  19. Relationship between disease activity and hearing impairment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared with controls.

    Yildirim, Adem; Surucu, Gulseren; Dogan, Sedat; Karabiber, Mehmet


    The characteristics of hearing impairment (HI) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are still poorly understood, and their association with disease activity is based on conflicting information. This study compared HI between RA patients and controls and between active and remission RA groups using multi-frequency audiometry. This study enrolled 88 RA patients and 50 controls. The pure-tone hearing thresholds at 500 to 4000 Hz for air (AC) and bone (BC) conduction were compared between RA and controls as well as between active and remission RA patients using DAS28-CRP scores. The pure-tone hearing thresholds for AC and BC were significantly higher at high frequencies (2000 and 4000 Hz) in the RA group for both ears compared with controls. In addition, the BC threshold at 1000 Hz for the right ear was higher in the RA group than controls. When active and remission RA patients were compared, the thresholds were higher only at 4000 Hz for both ears for AC and BC in patients with active RA. The air-bone gap differed significantly at 2000 and 4000 Hz in both ears. This study demonstrated that patients with RA have a heightened risk of HI, and disease activity increases this risk, particularly at high frequencies. Clinicians who manage RA should be aware of HI and consider performing audiological evaluations in RA patients with active disease in particular.

  20. [Educational activities for people with chronic disease: grants for nursing].

    Ulbrich, Elis Martins; Maftum, Mariluci Alves; Labronici, Liliana Maria; Mantovani, Maria de Fátima


    This is an intervention study conducted in a Unidade Básica de Saúde (Basic Health Unit) in Colombo, Parana, Brazil from March to November 2009, with 35 carriers of chronic diseases aged between 18 and 60 years, and enrolled in the Hypertension and Diabetes Program. The objectives were to identify their knowledge about arterial hypertension and act through educational group activities. Data were collected though semistructured interviews and four group meetings, and the following categories emerged from the analysis: "Understanding of the disease" and "Ways of caring". It was found that users knew the disease, its risk factors and possible complications, and that educational activities favored the sharing of experiences,provided reflection and the possibility of treatment management. This is a strategy that should be used and promoted by nurses.

  1. Nutrition and Physical Activity in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Claudia P. Oliveira


    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common liver disease worldwide and it is associated with other medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. The mechanisms of the underlying disease development and progression are not completely established and there is no consensus concerning the pharmacological treatment. In the gold standard treatment for NAFLD weight loss, dietary therapy, and physical activity are included. However, little scientific evidence is available on diet and/or physical activity and NAFLD specifically. Many dietary approaches such as Mediterranean and DASH diet are used for treatment of other cardiometabolic risk factors such as insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, but on the basis of its components their role in NAFLD has been discussed. In this review, the implications of current dietary and exercise approaches, including Brazilian and other guidelines, are discussed, with a focus on determining the optimal nonpharmacological treatment to prescribe for NAFLD.

  2. EULAR Sjögren's syndrome disease activity index (ESSDAI)

    Seror, Raphaèle; Bowman, Simon J; Brito-Zeron, Pilar


    in use as a gold standard to measure disease activity in clinical studies, and as an outcome measure, even a primary outcome measure, in current randomised clinical trials. Therefore, ensuring an accurate and reproducible rating of each domain, by providing a more detailed definition of each domain, has...... emerged as an urgent need. The purpose of the present article is to provide a user guide for the ESSDAI. This guide provides definitions and precisions on the rating of each domain. It also includes some minor improvement of the score to integrate advance in knowledge of disease manifestations. This user...... guide may help clinicians to use the ESSDAI, and increase the reliability of rating and consequently of the ability to detect true changes over time. This better appraisal of ESSDAI items, along with the recent definition of disease activity levels and minimal clinically important change, will improve...

  3. A Review of Pterostilbene Antioxidant Activity and Disease Modification

    Denise McCormack


    Full Text Available Pterostilbene (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxystilbene is a natural dietary compound and the primary antioxidant component of blueberries. It has increased bioavailability in comparison to other stilbene compounds, which may enhance its dietary benefit and possibly contribute to a valuable clinical effect. Multiple studies have demonstrated the antioxidant activity of pterostilbene in both in vitro and in vivo models illustrating both preventative and therapeutic benefits. The antioxidant activity of pterostilbene has been implicated in anticarcinogenesis, modulation of neurological disease, anti-inflammation, attenuation of vascular disease, and amelioration of diabetes. In this review, we explore the antioxidant properties of pterostilbene and its relationship to common disease pathways and give a summary of the clinical potential of pterostilbene in the prevention and treatment of various medical conditions.

  4. Effect of physical activity on vascular characteristics in young children

    Salamia Idris, Nikmah; Evelein, Annemieke M. V.; Geerts, Caroline C.; Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Uiterwaal, CSPM


    BACKGROUND: Physical activity has long been proposed as an important modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in adults. We assessed whether physical activity already has an effect on childhood vasculature. METHODS: In the Wheezing-Illnesses-Study-in-Leidsche-Rijn birth cohort, we performed vascular ul

  5. Usefulness of Endoscopic Indices in Determination of Disease Activity in Patients with Crohn’s Disease

    Marcin Kucharski


    Full Text Available Background. Assessment of endoscopic activity of Crohn’s disease (CD is of growing importance both in clinical practice and in clinical trials. The study aimed to assess which of the endoscopic indices used for evaluation of mucosal changes correlates with the currently used clinical indices for determination of disease activity and with the results of histopathological examination. Study. A group of 71 patients with CD and 52 individuals without a diagnosis of GI tract disease as a control group were investigated, considering clinical and histological severity of the disease and the severity of inflammatory changes in the bowel. Evaluation was conducted with the use of clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological indices. Endoscopic indices were then correlated with different clinical and histopathological indices with the aim of finding the strongest correlations. Results and Conclusions. Correlation between the clinical disease activity and the severity of endoscopic lesions in CD was shown in this study to be poor. The results also indicate that the optimal endoscopic index used in the diagnostic stage and in the assessment of treatment effects in CD is Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn’s Disease (SES-CD.

  6. Synovitis and osteitis are very frequent in rheumatoid arthritis clinical remission: results from an MRI study of 294 patients in clinical remission or low disease activity state

    Gandjbakhch, Frédérique; Conaghan, Philip G; Ejbjerg, Bo;


    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), radiographic progression may occur despite clinical remission. This may be explained by subclinical inflammation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a greater sensitivity than clinical examination and radiography for assessing disease activity. Our objective w...... was to determine the MRI characteristics of RA patients in clinical remission or low disease activity (LDA) state....

  7. Tea and coronary heart disease : protection through estrogenlike activity?

    Geleijnse, J.M.; Witteman, J.C.; Launer, L.J.; Lamberts, S.J.; Pols, H.A.


    Tea drinking appears to be protective against coronary heart disease in a number of epidemiologic studies. It has been suggested that tea flavonols with antioxidative activity, including quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin,1 could account for the favorable effect on cardiovascular health. In the ol

  8. Neural activities during affective processing in people with Alzheimer's disease

    Lee, Tatia M. C.; Sun, Delin; Leung, Mei-Kei; Chu, Leung-Wing; Keysers, Christian


    This study examined brain activities in people with Alzheimer's disease when viewing happy, sad, and fearful facial expressions of others. A functional magnetic resonance imaging and a voxel-based morphometry methodology together with a passive viewing of emotional faces paradigm were employed to co

  9. Serum melatonin in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: correlation with disease activity.

    El-Awady, Hanaa Mahmoud; El-Wakkad, Amany Salah El-Dien; Saleh, Maysa Tawheed; Muhammad, Saadia Ibraheem; Ghaniema, Eiman Mahmoud


    The study was conducted to investigate the abnormalities in early morning serum melatonin among patients with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) and to outline its relation to disease activity and severity. Twenty one patients with JRA and twenty healthy age and sex matched controls were enrolled in the study. Fifteen patients had polyarticular JRA, 3 had oligoarticular and 3 had systemic onset JRA. Evaluation was carried out clinically, functionally and radiologically by using disease activity score, Juvenile Arthritis Functional Assessment Report for Children (JAFAR-C score) and modified Larsen score, respectively. Laboratory investigations included Complete Blood Picture (CBC), The Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), classic IgM Rheumatoid Factor (RF), Anti-nuclear Antibodies (ANA) and melatonin estimation in serum. The serum levels of melatonin were significantly increased in JRA patients (mean +/- SD = 13.9 +/- 8 pg mL(-1)) as compared to healthy controls (mean +/- SD = 8.1 +/- 2.7 pg mL(-1), p 0.05). Hence the study conclude that the elevated melatonin levels among JRA patients with active synovitis and its close relation to disease activity rather than disease severity suggests that melatonin might play a promoting role in rheumatoid arthritis. Hence, inhibition of its synthesis and/or action by specific antagonists may be of therapeutic value.

  10. Characteristics of intestinal pseudo-obstruction in patients with mitochondrial diseases

    Yusuke Sekino; Masahiko Inamori; Eiji Yamada; Hidenori Ohkubo; Eiji Sakai; Takuma Higurashi; Hiroshi Iida


    AIM:To reveal the frequency,characteristics and prognosis of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP) in mitochondrial disease patients.METHODS:Between January 2000 and December 2010,31 patients (13 males and 18 females) were diagnosed with mitochondrial diseases at our hospital.We conducted a retrospective review of the patients'sex,subclass of mitochondrial disease,age at onset of mitochondrial disease,frequency of CIP and the age at its onset,and the duration of survival.The age at onset or at the first diagnosis of the disorder that led to the clinical suspicion of mitochondrial disease was also examined.RESULTS:Twenty patients were sub-classified with mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS),8 with' chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO),and 3 with myoclonus epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers (MERRF).Nine patients were diagnosed with CIP,8 of the 20 (40.0%) patients with MELAS,0 of the 8 (0.0%)patients with CPEO,and 1 of the 3 (33.3%) patients with MERRF.The median age (range) at the diagnosis and the median age at onset of mitochondrial disease were 40 (17-69) and 25 (12-63) years in patients with CIP,and 49 (17-81) and 40 (11-71) years in patients without CIP.During the survey period,5 patients (4 patients with MELAS and 1 with CPEO) died.The cause of death was cardiomyopathy in 2 patients with MELAS,cerebral infarction in 1 patient with MELAS,epilepsy and aspiration pneumonia in 1 patient with MELAS,and multiple metastases from gastric cancer and aspiration pneumonia in 1 patient with CPEO.CONCLUSION:Patients with CIP tend to have disorders that are suspected to be related to mitochondrial diseases at younger ages than are patients without CIP.

  11. Characteristics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Spain from a gender perspective

    Hernandez-Barrera Valentin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical and management characteristics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in men and women, to determine possible gender-associated differences between the two groups of patients. Methods An observational and descriptive epidemiological study (EPIDEPOC study. The study included patients with stable COPD and aged ≥ 40 years, evaluated in primary care. Data were collected relating to sociodemographic variables, clinical characteristics, quality of life (SF-12, severity of disease and treatment. The results obtained in men and women were compared. Results A total of 10,711 patients (75.6% males and 24.4% females were evaluated. Significant differences were found between males and females in relation to the following parameters: age (67.4 ± 9.2 years in men vs 66.1 ± 10.8 in women, p 2-adrenergic agonists, anticholinergic agents, theophyllines and mucolytic agents was significant greater in men. The total annual cost of COPD was greater in males than in females (1989.20 ± 2364.47 € vs 1724.53 ± 2106.90, p Conclusion The women with COPD evaluated in this study were younger, smoked less and have more comorbidity, a poorer quality of life, and lesser disease severity than men with COPD. However, they generated a lesser total annual cost of COPD than men.

  12. The influence of age at disease onset on disease activity and disability: results from the Ontario Best Practices Research Initiative.

    Ruban, T N; Jacob, B; Pope, J E; Keystone, E C; Bombardier, C; Kuriya, B


    This study aims to compare characteristics between late-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and young-onset RA and determine the association between age at disease onset and disease severity. We cross-sectionally studied 971 patients at the time of entry into the Ontario Best Practices Research Initiative, a registry of RA patients followed up in routine care. We restricted patients to ≤5 years of disease duration. Late-onset RA was defined as an onset ≥60 years of age and young-onset RA <60 years. Group differences were compared, and multivariate linear regression models were used to test the influence of age at onset on Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR), Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores. The swollen joint count (6.2 vs. 5.3), acute phase reactants (C-reactive protein (CRP) 17.4 vs. 11.8 mg/L, ESR 30.6 vs. 21.5 mm/h), and comorbidity burden were higher in late-onset RA compared to young-onset RA (p < 0.01). Mean DAS28-ESR (4.6 vs. 4.3) and HAQ (1.2 vs. 1.1) scores were higher in late-onset RA patients (p < 0.05). Late-onset RA patients received more initial disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) monotherapy and corticosteroids in comparison to greater DMARD/biologic combination therapy in young-onset RA patients (p < 0.05). Adjusted multivariate analyses showed that late-onset RA was independently associated with higher mean DAS28-ESR and HAQ scores, but not CDAI. Late-onset RA patients have greater disease activity that may contribute to disability early in the disease course. Despite this, initial treatment consists of less combination DMARD and biologic use in late-onset RA patients. This may have implications for future response to therapy and development of joint damage, disability, and comorbidities in this group.

  13. Tribological Characteristics of Chromium-active Carbon Electroplated Composite Coatings

    GUKa-fi; HUAMeng; Yi-min


    A process of chromium electroplating using a standard bath with additives and active carbon particles was reported, and the tribological behaviors of the composite coatings using the pin-on-disk tester and the table wear tester were i nvestig(aed. Experimental results indicate that the electroplated chromium-active carbon composite coatings exhibited the low friction coefficient anti excellent anti-wear properties whets coffered with the normal chromium electroplated ones. The formation of active carbon particles within the chromium matrices can be explained by SEM analysis and the mechanis of wear resistance of the composite coatings were studied.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of disease activity in Crohn's disease: a systematic review

    Horsthuis, Karin [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, AZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bipat, Shandra; Stoker, Jaap [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stokkers, Pieter C.F. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Gastroenterology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    To systematically review the evidence on the accuracy of MRI for grading disease activity in Crohn's disease (CD). The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane databases were searched for studies on the accuracy of MRI in grading CD compared to a predefined reference standard. Two independent observers scored all relevant data. Three disease stages were defined: remission, mild and frank disease. The accuracy rates of MRI per disease stage were calculated by means of a random-effects model. Seven studies were included from a search resulting in 253 articles. In total 140 patients (16 patients in remission, 29 with mild disease and 95 with frank disease) were used for data analysis. MRI correctly graded 91% (95% CI: 84-96%) of patients with frank disease, 62% (95% CI: 44-79) of patients with mild disease and 62% (95% CI: 38-84) of patients in remission. MRI more often overstaged than understaged disease activity; MRI overstaged disease activity in 38% of patients in remission, mostly as mild disease. Overstaging of mild disease was observed in 21%, understaging in 17%. MRI correctly grades disease activity in a large proportion of patients with frank disease. For patients in remission or with mild disease, MRI correctly stages disease activity in many patients (62%). (orig.)

  15. An Evaluation of the Correlation between Hepcidin Serum Levels and Disease Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Zehra Betül Paköz


    Full Text Available Aim. While there are many well-defined serological markers for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, there is limited evidence that they positively affect clinical outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between hepcidin serum levels and disease activity in IBD. Materials and Methods. Eighty-five consecutive IBD patients were enrolled in the study. Hepcidin serum levels were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and were compared with disease activity as well as the interleukin-6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP levels. Results. The mean hepcidin serum levels in Crohn’s disease (CD patients in remission and in the active phase were 3837±1436 and 3752±1274 pg/mL, respectively P=0.613. The mean hepcidin serum levels in ulcerative colitis (UC patients in remission and in the active phase were 4285±8623 and 3727±1176 pg/mL, respectively P=0.241. Correlation analysis between inflammatory markers and hepcidin serum levels indicated that there was no correlation between hepcidin levels and IL-6 P=0.582 or CRP P=0.783. Conclusion. As an acute-phase protein, hepcidin seems to have a lower efficacy than other parameters in the detection of activation in IBD.

  16. Restless legs syndrome in Parkinson's disease: clinical characteristics and biochemical correlations

    Tiago Machado Guerreiro


    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a neurological disorder that responds to dopaminergic drugs, indicating a common pathophysiology with Parkinson's disease (PD. The prevalence of RLS was estimated in a group of PD patients and its clinical and biochemical characteristics were analysed. Forty-eight patients with PD were evaluated into two groups, with and without RLS. Clinical characteristics assessed in both groups were age, gender, duration of PD, Hoehn and Yahr, and Schwab and England scales. Laboratory variables such as hemoglobin, s-iron, s-ferritin and creatinine were obtained. The prevalence of RLS was 18.75%. No significant differences regarding clinical variables and biochemical parameters were observed. The high prevalence of RLS found in PD patients suggests the concept of a common etiological link and it seems that secondary causes did not play a central role in the pathophysiology of RLS in this group of parkinsonian patients.

  17. Tremor frequency characteristics in Parkinson's disease under resting-state and stress-state conditions.

    Lee, Hong Ji; Lee, Woong Woo; Kim, Sang Kyong; Park, Hyeyoung; Jeon, Hyo Seon; Kim, Han Byul; Jeon, Beom S; Park, Kwang Suk


    Tremor characteristics-amplitude and frequency components-are primary quantitative clinical factors for diagnosis and monitoring of tremors. Few studies have investigated how different patient's conditions affect tremor frequency characteristics in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we analyzed tremor characteristics under resting-state and stress-state conditions. Tremor was recorded using an accelerometer on the finger, under resting-state and stress-state (calculation task) conditions, during rest tremor and postural tremor. The changes of peak power, peak frequency, mean frequency, and distribution of power spectral density (PSD) of tremor were evaluated across conditions. Patients whose tremors were considered more than "mild" were selected, for both rest (n=67) and postural (n=25) tremor. Stress resulted in both greater peak powers and higher peak frequencies for rest tremor (pcharacteristics, namely a lower frequency as amplitude increases, are different in stressful condition. Patient's conditions directly affect neural oscillations related to tremor frequencies. Therefore, tremor characteristics in PD should be systematically standardized across patient's conditions such as attention and stress levels.

  18. Disease characteristics of bovine spongiform encephalopathy following inoculation into mice via three different routes.

    Vickery, Christopher M; Beck, Katy E; Simmons, Marion M; Hawkins, Stephen A C; Spiropoulos, John


    Mouse-adapted transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) strains are routinely distinguished based on reproducible disease characteristics in a given mouse line following inoculation via a consistent route. We investigated whether different administration routes (oral, intragastric (i.g.) and intracerebral (i.c.)) can alter the disease characteristics in IM mice after serial dilution of a stabilized mouse-adapted bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) strain (301V). In addition, the infectivity of distal ileum and mesenteric lymph nodes (ln) sampled at three time points (35 days postinoculation (dpi), 70 dpi and terminal disease) after i.g. inoculation of 301V strain was assessed in mice by i.c. challenge. Strain characteristics were assessed according to standard methodology and PrP(Sc) immunohistochemistry deposition patterns. Mean incubation periods were prolonged following oral or i.g. inoculations compared to the i.c. route. Lesion profiles following i.c. challenges were elevated compared to i.g. and oral routes although vacuolation in the dorsal medulla was consistently high irrespective of the route of administration. Nevertheless, the same PrP(Sc) deposition pattern was associated with each route of administration. Distal and mesenteric ln infectivity was detected as early as 35 dpi and displayed consistent lesion profiles and PrP(Sc) deposition patterns. Our data suggest that although 301V retained its properties, some phenotypic parameters were affected by the route of inoculation. We conclude that bioassay data should be interpreted carefully and should be standardized for route of inoculation.

  19. Quantification of muscle activity during sleep for patients with neurodegenerative diseases

    Hanif, Umaer; Trap, Lotte; Jennum, Poul;


    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is a very strong predictor for later development of Parkinson's disease (PD), and is characterized by REM sleep without atonia (RSWA), resulting in increased muscle activity during REM sleep. Abundant studies have shown the loss of atonia during REM...... sleep, but our aim was to investigate whether iRBD and PD patients have increased muscle activity in both REM and NREM sleep compared to healthy controls. This was achieved by developing a semi-automatic algorithm for quantification of mean muscle activity per second during all sleep stages...... to the different sleep stages and muscle activity beyond the threshold was counted. The results were evaluated statistically using the two-sided Mann-Whitney U-test. The results suggested that iRBD patients also exhibit distinctive muscle activity characteristics in NREM sleep, however not as evident as in REM...

  20. Chinese specific characteristics of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a retrospective analysis of 57 cases.

    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD is a fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disorder. However, no studies have reported Chinese specific characteristics of sCJD. We aimed to identify differences in sCJD between Chinese patients and patients from other countries. METHODS: The data from 57 Chinese sCJD patients were retrospectively analyzed, including demographic data, clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations, electroencephalograms (EEGs, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI scans, positron emission tomography (PET scans, and pathological results. RESULT: The disease was pathologically confirmed in 11 patients. 39 cases were diagnosed as probable sCJD, and 7 were possible. Of the total cases, 33 were male, and 24 were female. The onset age ranged from 36 to 75 years (mean: 55.5, median: 57. Disease onset before the age of 60 occurred in 57.9% of patients. The disease duration from onset to death ranged 5-22 months (mean: 11.6, median: 11, and 51.9% of patients died 7 to 12 months after disease onset. The majority of patients presented with sub-acute onset with progressive dementia. 3 of the 9 patients who took 14-3-3 protein analysis had positive results (33.3%. The sensitivity of EEG was 79.6% (43/54. For DWI and PET examinations, the sensitivities were 94% (47/50 and 94.1% (16/17, respectively. In seven patients who did not show typical hyper-intensities on the first DWI examination, abnormalities of hypo-metabolism in the cerebral cortex were clearly detected by PET. In 13 out of the 17 patients, PET detected extra abnormal regions in addition to the hyper-intense areas observed in DWI. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to indicate that Chinese sCJD patients have a much earlier onset age and a longer disease duration than other populations, which is most likely related to racial differences. The longer disease duration may also be a probable characteristic of Asian populations. PET had high sensitivity for the

  1. Relative Amplitude based Features of characteristic ECG-Peaks for Identification of Coronary Artery Disease

    Gohel, Bakul; Tiwary, U. S.; Lahiri, T.

    Coronary artery disease or Myocardial Infarction is the leading cause of death and disability in the world. ECG is widely used as a cheap diagnostic tool for diagnosis of coronary artery disease but has low sensitivity with the present criteria based on ST-segment, T wave and Q wave changes. So to increase the sensitivity of the ECG we have introduced relative amplitude based new features of characteristic ‘R’ and ‘S’ ECG-peaks between two leads. Relative amplitude based features shows remarkable capability in discriminating Myocardial Infarction and Healthy pattern using backpropogation neural network classifier yield results with 81.82% sensitivity and 81.82% specificity. Also relative amplitude might be an efficient method in minimizing the effect of body composition on ECG amplitude based features without use of any information from other than ECG


    郭雄; 杨亚宁


    Objective The occurrence characteristic of Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD) in pedigrees ascertained on the basis of one proband was estimated. Methods A total of 255 individuals in 40 pedigrees were collected from areas in the Shaanxi Province. Results ① Parents and siblings of index cases have a 3-4 times higher risk than a random unrelated individual. The odds ratio for disease is higher in mothers than in fathers of index cases; ② Prevalence in relatives of index cases (Kr=59.2%) greatly exceeds population prevalence (K=17.5%); ③ Kr increases with sibship size; ④ There is no significant difference of Kr for male and female siblings of index cases. Also, population prevalence is not sex-specific. Conclusion In conjunction with environmental agents, genetics may play an important role in KBD etiology.

  3. Circulating ACE2 activity correlates with cardiovascular disease development

    Katalin Úri


    Full Text Available It was shown recently that angiotensin-converting enzyme activity is limited by endogenous inhibition in vivo, highlighting the importance of angiotensin II (ACE2 elimination. The potential contribution of the ACE2 to cardiovascular disease progression was addressed. Serum ACE2 activities were measured in different clinical states (healthy, n=45; hypertensive, n=239; heart failure (HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF n=141 and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF n=47. ACE2 activity was significantly higher in hypertensive patients (24.8±0.8 U/ml than that in healthy volunteers (16.2±0.8 U/ml, p=0.01. ACE2 activity further increased in HFrEF patients (43.9±2.1 U/ml, p=0.001 but not in HFpEF patients (24.6±1.9 U/ml when compared with hypertensive patients. Serum ACE2 activity negatively correlated with left ventricular systolic function in HFrEF, but not in hypertensive, HFpEF or healthy populations. Serum ACE2 activity had a fair diagnostic value to differentiate HFpEF from HFrEF patients in this study. Serum ACE2 activity correlates with cardiovascular disease development: it increases when hypertension develops and further increases when the cardiovascular disease further progresses to systolic dysfunction, suggesting that ACE2 metabolism plays a role in these processes. In contrast, serum ACE2 activity does not change when hypertension progresses to HFpEF, suggesting a different pathomechanism for HFpEF, and proposing a biomarker-based identification of these HF forms.



    Adsorption properties of L-histidine on active carbon were studied in the paper, which are affected by the main parameters, such as the quantity percent of active carbon, pH value of the solution, the time of adsorption equilibrium and adsorption temperature. The results indicate that adsorption equilibrium time of L-his on active carbon is about 80 minutes. With the increasing of the quantity percent of active carbon, the adsorbance of L-his decreases sharply, and increases lighter after that. When the quantity percent of active carbon is 10%, the adsorbance reaches the minimum.pH value of solution and extraction temperature have great affection on the adsorption. When the pH value is higher or lower than the pI of L-his, the adsorbance is small, even zero. It is proven that the experimental equilibrium data which are obtained under the conditions of 80 ℃and pH=1.0, are fitted with the Freundlich equation: q=2.5914c0.8097. The results can provide certain references in L-his adsorption process of industrial operation.

  5. Main determinants of physical activity levels in individuals with Parkinson’s disease

    Raquel de Carvalho Lana


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study analyzed the relationship between patient characteristics, factors associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD, and physical activity level of individuals affected by the disease. Forty-six volunteers with mild-to-moderate idiopathic PD were assessed using sections II/III of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale and their motor functions were classified according to the modified Hoehn and Yahr (HY scale. Data such as age, disease duration, the Human Activity Profile (HAP, the Fatigue Severity Scale were collected. Lower limb bradykinesia and clinical subtypes of PD were defined. Two models that explained 76% of the variance of the HAP were used. The first comprised age, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL, and the HY scale; the second comprised age, ability to perform ADL, and lower limb bradykinesia. Possible modifiable factors such as the ability to perform ADL and lower limb bradykinesia were identified as predictors of physical activity level of individuals with PD.

  6. Electrochemical characteristics of activated carbon nanofiber electrodes for supercapacitors

    Seo, Min-Kang [Dept. of Chemistry, Inha University, 253, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo-Jin [Dept. of Chemistry, Inha University, 253, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail:


    In this work, poly(amide imide) solutions in dimethylformamide were electrospun into webs consisting of 350 nm ultrafine nanofibers. These nanofiber webs were used to produce activated carbon nanofibers (ACNFs), through stabilization and carbonisation-activation processes. Experimental results indicated that ACNFs activated at 800 deg. C afforded the highest specific surface area but low mesopore volume. The high specific surface area, mainly due to the micropores, introduced maximum specific capacitance at low current density (150 F g{sup -1} at 10 mA g{sup -1}). Elevating the volume fraction of mesopores gave maximum specific capacitance at high current density (100 F g{sup -1} at 1000 mA g{sup -1}), which could be explained on the basis of ion mobility in the pores. Thus, the capacitance of the supercapacitors was strongly dependent on the specific surface area and micro- or mesopore volume of the ACNFs.

  7. Epidemiological characteristics of inflammatory bowel disease in North-Eastern Poland

    Alicja Wiercinska-Drapalo; Jerzy Jaroszewicz; Robert Flisiak; Danuta Prokopowicz


    AIM: To provide the clinical and epidemiological data of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients of NorthEastern Poland.METHODS: A total of 248 IBD patients diagnosed and hospitalized in the Department of Infectious Diseases in Bialystok between 1990 and 2003 were included in the study. We analyzed age, sex, education, characteristics of job, type of the environment, discontinuation of employment due to IBD, colitis extent, need of surgical treatment, and coexistence of other diseases.RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-three IBD patients (94%) were diagnosed as ulcerative colitis (UC), and only 15 (6%) were diagnosed as Crohn's disease (CD). Patients with CD were significantly younger at the time of diagnosis and male predominance was observed. The mean age of the patients at the time UC diagnosis was 44.9±1.1 years. Histogram of the age of patients showed the characteristic biphasic distribution with two peaks between 20 and 40 years and between 60 and 70 years. The predominant form of UC was left sided colitis, which affected almost 80% of the studied population. The most extensive form - pancolitis was present in 34 patients (15%). Only 6% of UC patients required surgery, whereas 36% of CD patients underwent surgery (P<0.005). Among coexisting disorders, cholelithiasis was the most prevalent and demonstrated in 35 patients (14%), pulmonary disorders were diagnosed in 2%, and psoriasis in 1.4%.Since 1998, the number of admitted IBD patients has slightly increased.CONCLUSION: Occurrence of UC in Poland is much higher than that of CD. The majority of UC cases are diagnosed in young people (20-40 years) with the predominance of male patients. The most common clinical form of UC is left sided colitis.

  8. Microbiome profiles in periodontitis in relation to host and disease characteristics.

    Bo-Young Hong

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition that affects the supporting tissues surrounding teeth. The occurrence of periodontitis is associated with shifts in the structure of the communities that inhabit the gingival sulcus. Although great inter-subject variability in the subgingival microbiome has been observed in subjects with periodontitis, it is unclear whether distinct community types exist and if differences in microbial signatures correlate with host characteristics or with the variable clinical presentations of periodontitis. Therefore, in this study we explored the existence of different community types in periodontitis and their relationship with host demographic, medical and disease-related clinical characteristics. Clustering analyses of microbial abundance profiles suggested two types of communities (A and B existed in the 34 subjects with periodontitis evaluated. Type B communities harbored greater proportions of certain periodontitis-associated taxa, including species historically associated with the disease, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola, and taxa recently linked to periodontitis. In contrast, subjects with type A communities had increased proportions of different periodontitis-associated species, and were also enriched for health-associated species and core taxa (those equally prevalent in health and periodontitis. Periodontitis subgingival clusters were not associated with demographic, medical or disease-specific clinical parameters other than periodontitis extent (proportion of sites affected, which positively correlated with the total proportion of cluster B signature taxa. In conclusion, two types of microbial communities were detected in subjects with periodontitis. Host demographics and underlying medical conditions did not correlate with these profiles, which instead appeared to be related to periodontitis extent, with type B communities present in more widespread disease

  9. Clinical and biochemical characteristics of Cushing’s disease with different suppression rates by high-dose dexamethasone



    Objective To analyze the clinical and biochemical characteristics of Cushing’s disease with different suppression rates by high-dose dexamethasone.Methods Two hundred and two consecutive patients with

  10. Physical Activity, Brain Plasticity, and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Erickson, Kirk I; Weinstein, Andrea M; Lopez, Oscar L


    In this review we summarize the epidemiological, cross-sectional, and interventional studies examining the association between physical activity and brain volume, function, and risk for Alzheimer’s disease. The epidemiological literature provides compelling evidence that greater amounts of physical activity are associated with a reduced risk of dementia in late life. In addition, randomized interventions using neuroimaging tools have reported that participation in physical activity increases the size of prefrontal and hippocampal brain areas, which may lead to a reduction in memory impairments. Consistent with these findings, longitudinal studies using neuroimaging tools also find that the volume of prefrontal and hippocampal brain areas are larger in individuals who engaged in more physical activity earlier in life. We conclude from this review that there is convincing evidence that physical activity has a consistent and robust association with brain regions implicated in age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease. In addition to summarizing this literature we provide recommendations for future research on physical activity and brain health. PMID:23085449

  11. Physicochemical and porosity characteristics of thermally regenerated activated carbon polluted with biological activated carbon process.

    Dong, Lihua; Liu, Wenjun; Jiang, Renfu; Wang, Zhansheng


    The characteristics of thermally regenerated activated carbon (AC) polluted with biological activated carbon (BAC) process were investigated. The results showed that the true micropore and sub-micropore volume, pH value, bulk density, and hardness of regenerated AC decreased compared to the virgin AC, but the total pore volume increased. XPS analysis displayed that the ash contents of Al, Si, and Ca in the regenerated AC respectively increased by 3.83%, 2.62% and 1.8%. FTIR spectrum showed that the surface functional groups of virgin and regenerated AC did not change significantly. Pore size distributions indicated that the AC regeneration process resulted in the decrease of micropore and macropore (D>10 μm) volume and the increase of mesopore and macropore (0.1 μm

  12. Dietary fibre characteristics and antioxydant activity of sesame seed coats


    The dietary fibre contained in the seed coats (testae) of sesame, by-products of the dehulling processes during the manufacture of sweetened sesame paste (halaweh), were evaluated with two assays: the AOAC enzymatic-gravimetric method and the enzymatic-chemical method. Functional properties and antioxidant activity of sesame seed coats were also determined. The total, insoluble, and soluble dietary fibre contents measured were significantly higher using the AOAC method, than with the enzymati...

  13. Characteristics of Spanish adolescents’ and youngsters’ civic activity: e- citizenship

    Juan Antonio Fuentes Esparrell


    Full Text Available In this study we aim to illustrate and provide data on the access, use, equipment, habits and motivations of Spanish adolescents and young people towards ICT (computers, networks, internet, mobile phones.... We will focus mainly on social networks and mobile telephony as the main technologies currently in use. Thus, we can gain an insight into the main features of civic activity among Spanish adolescents and youngsters for proper e‐citizenship.

  14. Morphological characteristics and pathogenicity of fungi associated with Roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa) diseases in Penang, Malaysia.

    Eslaminejad, Touba; Zakaria, Maziah


    Roselle, or Jamaica sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is a popular vegetable in many tropical regions, cultivated for its leaves, seeds, stems and calyces which, the dried calyces are used to prepare tea, syrup, jams and jellies and as beverages. The main objectives of this study were to identify and characterise fungal pathogens associated with Roselle diseases based on their morphological and cultural characteristics and to determine the pathogenicity of four fungi infecting Roselle seedlings, namely Phoma exigua, Fusarium nygamai, Fusarium tgcq and Rhizoctonia solani in Penang. A total of 200 fungal isolates were obtained from 90 samples of symptomatic Roselle tissues. The isolates were identified based on cultural and morphological characteristics, as well as their pathogenicity. The fungal pathogen most frequently isolated was P. exigua (present in 45% of the samples), followed by F. nygamai (25%), Rhizoctonia solani (19%) and F. camptoceras (11%). Pathogenicity tests showed that P. exigua, F. nygamai, F. camptoceras and R. solani were able to infect both wounded and unwounded seedlings with different degrees of severity as indicated by the Disease severity (DS). R. solani was the most pathogenic fungus affecting both wounded and unwounded Roselle seedlings, followed by P. exigua that was highly pathogenic on wounded seedlings. F. nygamai was less pathogenic while the least pathogenic fungus was F. camptoceras, infecting only the unwounded seedlings but, surprisingly, not the wounded plants.

  15. Mapping the genetic and clinical characteristics of Gaucher disease in the Iberian Peninsula

    Giraldo Pilar


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gaucher disease (GD is due to deficiency of the glucocerebrosidase enzyme. It is panethnic, but its presentation reveals ethnicity-specific characteristics. Methods We evaluated the distribution, and clinical and genetic characteristics of GD patients in the Iberian Peninsula (IP. We analysed geographical distribution, demographic, genetic and clinical data, age at diagnosis, type, and years of therapy in 436 GD patients from the IP. Results The prevalence of GD was 1/149,000 inhabitants; 88.3% were type 1, 6.7% type 2, and 5.0% type 3. The mean age at diagnosis in type 1 was 28.7 years. A total of 72.7% were classified as having mild forms, 25.5% moderate, and 1.7% severe. Anemia and thrombocytopenia were present in 56% and 55%, respectively. Bone disease and hepatomegaly were reported in 62% and 68%, respectively, and were more likely in asplenic than in non-splenectomized patients. Sixty-nine mutant alleles were identified, and five mutations accounted for 75% of the GBA alleles. Several patients described in our series had interesting phenotypes. A total of 58.7% of patients had received enzyme replacement therapy and 12.6% were treated with miglustat. Conclusions A broad spectrum of GBA mutations is present in the IP, with 98.2% of type 1 GD being mild and 23.0% never treated. These data highlight genetic and phenotypic heterogeneities among geographic populations.

  16. [Characteristics and drug analysis associated with vertigo disease in real world].

    Xie, Qian; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei; Zhao, Wei; Zhuang, Yan; Wang, Yong-Yan


    To explore the characteristics and influenced factors associated with the onset of vertigo disease, analysis of 3 719 cases of hospitalized patients with vertigo disease from the real world. Analysis the date of patients diagnosed with vertigo disease from the hospital information system of 19 grade-III class-A hospital from 2004 to 2011, include general information, the doctor's advice, other diseases combined, diagnostic information and the relationship with the onset of 24 solar terms, and the treatment drugs. The median age of hospitalized patients with vertigo disease was 59, the number of women (65.91%) was more than men (34.09%), manual workers (85.32%) were the majority career, most patients (81.63%) condition were general by the time they were hospital admission, patients more like admitted to neurologist (70.34%) when they first time to outpatient serves, hospitalization days were in 8-14 days (46.65%), 46.04% of the patients in the hospital total cost is in 5 000 RMB to 10 000 RMB, 73.86% of patients paid by National Health Medical Insurance. Hypertension (20.79%) was the most common underlying health problems, The most common syndromes was deficiency of liver-Yin and kidney-Yin(44. 21%) , followed by hyperactivity of liver-yang, disease of phlegm turbidity in mongolia and deficiency of Qi and blood. There were more deficiency syndrome and less excess syndrome. The highest rate of hospital admission solar terms in 2009 was the insects awaken throttle (5.21%), In 2010, the highest rate solar terms of hospital admission was the rain throttle (6.14%). The most frequently used traditional Chinese medicine was gastrodine injection (20.55%), the most frequently used western medicine for betahistine (10.19%), gastrodine injection was the most traditional Chinese medicine that combination with other western medicine. Hypertension was the most underlying health problems in the patients with vertigo disease in the real world, although the mental factors should

  17. Graves' disease: thyroid function and immunologic activity

    Gossage, A.A.R.; Crawley, J.C.W.; Copping, S.; Hinge, D.; Himsworth, R.L.


    Patients with Graves' disease were studied for two years during and after a twelve-month course of treatment. Disease activity was determined by repeated measurements of thyroidal uptake of (/sup 9/ during tri-iodothyronine administration. These in-vivo measurements of thyroid stimulation were compared with the results of in-vitro assays of Graves, immunoglobulin (TSH binding inhibitory activity - TBIA). There was no correlation between the thyroid uptake and TBIA on diagnosis. Pertechnetate uptake and TBIA both declined during the twelve months of antithyroid therapy. TBIA was detectable in sera from 19 of the 27 patients at diagnosis; in 11 of these 19 patients there was a good correlation (p<0.05) throughout the course of their disease between the laboratory assay of the Graves, immunoglobulin and the thyroid uptake. Probability of recurrence can be assessed but sustained remission of Graves' disease after treatment cannot be predicted from either measurement alone or in combination.

  18. Graves' disease: thyroid function and immunologic activity

    Gossage, A.A.; Crawley, J.C.; Copping, S.; Hinge, D.; Himsworth, R.L.


    Patients with Graves' disease were studied for two years during and after a twelve-month course of treatment. Disease activity was determined by repeated measurements of thyroidal uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)pertechnetate during tri-iodothyronine administration. These in-vivo measurements of thyroid stimulation were compared with the results of in-vitro assays of Graves, immunoglobulin (TSH binding inhibitory activity--TBIA). There was no correlation between the thyroid uptake and TBIA on diagnosis. Pertechnetate uptake and TBIA both declined during the twelve months of antithyroid therapy. TBIA was detectable in sera from 19 of the 27 patients at diagnosis; in 11 of these 19 patients there was a good correlation (p less than 0.05) throughout the course of their disease between the laboratory assay of the Graves, immunoglobulin and the thyroid uptake. Probability of recurrence can be assessed but sustained remission of Graves' disease after treatment cannot be predicted from either measurement alone or in combination.

  19. An exploratory study of activity in veterans with Parkinson's disease.

    Trail, Marilyn; Petersen, Nancy J; Nelson, Naomi; Lai, Eugene C


    Movement disorder specialists have limited information on the specifics of how patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) spend their time. We deemed it important to examine the relationships among activity and daily energy expenditure (DEE), non-motor symptoms, and body mass index in veterans with PD who were outpatients at a Veterans Affairs medical center. In this exploratory study, we mailed demographic and activity questionnaires and gathered data on 100 patients. Activity was categorized into five domains and three intensity levels, and DEE was measured in kilocalories. Light activities accounted for 64.9% of DEE (9.1 h), moderate activities for 32.9% (2.1 h), and vigorous activities for 2.2% (0.1 h) of DEE. Television viewing comprised 10.6% (2.5 h) of the day. The effects of non-motor symptoms were significantly associated with more time spent on activities of daily life (ADL). Patients rated fatigue and pain as having the greatest impact on their daily activities. The overweight/obese group of PD patients expended more overall DEE (p = 0.044) and more DEE on social activities (p = 0.024) and light intensity activities (p = 0.021) than did the underweight/normal group. Leisure activities for both groups changed from active to passive. Veterans with PD primarily expended DEE on ADL, TV viewing, and light intensity activities. Television viewing time may have been under reported. Movement disorder specialists can be more proactive in referring patients to physical therapy and encouraging their participation in community exercise and support groups.

  20. Endotoxin-like activity associated with Lyme disease Borrelia.

    Fumarola, D; Munno, I; Marcuccio, C; Miragliotta, G


    The newly recognized spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme Disease, has been examined for endotoxin-like activities as measured by the standard Farmacopea Ufficiale della Republica Italiana rabbit fever test and the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. The suspension of heat-killed microorganism caused a febrile response at a dose of 1 X 10(8) bacteria pro kilo. Similar results were obtained in the Limulus assay where the heat-killed spirochetes stimulated formation of solid clot until the concentration of 1 X 10(5) per ml. Both in pyrogen test and in Limulus assay heat-killed Escherichia coli exhibited a higher degree of potency. These results show that LD-Borrelia possess endotoxin-like activities which could help in understanding the pathogenesis of the clinical symptomatology of the disease.

  1. MR imaging in adults with Gaucher disease type I: evulation of marrow involvement and disease activity

    Hermann, G. (Dept. of Radiology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, City Univ. of New York, NY (United States)); Shaprio, R.S. (Dept. of Radiology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, City Univ. of New York, NY (United States)); Abdelwahab, I.F. (Dept. of Radiology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, City Univ. of New York, NY (United States)); Grabowski, G. (Dept. of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai Medical Center, City Univ. of New York, NY (United States))


    An investigation was conducted to determine the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of bone marrow involvement in patients with Gaucher disease type I. T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained of the lower extremities of 29 adult patients. Patients were classified into one of three groups based on marrow signal patterns on T1- and T2-weighted images as well as change in signal intensity from T1- to T2-weighted images. An increase in signal intensity from T1- to T2-weighted images was the criterion for an 'active process' within the bone marrow. Classification of the 29 patients produced the following results: Group A: Normal, 4 patients; group B: Marrow infiltration, 16 patients; group C: Marrow infiltration plus active marrow process, 9 patients. Correlation with clinical findings revealed that all nine patients with evidence of an active marrow process on MRI (group C) had acute bone pain. Conversely, only one of the remaining 20 patients (groups A and B) had bone pain. There was no correlation between disease activity and findings on conventional radiographs. We conclude the MRI provides an excellent noninvasive assessment of the extent and activity of marrow involvement in type I Gaucher disease. (orig.)

  2. PPARδ Activity in Cardiovascular Diseases: A Potential Pharmacological Target

    Angela Tesse


    Full Text Available Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs, and particularly of PPARα and PPARγ, using selective agonists, is currently used in the treatment of metabolic diseases such as hypertriglyceridemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PPARα and PPARγ anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and antiangiogenic properties in cardiovascular cells were extensively clarified in a variety of in vitro and in vivo models. In contrast, the role of PPARδ in cardiovascular system is poorly understood. Prostacyclin, the predominant prostanoid released by vascular cells, is a putative endogenous agonist for PPARδ, but only recently PPARδ selective synthetic agonists were found, improving studies about the physiological and pathophysiological roles of PPARδ activation. Recent reports suggest that the PPARδ activation may play a pivotal role to regulate inflammation, apoptosis, and cell proliferation, suggesting that this transcriptional factor could become an interesting pharmacological target to regulate cardiovascular cell apoptosis, proliferation, inflammation, and metabolism.

  3. /sup 67/Ga citrate scintiscanning in active inflammatory bowel disease

    Rheingold, O.J.; Tedesco, F.J.; Block, F.E.; Maldonado, A.; Miale, A. Jr.


    Twenty-five hospitalized patients were studied prospectively with /sup 67/Ga citrate (GA) abdominal scintillation scanning in an attempt to define its role in the evaluation of patients with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There were nine patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), seven with Crohn's disease (CD), and nine controls. In four patients, two with UC and two with CD, a tissue/plasma radioactivity ratio was obtained and compared to normals. All the UC patients had positive GA scans and only one of seven of the CD patients had a positive scan. There were no false positive scans. Scans performed after a 3- or 5-day delay were more accurate than 6-hr scans alone. Well-delineated colinic radioactivity 6 hr after injection which persists for 3 to 5 days indicates the presence of UC in patients with IBD, while a negative scan is more consistent with active CD. Colonic uptake at 6 hr which clears by 48 or 72 hr is not indicative of UC. This procedure aided in following the course of UC, delineating the extent of disease, and in differentiating active CD from an intraabdominal abscess. Tissues from UC patients had increased tissue/plasma ratioactivity ratios while tissues from CD patients had normal or decreased ratios which were consistent with the imaging data.

  4. Synthesis, characteristics and antimicrobial activity of ZnO nanoparticles

    Janaki, A. Chinnammal; Sailatha, E.; Gunasekaran, S.


    The utilization of various plant resources for the bio synthesis of metallic nano particles is called green technology and it does not utilize any harmful protocols. Present study focuses on the green synthesis of ZnO nano particles by Zinc Carbonate and utilizing the bio-components of powder extract of dry ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale). The ZnO nano crystallites of average size range of 23-26 nm have been synthesized by rapid, simple and eco friendly method. Zinc oxide nano particles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). FTIR spectra confirmed the adsorption of surfactant molecules at the surface of ZnO nanoparticles and the presence of ZnO bonding. Antimicrobial activity of ZnO nano particles was done by well diffusion method against pathogenic organisms like Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans and Penicillium notatum. It is observed that the ZnO synthesized in the process has the efficient antimicrobial activity.

  5. Synthesis, characteristics and antimicrobial activity of ZnO nanoparticles.

    Janaki, A Chinnammal; Sailatha, E; Gunasekaran, S


    The utilization of various plant resources for the bio synthesis of metallic nano particles is called green technology and it does not utilize any harmful protocols. Present study focuses on the green synthesis of ZnO nano particles by Zinc Carbonate and utilizing the bio-components of powder extract of dry ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale). The ZnO nano crystallites of average size range of 23-26 nm have been synthesized by rapid, simple and eco friendly method. Zinc oxide nano particles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). FTIR spectra confirmed the adsorption of surfactant molecules at the surface of ZnO nanoparticles and the presence of ZnO bonding. Antimicrobial activity of ZnO nano particles was done by well diffusion method against pathogenic organisms like Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans and Penicillium notatum. It is observed that the ZnO synthesized in the process has the efficient antimicrobial activity.

  6. Recreational physical activity and risk of Parkinson's disease.

    Thacker, Evan L; Chen, Honglei; Patel, Alpa V; McCullough, Marjorie L; Calle, Eugenia E; Thun, Michael J; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Ascherio, Alberto


    The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between recreational physical activity and Parkinson's disease (PD) risk. We prospectively followed 143,325 participants in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort from 1992 to 2001 (mean age at baseline = 63). Recreational physical activity was estimated at baseline from the reported number of hours per week on average spent performing light intensity activities (walking, dancing) and moderate to vigorous intensity activities (jogging/running, lap swimming, tennis/racquetball, bicycling/stationary bike, aerobics/calisthenics). Incident cases of PD (n = 413) were confirmed by treating physicians and medical record review. Relative risks (RR) were estimated using proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, gender, smoking, and other risk factors. Risk of PD declined in the highest categories of baseline recreational activity. The RR comparing the highest category of total recreational activity (men > or = 23 metabolic equivalent task-hours/week [MET-h/wk], women > or = 18.5 MET-h/wk) to no activity was 0.8 (95% CI: 0.6, 1.2; P trend = 0.07). When light activity and moderate to vigorous activity were examined separately, only the latter was found to be associated with PD risk. The RR comparing the highest category of moderate to vigorous activity (men > or = 16 MET-h/wk, women > or = 11.5 MET-h/wk) to the lowest (0 MET-h/wk) was 0.6 (95% CI: 0.4, 1.0; P trend = 0.02). These results did not differ significantly by gender. The results were similar when we excluded cases with symptom onset in the first 4 years of follow-up. Our results may be explained either by a reduction in PD risk through moderate to vigorous activity, or by decreased baseline recreational activity due to preclinical PD.

  7. [Physical activity in basic and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease].

    Sobieszczańska, Małgorzata; Kałka, Dariusz; Pilecki, Witold; Adamus, Jerzy


    On account of the frequency of appearing and character of atherosclerosis cardiac vascular disease, one of the most crucial elements of effective fight against it is preparation of complex preventive programs including as vast number of population as possible. Consequently, Benjamin and Smitch suggested attaching the notion of basic prevention to the standard division into primary and secondary one. The basic prevention, carrying out in the general population, should concern genetic predisposition, psychosocial factors, keeping up proper body weight, healthy eating and physical activity. Especially high hopes are connected with high efficiency, simplicity and low money-consumption of preventive activities associated with physical activity modification, which has a crucial influence on reducing negative impact of atherosclerosis hazard. The results of numerous scientific research, carried out in many countries and on various, large groups, proved undoubtedly that at the healthy adult people of both sex the systematic physical activity of moderate intensification plays an essential part in preventing CVD and decreasing the death risk because of that reason as well. Moreover, systematic physical exercises show many other health-oriented actions, thanks to which they have an influence on decreasing premature and total death rate. The risk of incidence of civilization-related diseases such as diabetes type II, hypertension, obesity, osteoporosis, tumors (of large intestine, breast, prostatic gland) and depression has decreased significantly. Unequivocally positive influence has been proved at many observations dedicated to health recreational physical activity and physical activity connected with professional work based on aerobe effort. The positive effects have been also observed at children population and senior population which is more and more numerous and the most at risk. The beneficial action of physical activity is connected with direct effect on organism

  8. Prevalence and characteristics of gallstone disease in an Iranian population:a study on cadavers

    Esmaail Farzaneh; Hassan Toifghi Zavvareh; Jaber Gharadaghi; Mehrdad Sheikhvatan


    BACKGROUND:The prevalence of gallstones is low in Asians. In Iran, many factors inlfuence the prevalence of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gallbladder stones and their chemical characteristics in a population by the study of cadavers. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, autopsies were performed on 253 cadavers of more than 13 years old. The cadavers were studied to determine the number, location of stone formation, chemical composition, dry weight, and mean diameter of stones in the gallbladder and common bile duct. RESULTS:The prevalence of gallstone disease in these cadavers was 6.3% (men 4.7%, women 8.6%, not signiifcantly different, P=0.216). There was a positive relationship between the age and prevalence of gallstone disease (P=0.033). The most common stone compositions were cholesterol and oxalate. The mean diameter (P=0.0058) and dry weight (P CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of gallstones differed among age groups. Diameter and dry weight of gallstones were dependent on location of stone formation and chemical composition.

  9. Proactive dairy cattle disease control in the UK: veterinary surgeons' involvement and associated characteristics.

    Higgins, H M; Huxley, J N; Wapenaar, W; Green, M J


    Characteristics of 94 veterinary surgeons associated with delivering preventive herd-level strategies to control mastitis, lameness and Johne's disease were investigated using two multinomial models. The response variables were 'Gold Standard Monitoring' (including on-going data analysis, risk assessments and laboratory testing), and a lower level of involvement called 'Regular Control Advice'. Although the sample was biased towards those who spend the majority of their time with dairy cows, 69 per cent currently had no involvement in Gold Standard Monitoring for lameness, 60 per cent no involvement with Johne's, and 52 per cent no involvement with mastitis. The final model predicted that an assistant without a postgraduate cattle qualification, who had spent no time on dairy cattle continuous professional development (CPD) in the last year, had an 88 per cent chance of having no involvement with Gold Standard Monitoring for any disease, versus Gold Standard Monitoring of all three diseases on one or more farms, versus a 58 per cent chance for this partner. CPD and employment status were also associated with markedly different probabilities for delivering Regular Control Advice. Increased postgraduate education may further veterinary involvement of this nature.

  10. Retrospective case-analysis of the magnetic resonance imaging characteristics in the brain of patients with Wilson disease

    Hong Li; Kun You; Baoming He; Jiagui Su; Jian Hong; Changbin quan; Hin Zhao


    BACKGROUND:Wilson disease (WD)damages liver,brain,kidney,cornea and nervous system severely.It is manifested in four ways:brain,liver,kidney and bone muscle.Whether or not magnetic resonance imagling (MRI)can clearly display the diseased region and range in brain of patient with WD,which provides imageological evidence for clinical practice,is unclear.OBJECTIVE:To observe the charactedstics of MRI of brain in patient with SD,and analyze the correlation of diseased region with clinical symptoms.DESIGN:Retrospective case-analysis.SETTING:Department of Radiology,Second Hospital Affiliated to the General Hospital of Chinese PLA.PARTICIPANTS:Thirty-one patients,including 18 males and 13 females,with WD admitted to the Department of Neurology,Second Hospital Affiliated to the General Hospital of Chinese PLA between January 1999and December 2005 were retrieved.The involved patients presented serum copper oxidase (sCP) activity decreasling and/or caruloplasmin Ievel decreasling and/or urinary copper content increasling;typical extrapyramidal symptoms and/or physical sign;abnormality showed by slit-lamp examination,Kayser-Fleischer rling positive.METHODS:①All the involved patients underwent MRI examination.A GE 1.5T imagling equipment was used.Spin-echo sequence was adopted to perform T2 and T1-weighed image at transverse axis level.Partial cases subjected to head scannling at coronal and/or sagittal level.Gd-DTPA With dosage of 0.1 mmol/kg was the strongest in 4 cases.②MRI characteristics of patients with dliferent clinical symptoms were observed.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:MRI detection results of patients with WD and MRI characteristics of patients with different clinical symptoms.RESULTS:Thirty-one patients with WD participated in the result analysis.①Imageological examination results:WD lnvolved many regions in the brain:dorsal caudate putamen(n=28),thalamencephalon(n=25),mesencaphalon(n=25),globus pallidus(n=23),pons(n=21),posterlor limb of intemal capsule(n=16

  11. Variants of cognitive deficiency depending on the clinical characteristics of the disease in patients with paranoid schizophrenia

    G. G. Lebedeva; E. R. Isaeva


    Pecific aspects of cognitive impairments in patients with paranoid schizophrenia depending on the clinical characteristics of the disease have been studied. One hundred and thirty patients were examined. A clinico-psychological, experimental psychological and statistical methods were used. Three main types of cognitive deficiency with paranoid schizophrenia, associated with the onset, disease duration, and severity of psychiatric symptomology : 1) long-term course of the disease accompanied b...

  12. Quantification of disease activity in patients undergoing leucocyte scintigraphy for suspected inflammatory bowel disease

    Cheow, Heok K.; Voutnis, Demetrius D.; Evans, John W.; Szczepura, Katy R.; Swift, E. Anna; Bird, Nicholas J.; Ruparelia, Prina; Solanki, Chandra K.; Ballinger, James R.; Chilvers, Edwin R.; Peters, A. Michael [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Middleton, Stephen J. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Cambridge (United Kingdom)


    Whole-body gamma camera counting is an alternative to faecal {sup 111}In collection for quantifying disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but requires administration of imaging activities of {sup 111}In. The aim of this study was to explore a dedicated whole-body counter which requires 20-fold less activity than gamma camera counting. Thirty patients with known or suspected IBD received {sup 99m}Tc-granulocytes ({proportional_to}200 MBq) and {sup 111}In-granulocytes ({proportional_to}0.5 MBq). The {sup 99m}Tc-cells were injected 45 min after the {sup 111}In-cells and immediately after a baseline {sup 111}In whole-body count. The decay-corrected count at 120 h was expressed as a fraction of baseline to give whole-body {sup 111}In retention (WBR). One patient was excluded as the injected cells were non-viable. Median 45-min intravascular {sup 111}In recovery was 35% in patients compared with 43% in six normal volunteers (p<0.05). WBR in normals ranged from 91% to 93% and in 11 patients with negative {sup 99m}Tc imaging from 87% to 96%. Only one of 11 patients with negative imaging had WBR <90% while 11/12 patients with WBR <90% had abnormal imaging. Ten of 13 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) had abnormal imaging. The lowest WBR in these ten was 77% and six had values of >90%. There was a significant association between WBR and {sup 99m}Tc image grade (R{sub s}=0.73, p<0.002) in 16 patients without CD, but not in 13 patients with CD (R{sub s}=0.54, p>0.05). Dedicated whole-body counting is able to quantify disease activity in IBD but may give normal values in active CD. (orig.)

  13. Imbalances in faecal and duodenal Bifidobacterium species composition in active and non-active coeliac disease

    Sanz Yolanda


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gut bifidobacteria are believed to influence immune-related diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the possible relationships between the gut bifidobacteria composition and coeliac disease (CD in children. A total of 48 faecal samples (30 and 18 samples from active and no active CD patients, respectively and 33 duodenal biopsy specimens of CD patients (25 and 8 samples from active and non-active CD patients, respectively were analysed. Samples (30 faecal samples and 8 biopsies from a control age-matched group of children were also included for comparative purposes. Gut Bifidobacterium genus and species were analyzed by real-time PCR. Results Active and non-active CD patients showed lower numbers of total Bifidobacterium and B. longum species in faeces and duodenal biopsies than controls, and these differences were particularly remarkable between active CD patients and controls. B. catenulatum prevalence was higher in biopsies of controls than in those of active and non-active CD patients, whereas B. dentium prevalence was higher in faeces of non-active CD patients than in controls. Correlations between levels of Bifidobacterium and B. longum species in faecal and biopsy samples were detected in both CD patients and controls. Conclusion Reductions in total Bifidobacterium and B. longum populations were associated with both active and non-active CD when compared to controls. These bacterial groups could constitute novel targets for adjuvant dietary therapies although the confirmation of this hypothesis would require further investigations.

  14. The association between phenomena on the Sun, geomagnetic activity, meteorological variables, and cardiovascular characteristic of patients with myocardial infarction

    Vencloviene, Jone; Babarskiene, Ruta; Slapikas, Rimvydas; Sakalyte, Gintare


    It has been found that solar and geomagnetic activity affects the cardiovascular system. Some evidence has been reported on the increase in the rate of myocardial infarction, stroke and myocardial infarction related deaths during geomagnetic storms. We investigated the association between cardiovascular characteristics of patients, admitted for myocardial infarction with ST elevation (STEMI), and geomagnetic activity (GMA), solar proton events (SPE), solar flares, and meteorological variables during admission. The data of 1,979 patients hospitalized at the Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences (Kaunas) were analyzed. We evaluated the association between environmental variables and patient's characteristics by multivariate logistic regression, controlling patient's gender and age. Two days after geomagnetic storms the risk of STEMI was over 1.5 times increased in patients who had a medical history of myocardial infarction, stable angina, renal or pulmonary diseases. The dose-response association between GMA level and STEMI risk for patients with renal diseases in history was observed. Two days after SPE the risk of STEMI in patients with stable angina in anamnesis was increased over 1.5 times, adjusting by GMA level. The SPE were associated with an increase of risk for patients with renal diseases in history. This study confirms the strongest effect of phenomena in the Sun in high risk patients.

  15. Physical activity on prescription schemes (PARS): do programme characteristics influence effectiveness? Results of a systematic review and meta-analyses

    Arsenijevic, Jelena; Groot, Wim


    Background Physical activity on prescription schemes (PARS) are health promotion programmes that have been implemented in various countries. The aim of this study was to outline the differences in the design of PARS in different countries. This study also explored the differences in the adherence rate to PARS and the self-reported level of physical activity between PARS users in different countries. Method A systematic literature review and meta-analyses were conducted. We searched PubMed and EBASCO in July 2015 and updated our search in September 2015. Studies that reported adherence to the programme and self-reported level of physical activity, published in the English language in a peer-reviewed journal since 2000, were included. The difference in the pooled adherence rate after finishing the PARS programme and the adherence rate before or during the PARS programme was 17% (95% CI 9% to 24%). The difference in the pooled physical activity was 0.93 unit score (95 CI −3.57 to 1.71). For the adherence rate, a meta-regression was conducted. Results In total, 37 studies conducted in 11 different countries met the inclusion criteria. Among them, 31 reported the adherence rate, while the level of physical activity was reported in 17 studies. Results from meta-analyses show that PARS had an effect on the adherence rate of physical activity, while the results from the meta-regressions show that programme characteristics such as type of chronic disease and the follow-up period influenced the adherence rate. Conclusions The effects of PARS on adherence and self-reported physical activity were influenced by programme characteristics and also by the design of the study. Future studies on the effectiveness of PARS should use a prospective longitudinal design and combine quantitative and qualitative data. Furthermore, future evaluation studies should distinguish between evaluating the adherence rate and the self-reported physical activity among participants with different

  16. Characteristics and drivers of venture capital investment activity in Romania

    Mihaela DIACONU


    Full Text Available The present paper aims at characterising the venture capital market and identifying factors affecting the venture capital investments activity in Romania in the period 2000-2010. With a view to assessing the intensity of manifestation of various factors on the supply and demand of venture capital we use an econometric model of macroeconomic variables already tested in the literature. We consider, however, that we bring contributions to the approach, by analysing the features of the venture capital market in Romania and impact factors, our work being, at the same time, support in assessing the types of decisions to be adopted by policymakers to the formation of an authentic market and stimulating innovation. Our results indicate that the total R&D intensity is the main determinant of the venture capitals invested in this period in the two phases (for early stages and expansion. A significant incidence, mainly on the supply side, also shows the annual long term real interest rate, while the market capitalisation, the effective marginal tax rate on corporate income, the annual inflation or unemployment rate do not impact on the venture capital. Our recommendations, in terms of formation and development of the venture capital market, look as a priority, strengthening the demand for resources, respectively encouraging of enterprises to innovate, creating of conditions for the supply to be manifested in the seed and start-up stages and the compatibilization of the need for resources with prudential rules by adapting regulations for institutional investors.

  17. Mycelial fermentation characteristics and antiproliferative activity of Phellinus vaninii Ljup

    Wei Hu


    Full Text Available Background: The mycelial fermentation of higher fungi were investigated to posses various bioactivities. Materials and Methods: The mycelial growth and pellet morphology in a 5-L bioreactor were investigated. The mycelial broth containing biomass and extracellular products harvested from the fermentor was tested for antiproliferative activity of colon cancer LoVo cells using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide assay. Results: The maximum mycelial concentration in a 5-L bioreactor was 12.5 g/L after 8 days cultivation. Further investigation in the mycelial pellets during the fermentation period revealed that the mean diameter of the pellet morphology was positively correlated with mycelial biomass (R2 = 0.82, P < 0.05 and broth viscosity (R2 = 0.90, P < 0.01, significantly. The ethyl acetate extract showed the most significant effects, increasing the inhibition rate up to 87.5% after 48 h at concentration of 1000 μg/mL. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the feasibility of P. vaninii Ljup mycelial fermentation for large-scale production of bioactive and medicinal compounds.

  18. Uncommon and Neglected Venezuelan Viral Diseases: Etiologic Agents, Physiopathological, Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics

    Juan C. Gabaldon-Figueira


    Full Text Available Abstract (english Viral infectious diseases are common in Venezuela, influenza, dengue, yellow fever, HIV infection, viral Hepatitis, chikungunya fever and many others represent public health problems in the country and therefore, have been well documented. However, other rarer and even unique or lethal viral illnesses present in Venezuela are usually poorly understood or even unknown. This review described Venezuelan Hemorrhagic Fever, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis, Hantavirus Infections and Mayaro fever, named as neglected diseases, emphasizing the etiologic agents and their most relevant pathogenic mechanisms, clinical and epidemiological characteristics. Although there is not an official report about the re-emergence of these diseases, falling living standards and unsanitary conditions, together with limited accessibility to hygiene products and medical supplies, put us on alert about the re-emergence of these neglected diseases. Resumen (español Las enfermedades infecciosas virales son comunes en Venezuela, influenza, dengue, fiebre amarilla, infección por VIH, hepatitis viral, fiebre chikungunya y muchas otras representan problemas de salud pública en el país y por lo tanto, han sido bien documentadas. Sin embargo, otras enfermedades virales más raras e incluso únicas y letales presentes en Venezuela son generalmente poco estudiadas y hasta desconocidas. Esta revisión describe alguna de estas enfermedades olvidadas tales como la fiebre hemorrágica venezolana, la encefalitis equina venezolana, las infecciones por hantavirus y la fiebre de Mayaro, haciendo hincapié en los agentes etiológicos y en sus mecanismos patogénicos más relevantes, características clínicas y epidemiológicas. Aunque no hay informes oficiales sobre el resurgimiento de estas enfermedades, la caída de los niveles de vida y las condiciones insalubres, junto con el acceso limitado a los productos de higiene y suministros médicos, debe alertar sobre el

  19. Disparities in rheumatoid arthritis disease activity according to gross domestic product in 25 countries in the QUEST-RA database

    Sokka, T; Kautiainen, H; Pincus, T


    . CONCLUSIONS: The clinical status of patients with RA was correlated significantly with GDP among 25 mostly European countries according to all disease measures, associated only modestly with the current use of antirheumatic medications. The burden of arthritis appears substantially greater in "low GDP" than...... and questionnaire data from 6004 patients who were seen in usual care at 70 rheumatology clinics in 25 countries as of April 2008, including 18 European countries. Demographic variables, clinical characteristics, RA disease activity measures, including the disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28), and treatment...... associated with GDP (r = -0.78, 95% CI -0.56 to -0.90, r(2) = 61%). Disease activity levels differed substantially between "high GDP" and "low GDP" countries at much greater levels than according to whether patients were currently taking or not taking methotrexate, prednisone and/or biological agents...

  20. Composite Disease Activity and Responder Indices for Psoriatic Arthritis: A Report from the GRAPPA 2013 Meeting on Development of Cutoffs for Both Disease Activity States and Response

    Helliwell, P.S.; Fitzgerald, O.; Fransen, J.


    OBJECTIVE: There are several new composite indices for assessing disease activity in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Each may function as a disease state variable and a responder index. The aim of our study was to determine cutoffs for disease activity and response. METHODS: Data from the Group for GRAPP

  1. Clinical value of fecal calprotectin in determining disease activity of ulcerative colitis

    Jun-Ying Xiang; Qin Ouyang; Guo-Dong Li; Nan-Ping Xiao


    AIM:To investigate possibility and clinical application of fecal calprotectin in determining disease activity of ulcerative colitis (UC).METHODS: The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to measure the concentrations of calprotectin in feces obtained from 66 patients with UC and 20 controls. C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), acid glycoprotein (AGP) were also measured and were compared with calprotectin in determining disease activity of UC. The disease activity of UC was also determined by the Sutherland criteria.RESULTS: The fecal calprotectin concentration in the patients with active UC was significantly higher than that in the inactive UC and in the controls (402.16±48.0 μg/g vs 35.93±3.39 μg/g, 11.5±3.42 μg/g, P < 0.01). The fecal calprotectin concentration in the inactive UC group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). A significant difference was also found in the patients with active UC of mild, moderate and severe degrees. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristics (AUCROC) was 0.975, 0.740, 0.692 and 0.737 for fecal calprotectin, CRP, ESR and AGP,respectively. There was a strong correlation between the fecal calprotectin concentration and the endoscopic gradings for UC (r = 0.866, P < 0.001).CONCLUSION: Calprotectin in the patient's feces can reflect the disease activity of UC and can be used as a rational fecal marker for intestinal inflammation in clinical practice. This kind of marker is relatively precise, simple and noninvasive when compared with other commonly-used markers such as CRP, ESR and AGR.

  2. Subcortical evoked activity and motor enhancement in Parkinson's disease

    Anzak, Anam; Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Khan, Sadaquate; Javed, Shazia; Gill, Steven S.; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Akram, Harith; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Green, Alexander L.; Aziz, Tipu; Brown, Peter


    Enhancements in motor performance have been demonstrated in response to intense stimuli both in healthy subjects and in the form of ‘paradoxical kinesis’ in patients with Parkinson's disease. Here we identify a mid-latency evoked potential in local field potential recordings from the region of the subthalamic nucleus, which scales in amplitude with both the intensity of the stimulus delivered and corresponding enhancements in biomechanical measures of maximal handgrips, independent of the dopaminergic state of our subjects with Parkinson's disease. Recordings of a similar evoked potential in the related pedunculopontine nucleus – a key component of the reticular activating system – provide support for this neural signature in the subthalmic nucleus being a novel correlate of ascending arousal, propagated from the reticular activating system to exert an ‘energizing’ influence on motor circuitry. Future manipulation of this system linking arousal and motor performance may provide a novel approach for the non-dopaminergic enhancement of motor performance in patients with hypokinetic disorders such as Parkinson's disease. PMID:26687971

  3. Pharmacological treatment options for mast cell activation disease.

    Molderings, Gerhard J; Haenisch, Britta; Brettner, Stefan; Homann, Jürgen; Menzen, Markus; Dumoulin, Franz Ludwig; Panse, Jens; Butterfield, Joseph; Afrin, Lawrence B


    Mast cell activation disease (MCAD) is a term referring to a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by aberrant release of variable subsets of mast cell (MC) mediators together with accumulation of either morphologically altered and immunohistochemically identifiable mutated MCs due to MC proliferation (systemic mastocytosis [SM] and MC leukemia [MCL]) or morphologically ordinary MCs due to decreased apoptosis (MC activation syndrome [MCAS] and well-differentiated SM). Clinical signs and symptoms in MCAD vary depending on disease subtype and result from excessive mediator release by MCs and, in aggressive forms, from organ failure related to MC infiltration. In most cases, treatment of MCAD is directed primarily at controlling the symptoms associated with MC mediator release. In advanced forms, such as aggressive SM and MCL, agents targeting MC proliferation such as kinase inhibitors may be provided. Targeted therapies aimed at blocking mutant protein variants and/or downstream signaling pathways are currently being developed. Other targets, such as specific surface antigens expressed on neoplastic MCs, might be considered for the development of future therapies. Since clinicians are often underprepared to evaluate, diagnose, and effectively treat this clinically heterogeneous disease, we seek to familiarize clinicians with MCAD and review current and future treatment approaches.

  4. Mechanisms of Physical Activity Limitation in Chronic Lung Diseases

    Ioannis Vogiatzis


    Full Text Available In chronic lung diseases physical activity limitation is multifactorial involving respiratory, hemodynamic, and peripheral muscle abnormalities. The mechanisms of limitation discussed in this paper relate to (i the imbalance between ventilatory capacity and demand, (ii the imbalance between energy demand and supply to working respiratory and peripheral muscles, and (iii the factors that induce peripheral muscle dysfunction. In practice, intolerable exertional symptoms (i.e., dyspnea and/or leg discomfort are the main symptoms that limit physical performance in patients with chronic lung diseases. Furthermore, the reduced capacity for physical work and the adoption of a sedentary lifestyle, in an attempt to avoid breathlessness upon physical exertion, cause profound muscle deconditioning which in turn leads to disability and loss of functional independence. Accordingly, physical inactivity is an important component of worsening the patients’ quality of life and contributes importantly to poor prognosis. Identifying the factors which prevent a patient with lung disease to easily carry out activities of daily living provides a unique as well as important perspective for the choice of the appropriate therapeutic strategy.

  5. NOX Activation by Subunit Interaction and Underlying Mechanisms in Disease

    Rastogi, Radhika; Geng, Xiaokun; Li, Fengwu; Ding, Yuchuan


    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAPDH) oxidase (NOX) is an enzyme complex with the sole function of producing superoxide anion and reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the expense of NADPH. Vital to the immune system as well as cellular signaling, NOX is also involved in the pathologies of a wide variety of disease states. Particularly, it is an integral player in many neurological diseases, including stroke, TBI, and neurodegenerative diseases. Pathologically, NOX produces an excessive amount of ROS that exceed the body’s antioxidant ability to neutralize them, leading to oxidative stress and aberrant signaling. This prevalence makes it an attractive therapeutic target and as such, NOX inhibitors have been studied and developed to counter NOX’s deleterious effects. However, recent studies of NOX have created a better understanding of the NOX complex. Comprised of independent cytosolic subunits, p47-phox, p67-phox, p40-phox and Rac, and membrane subunits, gp91-phox and p22-phox, the NOX complex requires a unique activation process through subunit interaction. Of these subunits, p47-phox plays the most important role in activation, binding and translocating the cytosolic subunits to the membrane and anchoring to p22-phox to organize the complex for NOX activation and function. Moreover, these interactions, particularly that between p47-phox and p22-phox, are dependent on phosphorylation initiated by upstream processes involving protein kinase C (PKC). This review will look at these interactions between subunits and with PKC. It will focus on the interaction involving p47-phox with p22-phox, key in bringing the cytosolic subunits to the membrane. Furthermore, the implication of these interactions as a target for NOX inhibitors such as apocynin will be discussed as a potential avenue for further investigation, in order to develop more specific NOX inhibitors based on the inhibition of NOX assembly and activation. PMID:28119569

  6. Judging disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis by serum free kappa and lambda light chain levels.

    Ye, Yun; Li, Su-Liang; Xie, Ming; Jiang, Ping; Liu, Kai-Ge; Li, Ya-Jun


    The study aimed to evaluate the levels of serum free kappa (κ) and lambda (λ) light chains in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as exploring the association between serum free κ and λ light chains and activity of RA. For this purpose, healthy individuals and patients with active RA and RA in remission were enrolled, and their serum levels of free κ and λ light chains were measured using rate nephelometry. The diagnostic accuracy of serum free κ and λ light chains was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves and 95% confidence intervals for areas under the curve (AUC). The results obtained indicated that the levels of serum free κ and λ light chains in patients with active RA were significantly higher than those of patients in remission and of healthy controls (p light chain and 0.781 for free λ light chain. When the optimal cut-off point for serum κ light chain was 8.02 g/L, the maximum sensitivity and specificity were 82.5% and 82.5%, respectively, and when the optimal cut-off point for serum λ light chain was 3.57 g/L, the maximum sensitivity and specificity were 80% and 82.5%, respectively. It was thus found that serum levels of free κ and λ light chains were positively correlated with disease activity in RA, the Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), and values for C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), platelet count (PLT), rheumatoid factor (RF), and anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) (p light chains in patients with active RA are closely correlated with disease activity parameters including DAS28, CRP, ESR, PLT, RF, and ACPA. Thus, the above-mentioned levels of serum free κ and λ light chains may be used as important indicators of activity of RA.

  7. The impact of graves' disease and its treatment on handwriting characteristics

    Papi, Giampaolo; Botti, Cristina; Corsello, Salvatore Maria


    BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones are crucial for metabolism in all tissues in humans, including the nervous system and muscles, and could thus affect handwriting, which is the synthesis of complex and fine movements. Hyperthyroidism, characterized by symptoms such as tremor and weakness, could affect...... handwriting, although this has not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate handwriting characteristics before and after therapy for hyperthyroid Graves' disease (GD). METHODS: Twenty-two patients (15 women, 7 men) with untreated GD (median age: 44 years; range: 20-70 years) were asked to write.......01), distance between words (216.2±3.2 vs. 198.7±2.4 mm; pHyperthyroid GD was associated with significant changes in handwriting in all...

  8. Clinical characteristics and prognostic impact of bacterial infection in hospitalized patients with alcoholic liver disease.

    Park, Jin Kyoung; Lee, Chang Hun; Kim, In Hee; Kim, Seon Min; Jang, Ji Won; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, Sang Wook; Lee, Seung Ok; Lee, Soo Teik; Kim, Dae-Ghon


    Bacterial infection is an important cause of death in patients with liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and prognostic impact of bacterial infection in hospitalized patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We retrospectively analyzed data from 409 patients consecutively admitted to a tertiary referral center with ALD diagnosis. Of a total of 544 admissions, 133 (24.4%) cases presented with bacterial infection, of which 116 were community-acquired whereas 17 were hospital-acquired. The common types of infection were pneumonia (38%), biliary tract infection (17%), soft tissue infection (12%), and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (9%). Diabetes, serum Na patients with ALD. Overall 30-day and 90-day mortalities in patients with bacterial infection were significantly (P patients with ALD. A thorough evaluation at admission or on clinical deterioration is required to detect possible infection with prompt management.

  9. Characteristics of the 23 Cycle of Solar Activity

    Kuznetsova, Tamara

    The aim of the present study is to search for special features of the 23-d cycle of solar activity. We present results of our analysis of spectra of sunspot number W for the time intervals of spaced measurements 1964-1997 and 1996-2005 and of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF), the solar wind velocity (V) calculated on the basis of measurements near the Earth's orbit for the period 1964-1997. A method of non-linear spectral analysis named by us the Method of Global Minimum (MGM) is used. MGM allows self-consistentidentification of trends from data and non-stationary sinusoids and estimation of statistical significance of spectral components. The IMF and W spectra for the period 1964-1997 both show the solar cycle at T=10.8 yr and its higher harmonics. But spectrum of sunspot number W for the period 1996-2005 (time interval of the 23-d cycle) has not spectral component at T=10.8 yr (at confidence statistical level 95%); however, this spectrum has higher harmonics of the 10.8-yr cycle (such as sinusoid with T=146.2 day). The most powerful spectral line from the spectrum (1996-2005) has period T=16.56 yr. We show that tide forces of the planets can be a cause of periodical changes in the analyzed data. Periods of perturbed tide forces of external planets and their higher harmonics (connected with motion of the Sun relative to the mass center of the solar system) are detected in the spectra. In particular, all periods from the spectrum of W for the period 1996-2005 can be interpreted as periods of perturbed tide force of a system: Sun - a pair Jupiter-Uranus: T=16.56 yr is period of perturbed tide force of pair Jupiter-Uranus (1st planet determines shift of mass center of the Sun relative to the mass center of a system the Sunthe 1st planet; the 2nd planet determines perturbed tide force acting on the Sun). The fact that spectrum of W for the period 1996-2005 has the most power spectral components at T=16.56 and T=1.83 yr (9 harmonics of the 16.56-yr cycle

  10. Active learning based segmentation of Crohns disease from abdominal MRI.

    Mahapatra, Dwarikanath; Vos, Franciscus M; Buhmann, Joachim M


    This paper proposes a novel active learning (AL) framework, and combines it with semi supervised learning (SSL) for segmenting Crohns disease (CD) tissues from abdominal magnetic resonance (MR) images. Robust fully supervised learning (FSL) based classifiers require lots of labeled data of different disease severities. Obtaining such data is time consuming and requires considerable expertise. SSL methods use a few labeled samples, and leverage the information from many unlabeled samples to train an accurate classifier. AL queries labels of most informative samples and maximizes gain from the labeling effort. Our primary contribution is in designing a query strategy that combines novel context information with classification uncertainty and feature similarity. Combining SSL and AL gives a robust segmentation method that: (1) optimally uses few labeled samples and many unlabeled samples; and (2) requires lower training time. Experimental results show our method achieves higher segmentation accuracy than FSL methods with fewer samples and reduced training effort.

  11. Clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with urinary tract hydatid disease.

    Mou Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human cystic echinococcosis (CE is caused by flatworm larvae of Echinococcus granulosus and is endemic in many parts of the world. In humans, CE cysts primarily affect the liver and pulmonary system, but can also affect the renal system. However, the clinical manifestations of renal CE can be subtle, so healthcare professionals often overlook renal CE in differential diagnosis. In this study, we examined the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with urinary tract CE and analyzed the diagnosis and treatment procedures for this disease. METHODS: The records of 19 consecutive renal CE patients who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from January 1983 to April 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. In all cases, CE of the urinary tract was confirmed by pathological examination and visual inspection during surgery. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were males and 4 were females. The most common symptoms were non-specific lower back pain and percussion tenderness on the kidney region. All patients were followed up for 9-180 months after surgery. None of the patients experienced a recurrence of renal CE, but 4 patients experienced non-renal recurrence of hydatid disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hydatid cysts from E. granulosus are structurally similar in the liver and urinary tract. Thus, the treatment regimen for liver CE developed by the World Health Organization/Informal Working Group on Echinococcosis (WHO/IWGE could also be used for urinary tract CE. In our patients, the use of ultrasound, computed tomography, serology, and clinical characteristics provided a diagnostic accuracy of 66.7% to 92.3%.

  12. Cognitive activity, cognitive function, and brain diffusion characteristics in old age.

    Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Wilson, Robert S; Barth, Christopher M; Capuano, Ana W; Vasireddi, Anil; Zhang, Shengwei; Fleischman, Debra A; Bennett, David A


    The objective of this work was to test the hypotheses that a) more frequent cognitive activity in late life is associated with higher brain diffusion anisotropy and lower trace of the diffusion tensor, and b) brain diffusion characteristics partially mediate the association of late life cognitive activity with cognition. As part of a longitudinal cohort study, 379 older people without dementia rated their frequency of participation in cognitive activities, completed a battery of cognitive function tests, and underwent diffusion tensor imaging. We used tract-based spatial statistics to test the association between late life cognitive activity and brain diffusion characteristics. Clusters with statistically significant findings defined regions of interest in which we tested the hypothesis that diffusion characteristics partially mediate the association of late life cognitive activity with cognition. More frequent cognitive activity in late life was associated with higher level of global cognition after adjustment for age, sex, education, and indicators of early life cognitive enrichment (p = 0.001). More frequent cognitive activity was also related to higher fractional anisotropy in the left superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, left fornix, and corpus callosum, and lower trace in the thalamus (p cognitive activity with cognition was reduced by as much as 26 %. These findings suggest that the association of late life cognitive activity with cognition may be partially mediated by brain diffusion characteristics.

  13. Is autoimmune chronic active hepatitis a HCV-related disease?

    Magrin, S; Craxì, A; Fiorentino, G; Fabiano, C; Provenzano, G; Pinzello, G B; Palazzo, U; Almasio, P; Pagliaro, L


    We evaluated the specificity and clinical relevance of anti-hepatitis C virus antibody positivity in 22 HBsAg-negative patients with autoimmune (anti-nuclear, anti-actin or anti-liver-kidney microsomal antibody positive) chronic active hepatitis. An ELISA anti-HCV test and a recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA-HCV) were used. Thirteen patients (59%) were anti-HCV positive and five (23%) anti-HCV negative by both ELISA and RIBA-HCV tests. Four patients (18%) were borderline positive by ELISA (OD less than 1.0), and three of them (all with severe disease) were negative by RIBA. Histologic necroinflammation, AST/ALT and gamma-globulins levels were higher and response to prednisolone treatment was better in RIBA anti-HCV-negative than in anti-HCV-positive cases. We confirmed with both RIBA and ELISA tests the high prevalence of anti-HCV already reported by ELISA in anti-nuclear and anti-liver-kidney microsomal antibody positive chronic active hepatitis. False positive for anti-HCV (i.e., a positive ELISA test not confirmed by RIBA) occurred only among patients with severe disease. Since RIBA-negative subjects showed the best response to corticosteroid, they might represent the only subset of cases of 'true' autoimmune chronic active hepatitis.

  14. Sulforaphane Protects against Cardiovascular Disease via Nrf2 Activation

    Yang Bai


    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD causes an unparalleled proportion of the global burden of disease and will remain the main cause of mortality for the near future. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathophysiology of cardiac disorders. Several studies have highlighted the cardinal role played by the overproduction of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species in the pathogenesis of ischemic myocardial damage and consequent cardiac dysfunction. Isothiocyanates (ITC are sulfur-containing compounds that are broadly distributed among cruciferous vegetables. Sulforaphane (SFN is an ITC shown to possess anticancer activities by both in vivo and epidemiological studies. Recent data have indicated that the beneficial effects of SFN in CVD are due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. SFN activates NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that serves as a defense mechanism against oxidative stress and electrophilic toxicants by inducing more than a hundred cytoprotective proteins, including antioxidants and phase II detoxifying enzymes. This review will summarize the evidence from clinical studies and animal experiments relating to the potential mechanisms by which SFN modulates Nrf2 activation and protects against CVD.

  15. 帕金森病的嗓音特征%Characteristic of Voice in Parkinson Disease

    张玉海; 杜怀栋; 陈惠军; 朱琴华; 王正敏


    目的研究帕金森病(Parkinsondisease,PD)嗓音特征。方法79例PD病例组、40例正常人对照组发持续元音/a:/3次,每次发声维持三秒以上,声强控制在为70±4dB,记录嗓音,计算基频(F0)、频率微扰(jitter)、振幅微扰(shimmer)、谐噪比(HNR)。结果PD组频率微扰高于对照组,有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论PD嗓音主要特点是:高频率微扰、高振幅微扰、低F0、低HNR。%Objective To study the Characteristic of patients with voice ofParkinson's disease(PD).Methods Accustic signals were obtained during sustained vowel/a:/production in 79 PD patients and 40 normal subject. Measures included fundamental foequency (F0) ,frequency perturbation (jitter), amplitude perturbation (shimmer) and harmonic/noise ratio(HNR). All subjects underwent rigid tele-endoscopic inspection. Results When compared with corntrols,PD patients presented wih a significontly increased jitter. Conclusion PD patients had folloning voice characteristics high jitter, high shiomer,low F0 and low HNR.

  16. Classification and Characteristics of Pain Associated with Parkinson’s Disease

    Marcelo Rezende Young Blood


    Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric symptoms and pain are among the most common nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD. The correlation between pain and PD has been recognized since its classic descriptions. Pain occurs in about 60% of PD patients, two to three times more frequent in this population than in age matched healthy individuals. It is an early and potentially disabling symptom that can precede motor symptoms by several years. The lower back and lower extremities are the most commonly affected areas. The most used classification for pain in PD defines musculoskeletal, dystonic, central, or neuropathic/radicular forms. Its different clinical characteristics, variable relationship with motor symptoms, and inconsistent response to dopaminergic drugs suggest that the mechanism underlying pain in PD is complex and multifaceted, involving the peripheral nervous system, generation and amplification of pain by motor symptoms, and neurodegeneration of areas related to pain modulation. Although pain in DP is common and a significant source of disability, its clinical characteristics, pathophysiology, classification, and management remain to be defined.

  17. Early clinical characteristics according to developmental stage in children with definite moyamoya disease.

    Kim, Young Ok; Joo, Sung-Pil; Seo, Bo-Ra; Rho, Young Il; Yoon, Woong; Woo, Young Jong


    The objective is to clarify the early clinical characteristics in childhood moyamoya disease (MD). Epidemiologic characteristics, symptoms and diagnostic rates were assessed in 64 children (0-18 years) with definite MD according to developmental stage: infancy (5; 0-1 years); toddlerhood/preschool age (22; 2-5 years); school age (29; 6-10 years); and adolescence (8; 11-18 years). The median ages at onset was 6.25 years and the female to male ratio was 1.9 (~2.5 in toddlerhood/preschool age and in adolescence, P=0.71). Previous headache was observed in 23% (14/64): frequently in school age (38%, P=0.02) and within 6 months before main symptoms (6/11). As an initial symptom, weakness was observed in 78% (50/64) mainly as transient ischemic attack (TIA, 61%) in limbs (90%) and unilaterally (82%). TIA was less frequent in infancy (40%, P=0.04). Seizure was observed in 27% (17/64): frequently in infancy (100%, Pchildren ~5 years (P<0.01). Severe headache associated with MD was observed in 14% (9/64). Provoking events were positive in 42% (27/64): in school age, frequently during eating (28%); and in toddlerhood/preschool age, during crying (27%). The diagnostic rates at 3 and 12 months from symptom-onset were 39% (80% during infancy vs. 28% in school age, P=0.14) and 67%, respectively. Symptomatic progression at diagnosis was observed in 38% (24/64). Initial clinical characteristics in childhood definite MD differed according to developmental stage and from at diagnosis.

  18. Neuroinflammation and Alzheimer's Disease: Implications for Microglial Activation.

    Regen, Francesca; Hellmann-Regen, Julian; Costantini, Erica; Reale, Marcella


    Microglial activation is a hallmark of neuroinflammation, seen in most acute and chronic neuropsychiatric conditions. With growing knowledge about microglia functions in surveying the brain for alterations, microglial activation is increasingly discussed in the context of disease progression and pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Underlying molecular mechanisms, however, remain largely unclear. While proper microglial function is essentially required for its scavenging duties, local activation of the brain's innate immune cells also brings about many less advantageous changes, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines or degradation of neuroprotective retinoids, and may thus unnecessarily put surrounding healthy neurons in danger. In view of this dilemma, it is little surprising that both, AD vaccination trials, but also immunosuppressive strategies have consistently failed in AD patients. Nevertheless, epidemiological evidence has suggested a protective effect for anti-inflammatory agents, supporting the hypothesis that key processes involved in the pathogenesis of AD may take place rather early in the time course of the disorder, likely long before memory impairment becomes clinically evident. Activation of microglia results in a severely altered microenvironment. This is not only caused by the plethora of secreted cytokines, chemokines or ROS, but may also involve increased turnover of neuroprotective endogenous substances such as retinoic acid (RA), as recently shown in vitro. We discuss findings linking microglial activation and AD and speculate that microglial malfunction, which brings about changes in local RA concentrations in vitro, may underlie AD pathogenesis and precede or facilitate the onset of AD. Thus, chronic, "innate neuroinflammation" may provide a valuable target for preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  19. Invasive pneumococcal and meningococcal disease : association with influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus activity?

    Jansen, A G S C; Sanders, E A M; VAN DER Ende, A; VAN Loon, A M; Hoes, A W; Hak, E


    Few studies have examined the relationship between viral activity and bacterial invasive disease, considering both influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). This study aimed to assess the potential relationship between invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), meningococcal disease (MD), and

  20. Familial occurrence of systemic mast cell activation disease.

    Gerhard J Molderings

    Full Text Available Systemic mast cell activation disease (MCAD comprises disorders characterized by an enhanced release of mast cell mediators accompanied by accumulation of dysfunctional mast cells. Demonstration of familial clustering would be an important step towards defining the genetic contribution to the risk of systemic MCAD. The present study aimed to quantify familial aggregation for MCAD and to investigate the variability of clinical and molecular findings (e.g. somatic mutations in KIT among affected family members in three selected pedigrees. Our data suggest that systemic MCAD pedigrees include more systemic MCAD cases than would be expected by chance, i.e., compared with the prevalence of MCAD in the general population. The prevalence of MCAD suspected by symptom self-report in first-degree relatives of patients with MCAD amounted to approximately 46%, compared to prevalence in the general German population of about 17% (p<0.0001. In three families with a high familial loading of MCAD, the subtype of MCAD and the severity of mediator-related symptoms varied between family members. In addition, genetic alterations detected in KIT were variable, and included mutations at position 816 of the amino acid sequence. In conclusion, our data provide evidence for common familial occurrence of MCAD. Our findings observed in the three pedigrees together with recent reports in the literature suggest that, in familial cases (i.e., in the majority of MCAD, mutated disease-related operator and/or regulator genes could be responsible for the development of somatic mutations in KIT and other proteins important for the regulation of mast cell activity. Accordingly, the immunohistochemically different subtypes of MCAD (i.e. mast cell activation syndrome and systemic mastocytosis should be more accurately regarded as varying presentations of a common generic root process of mast cell dysfunction, than as distinct diseases.

  1. Activity enhances dopaminergic long-duration response in Parkinson disease

    Auinger, Peggy; Fahn, Stanley; Oakes, David; Shoulson, Ira; Kieburtz, Karl; Rudolph, Alice; Marek, Kenneth; Seibyl, John; Lang, Anthony; Olanow, C. Warren; Tanner, Caroline; Schifitto, Giovanni; Zhao, Hongwei; Reyes, Lydia; Shinaman, Aileen; Comella, Cynthia L.; Goetz, Christopher; Blasucci, Lucia M.; Samanta, Johan; Stacy, Mark; Williamson, Kelli; Harrigan, Mary; Greene, Paul; Ford, Blair; Moskowitz, Carol; Truong, Daniel D.; Pathak, Mayank; Jankovic, Joseph; Ondo, William; Atassi, Farah; Hunter, Christine; Jacques, Carol; Friedman, Joseph H.; Lannon, Margaret; Russell, David S.; Jennings, Danna; Fussell, Barbara; Standaert, David; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Growdon, John H.; Tennis, Marsha; Gauthier, Serge; Panisset, Michel; Hall, Jean; Gancher, Stephen; Hammerstad, John P.; Stone, Claudia; Alexander-Brown, Barbara; Factor, Stewart A.; Molho, Eric; Brown, Diane; Evans, Sharon; Clark, Jeffrey; Manyam, Bala; Simpson, Patricia; Wulbrecht, Brian; Whetteckey, Jacqueline; Martin, Wayne; Roberts, Ted; King, Pamela; Hauser, Robert; Zesiewicz, Theresa; Gauger, Lisa; Trugman, Joel; Wooten, G. Frederick; Rost-Ruffner, Elke; Perlmutter, Joel; Racette, Brad A.; Suchowersky, Oksana; Ranawaya, Ranjit; Wood, Susan; Pantella, Carol; Kurlan, Roger; Richard, Irene; Pearson, Nancy; Caviness, John N.; Adler, Charles; Lind, Marlene; Simuni, Tanya; Siderowf, Andrew; Colcher, Amy; Lloyd, Mary; Weiner, William; Shulman, Lisa; Koller, William; Lyons, Kelly; Feldman, Robert G.; Saint-Hilaire, Marie H.; Ellias, Samuel; Thomas, Cathi-Ann; Juncos, Jorge; Watts, Ray; Partlow, Anna; Tetrud, James; Togasaki, Daniel M.; Stewart, Tracy; Mark, Margery H.; Sage, Jacob I.; Caputo, Debbie; Gould, Harry; Rao, Jayaraman; McKendrick, Ann; Brin, Mitchell; Danisi, Fabio; Benabou, Reina; Hubble, Jean; Paulson, George W.; Reider, Carson; Birnbaum, Alex; Miyasaki, Janis; Johnston, Lisa; So, Julie; Pahwa, Rajesh; Dubinsky, Richard M.; Wszolek, Zbigniew; Uitti, Ryan; Turk, Margaret; Tuite, Paul; Rottenberg, David; Hansen, Joy; Ramos, Serrano; Waters, Cheryl; Lew, Mark; Welsh, Mickie; Kawai, Connie; O'Brien, Christopher; Kumar, Rajeev; Seeberger, Lauren; Judd, Deborah; Barclay, C. Lynn; Grimes, David A.; Sutherland, Laura; Dawson, Ted; Reich, Stephen; Dunlop, Rebecca; Albin, Roger; Frey, Kirk; Wernette, Kristine; Fahn, Stanley; Oakes, David; Shoulson, Ira; Kieburtz, Karl; Rudolph, Alice; Marek, Kenneth; Seibyl, John; Lang, Anthony; Olanow, C. Warren; Tanner, Caroline; Schifitto, Giovanni; Zhao, Hongwei; Reyes, Lydia; Shinaman, Aileen; Comella, Cynthia L.; Goetz, Christopher; Blasucci, Lucia M.; Samanta, Johan; Stacy, Mark; Williamson, Kelli; Harrigan, Mary; Greene, Paul; Ford, Blair; Moskowitz, Carol; Truong, Daniel D.; Pathak, Mayank; Jankovic, Joseph; Ondo, William; Atassi, Farah; Hunter, Christine; Jacques, Carol; Friedman, Joseph H.; Lannon, Margaret; Russell, David S.; Jennings, Danna; Fussell, Barbara; Standaert, David; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Growdon, John H.; Tennis, Marsha; Gauthier, Serge; Panisset, Michel; Hall, Jean; Gancher, Stephen; Hammerstad, John P.; Stone, Claudia; Alexander-Brown, Barbara; Factor, Stewart A.; Molho, Eric; Brown, Diane; Evans, Sharon; Clark, Jeffrey; Manyam, Bala; Simpson, Patricia; Wulbrecht, Brian; Whetteckey, Jacqueline; Martin, Wayne; Roberts, Ted; King, Pamela; Hauser, Robert; Zesiewicz, Theresa; Gauger, Lisa; Trugman, Joel; Wooten, G. Frederick; Rost-Ruffner, Elke; Perlmutter, Joel; Racette, Brad A.; Suchowersky, Oksana; Ranawaya, Ranjit; Wood, Susan; Pantella, Carol; Kurlan, Roger; Richard, Irene; Pearson, Nancy; Caviness, John N.; Adler, Charles; Lind, Marlene; Simuni, Tanya; Siderowf, Andrew; Colcher, Amy; Lloyd, Mary; Weiner, William; Shulman, Lisa; Koller, William; Lyons, Kelly; Feldman, Robert G.; Saint-Hilaire, Marie H.; Ellias, Samuel; Thomas, Cathi-Ann; Juncos, Jorge; Watts, Ray; Partlow, Anna; Tetrud, James; Togasaki, Daniel M.; Stewart, Tracy; Mark, Margery H.; Sage, Jacob I.; Caputo, Debbie; Gould, Harry; Rao, Jayaraman; McKendrick, Ann; Brin, Mitchell; Danisi, Fabio; Benabou, Reina; Hubble, Jean; Paulson, George W.; Reider, Carson; Birnbaum, Alex; Miyasaki, Janis; Johnston, Lisa; So, Julie; Pahwa, Rajesh; Dubinsky, Richard M.; Wszolek, Zbigniew; Uitti, Ryan; Turk, Margaret; Tuite, Paul; Rottenberg, David; Hansen, Joy; Ramos, Serrano; Waters, Cheryl; Lew, Mark; Welsh, Mickie; Kawai, Connie; O'Brien, Christopher; Kumar, Rajeev; Seeberger, Lauren; Judd, Deborah; Barclay, C. Lynn; Grimes, David A.; Sutherland, Laura; Dawson, Ted; Reich, Stephen; Dunlop, Rebecca; Albin, Roger; Frey, Kirk; Wernette, Kristine; Mendis, Tilak


    Objective: We tested the hypothesis that dopamine-dependent motor learning mechanism underlies the long-duration response to levodopa in Parkinson disease (PD) based on our studies in a mouse model. By data-mining the motor task performance in dominant and nondominant hands of the subjects in a double-blind randomized trial of levodopa therapy, the effects of activity and dopamine therapy were examined. Methods: We data-mined the Earlier versus Later Levodopa Therapy in Parkinson's Disease (ELLDOPA) study published in 2005 and performed statistical analysis comparing the effects of levodopa and dominance of handedness over 42 weeks. Results: The mean change in finger-tapping counts from baseline before the initiation of therapy to predose at 9 weeks and 40 weeks increased more in the dominant compared to nondominant hand in levodopa-treated subjects in a dose-dependent fashion. There was no significant difference in dominant vs nondominant hands in the placebo group. The short-duration response assessed by the difference of postdose performance compared to predose performance at the same visit did not show any significant difference between dominant vs nondominant hands. Conclusions: Active use of the dominant hand and dopamine replacement therapy produces synergistic effect on long-lasting motor task performance during “off” medication state. Such effect was confined to dopamine-responsive symptoms and not seen in dopamine-resistant symptoms such as gait and balance. We propose that long-lasting motor learning facilitated by activity and dopamine is a form of disease modification that is often seen in trials of medications that have symptomatic effects. PMID:22459675

  2. Characteristics of familial aggregation in early-onset Alzheimer`s disease: Evidence of subgroups

    Campion, D. [INSERM, Paris (France); Martinez, M.; Babron, M.C. [and others


    Characteristics of familial aggregation of Alzheimer`s Disease were studied in 92 families ascertained through a clinically diagnosed proband with an onset below age 60 years. In each family data were systematically collected on the sibships of the proband, of his father, and of his mother. A total of 926 relatives were included and 81% of the living relatives (i.e., 251 individuals) were directly examined. The estimated cumulative risk among first degree relatives was equal to 35% by age 89 years (95% confidence interval 22 to 47%). This result does not support the hypothesis that an autosomal dominant gene, fully penetrant by age 90 years, is segregating within all these pedigrees. Despite the fact that all probands were selected for an onset before age 60 years it was shown that two types of families could be delineated with respect to age at onset among affected relatives: all secondary cases with an onset below age 60 years were contributed by a particular group of families (type 1 families), whereas all secondary cases with an onset after age 60 years were contributed by another group of families (type 2 families). Although genetic interpretation of these findings is not straightforward, they support the hypothesis of etiologic heterogeneity in the determinism of early-onset Alzheimer`s disease. 58 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Sleep Characteristics in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in the HypnoLaus Cohort

    Ogna, Adam; Forni Ogna, Valentina; Haba Rubio, José; Tobback, Nadia; Andries, Dana; Preisig, Martin; Tafti, Mehdi; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Heinzer, Raphaël


    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB), restless legs syndrome (RLS), and subjective and objective sleep quality (SQ). Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of a general population-based cohort (HypnoLaus). 1,760 adults (862 men, 898 women; age 59.3 (± 11.4) y) underwent complete polysomnography at home. Results: 8.2% of participants had mild CKD (stage 1–2, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 with albuminuria) and 7.8% moderate CKD (stage 3, eGFR 30–60 mL/min/1.73 m2). 37.3% of our sample had moderate-to-severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15/h) and 15.3% had severe SDB (AHI ≥ 30/h). SDB prevalence was positively associated with CKD stages and negatively with eGFR. In multivariate analysis, age, male sex, and body mass index were independently associated with SDB (all P Haba Rubio J, Tobback N, Andries D, Preisig M, Tafti M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Marques-Vidal P, Heinzer R. Sleep characteristics in early stages of chronic kidney disease in the HypnoLaus cohort. SLEEP 2016;39(4):945–953. PMID:26715230

  4. Clinical Characteristics of Down Syndrome Children With Congenital Heart Disease in a Developing Country

    Mottaghi Moghaddam


    Full Text Available Background Down syndrome (DS is the most common chromosomal abnormality in newborns and is associated with other congenital malformations and health problems. The features of Down syndrome differ according to ethnicity and geographic region. Objectives The main aim was to assess the clinical characteristics of DS patients in a referral pediatric cardiology department. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the clinical characteristics of children with Down syndrome and heart defects in an educational hospital over 11 years (from September 2001 to September 2012 in Iran. All data were collected according to a checklist created by the researchers, which included the clinical information, genetic characteristics, cardiac and non-cardiac co-existing diseases, and parental variables of the children. An independent t-test and a chi-square test were used to compare qualitative variables such as birth weight and age of diagnosis. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results 100 patients with Down syndrome and congenital heart disease were evaluated; 52 were female (52% and 48 were male (48%. The average birth weight of the subjects was 2745 ± 523 (mean ± SD grams. The mean age of the patients’ mothers was 32 ± 6 years, and the mean age of the patients’ fathers was 36 ± 6 years. Chromosomal analysis was performed for 61 patients, 60 of whom had free trisomy (98.4%, one of whom had translocation (1.6%, and none of whom had a mosaic pattern of chromosomal abnormality. The parents of 33 the patients in this study were consanguineous. All patients had cardiac disorders, but non-cardiac disorder also was recorded in 37 patients (37%. The most common non-cardiac disorder in patients was hypothyroidism, and the second most common was gastrointestinal problems. Conclusions Parents were blood relatives in 33 (33% of the patient cases, which is a very high rate. Therefore, non-random mating is an important issue in

  5. Variants of cognitive deficiency depending on the clinical characteristics of the disease in patients with paranoid schizophrenia

    G. G. Lebedeva


    Full Text Available Pecific aspects of cognitive impairments in patients with paranoid schizophrenia depending on the clinical characteristics of the disease have been studied. One hundred and thirty patients were examined. A clinico-psychological, experimental psychological and statistical methods were used. Three main types of cognitive deficiency with paranoid schizophrenia, associated with the onset, disease duration, and severity of psychiatric symptomology : 1 long-term course of the disease accompanied by the average level of clinical symptomology associated with abnormal attention and visuospatial functions; 2 late onset of the disease and unexpressed clinical symptomology combined with memory impairments; 3 acute onset and early age combined with the absence of cognitive impairments.

  6. Neuropeptides and Microglial Activation in Inflammation, Pain, and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Lila Carniglia


    Full Text Available Microglial cells are responsible for immune surveillance within the CNS. They respond to noxious stimuli by releasing inflammatory mediators and mounting an effective inflammatory response. This is followed by release of anti-inflammatory mediators and resolution of the inflammatory response. Alterations to this delicate process may lead to tissue damage, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Chronic pain, such as inflammatory or neuropathic pain, is accompanied by neuroimmune activation, and the role of glial cells in the initiation and maintenance of chronic pain has been the subject of increasing research over the last two decades. Neuropeptides are small amino acidic molecules with the ability to regulate neuronal activity and thereby affect various functions such as thermoregulation, reproductive behavior, food and water intake, and circadian rhythms. Neuropeptides can also affect inflammatory responses and pain sensitivity by modulating the activity of glial cells. The last decade has witnessed growing interest in the study of microglial activation and its modulation by neuropeptides in the hope of developing new therapeutics for treating neurodegenerative diseases and chronic pain. This review summarizes the current literature on the way in which several neuropeptides modulate microglial activity and response to tissue damage and how this modulation may affect pain sensitivity.

  7. Physical activity and health characteristics. A survey among Dutch elderly women and men.

    Hombergh, van den C.E.J.


    To study physical activity of elderly people and its relationship with health characteristics, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1991/1992 in Arnhem, the Netherlands, among 515 women and 497 men, aged 65 to 85 years. Habitual physical activity was assessed with a questionnaire, previously val

  8. Active MMPs captured by alpha2Macroglobulin as a marker of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis

    Tchetverikov, I.; Verzijl, N.; Huizinga, T.W.J.; TeKoppele, J.M.; Hanemaaijer, R.; Groot, J. de


    Objective. The aim of the present study was to analyze α2Macroglobulin/MMP (α2M/MMP) complex formation and to investigate whether MMP activity in α2M/MMP complexes in serum can be used as a disease marker in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. High and low molecular weight (H/LMW) substrates and inh

  9. Efficacy of natalizumab in multiple sclerosis patients with high disease activity: a Danish nationwide study

    Oturai, A.B.; Koch-Henriksen, N.; Petersen, T.;


    INTRODUCTION: Previous studies of natalizumab (Tysabri) in relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have included patients with moderate disease activity. We studied a patient population with high disease activity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from 234 consecutive, natalizumab-treated...

  10. Serum inflammatory mediators as markers of human Lyme disease activity.

    Soloski, Mark J; Crowder, Lauren A; Lahey, Lauren J; Wagner, Catriona A; Robinson, William H; Aucott, John N


    Chemokines and cytokines are key signaling molecules that orchestrate the trafficking of immune cells, direct them to sites of tissue injury and inflammation and modulate their states of activation and effector cell function. We have measured, using a multiplex-based approach, the levels of 58 immune mediators and 7 acute phase markers in sera derived from of a cohort of patients diagnosed with acute Lyme disease and matched controls. This analysis identified a cytokine signature associated with the early stages of infection and allowed us to identify two subsets (mediator-high and mediator-low) of acute Lyme patients with distinct cytokine signatures that also differed significantly (p<0.0005) in symptom presentation. In particular, the T cell chemokines CXCL9 (MIG), CXCL10 (IP-10) and CCL19 (MIP3B) were coordinately increased in the mediator-high group and levels of these chemokines could be associated with seroconversion status and elevated liver function tests (p = 0.027 and p = 0.021 respectively). There was also upregulation of acute phase proteins including CRP and serum amyloid A. Consistent with the role of CXCL9/CXCL10 in attracting immune cells to the site of infection, CXCR3+ CD4 T cells are reduced in the blood of early acute Lyme disease (p = 0.01) and the decrease correlates with chemokine levels (p = 0.0375). The levels of CXCL9/10 did not relate to the size or number of skin lesions but elevated levels of serum CXCL9/CXCL10 were associated with elevated liver enzymes levels. Collectively these results indicate that the levels of serum chemokines and the levels of expression of their respective chemokine receptors on T cell subsets may prove to be informative biomarkers for Lyme disease and related to specific disease manifestations.

  11. Serum inflammatory mediators as markers of human Lyme disease activity.

    Mark J Soloski

    Full Text Available Chemokines and cytokines are key signaling molecules that orchestrate the trafficking of immune cells, direct them to sites of tissue injury and inflammation and modulate their states of activation and effector cell function. We have measured, using a multiplex-based approach, the levels of 58 immune mediators and 7 acute phase markers in sera derived from of a cohort of patients diagnosed with acute Lyme disease and matched controls. This analysis identified a cytokine signature associated with the early stages of infection and allowed us to identify two subsets (mediator-high and mediator-low of acute Lyme patients with distinct cytokine signatures that also differed significantly (p<0.0005 in symptom presentation. In particular, the T cell chemokines CXCL9 (MIG, CXCL10 (IP-10 and CCL19 (MIP3B were coordinately increased in the mediator-high group and levels of these chemokines could be associated with seroconversion status and elevated liver function tests (p = 0.027 and p = 0.021 respectively. There was also upregulation of acute phase proteins including CRP and serum amyloid A. Consistent with the role of CXCL9/CXCL10 in attracting immune cells to the site of infection, CXCR3+ CD4 T cells are reduced in the blood of early acute Lyme disease (p = 0.01 and the decrease correlates with chemokine levels (p = 0.0375. The levels of CXCL9/10 did not relate to the size or number of skin lesions but elevated levels of serum CXCL9/CXCL10 were associated with elevated liver enzymes levels. Collectively these results indicate that the levels of serum chemokines and the levels of expression of their respective chemokine receptors on T cell subsets may prove to be informative biomarkers for Lyme disease and related to specific disease manifestations.

  12. Activating transcription factor 6 derepression mediates neuroprotection in Huntington disease.

    Naranjo, José R; Zhang, Hongyu; Villar, Diego; González, Paz; Dopazo, Xose M; Morón-Oset, Javier; Higueras, Elena; Oliveros, Juan C; Arrabal, María D; Prieto, Angela; Cercós, Pilar; González, Teresa; De la Cruz, Alicia; Casado-Vela, Juan; Rábano, Alberto; Valenzuela, Carmen; Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Marta; Li, Jia-Yi; Mellström, Britt


    Deregulated protein and Ca2+ homeostasis underlie synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration in Huntington disease (HD); however, the factors that disrupt homeostasis are not fully understood. Here, we determined that expression of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein, is reduced in murine in vivo and in vitro HD models and in HD patients. DREAM downregulation was observed early after birth and was associated with endogenous neuroprotection. In the R6/2 mouse HD model, induced DREAM haplodeficiency or blockade of DREAM activity by chronic administration of the drug repaglinide delayed onset of motor dysfunction, reduced striatal atrophy, and prolonged life span. DREAM-related neuroprotection was linked to an interaction between DREAM and the unfolded protein response (UPR) sensor activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Repaglinide blocked this interaction and enhanced ATF6 processing and nuclear accumulation of transcriptionally active ATF6, improving prosurvival UPR function in striatal neurons. Together, our results identify a role for DREAM silencing in the activation of ATF6 signaling, which promotes early neuroprotection in HD.

  13. Longitudinal patterns of predominant asthma disease activity in pediatric patients enrolled in an asthma-specific disease management program.

    Scott, Lyne; Nichols, Breck; Choi Kwong, Kenny Yat; Morphew, Tricia; Jones, Craig A


    To determine if patterns of predominant asthma disease activity are more closely related than baseline asthma severity to measures of morbidity (acute asthma attack, emergency room visit/hospitalization, missed school days, and/or steroid burst). Retrospective analysis was performed for inner-city Los Angeles asthmatic children (3 to 18 years of age) during their first year of enrollment in an asthma-specific disease management program. All measures of morbidity were more closely related to patterns of predominant disease activity than baseline severity. We conclude that patterns of predominant disease activity are a more significant predictor of asthma morbidity than is baseline severity.

  14. Study on the Characteristics of Seismic Activity in West China and Its neighboring Regions

    Chen Yuwei; Shen Yelong; Ling Xueshu


    The controlling and influencing effects of the joint action of plates surrounding China on strong earthquakes in Chinese mainland are discussed, and the characteristics of seismic activities in the West of China and neighboring regions are further studied. The results show that the seismic activity in the West of China and neighboring regions not only has the characteristics of high tide and low tide alternation but also has the characteristics of rising in one region while falling in another, and the rise and fail of seismicity are in some proportion. The above characteristics are useful for the prediction of main body region of strong earthquakes in Chinese mainland, especially for the judgement of the ending time of the high fide period.

  15. Automatic prediction of rheumatoid arthritis disease activity from the electronic medical records.

    Chen Lin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to mine the data in the Electronic Medical Record to automatically discover patients' Rheumatoid Arthritis disease activity at discrete rheumatology clinic visits. We cast the problem as a document classification task where the feature space includes concepts from the clinical narrative and lab values as stored in the Electronic Medical Record. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Training Set consisted of 2792 clinical notes and associated lab values. Test Set 1 included 1749 clinical notes and associated lab values. Test Set 2 included 344 clinical notes for which there were no associated lab values. The Apache clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System was used to analyze the text and transform it into informative features to be combined with relevant lab values. RESULTS: Experiments over a range of machine learning algorithms and features were conducted. The best performing combination was linear kernel Support Vector Machines with Unified Medical Language System Concept Unique Identifier features with feature selection and lab values. The Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC is 0.831 (σ = 0.0317, statistically significant as compared to two baselines (AUC = 0.758, σ = 0.0291. Algorithms demonstrated superior performance on cases clinically defined as extreme categories of disease activity (Remission and High compared to those defined as intermediate categories (Moderate and Low and included laboratory data on inflammatory markers. CONCLUSION: Automatic Rheumatoid Arthritis disease activity discovery from Electronic Medical Record data is a learnable task approximating human performance. As a result, this approach might have several research applications, such as the identification of patients for genome-wide pharmacogenetic studies that require large sample sizes with precise definitions of disease activity and response to therapies.

  16. Can the mean platelet volume be a predictor of disease activity in primary Sjogren syndrome?

    Ahmet Omma


    Full Text Available Background: Disease activity in primary Sjogren syndrome (PSS is measured by the EULAR Sjogren's syndrome disease activity index (ESSDAI and patient reported index (ESSPRI. Studies investigating the association between ESSDAI and ESSPRI and previously reported indicators of systemic inflammation are few in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical utility of the mean platelet volume (MPV in predicting disease activity in PSS patients. Methods: A total of 190 subjects including ninety-five PSS patients and ninety-five healthy controls were enrolled. Associations between MPV and other known indicators of systemic inflammation (red cell distribution width (RDW, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR and patient clinical characteristic, ESSDAI and ESSPRI were investigated by using spearman correlation and linear regression analysis. Results: MPV levels were found to be significantly higher in the PSS group than the control group (10.5+/-1.2 versus 9.0+/-1; P<0.001 respectively. Correlation and regression analysis showed a positive correlation between MPV levels and ESSDAI scores (r=0.24, p=0.01. There was a negative correlation between ESSPRI and MPV levels (r=-0.32, p=0.001. NLR and RDW did not show any significant correlation with either ESSDAI or ESSPRI scores. Conclusions: MPV levels are significantly elevated in PSS patients compared to their control peers, positively correlate with ESSDAI but negatively with ESSPRI scores. MPV might be a useful inflammatory marker to measure disease activity in PSS. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(4.000: 1237-1241

  17. Activation of AMP-activated kinase as a strategy for managing autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    McCarty, Mark F; Barroso-Aranda, Jorge; Contreras, Francisco


    There is evidence that overactivity of both mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) contributes importantly to the progressive expansion of renal cysts in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Recent research has established that AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) can suppress the activity of each of these proteins. Clinical AMPK activators such as metformin and berberine may thus have potential in the clinical management of ADPKD. The traditional use of berberine in diarrhea associated with bacterial infections may reflect, in part, the inhibitory impact of AMPK on chloride extrusion by small intestinal enterocytes.

  18. Nutritional Assessment and Disease Activity for Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Thomas E Wasser


    Full Text Available Using the Harvard/Willett Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (H/WSQFFQ, nutritional information was gathered on patients enrolled in an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD registry. The registry lists 320 patients positive for either ulcerative colitis (n=124 or Crohn’s disease (n=196. The sample was limited to those 19 to 84 years old (mean ± SD 48.57±14.98, and comprised 136 males and 184 females. Using a battery of indices, quality of life, disease activity and general well-being were also assessed. Nutritional intake values from the Harvard-Willett data were compared with recommended dietary allowances (RDA tables by sex and age group (19 to 24 years, 25 to 50, 51 and older to discover any intake deficiencies. Results showed that IBD patients were below RDA guidelines for vitamin E, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iodine and selenium. Females were below RDA guidelines for iron while men were below for vitamin B6. There were also some deficiencies according to age in males and two nutrient deficiencies were seen by age group in women. There were no deficiencies by sex or age for vitamins A, C, D and niacin. There were no observed nutrient intake differences between ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease groups. Patients receiving vitamin or mineral supplementation showed significant decreases in quality of life, regardless of diagnosis (Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis group. The H/WSQFFQ is a useful tool for assessment of the nutritional status of the IBD patient because it not only provides valuable measurement data to the clinician, but also adds to patient awareness about nutritional problems associated with IBD.

  19. Disease activity and cancer risk in inflammatory bowel disease associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis

    Harry Sokol; Jacques Cosnes; Olivier Chazouilleres; Laurent Beaugerie; Emmanuel Tiret; Raoul Poupon; Philippe Seksik


    AIM: To investigate the phenotype of inflammatory bowel disease associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC-IBD).METHODS: Data from 75 PSC-]BD patients evaluated in our tertiary center between 1963 and 2006 were collected and compared to 150 IBD patients without PSC, matched for sex, birth date, IBD diagnosis date and initial disease location regarding ileal, different colonic segments, and rectum, respectively.RESULTS: While PSC-IBD patients received more 5-aminosalicylates (8.7 years/patient vs 2.9 years/patient, P<0.001), they required less immunosuppressors (24% vs 46% at 10 years; P<0.001) and less intestinal resection (10% vs 44% at 10 years, P<0.001). The 25-year cumulative rate of colectomy was 25.1% in PSC-IBD and 37.3% in controls (P=0.004). The 25-year cumulative rate of colorectal cancer was 23.4% in PSC-IBD vs 0% in controls (P=0.002). PSC was the only independent risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer (OR=10.8; 95%CI, 3.7-31.3). Overall survival rate without liver transplantation was reduced in PSC-IBD patients (67% vs 91% in controls at 25 years, P=0.001).CONCLUSION: This study confirms that patients with PSC-IBD have a particular disease phenotype independent of the initial disease location. Although their disease is less active and they use more 5-aminosalicylates, they present a higher risk of colorectal cancer.

  20. EULAR Sjögren's syndrome disease activity index (ESSDAI) : a user guide

    Seror, Raphaèle; Bowman, Simon J; Brito-Zeron, Pilar; Theander, Elke; Bootsma, Hendrika; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Ramos-Casals, Manel; Dörner, Thomas; Ravaud, Philippe; Vitali, Claudio; Mariette, Xavier; Asmussen, Karsten; Jacobsen, Soren; Bartoloni, Elena; Gerli, Roberto; Bijlsma, Johannes Wj; Kruize, Aike A; Bombardieri, Stefano; Bookman, Arthur; Kallenberg, Cees; Meiners, Petra; Brun, Johan G; Jonsson, Roland; Caporali, Roberto; Carsons, Steven; De Vita, Salvatore; Del Papa, Nicoletta; Devauchelle, Valerie; Saraux, Alain; Fauchais, Anne-Laure; Sibilia, Jean; Hachulla, Eric; Illei, Gabor; Isenberg, David; Jones, Adrian; Manoussakis, Menelaos; Mandl, Thomas; Jacobsson, Lennart; Demoulins, Frederic; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Ng, Wan-Fai; Nishiyama, Sumusu; Omdal, Roald; Parke, Ann; Praprotnik, Sonja; Tomsic, Matjia; Price, Elizabeth; Scofield, Hal; L Sivils, Kathy; Smolen, Josef; Laqué, Roser Solans; Steinfeld, Serge; Sutcliffe, Nurhan; Sumida, Takayuki; Valesini, Guido; Valim, Valeria; Vivino, Frederick B; Vollenweider, Cristina


    The EULAR Sjögren's syndrome (SS) disease activity index (ESSDAI) is a systemic disease activity index that was designed to measure disease activity in patients with primary SS. With the growing use of the ESSDAI, some domains appear to be more challenging to rate than others. The ESSDAI is now in u

  1. Differences in some physical characteristics and motor abilities at dance active and dance inactive children

    Petrič, Anja


    In Degree dissertation titled “Differences in some physical characteristics and motor abilities at dance active and dance inactive children” we compared some physical characteristics and motor abilities in the two groups of children: the ones that are taking the interests in dance and the ones that are not interested in dance. In theoretical part of dissertation we presented the offer of dance schools in Slovenia, projects School dance festival, recognition of dance in elementary schools, in...

  2. Associations between animal characteristic and environmental risk factors and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    Hay, K E; Morton, J M; Mahony, T J; Clements, A C A; Barnes, T S


    A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in a population of Australian feedlot cattle to assess associations between animal characteristic and environmental risk factors and risk of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Animal characteristics were recorded at induction, when animals were individually identified and enrolled into study cohorts (comprising animals in a feedlot pen). Environmental risk factors included the year and season of induction, source region and feedlot region and summary variables describing weather during the first week of follow-up. In total, 35,131 animals inducted into 170 cohorts within 14 feedlots were included in statistical analyses. Causal diagrams were used to inform model building and multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models were fitted within the Bayesian framework. Breed, induction weight and season of induction were significantly and strongly associated with risk of BRD. Compared to Angus cattle, Herefords were at markedly increased risk (OR: 2.0, 95% credible interval: 1.5-2.6) and tropically adapted breeds and their crosses were at markedly reduced risk (OR: 0.5, 95% credible interval: 0.3-0.7) of developing BRD. Risk of BRD declined with increased induction weight, with cattle in the heaviest weight category (≥480kg) at moderately reduced risk compared to cattle weighing risk compared to animals inducted during spring. Knowledge of these risk factors may be useful in predicting BRD risk for incoming groups of cattle in Australian feedlots. This would then provide the opportunity for feedlot managers to tailor management strategies for specific subsets of animals according to predicted BRD risk.

  3. HIV-1 subtype C envelope characteristics associated with divergent rates of chronic disease progression

    Goulder Philip JR


    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 envelope diversity remains a significant challenge for the development of an efficacious vaccine. The evolutionary forces that shape the diversity of envelope are incompletely understood. HIV-1 subtype C envelope in particular shows significant differences and unique characteristics compared to its subtype B counterpart. Here we applied the single genome sequencing strategy of plasma derived virus from a cohort of therapy naïve chronically infected individuals in order to study diversity, divergence patterns and envelope characteristics across the entire HIV-1 subtype C gp160 in 4 slow progressors and 4 progressors over an average of 19.5 months. Results Sequence analysis indicated that intra-patient nucleotide diversity within the entire envelope was higher in slow progressors, but did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.07. However, intra-patient nucleotide diversity was significantly higher in slow progressors compared to progressors in the C2 (p = 0.0006, V3 (p = 0.01 and C3 (p = 0.005 regions. Increased amino acid length and fewer potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGs were observed in the V1-V4 in slow progressors compared to progressors (p = 0.009 and p = 0.02 respectively. Similarly, gp41 in the progressors was significantly longer and had fewer PNGs compared to slow progressors (p = 0.02 and p = 0.02 respectively. Positive selection hotspots mapped mainly to V1, C3, V4, C4 and gp41 in slow progressors, whereas hotspots mapped mainly to gp41 in progressors. Signature consensus sequence differences between the groups occurred mainly in gp41. Conclusions These data suggest that separate regions of envelope are under differential selective forces, and that envelope evolution differs based on disease course. Differences between slow progressors and progressors may reflect differences in immunological pressure and immune evasion mechanisms. These data also indicate that the pattern of envelope evolution

  4. Characteristics of myocardial postsystolic shortening in patients with coronary artery disease assessed by strain rate imaging

    YANG Li; QIU Qiong; ZHANG Hui-zhong; XIA Jin-xi


    Background Postsystolic shortening (PSS) has been proposed as a marker of myocardial dysfunction. Strain rate imaging (SRI)is a novel ultrasonic technique, allowing reliable and noninvasive measurement of myocardial deformation.The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of myocardial longitudinal PSS by SRI in ischemic and infarct myocardium in patients with coronary artery disease, and to explore its clinical applicability.Methods Eleven patients with angina pectoris, 21 patients with myocardial infarction and 20 healthy subjects were included in the study. Apical four-, three- and two-chamber views were displayed; and septal, lateral, anteroseptal,posterior, anterior and inferior walls of the left ventricle were scanned, respectively. PSS strain (εpss), the ratio of εpss and systolic strain (εpss/εsys), the ratio of εpss and maximum strain (εpss/εmax) and the duration of PSS (Tpss) in ischemic, infarct and normal myocardium were analyzed.Results PSS was found more frequent in the ischemic and infarct segments compared with the normal segments (39%vs 22% and 56% vs 22%, respectively; both P<0.01). It was even more frequent in the infarct segments than in the ischemic segments (56% vs 39%, P<0.01). The absolute magnitude of εpss, εpss/εsys, εpss/εmax were significantly larger and Tpss significantly longer in the ischemic and infarct segments compared with that in the normal myocardium (P<0.01).εpss/εsys, εpss/εmax were even larger and Tpss even longer in the infarct than in the ischemic segments (P<0.01).Conclusions PSS is a common and important feature of the ischemic and infarct myocardium. εpss, εpss/εsys, εpss/εmax and Tpss as measured by SRI may be promising markers for the quantitative assessment of regional myocardial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. εpss/εsys, εpss/εmax and Tpss may be helpful in differentiating infarct from ischemic myocardium.

  5. Characteristics of Nonafluorobutyl Methyl Ether (NFE) Adsorption onto Activated Carbon Fibers and Different-Size-Activated Carbon Particles.

    Tanada; Kawasaki; Nakamura; Araki; Tachibana


    The characteristics of adsorption of 1,1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4-nonafluorobutyl methyl ether (NFE), a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) replacement, onto six different activated carbon; preparations (three activated carbon fibers and three different-sized activated carbon particles) were investigated to evaluate the interaction between activated carbon surfaces and NFE. The amount of NFE adsorbed onto the three activated carbon fibers increased with increasing specific surface area and pore volume. The amount of NFE adsorbed onto the three different-sized-activated carbon particles increased with an increase in the particle diameter of the granular activated carbon. The differential heat of the NFE adsorption onto three activated carbon fibers depended on the porosity structure of the activated carbon fibers. The adsorption rate of NFE was also investigated in order to evaluate the efficiency of NFE recovery by the activated carbon surface. The Sameshima equation was used to obtain the isotherms of NFE adsorption onto the activated carbon fibers and different-sized-activated carbon particles. The rate constant k for NFE adsorption onto activated carbon fibers was larger for increased specific surface area and pore volume. The rate of NFE adsorption on activated carbons of three different particle sizes decreased with increasing particle diameter at a low initial pressure. The adsorption isotherms of NFE for the six activated carbons conformed to the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation; the constants BE(0) (the affinity between adsorbate and adsorbent) and W(0) (the adsorption capacity) were calculated. These results indicated that the interaction between the activated carbon and NFE was larger with the smaller specific surface area of the activated carbon fibers and with the smaller particle diameter of the different-sized-activated carbon particles. The degree of packing of NFE in the pores of the activated carbon fibers was greater than that in the pores of the granular activated

  6. Brain Na+, K+-ATPase Activity In Aging and Disease

    de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez; Ordieres, María Graciela López


    Na+/K+ pump or sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine 5’-triphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase), its enzymatic version, is a crucial protein responsible for the electrochemical gradient across the cell membranes. It is an ion transporter, which in addition to exchange cations, is the ligand for cardenolides. This enzyme regulates the entry of K+ with the exit of Na+ from cells, being the responsible for Na+/K+ equilibrium maintenance through neuronal membranes. This transport system couples the hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP to exchange three sodium ions for two potassium ions, thus maintaining the normal gradient of these cations in animal cells. Oxidative metabolism is very active in brain, where large amounts of chemical energy as ATP molecules are consumed, mostly required for the maintenance of the ionic gradients that underlie resting and action potentials which are involved in nerve impulse propagation, neurotransmitter release and cation homeostasis. Protein phosphorylation is a key process in biological regulation. At nervous system level, protein phosphorylation is the major molecular mechanism through which the function of neural proteins is modulted in response to extracellular signals, including the response to neurotransmitter stimuli. It is the major mechanism of neural plasticity, including memory processing. The phosphorylation of Na+, K+-ATPase catalytic subunit inhibits enzyme activity whereas the inhibition of protein kinase C restores the enzyme activity. The dephosphorylation of neuronal Na+, K+-ATPase is mediated by calcineurin, a serine / threonine phosphatase. The latter enzyme is involved in a wide range of cellular responses to Ca2+ mobilizing signals, in the regulation of neuronal excitability by controlling the activity of ion channels, in the release of neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as in synaptic plasticity and gene transcription. In the present article evidence showing Na+, K+-ATPase involvement in signaling pathways

  7. Elevated serum interleukin-23 levels in ankylosing spondylitis patients and the relationship with disease activity.

    Ugur, Mahir; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Melikoglu, Meltem Alkan; Baygutalp, Fatih; Altas, Elif Umay; Seferoglu, Buminhan


    This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum interleukin-23 (IL-23) levels and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).Twenty male patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis according to the 1984 modified New York criteria for AS and twenty male healthy controls were included in this study.The demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings of the patients were recorded. Serum IL-23 levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured in both the AS and control groups. The Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity ındex (BASDAI), the Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), and the Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) were evaluated as disease activity parameters. The AS patients were divided into two subgroups as active and inactive in respect of CRP, ESR levels and BASDAI scores. The mean serum IL-23 levels of the AS and control groups were 334.45±176.54 pg/ml and 166.49±177.50 pg/ml respectively, and there was a significant difference between the groups. Correlation analysis of serum IL-23 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters showed that there were positive correlations between serum IL-23 levels and the BASDAI, BASFI scores in total, active and inactive patients and the BASMI scores in total and inactive patients and negative correlations between serum IL-23 levels and ESR in inactive patients. It was shown that altered serum IL-23 levels were related to AS disease activity. Further studies in large patient series are necessary to investigate the role of IL-23 protein in etiopathogenesis of AS.

  8. Parsing brain activity associated with acupuncture treatment in Parkinson's diseases.

    Chae, Younbyoung; Lee, Hyejung; Kim, Hackjin; Kim, Chang-Hwan; Chang, Dae-Il; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Park, Hi-Joon


    Acupuncture, a common treatment modality within complementary and alternative medicine, has been widely used for Parkinson's disease (PD). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we explored the neural mechanisms underlying the effect of specific and genuine acupuncture treatment on the motor function in patients with PD. Three fMRI scans were performed in random order in a block design, one for verum acupuncture (VA) treatment, another one for a covert placebo (CP), and the third one for an overt placebo (OP) at the motor function implicated acupoint GB34 on the left foot of 10 patients with PD. We calculated the contrast that subtracts the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) response for the acupuncture effect (VA vs. CP) and the placebo effect (CP vs. OP). We found a significant improvement in the motor function of the affected hand after acupuncture treatment. The putamen and the primary motor cortex were activated when patients with PD received the acupuncture treatment (VA vs. CP) and these activations correlated with individual enhanced motor function. Expectation towards acupuncture modality (CP vs. OP) elicited activation over the anterior cingulate gyrus, the superior frontal gyrus, and the superior temporal gyrus. These findings suggest that acupuncture treatment might facilitate improvement in the motor functioning of patients with PD via the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit.

  9. Characteristics of hand tremor and postural sway in patients with fetal-type Minamata disease.

    Iwata, Toyoto; Takaoka, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Maeda, Eri; Nakamura, Masaaki; Liu, Xiao-Jie; Murata, Katsuyuki


    About forty certified patients aged around 50 years old existed as living witnesses to fetal-type Minamata disease (methylmercury poisoning due to in utero exposure) in Minamata, Japan in 2006. Computerized hand tremor and postural sway tests with spectral analysis were conducted for 24 of them and in matched control subjects to examine the pathophysiological feature of neuromotor function. The tremor intensities of the patients with fetal-type Minamata disease were significantly larger than those of the 67 controls at every frequency band for both hands. In the patients, proportions for intensity at 1-6 Hz of both hands were larger, but those of the intensity at 6-10 Hz were smaller compared with the controls. The center frequency of a tremor was significantly lower in the patients than in the controls. Only eight males of the 24 patients were examined to evaluate postural sway because of extremely low scores in activities of daily living in the remaining. Most of the postural sway parameters obtained with eyes open and closed were significantly larger in the patients than in the male controls. Likewise, Romberg quotients of postural sway in anterior-posterior direction were significantly higher in the patients. In conclusion, the patients with fetal-type Minamata disease of our study showed a larger tremor of low frequency at less than 6 Hz and postural instability. Spectral analyses of computerized hand tremor and postural sway are suggested to be useful for assessing the pathophysiological change, related to a lesion of the cerebellum, resulting from prenatal methylmercury exposure.

  10. Characteristics of the Small Bowel Lesions Detected by Capsule Endoscopy in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Harunobu Kawamura


    Full Text Available Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB is one of the common complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, especially those who are on maintenance hemodialysis (HD. However, little is known about the characteristics of the small-bowel lesions in these patients, or of the factors that could predict the presence of such lesions. Therefore we enrolled a total of 42 CKD patients (including 19 HD patients and 23 non-HD patients, and compared the incidence of the small-bowel lesions among two groups. Furthermore, to identify predictive factors for the presence of small-bowel lesions, we performed multivariate logistic-regression-analyses. The incidence of small-bowel vascular lesions was significantly higher in CKD patients than in age-and-sex matched non-CKD patients (P<0.001. On the other hand, there was any significant difference of the incidence of small-bowel lesions between HD and non-HD patients. In CKD patients, past history of blood transfusion (OR 5.66; 95% CI 1.10–29.1, P=0.04 was identified as an independent predictor of the presence of vascular lesions, and history of low-dose aspirin use (OR 6.00; 95% CI 1.13–31.9, P=0.04 was identified as that of erosive/ulcerated lesions. This indicated that proactive CE examination would be clinically meaningful for these patients.

  11. Frequency and Clinical Characteristics of Hydroxychloroquine Retinopathy in Korean Patients with Rheumatologic Diseases


    This study aimed to evaluate the frequency and clinical characteristics of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy in Korean patients with rheumatologic diseases. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 310 patients taking HCQ. Ophthalmic examinations included spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), automated visual field test, and fundus autofluorescence. The severity of retinopathy was categorized as early, moderate, or severe, and the location was categorized as parafoveal, pericentral, or mixed pattern. Among 310 patients, 9 patients (2.9%) were diagnosed as HCQ retinopathy. Among the patients with HCQ use ≥ 5 years (n = 174), the frequency was 5.2%. Only 1 (11.1%) of the 9 patients was symptomatic. The mean daily dose per kilogram of real body weight of the 9 patients was 5.6 mg, and only 3 had used 6.5 mg or more. Four of the 9 patients had severe HCQ retinopathy. Six of the 9 patients showed pericentral or mixed pattern of retinal damage. Consequently, the frequency of HCQ retinopathy in Korean patients was not low, especially when administered at a high cumulative dose and for a long duration. Screening of HCQ retinopathy by the recommended guidelines that include SD-OCT seems useful and should be done to detect retinal damage earlier in patients with chronic exposure to HCQ. PMID:28145658

  12. From Lysosomal Storage Diseases to NKT Cell Activation and Back

    Pereira, Cátia S.; Ribeiro, Helena; Macedo, M. Fatima


    Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are inherited metabolic disorders characterized by the accumulation of different types of substrates in the lysosome. With a multisystemic involvement, LSDs often present a very broad clinical spectrum. In many LSDs, alterations of the immune system were described. Special emphasis was given to Natural Killer T (NKT) cells, a population of lipid-specific T cells that is activated by lipid antigens bound to CD1d (cluster of differentiation 1 d) molecules at the surface of antigen-presenting cells. These cells have important functions in cancer, infection, and autoimmunity and were altered in a variety of LSDs’ mouse models. In some cases, the observed decrease was attributed to defects in either lipid antigen availability, trafficking, processing, or loading in CD1d. Here, we review the current knowledge about NKT cells in the context of LSDs, including the alterations detected, the proposed mechanisms to explain these defects, and the relevance of these findings for disease pathology. Furthermore, the effect of enzyme replacement therapy on NKT cells is also discussed. PMID:28245613

  13. Relationship Between Disease Activity and Hearing Loss in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients A Case Control Study

    Ilham RKAIN


    Full Text Available ObjectivesRheumatoid arthritis (RA is well known to affect many different organ systems. Previous work suggests that this includes the auditory system.The objectives of this work are to evaluate the pattern of hearing impairment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and also to examine the possible associations between hearing impairment and related RA features especially disease activity.Materials and methodsThirty RA patients (mean age of 44.5 ± 9.9 years; female sex (90% and 17 healthy controls (mean age of 41.5±9.1 years; female sex (76.4% were included in our study. The 2 groups were matched for age and sex (p>0.05. Otoscopic examination was normal in all participants.No subject of the 2 groups has had any abnormalities at otoscopic examination. Hearing impairment was evaluated by pure tone audiometry and tympanometry including the static compliance, middle ear pressure, stapedial reflex threshold test. In all patients the clinical features, laboratory data, X-rays, disease activity index-DAS 28 were performed.ResultsHearing loss was more prevalent in RA patients compared to healthy controls (56.7 vs 11.8%; p=0.005. RA patients have conductive, sensorineural and mixed hearing loss in respectively 43.4, 3.3 and 10 % of cases. Association analysis between hearing characteristics and remission in RA patients shows that RA patients in remission have significantly lower mean hearing thresholds (12.8±5.2dB vs 18.8±6.9 dB ; p=0.04.ConclusionThis study suggests that hearing loss risk is higher in RA patients and seems to be associated to disease duration. Hearing loss in RA was directly proportional to the disease activity index-DAS 28. Audiological evaluation must be performed periodically to identify possible audiological damage.

  14. Characteristics of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in the pulmonology clinics of seven Asian cities

    Oh YM


    Full Text Available Yeon-Mok Oh,1 Arvind B Bhome,2 Watchara Boonsawat,3 Kirthi Dias Gunasekera,4 Dushantha Madegedara,5 Luisito Idolor,6 Camilo Roa,6 Woo Jin Kim,7 Han-Pin Kuo,8 Chun-Hua Wang,8 Le Thi Tuyet Lan,9 Li-Cher Loh,10 Choo-Khoon Ong,10 Alan Ng,11 Masaharu Nishimura,12 Hironi Makita,12 Edwin K Silverman,13 Jae Seung Lee,1 Ting Yang,14 Yingxiang Lin,14 Chen Wang,14 Sang-Do Lee1  1Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; 2Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care, "Friends of the Breathless" Foundation, Pune, India; 3Department of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 4Central Chest Clinic, Colombo and National Hospital of Sri Lanka; 5Respiratory Disease Treatment Unit and Teaching Hospital Kandy, Sri Lanka; 6Section of Respiratory Services and Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Lung Center of the Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines; 7Department of Internal Medicine, Kangwon National University, Kang Won, Korea; 8Department of Thoracic Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 9Respiratory Care Center, University Medical Center Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; 10Department of Medicine, Penang Medical College, Penang, Malaysia; 11Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore; 12Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Japan; 13Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 14Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, ChinaAll authors made an equal contribution to this studyBackground and objectives: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. We evaluated the characteristics of stable COPD patients in

  15. Characteristics and therapeutic efficacy of sulfasalazine in patients with mildly and moderately active ulcerative colitis

    Qi-Kui Chen; Zhong-Lin Yu; Shi-Zheng Yuan; Zhuo-Fu Wen; Ying-Qiang Zhong; Cu-Jun Li; Hui-Sheng Wu; Can-Rong Mai; Peng-Yan Xie; Yu-Min Lu


    AIM: To investigate the characteristics and short-term efficacy of sulfasalazine (SASP) in patients with mildly and moderately active ulcerative colitis (UC).METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-eight patients with mildly and moderately active UC were recruited, 106patients in 1993-1995, and 122 patients in 2000-2002,they were assigned as the 1990s group (n = 106) and the 2000s group (n = 122), prospectively. The general characteristics, clinical manifestations, colonoscopic and histological data were compared between the two groups.The short-term efficacy and safety of SASP 3 g per d were evaluated.RESULTS: Between 2000s and 1990s groups, the gender ratio of men to women was 1:1.18 and 1:1.04, 57.4%and 50.9% of the patients were between 30 and 49 years old. The gender ratio and age of UC patients were not significantly different. The total course of 50.0% and 37.1% of UC patients was less than 1 year (P<0.05), 10.6% and 31.2% of the cases had a duration of more than 5 years (P<0.05) in 2000s and 1990s groups, respectively. The most common clinical type was first episode in 2000s group and chronic relapse in 1990s group. The patients showed a higher frequency of abdominal pain and tenderness in 1990s group than in 2000s group. Erosions were found in 84.4% and 67.9% of patients in 2000s and 1990s groups (P<0.05). Rough and granular mucosa (67.9%vs43.4%, P<0.05)and polyps (47.2% vs 32.8%, P<0.05)were identified in 1990s group more than in 2000s group.There were no significant differences in clinical, colonoscopic and histological classifications. After SASP (1 g thrice per d) treatment for 6 wk, the clinical, colonoscopic and histological remission rates were 71.8%, 21.8% and 16.4%,respectively. In 79 patients with clinical remission, 58.2%and 67.1% remained grade 1 in colonoscopic and histological findings, respectively. The overall effects in first episode type (complete remission in 10, 18.9%, partial remission in 28, 52.8%, and improvement in 9, 17.0%) were

  16. NLRP3 inflammasome activation in dialyzed chronic kidney disease patients.

    Simona Granata

    Full Text Available To assess whether NLR pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3 inflammasome, a multiprotein complex that mediates the activation of caspase-1 (CASP-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-18 and IL-1β, could be involved in the chronic inflammatory state observed in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment (CKD-HD, we employed several biomolecular techniques including RT-PCR, western blot, FACS analysis, confocal microscopy and microarray. Interestingly, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 15 CKD-HD patients showed higher mRNA levels of NLRP3, CASP-1, ASC, IL-1β, IL-18 and P2X7 receptor compared to 15 healthy subjects. Western blotting analysis confirmed the above results. In particular, active forms of CASP-1, IL1-β and IL-18 resulted significantly up-regulated in CKD-HD versus controls. Additionally, elevated mitochondrial ROS level, colocalization of NLRP3/ASC/mitochondria in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CKD-HD patients and down-regulation of CASP-1, IL1-β and IL-18 protein levels in immune-cells of CKD-HD patients stimulated with LPS/ATP in presence of mitoTEMPO, inhibitor of mitochondrial ROS production, suggested a possible role of this organelle in the aforementioned CKD-associated inflammasome activation. Then, microarray analysis confirmed, in an independent microarray study cohort, that NLRP3 and CASP-1, along with other inflammasome-related genes, were up-regulated in 17 CKD-HD patients and they were able to clearly discriminate these patients from 5 healthy subjects. All together these data showed, for the first time, that NLRP3 inflammasome was activated in uremic patients undergoing dialysis treatment and they suggested that this unphysiological condition could be possibly induced by mitochondrial dysfunction.

  17. Association between MYO9B rs962917 and rs1545620 gene polymorphism and clinical characteristic of inflammatory bowel disease



    Objective To investigate the association between MYO9B rs962917 and rs1545620 gene polymorphism and clinical pathological characteristics of patients with inflammatory bowel disease(IBD)and permeability of intestinal mucosa.Methods From September 2010 to May2012,a total of 196 cases of patients with IBD were collected,

  18. The precision--recall curve overcame the optimism of the receiver operating characteristic curve in rare diseases

    Ozenne, Brice; Subtil, Fabien; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine


    OBJECTIVES: Compare the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) vs. the area under the precision-recall curve (AUPRC) in summarizing the performance of a diagnostic biomarker according to the disease prevalence. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A simulation study was performed...

  19. Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety in Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease: The Role of Intrapersonal Characteristics and Stress Processing Variables

    Simon, Katherine; Barakat, Lamia P.; Patterson, Chavis A.; Dampier, Carlton


    Sickle cell disease (SCD) complications place patients at risk for poor psychosocial adaptation, including depression and anxiety symptoms. This study aimed to test a mediator model based on the Risk and Resistance model to explore the role of intrapersonal characteristics and stress processing variables in psychosocial functioning. Participants…

  20. The Correlation of Serum IL-12B Expression With Disease Activity in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Lee, Hye Won; Chung, Sook Hee; Moon, Chang Mo; Che, Xiumei; Kim, Seung Won; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho; Cheon, Jae Hee


    Abstract Genetic variants in IL12B, encoding the p40 subunit common in interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interleukin-23, were identified as the susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aimed to identify the correlation of serum IL-12B expression with disease activity in patients with IBD and evaluate the possibility of IL-12B as a biomarker for assessing inflammatory status in IBD. A total of 102 patients with IBD, including 38, 32, and 32 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and intestinal Behçet's disease (intestinal BD), respectively, were included. The clinical and laboratory data from the patients were collected at the time of serum IL-12B measurement. Serum IL-12B levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The median IL-12B levels in patients with CD, UC, and intestinal BD were significantly higher than those in controls (1.87, 2.74, and 2.73 pg/mL, respectively, vs. 1.42 pg/mL, all P <0.05). IL-12B concentrations were associated with disease activity in patients with UC and intestinal BD but not in those with CD. IL-12B levels were increased with increasing disease activity in patients with UC (P <0.001). Likewise, patients with active intestinal BD had higher IL-12B levels than those without active disease (P = 0.008). IL-12B levels were correlated with the endoscopic disease activity of UC (P = 0.002) and intestinal BD (P = 0.001) but not that of CD. Serum IL-12B levels were significantly correlated with clinical and endoscopic disease activity in patients with UC and intestinal BD, suggesting its potential use as a biomarker for assessing disease activity in these patients. PMID:27281077

  1. Antimicrobial activities of Rhizobium sp. strains against Pseudomonas savastanoi, the agent responsible for the olive knot disease in Algeria

    Mourad, K.; Fadhila, K.; Chahinez, M.; Merien, R.; Philippe, L. de; Abdelkader, B.


    In the present investigation, six Rhizobium strains isolated from Algerian soil were checked for their antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas savastanoi, the agent responsible for olive knot disease. Rhizobium sp. ORN 24 and ORN 83 were found to produce antimicrobial activities against Pseudomonas savastanoi. The antimicrobial activity produced by Rhizobium sp. ORN24 was precipitable with ammonium sulfate, between 1,000 and 10,000 KDa molecular weight, heat resistant but sensitive to proteases and detergents. These characteristics suggest the bacteriocin nature of the antimicrobial substance produced by Rhizobium sp. ORN24, named rhizobiocin 24. In contrast, the antimicrobial activity produced by Rhizobium sp. ORN83 was not precipitable with ammonium sulfate; it was smaller than 1,000 KDa molecular weight, heat labile, and protease and detergent resistant. These characteristics could indicate the relationship between the antimicrobial substance produced by Rhizobium sp. ORN 83 and the small bacteriocins described in other rhizobia. (Author) 51 refs.

  2. Non-adherence to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs is associated with higher disease activity in early arthritis patients in the first year of the disease


    INTRODUCTION: Non-adherence to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) hampers the targets of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment, obtaining low disease activity and decreasing radiological progression. This study investigates if, and to what extent, non-adherence to treatment would lead to a higher 28-joint count disease activity score (DAS28) in the first year after diagnosis. METHODS: Adult patients from an ongoing cohort study on treatment adherence were selected if they fulfilled ...

  3. Plaque complement activation and cognitive loss in Alzheimer's disease

    Camp Dianne M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complement activation is increased in Alzheimer's disease (AD, but its significance is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between complement activation and cognition during the development of AD. Methods iC3b, C9, Bielschowsky, and Gallyas staining was performed on aged normal (n = 17, mild cognitively impaired (n = 12, and AD (n = 17–18 inferior temporal gyrus specimens. Plaques were counted in 10× fields with high numbers of Bielschowsky-stained plaques. One-way ANOVA was used to determine between-group differences for plaque counts and measures of cognitive function, and linear regression was used to evaluate global cognition as a function of Bielschowsky-stained plaques. Terms for iC3b- and C9-stained plaques were then added sequentially as additional predictors in a "mediation analysis" model. Results Complement was detected on plaques in all groups, and on neurofibrillary tangles only in AD specimens. iC3b, C9, and Bielschowsky-stained plaque counts increased 2.5- to 3-fold in AD vs. other groups (all p ≤ 0.01. C9 staining was present on some diffuse plaques, as well as on neuritic plaques. Bielschowsky-stained and complement-stained plaque counts were highly correlated, and were negatively correlated with cognitive measures. When the Bielschowsky plaque count was used as a predictor, its correlations with cognitive measures were statistically significant, but when iC3b and C9 plaque counts were added as additional predictors, these correlations were no longer significant. This loss of significance was attributed to multicollinearity, i.e., high correlations between Bielschowsky-stained and complement-stained plaque counts. Conclusion Both early-stage (iC3b and late-stage (C9 complement activation occurs on neocortical plaques in subjects across the cognitive spectrum; contrary to previous reports, C9 is present on some diffuse plaques. Because of high correlations between

  4. Diet Activity Characteristic of Large-scale Sports Events Based on HACCP Management Model

    Xiao-Feng Su


    Full Text Available The study proposed major sports events dietary management based on "HACCP" management model. According to the characteristic of major sports events catering activities. Major sports events are not just showcase level of competitive sports activities which have become comprehensive special events including social, political, economic, cultural and other factors, complex. Sporting events conferred reach more diverse goals and objectives of economic, political, cultural, technological and other influence and impact.

  5. Disease activity, quality of life and indirect costs of psoriatic arthritis in Poland.

    Kawalec, Paweł; Malinowski, Krzysztof Piotr; Pilc, Andrzej


    The aim of the study was to assess the indirect costs, health-related quality of life and clinical characteristics of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), measured using a PsA disease activity index in Poland. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the association between the activity, utility of PsA-affected patients and productivity loss in a Polish setting. A questionnaire survey was conducted to assess disease activity, as well as productivity loss, and a paper version of the EuroQoly-5D-3L questionnaire was used to assess productivity loss and the quality of life. Indirect costs were assessed with the human capital approach employing the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, gross value added (GVA) and gross income (GI) per worker in 2014 in Poland and were expressed in Polish zlotys (PLN) as well as in euros. The correlation was presented using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Our analysis was performed on the basis of 50 full questionnaires collected. We observed a mean utility value of 0.6567. The mean number of days off work was 2.88 days per month, and mean on-the-job productivity loss was 24.1 %. Average monthly indirect costs per patient were €206.7 (864.01 PLN) calculated using the GDP; €484.56 (2025.46 PLN) calculated using the GVA; and €209.70 (876.56 PLN) calculated using the GI. PsA reduces the patients' quality of life as well as their productivity loss associated with both absenteeism and presenteeism. Total indirect costs were negatively correlated with utility. The greater the disease activity, the lower the utility and the greater the indirect costs.

  6. Circadian rhythm of rest activity and autonomic nervous system activity at different stages in Parkinson's disease.

    Niwa, Fumitoshi; Kuriyama, Nagato; Nakagawa, Masanori; Imanishi, Jiro


    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often suffer from non-motor symptoms, including sleep and autonomic dysfunctions, controlled by circadian regulation. To evaluate the alteration of circadian rhythm in PD patients, we investigated both rest activities and autonomic functions. Twenty-seven patients with idiopathic PD and 30 age-matched control subjects were recruited. Group comparisons of controls (mean age: 68.93 years), early-PD patients classified as Hoehn-Yahr (HY) stage 1&2 (mean age: 70.78 years), and advanced-PD as HY 3&4 (mean age: 68.61 years) were conducted. Measurement of rest activities was performed using Actigraph for 7 continuous days, and included measuring rhythm patterns (activity patterns recorded in or out of bed) and circadian rhythm amplitudes (power of the cycle being closest to 24h). A power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) using 24-hour ambulatory ECG was also performed. The actigraphic measurements indicated that statistically PD patients have lower activity levels when out of bed and higher activity levels when in bed, and that, the circadian rest-activity rhythm in PD decreases with disease severity. The HRV analysis showed that the total frequency component and low frequency/high frequency ratio were low in PD patients, suggesting that autonomic activities and the circadian rhythm of the sympathetic nervous system are attenuated in PD. This study elucidated the disorganization in the rest activities and HRV of PD patients as well as the gradual alterations in the circadian rhythm. The circadian rhythm disturbances are important to consider the mechanism of non-motor symptoms that occur from early stage of PD.

  7. Worksite Characteristics and Environmental and Policy Supports for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in New York State

    Ian Brissette, PhD


    Full Text Available IntroductionWorksite policy and environmental supports that promote physical activity, healthy eating, stress management, and preventive health screenings can contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease and lower employer costs. This study examines the availability of these four categories of supports in a statewide survey of New York State worksites.MethodsIn 2002, we recruited a statewide sample of worksites in New York State with 75 or more employees to participate in a mailed survey assessing worksite policy and environmental supports for wellness and health promotion. The overall response rate was 34.8%. The analysis included data from 832 worksites.ResultsWorksite size was an independent predictor of health promotion supports with small (75–99 employees and medium-small (100–199 employees worksites reporting significantly fewer policy and environmental supports in all four categories than worksites with 300 or more employees. Worksites in which most employees were nonwhite reported fewer supports for physical activity, healthy eating, and stress management than worksites in which most employees were white. A wellness committee or wellness coordinator was associated with more health promotion supports, regardless of the size of the worksite or composition of its workforce.ConclusionWorksites with fewer than 200 employees have an increased need for assistance in establishing environmental and policy supports promoting cardiovascular health. Worksites that have a wellness committee or coordinator are better able to establish and sustain supports with the potential to improve the health of their workers.

  8. Structure-Activity Association of Flavonoids in Lung Diseases

    João Henrique G. Lago


    Full Text Available Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds classified into flavonols, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, catechins, anthocyanidins, and chalcones according to their chemical structures. They are abundantly found in Nature and over 8,000 flavonoids have from different sources, mainly plant materials, have been described. Recently reports have shown the valuable effects of flavonoids as antiviral, anti-allergic, antiplatelet, antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory agents and interest in these compounds has been increasing since they can be helpful to human health. Several mechanisms of action are involved in the biological properties of flavonoids such as free radical scavenging, transition metal ion chelation, activation of survival genes and signaling pathways, regulation of mitochondrial function and modulation of inflammatory responses. The anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids have been described in a number of studies in the literature, but not frequently associated to respiratory disease. Thus, this review aims to discuss the effects of different flavonoids in the control of lung inflammation in some disorders such as asthma, lung emphysema and acute respiratory distress syndrome and the possible mechanisms of action, as well as establish some structure-activity relationships between this biological potential and chemical profile of these compounds.

  9. Understanding Children's Reading Activities: Reading Motivation, Skill and Child Characteristics as Predictors

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Osborne, Cara; Warhurst, Amy; Norgate, Roger; Duncan, Lynne G.


    This study examined the extent to which a range of child characteristics (sex, age, socioeconomic status, reading skill and intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation) predicted engagement (i.e., time spent) in different reading activities (fiction books, factual books, school textbooks, comics, magazines and digital texts). In total, 791 children…

  10. Characteristics of monsoon low level jet (MLLJ) as an index of monsoon activity

    N V Sam; K P R Vittal Murty


    Temperature and wind data are used to describe variation in the strength of the Monsoon Low Level Jet (MLLJ) from an active phase of the monsoon to a break phase. Also estimated are the characteristics of turbulence above and below MLLJ.

  11. Ambulatory Activity of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Which Characteristics Are Important?

    van Wely, Leontien; Becher, Jules G.; Balemans, Astrid C. J.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.


    Aim: To assess ambulatory activity of children with cerebral palsy (CP), aged 7 to 13 years, and identify associated characteristics. Method: Sixty-two children with spastic CP (39 males, 23 females; mean age 10y 1mo, SD 1y 8mo; age range 7-13y), classified as Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I to III, participated.…

  12. Interaction Between Physical Environment, Social Environment, and Child Characteristics in Determining Physical Activity at Child Care

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Kann, D.H.H. van; Stafleu, A.; Candel, M.J.J.M.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Thijs, C.; Vries,


    Objective: To investigate the association between the child-care environment and physical activity of 2- and 3-year-olds. Based on an ecological view of environmental influences on health behavior, we hypothesized that the social and physical environment, as well as child characteristics (age and ge

  13. Social Interaction and the Formation of Entrepreneurial Characteristics: A Case Study in Authentic Enterprise Activity

    Yu, Christina W. M.; Man, Thomas W. Y.


    Purpose: This paper is an empirical study which aims to investigate the development of social interaction and their impacts on developing learners' entrepreneurial characteristics throughout their participation in an authentic enterprise activity. Design/methodology/approach: The sample of this study was drawn from the participants of an…

  14. Bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis. Influence of disease activity, duration of the disease, functional capacity, and corticosteroid treatment

    Hansen, M; Florescu, A; Stoltenberg, M;


    Axial and appendicular bone mass were studied in 95 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The aims were to quantify bone mineral density (BMD) and to evaluate the importance of disease activity, duration of disease, functional capacity, and corticosteroid treatment for bone loss in patients...... BMDARM. The decreased BMD in patients with rheumatoid arthritis seems primarily to be caused by an impaired physical activity which may be related to disease activity. Corticosteroids did not decrease BMD in neither the axial nor the appendicular skeleton. The antiinflammatory effect of steroids lead...

  15. BAX channel activity mediates lysosomal disruption linked to Parkinson disease.

    Bové, Jordi; Martínez-Vicente, Marta; Dehay, Benjamin; Perier, Celine; Recasens, Ariadna; Bombrun, Agnes; Antonsson, Bruno; Vila, Miquel


    Lysosomal disruption is increasingly regarded as a major pathogenic event in Parkinson disease (PD). A reduced number of intraneuronal lysosomes, decreased levels of lysosomal-associated proteins and accumulation of undegraded autophagosomes (AP) are observed in PD-derived samples, including fibroblasts, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons, and post-mortem brain tissue. Mechanistic studies in toxic and genetic rodent PD models attribute PD-related lysosomal breakdown to abnormal lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying PD-linked LMP and subsequent lysosomal defects remain virtually unknown, thereby precluding their potential therapeutic targeting. Here we show that the pro-apoptotic protein BAX (BCL2-associated X protein), which permeabilizes mitochondrial membranes in PD models and is activated in PD patients, translocates and internalizes into lysosomal membranes early following treatment with the parkinsonian neurotoxin MPTP, both in vitro and in vivo, within a time-frame correlating with LMP, lysosomal disruption, and autophagosome accumulation and preceding mitochondrial permeabilization and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Supporting a direct permeabilizing effect of BAX on lysosomal membranes, recombinant BAX is able to induce LMP in purified mouse brain lysosomes and the latter can be prevented by pharmacological blockade of BAX channel activity. Furthermore, pharmacological BAX channel inhibition is able to prevent LMP, restore lysosomal levels, reverse AP accumulation, and attenuate mitochondrial permeabilization and overall nigrostriatal degeneration caused by MPTP, both in vitro and in vivo. Overall, our results reveal that PD-linked lysosomal impairment relies on BAX-induced LMP, and point to small molecules able to block BAX channel activity as potentially beneficial to attenuate both lysosomal defects and neurodegeneration occurring in PD.

  16. Chios mastic treatment of patients with active Crohn's disease

    Andriana C Kaliora; Maria G Stathopoulou; John K Triantafillidis; George VZ Dedoussis; Nikolaos K Andrikopoulos


    AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of mastic administration on the clinical course and plasma inflammatory mediators of patients with active Crohn's disease (CD).METHODS: This pilot study was conducted in patients with established mild to moderately active CD, attending the outpatient clinics of the hospital, and in healthy controls. Ten patients and 8 controls were recruited for a 4-wk treatment with mastic caps (6 caps/d, 0.37 g/cap).All patients successfully completed the protocol. CD Activity Index (CDAI), Nutritional Risk Index (NRI), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and total antioxidant potential (TAP) were evaluated in the plasma at baseline and at the end of the treatment period. Results were expressed as mean values + SE and P < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance.RESULTS: Patients exhibited significant reduction of CDAI (222.9 ± 18.7 vs 136.3 ± 12.3, P = 0.05) as compared to pretreament values. Plasma IL-6 was significantly decreased (21.2 ± 9.3 pg/mL vs 7.2 ± 2.8 pg/mL,P = 0.027), and so did CRP (40.3 ± 13.1 mg/mL vs 19.7± 5.5, P = 0.028). TAP was significantly increased (0.15± 0.09 vs 0.57 ± 0.15 mmol/L uric acid, P = 0.036). No patient or control exhibited any kind of side effects.CONCLUSION: The results suggest that mastic significantly decreased the activity index and the plasma levels of IL-6 and CRP in patients with mildly to moderately active CD. Further double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in a larger number of patients are required to clarify the role of this natural product in the treatment of patients with CD.

  17. Clinical Characteristic and Outcome of Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Krystle Gabriela


    Full Text Available Background: Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (ALRTI is the leading cause of deaths in children under 5 years of age worldwide, and has high morbidity and mortality in children with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD. The objective of this study was to obtain the incidence, clinical characteristic, and outcome of ALRTI children with CHD. Methods: A retrospective hospital-based study was conducted from January 2007–December 2011 to medical record of child patients with ALRTI and CHD in the Department of Child Health of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung. The diagnosis of CHD was determined by echocardiography. The collected data was analyzed and presented in percentage shown in tables. Results : From 3,897 children who had ALRTI, there were 149 children with CHD (3.8%, with 11.4% of whom founded with recurrent episodes. This happened often in girls than boys with quite similar ratio of 1.37: 1.The majority of children (80% was under 1 year old of age, 72.5% with malnutrition, and 24.8% with severe malnutrition. Clinical symptoms mostly found were difficulty of breathing (98%, fever (85.2%, cough (75.2%, and runny nose (63.1%. The most common types of CHD were Patent Ductus Arteriosus (47.6%, followed by Ventricular Septal Defect (47%. Bronchopneumonia (86.6% was the common type of ALRTI. The length of stay was mostly less than 10 days (70.5%. From all the children 43.7% had complications, and 6.7% died. Conclusions: The ALRTI in children with CHD is not common and has good outcome. The majority for CHD lesions are Patent Ductus Arteriosus and Ventricular Septal Defect while for ALRTI is Bronchopneumonia.

  18. Clinical epidemiology and phenotypic characteristics of Crohn′s disease in the central region of Saudi Arabia

    Abdulrahman M. Aljebreen


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Despite the remarkable increase in the incidence of Crohn′s disease among Saudis in recent years, data about Crohn′s disease in Saudi Arabia are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical epidemiology and phenotypic characteristics of Crohn′s disease in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: A data registry, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Information System (IBDIS, was used to register Crohn′s disease patients who presented to the gastroenterology clinics in four tertiary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between September 2009 and February 2013. Patients′ characteristics, disease location, behavior, age at diagnosis according to the Montreal classification, course of the disease, and extraintestinal manifestation were recorded. Results: Among 497 patients with Crohn′s disease, 59% were males with a mean age at diagnosis of 25 years [95% Confidence Interval (CI: 24-26, range 5-75 years]. The mean duration from the time of complaint to the day of the diagnosis was 11 months, and the mean duration of the disease from diagnosis to the day of entry to the registry was 40 months. Seventy-seven percent of our patients were aged 17-40 years at diagnosis, 16.8% were ≤16 years of age, and 6.6% were >40 years of age. According to the Montreal classification of disease location, 48.8% of patients had ileocolonic involvement, 43.5% had limited disease to the terminal ileum or cecum, 7.7% had isolated colonic involvement, and 16% had an upper gastrointestinal involvement. Forty-two percent of our patients had a non-stricturing, non-penetrating behavior, while 32.8% had stricturing disease and 25.4% had penetrating disease. Conclusion: Crohn′s disease is frequently encountered in Saudi Arabia. The majority of patients are young people with a predilection for males, while its behavior resembled that of western societies in terms of age of onset, location, and behavior.

  19. Clinical Characteristics of Cerebrovascular Pathology with Patients Suffering from Ph-Negative Myeloproliferative Disease

    Marine M. Tanashyan


    Full Text Available Background: Disturbances of microcirculation play a significant role in the development and progression of both acute and chronic cerebrovascular diseases (CVD and may be associated with different hemogram abnormalities. One of the reasons of the prothrombogenic state of the endothelium is the increase in the number of blood corpuscles leading to (non-Ph myeloproliferative disorders (MPD including essential thrombocythemia (ET, polycythemia vera (PV, and primary myelofibrosis (PM. Materials and Methods: The study included 167 patients: 102 patients with Ph-MPD and the control group comprising 65 patients with CVD. According to MPD subtype, the patients were divided into three groups: patients with ET (37%, n = 38, male/female 7/31, age 52 ± 7 years, those with PV (40%, n = 41, male/female 20/21, age 50 ± 6 years and those with PM (23%, n = 23, male/female 5/18, age 54 ± 4 years. Results: In 79% (n = 81 of cases in the study group (with Ph-MPD, patients had chronic CVD, with the most frequently identified symptoms being asthenia (92% and headache (72%. Headache in Ph-MPD patients was more frequently (86% associated with PM, while in patients with PV and ET it was equally distributed (70%. Neurological symptoms in 53% of cases were associated with focal changes of the brain on MRI localized in the subcortical area of the frontal and parietal lobes. Twenty-one (21% patients suffered an acute cerebrovascular accident, 8 of them had thrombotic occlusion of one of the internal carotid arteries leading to hemispheric infarcts. Endothelial function (as measured by flow-dependent dilation of the brachial artery was severely impaired in all study groups (median 5% with normal cut-off at 10%, the lowest degree of vasodilator activity being specific for patients with a history of stroke (p = 0.011. Conclusion: Patients suffering from MPD had asymptomatic focal changes in the brain in the absence of concomitant vascular disease (hypertension

  20. Modern treatment strategies in rheumatoid arthritis: Impact on, and predictors of, disease activity and disease course

    Hetland, Merete Lund

    trial (CIMESTRA), whereas (B) was investigated in an observational, nationwide cohort study (the DANBIO database). The main findings were: 1. Treatment strategy (A) with methotrexate (MTX) and injections of glucocorticoids into swollen joints had rapid and sustained effect and reduced disease activity...... oedema by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the wrists predicted the development of structural joint damage 2 to 5 years later (based on x-rays). Anti-CCP antibodies and structural joint damage at the start of treatment were also independent predictors for joint damage after 5 years. 3. Routine...... registration of adverse events observed in patients who received treatment with etanercept or infliximab (TNFa inhibitors) in the DANBIO database picked up twice as many serious adverse events than the spontaneous, mandatory reports to the Danish Medicines Agency. 4. Despite changes in prescription practice...

  1. Urine Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 and Lupus Nephritis Disease Activity: Preliminary Report of a Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Sabah Alharazy


    Full Text Available Objective. This longitudinal study aimed to determine the urine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (uMCP-1 levels in patients with biopsy-proven lupus nephritis (LN at various stages of renal disease activity and to compare them to current standard markers. Methods. Patients with LN—active or inactive—had their uMCP-1 levels and standard disease activity markers measured at baseline and 2 and 4 months. Urinary parameters, renal function test, serological markers, and renal SLE disease activity index-2K (renal SLEDAI-2K were analyzed to determine their associations with uMCP-1. Results. A hundred patients completed the study. At each visit, uMCP-1 levels (pg/mg creatinine were significantly higher in the active group especially with relapses and were significantly associated with proteinuria and renal SLEDAI-2K. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves showed that uMCP-1 was a potential biomarker for LN. Whereas multiple logistic regression analysis showed that only proteinuria and serum albumin and not uMCP-1 were independent predictors of LN activity. Conclusion. uMCP-1 was increased in active LN. Although uMCP-1 was not an independent predictor for LN activity, it could serve as an adjunctive marker when the clinical diagnosis of LN especially early relapse remains uncertain. Larger and longer studies are indicated.

  2. Computational investigation of the neutron shielding and activation characteristics of borated concrete with polyethylene aggregate

    Park, S.J.; Jang, J.G.; Lee, H.K., E-mail:


    This paper presents the result of a computational study to investigate the neutron shielding and activation characteristics of concretes containing boron carbide and polyethylene. Various mixes were considered with changes in the contents of boron carbide and polyethylene aggregate. The Monte Carlo simulation code MCNP-5 was utilized to determine the transmission of neutron through concrete at different energies from 0.1 eV to 1 MeV, and ORIGEN-S code was then used to predict activation characteristics of the concretes. It was shown that the replacement of polyethylene in borated concrete greatly enhanced the shielding efficiency of the concrete, and total activity levels of the concrete were considerably decreased with this replacement. Furthermore, double-layered structures having the first layer of polyethylene aggregate-replaced concrete and the second layer of 2 wt% borated concrete are shown to improve shielding efficiency more significantly than monolithic structures.

  3. Correlations between fatigue and disease duration, disease activity, and pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review

    Groth Madsen, S.; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B.; Stockmarr, Anders;


    OBJECTIVES: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients suffer from disabling fatigue but the causes of this condition are unknown. Our aim was to assess which of the variables disease activity, disease duration, and pain is associated with fatigue. METHOD: We conducted a systematic literature search...

  4. Relation between the characteristics of strong earthquake activities in Chinese mainland and the Wenchuan earthquake

    Xiaodong Zhang; Guohua Yang; Xian Lu; Mingxiao Li; Zhigao Yang


    This paper studies the relations between the great Wenchuan earthquake and the active-quiet periodic characteristics of strong earthquakes, the rhythmic feature of great earthquakes, and the grouped spatial distribution of MS8.0 earthquakes in Chinese mainland. We also studied the relation between the Wenchuan earthquake and the stepwise migration characteristics of MS≥7.0 earthquakes on the North-South seismic belt, the features of the energy releasing acceleration in the active crustal blocks related to the Wenchuan earthquake and the relation between the Wenchuan earthquake and the so called second-arc fault zone. The results can be summarized as follows: ① the occurrence of the Wenchuan earthquake was consistent with the active-quiet periodic characteristics of strong earthquakes; ② its occurrence is consistent with the features of grouped occurrence of MS8.0 earthquakes and follows the 25 years rhythm (each circulation experiences the same time) of great earthquakes; ③ the Wenchuan MS8.0 earthquake follows the well known stepwise migration feature of strong earthquakes on the North-South seismic belt; ④ the location where the Wenchuan MS8.0 earthquake took place has an obvious consistency with the temporal and spatial characteristic of grouped activity of MS≥7.0 strong earthquakes on the second-arc fault zone; ⑤ the second-arc fault zone is not only the lower boundary for earthquakes with more than 30 km focal depth, but also looks like a lower boundary for deep substance movement; and ⑥ there are obvious seismic accelerations nearby the Qaidam and Qiangtang active crustal blocks (the northern and southern neighbors of the Bayan Har active block, respectively), which agrees with the GPS observation data.

  5. Occupational and recreational physical activity and Parkinson's disease in Denmark.

    Shih, I-Fan; Starhof, Charlotte; Lassen, Christina Funch; Hansen, Johnni; Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate


    Objectives This study aimed to examine whether occupational and physical activity (PA) at different ages contribute to Parkinson's disease (PD) risk in a large population-based case-control study in Denmark. Methods We identified 1828 PD patients from the Danish National Hospital Register and recruited 1909 gender and year of birth matched controls from the Danish Central Population Register. Occupational and leisure-time PA were determined from a job exposure matrix based on occupational history and self-reported leisure-time information. Results No association was found for occupational PA alone in men, but higher leisure-time PA (≥5 hours/week of strenuous activities) in young adulthood (15-25 years) was associated with a lower PD risk (adjusted odds ratio (OR adj) 0.75, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.62-0.90); men who engaged in high occupational and high leisure-time PA in young adulthood had the lowest PD risk (OR adj0.58, 95% CI 0.41-0.81). Among women, inverse associations were found for occupation PA before age 50 (highest vs lowest, OR adj0.75, 95% CI 0.55-1.06) and strenuous leisure-time PA after age 50 (OR adj0.65, 95% CI 0.87-0.99); no clear pattern was seen for leisure and occupational PA combined. Conclusions We observed gender-specific inverse associations between occupational and leisure-time PA and PD risk; however, we cannot preclude reverse causation especially in older ages since PD has a long prodromal stage that might lead to a reduction of PA years before motor symptom onset and PD diagnosis.

  6. Selective expression of mutant huntingtin during development recapitulates characteristic features of Huntington's disease.

    Molero, Aldrin E; Arteaga-Bracho, Eduardo E; Chen, Christopher H; Gulinello, Maria; Winchester, Michael L; Pichamoorthy, Nandini; Gokhan, Solen; Khodakhah, Kamran; Mehler, Mark F


    Recent studies have identified impairments in neural induction and in striatal and cortical neurogenesis in Huntington's disease (HD) knock-in mouse models and associated embryonic stem cell lines. However, the potential role of these developmental alterations for HD pathogenesis and progression is currently unknown. To address this issue, we used BACHD:CAG-Cre(ERT2) mice, which carry mutant huntingtin (mHtt) modified to harbor a floxed exon 1 containing the pathogenic polyglutamine expansion (Q97). Upon tamoxifen administration at postnatal day 21, the floxed mHtt-exon1 was removed and mHtt expression was terminated (Q97(CRE)). These conditional mice displayed similar profiles of impairments to those mice expressing mHtt throughout life: (i) striatal neurodegeneration, (ii) early vulnerability to NMDA-mediated excitotoxicity, (iii) impairments in motor coordination, (iv) temporally distinct abnormalities in striatal electrophysiological activity, and (v) altered corticostriatal functional connectivity and plasticity. These findings strongly suggest that developmental aberrations may play important roles in HD pathogenesis and progression.

  7. The association between the gut microbiota and the inflammatory bowel disease activity

    Prosberg, Michelle; Bendtsen, Flemming; Vind, Ida


    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) involves complex interactions between the microbiome and the immune system. We evaluated the association between the gut microbiota and disease activity in IBD patients. METHODS: Systematic review of clinical studies based on a pub......BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) involves complex interactions between the microbiome and the immune system. We evaluated the association between the gut microbiota and disease activity in IBD patients. METHODS: Systematic review of clinical studies based...

  8. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Targets for the Treatment of Metabolic Diseases

    Francisco A. Monsalve


    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is estimated to affect more than one in five adults, and its prevalence is growing in the adult and pediatric populations. The most widely recognized metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics commonly manifest a prothrombotic state and a proinflammatory state as well. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs may serve as potential therapeutic targets for treating the metabolic syndrome and its related risk factors. The PPARs are transcriptional factors belonging to the ligand-activated nuclear receptor superfamily. So far, three isoforms of PPARs have been identified, namely, PPAR-α, PPAR-β/δ, and PPAR-γ. Various endogenous and exogenous ligands of PPARs have been identified. PPAR-α and PPAR-γ are mainly involved in regulating lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis, and their agonists are used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and T2DM. Whereas PPAR-β/δ function is to regulate lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, anti-inflammation, and fatty acid oxidation and its agonists are used in the treatment of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. This review mainly focuses on the biological role of PPARs in gene regulation and metabolic diseases, with particular focus on the therapeutic potential of PPAR modulators in the treatment of thrombosis.

  9. Hepatitis B antigen in hepatocytes of chronic active liver disease.

    Kawanishi, H


    To study the morphologic interrelation of hepatocytes with the replication of hepatitis B vius (HBV) and immunocompetent cells in chronic active liver disease(CALD), organ cultures were prepared from liver biopsy specimens. Replication of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) appears to occur in the nucleus of the hepatocyte in close association with intranuclear electron-dense strands and sometimes intranucleolar matrixes (likely HBcAg genomes), and cytoplasmic maturation of the HBcAg takes place in the preautolytic condition of host hepatocytes. Immunocompetent cells became progressively autolyzed in the early period of cultures. No difference in progression of hepatocyte injury in tissues from normal subjects and from hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive and HBsAg-negative patients with CALD may suggest that intracellular synthesis of HBV alone is not cytopathic to host hepatocytes. This model is promising for the study of HBV replication and development, and also for testing the efficacy of new antiviral agents against the virus.

  10. Symptoms of fatigue and depression in ischemic heart disease are driven by personality characteristics rather than disease stage

    Smith, Otto R F; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Van Domburg, Ron T;


    Symptoms of fatigue and depression are prevalent across stages of ischemic heart disease (IHD). We examined (i) the effect of both the IHD stage and type-D personality on fatigue and depressive symptoms at 12-month follow-up, and (ii) whether the effect of type-D personality on these symptoms...

  11. Monitoring of disease biomarkers activity and immunophenotyping as important factors in SLE clinical management.

    Subasic, Djemo; Karamehic, Jasenko; Delic-Sarac, Marina; Kasumovic, Mersija; Mekic, Mevludin; Eminovic, Izet; Hasanagic, Nermina


    The highly specific biomarkers for monitoring of SLE disease activity are not yet defined up to date, due to existing of different clinical SLE phenotypes caused by individual genetic variation. Basically, numerous clinical complications follow SLE patients such as nephritis, atherosclerosis and cardial, CNS, gastrointestinal and ophthalmological complications, as well. Their monitoring in clinical SLE management can be evaluated by analysing of specific biochemical parameters and require permanent clinical observation. The presence of ANAs and anti-ds-DNAs are usual diagnostic SLE autoimmunity parameters, while SLE disease activity biomarkers are C3 and C4 level, anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-Sm/RNPs and, recently level of CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes. However, the number of TCR molecules on the T-cells surface at SLE patients is lower then in normal condition, and otherwise for these receptors CD molecules make specific connection. On the other hand, the T lymphocytes can be also, therapeutical targets at SLE patients, because of their clear direct involving in SLE pathogenesis. The SLE phenotypes are characterized by double CD negativity ( CD3 +/-, CD4-) caused by abnormal level of IL-2 and IL-17. T-lymphocytes have usually alpha-beta and gamma-delta TCR receptors, but for SLE patients is characteristic lower number gama-delta TCR molecules, detected in the peripheral blood specimens. Taking into account all of the facts, we investigated the level of specific usual SLE activity biomarkers (anti-ds-DNAs, C3, C4, anticardiolipin antibodies (beta-2-IgG, beta-2-IgM, ACA-G, ACA-M, CD4 and CD8 level) in serum specimens of SLE patients who underwent to the corresponding chemotherapy in combination with other biochemical and clinical parameters. Once again proved to be, that SLE biomarker monitoring, could be useful aproach for SLE activity disease and prediction organ damage, as well. In our investigation we used the following methods: immunofluorescence microscopy (IFA

  12. Radiological characteristics of pulmonary hydatid disease in children Less common radiological appearances

    Erdem, C. Zuhal E-mail:; Erdem, L. Oktay


    Objective: To evaluate the chest roentgenogram and CT characteristics of pulmonary hydatid disease (PHD). Material and methods: Forty-seven (27 male and 20 female, aged between 3 and 11 years) consecutive pediatric patients with surgically proven pulmonary hydatid cysts were enrolled for the study. Posteroanterior and lateral chest roentgenograms, CT of the chest, and laboratory findings (latex agglutination, Casoni skin test, and eosinophil count) were obtained from all of the patients. The radiological features (localization, internal architecture, number, diameter) were determined. Results: On CT examination, a total of 79 cysts were determined. On chest roentgenogram, 57 of 79 cysts were detected in all patients. Single cysts were seen in 33 patients, while multiple cysts were seen in 14. Median CT density of the cysts was 21 Hounsfield units (HU) (0-80). There were six giant cysts (>10 cm of cyst diameter). The crescent sign, water lily sign, and air-fluid level were seen in two, five and eight of the cysts, respectively. Apart from the classically described features of pulmonary hydatid cysts of the lung, a crescent-shaped rim of air at the lower end of the cyst (inverse crescent sign) was detected in three cysts. All of the liquid content of the cyst was expelled to the bronchial system (dry cyst sign) was observed in seven cysts. There were two infected cysts. Heavily calcified curvilinear cyst wall was present in one cyst. Pericystic reaction in the lung tissue was observed in five patients. Other features included pleural effusion (n=2), mediastinal shift (n=6) and atelectasis (n=7). Conclusions: Chest roentgenogram is helpful for diagnosis of intact cysts but, it is impossible to define entire morphology of the complicated cysts. CT imaging recognize certain details of the lesions and discover others that are not visible by conventional radiography. In conclusion, CT examination should be done to elucidate cystic nature of the lung mass and for accurate


    M. M. Egorova


    Full Text Available Aim – to evaluate macro-and microrheology hemorheological characteristics parameters in patients with COPD, and their dependence on the severity of COPD.Materials and methods. The study included 107 people, 80 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease I, II, III, IV degree and 27 persons as a control group. Rheological examination included determination of the viscosity of whole blood and erythrocyte suspensions with a hematocrit (HT 40 % in plasma and nonggregating environment, the plasma viscosity. Measuring the effectiveness of oxygen delivery to tissues produced by the formula: TO2 = Ht/η, where η — viscosity of blood. The degree of erythrocyte aggregation was evaluated by microscopy with video recording of diluted blood, and computer image analysis. Indices of rigidity of the red blood cells were calculated, indicators of internal viscosity of red blood cell content and efficiency of transport of oxygen to the tissues.Results. In patients with COPD were identified expressed disturbances of macro-and microrheology of blood parameters were identified. Blood viscosity at all shear stresses were increased by 23–27% compared with the control group, plasma viscosity – 21.5 % (p < 0.001. Indicators of hemoglobin and hematocrit (by 9.7 % and 8.8 % respectively, p < 0,001 were Significantly higher in patients with COPD. The viscosity of erythrocyte suspension to a standard hematocrit of 40 % in saline and in autologous plasma at different shear stresses were increased by 19,5–25,3 % (p < 0,001 and 22–24 % (p < 0,001, respectively. Revealed significant changes in properties of the blood stream, which in turn led to a marked reduction in oxygen-function of the blood in 27.5 % (p < 0.001.Conclusions. In patients with COPD, there are marked disturbances of macro-and microrheology of blood parameters, the viscosity of whole blood and plasma increases greatly, red blood cell deformability is reduced, and changing of the

  14. Rapeseed and Raspberry Seed Cakes as Inexpensive Raw Materials in the Production of Activated Carbon by Physical Activation: Effect of Activation Conditions on Textural and Phenol Adsorption Characteristics

    Koen Smets


    Full Text Available The production of activated carbons (ACs from rapeseed cake and raspberry seed cake using slow pyrolysis followed by physical activation of the obtained solid residues is the topic of this study. The effect of activation temperature (850, 900 and 950 °C, activation time (30, 60, 90 and 120 min and agent (steam and CO2 on the textural characteristics of the ACs is investigated by N2 adsorption. In general, higher activation temperatures and longer activation times increase the BET specific surface area and the porosity of the ACs, regardless of the activation agent or raw material. Steam is more reactive than CO2 in terms of pore development, especially in the case of raspberry seed cake. The performance of the ACs in liquid adsorption is evaluated by batch phenol adsorption tests. Experimental data are best fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. Based on total yield, textural characteristics and phenol adsorption, steam activation at 900 °C for 90 min and CO2 activation at 900 °C for 120 min are found as the best activation conditions. Raspberry seed cake turns out to be a better raw material than rapeseed cake. Moreover, AC from raspberry seed cake produced by steam activation at 900 °C for 90 min performs as well as commercial AC (Norit GAC 1240 in phenol adsorption. The adsorption kinetics of the selected ACs are best fitted by the pseudo-second-order model.

  15. Premorbid Personality Characteristics in Alzheimer’s Disease: An Exploratory Case–Control Study

    M. Malinchoc


    Full Text Available Linking data from a case–control study of Alzheimer’s disease with data from a Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI outpatient study, we identified 13 Alzheimer's disease cases and 16 controls for case–control comparison. The mean time between personality testing and onset of Alzheimer's disease (or corresponding age for controls was 13 years in cases and 14 years in controls. Alzheimer's disease cases, but not the controls, had scores significantly greater than the normative reference on MMPI scales measuring Social Introversion (p = 0.05, and Pessimism (p = 0.01. When compared to controls, Alzheimer's disease cases had significantly greater scores on the Social Introversion scale (p = 0.03. Despite the small sample size and some design limitations of this exploratory study, our findings may suggest that subjects who score higher on these personality scales have a greater risk of Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Analysis of the Chaotic Characteristics of Human Colonic Activities and Comparison of Healthy Participants to Costive Subjects.

    Lu, Li; Yan, Guozheng; Zhao, Kai; Xu, Fei


    Constipation is a common yet distressing disease that has high rates of morbidity and impacts patients' quality of life. However, there is no perfect method to distinguish costive patients from healthy subjects. Is there chaos in human colonic activities? Are there any differences for the chaos indicators of colonic activities between healthy and costive subjects? Can these indicators distinguish patients with constipation from healthy subjects? To answer these questions, colonic pressure data from 16 healthy subjects and 48 patients with constipation were analyzed using the chaos theory. Three chaotic indicators [i.e., the largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE), correlation dimension (CorDim), and Kolmogorov entropy (KoEn)] were calculated and compared between groups with the Wilcoxon rank sum test. As a result, the LyE was greater than zero and the CorDim was fractioned, which showed that human colonic activities have clear chaotic characteristics. Statistically significant differences were observed between groups for CorDim (p chaotic indicator of CorDim was able to differentiate between patients with constipation and healthy subjects. The chaos theory provides a new method for learning the nonlinear dynamics of human gastrointestinal activities.

  17. Angiographic and risk factor characteristics of subjects with early onset ischaemic heart disease.

    Nitter-Hauge, S; Erikssen, J; Thaulow, E; Vatne, K


    Sixty-six consecutive patients less than 40 years of age with angiographically documented coronary artery disease and coronary heart disease took part in a study aimed at (1) identifying the presence of factors which might explain the premature onset of ischaemic heart disease, and (2) assessing the distribution and severity of the coronary artery lesions. For comparisons we have used a study of risk factors in 1832 men defined as "normals" according to a recent comprehensive examination. The...

  18. Characteristics of Portland blast-furnace slag cement containing cement kiln dust and active silica

    A. Abdel Rahman


    Full Text Available This investigation dealt with the effect of active silica, silica fume (SF or rice husk ash (RHA, on the mechanical and physico-chemical characteristics of the hardened blended cement pastes made of Portland blast-furnace slag cement (PSC containing cement kiln dust (CKD cured under normal conditions. Two blends made of PSC and CKD, improved by SF and two blends made of PSC and CKD improved by RHA were investigated. Hardened blended cement pastes were prepared from each cement blend by using water/cement ratio (W/C of 0.30 by weight and hydrated for various curing ages of 1, 3, 7, 28 and 90 days at the normal curing conditions under tap water at room temperature. Each cement paste was tested for its physico-chemical and mechanical characteristics; these characteristics include: compressive strength and kinetics of hydration. The phase composition of the formed hydration products was identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD and differential thermal analysis (DTA. It was found that the partial substitution of PSC by 10% and 15% of CKD is associated with an increase in the rate of hydration and a subsequent improvement of compressive strength of hardened PSC–CKD pastes. In addition, the replacement of PSC, in PSC–CKD blends, by 5% active silica was accompanied by further improvement of the physico-mechanical characteristics of the hardened PSC–CKD pastes.

  19. Influence of peripheral arterial disease on daily living activities in elderly women.

    Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Franco, Fábio Gazelato de Mello; de Mattos, Luciana Diniz Nagem Janot; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Wolosker, Nelson; Nasri, Fábio; Costa, Maria Luiza Monteiro; de Carvalho, José Antônio Maluf


    Aging has been associated with decreases in physical and cognitive functions. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) has been associated with further impairments in these functions, especially in women. However, no detailed information is available indicating whether PAD leads to further impairment in these functions in elderly women. Thus, the aims of this study were 1) to compare the capacity to perform daily living activities between elderly women with and without PAD and 2) to identify the factors related with the performance in daily activities. Twenty-seven elderly women with PAD and 22 elderly non-PAD women were surveyed in a geriatric hospital. Women aged ≥65 years and with no signal of dementia were included. PAD was identified by the ankle-brachial index ≤0.90, whereas elderly non-PAD women presented ankle-brachial index >1.0. Patients were interviewed to obtain information regarding basic (Katz questionnaire) and instrumental daily living activities (Lawton-Brody scale) and performed the mini-mental state examination, handgrip strength test, and timed up and go tests. PAD and non-PAD women had similar age, clinical characteristics, handgrip strength test, and cognitive function (P > 0.05). The capacity to perform basic and instrumental daily living activities was similar between PAD and non-PAD women (P > 0.05). In PAD and non-PAD, the instrumental daily living activities were significantly correlated with cognitive function (r = 0.44, P elderly women present similar capacity to perform basic and instrumental daily activities than non-PAD women. In addition, in both groups, the capacity to perform instrumental daily activities was related with cognitive function.

  20. Colonic ornithine decarboxylase in inflammatory bowel disease: ileorectal activity gradient, guanosine triphosphate stimulation, and association with epithelial regeneration but not the degree of inflammation and clinical features.

    Allgayer, Hubert; Roisch, Ulla; Zehnter, Elmar; Ziegenhagen, Dieter J; Dienes, Hans P; Kruis, Wolfgang


    The role of colonic mucosal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains controversial. This study assessed mucosal ODC activity in IBD patients segment by segment with regard to patient characteristics, disease activity/duration, medication, degree of mucosal inflammation, and presence/absence of epithelial regeneration and guanosine triphosphate (GTP) stimulation. Mucosal ODC activity was determined in biopsy specimens from the terminal ileum, cecum/ascending, transverse, and descending colon, and the sigmoid/rectum of 35 patients with IBD (18 with Crohn's disease, 17 with ulcerative colitis) and 29 controls, using the amount of 14CO2 liberated from (carboxyl-14C)ornithine hydrochloride. GTP-stimulatable activity was expressed as the ratio of ODC activity in the presence and absence of GTP (70 micromol/L). Mucosal inflammation was assessed endoscopically/microscopically with previously described criteria. Presence/absence of mucosal regeneration also was determined by predefined criteria. Mucosal ODC-activity did not significantly differ in IBD patients and controls. There was a 4.4-fold activity gradient from the ileum to the rectum. Mucosal ODC activity was significantly higher in areas with epithelial regeneration compared to those without regeneration, and was stimulated by GTP by a factor of 1.42 in Crohn's disease and 1.19 in ulcerative colitis patients compared to controls (p < 0.004). On the other hand, there was no significant association/relationship of mucosal ODC activity with disease activity/duration and the endoscopic/histologic degree of mucosal inflammation. The observation of unchanged mucosal ODC activity in patients with IBD and the absence of a significant relationship with clinical and endoscopic/histologic disease characteristics speaks against a major role of ODC in IBD as a major disease marker. The role of the ileorectal gradient, the enhanced activity in areas with epithelial regeneration, and the GTP

  1. Characteristics of glucose metabolism and amyloid deposition by positron emission tomography images in Alzheimer’s disease



    Objective To investigate positron emission tomography (PET) image characteristics of glucose metabolism and amyloid deposition as demonstrated by fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) .Methods Patients with mild AD and moderate AD (n=6,each) were included in this study.6 healthy subjects were selected as normal controls.Cognitive function was assessed by the minimental state examination,Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Clinical Dementia Rating.Ventricular dilation,cor-

  2. Screening for bipolar disorder among migraineurs: the impact of migraine–bipolar disorder comorbidity on disease characteristics

    Kivilcim, Yigit; Altintas, Merih; Domac, Fusun Mayda; Erzincan, Erkal; Gülec, Huseyin


    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of comorbid bipolar disorder (BD) among migraineurs and the impact of migraine–BD comorbidity on disease characteristics. Patients and methods A total of 120 adult patients diagnosed with migraine at a single tertiary care center were included in this cross-sectional study. Data on sociodemographic and migraine-related characteristics, family history of psychiatric diseases, comorbid psychiatric diseases, and first-episode characteristics were recorded. Mood Disorders Diagnosis and Patient Registration Form (SCIP-TURK), Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), and Hypomania Checklist-32-Revised (HCL-32-R) were applied to all patients by experienced clinicians, and clinical diagnoses were confirmed using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Migraine Disability Assessment Scale (MIDAS) was used to evaluate the headache-related disability. Study parameters were compared between migraineurs with and without comorbid BD. Results The diagnosis of comorbid BD was confirmed in 19.2% of migraineurs. A significantly higher percentage of patients with comorbid BD than those without comorbid BD had family history of BD (39.1% vs 6.2%, P30 (OR, 3.69; 95% CI, 1.12–12.19; P=0.032) were associated with 14.42 times and 3.69 times increased likelihood of BD, respectively. Conclusion Our findings revealed comorbid BD in a remarkable percentage of migraineurs and a higher likelihood of having BD in case of a positive family history of type I BD and MIDAS scores >30. Comorbid BD was associated with a higher rate for a family history of BD, suicide attempt, and childhood physical abuse as well as aggravated migraine-related disability among migraineurs. Migraineurs with and without comorbid BD showed similar sociodemographic and migraine disease characteristics as well as similar high rates for comorbid anxiety and first-episode depression. PMID:28280345

  3. Approximate formulae (deduced from a mathematical model) for the characteristics of the interepidemic and epidemic periods of some virus diseases.

    Cristea, A L; Deutsch, I; Copelovici, Y


    By a qualitative analysis of the solutions of the mathematical model equations (describing the morbidity and susceptibility evolution in a viral epidemics), approximate formulae for the extreme values of the variables and for the duration of the main phases of a multiannual cycle are deduced. These formulae were validated by numerical simulation of the solutions, leading to the exact values of the mentioned essential characteristics of the diseases propagation.

  4. [Studies on pharmacokinetics features of characteristic active ingredients of daidai flavone extract in different physiological status].

    Zeng, Ling-Jun; Chen, Dan; Zheng, Li; Lian, Yun-Fang; Cai, Wei-Wei; Huang, Qun; Lin, Yi-Li


    In order to explore the clinical hypolipidemic features of Daidai flavone extract, the pharmacokinetics features of characteristic active ingredients of Daidai flavone extract in normal and hyperlipemia rats were studied and compared. The study established the quantitative determination method of naringin and neohesperidin in plasma by UPLC-MS. Study compared the pharmacokinetics differences of naringin and noehesperidin in normal and hyperlipemia rats on the basis of establishment of hyperlipemia model. Results indicated that the pharmacokinetics features of characteristic active ingredients of Daidai flavone extract in normal and hyperlipemia rats showed significant differences. The C(max) of naringin and neohesperidin in hyperlipemia rats plasma after oral administration of Daidai flavone extract increased obviously, while t1/2, MRT and AUC0-24 h decreased, compared to normal rats. But t(max) showed no differences to that of normal rats. The results further proved Daidai flavone extract would have better hypolipidemic effect in the hyperlipemia pathological status. And the characteristic active ingredients naringin and noehesperidin were the material base of Daidai flavone extract to express the hypolipidemic effect.

  5. Speech and Pause Characteristics Associated with Voluntary Rate Reduction in Parkinson's Disease and Multiple Sclerosis

    Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Greg


    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate how speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS) accomplish voluntary reductions in speech rate. A group of talkers with no history of neurological disease was included for comparison. This study was motivated by the idea that knowledge of how speakers with dysarthria…

  6. The role of disease characteristics in the ethical debate on personal genome testing

    E.M. Bunnik (Eline); M.H.N. Schermer (Maartje); A.C.J.W. Janssens (Cécile)


    textabstractBackground: Companies are currently marketing personal genome tests directly-to-consumer that provide genetic susceptibility testing for a range of multifactorial diseases simultaneously. As these tests comprise multiple risk analyses for multiple diseases, they may be difficult to evalu

  7. Placebo effect characteristics observed in a single, international, longitudinal study in Huntington's disease.

    Cubo, E.; Gonzalez, M.; Puerto, I. del; Yebenes, J.G. de; Arconada, O.F.; Gabriel y Galan, J.M.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de


    BACKGROUND: Classically, clinical trials are based on the placebo-control design. Our aim was to analyze the placebo effect in Huntington's disease. METHODS: Placebo data were obtained from an international, longitudinal, placebo-controlled trial for Huntington's disease (European Huntington's Disea

  8. Patient Acceptable Symptom State in Self-Report Questionnaires and Composite Clinical Disease Index for Assessing Rheumatoid Arthritis Activity: Identification of Cut-Off Points for Routine Care

    Fausto Salaffi


    Full Text Available Objective. To provide information on the value of Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS in rheumatoid arthritis (RA by the identification of PASS thresholds for patient-reported outcomes (PROs composite scores. Methods. The characteristics of RA patients with affirmative and negative assignment to PASS were compared. Contributors to physician response were estimated by logistic regression models and PASS thresholds by the 75th percentile and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve methods. Results. 303 RA patients completed the study. All PROs were different between the PASS (+ and PASS (− groups (p<0.0001. The thresholds with the 75th percentile approach were 2.0 for the RA Impact of Disease (RAID score, 2.5 for the PRO-CLinical ARthritis Activity (PRO-CLARA index, and 1.0 for the Recent-Onset Arthritis Disability (ROAD questionnaire. The cut-off values for Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI were in the moderate range of disease activity. Assessing the size of the logistic regression coefficients, the strongest predictors of PASS were the disease activity (p=0.0007 and functional state level (0.006. Conclusion. PASS thresholds were relatively high and many patients in PASS had moderate disease activity states according to CDAI. Factors such as disease activity and physical function may influence a negative PASS.

  9. Phylogenetic and ecological characteristics associated with thiaminase activity in Laurentian Great Lakes fishes

    Riley, S.C.; Evans, A.N.


    Thiamine deficiency complex (TDC) causes mortality and sublethal effects in Great Lakes salmonines and results from low concentrations of egg thiamine that are thought to be caused by thiaminolytic enzymes (i.e., thiaminase) present in the diet. This complex has the potential to undermine efforts to restore lake trout Salvelinus namaycush and severely restrict salmonid production in the Great Lakes. Although thiaminase has been found in a variety of Great Lakes fishes, the ultimate source of thiaminase in Great Lakes fishes is currently unknown. We used logistic regression analysis to investigate relationships between thiaminase activity and phylogenetic or ecological characteristics of 39 Great Lakes fish species. The taxonomically more ancestral species were more likely to show thiaminase activity than the more derived species. Species that feed at lower trophic levels and occupy benthic habitats also appeared to be more likely to show thiaminase activity; these variables were correlated with taxonomy, which was the most important predictor of thiaminase activity. Further analyses of the relationship between quantitative measures of thiaminase activity and ecological characteristics of Great Lakes fish species would provide greater insight into potential sources and pathways of thiaminase in Great Lakes food webs. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  10. Interferon Type I Driven Immune Activation in Generalized Autoimmune Diseases

    Z. Brkić (Zana)


    textabstractThis thesis describes research performed on several generalized autoimmune diseases with the main focus on primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Interferon type I has been implicated in the pathogenesis of these diseases and will be introduced in this chapter together with other important immune f


    T. S. Goncharova


    Full Text Available The article describes an implementation of plant drugs for oncological diseases treatment. It focuses on multicomponent combination herbal medicinal preparation, its therapeutic action, and supposed efficiency during its implementation with basic therapy for oncological disease.

  12. Characteristics of the two active stages of lightning activity in two hailstorms

    Xu, Shuang; Zheng, Dong; Wang, Yongqing; Hu, Pengyu


    Two hailstorms that occurred in Beijing and Tianjin, respectively, are investigated, based mainly on the total lightning data observed by the System d'Alerte Fondre par Interferometric Radioelecctrique (SAFIR3000), the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning data of a CG lightning location system, and the echo data of a Doppler radar. Both hailstorms exhibited two lightning frequency peaks: the first was before the hailfall and the second was after the hailfall, with the second peak greater than the first. The dominant polarity of the CG lightning was positive in the stage around the first frequency peak, but changed to negative in the stage around the second frequency peak. The evolution of radar echoes and the height distribution of lightning radiation sources are explored, revealing that both hailstorms had stronger convection and the main positive charge occurred at mid levels during the stage around the first frequency peak. However, whilst the Beijing hailstorm experienced the enhancement of convection, with the main positive charge at upper levels around the second frequency peak, the Tianjin hailstorm generated its second frequency peak during the period when the convection kept weakening and the main positive charge dropped to mid-lower levels. Through evaluation of the radar parameters, we investigate the mechanisms responsible for the second stage of active lightning discharge. Furthermore, the lightning activity exhibited a close relationship with radar echo parameters and hailfall. Lightning jump signals were found before the hailfall and were associated with the change ratio of the 40-dBZ echo volume above the -15°C level, which demonstrates the application value of lightning data in severe weather warning.

  13. Characteristics of the Two Active Stages of Lightning Activity in Two Hailstorms

    徐爽; 郑栋; 王咏青; 胡鹏宇


    Two hailstorms that occurred in Beijing and Tianjin, respectively, are investigated, based mainly on the total lightning data observed by the System d’Alerte Fondre par Interferometric Radioelecctrique (SAFIR3000), the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning data of a CG lightning location system, and the echo data of a Doppler radar. Both hailstorms exhibited two lightning frequency peaks: the first was before the hailfall and the second was after the hailfall, with the second peak greater than the first. The dominant po-larity of the CG lightning was positive in the stage around the first frequency peak, but changed to negative in the stage around the second frequency peak. The evolution of radar echoes and the height distribution of lightning radiation sources are explored, revealing that both hailstorms had stronger convection and the main positive charge occurred at mid levels during the stage around the first frequency peak. However, whilst the Beijing hailstorm experienced the enhancement of convection, with the main positive charge at upper levels around the second frequency peak, the Tianjin hailstorm generated its second frequency peak during the period when the convection kept weakening and the main positive charge dropped to mid–lower levels. Through evaluation of the radar parameters, we investigate the mechanisms responsible for the second stage of active lightning discharge. Furthermore, the lightning activity exhibited a close relationship with radar echo parameters and hailfall. Lightning jump signals were found before the hailfall and were associated with the change ratio of the 40-dBZ echo volume above the–15℃level, which demonstrates the application value of lightning data in severe weather warning.

  14. Clinical and Epidemiological Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Colloid Goiter Patients Undergoing Reoperation for Recurrent Thyroid Disease

    Gladys Iglesias Díaz


    Full Text Available Background: thyroid disease is one of the most prevalent medical conditions and thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasm. Thyroid reoperations are more common than it might seem.Objective: to establish the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients operated on for colloid goiter undergoing reoperation for recurrent thyroid disease.Methods: a case-series study was conducted at the León Cuervo Rubio Clinical-Surgical Hospital in Pinar del Rio. The sample included all patients (n = 29 who underwent thyroid operation and were reoperated on for recurrent thyroid disease in 2010, 2011 and 2012. The information was obtained from medical records and the register of histopathological diagnoses.Results: most patients (27.6% were in the 40-49 age group and females (79.3% were most affected. Recurrence was observed 5 to 9 years after surgery. Mixed nodules (55.2% followed by cysts (17.2% were the most frequent ultrasound diagnoses. Recurrent thyroid disease was malignant in 9% of patients.Conclusions: patients reoperated on for thyroid disease were mostly females in the fourth and fifth decade of life. The disease recurred in a period of 10 years after the first surgery in a greater number of cases. Follicular-patterned lesions, colloid goiter and cancer were the most common histologic diagnosis.

  15. Novel specific microRNA biomarkers in idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease unrelated to disease activity.

    Lin, Jingmei; Welker, Noah C; Zhao, Zijin; Li, Yong; Zhang, Jianjun; Reuss, Sarah A; Zhang, Xinjun; Lee, Hwajeong; Liu, Yunlong; Bronner, Mary P


    The diagnosis of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease can be challenging. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate protein synthesis through post-transcriptional suppression. This study is to identify new miRNA markers in inflammatory bowel disease, and to examine whether miRNA biomarkers might assist in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. Illumina small RNA sequencing was performed on non-dysplastic fresh-frozen colonic mucosa samples of the distalmost colectomy tissue from 19 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (10 ulcerative colitis and 9 Crohn disease) and 18 patients with diverticular disease serving as controls. To determine differentially expressed miRNAs, the USeq software package identified 44 miRNAs with altered expression (fold change ≥ 2 and false discovery rate ≤ 0.10) compared with the controls. Among them, a panel of nine miRNAs was aberrantly expressed in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease. Validation assays performed using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) on additional frozen tissue from ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, and control groups confirmed specific differential expression in inflammatory bowel disease for miR-31, miR-206, miR-424, and miR-146a (Pdisease controls (n=29), ulcerative colitis (n=36), Crohn disease (n=26), and the other diseases mimicking inflammatory bowel disease including infectious colitis (n=12) and chronic ischemic colitis (n=19), again confirming increased expression specific to inflammatory bowel disease (Pdisease. Furthermore, miR-31 is universally expressed in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease not only in fresh-frozen but also in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.

  16. Biological Characteristics of Caspase-14 and Its Expression in Neoplastic Diseases in the View of Translational Medicine

    LIU Kang-sheng; LYU Juan; LI Ping; ZHONG Tian-ying


    Caspase-14, a member of caspase family, only exists in mammals. As the most divergent member in the family of mammalian caspases, caspase-14 displays a variety of unique characteristics. It is expressed in a limited number of tissues and has the shortest amino acid sequence within the caspase protein family. At present, it has been found that caspase-14 is functionally different from the inlfammatory reaction group of typical caspase family members. It exerts a certain effect in the promotion of ifnal differentiation of epidermal cells and hydration of stratum corneum so as to maintain the steady state of skin barrier. In recent years, caspase-14 expression has been discovered in neoplastic diseases. Translational medicine integrates experimental research results and clinical guidance into the optimal implementation criteria for promoting the prediction, prevention and treatment of diseases. Via human genomics and molecular biology, translational medicine offers a possibility of screening molecular markers so that it can be used to diagnose the neoplastic diseases. In this article, the biological characteristics and substrates of caspase-14 as well as its expression in embryonic period and neoplastic diseases were reviewed.

  17. Characteristics of neonatal GBS disease during a multicentre study (2007-2010 and in the year 2012

    Roberta Creti


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The characteristics of Group B Streptococcal (GBS early onset (EOD and late onset (LOD neonatal infections in Italy were analyzed. Two periods were considered, a first 3-years period (2007-2010, when notification of GBS infections was enforced under the auspices of the Italian Ministry of Health, and a second 1 year period (2012 when reporting on neonatal GBS disease continued on voluntary basis. METHODS: A standardized form was used to collect data on cases of neonatal GBS disease. They included both maternal and neonatal data. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The two surveys underlined that preterm deliveries, precipitous labor and negatively GBS screened mothers are common causes of EOD occurrence, possibly explained by inadequate, or lack of, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. Nevertheless, measures for reducing prevention failures and EOD incidence by an higher adherence to prevention strategies, as the Centre for Disease Control recommendations, are still possible and should be encouraged.

  18. Prior pallidotomy reduces and modifies neuronal activity in the subthalamic nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients.

    Zaidel, A; Moran, A; Marjan, G; Bergman, H; Israel, Z


    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with prior radio-frequency lesions in the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi, pallidotomy), whose symptoms have deteriorated, may be candidates for further invasive treatment such as subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN DBS). Six patients with prior pallidotomy (five unilaterally; one bilaterally) underwent bilateral STN DBS. The microelectrode recordings (MERs, used intraoperatively for STN verification), ipsilateral and contralateral to pallidotomy, and MERs from 11 matched PD patients who underwent bilateral STN DBS without prior pallidotomy were compared. For each trajectory, average, variance and mean successive difference (MSD, a measure of irregularity) of the root mean square (RMS) of the STN MER were calculated. The RMS in trajectories ipsilateral to pallidotomy showed significant reduction of the mean average and MSD of STN activity when compared with trajectories from patients without prior pallidotomy. The RMS parameters contralateral to pallidotomy tend to lie between those ipsilateral to pallidotomy and those without prior pallidotomy. The average STN power spectral density of oscillatory activity was notably lower ipsilateral to pallidotomy than contralateral, or without prior pallidotomy. The finding that pallidotomy reduces STN activity and changes firing characteristics, in conjunction with the effectiveness of STN DBS despite prior pallidotomy, calls for reappraisal and modification of the current model of the basal ganglia (BG) cortical network. It highlights the critical role of direct projections from the BG to brain-stem structures and suggests a possible GPi-STN reciprocal positive-feedback mechanism.

  19. The relationship between disease activity and radiologic progression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a longitudinal analysis.

    Welsing, P.M.J.; Landewe, R.B.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Boers, M.; Gestel, A.M. van; Linden, S.G. van der; Swinkels, H.L.; Heijde, D.M.F.M. van der


    OBJECTIVE: Radiologic progression in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is considered the consequence of persistent inflammatory activity. To determine whether a change in disease activity is related to a change in radiologic progression in individual patients, we investigated the longitudinal relationship b

  20. Clinical characteristics of patients with lymphoproliferative neoplasms in the setting of systemic autoimmune diseases.

    Suvajdzic, Nada; Djurdjevic, Predrag; Todorovic, Milena; Perunicic, Maja; Stojanović, Roksanda; Novkovic, Aleksandra; Mihaljevic, Biljana


    Clinical features of 40 lymphoproliferative neoplasm patients in the setting of systemic autoimmune diseases managed in the Clinic of Hematology during 1994-2006 were analyzed retrospectively. The classification of systemic autoimmune disease patients was as follows: 15 systemic lupus erythematosus--SLE, 11 rheumatoid arthritis--RA, 12 Sjögren's syndrome--SS, 1 scleroderma, and 1 dermatomyositis. Patients comprised 31 women and 9 men of mean age 55 years (range 33-76). Systemic autoimmune diseases preceeded the development of lymphoproliferative neoplasms in 37/40 (92.5%) patients. Mean latency period between the onset of systemic autoimmune diseases and lymphoproliferative neoplasms occurrence was significantly longer in RA (113 months) than in SLE (75 months) and SS patients (65 months)--P autoimmune diseases type or antirheumatic treatment P > 0.05. Our findings are in line with earlier reports showing a high proportion of patients with advanced disease, constitutional symptoms, extranodal manifestations, high grade histology, and low OS in the systemic autoimmune diseases setting.

  1. Characteristics and relationship of periodontal disease with juvenile idiopathic and rheumatoid arthritis

    Surena Vahabi


    Full Text Available Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is the most prevalent chronic inflammatory disease of the joints. It is correlated with periodontal disease due to similar factors that exist in both diseases. The present study assessed the relationship of periodontal disease with RA and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 30 RA and 30 JIA patients along with similar number of matched controls were selected among patients referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Periodontal parameters including pocket depth (PD, clinical attachment level (CAL, O′Leary and Bay plaque index (PI and bleeding on probing (BOP were determined in cases and controls. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, number of painful and inflamed joints and severity of disease were evaluated in RA and JIA patients. Mann-Whitney U-test nonparametric, Spearman and Pearson′s correlation coefficients, and Chi-square tests were used as statistical analysis (α = 0.05. Results: PD (4.17 vs. 3.6 mm; P 4 mm (58.83% vs. 44.33%; P 3 mm (74.13% vs. 64.4%; P < 0.001, percentage of sites with BOP (9.67% vs. 6.87%; P < 0.0001 and PI index (85.73% vs. 80.63%; P < 0.0001 were significantly higher in RA patients than controls. In this group, direct and significant correlations were found between serologic findings, disease severity and number of painful and inflamed joints with periodontal factors. In JIA patients, no significant relationships were found between JIA findings and periodontal parameters. Conclusion: Considering the limitations of this study, there was a relationship between RA and periodontal disease. Severity of periodontal disease increases in patients with RA, while no increased risk of periodontal disease or its severity was observed among JIA patients.

  2. Characteristics and survival for HIV-associated multicentric Castleman disease in Malawi

    Satish Gopal


    Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical reports of multicentric Castleman disease (MCD from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA are scarce despite high prevalence of HIV and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV. Our objective is to describe characteristics and survival for HIV-associated MCD patients in Malawi. To our knowledge, this is the first HIV-associated MCD case series from the region. Methods: We describe HIV-positive patients with MCD in Lilongwe, and compare them to HIV-associated lymph node Kaposi sarcoma (KS and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL patients treated at our centre. All patients were enrolled into a prospective longitudinal cohort study at a national teaching hospital and cancer referral centre serving half of Malawi's 16 million people. We included adult patients≥18 years of age with HIV-associated MCD (n=6, lymph node KS (n=5 or NHL (n=31 enrolled between 1 June 2013 and 31 January 2015. Results and discussion: MCD patients had a median age of 42.4 years (range 37.2–51.8. All had diffuse lymphadenopathy and five had hepatosplenomegaly. Concurrent KS was present for one MCD patient, and four had performance status ≥3. MCD patients had lower median haemoglobin (6.4 g/dL, range 3.6–9.3 than KS (11.0 g/dL, range 9.1–12.0, p=0.011 or NHL (11.2 g/dL, range 4.5–15.1, p=0.0007. Median serum albumin was also lower for MCD (2.1 g/dL, range 1.7–3.2 than KS (3.7 g/dL, range 3.2–3.9, p=0.013 or NHL (3.4 g/dL, range 1.8–4.8, p=0.003. All six MCD patients were on antiretroviral therapy (ART with median CD4 count 208 cells/µL (range 108–1146, and all with HIV RNA <400 copies/mL. Most KS and NHL patients were also on ART, although ART duration was longer for MCD (56.4 months, range 18.2–105.3 than KS (14.2 months, range 6.8–21.9, p=0.039 or NHL (13.8 months, range 0.2–98.8, p=0.017. Survival was poorer for MCD patients than lymph node KS or NHL. Conclusions: HIV-associated MCD occurs in Malawi, is diagnosed late and is associated with high

  3. Induction of AMPK activity corrects early pathophysiological alterations in the subtotal nephrectomy model of chronic kidney disease.

    Satriano, Joseph; Sharma, Kumar; Blantz, Roland C; Deng, Aihua


    The rat kidney ablation and infarction (A/I) model of subtotal or 5/6th nephrectomy is the most commonly studied model of nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD). The A/I kidney at 1 wk exhibits reductions in kidney function, as determined by glomerular filtration rate, and diminished metabolic efficiency as determined by oxygen consumption per sodium transport (QO2/TNa). As renoprotective AMPK activity is affected by metabolic changes and cellular stress, we evaluated AMPK activity in this model system. We show that these early pathophysiological changes are accompanied by a paradoxical decrease in AMPK activity. Over time, these kidney parameters progressively worsen with extensive kidney structural, functional, metabolic, and fibrotic changes observed at 4 wk after A/I. We show that induction of AMPK activity with either metformin or 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide increases AMPK activity in this model and also corrects kidney metabolic inefficiency, improves kidney function, and ameliorates kidney fibrosis and structural alterations. We conclude that AMPK activity is reduced in the subtotal nephrectomy model of nondiabetic CKD, that altered regulation of AMPK is coincident with the progression of disease parameters, and that restoration of AMPK activity can suppress the progressive loss of function characteristic of this model. We propose that induction of AMPK activity may prove an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of nondiabetic CKD.

  4. Characteristic endoscopic findings and risk factors for cytomegalovirus-associated colitis in patients with active ulcerative colitis

    Yutaka Hirayama; Takafumi Ando; Yoshiki Hirooka; Osamu Watanabe; Ryoji Miyahara; Masanao Nakamura; Takeshi Yamamura; Hidemi Goto


    AIM: To identify characteristic endoscopic findings and risk factors for cytomegalovirus(CMV)-associated colitis in patients with active ulcerative colitis(UC).METHODS: A total of 149 UC patients admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology, Nagoya University Hospital, from January 2004 to December 2013 with exacerbation of UC symptoms were enrolled in this retrospective study. All medical records, including colonoscopy results, were reviewed. CMV infection was determined by the presence of CMV antigen, CMV inclusion bodies in biopsy specimens, or positive specific immunohistochemical staining for CMV. Multivariate analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for CMV colitis.RESULTS: Multivariate analysis indicated independent associations with the extent of disease(pancolitis) anduse of > 400 mg corticosteroids for the previous 4 wk. In contrast, no association was seen with sex, age at UC diagnosis, immunomodulator use, or infliximab use. Punched-out ulceration was also significantly associated with CMV infection in patients with active UC(odds ratio = 12.672, 95%CI: 4.210-38.143).CONCLUSION: Identification of a total corticosteroid dose > 400 mg for 4 wk, extensive colitis and a specific endoscopic finding of punched-out ulcer might facilitate the more rapid diagnosis and timely initiation of antiviral therapy for CMV-associated colitis in patients with active UC.

  5. Circulating TFH subset distribution is strongly affected in lupus patients with an active disease.

    Carole Le Coz

    Full Text Available Follicular helper T cells (TFH represent a distinct subset of CD4(+ T cells specialized in providing help to B lymphocytes, which may play a central role in autoimmune diseases having a major B cell component such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Recently, TFH subsets that share common phenotypic and functional characteristics with TFH cells from germinal centers, have been described in the peripheral blood from healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of such populations in lupus patients. Circulating TFH cell subsets were defined by multicolor flow cytometry as TFH17 (CXCR3(-CCR6(+, TFH1 (CXCR3 (+ CCR6(- or TFH2 (CXCR3(-CCR6(- cells among CXCR5 (+ CD45RA(-CD4(+ T cells in the peripheral blood of 23 SLE patients and 23 sex and age-matched healthy controls. IL-21 receptor expression by B cells was analyzed by flow cytometry and the serum levels of IL-21 and Igs were determined by ELISA tests. We found that the TFH2 cell subset frequency is strongly and significantly increased in lupus patients with an active disease (SLEDAI score>8, while the TFH1 cell subset percentage is greatly decreased. The TFH2 and TFH1 cell subset frequency alteration is associated with the presence of high Ig levels and autoantibodies in patient's sera. Moreover, the TFH2 cell subset enhancement correlates with an increased frequency of double negative memory B cells (CD27(-IgD(-CD19(+ cells expressing the IL-21R. Finally, we found that IgE levels in lupus patients' sera correlate with disease activity and seem to be associated with high TFH2 cell subset frequency. In conclusion, our study describes for the first time the distribution of circulating TFH cell subsets in lupus patients. Interestingly, we found an increased frequency of TFH2 cells, which correlates with disease activity. Our results suggest that this subset might play a key role in lupus pathogenesis.


    Guliaev, N I; Kuznetsov, V V; Poltareĭko, D S; Qleksiuk, I B; Gordienko, A V; Barsukov, A V


    The article presents an assessment of degree and type of atherosclerosis of coronary and non-coronary vessels in old patients with ischemic heart disease associated with chronic viral hepatitis C (VHC), the incidence of myocardial infarction and the possibility of participation chronic VHC in atherogenesis. Patients with ischemic heart disease have correlation of atherosclerosis of arteries with age, hypercholesterinemia. Patients without chronic VHC more often give a higher risk of myocardial infarction, especially in early period (1-1,5 years) of onset of ischemic heart disease clinical implications. Patients with ischemic heart disease associated with chronic viral hepatitis C more often have generalized alterations in vessels, multifocal type of alteration. So, participation of VHC in atherogenesis is most probably connected with maintenance of chronic immune inflammation in vascular endothelium.


    Francisca DIAS DE CASTRO


    Full Text Available Background - Inflammatory bowel disease, comprising Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is a group of debilitating conditions associated with deregulated mucosal immune response. Vitamin D has been implicated in immune response and gastrointestinal function. Objectives - To investigate the correlation between serum vitamin D levels and disease activity and quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Methods - This cross-sectional study enrolled ambulatory patients with inflammatory bowel disease and assessed clinical disease activity and quality of life (Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire [SIBDQ]. Vitamin D levels were determined via serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurement; deficiency was defined as values <20 ng/mL. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS vs 20.0. Results - A total of 76 patients were enrolled, 19 with ulcerative colitis (25% and 57 with Crohn's disease (75%. Overall, mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were low (26.0±10.0 ng/mL, while those in patients with Crohn's disease were significantly lower than ulcerative colitis (24.6±8.0 vs 30.0±12.5 ng/mL; P=0.032. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 30% of patients. Patients who were in clinical remission were found to have higher levels of vitamin D than those who were not in remission (28.0±10.3 vs 21.6±6.0 ng/mL, P=0.001. Inflammatory bowel disease patients with SIBDQ scores <50 were found to have significantly lower mean vitamin D levels compared with patients who had SIBDQ scores ≥50 (23.4±6.9 vs 27.9±10.8 ng/mL, P=0.041. Conclusions - A high proportion of patients with inflammatory bowel disease were vitamin D deficient, particularly patients with Crohn's disease. Both clinical disease activity and quality of life correlated significantly with lower levels of vitamin D, illustrating a clear need for supplementation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  8. How might physical activity benefit patients with Parkinson disease?

    Speelman, A.D.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Nimwegen, M.L. van; Petzinger, G.M.; Munneke, M.; Bloem, B.R.


    Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor and nonmotor impairments. These impairments incline many patients towards a sedentary lifestyle, which has many deleterious consequences. Accumulating evidence suggests that patients with PD might benefit from

  9. [Cytochrome P450 activity and its alteration in different diseases].

    Orellana, Myriam; Guajardo, Viviana


    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes participate in the metabolism of a variety of naturally occurring and foreign compounds by reactions requiring NADPH and O2. The diversity of reactions catalyzed and its extensive substrate specificity render CYP enzymes as one of the most versatile known catalysts. Individual members of the CYP superfamily are expressed in almost every cell type in the body. As compared to hepatic enzymes, the regulation of human extrahepatic CYPs has not been so well studied. In general, the levels of some hepatic CYP enzymes are depressed by diseases, causing potential and documented impairment of drug clearence and clinical drug toxicity. However, modulation of CYPs is enzyme selective and this selectivity differs in different diseases. This article reviews some basic concepts about CYP and its regulation in some disease states such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and hepatic, infectious and inflammatory diseases.

  10. Age-related differences in celiac disease: Specific characteristics of adult presentation

    Santiago; Vivas; Luis; Vaquero; Laura; Rodríguez-Martín; Alberto; Caminero


    Celiac disease may appear both in early childhood andin elderly subjects. Current knowledge of the disease has revealed some differences associated to the age of presentation. Furthermore, monitoring and prognosis of celiac subjects can vary depending on the pediatric or adult stage. The main objective of this review is to provide guidance for the adult diagnostic and follow-up processes, which must be tailored specifically for adults and be different from pediatric patients.

  11. Live pig markets in eastern Indonesia: Trader characteristics, biosecurity and implications for disease spread.

    Leslie, Edwina E C; Geong, Maria; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L


    Classical swine fever has been negatively impacting pig production in Nusa Tenggara Timur province in eastern Indonesia since its introduction in the 1990s, with live market trade contributing to disease spread. To understand market trader knowledge and practices regarding pig management, biosecurity, pig movements and pig health (specifically CSF), a repeated survey was conducted with pig sellers and pig buyers at 9 market sites across West Timor and the islands of Flores and Sumba. A total of 292 sellers and 281 buyers were interviewed in 2009 during two periods (rounds), a high-demand month (September) and a low-demand month (November). Information was collected via questionnaire. The majority of traders were male (sellers: 89%; buyers: 87%) with the highest level of completed education being primary school (sellers: 48%; buyers: 41%). The primary occupation of most respondents was farming: 90% of sellers and 87% of buyers were smallholder pig farmers and tended to sell their own home-raised pigs at market (52%). Pigs were sold for monetary gain either for primary (52%) or extra income (44%). Markets tended to be selected based on a good reputation (62%), a location close to residence (62%) and having the desired pig type (59%). Pig sales through markets were reported to be highest from August to October with 31% of sellers trading pigs at two or more markets. Prices at market were significantly higher on Sumba compared to West Timor and cross-bred pigs were significantly more expensive than indigenous pigs. Understanding of CSF and biosecurity was limited: 85% of sellers and 83% of buyers had no prior knowledge of CSF. Fifty-four percent of sellers reported no use of any biosecurity practices at market. Most respondents (88%) were able to recognise at least one clinical sign of a sick pig. Informal pig movements were also identified: 18% of pig buyers purchased pigs directly from other farmers. This study has provided baseline information on market trader

  12. Health researchers in Alberta: an exploratory comparison of defining characteristics and knowledge translation activities

    Birdsell Judy M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canadian funding agencies are no longer content to support research that solely advances scientific knowledge, and key directives are now in place to promote research transfer to policy- and decision-makers. Therefore, it is necessary to improve our understanding of how researchers are trained and supported to facilitate knowledge translation activities. In this study, we investigated differences in health researcher characteristics and knowledge translation activities. Methods Our sample consisted of 240 health researchers from three Alberta universities. Respondents were classified by research domain [basic (n = 72 or applied (n = 168] and faculty [medical school (n = 128 or other health science (n = 112]. We examined our findings using Mode I and Mode II archetypes of knowledge production, which allowed us to consider the scholarly and social contexts of knowledge production and translation. Results Differences among health researcher professional characteristics were not statistically significant. There was a significant gender difference in the applied researcher faculty group, which was predominantly female (p p p = .01; Mode II, p p = .025 and number of publications (medical school > other faculties; p = .004. There was an interaction effect for research domain and faculty group for number of publications (p = .01, in that applied researchers in medical faculties published more than their peers in other faculty groups. Conclusion Our findings illustrate important differences between health researchers and provide beginning insights into their professional characteristics and engagement in Mode I and Mode II activities. A future study designed to examine these dimensions in greater detail, including potential covariates across more varied institutions, would yield richer insights and enable an examination of relative influences, needs and costs of each mode of activity.

  13. Effect of Phosphoric Acid Concentration on the Characteristics of Sugarcane Bagasse Activated Carbon

    Adib, M. R. M.; Suraya, W. M. S. W.; Rafidah, H.; Amirza, A. R. M.; Attahirah, M. H. M. N.; Hani, M. S. N. Q.; Adnan, M. S.


    Impregnation method is one of the crucial steps involved in producing activated carbon using chemical activation process. Chemicals employed in this step is effective at decomposing the structure of material and forming micropores that helps in adsorption of contaminants. This paper explains thorough procedures that have been involved in producing sugarcane bagasse activated carbon (SBAC) by using 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% phosphoric acid (H3PO4) during the impregnation step. Concentration of H3PO4 used in the process of producing SBAC was optimized through several tests including bulk density, ash content, iodine adsorption and pore size diameter and the charactesristic of optimum SBAC produced has been compared with commercial activated carbon (CAC). Batch study has been carried out by using the SBAC produced from optimum condition to investigate the performance of SBAC in removal of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from textile wastewater. From characteristic study, SBAC with 30% H3PO4 has shown the optimum value of bulk density, ash content, iodine adsorption and pore size diameter of 0.3023 g cm-3, 4.35%, 974.96 mg/g and 0.21-0.41 µm, respectively. These values are comparable to the characteristics of CAC. Experimental result from the batch study has been concluded that the SBAC has a promising potential in removing turbidity and COD of 75.5% and 66.3%, respectively which was a slightly lower than CAC which were able to remove 82.8% of turbidity and 70% of COD. As a conclusion, the SBAC is comparable with CAC in terms of their characteristics and the capability of removing contaminants from textile wastewater. Therefore, it has a commercial value to be used as an alternative of low-cost material in producing CAC.




    There is no agreement as to which variable best mirrors disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and no studies have been performed on the validity of disease activity variables. In this study the validity of 10 commonly used single variables and three composite indices was tested. All patients

  15. A correlation of pregnancy term, disease activity, serum female hormones, and cytokines in uveitis

    Chan, C-C; Reed, G F; Kim, Y.; Agrón, E; Buggage, R R


    Background/aims: Pregnancy and the postpartum period are associated with the activity of autoimmune diseases including uveitis. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, hormones are reported to alter inflammatory cytokines and influence disease activity. The authors studied ocular inflammation, female hormones, and serum cytokine levels during and after pregnancy.

  16. Evaluation of false remission in ulcerative colitis and the need for a revised disease activity index

    Alaa Elgamal


    Conclusion About 70% of our patients with ulcerative colitis in clinical remission had an active disease. Clinical remission in ulcerative colitis can be best expressed as true and false remission depending on histological grading in a revised ulcerative colitis disease activity index. Some inflammatory markers can be useful for the detection of true remission.

  17. Mean platelet volume is decreased in adults with active lupus disease

    Guillermo Delgado-García

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Only a few biomarkers are available for assessing disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Mean platelet volume (MPV has been recently studied as an inflammatory biomarker. It is currently unclear whether MPV may also play a role as a biomarker of disease activity in adult patients with SLE. Objective: We investigated the association between MPV and disease activity in adult patients with SLE. Methods: In this retrospective study, we compared two groups of adult patients divided according to disease activity (36 per group. Subjects were age- and gender-matched. Results: MPV was significantly decreased with respect to those of inactive patients (7.16 ± 1.39 vs. 8.16 ± 1.50, p = 0.005. At a cutoff level of 8.32 fL, MPV has a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 41% for the detection of disease activity. A modest positive correlation was found between MPV and albumin (r = 0.407, p = 0.001, which in turn is inversely associated with disease activity. Conclusions: In summary, MPV is decreased in adult patients with active lupus disease, and positively correlated with albumin, another biomarker of disease activity. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the prognostic value of this biomarker.

  18. Dynamic characteristics of Semi-active Hydraulic Engine Mount Based on Fluid-Structure Interaction FEA

    Tian Jiande


    Full Text Available A kind of semi-active hydraulic engine mount is studied in this paper. After careful analysis of its structure and working principle, the FEA simulation of it was divided into two cases. One is the solenoid valve is open, so the air chamber connects to the atmosphere, and Fluid-Structure Interaction was used. Another is the solenoid valve is closed, and the air chamber has pressure, so Fluid-Structure-Gas Interaction was used. The test of this semi-active hydraulic engine mount was carried out to compare with the simulation results, and verify the accuracy of the model. Then the dynamic characteristics-dynamic stiffness and damping angle were analysed by simulation and test. This paper provides theoretical support for the development and optimization of the semi-active hydraulic engine mount.

  19. Usefulness of pinhole collimator in differential diagnosis of metastatic disease and degenerative joint disease in the vertebrae; Evaluation by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis

    Kosuda, Shigeru; Kawahara, Syunji; Ishibashi, Akihiko; Tamura, Kohei; Tsukatani, Yasushi; Fujii, Hiroshi (Okura National Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)); Kubo, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shozo


    In order to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of pinhole collimator (PHC) imaging combined with an X-ray for vertebral metastasis, our prospective study has employed receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis in 21 patients, 11 with osseous metastasis and 15 with degenerative joint disease in the lumbar vertebrae. PHC imaging provided better anatomic information on the extent of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP accumulation. PHC vertebral scintigraphy had a considerable impact on the decision-making process, although with variations and not very satisfactory results among the physicians with little experience. Our study suggests that PHC imaging and X-ray film are useful in differentiating between osseous metastasis and degenerative joint disease in the vertebra. (author).

  20. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor activity in healthy and diseased dogs

    Jessen, Lisbeth Rem; Wiinberg, Bo; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads


    Background: In people, increased thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) antigen has been associated with increased risk of thrombosis, and decreased TAFI may contribute to bleeding diathesis. TAFI activity in dogs has been described in experimental models, but not in dogs...... with spontaneous disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare TAFI activity in healthy dogs with TAFI activity in dogs with spontaneous disease. Methods: Plasma samples from 20 clinically healthy Beagles and from 35 dogs with various diseases were analyzed using a commercial chromogenic assay...... that measured TAFI activity relative to activity in standardized pooled human plasma. Results: Median TAFI activity for the 20 Beagles was 46.1% (range 32.2-70.8%) compared with 62.6% (29.1-250%) for the 35 diseased dogs, and 14/35 (40%) had TAFI activities >the upper limit for controls. The highest individual...

  1. Measured and perceived environmental characteristics are related to accelerometer defined physical activity in older adults

    Strath Scott J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated both the self-perceived and measured environment with objectively determined physical activity in older adults. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine measured and perceived environmental associations with physical activity of older adults residing across different neighborhood types. Methods One-hundred and forty-eight older individuals, mean age 64.3 ± 8.4, were randomly recruited from one of four neighborhoods that were pre-determined as either having high- or low walkable characteristics. Individual residences were geocoded and 200 m network buffers established. Both objective environment audit, and self-perceived environmental measures were collected, in conjunction with accelerometer derived physical activity behavior. Using both perceived and objective environment data, analysis consisted of a macro-level comparison of physical activity levels across neighborhood, and a micro-level analysis of individual environmental predictors of physical activity levels. Results Individuals residing in high-walkable neighborhoods on average engaged in 11 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day more than individuals residing in low-walkable neighborhoods. Both measured access to non-residential destinations (b = .11, p p = .031 were significant predictors of time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Other environmental variables significantly predicting components of physical activity behavior included presence of measured neighborhood crime signage (b = .4785, p = .031, measured street safety (b = 26.8, p = .006, and perceived neighborhood satisfaction (b = .5.8, p = .003. Conclusions Older adult residents who live in high-walkable neighborhoods, who have easy and close access to nonresidential destinations, have lower social dysfunction pertinent to crime, and generally perceive the neighborhood to a higher overall satisfaction are likely to engage in higher levels

  2. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and changing spectrum of liver diseases in HIV infected patients

    Kavita S. Joshi; Rohit R. Shriwastav


    Background: HIV is now considered as chronic disease than a fatal disease. HIV infected individual is having normal life expectancy post highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. Liver disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV infected patients. The objective was to study the prevalence, clinical profile of various liver diseases in HIV infected individuals on HAART and also to study aetiologies of liver involvement in HIV patients. Methods: It was a cross secti...

  3. A free terminal ileal perforation from active crohn disease in pregnancy: a diagnostic challenge.

    Philip, Sunu; Kamyab, Armin; Orfanou, Paraskevi


    The surgical management of the complications of Crohn disease is often challenging. These difficulties are compounded in pregnancy by competing interests of the mother and the baby. In this report, we describe the presentation and surgical management of a patient in her second trimester with active Crohn disease who required emergent surgical intervention. She had presented with the uncommon complication of a free perforation in the presence of active untreated disease.

  4. Comparative Study between Axial and Coronal Planes of CT Enterography in Evaluation of Disease Activity and Complications of Crohn Disease

    Ahn, Sung Eun; Park, Seong Jin; Moon, Soung Kyung; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Kim, Hyo Jong [Dept. of Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To retrospectively compare the accuracy of axial and coronal planes of CT enterography for detection of pathologic findings of Crohn disease. 168 patients who were suspected of having Crohn disease underwent CT enterography. 66 patients who were diagnosed Crohn disease were retrospectively evaluated (endoscopic biopsy of terminal ileum: 12 patients, segmental resection of small bowel: 6 patients, diagnosed based on a combination of clinical, histopathological and imaging findings: 48 patients). 2 radiologists reviewed axial planes of CT enterography and one month later reviewed coronal planes. CT enterography findings of active phase, chronic phase and complications of Crohn disease were evaluated and then compared with axial and coronal planes by using chi-square test. Mucosal hyperenhancement, wall thickening, and mesenteric fat stranding were more detected on axial planes, which were CT findings of active Crohn disease. Pseudosacculation, fibrotic strictures, fistulas, abscesses were more detected on coronal planes, which were CT findings of chronic Crohn disease or complications. In particular, pseudosacculation and fibrotic strictures were significantly more detected on coronal planes. When evaluating CT enterography in Crohn disease, coronal planes provide more useful diagnostic information of pseudosacculation and fibrotic strictures.

  5. On Active Surge Control of Compression Systems via Characteristic Linearization and Model Nonlinearity Cancellation

    Yohannes S.M. Simamora


    Full Text Available A simple approach of active surge control of compression systems is presented. Specifically, nonlinear components of the pressure ratio and rotating speed states of the Moore-Greitzer model are transferred into the input vectors. Subsequently, the compressor characteristic is linearized into two modes, which describe the stable region and the unstable region respectively. As a result, the system’s state and input matrices both appear linear, to which linear realization and analysis are applicable. A linear quadratic regulator plus integrator is then chosen as closed-loop controller. By simulation it was shown that the modified model and characteristics can describe surge behavior, while the closed-loop controller can stabilize the system in the unstable operating region. The last-mentioned was achieved when massflow was 5.38 per cent less than the surge point.

  6. Active Magnetic Bearings Stiffness and Damping Identification from Frequency Characteristics of Control System

    Chaowu Jin


    Full Text Available At present, the stiffness and damping identification for active magnetic bearings (AMBs are still in the stage of theoretical analysis. The theoretical analysis indicates that if the mechanical structure and system parameters are determined, AMBs stiffness and damping are only related to frequency characteristic of control system, ignoring operating condition. More importantly, few verification methods are proposed. Considering the shortcomings of the theoretical identification, this paper obtains these coefficients from the experiment by using the magnetic bearing as a sine exciter. The identification results show that AMBs stiffness and damping have a great relationship with the control system and rotating speed. Specifically, at low rotating speed, the stiffness and damping can be obtained from the rotor static suspension by adding the same excitation frequency. However, at high speed, different from the static suspension situation, the AMBs supporting coefficients are not only related to the frequency characteristics of control system, but also related to the system operating conditions.

  7. Suicide Bombers in Israel: Their Motivations, Characteristics, and Prior Activity in Terrorist Organizations

    Revital Sela-Shayovitz


    Full Text Available This paper examines the characteristics of suicide bombers as reflected in the Israeli press during the Second Intifada in Israel. The analysis aims to determine whether there were significant differences in the characteristics of suicide bombers with religious motives versus those with nationalist motives. The findings reveal that gender, education level, and organizational affiliation correlated significantly with motives for carrying out suicide attacks. Most of the suicide bombers with religious motives were men with elementary education. In addition, the results show that most of the suicide bombers who were affiliated with the Hamas organization acted out of religious motives. No significant differences were found between suicide bombers with religious and those with nationalist motives with regard to age, marital status, and prior activity in terrorist organizations.

  8. Baseline Cardiovascular Characteristics of Adult Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease from the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD).

    Kim, Hyoungnae; Yoo, Tae Hyun; Choi, Kyu Hun; Oh, Kook Hwan; Lee, Joongyub; Kim, Soo Wan; Kim, Tae Hee; Sung, Suah; Han, Seung Hyeok


    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We report the baseline cardiovascular characteristics of 2,238 participants by using the data of the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD) study. The cohort comprises 5 subcohorts according to the cause of CKD: glomerulonephritis (GN), diabetic nephropathy (DN), hypertensive nephropathy (HTN), polycystic kidney disease (PKD), and unclassified. The average estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 50.5 ± 30.3 mL/min⁻¹/1.73 m⁻² and lowest in the DN subcohort. The overall prevalence of previous CVD was 14.4% in all patients, and was highest in the DN followed by that in the HTN subcohort. The DN subcohort had more adverse cardiovascular risk profiles (higher systolic blood pressure [SBP], and higher levels of cardiac troponin T, left ventricular mass index [LVMI], coronary calcium score, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity [baPWV]) than the other subcohorts. The HTN subcohort exhibited less severe cardiovascular risk profiles than the DN subcohort, but had more severe cardiovascular risk features than the GN and PKD subcohorts. All these cardiovascular risk profiles were inversely correlated with eGFR. In conclusion, this study shows that the KNOW-CKD cohort exhibits high cardiovascular burden, as other CKD cohorts in previous studies. Among the subcohorts, the DN subcohort had the highest risk for CVD. The ongoing long-term follow-up study up to 10 years will further delineate cardiovascular characteristics and outcomes of each subcohort exposed to different risk profiles.

  9. Clinical characteristics of non-perianal fistulating Crohn's disease in China: a single-center experience of 184 cases

    WANG Ge-fei; REN Jian-an; LIU Song; CHEN Jun; GU Guo-sheng; WANG Xin-bo; FAN Chao-gang; LI Jie-shou


    Background There is little information of non-perianal fistulating Crohn's disease in the consensus published by the European Crohn's and Colitis Organization in 2006 and 2010.This study was designed to demonstrate the clinical characteristics of non-perianal fistulating Crohn's disease among homogenous Chinese population.Methods One-hundred-and-eighty-four patients were retrospectively collected.All of these patients were diagnosed of Crohn's disease between February 2001 and April 2011.Results The male-to-female ratio was 2.7:1.The most common symptoms at onset were abdominal pain (88.0%),diarrhea (34.7%),and fever (28.3%).The most common disease location and behavior at diagnosis were small bowel (56.0%) and penetrating (51.6%).Among 324 non-perianal fistulae,the most common types were ileocolonic anastomotic (30.9%),terminal ileocutaneous (19.7%),and enteroenteric anastomotic (11.4%).One-hundred-and-thirty-eight (75.0%) patients received antibiotics,and β-lactam (85.5%) and metronidazole (67.4%) are most frequently used.One-hundred-and-seventy-eight (96.7%) patients suffered 514 surgical operations,and the cumulative surgical rates after 1,3,and 5 years were 38.0%,52.2%,and 58.7% respectively.Nine patients died during the follow-up period,and the cumulative survival rates after 1,3,and 5 years were 97.8%,96.7%,and 96.2% respectively.Conclusions This study displayed the clinical characteristics of non-perianal fistulating Crohn's disease in our center.Large population-based studies are required for further investigation in China.

  10. Advances in the assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease

    Camilleri, M.; Proano, M. (Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (USA))


    Knowledge of the severity and extent of the inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases provides a means of determining rational therapeutic strategies in affected patients. During the past 3 decades, several clinical, laboratory, and combined indices have been proposed for the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease; refinements in radiologic methods and the availability of endoscopy and biopsy have facilitated the accurate assessment of the extent and severity of the disease. In relapsing conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, however, the use of such procedures is limited by the radiation exposure or the relatively invasive nature of the technique. In this article, we review the proposed methods and recent advances in assessment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease; we also discuss possible strategies at the time of diagnosis, during recurrence, and in evaluation of the efficacy of drug or dietic therapy. 58 references.

  11. Virological and immunological characteristics of human cytomegalovirus infection associated with Alzheimer disease.

    Lurain, Nell S; Hanson, Barbara A; Martinson, Jeffrey; Leurgans, Sue E; Landay, Alan L; Bennett, David A; Schneider, Julie A


    Serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and cryopreserved lymphocytes from subjects in the Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center Religious Orders Study were analyzed for associations between cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and clinical and pathological markers of Alzheimer disease. CMV antibody levels were associated with neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). CSF interferon γ was only detected in seropositive subjects and was significantly associated with NFTs. The percentage of senescent T cells (CD4+ or CD8+CD28-CD57+) was significantly higher for CMV-seropositive as compared to CMV-seronegative subjects and was marginally associated with the pathologic diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (CD4+) or amyloid-β (CD8+). Immunocytochemical analysis showed induction of amyloid-β in human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) infected with each of 3 clinical CMV strains. In the same subjects, there was no association of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) antibody levels with CMV antibody levels or clinical or pathological markers of Alzheimer disease. HSV-1 infection of HFFs did not induce amyloid-β. These data support an association between CMV and the development of Alzheimer disease.

  12. Inner Ear Disease and Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo: A Critical Review of Incidence, Clinical Characteristics, and Management

    M. Riga


    Full Text Available Background. This study is a review of the incidence, clinical characteristics, and management of secondary BPPV. The different subtypes of secondary BPPV are compared to each other, as well as idiopathic BPPV. Furthermore, the study highlights the coexistence of BPPV with other inner ear pathologies. Methods. A comprehensive search for articles including in the abstract information on incidence, clinical characteristics, and management of secondary BPPV was conducted within the PubMed library. Results. Different referral patterns, different diagnostic criteria used for inner ear diseases, and different patient populations have led to greatly variable incidence results. The differences regarding clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes may support the hypothesis that idiopathic BPPV and the various subtypes of secondary BPPV do not share the exact same pathophysiological mechanisms. Conclusions. Secondary BPPV is often under-diagnosed, because dizziness may be atypical and attributed to the primary inner ear pathology. Reversely, a limited number of BPPV patients may not be subjected to a full examination and characterized as idiopathic, while other inner ear diseases are underdiagnosed. A higher suspicion index for the coexistence of BPPV with other inner ear pathologies, may lead to a more integrated diagnosis and consequently to a more efficient treatment of these patients.

  13. Association of Gait Characteristics and Depression in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Assessed in Goal-Directed Locomotion Task.

    Kincses, Péter; Kovács, Norbert; Karádi, Kázmér; Feldmann, Ádám; Dorn, Krisztina; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Komoly, Sámuel; Szolcsányi, Tibor; Csathó, Árpád; Kállai, János


    Introduction. In the genesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) clinical phenomenology the exact nature of the association between bradykinesia and affective variables is unclear. In the present study, we analyzed the gait characteristics and level of depression in PD and healthy volunteers. Methods. Patients with PD (n = 48) and healthy controls (n = 52) were recruited for the present study. Walking speed, stride length, and cadence were compared between groups while participants completed a goal-directed locomotion task under visually controlled (VC) and visually noncontrolled conditions (VnC). Results. Significantly higher depression scores were found in PD comparing to healthy control groups. In PD, depression was associated with gait components in the VC wherein the place of the target was visible. In contrast, in healthy subjects the depression was associated with gait components in VnC wherein the location and image of the target were memorized and recalled. In patients with PD and depression, the visually deprived multitask augments the rate of cadence and diminishes stride length, while velocity remains relatively unchanged. The depression associated with gait characteristics as a comorbid affective factor in PD, and that impairs the coherence of gait pattern. Conclusion. The relationship between depression and gait parameters appears to indicate that PD not only is a neurological disease but also incorporates affective disturbances that associate with the regulation of gait characteristics.

  14. Characteristics of Zinc Phosphate Coating Activated by Different Concentrations of Nickel Acetate Solution

    Abdalla, Khalid; Zuhailawati, H.; Rahmat, Azmi; Azizan, A.


    Activation pretreatment with nickel acetate solution at various concentrations was performed prior to the phosphating step to enhance the corrosion resistance of carbon steel substrates. The activation solution was studied over various concentrations: 10, 50, and 100 g/L. The effects of these concentrations on surface characteristics and microstructural evolution of the coated samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and immersion test in a 3.5 pct NaCl solution. Significant increases in the nucleation sites and surface coverage of zinc phosphate coating were observed as the concentration of activation solution reached 50 g/L. The electrochemical analysis revealed that the activation treatment with 50 g/L nickel acetate solution significantly improved the protection ability of the zinc phosphate coating. The corrosion current density of activated phosphate coating with 50 g/L was reduced by 64.64 and 13.22 pct, compared to the coatings obtained with activation solutions of 10 and 100 g/L, respectively.

  15. Physical activity practice´s characteristics of students of Faculty of Education (University of Seville

    Carolina Castañeda Vázquez


    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to know about students´ physical activity from Faculty of Education of University of Seville, and its characteristics.The sample (N=409 is constituted for students from the different degrees of this Faculty (±4.8%; 95%CI. A specific questionnaire, built to that effect, was used to obtain dates. This instrument was validated by different experts on this area of studies, and statistic tests was done to check its reliability (Alpha Cronbach: .78 using SPSS V.15. The main results showed that 62.19% of students do physical activity regularly. Students prefer recreational activities or exercise aimed at being fit or watching health instead competitive games. Activities done by students inside University are very similar to activities done out of this. They also do exercise during all academic year, preferably along the all week or from Monday to Friday, and especially in the afternoon. This group usually practice with friends, classmates or workmates, but lonely too, and they prefer public areas and public or private sport facilities for their sport practice.Key Words: University students, physical activity practice, leisure time.

  16. Is there a sex effect in colon cancer? Disease characteristics, management, and outcomes in routine clinical practice

    Quirt, J.S.; Nanji, S.; Wei, X.; Flemming, J.A.; Booth, C.M.


    Introduction The incidence of colon cancer varies by sex. Whether women and men show differences in extent of disease, treatment, and outcomes is not well described. We used a large population-based cohort to evaluate sex differences in colon cancer. Methods Using the Ontario Cancer Registry, all cases of colon cancer treated with surgery in Ontario during 2002–2008 were identified. Electronic records of treatment identified use of surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Pathology reports for a random 25% sample of all cases were obtained, and disease characteristics, treatment, and outcomes in women and men were compared. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify factors associated with overall (os) and cancer-specific survival (css). Results The study population included 7249 patients who underwent resection of colon cancer; 49% (n = 3556) were women. Stage of disease and histologic grade did not vary by sex. Compared with men, women were more likely to have right-sided disease (55% vs. 44%, p ≤ 0.001). Surgical procedure and lymph node yield did not differ by sex. Adjuvant chemotherapy was delivered to 18% of patients with stage ii and 64% of patients with stage iii disease; when adjusted for patient- and disease-related factors, use of adjuvant chemotherapy was similar for women and men [relative risk: 0.99; 95% confidence interval (ci): 0.94 to 1.03]. Adjusted analyses demonstrated that os [hazard ratio (hr): 0.80; 95% ci: 0.75 to 0.86] and css (hr: 0.82; 95% ci: 0.76 to 0.90) were superior for women compared with men. Conclusions Long-term survival after colon cancer is significantly better for women than for men, which is not explained by any substantial differences in extent of disease or treatment delivered.

  17. [Tyrosine-protein kinase activity in breast neoplasm. Comparison with activity obtained in benign diseases and in normal tissues].

    Pierart, J; Oñate, E; Klaassen, R; Cid, L; Gutierrez, S; Talbot, E; Ross, E; Zambrano, C; Burmeister, R; Puchi, M


    Tyrosine protein kinase (TPK) activity is associated to malignant cellular transformation. This work compares TPK activity in 27 surgical biopsy samples of mammary carcinoma, 10 samples of fibroadenomas, 13 samples of fibrocystic breast disease and 27 samples of normal mammary tissue. TPK activity was determined in tissue homogenates using (Val5) angiotensin II as exogenous substrate. In samples of mammary carcinoma, TPK activity was 33.86 +/- 31.98 pmol P32/mg protein/30 min. This value was significantly higher that those observed in fibrocystic disease (3.92 +/- 2.35), fibroadenomas (13.86 +/- 10.9) and normal tissue (3.56 +/- 3.02).

  18. Relationships of Self-Esteem among Duration of Disease, Impairments and Activity Limitation in Cerebrovascular Accident and Parkinson's Disease

    Fujiwara, Mizuho; Nishioka, Eriko; Abe, Kazuo; 藤原, 瑞穂; 西岡, 江理子; 阿部, 和夫


    The relationships of self-esteem among the duration of illness, impairments and activities limitation were studied in cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Fifty-four CVD patients (aged 43-83) and 41 PD patients (aged 49-78) were examined. The duration of illness was 12 to 132 months for CVD patients and 1 to 211 months for PD patients. Seventy healthy old subjects (aged 48-80) also served as normal controls. Self-esteem was scored with Rosenberg's scale. Activity of dai...

  19. The Examination of Effect on Anthropometric Characteristics and Motor Activities of Infrastructure Training at Volleyball

    Özgür DİNÇER


    Full Text Available Purpose: The examination of changes at some anthropometric characteristics and motor activities of volleyball players placing 10 - 12 age categories by infrastructure trainings performed periodically. Method: The twenty - nine soccer players from soccer school of Ordu Telekom Sport Club at Altınordu district of Ordu province join ed to this study. The volleyball player s performed trainings half - weekly throughout thirty - sixweek. Pre - test and post - test values of height, weight, triceps, suprailiac, subscapula and abdomen fat, biceps flexion and extension, chest, abdomen, hip, thigh and calf circumstance, upper extremity, upperarm, forearm, inferior extremity, thigh and leg length were measured by anthropometric measure set and fat percentage of body (BF% and body mass index (BMI were calculated by Yuhaz formula. The 20 m. sprint, ball throwing, standing long and vertical jump and flexibility tests were done as motor activity tests by Newtest test system. The difference between pre - test and post - test values was determined by Wilcoxon test at SPSS package programme. Results: The significant differences between pre - test and post - test, biceps flex, biceps ext, chest, abdomen, leg, hip and calf circumstance, inferior extremity and leg length, fat percentage of body (BF%, body mass index (BMI, vertical jump, horizontal jump, 20 m. sprint, flexibility and ball throwing values w ere determined (p<0.05. Conclusion: It was determined that volleyball infrastructure trainings performed periodically at children volleyball players placing at 10 - 12 age categories developed anthropometric characteristics, basic motor activity and performance values of the m .

  20. Predicting flow at work: investigating the activities and job characteristics that predict flow states at work.

    Nielsen, Karina; Cleal, Bryan


    Flow (a state of consciousness where people become totally immersed in an activity and enjoy it intensely) has been identified as a desirable state with positive effects for employee well-being and innovation at work. Flow has been studied using both questionnaires and Experience Sampling Method (ESM). In this study, we used a newly developed 9-item flow scale in an ESM study combined with a questionnaire to examine the predictors of flow at two levels: the activities (brainstorming, planning, problem solving and evaluation) associated with transient flow states and the more stable job characteristics (role clarity, influence and cognitive demands). Participants were 58 line managers from two companies in Denmark; a private accountancy firm and a public elder care organization. We found that line managers in elder care experienced flow more often than accountancy line managers, and activities such as planning, problem solving, and evaluation predicted transient flow states. The more stable job characteristics included in this study were not, however, found to predict flow at work.

  1. Circadian characteristics of spontaneous physical activity and body temperature in narcoleptic patients

    Xing XU


    Full Text Available Objective To assess circadian characteristics of spontaneous physical activity and deep body temperature in narcoleptic patients.  Methods Fourteen narcoleptic patients and 14 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects were enrolled. Nocturnal polysomnography (PSG was recorded, followed by standard multiple sleep latency test (MSLT. Then all subjects were required to wear the actigraphy (actiwatch at home with continuous monitoring of spontaneous physical activity for 1-2 weeks and complete the daily sleep record. All subjects' deep body temperatures were measured at 20 time points.  Results In comparison with control subjects, PSG data suggested narcoleptic patients had significantly longer time in bed at night (P = 0.008, decreased sleep efficiency (P = 0.001, increased awakenings (P = 0.000, extended wake time after sleep onset (P = 0.000 and sleep onset rapid eye movement period (SOREMP, P = 0.002. MSLT data suggested decreased average sleep latency (P = 0.000 and increased SOREMPs (P = 0.000. Actigraphy data suggested increased nocturnal activity and nocturnal activity per hour (P = 0.000, for all, decreased daytime activity and daytime activity per hour (P = 0.000, for all and increased nocturnal activity per hour/daytime activity per hour (P = 0.000, for all. The deep body temperature in both groups showed significant circadian rhythms. The differences in mesor, amplitude and peak phase of deep body temperature between 2 groups had no statistical significance (P = 0.177, 0.730, 0.488.  Conclusions Narcoleptic patients are characterized by impaired circadian rhythm of sleep-wake and spontaneous physical activity. The limited effects on deep body temperature suggest the relative conservation of thermoregulation in narcolepsy. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.07.010

  2. The characteristics of urine protein excretion in diabetic foot disease and the association with infection



    Objective To determine the characteristics of urine protein excretion in patients with diabetic foot and to analyze the changes associated with severity of infection. Methods We analyzed the profiles of 174 consecutive patients with diabetic foot,including physiological and biochemical indices and

  3. Effect of Activation Temperature and Heating Duration on Physical Characteristics of Activated Carbon Prepared from Agriculture Waste

    Tham Yee Jun


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the physical characteristics of activated carbon prepared from durian shell in varied heating durations from 10 min to 30 min and activation temperatures of 400C and 500C. Durian shells have been characterized in term of ultimate and proximate analysis, chemical composition and thermal behaviour with a view to be used as activated carbon precursor. Durian shell activated carbon was prepared by impregnating 10g of sample in 10% (v/v concentration of phosphoric acid for 24 h, followed by carbonization at 400C and 500C with different heating durations under nitrogen atmosphere. The results showed that various treatment conditions affect the percentage of yield, BET surface area, micropore volume, and average pore diameter. The highest surface area (SBET 1024 m2/g was obtained at 500C and 20 min of heating duration with 63% of yield and 0.21 cm3/g micropore volume.

  4. Clinical characteristics of Parkinson's disease among Jewish Ethnic groups in Israel.

    Djaldetti, R; Hassin-Baer, S; Farrer, M J; Vilariño-Güell, C; Ross, O A; Kolianov, V; Yust-Katz, S; Treves, T A; Barhum, Y; Hulihan, M; Melamed, E


    Yemenite Jews in Israel are a distinctive ethnic division of the Jewish diaspora. Clinical findings, disease course and genetic tests for the LRRK2 6055G > A (G2019S) mutation were compared between Ashkenazi and Yemenite Israeli patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Age of onset was significantly younger in the Yemenites (P Jewish ethnic groups in the severity and progression of PD, but not in clinical symptoms. The high frequency of Lrrk2 G2019S in the Ashkenazi and its absence in the Yemenite Jews suggests a specific ancestral pattern of inheritance in Ashkenazi Jews.

  5. Backscattering characteristics Analyses of winter wheat covered area and Drought Monitoring Based on active microwave

    Zhang, C., Sr.; Li, L.


    The advantage of active microwave remote sensing on the sensitivity of polarization characteristic, backscatter intensity and phase characteristics to soil moisture demonstrates its potential to map and monitor relative soil moisture changes and drought information with high spatial resolution. However, the existence of soil surface condition and vegetation effects confounds the retrieval of soil moisture from active microwave, and therefore limits its applications on soil moisture retrieval and drought monitoring. To research how to reduce the effect of soil roughness and wheat cover with multi- incident angles and multi polarization active microwave remote sensing data, MIMICS and AIEM models were used to simulate the backscattering coefficient of winter wheat covered field. The interaction between winter wheat at main growth stages and microwave was analyzed. The effects of surface roughness and physical parameters of wheat on the backscattering characteristics and the variation of different incident angles and different polarization conditions are simulated and analyzed emphatically. Then scattering coefficient information of winter wheat covered area at different wheat growth stage was measured with a C band ground-based scattering meter. At the same time, biomass, leaf area index and soil rough degree, soil water content and other related parameters are collected. After comparing and analyzing the measured data and the simulated data at different incident angles and different polarization modes, we propose an approach of using multi polarization and multi angle data to eliminate the soil roughness and wheat vegetation effects and performing the inversion of soil moisture. Using the Radarsat2 satellite SAR data and ground-based scatter data gotten at the same period in 2012, soil moisture information of greater area is obtained, and then the drought information is obtained, which is consistent with the measured results.

  6. Analysis of Handling Qualities Design Criteria for Active Inceptor Force-Feel Characteristics

    Malpica, Carlos A.; Lusardi, Jeff A.


    The force-feel system characteristics of the cyclic inceptors of most helicopters are set based on the characteristics of the mechanical components in the control system (mass, springs, friction dampers, etc.). For these helicopters, the force-feel characteristics typically remain constant over the entire flight envelope, with perhaps a trim release to minimize control forces while maneuvering. With the advent of fly-by-wire control systems and active inceptors in helicopters, the force-feel characteristics are now determined by the closed-loop response of the active inceptor itself as defined by the inertia, force/displacement gradient, damping, breakout force and detent shape configuration parameters in the inceptor control laws. These systems give the flexibility to dynamically prescribe different feel characteristics for different control modes or flight conditions, and the ability to provide tactile cueing to the pilot through the actively controlled side-stick or center-stick cyclic inceptor. For rotorcraft, a few studies have been conducted to assess the effects of cyclic force-feel characteristics on handling qualities in flight. An early study provided valuable insight into the static force-deflection characteristics (force gradient) and the number of axes controlled by the side-stick controller for the U.S. Army's Advanced Digital/Optical Control System (ADOCS) demonstrator aircraft [1]. The first of a series of studies providing insight on the inceptor dynamic force-feel characteristics was conducted on the NASA/Army CH-47B variable-stability helicopter [2]. This work led to a proposed requirement that set boundaries based on the cyclic natural frequency and inertia, with the stipulation of a lower damping ratio limit of 0.3 [3]. A second study was conducted by the Canadian Institute for Aerospace Research using their variable-stability Bell 205A helicopter [4]. This research suggested boundaries for stick dynamics based on natural frequency and damping

  7. Interplay between patient global assessment, pain, and fatigue and influence of other clinical disease activity measures in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis

    Egsmose, Emilie Lund; Madsen, Ole Rintek


    analog scales (VAS) in the daily clinic by patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Associations with other measures of disease activity were also examined. Traditional disease activity data on 221 RA patients with active disease planned to initiate biological treatment were extracted from...

  8. Nutritional Strategies in the Management of Adult Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Dietary Considerations from Active Disease to Disease Remission.

    Nguyen, Douglas L; Limketkai, Berkeley; Medici, Valentina; Saire Mendoza, Mardeli; Palmer, Lena; Bechtold, Matthew


    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic, lifelong, and relapsing illnesses, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, which involve the gastrointestinal tract. There is no cure for these diseases, but combined pharmacological and nutritional therapy can induce remission and maintain clinical remission. Malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies among IBD patients result in poor clinical outcomes such as growth failure, reduced response to pharmacotherapy, increased risk for sepsis, and mortality. The aim of this review is to highlight the consequences of malnutrition in the management of IBD and describe nutritional interventions to facilitate induction of remission as well as maintenance; we will also discuss alternative delivery methods to improve nutritional status preoperatively.


    K. B. Muravlyova


    Full Text Available With the aim to identify the effects of menstrual cycle phase on the alpha EEG characteristics the 78 women aged 18–27 years were studied in a within-subject design Half the subjects began investigation at their follicular phase and half at their luteal phase (LP. The alpha peak frequency, alpha band width and power inalpha-2 range are highest, but power in alpha 1 and activation are lowest in LP that is associated with the highest saliva progesterone level.

  10. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment responsiveness depends on the degree of CD8+ T cell activation in Kawasaki disease.

    Ye, Qing; Gong, Fang-Qi; Shang, Shi-Qiang; Hu, Jian


    Kawasaki disease (KD) has become the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children and is also a risk factor for ischemic heart disease in adults. However, Kawasaki disease lacks specific laboratory diagnostic indices. Thus, this study analyzed the T cell activation profiles of Kawasaki disease and assessed their value in the diagnosis of Kawasaki disease and the prediction of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) sensitivity. We analyzed human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR), CD69 and CD25 expression on peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells during the acute phase of KD. We compared the percentages of HLA-DR+/CD69+/CD25+ T cells in the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations of IVIG-effective and IVIG-resistant groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to assess the diagnostic value of the above parameters. The median percentage of CD8+HLA-DR+ T cells and the median ratio of CD8+HLA-DR+ T cells/CD8+CD25+ T cells were significantly elevated in the patient group compared with those in the control group during the acute phase of KD. Regarding the diagnosis of Kawasaki disease, the area under the ROC curve was 0.939 for the percentage of CD8+HLA-DR+ T cells. There was a significant difference in the ratio of CD8+HLA-DR+ T cells/CD8+CD69+ T cells between IVIG-resistant patients and IVIG-sensitive patients. Regarding IVIG sensitivity, the area under the ROC curve was 0.795 for it. Excessive CD8+ T cell activation, as well as an imbalance between CD8+ T cell activation and inhibition, underlies the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease. The percentage of CD8+ HLA-DR+ T cells may be used as an index to diagnose Kawasaki disease. IVIG inhibits CD8+ T cell activation, but excessive CD8+ T cell activation may cause IVIG resistance. The ratio of CD8+HLA-DR+ T cells/CD8+CD69+ T cells may be used as a predictor of IVIG sensitivity.

  11. Adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the cervix — clinical and prognostic characteristics of the disease

    E. K. Tanriverdieva


    Full Text Available Adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare form of cancer of the cervix. Because of the small number of observations adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the cervix remains poorly understood disease, although the first mention of it dates back to 1956, when A. Glucksmann, and C.D. Cherry first described of mixed carcinoma (adenoacanthoma of the uterine cervix.

  12. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic characteristics of the diseased canine prostate gland.

    Troisi, Alessandro; Orlandi, Riccardo; Bargellini, Paolo; Menchetti, Laura; Borges, Paulo; Zelli, Riccardo; Polisca, Angela


    The work was carried out on a total of 26 male dogs that on the basis of clinical examination, prostate ultrasound and prostate biopsy, were divided prospectively into four groups: (1) normal dogs (control group; n = 8); (2) dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia (group BPH; n = 8); (3) dogs suffering from prostatitis (group prostatitis; n = 4); (4) dogs with prostatic tumors (group tumors; n = 6). The examination of the prostate by means of contrast medium and dedicated ultrasound system allowed a detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis of prostatic vessels in normal and diseased conditions, enabling the detection and characterization of different disease states, and quantification of parameters such as peak intensity of perfusion (%), arrival time of the contrast medium to its maximum value of video intensity (time to peak [TTP; seconds]), regional blood volume, regional blood flow, and mean transit time (MTT [seconds]). The hemodynamic indices TTP (P architecture between BPH, prostatitis, adenocarcinoma, and lymphoma. This study shows how contrast-enhanced ultrasound represents a valid and noninvasive method for highlighting and characterizing prostatic vasculature. Furthermore, it allows the operator to obtain qualitative and quantitative data that are useful for the diagnosis of selected prostatic diseases. In conclusion, contrast-enhanced ultrasound can be a valuable noninvasive diagnostic tool to improve the diagnostic accuracy of prostate diseases in the dog.

  13. Prevalence and characteristics of patients with resistant hypertension and chronic kidney disease.

    Verdalles, Úrsula; Goicoechea, Marian; Garcia de Vinuesa, Soledad; Quiroga, Borja; Galan, Isabel; Verde, Eduardo; Perez de Jose, Ana; Luño, José

    Resistant hypertension (RH) is a common problem in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and increased albuminuria are associated with RH; however, there are few published studies about the prevalence of this entity in patients with CKD.

  14. Characteristics of the Cochlear Symptoms and Functions in Meniere′s Disease

    Yi Zhang


    Conclusions: Patients with definite Meniere′s disease always have a moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss before diagnosis. Cochlear symptoms are the most common initial presentation. With the progression of the duration, the hearing impairment becomes more severe and the distribution of the audiometric pattern is distinctive between stages.

  15. Clinical characteristics and risk factors of pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic respiratory diseases: a retrospective study

    Chen, Yonghua; Liu, Chunli; Lu, Wenju; Li, Mengxi; Hadadi, Cyrus; Wang, Elizabeth Wenqian; Yang, Kai; Lai, Ning; Huang, Junyi; Li, Shiyue; Zhong, Nanshan


    Background Chronic respiratory disease-associated pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an important subtype of PH, which lacks clinical epidemiological data in China. Methods Six hundred and ninety three patients hospitalized from 2010 to 2013 were classified by echocardiography according to pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP): mild (36≤ PASP 20 mm) were associated with moderate-to-severe PH, while RV [odds ratio (OR) =3.53, 95% CI, 2.17–5.74], NT-proBNP (OR=2.44, 95% CI, 1.51–3.95), HCT (OR=1.03, 95% CI, 1.00–1.07) and PaCO2 (OR=1.01, 95% CI, 1.00–1.03) were independent risk factors. Conclusions PH related to respiratory diseases is mostly mild to moderate, and the severity is associated with the category of respiratory disease. Increased HCT can be an independent risk factor for PH related to chronic respiratory diseases. PMID:27076929

  16. Liver transplantation in transthyretin amyloidosis: Characteristics and management related to kidney disease.

    Rocha, Ana; Lobato, Luísa


    Orthotopic liver transplantation (LT) was implemented as the inaugural disease-modifying therapy for hereditary transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis, a systemic amyloidosis mainly affecting the peripheral nervous system and heart. The first approach to pharmacologic therapy was focused on the stabilization of the TTR tetramer; following that new advent LT was assumed as the second step of treatment, for those patients whose neuropathy becomes worse after a course of pharmacologic therapy. The renal disease has been ignored in hereditary ATTR amyloidosis. The low level of proteinuria or slight renal impairment does not suppose such a heavy glomerular and vascular amyloid deposition. Moreover, severity of renal deposits does not consistently parallel that of myelinated nerve fiber loss. These are pitfalls that limit the success of LT and suggest troublesome criteria for pharmacological therapy or LT. An algorithm of evaluation concerning renal disease and treatment options is presented and some bridges-to-decision are exposed. In stage 4 or 5 kidney disease, the approach remains to deliver combined or sequential liver-kidney transplantation in eligible patients. However, in the majority, hemodialysis is the only option even in the presence of a well-functioning liver graft. In this review, we highlight useful information to aid the transplant hepatologist in the clinical practice.

  17. Occupational characteristics of cases with asbestos-related diseases in The Netherlands

    A. Burdorf (Alex); M. Dahhan; P. Swuste (Paul)


    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To describe the occupational background of cases with an asbestos-related disease and to present overall mesothelioma risks across industries with historical exposure to asbestos. METHODS: For the period 1990-2000, cases were collected from records held by tw

  18. Prefrontal cortex and striatal activation by feedback in Parkinson's disease

    Keitz, Martijn; Koerts, Janneke; Kortekaas, Rudie; Renken, Remco; de Jong, Bauke M.; Leenders, Klaus L.


    Positive feedbacks reinforce goal-directed behavior and evoke pleasure. in Parkinson's disease (PD) the striatal dysfunction impairs motor performance, but also may lead to decreased positive feedback (reward) processing. This study investigates two types of positive feedback processing (monetary fe

  19. Integrin activation as an alternative treatment approach for inflammatory diseases

    Vincent Kam Wai WONG; Liang LIU


    Regulation of immune responses is a complex process that involves many signaling molecules in their specific interactions and interplays.For instance,the leukocytic integrin CD11b/CD18 plays a crucial role in leukocyte infiltration,which is commonly found in most inflammatory diseases.

  20. The behavior and pathological changes characteristic to Alzheimer's disease produced by higher concentration zinc in cerebrospinal fluid

    Li Lin; Wu Jianliang Jin Zhang Zhihua; Hao JunWei; Cheng Yanqiu


    The aim of this work was to estimate the behavior and pathological changes characteristic to Alzheimer' s disease(AD)inducedby local higher concentration of zinc in brain in rats. ZnC12 was infused into cerebral ventricle. Behavioral tests were performed in the Morris Wa-ter Maze( MWM). The apoptotic cells were tested by flow cytometry. Immuncytochemical staining was used to show expression of beta - amyloidprotein( Aβ). Pathological changes at cellular level were examined under transmission electron microscope(TEM). There was significant behaviordamage in zinc treated animals. There were more apoptosis in zinc treated animals. Fawn - coloured products of Aβwere interspersedly distributedin extensive areas of cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Karyolysis, and derangement of microtubules was seen in zinc treated animals. Researchdevelopments led to the conclusion that local higher concentration of zinc in brain will result in intelligence and pathology characteristic to AD.

  1. Association of changes in health-related quality of life in coronary heart disease with coronary procedures and sociodemographic characteristics

    Rollag Arnfinn


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the association between the sociodemographic characteristics of a patient with the change in health-related quality of life (HRQOL following invasive coronary procedures, and the results remain inconclusive. The objective of the present study was to measure the temporal changes in HRQOL of patients with coronary heart disease, and assess how these changes are associated with invasive coronary procedures and sociodemographic characteristics. Methods This was a prospective study of 254 patients with angina pectoris and 90 patients with acute coronary syndrome. HRQOL was assessed with the multi-item scales and summary components of the SF-36, both 6 weeks and 2 years after baseline hospitalization in 1998. Paired t-tests and multiple regression analyses were used to assess temporal changes in HRQOL and to identify the associated factors. Results Physical components of HRQOL had improved most during the 2 years following invasive coronary procedures. Our findings indicated that patients with angina pectoris who were younger, male, and more educated were most likely to increase their HRQOL following invasive coronary procedures. When adjusting for baseline HRQOL scores, invasive coronary procedures and sociodemographic characteristics did not explain temporal changes in patients with acute coronary syndrome, possibly due to higher comorbidity. Conclusion Sociodemographic characteristics should be taken into account when comparing and interpreting changes in HRQOL scores in patients with and without invasive coronary procedures.

  2. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: Study of clinical characteristics in an Indian population

    Sanjay Vikrant


    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is the most common hereditary form of kidney disease. Clinical data on this multisystem disorder are scarce from developing countries. We conducted a prospective observational study of the clinical profile of ADPKD patients at a single center over a period of six years. A total of 208 patients were studied. Majority were male (60.6% and the mean age was 45.8 ± 14.5 years. About 61.5% had early stage (Stages 1-3 of chronic kidney disease (CKD and 38.5% had advanced CKD (Stages 4 and 5. Clinical features observed included pain abdomen (46.2%, nocturia (65.9%, hematuria (21.6%, nephrolithiasis (38.9%, urinary tract infection (UTI (38.9%, hypertension (69.5%, and raised serum creatinine (54.3%. The prevalence of nocturia, hypertension, and renal dysfunction showed a significant increase with age (P = 0.001. Extrarenal manifestations were polycystic liver disease in 77 patients (37%, cysts in pancreas in two (1%, and stroke in three (1.5% (hemorrhage in 2 and infarct in 1. There was significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (P = 0.027 and nephrolithiasis (P = 0.044 in males compared to females. Ninety-two patients (44.2% had a positive family history for ADPKD. Fifteen (7.2% had kidney failure at the diagnosis of ADPKD, were hospitalized, and underwent emergency dialysis. A total of 20 patients (9.6% developed end-stage kidney disease during the study period. The age at diagnosis was higher, and there was a high prevalence of hypertension, nocturia, abdominal pain, nephrolithiasis, UTI, and renal dysfunction in Indian ADPKD patients.

  3. Biological characteristics of brain natriuretic peptide and its association with central nervous system diseases

    Yubao Huang; Changxiang Yan; Chunjiang Yu


    OBJECTIVE: To explain the mechanisms of tuhe synthesis, secretion and regulation of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and analyze its role in central nervous system diseases.DATA SOURCES: An online search of Pubmed was undertaken to identify articles related to BNP published in English from January 1990 to February 2007 by using the Key words of "brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), central nervous system, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), brain edema, epilepsy". Other articles were searched in China Hospital Knowledge Database (CHKD) by concrete name of journals and title of articles.STUDY SELECTION: The collected articles were primarily screened, those about BNP and its association with central nervous system diseases were selected, whereas the obviously irrelative ones excluded, and the full-texts of the other literatures were searched manually.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 96 articles were collected, 40 of them were enrolled, and the other 56 were excluded due to repetitive studies or reviews.DATA SYNTHESIS: At present, there are penetrating studies on BNP in the preclinical medicine and clinical medicine of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases, and the investigative outcomes have been gradually applied in clinical practice, and satisfactory results have been obtained. However, the application of BNP in diagnosing and treating central nervous system diseases is still at the experimental phase without -outstanding outcomes, thus the preclinical and clinical studies should be enhanced.CONCLUSION: As a kind of central medium or modulator, BNP plays a certain role in the occurrence,development and termination of central nervous system diseases, the BNP level in serum has certain changing law in AH,brainedema,epilepsy,etc., but the specific mechanisms are unclear.

  4. Determination of some physicochemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of tropical fruits from Yucatan, Mexico.

    Moo-Huchin, Víctor M; Estrada-Mota, Iván; Estrada-León, Raciel; Cuevas-Glory, Luis; Ortiz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Vargas y Vargas, María de Lourdes; Betancur-Ancona, David; Sauri-Duch, Enrique


    The aim to the study was to determine the physicochemical composition, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of fruits from Yucatan, Mexico such as star apple, cashew, mombin, mamey sapote, white sapote, sugar apple, sapodilla, dragon fruit, nance, ilama, custard apple, mamoncillo and black sapote. The physicochemical characteristics were different between fruits and were good sources of bioactive compounds. The edible part with the highest values of antioxidant activity were mamoncillo, star apple, mombin, cashew, white sapote, ilama, custard apple, sugar apple, and nance. Total soluble phenols content showed a correlation with antioxidant activity by ABTS (R=0.52, P⩽0.05) and DPPH (R=0.43, P⩽0.05). A high correlation was obtained between the two assays (ABTS and DPPH) used to measure antioxidant activity in the tropical fruit species under study (R=0.82, P⩽0.05). The results show promising perspectives for the exploitation and use of tropical fruits studied with significant levels of nutrients and antioxidant activity.

  5. Effects of Surface Treatment of Activated Carbon on Its Surface and Cr(VI) Adsorption Characteristics

    Park, Soo Jin; Jang, Yu Sin [Advanced Materials Division., Korea Research Institute of Chimical Technology, Taejon (Korea)


    In this work, the effect of surface treatments on activated carbons (ACs) has been studied in the context of gas and liquid adsorption behaviors. The chemical solutions used in this experiment were 35% sodium hydroxide, and these were used for the acidic and basic treatments, respectively. The surface properties have been determined by pH, acid-base values, and FT-IR. The adsorption isotherms of Cr(VI) ion on activated carbons have been studied with the 5 mg/l concentration at ambient temperature. N{sub 2} adsorption isotherm characteristics, which include the specific surface area, micro pore volume, and microporosity, were determined by BET and Boer's-plot methods. In case of the acidic treatment of activated carbons, it was observed that the adsorption of Cr(VI) ion was more effective due to the increase acid value (or acidic functional group) of activated carbon surfaces. However, the basic treatment on activated carbons was caused no significant effects, probably due to the decreased specific surface area and total pore volume. 27 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. A study of amplitude information-frequency characteristics for underwater active electrolocation system.

    Peng, Jiegang


    Weakly electric fish sense their surroundings in complete darkness by their active electrolocation system. For biologists, the active electrolocation system has been investigated for near 60 years. And for engineers, bio-inspired active electrolocation sensor has been investigated for about 20 years. But how the amplitude information response will be affected by frequencies of detecting electric fields in the active electrolocation system was rarely investigated. In this paper, an electrolocation experiment system has been built. The amplitude information-frequency characteristics (AIFC) of the electrolocation system for sinusoidal electric fields of varying frequencies have been investigated. We find that AIFC of the electrolocation system have relevance to the material properties and geometric features of the probed object and conductivity of surrounding water. Detect frequency dead zone (DFDZ) and frequency inflection point (FIP) of AIFC for the electrolocation system were found. The analysis model of the electrolocation system has been investigated for many years, but DFDZ and FIP of AIFC can be difficult to explain by those models. In order to explain those AIFC phenomena for the electrolocation system, a simple relaxation model based on Cole-Cole model which is not only a mathematical explanation but it is a physical one for the electrolocation system was advanced. We also advance a hypothesis for physical mechanism of weakly electrical fish electrolocation system. It may have reference value for physical mechanism of weakly electrical fish active electrolocation system.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of the small bowel in children with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease: evaluation of disease activity

    Alexopoulou, Efthymia; Loggitsi, Dimitra; Economopoulos, Nikos; Papakonstantinou, Olympia; Kelekis, Nikolaos L. [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, General University Hospital, Second Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Roma, Eleftheria; Panagiotou, Ioanna; Pahoula, Ioanna [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Aghia Sofia Children' s Hospital, First Department of Paediatrics, Athens (Greece)


    Examinations using ionizing radiation are frequently used in the evaluation of disease activity in children affected by idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To develop an MR imaging protocol without the need for fluoroscopic insertion of an enteral tube and to assess the disease activity in children with IBD. Included in the study were 37 children (22 girls and 15 boys; age range 7-15 years, mean 11.67 years) with IBD who underwent MR imaging of the small bowel. Of these 37 children, 32 had Crohn disease and 5 had indeterminate colitis. A water solution containing herbal fibres was administered orally or through a nasogastric tube. Patients were imaged on a 1.5-T MR scanner with T1-weighted and {tau}2-weighted sequences followed by a dynamic study using 3-D T1-W images after intravenous administration of gadolinium. The percentage enhancement of the bowel wall was significantly increased in patients with abnormal C-reactive protein (CRP) values compared to patients with CRP values in the normal range (P<0.001). A relatively weak but significant correlation between percentage enhancement of the bowel wall and CRP values was noted during all phases of enhancement. This MR imaging protocol is a safe and well-tolerated method for evaluating disease activity and extraintestinal manifestations of IBD in children. (orig.)

  8. An early and late peak in microglial activation in Alzheimer's disease trajectory.

    Fan, Zhen; Brooks, David J; Okello, Aren; Edison, Paul


    Amyloid-β deposition, neuroinflammation and tau tangle formation all play a significant role in Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that there is microglial activation early on in Alzheimer's disease trajectory, where in the initial phase, microglia may be trying to repair the damage, while later on in the disease these microglia could be ineffective and produce proinflammatory cytokines leading to progressive neuronal damage. In this longitudinal study, we have evaluated the temporal profile of microglial activation and its relationship between fibrillar amyloid load at baseline and follow-up in subjects with mild cognitive impairment, and this was compared with subjects with Alzheimer's disease. Thirty subjects (eight mild cognitive impairment, eight Alzheimer's disease and 14 controls) aged between 54 and 77 years underwent (11)C-(R)PK11195, (11)C-PIB positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans. Patients were followed-up after 14 ± 4 months. Region of interest and Statistical Parametric Mapping analysis were used to determine longitudinal alterations. Single subject analysis was performed to evaluate the individualized pathological changes over time. Correlations between levels of microglial activation and amyloid deposition at a voxel level were assessed using Biological Parametric Mapping. We demonstrated that both baseline and follow-up microglial activation in the mild cognitive impairment cohort compared to controls were increased by 41% and 21%, respectively. There was a longitudinal reduction of 18% in microglial activation in mild cognitive impairment cohort over 14 months, which was associated with a mild elevation in fibrillar amyloid load. Cortical clusters of microglial activation and amyloid deposition spatially overlapped in the subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Baseline microglial activation was increased by 36% in Alzheimer's disease subjects compared with controls. Longitudinally, Alzheimer's disease subjects

  9. Immunoglobulin G4 -related kidney disease: A comprehensive pictorial review of the imaging spectrum, Mimickers, and clinicopathological characteristics

    Seo, Ni Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Byun, Jae Ho; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Moon Gyu [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related kidney disease (IgG4-KD) has recently been demonstrated to be an important part of IgG4-related sclerosing disease (IgG4-SD). However, since IgG4-KD is still relatively unfamiliar to radiologists and physicians as compared to IgG4-SD involving other organs, it could, therefore, be easily missed. In this article, we present a comprehensive pictorial review of IgG4-KD with regards to the imaging spectrum, mimickers, and clinicopathologic characteristics, based on our clinical experience with 48 patients during the past 13 years, as well as a literature review. Awareness of the broad imaging spectrum of IgG4-KD and differential diagnosis from its mimickers will thus facilitate its early diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Distinct inflammatory and cytopathic characteristics of Escherichia coli isolates from inflammatory bowel disease patients

    Jensen, Stina Rikke; Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Hengameh Chloé; Thysen, Anna Hammerich;


    other in their ability to promote intestinal inflammation. Herein we compared the inflammation-inducing properties of non-diarrheagenic LF82, 691-04A, E. coli Nissle 1917 (ECN) and eleven new intestinal isolates from different locations in five IBD patients and one healthy control. Viable E. coli were...... intestinal inflammation, while LF82, ECN and the remaining non-diarrheagenic E. coli isolates hold notorious pro-inflammatory characteristics that can progress inflammation in case of intestinal barrier leakage....

  11. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Juice

    Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun


    We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste (P<0.05). Aronia juice may be a useful additive for improving the taste and antioxidant potential of yogurt. PMID:28078255

  12. Carbonation Characteristics of Alkali-Activated Blast-Furnace Slag Mortar

    Keum-Il Song


    Full Text Available Alkali-activated ground granulated blast-slag (AAS is the most obvious alternative material for ordinary Portland cement (OPC. However, to use it as a structural material requires the assessment and verification of its durability. The most important factor for a durability evaluation is the degree of carbonation resistance, and AAS is known to show lower performance than OPC. A series of experiments was conducted with a view to investigate the carbonation characteristics of AAS binder. As a consequence, it was found that the major hydration product of AAS was calcium silicate hydrate (CSH, with almost no portlandite, unlike the products of OPC. After carbonation, the CSH of AAS turned into amorphous silica gel which was most likely why the compressive strength of AAS became weaker after carbonation. An increase of the activator dosage leads AAS to react more quickly and produce more CSH, increasing the compaction, compressive strength, and carbonation resistance of the microstructure.

  13. Correlation Fractal and Multifractal Characteristics of Seismic Activity in the Taiwan Area, China

    XU Jiandong; HUANG Jianfa; WEI Fuquan; YAN Yunpeng; LI Yaping; LIN Chien-te


    Based on the analysis of newly collected data of plate tectonics, distribution of active faults and crustal deformation, the Taiwan area is divided into two seismic regions and six seismic belts. Then, correlation fractal dimensions of all the regions and belts are calculated, and the fractal characteristics of hypocenteral distribution can be quantitatively analyzed. Finally, multifractal dimensions Dq andf(α) are calculated by using the earthquake catalog of the past 11 years in the Taiwan area. This study indicates that (1) there exists a favorable corresponding relationship between spatial images of seismic activity described with correlation fractal dimension analysis and tectonic settings; (2) the temporal structure of earthquakes is not single but multifractal fractal, and the pattem of Dq variation with time is a good indicator for predicting strong earthquake events.

  14. Heating effects on physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull oil (Linum usitatissimum L

    Wahid HERCHI


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of heating on some quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull oil. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and Cox value decreased during heating. Heating process led to considerable increase in saponification value (SV, peroxide value (PV, p-anisidine value (p-AnV, oxidative value (OV and specific extinction at 232 and 270 nm. There was a significant decrease in oil stability during heating process (1.4-1.0 h. Fuel properties of flaxseed hull oil were also changed after heating treatment. Heating process caused loss of total phenolic acids, total flavanoids, carotenoids and chlorophyll pigments. Phospholipids (PL content were less changed compared to other bioactive compounds. Antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull oil decreased during heating process.

  15. Neutron activation analysis of the central nervous system tissues in neurological diseases

    Yasui, Masayuki; Ota, Kiichiro [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan); Sasajima, Kazuhisa


    As the diseases due to excessive metals in living bodies and the metals of their causes, Minamata disease due to Hg, itai-itai disease due to Cd, dialysis brain disease due to Al, hemochromatosis due to Fe, Wilson disease due to Cu and so on have been known. Also as the neural diseases, in which the possibility that metals take part in them is presumed, there are amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, Parkinsonism dementia and so on. In order to know the causes of the diseases due to excessive metals in living bodies and neurological diseases, the authors have measured Cu, Ca, Al, Mn, Zn and Fe in central nervous system tissues by activation analysis nondestructive method. The cases investigated were 4 cases of hepatocerebral diseases, 6 cases of ALS, 4 cases of Parkinson disease, 4 cases of Parkinsonism dementia, 4 cases of multiple sclerosis and 5 cases without CNS disease for the control. The method of measurement is described. The results for respective diseases are reported. Cu and Fe are in the relation of mirror images, and Cu formed Cu-superoxide dismutase (SOD) similarly to Zn and Mn as SOD carrier metals, and protects living bodies and CNS from oxidative stress. (K.I.).

  16. Analysis of cat oocyte activation methods for the generation of feline disease models by nuclear transfer

    Herrick Jason R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic cell nuclear transfer in cats offers a useful tool for the generation of valuable research models. However, low birth rates after nuclear transfer hamper exploitation of the full potential of the technology. Poor embryo development after activation of the reconstructed oocytes seems to be responsible, at least in part, for the low efficiency. The objective of this study was to characterize the response of cat oocytes to various stimuli in order to fine-tune existing and possibly develop new activation methods for the generation of cat disease models by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Methods First, changes in the intracellular free calcium concentration [Ca2+]i in the oocytes induced by a number of artificial stimuli were characterized. The stimuli included electroporation, ethanol, ionomycin, thimerosal, strontium-chloride and sodium (Na+-free medium. The potential of the most promising treatments (with or without subsequent incubation in the presence of cycloheximide and cytochalasin B to stimulate oocyte activation and support development of the resultant parthenogenetic embryos was then evaluated. Finally, the most effective methods were selected to activate oocytes reconstructed during nuclear transfer with fibroblasts from mucopolysaccharidosis I- and alpha-mannosidosis-affected cats. Results All treatments were able to elicit a [Ca2+]i elevation in the ooplasm with various characteristics. Pronuclear formation and development up to the blastocyst stage was most efficiently triggered by electroporation (60.5 +/- 2.9 and 11.5 +/- 1.7% and the combined thimerosal/DTT treatment (67.7 +/- 1.8 and 10.6 +/- 1.9%; incubation of the stimulated oocytes with cycloheximide and cytochalasin B had a positive effect on embryo development. When these two methods were used to activate oocytes reconstructed during nuclear transfer, up to 84.9% of the reconstructed oocytes cleaved. When the 2 to 4-cell embryos (a total of 220 were

  17. Perceived characteristics of the environment associated with active travel: development and testing of a new scale

    Mutrie Nanette


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental characteristics may be associated with patterns of physical activity. However, the development of instruments to measure perceived characteristics of the local environment is still at a comparatively early stage, and published instruments are not necessarily suitable for application in all settings. We therefore developed and established the test-retest reliability of a new scale for use in a study of the correlates of active travel and overall physical activity in deprived urban neighbourhoods in Glasgow, Scotland. Methods We developed and piloted a 14-item scale based on seven constructs identified from the literature (aesthetics, green space, access to amenities, convenience of routes, traffic, road safety and personal safety. We administered the scale to all participants in a random postal survey (n = 1322 and readministered the scale to a subset of original respondents (n = 125 six months later. We used principal components analysis and Varimax rotation to identify three principal components (factors and derived summary scores for subscales based on these factors. We examined the internal consistency of these subscales using Cronbach's alpha and examined the test-retest reliability of the individual items, the subscale summary scores and an overall summary neighbourhood score using a combination of correlation coefficients and Cohen's kappa with and without weighting. Results Public transport and proximity to shops were the items most likely to be rated positively, whereas traffic volume, traffic noise and road safety for cyclists were most likely to be rated negatively. Three principal components – 'safe and pleasant surroundings', 'low traffic' and 'convenience for walking' – together explained 45% of the total variance. The test-retest reliability of individual items was comparable with that of items in other published scales (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs 0.34–0.70; weighted Cohen

  18. Activity and participation characteristics of adults with learning disabilities--a systematic review.

    Kineret Sharfi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 'Learning disabilities' (LD refer to a wide group of neurological disorders caused by deficits in the central nervous system which influence the individual's ability to maintain-, process or convey information to others in an efficient way. A worldwide discussion about the definitions of LD continues while a conceptual framework for studying the diverse life outcomes of adults with LD is still missing. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to review the literature on the activity and participation of adults with LD based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF concepts. METHODS: "PsychInfo", "Eric" and "PubMed" were searched for relevant literature according to the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA. After a three-stage process, 62 articles relevant for domains of activity and participation of adults with LD were included in the review. RESULTS: Thirty-two articles focused on the domain of major life areas of education, work and employment and twelve articles focused on the domain of learning and applying knowledge. Limitations in activity and participation of the population with LD in these domains are recognized and discussed. Eighteen additional articles demonstrated that adults with LD confront difficulties in various life domains (e.g., communication, interpersonal interactions, mobility, and domestic life, however literature concerning these domains is scarce. CONCLUSIONS: The ICF can be useful for further exploration of activity and participation characteristics of adults with LD in various life domains. Such exploration is required in order to gain a wider perspective of their functional characteristics and daily needs.

  19. Physico-chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of goji fruits jam and jelly during storage

    Daniela ISTRATI


    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, when the news about antioxidants and their benefits to health has begun to spread to the general public, statements about the benefits of antioxidants ranged from preventing colds to cancer treatment. Fruits and vegetables are excellent sources of antioxidants. Since the beginning of the 21st century, goji berries have become increasingly popular in Europe and North America and have been promoted in advertisements and in the media as an anti-aging remedy. Goji is a relatively new name given to Lycium Barbarum and Lycium chinense, two nearby species, with a long history of use as medicinal and food plants in East Asia, particularly in China. In the present paper are presented analysis results of Goji fruits and food products made from goji fruits (jam and jelly. Storage conditions are important factors for jams and jelly quality. The objective of this study was to monitor the physicochemical stability, antioxidant activity and sensorial profile of goji fruits jam and jelly. Special attention was paid to total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH and sensorial characteristics. Our results showed the antioxidant activity of the goji fruit, values which correlate well with the results obtained for total phenolic (351±7.25 mg GAE/100g and flavonoid content (53.06±1.23 mg QE/100g. The antioxidant activity of the goji fruits was maintained also in the finished products obtained in the present study jam (60.98 % and jelly (41.96 %. Both goji fruits jam and goji fruits jelly showed no significant variations of physico-chemical characteristics and sensorial parameter scores after storage at refrigeration temperature for 10 days.


    Lidya Irma Momuat


    Full Text Available Sago Baruk (Arenga microcarpha is one of endemic crop type of Archipelago of Sangihe Talaud, North Sulawesi and potential as source bioactivities including antioxidant. The objectives of this research were to determine the chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of starch sago baruk which was sequentially extracted with water and filtrate. The sago trunks pith was sequentially extracted with water and filtrate at room temparature for 1 hour. After that, starch of sago baruk were analyzed for their chemical composition (moisture, fat, protein, ash crude fiber and charbohydrate and total phenolic and tannin condensed content. Antioxidant activity of each sago flour were evaluated in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and total antioxidant capacity. After that, the starch was characterized by IR spectroscopic technique. The sequential extraction result indicated percentage yield of starch I and starch II were 41.39% and 38.21%. The chemical characteristics of starch I revealed that percentage protein, ash, crude fibre and fat were below 1% than starch II especially protein and fiber crude. The starch I had highest total phenolic and tannin condensed content than starch II and starch K. The starch I also showed the highest free radical scavenging activity in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical than starch II and starch K. The result also showed that starch I has strongest total antioxidant capacity than starch II and starch K at all concentration level. Antioxidant activity of three starch increased with the increase in concentration of the samples. The three starch showed of hidroxy (OH, carbonyl (C=O, ether (C-O and aliphatic group (C-C. It is concluded that starch sago baruk especially the starch I are very rich in antioxidant substituens.

  1. Intestinal cell damage and systemic immune activation in individuals reporting sensitivity to wheat in the absence of coeliac disease

    Uhde, Melanie; Ajamian, Mary; Caio, Giacomo; De Giorgio, Roberto; Indart, Alyssa; Green, Peter H; Verna, Elizabeth C; Volta, Umberto; Alaedini, Armin


    Objective Wheat gluten and related proteins can trigger an autoimmune enteropathy, known as coeliac disease, in people with genetic susceptibility. However, some individuals experience a range of symptoms in response to wheat ingestion, without the characteristic serological or histological evidence of coeliac disease. The aetiology and mechanism of these symptoms are unknown, and no biomarkers have been identified. We aimed to determine if sensitivity to wheat in the absence of coeliac disease is associated with systemic immune activation that may be linked to an enteropathy. Design Study participants included individuals who reported symptoms in response to wheat intake and in whom coeliac disease and wheat allergy were ruled out, patients with coeliac disease and healthy controls. Sera were analysed for markers of intestinal cell damage and systemic immune response to microbial components. Results Individuals with wheat sensitivity had significantly increased serum levels of soluble CD14 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein, as well as antibody reactivity to bacterial LPS and flagellin. Circulating levels of fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2), a marker of intestinal epithelial cell damage, were significantly elevated in the affected individuals and correlated with the immune responses to microbial products. There was a significant change towards normalisation of the levels of FABP2 and immune activation markers in a subgroup of individuals with wheat sensitivity who observed a diet excluding wheat and related cereals. Conclusions These findings reveal a state of systemic immune activation in conjunction with a compromised intestinal epithelium affecting a subset of individuals who experience sensitivity to wheat in the absence of coeliac disease. PMID:27459152

  2. Adsorption characteristics of acetone, chloroform and acetonitrile on sludge-derived adsorbent, commercial granular activated carbon and activated carbon fibers.

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Huang, Guan-Yinag; Chiang, Hung-Lung


    The adsorption characteristics of chloroform, acetone, and acetonitrile on commercial activated carbon (C1), two types of activated carbon fibers (F1 and F2), and sludge adsorbent (S1) was investigated. The chloroform influent concentration ranged from 90 to 7800 ppm and the acetone concentration from 80 to 6900 ppm; the sequence of the adsorption capacity of chloroform and acetone on adsorbents was F2>F1 approximately C1 approximately S1. The adsorption capacity of acetonitrile ranged from 4 to 100 mg/g, corresponding to the influent range from 43 to 2700 ppm for C1, S1, and F1. The acetonitrile adsorption capacity of F2 was approximately 20% higher than that of the other adsorbents at temperaturescarbon fibers is higher than that of the other adsorbents due to their smaller fiber diameter and higher surface area. The micropore diffusion coefficient of VOC on activated carbon and sludge adsorbent was approximately 10(-4) cm2 s(-1). The diffusion coefficient of VOC on carbon fibers ranged from 10(-8) to 10(-7) cm2 s(-1). The small carbon fiber pore size corresponds to a smaller diffusion coefficient.

  3. [Morphological characteristics of the destructive and reparative changes in tuberculosis in those dying of nontubercular diseases].

    Zagurov, G


    The evolution of destructive and restorative alterations was morphologically followed up in 82 tuberculotics that died of non-tiberculous diseases. In the majority of the deceased, the restorative alterations were observed with manifested mesenchymal and immunologic reactions with morphological peculiarities as in the treated with anti tuberculous remedies. The destructive alteration are clearly manifested and the restorative manifestations are depressed in tuberculotics with non-treated diabetes and osteomyelitis treated with cortison. In a negligible part of the patients died of non-tuberculous diseases, a reactivation of the foci developed around the fibrocaseous lung foci, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, kidneys and suprarenals, manifested with filamented neutrophyils in the calcified and caseous matter, fresh necrosis, tubercula, specific granular tissue, friable capsule with appearance of lymphoid cells and specific granular tissue.

  4. Characteristics and trends in required home care by GPs in Austria: diseases and functional status of patients

    Pichler Ingrid


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost all societies carry responsibility towards patients who require continuous medical care at home. In many health systems the general practitioner cooperates with community based services of home care and coordinates all medical and non medical activities. In Austria the general practitioner together and in cooperation with relatives of the patient and professional organisations usually takes on this task by visiting his patients. This study was carried out to identify diseases that need home care and to describe the functional profile of home care patients in eastern Austria. Methods Cross sectional observational study with 17 GP practices participating during 2 study periods in 1997 and in 2004 in eastern Austria. Each GP identified patients requiring home care and assessed their underlying diseases and functional status by filling in a questionnaire personally after an encounter. Patients in nursing homes were excluded. Statistical tests used were t-tests, contingency tables, nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank sum test and Fisher-combination test. Results Patients with degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (65% caused by Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular occlusive disease and patients with degenerative diseases of the skeletal system (53% were the largest groups among the 198 (1997 and 261 (2004 home care cases of the 11 (1997 and 13 (2004 practices. Malignant diseases in a terminal state constituted only 5% of the cases. More than two thirds of all cases were female with an average age of 80 years. Slightly more than 70% of the patients were at least partially mobile. Conclusion Home care and home visits for patients with degenerative diseases of the central nervous and skeletal system are important elements of GP's work. Further research should therefore focus on effective methods of training and rehabilitation to better the mental and physical status of patients living in their private homes.

  5. Relationship between antibacterial activity of chitosan and surface characteristics of cell wall

    Ying-chien CHUNG; Ya-ping SU; Chiing-chang CHEN; Guang JIA; Huey-lan WANG; J C Gaston WU; Jaung-geng LIN


    AIM: Five representative waterborne pathogens were used to illustrate the relationship between chitosan's antibacterial activity and the surface characteristics of the bacterial cell wall. METHODS: Chitosan was prepared with averaged 75 % or 95 % deacetylated degree to examine its antibacterial activity against waterborne pathogens.Fresh microbial inoculants for the antibacterial assessment were prepared on nutrient agar at 37 °C for 24 h. The evaluation items of antibacterial mechanism included hydrophilicity and negative charge analysis of cell surface, and adsorptive characteristics of chitosan to bacterial cell. All the experiments were applied in triplicate tests at least.RESULTS: Although cell wall hydrophilicity was similar among Gram-negative bacteria, the distribution of negative charge on their cell surfaces was quite different. More negatively charged cell surfaces had a greater interaction with chitosan, a phenomenon further confirmed by transmission electron micrography (TEM). CONCLUSION:Results showed the hydrophilicity in Gram-negative bacteria was much higher than in Gram-positive ones. The correlation coefficient 0.988 between the amount of absorbed chitosan and its inhibition efficiency indicated a close relationship.

  6. Neurochemical and Behavioral Characteristics of Toxic Milk Mice: An Animal Model of Wilson’s Disease


    Toxic milk mice have an inherited defect of copper metabolism. Hepatic phenotype of the toxic milk mice is similar to clinical findings in humans suffering from Wilson’s disease (WND). In the present study, neurotransmitter system and locomotor performance in toxic milk mice was examined to verify the feasibility of this animal model for studying neuropathology of WND. Mice aged 2 and 12 months were used in the experiment. The mice were tested according to rotarod and footprint protocols. Mon...

  7. Characteristics of national registries for occupational diseases: international development and validation of an audit tool (ODIT

    Verbeek Jos HAM


    Full Text Available Abstract Background- The aim of the study was to develop quality indicators that can be used for quality assessment of registries of occupational diseases in relation to preventive policy on a national level. The research questions were: 1. Which indicators determine the quality of national registries of occupational diseases with respect to their ability to provide appropriate information for preventive policy? 2. What are the criteria that can distinguish low quality from high quality? Methods- First, we performed a literature search to assess which output of registries can be considered appropriate for preventive policy and to develop a set of preliminary indicators and criteria. Second, final indicators and criteria were assessed and their content validity was tested in a Delphi study, for which experts from the 25 EU Member States were invited. Results- The literature search revealed two different types of information output to be appropriate for preventive policy: monitor and alert information. For the evaluation of the quality of the monitor and alert function we developed ten indicators and criteria. Sixteen of the twenty-five experts responded in the first round of the Delphi study, and eleven in the second round. Based on their comments, we assessed the final nine indicators: the completeness of the notification form, coverage of registration, guidelines or criteria for notification, education and training of reporting physicians, completeness of registration, statistical methods used, investigation of special cases, presentation of monitor information, and presentation of alert information. Except for the indicator "coverage of registration" for the alert function, all the indicators met the preset requirements of content validity. Conclusion- We have developed quality indicators and criteria to evaluate registries for occupational diseases on the ability to provide appropriate information for preventive policy on a national level

  8. [The active search for occupational diseases in the engineering industries. Diseases associated with exposure to welding activities in optical radiation: dry eye syndrome].

    Messineo, A; Leone, M; Sanna, S; Arrigoni, E; Teodori, C; Pecorella, I; Imperatore, A; Villarini, S; Macchiaroli, S


    In the project of active research of occupational diseases was conducted a study on 45 welders in the engineering companies, with particular attention to the hazards of exposure to the optical radiation. The protocol used involved the execution of Breack Up test, Schirmer test, corneal staining and scraping cytology. It revealed that more than half of the welders had ocular lesions referable to their work activity as well as some permanent functional damages with the characters of dry eye syndrome. None of these diseases, which could alert for medical-legal and insurance, was highlighted by the occupational health physician.

  9. Clinical and genetic characteristics in patients with Huntington's disease from China.

    Yang, Jing; Chen, Ke; Wei, Qianqian; Chen, Yongping; Cao, Bei; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Shang, Hui-Fang


    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of unstable CAG repeats in the HTT gene. There are scarce data about HD in China. Fifty-eight HD patients were consecutively recruited and assessed using the Unified HD Rating Scale (UHDRS) motor section and UHDRS behaviour assessment (UHDRS-b). Genetic analyses were also conducted. Thirty-three women and Twenty -five men were diagnosed with a mean age of 46.1 ± 11.2 years and a mean number of CAG triplet repeats 44.6 ± 4.4. CAG triplet repeat number was negatively correlated with age at onset, and positively correlated with UHDRS-b total score, and its subdomains including depressed mood, low self-esteem, anxiety and irritability. On the other hand, negative correlations were identified between age at onset and UHDRS-b total score, and its subdomains include low self-esteem, anxiety, suicidal thought, irritability and apathy. Disease durations were correlated with UHDRS motor scores and anxiety domain of UHDRS-b. This is the largest series of Chinese HD patients with demographic, clinical and genetic data confirms the demographic features of Chinese HD patients are comparable to those in other ethnic backgrounds. CAG triplet repeat number may also predict the severity of behaviour problems in HD patients besides its predication for age of onset.


    A. V. Yezhov


    Full Text Available Aim. To study relationship of the clinical state and cardiac functional parameters with magnesium metabolism indices in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease (IHD.Material and methods. Patients with stable angina pectoris, II-III class (n=480 were involved into the study. Evaluation of the following items was performed: disease course, anxiodepressive syndrome intensity, exercise tolerance, blood and urine electrolyte profile, systolic and diastolic left ventricle function, endothelium-dependent and endotheliumnondependent vasodilatation, i/v magnesium load test, Holter electrocardiogram monitoring.Results. High prevalence of systemic magnesium deficiency (17.9 and 37.5% according to serum and erythrocyte levels, respectively was found in IHD patients. Severity of magnesium deficiency in IHD patients depended on duration of disease, experience of myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia seriousness, disorders of endothelium vasodilating function and left ventricle diastolic function, severity of concomitant anxiety. Exercise tests were changed in IHD patients with magnesium deficiency.Conclusion. The study data let to consider that magnesium deficiency involves into the IHD pathogenesis.

  11. 人类疾病的文化特征%Cultural characteristics of diseases



    The disease was a condition that normal functions of human being were damaged. However, the recognition of disease cannot be limited to the level of physiology and pathology. In fact, under different ages and different social background, even for a same disease, the recognition of its essence, the process, the understanding and attitude for the patient had various abundant and profound cultural representation and cultural connotation.%人类的疾病,虽然属于人体正常状态的受损,但决不能只停留在生理、病理的层面上去认识.实际上,不论是从疾病本质、疾病产生的过程,还是从人们对待病体的认识和态度来看,即使对同一种疾病,在不同的时代、不同社会背景下,对不同的人们而言,都具有各种不同的丰富而深厚的文化表征和文化内涵.

  12. Gender-specific correlations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator levels with cardiovascular disease-related traits

    Asselbergs, F. W.; Williams, S. M.; Hebert, P. R.; Coffey, C. S.; Hillege, H. L.; Navis, G.; Vaughan, D. E.; Van Gilst, W. H.; Moore, J. H.


    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the correlations between plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and cardiovascular disease-related traits in a general population and whether these correlations differed between females a

  13. Imaging Striatal Microglial Activation in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    Yuko Koshimori

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether the second-generation translocator protein 18kDa (TSPO radioligand, [18F]-FEPPA, could be used in neurodegenerative parkinsonian disorders as a biomarker for detecting neuroinflammation in the striatum. Neuroinflammation has been implicated as a potential mechanism for the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD. Positron Emission Tomography (PET radioligand targeting for TSPO allows for the quantification of neuroinflammation in vivo. Based on genotype of the rs6791 polymorphism in the TSPO gene, 16 mixed-affinity binders (MABs (8 PD and age-matched 8 healthy controls (HCs, 16 high-affinity binders (HABs (8 PD and age-matched 8 HCs and 4 low-affinity binders (LABs (3 PD and 1 HCs were identified. Total distribution volume (VT values in the striatum were derived from a two-tissue compartment model with arterial plasma as an input function. There was a significant main effect of genotype on [18F]-FEPPA VT values in the caudate nucleus (p = 0.001 and putamen (p < 0.001, but no main effect of disease or disease x genotype interaction in either ROI. In the HAB group, the percentage difference between PD and HC was 16% in both caudate nucleus and putamen; in the MAB group, it was -8% and 3%, respectively. While this PET study showed no evidence of increased striatal TSPO expression in PD patients, the current findings provide some insights on the possible interactions between rs6791 polymorphism and neuroinflammation in PD.

  14. Disparities in rheumatoid arthritis disease activity according to gross domestic product in 25 countries in the QUEST–RA database

    Sokka, T; Kautiainen, H; Pincus, T; Toloza, S; da Rocha Castelar Pinheiro, G; Lazovskis, J; Hetland, M L; Peets, T; Immonen, K; Maillefert, J F; Drosos, A A; Alten, R; Pohl, C; Rojkovich, B; Bresnihan, B; Minnock, P; Cazzato, M; Bombardieri, S; Rexhepi, S; Rexhepi, M; Andersone, D; Stropuviene, S; Huisman, M; Sierakowski, S; Karateev, D; Skakic, V; Naranjo, A; Baecklund, E; Henrohn, D; Gogus, F; Badsha, H; Mofti, A; Taylor, P; McClinton, C; Yazici, Y


    Objective: To analyse associations between the clinical status of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the gross domestic product (GDP) of their resident country. Methods: The Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (QUEST–RA) cohort includes clinical and questionnaire data from 6004 patients who were seen in usual care at 70 rheumatology clinics in 25 countries as of April 2008, including 18 European countries. Demographic variables, clinical characteristics, RA disease activity measures, including the disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28), and treatment-related variables were analysed according to GDP per capita, including 14 “high GDP” countries with GDP per capita greater than US$24 000 and 11 “low GDP” countries with GDP per capita less than US$11 000. Results: Disease activity DAS28 ranged between 3.1 and 6.0 among the 25 countries and was significantly associated with GDP (r  =  −0.78, 95% CI −0.56 to −0.90, r2  =  61%). Disease activity levels differed substantially between “high GDP” and “low GDP” countries at much greater levels than according to whether patients were currently taking or not taking methotrexate, prednisone and/or biological agents. Conclusions: The clinical status of patients with RA was correlated significantly with GDP among 25 mostly European countries according to all disease measures, associated only modestly with the current use of antirheumatic medications. The burden of arthritis appears substantially greater in “low GDP” than in “high GDP” countries. These findings may alert healthcare professionals and designers of health policy towards improving the clinical status of patients with RA in all countries. PMID:19643759

  15. Disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with end-stage renal disease: systematic review of the literature.

    Mattos, Patrícia; Santiago, Mittermayer B


    It is not unusual that patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) progress to terminal renal failure and subsequently require renal replacement therapy. Previous studies have shown that clinical and/or serological remission in patients with SLE is common in those who develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD). On the other hand, the persistence of lupus activity among patients undergoing long-term dialysis is not rare, either. The aim of this study is to define, by means of a systematic review, the course of SLE activity in patients who developed ESRD. Data were obtained through searches for articles in the MEDLINE (1966 to 2011), SCielo, and LILACS databases, using the following keywords: "chronic renal failure", "systemic lupus erythematosus", "end-stage renal disease", "lupus activity", "disease activity", "lupus flare", "hemodialysis", and "renal replacement therapy" and their corresponding translations in Portuguese. Twenty-four articles were found which evaluated the degree of lupus activity in patients with ESRD. Fifteen of these studies spoke of a substantial reduction of clinical and/or serological activity after the development of ESRD, while nine articles found that the amount of clinical and/or serological activity was similar to that of the phase prior to terminal renal failure, or it occurred in at least 50% of the patients studied. Although the majority of studies showed that lupus flares tend to decrease in frequency in patients who develop ESRD, in this scenario, one should be prepared to correctly diagnose a recurrence of the disease, as well as to perform appropriate therapy.

  16. Cardiovascular diseases in mega-countries: the challenges of the nutrition, physical activity and epidemiologic transitions, and the double burden of disease

    Barquera, Simon; Pedroza-Tobias, Andrea; Medina, Catalina


    Purpose of review There are today 11 mega-countries with more than 100 million inhabitants. Together these countries represent more than 60% of the world's population. All are facing noncommunicable chronic disease (NCD) epidemic where high cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases are becoming the main public health concerns. Most of these countries are facing the double burden of malnutrition where undernutrition and obesity coexist, increasing the complexity for policy design and implementation. The purpose of this study is to describe diverse sociodemographic characteristics of these countries and the challenges for prevention and control in the context of the nutrition transition. Recent findings Mega-countries are mostly low or middle-income and are facing important epidemiologic, nutrition, and physical activity transitions because of changes in food systems and unhealthy lifestyles. NCDs are responsible of two-thirds of the 57 million global deaths annually. Approximately, 80% of these are in low and middle-income countries. Only developed countries have been able to reduce mortality rates attributable to recognized risk factors for NCDs, in particular high cholesterol and blood pressure. Summary Mega-countries share common characteristics such as complex bureaucracies, internal ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic heterogeneity, and complexities to implement effective health promotion and education policies across population. Priorities for action must be identified and successful lessons and experiences should be carefully analyzed and replicated. PMID:27389629

  17. Cytomegalovirus infection in inflammatory bowel disease is not associated with worsening of intestinal inflammatory activity.

    Alexandre Medeiros do Carmo

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus is highly prevalent virus and usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. The pathophysiology and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease often induce a state of immunosuppression. Because this, there are still doubts and controversies about the relationship between inflammatory bowel disease and cytomegalovirus.Evaluate the frequency of cytomegalovirus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and identify correlations.Patients with inflammatory bowel disease underwent an interview, review of records and collection of blood and fecal samples. The search for cytomegalovirus was performed by IgG and IgM blood serology, by real-time PCR in the blood and by qualitative PCR in feces. Results were correlated with red blood cell levels, C-reactive protein levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rates and fecal calprotectin levels for each patient.Among the 400 eligible patients, 249 had Crohn's disease, and 151 had ulcerative colitis. In the group of Crohn's disease, 67 of the patients had moderate or severe disease, but 126 patients presented with active disease, based on the evaluation of the fecal calprotectin. In patients with ulcerative colitis, only 21 patients had moderate disease, but 76 patients presented with active disease, based on the evaluation of the fecal calprotectin. A large majority of patients had positive CMV IgG. Overall, 10 patients had positive CMV IgM, and 9 patients had a positive qualitative detection of CMV DNA by PCR in the feces. All 400 patients returned negative results after the quantitative detection of CMV DNA in blood by real-time PCR. Analyzing the 19 patients with active infections, we only found that such an association occurred with the use of combined therapy (anti-TNF-alpha + azathioprine.The findings show that latent cytomegalovirus infections are frequent and active cytomegalovirus infection is rare. We did not find any association between an active infection of CMV and inflammatory bowel

  18. Glatiramer acetate antibodies, gene expression and disease activity in multiple sclerosis

    Sellebjerg, Finn Thorup; Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Krakauer, M;


    Background: Glatiramer acetate (GA) treatment suppresses disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS). The immunological response to treatment may differ in patients who are stable on GA therapy and patients with breakthrough disease activity, but the results of previous studies are inconsistent....... Objectives: We studied the immunological response to GA and its relationship with disease activity. Methods: Anti-GA antibodies in plasma and the expression of genes encoding cytokines and T-cell-polarizing transcription factors in blood cells were analysed by flow cytometric bead array and polymerase chain...

  19. Adsorption characteristics of SO{sub 2}, NO by steam activated biomass chars

    Lu, Fei; Shu, Tong; Wang, Kuan; Lu, Ping [Nanjing Normal Univ. (China). School of Energy and Mechanical Engineering


    Wheat straw and rice husk collected from the suburb of Nanjing, China, were prepared to different kinds of steam activated biomass-based chars, and the adsorption characteristics of the biomass-based chars was carried out in a fixed bed reactor. The specific surface area and pore structure of different biomass chars were measured by nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis instrument at 77K. The effects of biomass type, pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, activation temperature and concentration of SO{sub 2}, NO on the adsorption efficiency of SO{sub 2}, NO were analyzed. The results indicated that the steam activation has significant effects on the specific surface area, total pore volume and micro-morphology of biomass chars by improving the internal structure. The adsorption efficiency of SO{sub 2}, NO increased with the decreasing of SO{sub 2}, NO concentration in the experimental range. The optimal condition of char preparation (873K, fast pyrolysis) and steam activation (1,073K) was proposed based on the adsorption efficiency and adsorption volume of SO{sub 2}, NO. It builds a theoretical basis for industrial applications of biomass.

  20. Adsorption characteristics of selected hydrophilic and hydrophobic micropollutants in water using activated carbon.

    Nam, Seung-Woo; Choi, Dae-Jin; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Her, Namguk; Zoh, Kyung-Duk


    In this study, we investigated adsorption characteristics of nine selected micropollutants (six pharmaceuticals, two pesticides, and one endocrine disruptor) in water using an activated carbon. The effects of carbon dosage, contact time, pH, DOM (dissolved organic matter), and temperature on the adsorption removal of micropollutants were examined. Increasing carbon dosage and contact time enhanced the removal of micropollutants. Sorption coefficients of hydrophilic compounds (caffeine, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfamethazine) fit a linear isotherm and hydrophobic compounds (naproxen, diclofenac, 2, 4-D, triclocarban, and atrazine) fit a Freundlich isotherm. The removal of hydrophobic pollutants and caffeine were independent of pH changes, but acetaminophen, sulfamethazine, and sulfamethoxazole were adsorbed by mainly electrostatic interaction with activated carbon and so were affected by pH. The decrease in adsorption removal in surface water samples was observed and this decrease was more significant for hydrophobic than hydrophilic compounds. The decline in the adsorption capacity in surface water samples is caused by the competitive inhibition of DOM with micropollutants onto activated carbon. Low temperature (5°C) also decreased the adsorption removal of micropollutants, and affected hydrophobic compounds more than hydrophilic compounds. The results obtained in this study can be applied to optimize the adsorption capacities of micropollutants using activated carbon in water treatment process.

  1. Invasive pneumococcal disease leads to activation and hyperreactivity of platelets

    Tunjungputri, Rahajeng N.; De Jonge, Marien I.; De Greeff, Astrid; Van Selm, Saskia; Buys, Herma; Harders-Westerveen, Jose F.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert; Urbanus, Rolf T.; de Groot, Phillip G.; Smith, Hilde E.; Van Der Ven, Andre J.; De Mast, Quirijn


    Using a novel porcine model of intravenous Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, we showed that invasive pneumococcal infections induce marked platelet activation and hyperreactivity. This may contribute to the vascular complications seen in pneumococcal infection.

  2. Invasive pneumococcal disease leads to activation and hyperreactivity of platelets

    Tunjungputri, Rahajeng N.; Jonge, de Marien I.; Greeff, de Astrid; Selm, van Saskia; Buys-Bergen, Herma; Harders-Westerveen, Jose F.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert; Urbanus, Rolf T.; Groot, De Phillip G.; Smith, Hilde E.; Ven, van der Andre J.; Mast, de Quirijn


    Using a novel porcine model of intravenous Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, we showed that invasive pneumococcal infections induce marked platelet activation and hyperreactivity. This may contribute to the vascular complications seen in pneumococcal infection.

  3. Influence of indacaterol on daily physical activity in patients with untreated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Nishijima Y


    Full Text Available Yu Nishijima,1,* Seigo Minami,1,* Suguru Yamamoto,1 Yoshitaka Ogata,1 Taro Koba,1,2 Shinji Futami,1 Kiyoshi Komuta1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Osaka Police Hospital, Tennoji-ku, Osaka, Japan; 2Department of Internal Medicine, National Hospital Organization, Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Center, Kita-ku, Sakai, Osaka, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Indacaterol, a once-daily, long-acting ß2-agonist, may improve not only respiratory function, dyspnea symptoms, and quality of life, but also physical activity for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of 12-week indacaterol therapy on daytime physical activity in patients with untreated COPD. Methods: The subjects were stable and untreated COPD outpatients with a percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (%FEV1 below 80%. Baseline assessments included clinical assessment, respiratory function testing, arterial blood gas analysis, the COPD assessment test (CAT™, and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, Japanese version 2 (SF-36v2®. Patients underwent monitoring by uniaxial accelerometer before and after 12 weeks once-daily inhalation of indacaterol 150 µg/day. Results: Eighteen patients were evaluable. Patient characteristics included a mean age of 74.2 years, and three patients were current smokers. Indacaterol improved mean (± standard deviation [SD] %FEV1 from 55.2% (±17.9% to 61.0% (±17.3% (P=0.003, CAT scores from 16.4 (±10.2 points to 12.4 (±8.2 points (P=0.04, some scales of the SF-36v2 (physical component summary, 41.6±9.7 points to 45.1±7.9 points, P=0.03, and number of daily steps (3,311.5±2,103.3 steps/day to 3,841.8±2,096.8 steps/day, P=0.02, but did not affect daily energy expenditure (85.0±77.2 kcal change to 90.9±56.8 kcal, P=0.29 or exercise duration of an intensity of level 1 or more (36.4±23.9 minutes increase to 40.8±21.6 minutes

  4. Adsorption-desorption characteristics of phenol and reactive dyes from aqueous solution on mesoporous activated carbon prepared from waste tires.

    Tanthapanichakoon, W; Ariyadejwanich, P; Japthong, P; Nakagawa, K; Mukai, S R; Tamon, H


    Liquid-phase adsorption-desorption characteristics and ethanol regeneration efficiency of an activated carbon prepared from waste tires and a commercial activated carbon were investigated. Water vapor adsorption experiments reveal that both activated carbons showed hydrophobic surface characteristics. Adsorption experiments reveal that the prepared activated carbon possessed comparable phenol adsorption capacity as the commercial one but clearly larger adsorption capacity of two reactive dyes, Black 5 and Red 31. It was ascertained that the prepared activated carbon exhibited less irreversible adsorption of phenol and the two dyes than its commercial counterpart. Moreover, ethanol regeneration efficiency of the prepared AC saturated with either dye was higher than that of the commercial AC. Because of its superior liquid-phase adsorption-desorption characteristics as well as higher ethanol regeneration efficiency, the prepared activated carbon is more suitable for wastewater treatment, especially for adsorbing similarly bulky adsorbates.

  5. Indium 111-granulocyte scanning in the assessment of disease extent and disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease. A comparison with colonoscopy, histology, and fecal indium 111-granulocyte excretion

    Saverymuttu, S.H.; Camilleri, M.; Rees, H.; Lavender, J.P.; Hodgson, H.J.; Chadwick, V.S.


    Indium 111-leukocyte scanning has recently been introduced as a new method for imaging inflammatory bowel disease. The technique has recently been made more specific for acute inflammation by labeling a pure granulocyte fraction rather than the conventional mixed leukocyte preparation. We now report a prospective study comparing 111In-granulocyte scanning with endoscopy, histology, and fecal 111In-granulocyte excretion for the assessment of disease extent and severity in colonic inflammatory bowel disease. In 52 patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, disease extent and severity were assessed macroscopically, histologically, or by scanning using a numerical grading system. Excellent correlations were found between both endoscopy and histology and 111In scans (r = 0.90 (endoscopy) and r = 0.90 (histology) for extent; r = 0.86 and r = 0.91 for disease activity). Severity graded by scanning also showed a close correlation with fecal 111In-granulocyte excretion (r = 0.90). Indium 111-granulocyte scans are a rapid, accurate, noninvasive means of assessing both disease extent and severity of colonic involvement in inflammatory bowel disease.

  6. The PROactive instruments to measure physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Raste, Yogini; Demeyer, Heleen; Louvaris, Zafeiris; de Jong, Corina; Rabinovich, Roberto A.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.; Polkey, Michael I.; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Tabberer, Maggie; Dobbels, Fabienne; Ivanoff, Nathalie; de Boer, Willem I.; van der Molen, Thys; Kulich, Karoly; Serra, Ignasi; Basagana, Xavier; Troosters, Thierry; Puhan, Milo A.; Karlsson, Niklas; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith


    No current patient-centred instrument captures all dimensions of physical activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our objective was item reduction and initial validation of two instruments to measure physical activity in COPD. Physical activity was assessed in a 6-week, randomised,

  7. Validity of activity monitors in health and chronic disease : a systematic review

    Van Remoortel, Hans; Giavedoni, Santiago; Raste, Yogini; Burtin, Chris; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Langer, Daniel; Glendenning, Alastair; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Peterson, Barry T; Wilson, Frederick; Mann, Bridget; Rabinovich, Roberto; Puhan, Milo A; Troosters, Thierry; de Jong, Corina


    The assessment of physical activity in healthy populations and in those with chronic diseases is challenging. The aim of this systematic review was to identify whether available activity monitors (AM) have been appropriately validated for use in assessing physical activity in these groups. Following

  8. Physical activity 11-15 years old children with oncological disease: pilot study disHBSC

    Tomáš Vyhlídal


    Full Text Available Background: As of 1993, the Czech and Slovak Republic, along with other countries of Europe and North America, participating in regular intervals to 4 year international project HBSC (Health Behavior in The School-aged Children, for our purposes disHBSC - "with disability". The main objective of this research study is to identify determinants of health and lifestyle pupils and compare the results on the international level. Up to this time, however, the research could not include pupils with disabilities and physical handicaps. On the initiative of WHO were within these categories in the survey also included pupils with cancer. In order to integrate these students, a new study disHBSC, which aims to increase knowledge of health and health behaviors, related to them this target group. Objectives: The aim of the research investigation is to determine the selected determinants affecting the participation of pupils with oncological diseases in the age 11-15 years in physical activities. Part of the aim is to find out their self-assessment and aspiration level, which with the realization of physical activities can immediately relate to. The purpose of the investigation is, however, in particular the pilot revealed any organizational and substantive uncertainties and upgrade research technique with regard to the needs and options of the target group. Methods: The research survey used a pilot version of the questionnaire protocol disHBSC. This pilot version is derived from the questionnaire protocol that was used in 2010 and based on the international version of the questionnaire HBSC. A pilot version of the questionnaire contained 41 questions, which are divided into several thematic areas - basic sociodemographic characteristics and behaviors specific areas (which have a significant relationship to physical and mental health of children and youth youth health, eating habits, physical activity and leisure use substance abuse, self-esteem and

  9. Molecular and antigenic characteristics of Newcastle disease virus isolates from domestic ducks in China.

    Wu, Wei; Liu, Huairan; Zhang, Tingting; Han, Zongxi; Jiang, Yanyu; Xu, Qianqian; Shao, Yuhao; Li, Huixin; Kong, Xiangang; Chen, Hongyan; Liu, Shengwang


    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most devastating diseases to the poultry industry. The causative agents of ND are virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which are members of the genus Avulavirus within the family Paramyxoviridae. Waterfowl, such as ducks and geese, are generally considered potential reservoirs of NDV and may show few or no clinical signs when infected with viruses that are obviously virulent in chickens. However, ND outbreaks in domestic waterfowl have been frequently reported in many countries in the past decade. In this study, 18 NDV strains isolated from domestic ducks in southern and eastern China, between 2005 and 2013, were genetically and phylogenetically characterized. The complete genomes of these strains were sequenced, and they exhibited genome sizes of 15,186 nucleotides (nt), 15,192 nt, and 15,198 nt, which follow the "rule of six" that is required for the replication of NDV strains. Based on the cleavage site of the F protein and pathogenicity tests in chickens, 17 of our NDV isolates were categorized as lentogenic viruses, and one was characterized as a velogenic virus. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial sequences of the F gene and the complete genome sequences showed that there are at least four genotypes of NDV circulating in domestic ducks; GD1, AH224, and AH209 belong to genotypes VIId, Ib, and II of class II NDVs, respectively, and the remaining 15 isolates belong to genotype 1b of class I NDVs. Cross-reactive hemagglutination inhibition tests demonstrated that the antigenic relatedness between NDV strains may be associated with their genotypes, rather than their hosts. These results suggest that though those NDV isolates were from duck, they still don't form a phylogenetic group because they came from the same species; however, they may play an important role in promoting the evolution of NDVs.


    Igor Alekseevich Zhmakin


    Full Text Available Children with recurrent respiratory diseases according to various authors comprise from 20% to 90% of children’s population of the Russian Federation. In such children neurotic reactions can develop easier, they get tired quicker, study worse, all that in turn provokes formation of pedagogical problems and deterioration of psychological climate in a family.The purpose of this research was detection of medico-social features of health status and quality of life in children with recurrent respiratory diseases for scientifically based development of improving and correctional actions. Under our supervision there were 195 children aged from 5 to 12 years with various levels of health.Methods of research included a complex assessment of level of health, functional, laboratory and biochemical techniques, assessment of quality of life with a questionnaire PedsQL™4.0. As a result of the conducted research ball scaling was carried out and groups of high and moderate risk for decline in quality of life of children with recurrent respiratory diseases were allocated. The comprehensive correctional and improving program for children from group of «high risk» for decline in quality of life and level of health was developed. After intervention more than 16% of examined children began to attend sports sections (physical functioning improved, and because of reduction of absence from schools, their role, emotional and social functioning improved (children became more attentive at lessons, progress increased. The received results allow to confirm efficiency of the developed program in comparison with temporary industry standards of rendering medical care to children.

  11. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis disease-causing strains in Argentina, 2010.

    Cecilia Sorhouet-Pereira

    Full Text Available Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of 133 isolates of Neisseria meningitidis obtained from meningococcal disease cases in Argentina during 2010 were performed by the National Reference Laboratory as part of a project coordinated by the PAHO within the SIREVA II network. Serogroup, serotype, serosubtype and MLST characterization were performed. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration to penicillin, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, rifampin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were determined and interpreted according to CLSI guidelines. Almost 49% of isolates were W135, and two serotype:serosubtype combinations, W135:2a:P1.5,2:ST-11 and W135:2a:P1.2:ST-11 accounted for 78% of all W135 isolates. Serogroup B accounted for 42.1% of isolates, and was both phenotypically and genotypically diverse. Serogroup C isolates represented 5.3% of the dataset, and one isolate belonging to the ST-198 complex was non-groupable. Isolates belonged mainly to the ST-11 complex (48% and to a lesser extent to the ST-865 (18%, ST-32 (9,8% and the ST-35 complexes (9%. Intermediate resistance to penicillin and ampicillin was detected in 35.4% and 33.1% of isolates respectively. Two W135:2a:P1.5,2:ST-11:ST-11 isolates presented resistance to ciprofloxacin associated with a mutation in the QRDR of gyrA gene Thr91-Ile. These data show serogroup W135 was the first cause of disease in Argentina in 2010, and was strongly associated with the W135:2a:P1.5,2:ST-11 epidemic clone. Serogroup B was the second cause of disease and isolates belonging to this serogroup were phenotypically and genotypically diverse. The presence of isolates with intermediate resistance to penicillin and the presence of fluorquinolone-resistant isolates highlight the necessity and importance of maintaining and strengthening National Surveillance Programs.

  12. Antioxidant Activity of 45 Chinese Herbs and the Relationship with their TCM Characteristics

    Hui Liao


    Full Text Available Here, 45 Chinese herbs that regulate blood circulation were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assay. A recent publication by Ou et al. identified a close relationship between in vitro antioxidant activity and classification of Chinese herbs as yin or yang. The 45 Chinese herbs in this study could be assigned the traditional characteristics of natures (cold, cool, hot and warm, flavors (pungent, sweet, sour, bitter and salty and functions (arresting bleeding, promoting blood flow to relieve stasis, nourishing blood and clearing away heat from blood. These characteristics are generalized according to the theory of yin and yang. We identified a broad range, 40–1990 µmol Trolox Equivalent/g herbs, of antioxidant activity in water extracts. There was no significant correlation between ORAC values and natures or functions of the herbs. There was a significant relationship between flavors and ORAC values. Bitter and/or sour herbs had the highest ORAC values, pungent and/or sweet herbs the lowest. Other flavors had intermediate values. Flavors also correspond with the yin/yang relationship and our results are supportive of the earlier publication. We reported for the first time antioxidant properties of many Chinese herbs. High antioxidant herbs were identified as Spatholobus suberectus vine (1990 µmol TE/g, Sanguisorba officinalis root (1940 µmol TE/g, Agrimonia pilosa herb (1440 µmol TE/g, Artemisia anomala herb (1400 µmol TE/g, Salvia miltiorrhiza root (1320 µmol TE/g and Nelembo nucifera leaf (1300 µmol TE/g. Antioxidant capacity appears to correlate with the flavors of herbs identified within the formal TCM classification system and may be a useful guide in describing their utility and biochemical mechanism of action.

  13. Variation of Floods Characteristics and Their Responses to Climate and Human Activities in Poyang Lake, China

    LI Xianghu; ZHANG Qi


    The Poyang Lake is one of the most frequently flooded areas in China.Understanding the changing characteristics of floods as well as the affecting factors is an important prerequisite of flood disaster prevention and mitigation.The present study identified the characteristics variations of historical floods in the Poyang Lake and their tendencies based on the Mann-Kendall (M-K) test,and also investigated the related affecting factors,both from climate and human activities.The results revealed that the highest flood stages,duration as well as hazard coefficient of floods showed a long-term increasing linear trend during the last 60 years with the M-K statistic of 1.49,1.60 and 1.50,respectively.And,a slightly increasing linear trend in the timing of the highest stages indicated the floods occurred later and later during the last six decades.The rainfall during the flood season and subsequent discharges of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River and runoff from the Poyang Lake Basin were mainly responsible for the severe flood situation in the Poyang Lake in the 1990s.In addition,the intensive human activities,including land reclamation and levee construction,also played a supplementary role in increasing severity of major floods.While,the fewer floods in the Poyang Lake after 2000 can be attributed to not only the less rainfall over the Poyang Lake Basin and low discharges of the Changjiang River during flood periods,but also the stronger influences of human activity which increased the floodwater storage of the Poyang Lake than before.

  14. Psychosocial characteristics of oromucosal diseases in psychiatric patients: Observational study from Indian dental college

    K V Suresh


    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric diseases like anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorders can affect the mental and physical statuses of an individual. Aim: The study was to investigate the different oromucosal diseases (OMD in psychiatric patients and to evaluate the correlation between these OMD to severity of anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out during a six-month period. Patients reporting to psychiatry department with anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder as diagnosed by an experienced psychiatrist, were subjected to complete oral examination by a skilled oral diagnostician to check for OMD like oral lichen planus (OLP, aphthous stomatitis (AS and burning mouth syndrome (BMS. During the above mentioned time interval, 1320 patients with any of the above mentioned psychiatric diseases were included in this study. Of these, 278 had anxiety, 398 had depression, 295 had schizophrenia and 349 had bipolar disorder. Equal number of individuals reported to the Oral Medicine and Radiology department for routine oral screening with no mucosal diseases were included as control group. Results: In this study, statistically significant increase in the OMD of the psychiatric patients was recorded when compared with the control group. The OMD were significantly higher in patients with anxiety (20.86% followed by patients with depression (9.04%, schizophrenia (7.7%, bipolar disorder (7.4% and control group (5.17%, respectively. Most prevalent OMD in patients with anxiety was AS (12% followed by OLP (5.7%, and BMS (2.87% respectively. Patients with moderate to severe anxiety and depression showed significantly higher prevalence of these OMD compared to the ones with mild anxiety and depression. The AS and OLP were significantly more in the younger age group (18-49 year and BMS was higher in 50-77 year age group in both the study and control groups. Conclusion: A positive association was

  15. Morphologic, immunologic, and cytogenetic characteristics of secondary acute unclassifiable leukemia in Hodgkin's disease.

    Orazi, A; Cattoretti, G; Sozzi, G; Miozzo, M; Polli, N; Delia, D; Viviani, S; Negretti, E; Della Porta, G; Rilke, F


    Blast cells from five cases of secondary unclassifiable leukemia following therapy for Hodgkin's disease were studied by cytochemical, immunological and cytogenetic analyses. Cytochemical and immunological reactivity were in accordance with poorly differentiated, myeloid blasts. The four cases in which karyotype analysis was performed showed specific chromosomal abnormalities. No evidence of multiple lineage involvement was found. Problems in classifying these cases of secondary ANLL were due to the high grade of undifferentiation of the blast cells. Their low cytochemical reactivity with markers of myeloid differentiation was similar to what may be observed in patients with acute undifferentiated leukemia or with chronic myeloid leukemia in blast crisis.

  16. Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 score (RAPID3) correlates well with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity index (BASDAI) in the assessment of disease activity and monitoring progression of axial spondyloarthritis.

    Danve, Abhijeet; Reddy, Anusha; Vakil-Gilani, Kiana; Garg, Neha; Dinno, Alexis; Deodhar, Atul


    Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 (RAPID3) is a composite index, very useful for assessment of disease activity of various rheumatic diseases including RA. If RAPID3 can also reliably measure disease activity in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), it may prove to be a practical and effective quantitative assessment tool in busy practices. We studied the association of RAPID3 with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) seen from 2007 to 2012 were classified as having AS or non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) using modified New York criteria and Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society criteria, respectively. Patients with simultaneous BASDAI and RAPID3 scores were enrolled (N = 112; 105 with AS, seven with nr-axSpA). Multiple regression and nonparametric receiver operating characteristics were used. Baseline mean (SD) BASDAI and RAPID3 were 4.2 (2.5) and 3.8 (2.3), respectively. Multiple linear regressions modeled a quadratic relationship between BASDAI and RAPID3 for 321 observations in 112 patients with axSpA (1) cross-sectionally: BASDAI predicted by RAPID3 (β = 1.171; s.e. = 0.113, p < 0.001) and RAPID3(2) (β = -0.037; s.e. = 0.014, p = 0.011) with an adjusted R (2) of 0.676; and (2) longitudinally: BASDAI predicted by RAPID3 (β = 1.196; s.e. = 0.111, p < 0.001), RAPID3(2) (β = -0.042; s.e. = 0.014, p = 0.004), and visit number (β = -0.142; s.e. = 0.038, p < 0.001) with an adjusted R (2) of 0.689. RAPID3 (correctly classified) corresponded to BASDAI scores of 2, 4, and 6: 1.40 (85.8 %), 3.33 (81.9 %), and 5.43 (87.1 %), respectively. RAPID3 correlates well with BASDAI in monitoring axSpA patients (including AS) in cross-sectional and longitudinal follow-up. Since it also correlates with measures of disease activity of other rheumatic diseases including RA, RAPID3 could be an attractive measure

  17. Serum cysteine proteases and their inhibitors in rheumatoid arthritis: relation to disease activity and radiographic progression

    Kos, Janko; Krašovec, Marta; Troelsen, Lone


    of disease activity and radiographic progression. Seventy-two patients with rheumatoid arthritis were included from two previously described cohorts of patients with chronic polyarthritis. At inclusion, disease activity was assessed by a 28-joint count, patient global assessment, and serum C-reactive protein...... associated with disease activity, presence or progression of erosive disease. Number of swollen joints correlated with serum levels of stefin A and B and correlated negatively with cystatin C serum levels. Erosive disease was associated with high serum levels of C-reactive protein and stefin A and low serum......This study aims to investigate the serum levels of cysteine proteases cathepsins B and H and their inhibitors stefin A, stefin B, and cystatin C, as well as traditional inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and to correlate these markers with scores...

  18. Are there characteristic alterations in lung tissue associated with Crohn's disease?

    Kayser, K; Probst, F; Gabius, H J; Müller, K M


    Two male patients aged 12 and 31 years suffered from Crohn's disease for more than six years and were treated with Cortison for more than four years. Surgical excision of parts of the terminal ileum was performed in both patients. They suffered from pulmonary symptoms as dyspnoea, shortness of breath and ventilation disturbances two years after operation. Wedge biopsies of the lungs revealed the following histomorphological findings: 1. Granulomatous interstitial lymphocyte infiltrates 2. Acute alveolitis with severe dysplasia of pneumocytes 3. Moderate interstitial fibrosis. Immunohistology performed in one case showed predominantly lambda chains expressed by lymphocytes associated with IgA and IgM. IgG was missing, furthermore kappa chains could not be detected. Macrophages contained endogenous lectins (sugar receptors) for fucose, maltose, and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (glcNAc). No receptors specific for mannose, lactose, and heparin could be found. Pneumocytes did not bind the neoglycoproteins but were found to express HLA-DR receptors detectable by the monoclonal antibody LN 3 in dysplastic pneumocytes only. The histomorphological and immunohistochemical findings suggest that the analyzed alterations of lung tissue are related to the underlying disease of enteritis regionalis.

  19. Sociodemographic, neuropsychiatric and cognitive characteristics of pathological gambling and impulse control disorders NOS in Parkinson's disease.

    Pontieri, Francesco E; Assogna, Francesca; Pellicano, Clelia; Cacciari, Claudia; Pannunzi, Sara; Morrone, Annalucia; Danese, Emanuela; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco


    Despite of previous evidence supporting the association between impulse control disorder (ICD) and several demographic, clinical and therapeutic features in Parkinson's disease (PD), the relationships between pathological gambling (PG) or other variants of ICD (ICD-NOS) and specific neuropsychiatric or cognitive domains are not entirely defined. In this study, 155 PD patients without dementia or cognitive impairment underwent: i. the ICD diagnoses, using the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders, ii. the mood and anxiety disorders diagnoses, according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria, and iii. a comprehensive battery for measuring severity of psychopathology and neuropsychology domains. Patients were divided in those with pathological gambling (PG), ICDs not otherwise specified (ICD-NOS), or the lack of ICD (No-ICD). There was a progression in age and age at onset from the younger PG subjects throughout ICD-NOS to No-ICD. PG and ICD-NOS subjects had longer disease duration and were taking significantly higher dosages of antiparkinsonian drugs than No-ICD ones. PG subjects had significantly higher severity of depressive and anxious symptoms with respect to the other 2 groups. Both PG and ICD-NOS subjects suffer from increased severity of psychotic symptoms than No-ICD ones. The 3 groups did not differ in any cognitive measure. Our results support the concept that the different sociodemographic and neuropsychiatric profiles of PD patients are associated with different ICDs. Moreover, we clearly demonstrate the lack of relationship between ICD and cognitive performances in undemented PD patients.

  20. APO-1/Fas gene: Structural and functional characteristics in systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases

    Singh Richa


    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disorder affecting multiple organ systems. It is characterized by the presence of autoantibodies reactive against various self-antigens. Susceptibility to SLE is found to be associated with many major histocompatibility complex (MHC and non-MHC genes, one of which is APO-1/Fas gene, which is present on chromosome 10 in humans. The APO-1/Fas promoter contains consensus sequences for binding of several transcription factors that affect the intensity of Fas expression in cells. The mutations in the APO-1/Fas promoter are associated with risk and severity in various autoimmune diseases and other malignancies. The APO-1/Fas receptor is expressed by many cell types. Two forms of APO-1/Fas protein that are involved in regulation of apoptosis have been identified. Fas receptor-mediated apoptosis plays a physiological and pathological role in killing of infected cell targets. In this review, we have focused on APO-1/Fas gene structure, promoter variants and its association with SLE and other autoimmune diseases. Functional aspects of Fas receptor in apoptosis are also discussed.

  1. Cardiac Characteristics of Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Refsum Disease Gene-Associated Protein within the Heart.

    Koh, J T; Choi, H H; Ahn, K Y; Kim, J U; Kim, J H; Chun, J Y; Baik, Y H; Kim, K K


    Arrhythmia is a common cardiac symptom of Refsum disease. Recently, we identified a novel neuron-specific PAHX-associated protein (PAHX-AP1), which binds to the Refsum disease gene (PAHX). In this report, we developed heart-targeted transgenic (TG) mice under the control of alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter to determine whether cardiac overexpression of PAHX-AP1 provokes cardiac involvement symptoms. Northern and in situ hybridization analyses revealed PAHX-AP1 transcript was overexpressed in TG atrium, especially in the sinoatrial node. TG mice showed tachycardia, and tachyarrhythmia was observed in 20% of TG mice. Isolated TG atria showed higher frequency beating and were more sensitive to aconitine-induced tachyarrhythmia than the wild-type, and 40% of the TG atria showed irregular beating. Action potential duration in TG atrial fiber was shortened much more than the wild-type. Systemic administration of arrhythmogenic agents induced arrhythmia in TG mice, while no arrhythmia with the same dose in nonTG mice. Our results indicate that the chronic atrial tachycardia by overexpressed neuron-specific PAHX-AP1 transgene in atrium may be responsible for the increased susceptibility to arrhythmia.

  2. A Descriptive Survey of Inflammatory Bowel Disease within the Active Army Population (1971-1982).


    34 Gastroenterology 1975, Vol 69, pp. 324-351. Driscoll, R. H. Jr.; Meredith, S . C.; Sitrin, M.; and Rosenberg, I. H., " Vitamin D Deficiency and Bone Disease ... DISEASE WITHIN THE ACTIVE ARMY POPULATATION (1971-1.982) 12. PERSONAL AUTHORS S MAJOR GEORGE M. GRASKI 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED Crohn and Ginsburg in 3 1932. The disease itself consists of an inflammatory condition of the bowel which extends through the gut to adjoining

  3. Immune defects in active mycobacterial diseases in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs).

    Lee, Wen-I; Huang, Jing-Long; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Jaing, Tang-Her; Lin, Tzou-Yien; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun


    Natural human immunity to the mycobacteria group, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) or nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), and/or Salmonella species, relies on the functional IL-12/23-IFN-γ integrity of macrophages (monocyte/dendritic cell) connecting to T lymphocyte/NK cells. Patients with severe forms of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) have more profound immune defects involving this impaired circuit in patients with severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) including complete DiGeorge syndrome, X-linked hyper IgM syndrome (HIGM) (CD40L mutation), CD40 deficiency, immunodeficiency with or without anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (NEMO and IKBA mutations), chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and hyper IgE recurrent infection syndromes (HIES). The patients with severe PIDs have broader diverse infections rather than mycobacterial infections. In contrast, patients with an isolated inborn error of the IL-12/23-IFN-γ pathway are exclusively prone to low-virulence mycobacterial infections and nontyphoid salmonella infections, known as Mendelian susceptibility to the mycobacterial disease (MSMD) phenotype. Restricted defective molecules in the circuit, including IFN-γR1, IFN-γR2, IL-12p40, IL-12R-β1, STAT-1, NEMO, IKBA and the recently discovered CYBB responsible for autophagocytic vacuole and proteolysis, and interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) for dendritic cell immunodeficiency, have been identified in around 60% of patients with the MSMD phenotype. Among all of the patients with PIDs referred for investigation since 1985, we have identified four cases with the specific defect (IFNRG1 for three and IL12RB for one), presenting as both BCG-induced diseases and NTM infections, in addition to some patients with SCID, HIGM, CGD and HIES. Furthermore, manifestations in patients with autoantibodies to IFN-γ (autoAbs-IFN-γ), which is categorized as an anticytokine autoantibody syndrome, can resemble the relatively persistent

  4. Major Disease Prevalence and Menstrual Characteristics in Infertile Female Korean Smokers


    We investigated the prevalence of smoking and factors associated with smoking in infertile Korean women. Smoking status, education, occupation, personal habits, past medical history, current illness, stress level, and menstrual characteristics were collected from self-report questionnaires. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess the degree of depression. Data on the causes of infertility and levels of six reproductive hormones were collected from medical records. Among 785 women less than 42 years of age, the prevalence of current, secondhand, past, and never smokers were 12.7%, 45.7%, 0.9%, and 40.6%, respectively. Primary infertility was more frequent in secondhand smokers. Causes of infertility were similar among current, secondhand, and never smokers. Current smokers were less educated (P infertility and diabetes mellitus were significantly different according to smoking status among infertile women. PMID:28049245

  5. Predictors of Alzheimer's Disease Caregiver Depression and Burden: What Noncaregiving Adults Can Learn from Active Caregivers

    Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Han, GiBaeg; Anderson, Cristina L.


    This study examined similarities and differences between active caregivers (adult children and spouses whose family member had Alzheimer's disease) and not-as-yet caregiving adults (adult children and spouses whose family members are older, but do not as yet suffer from Alzheimer's disease). The objective was to determine what factors predict…

  6. Active and passive smoking behaviour and cessation plans of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis

    van der Heide, Frans; Dijkstra, Arie; Albersnagel, Frans A.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Dijkstra, Gerard


    Background: Smoking is a remarkable risk factor in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), with negative effects on Crohn's disease (CD) and positive effects on ulcerative colitis (UC). This makes different changes in smoking behaviour after diagnosis between CD and UC likely. Changes in active smoking, c

  7. Whole-Body MRI versus PET in assessment of multiple myeloma disease activity.

    Shortt, Conor P


    The purpose of this study was to compare FDG PET; whole-body MRI; and the reference standard, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, to determine the best imaging technique for assessment of disease activity in multiple myeloma.

  8. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  9. Serum YKL-40 concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: relation to disease activity

    Johansen, J S; Stoltenberg, M; Hansen, M


    OBJECTIVE: YKL-40, also called human cartilage glycoprotein-39, is secreted by chondrocytes, synovial cells, macrophages and neutrophils. Studies have shown that YKL-40 is an autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We evaluated whether serum YKL-40 was related to disease activity in patients...... with RA. METHODS: Serum YKL-40 was determined by radioimmunoassay in 156 patients with RA during a 1 yr longitudinal study. RESULTS: Serum YKL-40 was increased in 54% of the patients with clinically active disease. Patients with clinically active disease initially who became inactive after 12 months had...... a significant decrease in serum YKL-40 (-30%, P disease had an increase in serum YKL-40. Patients who remained active had unchanged serum YKL-40 during the study. Serum YKL-40 decreased rapidly (-24% after 7 days, P

  10. Promotion of physical activity and fitness in sedentary patients with Parkinson's disease : randomised controlled trial

    van Nimwegen, Marlies; Speelman, Arlene D.; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van de Warrenburg, Bart P.; Smulders, Katrijn; Dontje, Manon L.; Borm, George F.; Backx, Frank J. G.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Munneke, Marten


    Objective To evaluate whether a multifaceted behavioural change programme increases physical activities in patients with Parkinson's disease. Design Multicentre randomised controlled trial. Setting 32 community hospitals in the Netherlands, collaborating in a nationwide network (ParkinsonNet). Parti

  11. Prevalence and characteristics of migraine in medical students and its impact on their daily activities

    Bindu Menon


    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is a common neurological disorder with significant impact on quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of migraine headaches in medical students, to measure its impact on their life, and to assess their knowledge about the ailment. Information about lifestyle variables was also collected. Materials and Methods: All medical students who confirmed of having headache for more than 1 year formed the study group. Students filled a detailed questionnaire focusing on demographics, pain characteristics, accompanying factors, triggers, and family history of migraine. Lifestyle variables were enquired and migraine associated disability was assessed by MIDAS (Migraine Disability Assessment. The diagnosis of migraine was made according to the International Headache Society criteria. Results are expressed in n = numbers and percentage. Results: Sixty-eight percent of medical students had headache. The prevalence of migraine in the whole cohort was 28%; however, of the headache group, migraine constituted 42%. There was a female preponderance. One-fourth of the students had weekly or daily attacks with 31% students reporting increase in their headache intensity and frequency. Forty-four percent of students had severe headaches. Dizziness, allodynia, and neck stiffness were reported as accompanying symptoms. Trigger factors were identified in 99% students, predominant of which were poor sleep hygiene, environmental changes, head movements, and mental stress. Only 4% of students did regular exercise. Twenty-seven percent of students reported self-medication use of analgesics. One-fourth of the students had migraine-associated disability but only 6% realized that they had migraine. Conclusion: Our study found a high prevalence of headache with migraine in medical students. The students′ awareness of the disease was very low with one-fourth of the students resorting to self-medication. Our

  12. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of young patients with Peyronie's disease: a retrospective study

    Paulis G


    Full Text Available Gianni Paulis,1,7 Giorgio Cavallini,2 Davide Barletta,3 Paolo Turchi,4 Antonio Vitarelli,5 Andrea Fabiani6 1Regina Apostolorum Hospital, Andrology Center, Rome, Italy; 2Andrological Section, Gynepro Medical Team, Bologna, Italy; 3Department of Urology, Andrology Center, San Matteo Hospital, Pavia, Italy; 4Azienda ASL 4 Prato – Andrology Service, Prato, Italy; 5Department of Urology, University of Bari, Bari, Italy; 6Department of Surgery, Section of Urology and Andrology, ASUR Marche 9, Macerata, Italy; 7Castelfidardo Medical Team, Peyronie's Disease Care Center, Rome, Italy Abstract: The average age of men affected by Peyronie's disease (PD is approximately 50–55 years, but cases have been reported even in adolescence. Several studies have already investigated the presence of PD in young men, and these studies reported a PD prevalence that varies between 1.5% and 10.8%. Having noticed a greater number of young patients in our centers in recent years, we decided to carry out a retrospective study to evaluate the prevalence of PD in patients aged <40 years, as well as to investigate any possible difference in evolution based on the age of PD patients. We selected a sample of patients (n=271 with a similar time of onset of disease. We then stratified all 271 patients into two groups: group A (age <40 years [n=46] and group B (age ≥40 years [n=225]. All 271 patients were evaluated for the following variables: penile plaque volume, degree of penile curvature, penile pain, and erectile function. Plaque volume was measured in cm3 by dynamic penile color Doppler sonography after administration of intracavernosal alprostadil 10 mcg. The number of younger patients was 46, accounting for 16.9% of the whole sample. Our study showed more frequent appearance and greater progression of penile curvature in younger patients. The average angle of penile curvature and average score of penile pain intensity in the younger men were significantly higher than

  13. Epidemiological Characteristics of Dengue Disease in Latin America and in the Caribbean: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Torres, Jaime Rafael; Orduna, Tomás Agustín; Piña-Pozas, Maricela; Vázquez-Vega, Daniela


    Dengue, an important mosquito-borne virus transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti, is a major public health issue in Latin America and the Caribbean. National epidemiological surveillance systems, usually based on passive detection of symptomatic cases, while underestimating the true burden of dengue disease, can provide valuable insight into disease trends and excess reporting and potential outbreaks. We carried out a systematic review of the literature to characterize the recent epidemiology of dengue disease in Latin America and the English-speaking and Hispanic Caribbean Islands. We identified 530 articles, 60 of which met criteria for inclusion. In general, dengue seropositivity across the region was high and increased with age. All four virus serotypes were reported to circulate in the region. These observations varied considerably between and within countries and over time, potentially due to climatic factors (temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity) and their effect on mosquito densities and differences in socioeconomic factors. This review provides important insight into the major epidemiological characteristics of dengue in distinct regions of Latin America and the Caribbean, allowing gaps in current knowledge and future research needs to be identified. PMID:28392806

  14. ALS Multicenter Cohort Study of Oxidative Stress (ALS COSMOS): study methodology, recruitment, and baseline demographic and disease characteristics.

    Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Andrews, Howard; Goetz, Raymond R; Andrews, Leslie; Rabkin, Judith G; McElhiney, Martin; Nieves, Jeri; Santella, Regina M; Murphy, Jennifer; Hupf, Jonathan; Singleton, Jess; Merle, David; Kilty, Mary; Heitzman, Daragh; Bedlack, Richard S; Miller, Robert G; Katz, Jonathan S; Forshew, Dallas; Barohn, Richard J; Sorenson, Eric J; Oskarsson, Bjorn; Fernandes Filho, J Americo M; Kasarskis, Edward J; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Rollins, Yvonne D; Nations, Sharon P; Swenson, Andrea J; Shefner, Jeremy M; Andrews, Jinsy A; Koczon-Jaremko, Boguslawa A


    Abstract In a multicenter study of newly diagnosed ALS patients without a reported family history of ALS, we are prospectively investigating whether markers of oxidative stress (OS) are associated with disease progression. Methods utilize an extensive structured telephone interview ascertaining environmental, lifestyle, dietary and psychological risk factors associated with OS. Detailed assessments were performed at baseline and at 3-6 month intervals during the ensuing 30 months. Our biorepository includes DNA, plasma, urine, and skin. Three hundred and fifty-five patients were recruited. Subjects were enrolled over a 36-month period at 16 sites. To meet the target number of subjects, the recruitment period was prolonged and additional sites were included. Results showed that demographic and disease characteristics were similar between 477 eligible/non-enrolled and enrolled patients, the only difference being type of health insurance among enrolled patients. Sites were divided into three groups by the number of enrolled subjects. Comparing these three groups, the Columbia site had fewer 'definite ALS' diagnoses. This is the first prospective, interdisciplinary, in-depth, multicenter epidemiological investigation of OS related to ALS progression and has been accomplished by an aggressive recruitment process. The baseline demographic and disease features of the study sample are now fully characterized.

  15. Endogenous and recombinant type I interferons and disease activity in multiple sclerosis.

    Finn Sellebjerg

    Full Text Available Although treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS with the type I interferon (IFN IFN-β lowers disease activity, the role of endogenous type I IFN in MS remains controversial. We studied CD4+ T cells and CD4+ T cell subsets, monocytes and dendritic cells by flow cytometry and analysed the relationship with endogenous type I IFN-like activity, the effect of IFN-β therapy, and clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI disease activity in MS patients. Endogenous type I IFN activity was associated with decreased expression of the integrin subunit CD49d (VLA-4 on CD4+CD26(high T cells (Th1 helper cells, and this effect was associated with less MRI disease activity. IFN-β therapy reduced CD49d expression on CD4+CD26(high T cells, and the percentage of CD4+CD26(high T cells that were CD49d(high correlated with clinical and MRI disease activity in patients treated with IFN-β. Treatment with IFN-β also increased the percentage of CD4+ T cells expressing CD71 and HLA-DR (activated T cells, and this was associated with an increased risk of clinical disease activity. In contrast, induction of CD71 and HLA-DR was not observed in untreated MS patients with evidence of endogenous type IFN I activity. In conclusion, the effects of IFN-β treatment and endogenous type I IFN activity on VLA-4 expression are similar and associated with control of disease activity. However, immune-activating effects of treatment with IFN-β may counteract the beneficial effects of treatment and cause an insufficient response to therapy.

  16. Characteristics of antioxidant activity and composition of pumpkin seed oils in 12 cultivars.

    Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Kita, Agnieszka; Biesiada, Anita; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z


    The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant properties, and provide characteristics, of the oil obtained from the seeds of 12 pumpkin varieties belonging to the species Cucurbita maxima Duch. and Cucurbita pepo L. Another objective was to establish which of the two extracting agents, ethanol or methanol, is more effective. The seeds of the pumpkin varieties examined differ in chemical composition and antioxidant activity. The seeds of the cultivars belonging to the species C. maxima are characterised by a higher content of fatty acids than are the cultivars of the species C. pepo. In the seed oil, unsaturated acids are dominant (oleic and linoleic), and their proportion depends on the pumpkin variety. The highest content of unsaturated acids has been measured in the oil extracted from the seeds of the cultivar, Jet F1 (C. pepo). Antioxidant activity analysis has produced the following findings. The seeds of the pumpkin varieties that belong to the species C. pepo exhibit better antioxidant properties, regardless of the extraction solvent used. 50% ethanol is more efficient than 80% methanol when used as an extracting agent. The antioxidant activity values obtained with 50% ethanol are higher than those achieved with 80% methanol. Owing to the considerable differences in composition among the fatty acids examined, it is possible to choose the desired pumpkin variety for the intended use.

  17. Effect of activated sludge properties and membrane operation conditions on fouling characteristics in membrane bioreactors.

    Choi, Hyeok; Zhang, Kai; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Oerther, Daniel B; Sorial, George A


    Biofouling control is considered to be a major challenge in operating membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for the treatment of wastewater. This study examined the impact of biological, chemical, and physical properties of activated sludge on membrane filtration performance in laboratory-scale MBRs. Sludges with different microbial communities were produced using pseudo-continuous stirred-tank reactors and pseudo-plug flow reactors treating a synthetic paper mill wastewater. Various filtration resistances were used to investigate membrane fouling characteristics, and molecular biology tools targeting 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequences were used to identify predominant bacterial populations in the sludges or attached to the fouled membranes. Filtration experiments using axenic cultures of Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and Gordonia amarae were also performed to better understand the initiation and development of biofouling. The results showed that the tendency of membranes to biofoul depended upon membrane operating conditions as well as the properties of the activated sludge in the MBR systems. Specific bacterial populations, which were not dominant in the activated sludges, were selectively accumulated on the membrane surface leading to the development of irreversible biofouling.

  18. Effect of nano-scale characteristics of graphene on electrochemical performance of activated carbon supercapacitor electrodes

    Jasni, M. R. M.; Deraman, M.; Suleman, M.; Hamdan, E.; Sazali, N. E. S.; Nor, N. S. M.; Shamsudin, S. A.


    Graphene with its typical nano-scale characteristic properties has been widely used as an additive in activated carbon electrodes in order to enhance the performance of the electrodes for their use in high performance supercapacitors. Activated carbon monoliths (ACMs) electrodes have been prepared by carbonization and activation of green monoliths (GMs) of pre-carbonized fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches or self-adhesive carbon grains (SACGs) and SACGs added with 6 wt% of KOH-treated multi-layer graphene. ACMs electrodes have been assembled in symmetrical supercapacitor cells that employed aqueous KOH electrolyte (6 M). The cells have been tested with cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge discharge methods to investigate the effect of graphene addition on the specific capacitance (Csp), specific energy (E), specific power (P), equivalent series resistance (ESR) and response time (τo) of the supercapacitor cells. The results show that the addition of graphene in the GMs change the values of Csp, Emax, Pmax, ESR and τo from (61-96) F/g, 2 Wh/kg, 104 W/kg, 2.6 Ω and 38 s, to the respective values of (110-124) F/g, 3 Wh/kg, 156 W/kg, 3.4 Ω and 63 s. This study demonstrates that the graphene addition in the GMs has a significant effect on the electrochemical behavior of the electrodes.

  19. Surround modulation characteristics of local field potential and spiking activity in primary visual cortex of cat.

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available In primary visual cortex, spiking activity that evoked by stimulus confined in receptive field can be modulated by surround stimulus. This center-surround interaction is hypothesized to be the basis of visual feature integration and segregation. Spiking output has been extensively reported to be surround suppressive. However, less is known about the modulation properties of the local field potential (LFP, which generally reflects synaptic inputs. We simultaneously recorded spiking activity and LFP in the area 17 of anesthetized cats to examine and compare their modulation characteristics. When the stimulus went beyond the classical receptive field, LFP exhibited decreased power along the gamma band (30-100 Hz in most of our recording sites. Further investigation revealed that suppression of the LFP gamma mean power (gLFP depended on the angle between the center and surround orientations. The strongest suppression was induced when center and surround orientations were parallel. Moreover, the surround influence of the gLFP exhibited an asymmetric spatial organization. These results demonstrate that the gLFP has similar but not identical surround modulation properties, as compared to the spiking activity. The spatiotemporal integration of LFP implies that the oscillation and synchronization of local synaptic inputs may have important functions in surround modulation.

  20. Epstein-Barr virus and disease activity in multiple sclerosis

    D. Buljevac (Dragan); H.Z. Flach (Zwenneke); J. Groen (Jan); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); F.G.A. van der Meché (Frans); R.Q. Hintzen (Rogier); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.J.J. van Doornum (Gerard)


    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To study in relapsing-remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) whether exacerbations and brain activity as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are associated with plasma levels of anti-Epstein Barr (EBV) antibodies and EBV DNA. METHODS: This was a prospective study wit

  1. HLA-DR expression and disease activity in ulcerative colitis

    Poulsen, L O; Elling, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt


    In 12 patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC) the rectal epithelial cells were analyzed for HLA-DR antigens by an immunohistochemical technique. The clinical, rectoscopic, and histologic stages were also determined. The investigations were carried out at the beginning of the study and 2 weeks...

  2. Activity of Crohn's disease assessed by colour Doppler ultrasound analysis of the affected loops.

    Esteban, J M; Maldonado, L; Sanchiz, V; Minguez, M; Benages, A


    The aim of this study was to evaluate with colour Doppler ultrasound the vascular changes in the wall of the loops affected by Crohn's disease, and to establish whether these changes reflects clinical or biochemical activity of Crohn's disease. Seventy-nine patients with Crohn's disease (44 with active disease and 35 inactive patients) were studied with frequency- and amplitude-encoded duplex Doppler sonography. A group of 35 healthy volunteers were also included. The exam consisted of the search for colour signals in the walls of the loops affected by Crohn's disease, classifying the degree of vascularity with a simple scoring system into three groups: absence of colour signal (score of 0); weak or scattered colour signals (score of 1); and multiple colour signals or clear identification of vessels in the loops walls (score of 2). Doppler curves were obtained of the detected vessels with measurement of the resistive index (RI). There was a visible increase in the gut walls' vascularity in the active patients compared with those with inactive disease. The mean RI was statistically significantly lower in the gut wall vessels of the patients with active illness than that obtained in the inactive patients. Colour Doppler ultrasound is a useful tool in the assessment of activity in Crohn's disease.

  3. A multi-biomarker disease activity score for monitoring rheumatoid arthritis

    Hirata S


    Full Text Available Shintaro Hirata,1 Nadine Defranoux,2 Kentaro Hanami,1 Kunihiro Yamaoka,3 Yoshiya Tanaka1 1The First Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan; 2Crescendo Bioscience, South San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disease that affects the synovium and results in cartilage degradation, bone erosions, and joint deformities. RA-associated pain, decreased mobility, fatigue, and comorbidities lead to functional disability, impaired quality of life, and shortened life expectancy by 5–10 years. According to the US Centers for Disease Control, RA ranked as the 42nd highest contributor to global disability, with a prevalence of 1.5 million in the USA and 1.24 million in Japan. Synthetic and biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs have improved patient health and disease outcomes. Early diagnosis and intervention to control and decrease disease activity have led to improved patient outcomes. Furthermore, the emergence of a treat-to-target strategy and the definition of remission criteria by the American College of Rheumatology and European League Against Rheumatology have provided a new framework for physicians to achieve better patient outcomes based on regular evaluation of disease activity and assessment of the response to treatment. Improvement is needed, however, in facilitating disease activity assessment and identifying patients at higher risk of radiographic progression and those with smoldering disease who could benefit from more aggressive intervention. An objective disease activity test based on biomarkers measured in the blood that reflects the underlying biological events in addition to information on risk of radiographic progression would fulfill this need. Such a test would provide

  4. [The clinical characteristics of endogenous mental diseases with paroxysm-like disorders].

    Chikovani, G O


    Paroxysmal-like disorders (PLD) were observed in 11 patients with manic-depressive psychosis and in 34 ones with shift-like progredient schizophrenia. 8 variations of the fits were described by the author earlier and included the states from vegetative fits to complex psychotic ones with manifestations of Kandinsky-Clérambault syndrome. Clinical pattern of endogenous psychoses was characterized by considerable presence of affective disorders (both hypomanic and depressive), moreover depressive disturbances were observed more frequently. Debut of PLD was mentioned either before depressions' or in their structure: The appearance of psychotic symptoms in structure of affective phases does not change the character of paroxysmal-like states. It was supposed that endogenous diseases with PLD are the special variant of psychoses.

  5. Do patient characteristics, disease, or treatment explain social inequality in survival from colorectal cancer?

    Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Osler, Merete; Harling, Henrik


    This paper investigates the association between individually measured socioeconomic status (SES) and all-cause survival in colorectal cancer patients, and explores whether factors related to the patient, the disease, or the surgical treatment mediate the observed social gradient. The data were...... on comorbidity from previous hospitalizations and use of medication. Only patients with colorectal cancer as their first primary tumour and those born after 1920 were included. A total of 8763 patients were included in the study. Cox proportional hazard regression models revealed a positive social gradient...... derived from a nationwide clinical database of all adenocarcinomas of the colon or rectum diagnosed in Denmark between 2001 and 2004 (inclusive). These data were linked to those from several central registries providing information on income, education, and housing status, as well as to data...

  6. Radiation-Induced Organizing Pneumonia: A Characteristic Disease that Requires Symptom-Oriented Management

    Otani, Keisuke; Seo, Yuji; Ogawa, Kazuhiko


    Radiation-induced organizing pneumonia (RIOP) is an inflammatory lung disease that is occasionally observed after irradiation to the breast. It is a type of secondary organizing pneumonia that is characterized by infiltrates outside the irradiated volume that are sometimes migratory. Corticosteroids work acutely, but relapse of pneumonia is often experienced. Management of RIOP should simply be symptom-oriented, and the use of corticosteroids should be limited to severe symptoms from the perspective not only of cost-effectiveness but also of cancer treatment. Once steroid therapy is started, it takes a long time to stop it due to frequent relapses. We review RIOP from the perspective of its diagnosis, epidemiology, molecular pathogenesis, and patient management. PMID:28134830

  7. Clinical characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease in Harbin and the prediction of severe cases

    ZHOU Hong; GUO Shu-zhen; ZHOU Hao; ZHU Yue-feng; ZHANG Li-juan; ZHANG Wei


    Background Hand,foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an emerging public health problem in China,not only threatening the health of children,but also causing tremendous loss and burden to both families and society.The aim of this study was to characterize the epidemiology and clinical features of HFMD,and to understand the key factors affecting HFMD in the Harbin region to provide scientific evidence for effective prevention and control strategies.@@Methods Epidemiological and clinical information from 2379 randomly chosen cases of HFMD treated at the Harbin Center for Disease Control and Prevention from May 2008 to November 2011 were analyzed.All cases were separated into common and severe HFMD,with key factors for severe HFMD analyzed using multivariable Logistic regression.@@Results Among the 2379 patients,1798 were common cases and 581 severe cases,14 of which resulted in death.Most cases were in children younger than 5 years.Morbidity peaked in July and was higher in the surrounding country and cities than in Harbin proper.Medical expenses were significantly higher for severe than for common cases (P <0.001).The primary clinical symptoms were fever and erythema; laboratory examination showed leucocytosis together with pneumonia,carditis,and abnormal electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram in severe cases.Multivariable Logistic regression analysis showed that the key factors for severe HFMD were age,morbidity location,morbidity area,fever duration,mouth mucosal symptoms,and abnormal serum levels of neutrophils (NEUT),hemoglobin and glucose (P <0.05).@@Conclusions To improve prognosis,reduce medical expense and prevent the development of severe cases,we should improve the epidemiological detection of HFMD to treat patients quickly.We should also closely monitor children with the EV71 virus,who present with continuous fever as well as abnormal laboratory results,from areas highly susceptible to HFMD attacks.

  8. Characteristics of Macular Edema in Behcet Disease after Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injection

    Ghassemi, Fariba; Mirak, Sohrab Afshari; Chams, Hormoz; Sabour, Siamak; Ahmadabadi, Mehdi Nilli; Davatchi, Fereidoun; Shahram, Farhad


    Purpose: To investigate the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection on macular edema (ME) secondary to Behcet's disease. Methods: This prospective case series included 15 patients with bilateral ME due to Behcet's disease. Intravitreal bevacizumab was injected into the more severely involved eye; the contralateral eye was evaluated as the control. Patients were followed up with comprehensive ocular examination, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography (FA) for a minimum of 6 months by a single ophthalmologist. Results: Patients with a mean age of 30.6 ± 7.4 years received a mean number of 3.3 IVB injections during the 6 months. The mean preinjection vision was 0.6 ± 0.3 and 0.4 ± 0.4 LogMAR in the case and control groups, respectively, with no significant improvement at 6 months. Mean central foveal thickness was 375.3 ± 132.1 and 307.2 ± 84.5 μm in the case and control groups, respectively, and these changed to 401 ± 199.9 (P = 0.65) and 307.7 ± 82.8 μm (P = 0.73) at month 6, respectively. A statistically nonsignificant improvement in ME was observed during the first 3 months in the case group. However, it did not persist up to month 6 on an as-needed basis. IVB injections caused a disproportionate decrease in the thickness of macular subfields. A reduction in disc leakage was observed on FA (P = 0.058). Logistic regression analysis revealed no statistically significant predictive factor for an improvement in visual acuity (VA) and a reduction in foveal thickness. Conclusion: During a 6-month period, IVB injections based on an as-needed protocol provided no statistically significant improvement in VA and ME. PMID:28299006

  9. Co-circulation of multiple hemorrhagic fever diseases with distinct clinical characteristics in Dandong, China.

    Zhi-Hai Chen

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fevers (HF caused by viruses and bacteria are a major public health problem in China and characterized by variable clinical manifestations, such that it is often difficult to achieve accurate diagnosis and treatment. The causes of HF in 85 patients admitted to Dandong hospital, China, between 2011-2012 were determined by serological and PCR tests. Of these, 34 patients were diagnosed with Huaiyangshan hemorrhagic fever (HYSHF, 34 with Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS, one with murine typhus, and one with scrub typhus. Etiologic agents could not be determined in the 15 remaining patients. Phylogenetic analyses of recovered bacterial and viral sequences revealed that the causative infectious agents were closely related to those described in other geographical regions. As these diseases have no distinctive clinical features in their early stage, only 13 patients were initially accurately diagnosed. The distinctive clinical features of HFRS and HYSHF developed during disease progression. Enlarged lymph nodes, cough, sputum, and diarrhea were more common in HYSHF patients, while more HFRS cases presented with headache, sore throat, oliguria, percussion pain kidney area, and petechiae. Additionally, HYSHF patients displayed significantly lower levels of white blood cells (WBC, higher levels of creations kinase (CK and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, while HFRS patients presented with an elevation of blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine (CREA. These clinical features will assist in the accurate diagnosis of both HYSHF and HFRS. Overall, our data reveal the complexity of pathogens causing HFs in a single Chinese hospital, and highlight the need for accurate early diagnosis and a better understanding of their distinctive clinical features.

  10. Therapeutic Role of Rifaximin in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Clinical Implication of Human Pregnane X Receptor Activation

    Cheng, Jie; Yatrik M. Shah; Ma, Xiaochao; Pang, Xiaoyan; Tanaka, Toshiya; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Gonzalez, Frank J.


    Human pregnane X receptor (PXR) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Rifaximin, a human PXR activator, is in clinical trials for treatment of IBD and has demonstrated efficacy in Crohn's disease and active ulcerative colitis. In the current study, the protective and therapeutic role of rifaximin in IBD and its respective mechanism were investigated. PXR-humanized (hPXR), wild-type, and Pxr-null mice were treated with rifaximin in the dextran sulfate sod...

  11. Effect of treatment of bacterial vaginosis on disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis

    M Kalhor; M Abbasi; L. Amini; A. Barikani


    Background: Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most common autoimmune diseases in women of reproductive age. Studies have shown that bacterial vaginosis can affect the activity of rheumatoid arthritis. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treatment of bacterial vaginosis on disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: This interventional study was conducted in 100 women with rheumatoid arthritis (50 women with bacterial vaginosis and 50 women without b...

  12. Microencapsulation by spray drying of Lannea microcarpa extract: Technological characteristics and antioxidant activity.

    Francesca Sansone


    Full Text Available Context: A functional extract from Lannea microcarpa (Lm, possess interesting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the unprocessed dried extract occurs as sticky and low-water-soluble material showing critical properties for industrial applications. The unprocessed dried extract is not always enough stable to preserve its functional properties, also giving practical difficulties for the manufacturing. Aims: This research aimed to produce Lm extract microparticles with enhanced functional stability and technological characteristics by spray-drying. Methods: Lm extract was microencapsulated by spray-drying using a sodium-carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC based matrix. Physicochemical and technological characteristics (determined by UV, HPLC, LLS, SEM, DSC, and in vitro dissolution tests, as well as antioxidant properties (DPPH-test of the resulting powder (LmC were examined. Results: The produced spray dried microparticles showed satisfying encapsulation efficiency, good functional stability and enhanced technological properties. The selected carrier and process conditions led to a stable and handling microencapsulated powder form with improved water dissolution rate. Moreover, the matrix was also able to preserve the antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds-rich extract. Conclusions: The made-up powder resulted in a functional component that can be used with great potential in cosmetics, foods or nutraceutical products.

  13. Characteristics of Pneumatic Tuners of Torsional Oscillation as a Result of Patent Activity

    Homišin Jaroslav


    Full Text Available Mechanical systems with combustion engines, compressors, pumps and fans, can be characterized as torsional oscillating mechanical systems (TOMS. It is therefore necessary to control their dangerous torsional vibrations. It was confirmed that dangerous torsional vibration can be reduced to acceptable level by an appropriate adjustment, respectively by tuning the TOMS. According to several authors, the most appropriate way of system tuning is application of suitable flexible element, which is flexible shaft coupling. It turned out that one of the types of shaft couplings, which are particularly suited to meeting this objective are pneumatic flexible shaft couplings, to act as so-called pneumatic tuners of torsional oscillations. The issue of research and development of pneumatic tuners of torsional oscillations, among other things is, long-term in the focus of the author. The existence of tuners creates the opportunity to develop new ways of tuning torsional oscillating mechanical systems. The author of the scientific article will focus on the characteristics of developed pneumatic tuners of torsional oscillation in terms of their design, construction, function, significance advantages and conditions imposed on pneumatic tuners based on the results of his patent activity. Simultaneously provides information about the characteristic properties of pneumatic tuners of torsional oscillations in the general design.

  14. Singular characteristics and unique chemical bond activation mechanisms of photocatalytic reactions on plasmonic nanostructures

    Christopher, Phillip; Xin, Hongliang; Marimuthu, Andiappan; Linic, Suljo


    The field of heterogeneous photocatalysis has almost exclusively focused on semiconductor photocatalysts. Herein, we show that plasmonic metallic nanostructures represent a new family of photocatalysts. We demonstrate that these photocatalysts exhibit fundamentally different behaviour compared with semiconductors. First, we show that photocatalytic reaction rates on excited plasmonic metallic nanostructures exhibit a super-linear power law dependence on light intensity (rate ∝intensityn, with n > 1), at significantly lower intensity than required for super-linear behaviour on extended metal surfaces. We also demonstrate that, in sharp contrast to semiconductor photocatalysts, photocatalytic quantum efficiencies on plasmonic metallic nanostructures increase with light intensity and operating temperature. These unique characteristics of plasmonic metallic nanostructures suggest that this new family of photocatalysts could prove useful for many heterogeneous catalytic processes that cannot be activated using conventional thermal processes on metals or photocatalytic processes on semiconductors.

  15. Colorimetric characterization models based on colorimetric characteristics evaluation for active matrix organic light emitting diode panels.

    Gong, Rui; Xu, Haisong; Tong, Qingfen


    The colorimetric characterization of active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) panels suffers from their poor channel independence. Based on the colorimetric characteristics evaluation of channel independence and chromaticity constancy, an accurate colorimetric characterization method, namely, the polynomial compensation model (PC model) considering channel interactions was proposed for AMOLED panels. In this model, polynomial expressions are employed to calculate the relationship between the prediction errors of XYZ tristimulus values and the digital inputs to compensate the XYZ prediction errors of the conventional piecewise linear interpolation assuming the variable chromaticity coordinates (PLVC) model. The experimental results indicated that the proposed PC model outperformed other typical characterization models for the two tested AMOLED smart-phone displays and for the professional liquid crystal display monitor as well.

  16. Influence of the physico-chemical characteristics of chito-oligosaccharides (COS) on antioxidant activity.

    Mengíbar, Marian; Mateos-Aparicio, Inmaculada; Miralles, Beatriz; Heras, Angeles


    Chito-oligosaccharides (COS) are being used as important functional materials for many applications due to their bioactivities. The aim of this research has been to assess the relationship between the physico-chemical characteristics, average molecular weight (Mw), acetylation degree (DA), polymerization degree (DP) and specially sequence composition determined by MALDI-TOF MS and the antioxidant properties of COS. These oligosaccharides were obtained by enzymatic depolymerization with chitosanase and lysozyme using a specific chitosan and its reacetylated product. The COS fraction below 5 kDa obtained from chitosanase depolymerization showed the highest capacity to scavenge DPPH radicals and to reduce Fe(3+). A correlation was found between the relative amount of molecules with a given A/D (acetylated vs deacetylated units) ratio within the COS and their antioxidant activity, which could be used to predict the antioxidant behavior of a fraction of chito-oligosaccharides.

  17. The relationship between infliximab concentrations, antibodies to infliximab and disease activity in Crohn's disease

    Vande Casteele, Niels; Khanna, Reena; Levesque, Barrett G.; Stitt, Larry; Zou, G.Y.; Singh, Sharat; Lockton, Steve; Hauenstein, Scott; Ohrmund, Linda; Greenberg, Gordon R; Rutgeerts, Paul; Gils, Ann; William J Sandborn; Vermeire, Severine; Feagan, Brian G.


    Objective Although low infliximab trough concentrations and antibodies to infliximab (ATI) are associated with poor outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease (CD), the clinical relevance of ATI in patients with adequate infliximab concentrations is uncertain. We evaluated this question using an assay sensitive for identification of ATI in the presence of infliximab. Design In an observational study, 1487 trough serum samples from 483 patients with CD who participated in four clinical studies ...

  18. Characteristics, chemical compositions and biological activities of propolis from Al-Bahah, Saudi Arabia

    Elnakady, Yasser A.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.; Franke, Raimo; Abutaha, Nael; Ebaid, Hossam; Baabbad, Mohannad; Omar, Mohamed O. M.; Al Ghamdi, Ahmad A.


    Propolis has been used to treat several diseases since ancient times, and is an important source of bioactive natural compounds and drug derivatives. These properties have kept the interest of investigators around the world, leading to the investigation of the chemical and biological properties and application of propolis. In this report, the chemical constituents that are responsible for the anticancer activities of propolis were analyzed. The propolis was sourced from Al-Baha in the southern part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Standard protocols for chemical fractionation and bioactivity-guided chemical analysis were used to identify the bio-active ethyl acetate fraction. The extraction was performed in methanol and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major compounds are triterpenoids, with a relative concentration of 74.0%; steroids, with a relative concentration of 9.8%; and diterpenoids, with a relative concentration of 7.9%. The biological activity was characterized using different approaches and cell-based assays. Propolis was found to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner through apoptosis. Immunofluorescence staining with anti-α-tubulin antibodies and cell cycle analysis indicated that tubulin and/or microtubules are the cellular targets of the L-acetate fraction. This study demonstrates the importance of Saudi propolis as anti-cancer drug candidates.

  19. Gout disease-specific quality of life and the association with gout characteristics

    Jan D Hirsch


    Full Text Available Jan D Hirsch1,4, Robert Terkeltaub4, Dinesh Khanna5, Jasvinder Singh6, Andrew Sarkin2, Micki Shieh2, Arthur Kavanaugh3, Susan J Lee3,41Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Health Services Research, 3Center for Innovative  Therapy, Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Immunology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; 4Veterans Administration San Diego Healthcare System, La Jolla, CA, USA; 5Department of Medicine/Rheumatology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 6Department of Medicine/Rheumatology, Minneapolis VA Healthcare System, Minneapolis MN, USAPurpose: Assess the association of gout characteristics with health-related quality of life (HRQoL using a new gout-specific HRQoL instrument, the Gout Impact Scale (GIS.Patients and methods: Gout patients completed the GIS (five scales [0–100 score each] representing impact of gout overall [three scales] and during an attack [two scales] and other questions describing recent gout attacks, treatment, gout history, comorbidities, and demographics. Physicians confirmed gout diagnosis, presence of tophi, and most recent serum uric acid (sUA level. Relationships between gout characteristics and GIS scores were examined using analysis of variance and correlation analyses.Results: The majority of patients were male (90.2% with a mean age of 62.2 (±11.8 years. Approximately one-half (49.7% reported ≥3 gout attacks in the past year and the majority (57.9% reported experiencing gout-related pain between attacks. Patients had appreciable concern about their gout (“gout concern overall” scale, 63.1 ± 28.0 but believed their treatment was adequate (“unmet gout treatment need” scale (38.2 ± 21.4 below scale mid-point. Significantly worse GIS scores were associated with increasing attack frequency and greater amount of time with pain between attacks (most scales, P < 0.001. Common objective measures such

  20. Prevalence of vertebral fractures in a disease activity steered cohort of patients with early active rheumatoid arthritis

    Dirven Linda


    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the prevalence of vertebral fractures (VFs after 5 years of disease activity score (DAS-steered treatment in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA and to investigate the association of VFs with disease activity, functional ability and bone mineral density (BMD over time. Methods Five-year radiographs of the spine of 275 patients in the BeSt study, a randomized trial comparing four treatment strategies, were used. Treatment was DAS-steered (DAS ≤ 2.4. A height reduction >20% in one vertebra was defined a vertebral fracture. With linear mixed models, DAS and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ scores over 5 years were compared for patients with and without VFs. With generalized estimating equations the association between BMD and VFs was determined. Results VFs were observed in 41/275 patients (15%. No difference in prevalence was found when stratified for gender, prednisone use and menopausal status. Disease activity over time was higher in patients with VFs, mean difference 0.20 (95% CI: 0.05-0.36, and also HAQ scores were higher, independent of disease activity, with a mean difference of 0.12 (95% CI: 0.02-0.2. Age was associated with VFs (OR 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.09, mean BMD in spine and hip over time were not (OR 95% CI, 0.99: 0.78-1.25 and 0.94: 0.65-1.36, respectively. Conclusion After 5 years of DAS-steered treatment, 15% of these RA patients had VFs. Higher age was associated with the presence of VFs, mean BMD in hip and spine were not. Patients with VFs have greater functional disability over time and a higher disease activity, suggesting that VFs may be prevented by optimal disease activity suppression.

  1. A Review of Botanical Characteristics, Traditional Usage, Chemical Components, Pharmacological Activities, and Safety of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC.

    Zareisedehizadeh, Sogand; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Koh, Hwee-Ling


    Pereskia bleo, a leafy cactus, is a medicinal plant native to West and South America and distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. It is traditionally used as a dietary vegetable, barrier hedge, water purifier, and insect repellant and for maintaining health, detoxification, prevention of cancer, and/or treatment of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, stomach ache, muscle pain, and inflammatory diseases such as dermatitis and rheumatism. The aim of this paper was to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the botanical characteristics, traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and safety of P. bleo. A literature search using MEDLINE (via PubMed), Science direct, Scopus and Google scholar and China Academic Journals Full-Text Database (CNKI) and available eBooks and books in the National University of Singapore libraries in English and Chinese was conducted. The following keywords were used: Pereskia bleo, Pereskia panamensis, Pereskia corrugata, Rhodocacus corrugatus, Rhodocacus bleo, Cactus panamensis, Cactus bleo, Spinach cactus, wax rose, Perescia, and Chinese rose. This review revealed the association between the traditional usage of P. bleo and reported pharmacological properties in the literature. Further investigation on the pharmacological properties and phytoconstituents of P. bleo is warranted to further exploit its potentials as a source of novel therapeutic agents or lead compounds.

  2. A Review of Botanical Characteristics, Traditional Usage, Chemical Components, Pharmacological Activities, and Safety of Pereskia bleo (Kunth DC

    Sogand Zareisedehizadeh


    Full Text Available Pereskia bleo, a leafy cactus, is a medicinal plant native to West and South America and distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. It is traditionally used as a dietary vegetable, barrier hedge, water purifier, and insect repellant and for maintaining health, detoxification, prevention of cancer, and/or treatment of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, stomach ache, muscle pain, and inflammatory diseases such as dermatitis and rheumatism. The aim of this paper was to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the botanical characteristics, traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and safety of P. bleo. A literature search using MEDLINE (via PubMed, Science direct, Scopus and Google scholar and China Academic Journals Full-Text Database (CNKI and available eBooks and books in the National University of Singapore libraries in English and Chinese was conducted. The following keywords were used: Pereskia bleo, Pereskia panamensis, Pereskia corrugata, Rhodocacus corrugatus, Rhodocacus bleo, Cactus panamensis, Cactus bleo, Spinach cactus, wax rose, Perescia, and Chinese rose. This review revealed the association between the traditional usage of P. bleo and reported pharmacological properties in the literature. Further investigation on the pharmacological properties and phytoconstituents of P. bleo is warranted to further exploit its potentials as a source of novel therapeutic agents or lead compounds.

  3. Upregulation of calpain activity precedes tau phosphorylation and loss of synaptic proteins in Alzheimer's disease brain.

    Kurbatskaya, Ksenia; Phillips, Emma C; Croft, Cara L; Dentoni, Giacomo; Hughes, Martina M; Wade, Matthew A; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Troakes, Claire; O'Neill, Michael J; Perez-Nievas, Beatriz G; Hanger, Diane P; Noble, Wendy


    Alterations in calcium homeostasis are widely reported to contribute to synaptic degeneration and neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease. Elevated cytosolic calcium concentrations lead to activation of the calcium-sensitive cysteine protease, calpain, which has a number of substrates known to be abnormally regulated in disease. Analysis of human brain has shown that calpain activity is elevated in AD compared to controls, and that calpain-mediated proteolysis regulates the activity of important disease-associated proteins including the tau kinases cyclin-dependent kinase 5 and glycogen kinase synthase-3. Here, we sought to investigate the likely temporal association between these changes during the development of sporadic AD using Braak staged post-mortem brain. Quantification of protein amounts in these tissues showed increased activity of calpain-1 from Braak stage III onwards in comparison to controls, extending previous findings that calpain-1 is upregulated at end-stage disease, and suggesting that activation of calcium-sensitive signalling pathways are sustained from early stages of disease development. Increases in calpain-1 activity were associated with elevated activity of the endogenous calpain inhibitor, calpastatin, itself a known calpain substrate. Activation of the tau kinases, glycogen-kinase synthase-3 and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 were also found to occur in Braak stage II-III brain, and these preceded global elevations in tau phosphorylation and the loss of post-synaptic markers. In addition, we identified transient increases in total amyloid precursor protein and pre-synaptic markers in Braak stage II-III brain, that were lost by end stage Alzheimer's disease, that may be indicative of endogenous compensatory responses to the initial stages of neurodegeneration. These findings provide insight into the molecular events that underpin the progression of Alzheimer's disease, and further highlight the rationale for investigating novel treatment

  4. Clinical and bacteriological characteristics of invasive pneumococcal disease after pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine implementation in Salvador, Brazil.

    Leite, Carolina Regis; Azevedo, Jailton; Galvão, Vivian Santos; Moreno-Carvalho, Otávio; Reis, Joice Neves; Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana


    Invasive pneumococcal disease is a relevant public health problem in Brazil, especially among children and the elderly. In July/2010 a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced to the immunization schedule of Brazilian children under two years of age. Between July/2010 and December/2013 we conducted a case-series study on invasive pneumococcal disease in Salvador, Brazil to describe the clinical and bacteriological profile of invasive pneumococcal disease cases during the post-implementation period. Eighty-two cases were eligible. Mean age was 31 years (interquartile range, 3-42); 17.1% and 30.5% were under 2 years and 5 years, respectively. Pneumococcal meningitis (n=64, 78.1%), bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia (n=12, 14.6%) and bacteraemia (n=6, 7.3%) were the clinical syndromes identified. Thirty-three different serotypes were found. Of these, serotype 14 (n=12, 14.6%) was the most common, followed by 23F (n=10, 12.2%), 12F (n=8, 9.8%), 18C (n=5, 6.1%) and 6B (n=5, 6.1%). Investigations conducted in Salvador in the pre-vaccine period did not identify serotype 12F as one of the most prevalent serotypes. Increase of serotype 12F was observed in different regions of Brazil, in the post-vaccine period. Among children under two years of age, the target group for 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, 11 (78.6%) of the 14 isolated strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae belonged to vaccine serotypes; at least 50% of these children were not vaccinated. The relatively recent implementation of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Brazil reinforces the need to maintain an active surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease cases, considering the possible increase of invasive pneumococcal disease cases related to non-vaccine serotypes and the changes on the clinical presentation of the disease.

  5. Physical activity in people with asbestos related pleural disease and dust-related interstitial lung disease: An observational study.

    Dale, Marita T; McKeough, Zoe J; Munoz, Phillip A; Corte, Peter; Bye, Peter T P; Alison, Jennifer A


    This study aimed to measure the levels of physical activity (PA) in people with dust-related pleural and interstitial lung diseases and to compare these levels of PA to a healthy population. There is limited data on PA in this patient population and no previous studies have compared PA in people with dust-related respiratory diseases to a healthy control group. Participants with a diagnosis of a dust-related respiratory disease including asbestosis and asbestos related pleural disease (ARPD) and a healthy age- and gender-matched population wore the SenseWear(®) Pro3 armband for 9 days. Six-minute walk distance, Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form health survey and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were also measured. Fifty participants were recruited and 46 completed the study; 22 with ARPD, 10 with dust-related interstitial lung disease (ILD) and 14 healthy age-matched participants. The mean (standard deviation) steps/day were 6097 (1939) steps/day for dust-related ILD, 9150 (3392) steps/day for ARPD and 10,630 (3465) steps/day for healthy participants. Compared with the healthy participants, dust-related ILD participants were significantly less active as measured by steps/day ((mean difference 4533 steps/day (95% confidence interval (CI): 1888-7178)) and energy expenditure, ((mean difference 512 calories (95% CI: 196-827)) and spent significantly less time engaging in moderate, vigorous or very vigorous activities (i.e. >3 metabolic equivalents; mean difference 1.2 hours/day (95% CI: 0.4-2.0)). There were no differences in levels of PA between healthy participants and those with ARPD. PA was reduced in people with dust-related ILD but not those with ARPD when compared with healthy age and gender-matched individuals.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence characteristics of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium isolates from healthy and diseased pigs in Korea.

    Tamang, Migma Dorji; Gurung, Mamata; Nam, Hyang-Mi; Moon, Dong Chan; Jang, Geum-Chan; Jung, Suk-Chan; Lim, Suk-Kyung


    This study compared the antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalence of virulence genes in Salmonella enterica Typhimurium isolated from healthy and diseased pigs in Korea. A total of 456 Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from healthy (n = 238) and diseased (n = 218) pigs between 1998 and 2011 were investigated. In total, 93.4% of the Salmonella Typhimurium isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent tested. The isolates were most often resistant to tetracycline (85.7%), followed by streptomycin (83.6%), nalidixic acid (67.3%), ampicillin (49.3%), chloramphenicol (42.8%), and gentamicin (37.1%). Moreover, multidrug resistance phenotype and resistance to ampicillin, florfenicol, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, neomycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline were significantly higher (P invA, spiA, msgA, sipB, prgH, spaN, tolC, lpfC, sifA, sitC, and sopB virulence genes. The prevalence of orgA, pagC, and iroN were 50.2, 74.1, and 91.0%, respectively, whereas isolates carrying cdtB (1.5%), pefA (7.0%), and spvB (14.9%) were identified much less frequently. Furthermore, the prevalence of invA, lpfC, orgA, pagC, and iroN was significantly higher (P < 0.01) among the isolates from the diseased pigs than in isolates from the healthy pigs. Our results demonstrated that, among diseased pigs, there was significantly higher resistance to some antimicrobials and greater prevalence of some virulence genes than in healthy pigs, indicating the role these factors play in pathogenesis. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates that carry virulence-associated genes are potentially more dangerous and constitute a public health concern. Thus, continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and virulence characteristics in Salmonella is essential.

  7. The Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-communicable Diseases: study design and baseline characteristics.

    Lixin Na

    Full Text Available Diet and nutrition have been reported to be associated with many common chronic diseases and blood-based assessment would be vital to investigate the association and mechanism, however, blood-based prospective studies are limited. The Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-communicable Diseases was set up in 2010. From 2010 to 2012, 9,734 participants completed the baseline survey, including demographic characteristics, dietary intake, lifestyles and physical condition, and anthropometrics. A re-survey on 490 randomly selected participants was done by using the same methods which were employed in the baseline survey. For all participants, the mean age was 50 years and 36% of them were men. Approximately 99.4 % of cohort members donated blood samples. The mean total energy intake was 2671.7 kcal/day in men and 2245.9 kcal/day in women, the mean body mass index was 25.7 kg/m2 in men and 24.6 kg/m2 in women, with 18.4% being obese (≥ 28 kg/m2, 12.7% being diabetic, and 29.5% being hypertensive. A good agreement was obtained for the physical measurements between the baseline survey and re-survey. The resources from the cohort and its fasting and postprandial blood samples collected both at baseline and in each follow-up will be valuable and powerful in investigating relationship between diet, nutrition and chronic diseases and discovering novel blood biomarkers and the metabolism of these biomarkers related to chronic diseases.

  8. Characteristics of Agraphia in Chinese Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Jiong Zhou; Biao Jiang; Xian-Hong Huang; Lin-Lin Kong; Hong-Lei Li


    Background:Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) manifest progressive decline in writing abilities.Most studies on agraphia in AD have been performed in the alphabetic system,such as English.However,these findings may not be applicable to other written language systems.The unique features of the Chinese written script could affect the patterns of agraphia in Chinese AD patients.The aim of this study was to explore the features of writing errors in Chinese patients with AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI),as well as to study the relationship between their writing errors and neuropsychological functions.Methods:In this study,we performed an observational study in a group of subjects including 17 AD patients,14 patients with a-MCI,and 16 elderly healthy controls.We analyzed the writing errors in these subjects and also studied the relationship between their writing errors and neuropsychological functions.Results:Our study showed that in patients whose mother tongue is Chinese,writing ability was comparatively well preserved in the MCI phase but significantly impaired when the disease progressed to the stage of AD.The writing errors showed corresponding increase with the severity of cognition decline,both in the types of errors and rate of occurrence.Analysis of the writing errors showed that word substitution and unintelligible words were the most frequent error types that occurred in all the three study groups.The occurrence rate of unintelligible words was significantly higher in the AD group compared with the a-MCI group (P =0.024) and control group (P =0.018).In addition,the occurrence rates of word substitution were also significantly higher in AD (P =0.013) and a-MCI groups (P =0.037) than that of control group.However,errors such as totally no response,visuospatial impairment,paragraph agraphia,ideograph,and perseverative writing errors were only seen in AD group.Besides,we also found a high occurrence rate of visuoconstructional errors (13.3

  9. Electrophysiologic characteristics of tremor in Parkinson?s disease and essential tremor

    Ederson Cichaczewski


    Full Text Available Tremor in essential tremor (ET and Parkinson’s disease (PD usually present specific electrophysiologic profiles, however amplitude and frequency may have wide variations. Objective: To present the electrophysiologic findings in PD and ET. Method: Patients were assessed at rest, with posture and action. Seventeen patients with ET and 62 with PD were included. PD cases were clustered into three groups: predominant rest tremor; tremor with similar intensity at rest, posture and during kinetic task; and predominant kinetic tremor. Results: Patients with PD presented tremors with average frequency of 5.29±1.18 Hz at rest, 5.79±1.39 Hz with posture and 6.48±1.34 Hz with the kinetic task. Tremor in ET presented with an average frequency of 5.97±1.1 Hz at rest, 6.18±1 Hz with posture and 6.53±1.2 Hz with kinetic task. Seven (41.2% also showed rest tremor. Conclusion: The tremor analysis alone using the methodology described here, is not sufficient to differentiate tremor in ET and PD.

  10. Physician personal characteristics influencing long-term treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases

    Strokova E.V.


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify the peculiarities of a doctor personality, affecting long-term therapy in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Materials and methods: To determine the type of temperament, the presence and intensity of the syndrome of emotional burnout and capacity for empathy therapists and cardiologists were asked to fill in a number of questionnaires. Each doctor had a group of patients contacting by telephone for a year after the discharge from the hospital. During the telephone contact, the patients were asked about the continuation of their therapy recommended in the hospital, the regularity of therapy, the frequency of absence, and the assessment of a physician by the patients. Results: 35 questionnaires were suitable for interpretation. Through one year after the discharge from the hospital it was able to contact with 147 patients, 18.4% (27 of patients completely stopped the treatment by recommended drugs. Positive assessment of physicians was associated with the continuation of the therapy by recommended drugs and regularity of drug taking (p=0,03. Patients assessed physicians positively more often in cases of low level of emotional state, high level of depersonalization (cynicism and the reduction of personal accomplishment (feeling of professional inefficiency in a doctor. Conclusion: Assessment of physicians by patients is reliably and significantly influenced by continuation of long-term therapy and regularity of drug taking.

  11. Characteristics of the therapeutic effect of low-frequency magnetic field in some ENT diseases

    Ozinkovskiy, V.V.

    The purpose of this investigation was to study by infrared thermography the influence of a pulsating magnetic field on the superficial capillaries of the soft tissues of ENT organs and the temperature of tissues in certain ENT diseases. Studies were performed on thirty-six patients, 19 to 68 years of age, including 26 women and 10 men. The patients were subdivided into three groups: those with chronic catarrhal and hyperplastic laryngitis, those with chronic subatrophic pharyngitis, and those with neuro-vegetative vasomotor rhinitis. The patients were treated with a Polyus-1 Soviet magnetotherapeutic apparatus using a pulsating magnetic field with a frequency of 50 Hz in continuous mode at four different intensities in ten daily sessions of fifteen minutes each. Clinical observations and thermographic studies indicated that immediately after completion of the course of magnetotherapy there was clinical improvement and equalization of thermoasymmetry, by an increase or decrease in ENT organs exposed to the magnetic field. The method of thermography therefore allows an objective evaluation of the results of magnetotherapy in patients with ENT pathology. 6 references, 2 figures.

  12. Quantitative characteristics of the foot-and-mouth disease carrier state under natural conditions in India.

    Hayer, S S; Ranjan, R; Biswal, J K; Subramaniam, S; Mohapatra, J K; Sharma, G K; Rout, M; Dash, B B; Das, B; Prusty, B R; Sharma, A K; Stenfeldt, C; Perez, A; Rodriguez, L L; Pattnaik, B; VanderWaal, K; Arzt, J


    The goal of this study was to characterize the properties and duration of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) carrier state and associated serological responses subsequent to vaccination and naturally occurring infection at two farms in northern India. Despite previous vaccination of cattle in these herds, clinical signs of FMD occurred in October 2013 within a subset of animals at the farms containing juvenile-yearling heifers and steers (Farm A) and adult dairy cattle (Farm B). Subsequent to the outbreak, FMD virus (FMDV) asymptomatic carriers were identified in both herds by seroreactivity to FMDV non-structural proteins and detection of FMDV genomic RNA in oropharyngeal fluid. Carriers' seroreactivity and FMDV genome detection status were subsequently monitored monthly for 23 months. The mean extinction time of the carrier state was 13.1 ± 0.2 months, with extinction having occurred significantly faster amongst adult dairy cattle at Farm B compared to younger animals at Farm A. The rate of decrease in the proportion of carrier animals was calculated to be 0.07 per month. Seroprevalence against FMDV non-structural proteins decreased over the course of the study period, but was found to increase transiently following repeated vaccinations. These data provide novel insights into viral and host factors associated with the FMDV carrier state under natural conditions. The findings reported herein may be relevant to field veterinarians and governmental regulatory entities engaged in FMD response and control measures.

  13. Correlation between the Modified Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 and the European Consensus Lupus Activity Measurement in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Sato, J O; Corrente, J E; Saad-Magalhães, C


    Objective The objective of this study was to assess Modified Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) and European Consensus Lupus Activity Measurement (ECLAM) disease activity correlation in addition to their respective correlation to Pediatric Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) Damage Index (Ped-SDI), in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE). Methods The activity indices were scored retrospectively and summarized by adjusted means during follow-up. The Ped-SDI was scored during the last visit for those with more than six months follow-up. Pearson correlation between the Modified SLEDAI-2K and ECLAM, as well as Spearman correlations between the Modified SLEDAI-2K, ECLAM, and Ped-SDI were calculated. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated for both activity indices discriminating damage measured by Ped-SDI. Results Thirty-seven patients with mean age at diagnosis 11 ± 2.9 years and mean follow-up time 3.2 ± 2.4 years were studied. The Modified SLEDAI-2K and ECLAM adjusted means were highly correlated ( r = 0.78, p  0.7, p < 0.001), but Modified SLEDAI-2K and ECLAM correlation with Ped-SDI was only moderate. ROC analysis discriminant performance for both activity indices resulted in area under curve (AUC) of 0.74 and 0.73 for Modified SLEDAI-2K and ECLAM, respectively. Conclusion The high correlation found between the Modified SLEDAI-2K and ECLAM adjusted means indicated that both tools can be equally useful for longitudinal estimates of JSLE activity.

  14. Effect of treatment of bacterial vaginosis on disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis

    M. Kalhor


    Full Text Available Background: Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most common autoimmune diseases in women of reproductive age. Studies have shown that bacterial vaginosis can affect the activity of rheumatoid arthritis. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treatment of bacterial vaginosis on disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: This interventional study was conducted in 100 women with rheumatoid arthritis (50 women with bacterial vaginosis and 50 women without bacterial vaginosis referred to the Rheumatology clinic in Tehran during 2013. The activity of rheumatoid arthritis was assessed by DAS-28 in both groups before the study. The women were treated with oral metronidazole 500 mg twice daily for one week in the intervention group. The disease activity was also assessed in both groups after the study. Data were analyzed using T-test, Chi-square test, and ANOVA. Findings: The disease activity was not significantly different between the two the groups before the study. But the disease activity in the intervention group was significantly lower than the control group after th