WorldWideScience

Sample records for activity combined models

  1. Advanced Performance Modeling with Combined Passive and Active Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dovrolis, Constantine [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Sim, Alex [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-04-15

    To improve the efficiency of resource utilization and scheduling of scientific data transfers on high-speed networks, the "Advanced Performance Modeling with combined passive and active monitoring" (APM) project investigates and models a general-purpose, reusable and expandable network performance estimation framework. The predictive estimation model and the framework will be helpful in optimizing the performance and utilization of networks as well as sharing resources with predictable performance for scientific collaborations, especially in data intensive applications. Our prediction model utilizes historical network performance information from various network activity logs as well as live streaming measurements from network peering devices. Historical network performance information is used without putting extra load on the resources by active measurement collection. Performance measurements collected by active probing is used judiciously for improving the accuracy of predictions.

  2. Modelling of the Secondary Clarifier Combined with the Activated Sludge Model no. 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, René; Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    Modelling of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants is today generally based on the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 combined with a very simple model for the secondary settler. This paper describes the development of a model for the secondary clarifier based on the general flux theory for zone...

  3. Modelling of the Secondary Clarifier Combined with the Activated Sludge Model no. 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, René; Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    settling, which can be used in combination with the Activated Sludge Model to form a dynamic computer model/program for a wastewater treatment plant. In addition to the flux model, the developed model includes a simple model for predicting the contents of particulate components in the effluent. This latter......Modelling of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants is today generally based on the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 combined with a very simple model for the secondary settler. This paper describes the development of a model for the secondary clarifier based on the general flux theory for zone...... model is a purely empirical model, which connects the effluent quality with the hydraulic load, suspended solids load and the nitrate load. The paper describes the model and gives some basic examples on computer simulations and verification of the model....

  4. Combining fire and erosion modeling to target forest management activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Elliot; Mary Ellen Miller; Nic Enstice

    2015-01-01

    Forests deliver a number of important ecosystem services including clean water. When forests are disturbed by wildfire, the timing, quantity and quality of runoff are altered. A modeling study was carried out in a forested watershed in California to determine the risk of wildfire, and the potential post-fire sediment delivery from approximately 6-ha hillslope polygons...

  5. Modelling Cr(VI) removal by a combined carbon-activated sludge system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco, A. Micaela Ferro [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Criotecnologia de Alimentos (CIDCA), CONICET, Fac. de Cs. Exactas, UNLP. 47 y 116 (B1900AJJ), La Plata (Argentina); Contreras, Edgardo M. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Criotecnologia de Alimentos (CIDCA), CONICET, Fac. de Cs. Exactas, UNLP. 47 y 116 (B1900AJJ), La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: econtrer@quimica.unlp.edu.ar; Zaritzky, Noemi E. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Criotecnologia de Alimentos (CIDCA), CONICET, Fac. de Cs. Exactas, UNLP. 47 y 116 (B1900AJJ), La Plata (Argentina); Fac. de Ingenieria, UNLP. 47 y 1 (B1900AJJ), La Plata (Argentina)

    2008-01-15

    The combined carbon-activated sludge process has been proposed as an alternative to protect the biomass against toxic substances in wastewaters; however, the information about the effect of powdered-activated carbon (PAC) addition in activated sludge reactors for the treatment of wastewaters containing Cr(VI) is limited. The objectives of the present study were: (a) to evaluate the removal of hexavalent chromium by (i) activated sludge microorganisms in aerobic batch reactors, (ii) powdered-activated carbon, and (iii) the combined action of powdered-activated carbon and biomass; (b) to propose mathematical models that interpret the experimental results. Different Cr(VI) removal systems were tested: (S1) biomass (activated sludge), (S2) PAC, and (S3) the combined activated carbon-biomass system. A Monod-based mathematical model was used to describe the kinetics of Cr(VI) removal in the system S1. A first-order kinetics with respect to Cr(VI) and PAC respectively, was proposed to model the removal of Cr(VI) in the system S2. Cr(VI) removal in the combined carbon-biomass system (S3) was faster than both Cr(VI) removal using PAC or activated sludge individually. Results showed that the removal of Cr(VI) using the activated carbon-biomass system (S3) was adequately described by combining the kinetic equations proposed for the systems S1 and S2.

  6. RESEARCH ON ACTIVE VIBRATION CONTROL BASED ON COMBINED MODEL FOR COUPLED SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Junchuan; Zhao Guoqun; Song Kongjie

    2004-01-01

    A novel combined model of the vibration control for the coupled flexible system and its general mathematic description are developed. In presented model, active and passive controls as well as force and moment controls are combined into a single unit to achieve the efficient vibration control of the flexible structures by multi-approaches. Considering the complexity of the energy transmission in the vibrating system, the transmission channels of the power flow transmitted into the foundation are discussed, and the general forces and the corresponding velocities are combined into a single function, respectively. Under the control strategy of the minimum power flow, the transmission characteristics of the power flow are investigated. From the presented numerical examples, it is obvious that the analytical model is effective, and both force and moment controls are able to depress vibration energy substantially.

  7. Discovering anti-platelet drug combinations with an integrated model of activator-inhibitor relationships, activator-activator synergies and inhibitor-inhibitor synergies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Lombardi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Identifying effective therapeutic drug combinations that modulate complex signaling pathways in platelets is central to the advancement of effective anti-thrombotic therapies. However, there is no systems model of the platelet that predicts responses to different inhibitor combinations. We developed an approach which goes beyond current inhibitor-inhibitor combination screening to efficiently consider other signaling aspects that may give insights into the behaviour of the platelet as a system. We investigated combinations of platelet inhibitors and activators. We evaluated three distinct strands of information, namely: activator-inhibitor combination screens (testing a panel of inhibitors against a panel of activators; inhibitor-inhibitor synergy screens; and activator-activator synergy screens. We demonstrated how these analyses may be efficiently performed, both experimentally and computationally, to identify particular combinations of most interest. Robust tests of activator-activator synergy and of inhibitor-inhibitor synergy required combinations to show significant excesses over the double doses of each component. Modeling identified multiple effects of an inhibitor of the P2Y12 ADP receptor, and complementarity between inhibitor-inhibitor synergy effects and activator-inhibitor combination effects. This approach accelerates the mapping of combination effects of compounds to develop combinations that may be therapeutically beneficial. We integrated the three information sources into a unified model that predicted the benefits of a triple drug combination targeting ADP, thromboxane and thrombin signaling.

  8. Combined Active and Reactive Power Control of Wind Farms based on Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Wang, Jianhui;

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a combined wind farm controller based on Model Predictive Control (MPC). Compared with the conventional decoupled active and reactive power control, the proposed control scheme considers the significant impact of active power on voltage variations due to the low X=R ratio...... of wind farm collector systems. The voltage control is improved. Besides, by coordination of active and reactive power, the Var capacity is optimized to prevent potential failures due to Var shortage, especially when the wind farm operates close to its full load. An analytical method is used to calculate...... the sensitivity coefficients to improve the computation efficiency and overcome the convergence problem. Two control modes are designed for both normal and emergency conditions. A wind farm with 20 wind turbines was used to verify the proposed combined control scheme....

  9. Combining EEG Microstates with fMRI Structural Features for Modeling Brain Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, Kostas; Bourbakis, Nikolaos

    2015-12-01

    Combining information from Electroencephalography (EEG) and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has been a topic of increased interest recently. The main advantage of the EEG is its high temporal resolution, in the scale of milliseconds, while the main advantage of fMRI is the detection of functional activity with good spatial resolution. The advantages of each modality seem to complement each other, providing better insight in the neuronal activity of the brain. The main goal of combining information from both modalities is to increase the spatial and the temporal localization of the underlying neuronal activity captured by each modality. This paper presents a novel technique based on the combination of these two modalities (EEG, fMRI) that allow a better representation and understanding of brain activities in time. EEG is modeled as a sequence of topographies, based on the notion of microstates. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) were used to model the temporal evolution of the topography of the average Event Related Potential (ERP). For each model the Fisher score of the sequence is calculated by taking the gradient of the trained model parameters. The Fisher score describes how this sequence deviates from the learned HMM. Canonical Partial Least Squares (CPLS) were used to decompose the two datasets and fuse the EEG and fMRI features. In order to test the effectiveness of this method, the results of this methodology were compared with the results of CPLS using the average ERP signal of a single channel. The presented methodology was able to derive components that co-vary between EEG and fMRI and present significant differences between the two tasks.

  10. Active Shape Model of Combining Pca and Ica: Application to Facial Feature Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Lin; RAO Ni-ni; WANG Gang

    2006-01-01

    Active Shape Model (ASM) is a powerful statistical tool to extract the facial features of a face image under frontal view. It mainly relies on Principle Component Analysis (PCA) to statistically model the variability in the training set of example shapes. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has been proven to be more efficient to extract face features than PCA . In this paper, we combine the PCA and ICA by the consecutive strategy to form a novel ASM. Firstly, an initial model, which shows the global shape variability in the training set, is generated by the PCA-based ASM. And then, the final shape model, which contains more local characters, is established by the ICA-based ASM. Experimental results verify that the accuracy of facial feature extraction is statistically significantly improved by applying the ICA modes after the PCA modes.

  11. Corticomuscular Activity Modeling by Combining Partial Least Squares and Canonical Correlation Analysis

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    Xun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticomuscular activity modeling based on multiple data sets such as electroencephalography (EEG and electromyography (EMG signals provides a useful tool for understanding human motor control systems. In this paper, we propose modeling corticomuscular activity by combining partial least squares (PLS and canonical correlation analysis (CCA. The proposed method takes advantage of both PLS and CCA to ensure that the extracted components are maximally correlated across two data sets and meanwhile can well explain the information within each data set. This complementary combination generalizes the statistical assumptions beyond both PLS and CCA methods. Simulations were performed to illustrate the performance of the proposed method. We also applied the proposed method to concurrent EEG and EMG data collected in a Parkinson’s disease (PD study. The results reveal several highly correlated temporal patterns between EEG and EMG signals and indicate meaningful corresponding spatial activation patterns. In PD subjects, enhanced connections between occipital region and other regions are noted, which is consistent with previous medical knowledge. The proposed framework is a promising technique for performing multisubject and bimodal data analysis.

  12. Combined feedforward and model-assisted active disturbance rejection control for non-minimum phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Li, Donghai; Gao, Zhiqiang; Yang, Zhao; Zhao, Shen

    2016-09-01

    Control of the non-minimum phase (NMP) system is challenging, especially in the presence of modelling uncertainties and external disturbances. To this end, this paper presents a combined feedforward and model-assisted Active Disturbance Rejection Control (MADRC) strategy. Based on the nominal model, the feedforward controller is used to produce a tracking performance that has minimum settling time subject to a prescribed undershoot constraint. On the other hand, the unknown disturbances and uncertain dynamics beyond the nominal model are compensated by MADRC. Since the conventional Extended State Observer (ESO) is not suitable for the NMP system, a model-assisted ESO (MESO) is proposed based on the nominal observable canonical form. The convergence of MESO is proved in time domain. The stability, steady-state characteristics and robustness of the closed-loop system are analyzed in frequency domain. The proposed strategy has only one tuning parameter, i.e., the bandwidth of MESO, which can be readily determined with a prescribed robustness level. Some comparative examples are given to show the efficacy of the proposed method. This paper depicts a promising prospect of the model-assisted ADRC in dealing with complex systems.

  13. Combining generative and discriminative models for semantic segmentation of CT scans via active learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Konukoglu, Ender; Montillo, Albert; Tu, Zhuowen; Criminisi, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new supervised learning framework for the efficient recognition and segmentation of anatomical structures in 3D computed tomography (CT), with as little training data as possible. Training supervised classifiers to recognize organs within CT scans requires a large number of manually delineated exemplar 3D images, which are very expensive to obtain. In this study, we borrow ideas from the field of active learning to optimally select a minimum subset of such images that yields accurate anatomy segmentation. The main contribution of this work is in designing a combined generative-discriminative model which: i) drives optimal selection of training data; and ii) increases segmentation accuracy. The optimal training set is constructed by finding unlabeled scans which maximize the disagreement between our two complementary probabilistic models, as measured by a modified version of the Jensen-Shannon divergence. Our algorithm is assessed on a database of 196 labeled clinical CT scans with high variability in resolution, anatomy, pathologies, etc. Quantitative evaluation shows that, compared with randomly selecting the scans to annotate, our method decreases the number of training images by up to 45%. Moreover, our generative model of body shape substantially increases segmentation accuracy when compared to either using the discriminative model alone or a generic smoothness prior (e.g. via a Markov Random Field).

  14. Extensions to modeling aerobic carbon degradation using combined respirometric-titrimetric measurements in view of activated sludge model calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Gürkan; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2007-08-01

    Recently a model was introduced to interpret the respirometric (OUR) -titrimetric (Hp) data obtained from aerobic oxidation of different carbon sources in view of calibration of Activated Sludge Model No.1 (ASM1). The model requires, among others, the carbon dioxide transfer rate (CTR) to be relatively constant during aerobic experiments. As CTR is an inherently nonlinear process, this assumption may not hold for certain experimental conditions. Hence, we extended the model to describe the nonlinear CTR behavior. A simple calibration procedure of the CO2 model was developed only using titrimetric data. The identifiable parameter subset of this model when using titrimetric data only contained the first equilibrium constant of the CO2 dissociation, pK1, the initial aqueous CO2 concentration, C(Tinit) and the nitrogen content of biomass, i(NBM). The extended model was then successfully applied to interpret typical data obtained from respirometric-titrimetric measurements with a nonlinear CO2 stripping process. The parameter estimation results using titrimetric data were consistent with the results estimated using respirometric data (OUR) alone or combined OUR and Hp data, thereby supporting the validity of the dynamic CO2 model and its calibration approach. The increased range of applicability and accurate utilization of the titrimetric data are expected to contribute particularly to the improvement of calibration of ASM models using batch experiments.

  15. Köln-Timişoara Molecular Activity Combined Models toward Interspecies Toxicity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicu, Sergiu A.; Putz, Mihai V.

    2009-01-01

    Aiming to provide a unified picture of computed activity – quantitative structure activity relationships, the so called Köln (ESIP-ElementSpecificInfluenceParameter) model for activity and Timisoara (Spectral-SAR) formulation of QSAR were pooled in order to assess the toxicity modeling and inter-toxicity correlation maps for aquatic organisms against paradigmatic organic compounds. The Köln ESIP model for estimation of a compound toxicity is based on the experimental measurement expressing the direct action of chemicals on the organism Hydractinia echinata so that the structural influence parameters are reflected by the metamorphosis degree itself. As such, the calculation of the structural parameters is absolutely necessary for correct evaluation and interpretation of the evolution of M(easured) and the C(computed) values. On the other hand, the Timişoara Spectral-SAR analysis offers correlation models and paths for H.e. species as well as for four other different organisms with which the toxicity may be inter-changed by means of the same mechanism of action induced by certain common chemicals. PMID:20057956

  16. Ampicillin in Combination with Ceftaroline, Cefepime, or Ceftriaxone Demonstrates Equivalent Activities in a High-Inoculum Enterococcus faecalis Infection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Megan K; Rice, Louis B; LaPlante, Kerry L

    2016-05-01

    Ampicillin-ceftriaxone combination therapy has become a predominant treatment for serious Enterococcus faecalis infections, such as endocarditis. Unfortunately, ceftriaxone use is associated with future vancomycin-resistant enterococcus colonization. We evaluated E. faecalis in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model against simulated human concentration-time profiles of ampicillin plus ceftaroline, cefepime, ceftriaxone, or gentamicin. Ampicillin-cefepime and ampicillin-ceftaroline demonstrated activities similar to those of ampicillin-ceftriaxone against E. faecalis.

  17. A multi-modal prostate segmentation scheme by combining spectral clustering and active shape models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Robert; Tiwari, Pallavi; Rosen, Mark; Kalyanpur, Arjun; Pungavkar, Sona; Madabhushi, Anant

    2008-03-01

    Segmentation of the prostate boundary on clinical images is useful in a large number of applications including calculating prostate volume during biopsy, tumor estimation, and treatment planning. Manual segmentation of the prostate boundary is, however, time consuming and subject to inter- and intra-reader variability. Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) and MR Spectroscopy (MRS) have recently emerged as promising modalities for detection of prostate cancer in vivo. In this paper we present a novel scheme for accurate and automated prostate segmentation on in vivo 1.5 Tesla multi-modal MRI studies. The segmentation algorithm comprises two steps: (1) A hierarchical unsupervised spectral clustering scheme using MRS data to isolate the region of interest (ROI) corresponding to the prostate, and (2) an Active Shape Model (ASM) segmentation scheme where the ASM is initialized within the ROI obtained in the previous step. The hierarchical MRS clustering scheme in step 1 identifies spectra corresponding to locations within the prostate in an iterative fashion by discriminating between potential prostate and non-prostate spectra in a lower dimensional embedding space. The spatial locations of the prostate spectra so identified are used as the initial ROI for the ASM. The ASM is trained by identifying user-selected landmarks on the prostate boundary on T2 MRI images. Boundary points on the prostate are identified using mutual information (MI) as opposed to the traditional Mahalanobis distance, and the trained ASM is deformed to fit the boundary points so identified. Cross validation on 150 prostate MRI slices yields an average segmentation sensitivity, specificity, overlap, and positive predictive value of 89, 86, 83, and 93% respectively. We demonstrate that the accurate initialization of the ASM via the spectral clustering scheme is necessary for automated boundary extraction. Our method is fully automated, robust to system parameters, and computationally efficient.

  18. Combining EEG and MEG for the reconstruction of epileptic activity using a calibrated realistic volume conductor model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Aydin

    Full Text Available To increase the reliability for the non-invasive determination of the irritative zone in presurgical epilepsy diagnosis, we introduce here a new experimental and methodological source analysis pipeline that combines the complementary information in EEG and MEG, and apply it to data from a patient, suffering from refractory focal epilepsy. Skull conductivity parameters in a six compartment finite element head model with brain anisotropy, constructed from individual MRI data, are estimated in a calibration procedure using somatosensory evoked potential (SEP and field (SEF data. These data are measured in a single run before acquisition of further runs of spontaneous epileptic activity. Our results show that even for single interictal spikes, volume conduction effects dominate over noise and need to be taken into account for accurate source analysis. While cerebrospinal fluid and brain anisotropy influence both modalities, only EEG is sensitive to skull conductivity and conductivity calibration significantly reduces the difference in especially depth localization of both modalities, emphasizing its importance for combining EEG and MEG source analysis. On the other hand, localization differences which are due to the distinct sensitivity profiles of EEG and MEG persist. In case of a moderate error in skull conductivity, combined source analysis results can still profit from the different sensitivity profiles of EEG and MEG to accurately determine location, orientation and strength of the underlying sources. On the other side, significant errors in skull modeling are reflected in EEG reconstruction errors and could reduce the goodness of fit to combined datasets. For combined EEG and MEG source analysis, we therefore recommend calibrating skull conductivity using additionally acquired SEP/SEF data.

  19. Angiogenic activity of breast cancer patients' monocytes reverted by combined use of systems modeling and experimental approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guex

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis plays a key role in tumor growth and cancer progression. TIE-2-expressing monocytes (TEM have been reported to critically account for tumor vascularization and growth in mouse tumor experimental models, but the molecular basis of their pro-angiogenic activity are largely unknown. Moreover, differences in the pro-angiogenic activity between blood circulating and tumor infiltrated TEM in human patients has not been established to date, hindering the identification of specific targets for therapeutic intervention. In this work, we investigated these differences and the phenotypic reversal of breast tumor pro-angiogenic TEM to a weak pro-angiogenic phenotype by combining Boolean modelling and experimental approaches. Firstly, we show that in breast cancer patients the pro-angiogenic activity of TEM increased drastically from blood to tumor, suggesting that the tumor microenvironment shapes the highly pro-angiogenic phenotype of TEM. Secondly, we predicted in silico all minimal perturbations transitioning the highly pro-angiogenic phenotype of tumor TEM to the weak pro-angiogenic phenotype of blood TEM and vice versa. In silico predicted perturbations were validated experimentally using patient TEM. In addition, gene expression profiling of TEM transitioned to a weak pro-angiogenic phenotype confirmed that TEM are plastic cells and can be reverted to immunological potent monocytes. Finally, the relapse-free survival analysis showed a statistically significant difference between patients with tumors with high and low expression values for genes encoding transitioning proteins detected in silico and validated on patient TEM. In conclusion, the inferred TEM regulatory network accurately captured experimental TEM behavior and highlighted crosstalk between specific angiogenic and inflammatory signaling pathways of outstanding importance to control their pro-angiogenic activity. Results showed the successful in vitro reversion of such an

  20. A Combined Random Forests and Active Contour Model Approach for Fully Automatic Segmentation of the Left Atrium in Volumetric MRI

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    Chao Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation of the left atrium (LA from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI datasets is of great importance for image guided atrial fibrillation ablation, LA fibrosis quantification, and cardiac biophysical modelling. However, automated LA segmentation from cardiac MRI is challenging due to limited image resolution, considerable variability in anatomical structures across subjects, and dynamic motion of the heart. In this work, we propose a combined random forests (RFs and active contour model (ACM approach for fully automatic segmentation of the LA from cardiac volumetric MRI. Specifically, we employ the RFs within an autocontext scheme to effectively integrate contextual and appearance information from multisource images together for LA shape inferring. The inferred shape is then incorporated into a volume-scalable ACM for further improving the segmentation accuracy. We validated the proposed method on the cardiac volumetric MRI datasets from the STACOM 2013 and HVSMR 2016 databases and showed that it outperforms other latest automated LA segmentation methods. Validation metrics, average Dice coefficient (DC and average surface-to-surface distance (S2S, were computed as 0.9227±0.0598 and 1.14±1.205 mm, versus those of 0.6222–0.878 and 1.34–8.72 mm, obtained by other methods, respectively.

  1. A Combined Random Forests and Active Contour Model Approach for Fully Automatic Segmentation of the Left Atrium in Volumetric MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gongning

    2017-01-01

    Segmentation of the left atrium (LA) from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets is of great importance for image guided atrial fibrillation ablation, LA fibrosis quantification, and cardiac biophysical modelling. However, automated LA segmentation from cardiac MRI is challenging due to limited image resolution, considerable variability in anatomical structures across subjects, and dynamic motion of the heart. In this work, we propose a combined random forests (RFs) and active contour model (ACM) approach for fully automatic segmentation of the LA from cardiac volumetric MRI. Specifically, we employ the RFs within an autocontext scheme to effectively integrate contextual and appearance information from multisource images together for LA shape inferring. The inferred shape is then incorporated into a volume-scalable ACM for further improving the segmentation accuracy. We validated the proposed method on the cardiac volumetric MRI datasets from the STACOM 2013 and HVSMR 2016 databases and showed that it outperforms other latest automated LA segmentation methods. Validation metrics, average Dice coefficient (DC) and average surface-to-surface distance (S2S), were computed as 0.9227 ± 0.0598 and 1.14 ± 1.205 mm, versus those of 0.6222–0.878 and 1.34–8.72 mm, obtained by other methods, respectively. PMID:28316992

  2. The Combined Strength of Thermodynamics and Comparative Planetology: Application of Activity Models to Core Formation in Terrestrial Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Pando, K. M.; Danielson, L. R.

    2015-01-01

    how large the effect of Si can be, these epsilon values correspond to activity coefficients (gamma) for As of 0.01 when XSi = 0, and up to gamma = 23 when XSi = 0.2. Combining these new results with previous determinations [5,6] of epsilon parameters for S and C for these elements allows us calculate activity of Ge, In, As, and Sb in Fe-Ni-Si-S-C-O metallic liquids. We apply this new model to sever-al terrestrial bodies such as Earth (Si-rich core), Mars (S-rich core), Moon (S-, C-, and Si-poor core), and Vesta, and examine the resulting core and mantle concentrations of these elements. Mantle concentrations of these four elements are well explained for Earth and Mars in models that call for mid-mantle equilibration between Si-bearing and S-bearing FeNi cores, respectively. Modeling results for the Moon and Vesta will also be presented.

  3. Combining activity and economic efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fersch, Barbara

    In the Danish welfare state, long-term care is a universal service that is run by the municipalities. The municipalities, although bound by a national legal framework, do have considerable autonomy concerning the concrete definition and organization of long-term care services. One of the newest “....... The paper provides a discourse analysis of the interviewees’ accounts, that shows how discourses on activity and economic efficiency have been combined in the Danish context....

  4. Combining classical metrology models

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    Francisco Roldán

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The results obtained in the graphic analysis of the modulation of the Cuarto Real de Santo Domingo building in Granada, Spain, (ROLDÁN, 2011 have provided new insights to further approach the research on possible use the double-scale in historical monumental architecture. We propose the characterization of the singularities of the system, from the implications and graphic representation required by the metrological scheme identified, as well as the variety of typologies that are presented in their modular frames, and the iterative combination of two-scale modules which allow operational approximations to fractions and ratios not explicitly present in the system.

  5. Multiobjective optimization on antiplatelet effects of three components combination by quantitative composition-activity relationship modeling and weighted-sum method.

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    Huang, Yi; Jiang, Wei; Xiao, Yang; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yi

    2014-11-01

    Multicomponent therapeutic has become an increasingly favored strategy for treating complex diseases in recent years. In this study, a multiple objective optimization approach was proposed to design the optimal combination of three components for antiplatelet activity. The platelet aggregation assays induced by three different ways, adenosine diphosphate, arachidonic acid, and collagen, were applied to evaluate the in vitro antiplatelet activities of three active components derived from a traditional Chinese medicine. After analyzing this dataset by quantitative composition-activity relationship modeling, a weighted-sum optimization method was adopted to calculate the optimal ratio between three components for antiplatelet effects. Further experiments validated our method and showed that better antiplatelet activity was exerted by the optimized combination than the individual component or other combinations. Our findings suggested that the proposed multiobjective optimization approach is a novel method for multicomponent drug design.

  6. Improving model predictions for RNA interference activities that use support vector machine regression by combining and filtering features

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    Peek Andrew S

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi is a naturally occurring phenomenon that results in the suppression of a target RNA sequence utilizing a variety of possible methods and pathways. To dissect the factors that result in effective siRNA sequences a regression kernel Support Vector Machine (SVM approach was used to quantitatively model RNA interference activities. Results Eight overall feature mapping methods were compared in their abilities to build SVM regression models that predict published siRNA activities. The primary factors in predictive SVM models are position specific nucleotide compositions. The secondary factors are position independent sequence motifs (N-grams and guide strand to passenger strand sequence thermodynamics. Finally, the factors that are least contributory but are still predictive of efficacy are measures of intramolecular guide strand secondary structure and target strand secondary structure. Of these, the site of the 5' most base of the guide strand is the most informative. Conclusion The capacity of specific feature mapping methods and their ability to build predictive models of RNAi activity suggests a relative biological importance of these features. Some feature mapping methods are more informative in building predictive models and overall t-test filtering provides a method to remove some noisy features or make comparisons among datasets. Together, these features can yield predictive SVM regression models with increased predictive accuracy between predicted and observed activities both within datasets by cross validation, and between independently collected RNAi activity datasets. Feature filtering to remove features should be approached carefully in that it is possible to reduce feature set size without substantially reducing predictive models, but the features retained in the candidate models become increasingly distinct. Software to perform feature prediction and SVM training and testing on nucleic acid

  7. Combined control effects of brake and active suspension control on the global safety of a full-car nonlinear model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamna, Rodrigue; Youn, Edward; Youn, Iljoong

    2014-05-01

    This paper focuses on the active safety of a full-vehicle nonlinear model during cornering. At first, a previously developed electronic stability controller (ESC) based on vehicle simplified model is applied to the full-car nonlinear model in order to control the vehicle yaw rate and side-slip angle. The ESC system was shown beneficial not only in tracking the vehicle path as close as possible, but it also helped in reducing the vehicle roll angle and influences ride comfort and road-holding capability; to tackle that issue and also to have better attitude motion, making use of optimal control theory the active suspension control gain is developed from a vehicle linear model and used to compute the active suspension control force of the vehicle nonlinear model. The active suspension control algorithm used in this paper includes the integral action of the suspension deflection in order to make zero the suspension deflection steady state and keep the vehicle chassis flat. Keeping the chassis flat reduces the vehicle load transfer and that is helpful for road holding and yaw rate tracking. The effects of the two controllers when they work together are analysed using various computer simulations with different steering wheel manoeuvres.

  8. Enhanced anti-tumor activity of the glycoengineered type II CD20 antibody obinutuzumab (GA101) in combination with chemotherapy in xenograft models of human lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, Frank; Friess, Thomas; Bader, Sabine; Muth, Gunter; Hölzlwimmer, Gabriele; Rieder, Natascha; Umana, Pablo; Klein, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Obinutuzumab (GA101) is a novel glycoengineered type II CD20 antibody in development for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We compared the anti-tumor activity of obinutuzumab and rituximab in preclinical studies using subcutaneous Z138 and WSU-DLCL2 xenograft mouse models. Obinutuzumab and rituximab were assessed alone and in combination with bendamustine, fludarabine, chlorambucil, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide/vincristine. Owing to strong single-agent efficacy in these models, suboptimal doses of obinutuzumab were applied to demonstrate a combination effect. Obinutuzumab plus bendamustine achieved superior tumor growth inhibition versus rituximab plus bendamustine and showed a statistically significant effect versus the respective single treatments. Combinations of obinutuzumab with fludarabine, chlorambucil or cyclophosphamide/vincristine demonstrated significantly superior activity to rituximab-based treatment. Obinutuzumab monotherapy was at least as effective as rituximab plus chemotherapy in vivo, and obinutuzumab plus chemotherapy was superior to the respective monotherapies. These data support further clinical investigation of obinutuzumab plus chemotherapy.

  9. Enhanced anti-tumor activity of the glycoengineered type II CD20 antibody obinutuzumab (GA101) in combination with chemotherapy in xenograft models of human lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Herting, Frank; Friess, Thomas; Bader, Sabine; Muth, Gunter; Hölzlwimmer, Gabriele; Rieder, Natascha; Umana, Pablo; Klein, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Obinutuzumab (GA101) is a novel glycoengineered type II CD20 antibody in development for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We compared the anti-tumor activity of obinutuzumab and rituximab in preclinical studies using subcutaneous Z138 and WSU-DLCL2 xenograft mouse models. Obinutuzumab and rituximab were assessed alone and in combination with bendamustine, fludarabine, chlorambucil, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide/vincristine. Owing to strong single-agent efficacy in these models, suboptimal doses of ob...

  10. Antitumor activity of Herceptin in combination with STEALTH liposomal cisplatin or nonliposomal cisplatin in a HER2 positive human breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbern, G T; Hiller, A J; Musterer, R S; Working, P K; Henderson, I C

    1999-10-01

    Single agent antitumor activity of Herceptin, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against HER2, has been demonstrated in numerous preclinical and clinical studies. Additionally, combination therapy with Herceptin and chemotherapy (CRx) has demonstrated additive antitumor activity in both preclinical models and early clinical trials. STEALTH (pegylated) liposomal (PL) cisplatin, also known as SPI-077, is currently in clinical trials for a variety of solid tumors. The three studies reported here discuss the antitumor activity of the combination of Herceptin and nonliposomal cisplatin or PL-cisplatin in two xenograft tumor models, initiated from the cell lines, BT474 and MDA453, that overexpress the oncogene, HER2. Herceptin alone had significant antitumor activity in all three experiments (p cisplatin and PL-cisplatin were both effective antitumor agents but, at tolerable dose levels, PL-cisplatin was superior to nonliposomal cisplatin (p cisplatin or PL-cisplatin, was most significant at moderate doses of H (0.5 mg/kg, p cisplatin with Herceptin had statistically similar antitumor activity to that of nonliposomal cisplatin with Herceptin in all experiments. We conclude that combination therapy with PL-cisplatin and Herceptin results in significant antitumor activity with the potential for reducing toxicity in metastatic breast cancer patients.

  11. STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF NEW COMBINED OINTMENT ON THE MODEL OF PURULENT WOUND OF STAPHYLOCOCCAL ETIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachova O.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Prevalence of purulent pathologies and insufficient number of combined ointments with multi-effect on inflammation, infection and tissue damage are a prerequisite for scientists of NUPh to develop a new combined ointment composed of: antiseptics ethacridine lactate and thick chlorophyllipt extract, drug with reparative and anti-inflammatory activity – dexpanthenol, PEG-base of the IInd generation with the moderate dehydrating activity (180%. The range of pharmacological actions of Filetol ointment meets local therapy requirements in the IInd phase of the wound healing process. New ointment can also be applied in the Ist phase of wound healing process, if the wound contains a small amount of purulent exudate or does not contain it at all. Material & Methods. The purulent wound of staphylococcal etiology was reproduced in 24 white mature female mice weighing 14-17 g and subcutaneously injected with 0.2 ml of 10% solution of calcium chloride in the skin area, depilated beforehand, and after the development of necrosis on the 4th day injected with 0.2 ml of daily agar cultures S. aureus ATCC 25923 in the necrotizing area. In 48 hours of the infection, in the area of administration of staphylococcus cultures purulent necrotic wounds developed, which, depending on the size and intensity of the lesions, were subjected to reverse development in 9-15 days in a row. Animals were divided into three groups of 8 animals, including a positive control group, animals in which were not treated. In this study, the comparator was Levomecol ointment which is widely used in clinical practice for the local treatment of purulent wounds. Efficacy of treatment was evaluated on the basis of lesion value and intensity in study groups compared with the positive control, animal deaths in the case of generalization of the purulent process, quantitative dynamics of microorganisms in the wound and planimetric indicators (area of wounds and the percentage of

  12. Decision-tree-model identification of nitrate pollution activities in groundwater: A combination of a dual isotope approach and chemical ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Dongmei; Pang, Fengmei; Meng, Fanqiao; Wang, Zhongliang; Wu, Wenliang

    2015-09-01

    To develop management practices for agricultural crops to protect against NO3(-) contamination in groundwater, dominant pollution activities require reliable classification. In this study, we (1) classified potential NO3(-) pollution activities via an unsupervised learning algorithm based on δ(15)N- and δ(18)O-NO3(-) and physico-chemical properties of groundwater at 55 sampling locations; and (2) determined which water quality parameters could be used to identify the sources of NO3(-) contamination via a decision tree model. When a combination of δ(15)N-, δ(18)O-NO3(-) and physico-chemical properties of groundwater was used as an input for the k-means clustering algorithm, it allowed for a reliable clustering of the 55 sampling locations into 4 corresponding agricultural activities: well irrigated agriculture (28 sampling locations), sewage irrigated agriculture (16 sampling locations), a combination of sewage irrigated agriculture, farm and industry (5 sampling locations) and a combination of well irrigated agriculture and farm (6 sampling locations). A decision tree model with 97.5% classification success was developed based on SO4(2-) and Cl(-) variables. The NO3(-) and the δ(15)N- and δ(18)O-NO3(-) variables demonstrated limitation in developing a decision tree model as multiple N sources and fractionation processes both resulted in difficulties of discriminating NO3(-) concentrations and isotopic values. Although only the SO4(2-) and Cl(-) were selected as important discriminating variables, concentration data alone could not identify the specific NO3(-) sources responsible for groundwater contamination. This is a result of comprehensive analysis. To further reduce NO3(-) contamination, an integrated approach should be set-up by combining N and O isotopes of NO3(-) with land-uses and physico-chemical properties, especially in areas with complex agricultural activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Synergistic antiarrhythmic effect of combining inhibition of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels and voltage-gated Na(+) channels in an isolated heart model of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhoff, Jeppe Egedal; Goldin Diness, Jonas; Sheykhzade, Majid

    2015-01-01

    be subefficacious as monotherapy, may prevent atrial fibrillation (AF) and have reduced proarrhythmic potential in the ventricles. METHODS: Subefficacious concentrations of ranolazine, flecainide, and lidocaine were tested alone or in combination with the SK channel blocker N-(pyridin-2-yl)-4-(pyridin-2-yl...... of the adverse effect profile could be an additional advantage if compound concentrations could be reduced. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that combined inhibition of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (SK channels) and voltage-gated Na(+) channels, in concentrations that would......)thiazol-2-amine (ICA) in a Langendorff-perfused guinea pig heart model in which AF was induced after acetylcholine application and burst pacing. RESULTS: AF duration was reduced when both flecainide and ranolazine were combined with ICA in doses that did not reduce AF as monotherapy. At higher...

  14. Activity of Colistin in Combination with Meropenem, Tigecycline, Fosfomycin, Fusidic Acid, Rifampin or Sulbactam against Extensively Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Murine Thigh-Infection Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Fan

    Full Text Available Few effective therapeutic options are available for treating severe infections caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB. Using a murine thigh-infection model, we examined the in vivo efficacy of colistin in combination with meropenem, tigecycline, fosfomycin, fusidic acid, rifampin, or sulbactam against 12 XDR-AB strains. Colistin, tigecycline, rifampin, and sulbactam monotherapy significantly decreased bacterial counts in murine thigh infections compared with those observed in control mice receiving no treatment. Colistin was the most effective agent tested, displaying bactericidal activity against 91.7% of strains at 48 h post-treatment. With strains showing a relatively low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for meropenem (MIC ≤ 32 mg/L, combination therapy with colistin plus meropenem caused synergistic inhibition at both 24 h and 48 h post-treatment. However, when the meropenem MIC was ≥64 mg/L, meropenem did not significantly alter the efficacy of colistin. The addition of rifampin and fusidic acid significantly improved the efficacy of colistin, showing a synergistic effect in 100% and 58.3% of strains after 24 h of treatment, respectively, while the addition of tigecycline, fosfomycin, or sulbactam did not show obvious synergistic activity. No clear differences in activities were observed between colistin-rifampin and colistin-fusidic acid combination therapy with most strains. Overall, our in vivo study showed that administering colistin in combination with rifampin or fusidic acid is more efficacious in treating XDR-AB infections than other combinations. The colistin-meropenem combination may be another appropriate option if the MIC is ≤32 mg/L. Further clinical studies are urgently needed to confirm the relevance of these findings.

  15. Anti-tumor activity of TRA-8 anti-death receptor 5 (DR5) monoclonal antibody in combination with chemotherapy and radiation therapy in a cervical cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughn, J Michael; Oliver, Patsy G; Zhou, Tong; Wang, Wenquan; Alvarez, Ronald D; Grizzle, William E; Buchsbaum, Donald J

    2006-04-01

    There is substantial evidence that tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) causes apoptosis via activation of death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4 and DR5). We sought to determine the therapeutic potential of TRA-8 (anti-DR5 monoclonal antibody) in combination with chemotherapy and radiation therapy in a cervical cancer model. DR5 expression in 7 human cervical cancer cell lines was analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence using murine TRA-8 in combination with flow cytometry. Cell lines were treated with TRA-8 alone or in combination with cisplatin, topotecan, or radiation, and cytotoxicity assays were performed. Mice were inoculated with ME-180 cancer cells and treated with different combinations of therapy. Animals receiving antibody were injected intraperitoneally with 200 microg of TRA-8. Animals received 9 Gy 60Co radiation divided into 3 fractions and 3 intraperitoneal doses of cisplatin (6 mg/kg) 1 h before radiation. A similar experiment was performed using topotecan (2 mg/kg) as the chemotherapeutic agent. DR5 was expressed to a varying degree on the cervical cancer cell lines. Combination treatment with TRA-8 and chemotherapy or radiation resulted in synergistic cytotoxicity in vitro. In vivo, combination therapy with TRA-8, cisplatin, and radiation produced tumor growth inhibition that was significantly greater than the other groups. Similar results were seen in combination studies with topotecan. These data suggest that DR5 is a good target for activation of the apoptotic pathway. Monoclonal antibodies such as TRA-8 may play an important role in the development of an effective treatment strategy for patients with advanced cervical cancer.

  16. Antiarrhythmic effect of the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channel inhibitor ICA combined with either amiodarone or dofetilide in an isolated heart model of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhoff, Jeppe Egedal; Diness, Jonas Goldin; Abildgaard, Lea;

    2016-01-01

    whether a combination of the SK channel blocker N-(pyridin-2-yl)-4-(pyridin-2-yl)thiazol-2-amine (ICA) together with either dofetilide or amiodarone provided a synergistic effect. The duration of AF was reduced with otherwise subefficacious concentrations of either dofetilide or amiodarone when combined......Dose is an important parameter in terms of both efficacy and adverse effects in pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Both of the class III antiarrhythmics dofetilide and amiodarone have documented anti-AF effects. While dofetilide has dose-related ventricular side effects......, amiodarone primarily has adverse non-cardiac effects. Pharmacological inhibition of small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels has recently been reported to be antiarrhythmic in a number of animal AF models. In a Langendorff model of acutely induced AF on guinea pig hearts, it was investigated...

  17. Anti-tumor activity of the TRA-8 anti-DR5 antibody in combination with cisplatin in an ex vivo human cervical cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, James E; Straughn, J Michael; Oliver, Patsy G; Wang, Wenquan; Nan, Li; Grizzle, William E; Stockard, Cecil R; Alvarez, Ronald D; Buchsbaum, Donald J

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the cytotoxicity of TRA-8, an antibody that specifically binds death receptor 5 (DR5), alone and in combination with cisplatin, using an ex vivo human cervical cancer model. Fifteen cervical cancer specimens were obtained at the time of radical hysterectomy and tumor slices were prepared with the Krumdieck tissue slicer. Tumor slices were exposed to varying concentrations of TRA-8, cisplatin, or the combination of TRA-8 and cisplatin. Using non-linear modeling, dose response curves and IC50 values were generated for each specimen treated with TRA-8. The additive cytotoxic effect of combination treatment was evaluated as well. In addition to ATP viability assays, treated and untreated slices were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot analysis to confirm apoptosis induction via the extrinsic pathway. Eleven patient specimens yielded TRA-8-induced IC50 values. Sixty-four percent were found to be sensitive to TRA-8-induced cytotoxicity at IC50 doses less than 1000 ng/ml. Seven patient specimens underwent combination treatment with TRA-8 and cisplatin. Of these specimens, 86% exhibited additive cytotoxicity in comparison to treatment with either agent alone. IHC revealed an increase in DR5 expression in tumor slices treated with cisplatin for 24 h. IHC and Western blotting demonstrated TRA-8-induced cell death via apoptosis and activation of caspase 3 and 8. This study confirms the utility of an ex vivo human cervical cancer model, to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of TRA-8 and cisplatin. This model may be a useful pre-clinical tool to assess cytotoxicity and mechanistic properties of novel agents in cervical cancer.

  18. Enhancement of antibacterial activity of capped silver nanoparticles in combination with antibiotics, on model gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kora, Aruna Jyothi; Rastogi, Lori

    2013-01-01

    The nanoparticles used in this study were prepared from AgNO3 using NaBH4 in the presence of capping agents such as citrate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and polyvinylpyrrolidone. The formed nanoparticles were characterized with UV-Vis, TEM, and XRD. The generation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed from the appearance of yellow colour and an absorption maximum between 399 and 404 nm. The produced nanoparticles were found to be spherical in shape and polydisperse. For citrate, SDS, and PVP capped nanoparticles, the average particle sizes were 38.3 ± 13.5, 19.3 ± 6.0, and 16.0 ± 4.8 nm, respectively. The crystallinity of the nanoparticles in FCC structure is confirmed from the SAED and XRD patterns. Also, the combined antibacterial activity of these differently capped nanoparticles with selected antibiotics (streptomycin, ampicillin, and tetracycline) was evaluated on model Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, employing disc diffusion assay. The activity of the tested antibiotics was enhanced in combination with all the stabilized nanoparticles, against both the Gram classes of bacteria. The combined effects of silver nanoparticles and antibiotics were more prominent with PVP capped nanoparticles as compared to citrate and SDS capped ones. The results of this study demonstrate potential therapeutic applications of silver nanoparticles in combination with antibiotics.

  19. Enhancement of Antibacterial Activity of Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Combination with Antibiotics, on Model Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Jyothi Kora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanoparticles used in this study were prepared from AgNO3 using NaBH4 in the presence of capping agents such as citrate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and polyvinylpyrrolidone. The formed nanoparticles were characterized with UV-Vis, TEM, and XRD. The generation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed from the appearance of yellow colour and an absorption maximum between 399 and 404 nm. The produced nanoparticles were found to be spherical in shape and polydisperse. For citrate, SDS, and PVP capped nanoparticles, the average particle sizes were 38.3±13.5, 19.3±6.0, and 16.0±4.8 nm, respectively. The crystallinity of the nanoparticles in FCC structure is confirmed from the SAED and XRD patterns. Also, the combined antibacterial activity of these differently capped nanoparticles with selected antibiotics (streptomycin, ampicillin, and tetracycline was evaluated on model Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, employing disc diffusion assay. The activity of the tested antibiotics was enhanced in combination with all the stabilized nanoparticles, against both the Gram classes of bacteria. The combined effects of silver nanoparticles and antibiotics were more prominent with PVP capped nanoparticles as compared to citrate and SDS capped ones. The results of this study demonstrate potential therapeutic applications of silver nanoparticles in combination with antibiotics.

  20. A novel Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor CC-292 in combination with the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib impacts the bone microenvironment in a multiple myeloma model with resultant antimyeloma activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eda, H; Santo, L; Cirstea, D D; Yee, A J; Scullen, T A; Nemani, N; Mishima, Y; Waterman, P R; Arastu-Kapur, S; Evans, E; Singh, J; Kirk, C J; Westlin, W F; Raje, N S

    2014-09-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) modulates B-cell development and activation and has an important role in antibody production. Interestingly, Btk may also affect human osteoclast (OC) function; however, the mechanism was unknown. Here we studied a potent and specific Btk inhibitor, CC-292, in multiple myeloma (MM). In this report, we demonstrate that, although CC-292 increased OC differentiation, it inhibited OC function via inhibition of c-Src, Pyk2 and cortactin, all involved in OC-sealing zone formation. As CC-292 did not show potent in vitro anti-MM activity, we next evaluated it in combination with the proteasome inhibitor, carfilzomib. We first studied the effect of carfilzomib on OC. Carfilzomib did not have an impact on OC-sealing zone formation but significantly inhibited OC differentiation. CC-292 combined with carfilzomib inhibited both sealing zone formation and OC differentiation, resulting in more profound inhibition of OC function than carfilzomib alone. Moreover, the combination treatment in an in vivo MM mouse model inhibited tumor burden compared with CC-292 alone; it also increased bone volume compared with carfilzomib alone. These results suggest that CC-292 combined with carfilzomib augments the inhibitory effects against OC within the bone microenvironment and has promising therapeutic potential for the treatment of MM and related bone disease.

  1. Combining activity and economic efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fersch, Barbara

    kind of all-in-one solution everyone is profiting of: The older people would profit from a higher quality of living, that enables a more active and self-determined life. The municipalities (i.e. the public system) would be saving money, because the frail older people would need less care services...

  2. Activity of Antimicrobial Combinations against KPC-2-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Rat Model and Time-Kill Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranha Junior, Ayrton Alves; Arend, Lavinia Nery; Ribeiro, Vanessa; Zavascki, Alexandre Prehn; Tuon, Felipe Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of tigecycline (TIG), polymyxin B (PMB), and meropenem (MER) in 80 rats challenged with Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae infection. A time-kill assay was performed with the same strain. Triple therapy and PMB+TIG were synergistic, promoted 100% survival, and produced negative peritoneal cultures, while MER+TIG showed lower survival and higher culture positivity than other regimens (P = 0.018) and was antagonistic. In vivo and in vitro studies showed that combined regimens, except MER+TIG, were more effective than monotherapies for this KPC-producing strain. PMID:25896686

  3. Potential for Combined Biocontrol Activity against Fungal Fish and Plant Pathogens by Bacterial Isolates from a Model Aquaponic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Sirakov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges in aquaponics is disease control. One possible solution for this is biological control with organisms exerting inhibitory effects on fish and plant pathogens. The aim of this study was to examine the potential of isolating microorganisms that exert an inhibitory effect on both plant and fish pathogens from an established aquaponic system. We obtained 924 isolates on selective King’s B agar and 101 isolates on MRS agar from different compartments of a model aquaponic system and tested them for antagonism against the plant pathogen Pythium ultimum and fish pathogen Saprolegnia parasitica. Overall, 42 isolates were able to inhibit both fungi. Although not yet tested in vivo, these findings open new options for the implementation of biological control of diseases in aquaponics, where plants and fish are cultivated in the same water recirculating system.

  4. Toxicity and antitumor activity of the vitamin D analogs PRI-1906 and PRI-1907 in combined treatment with cyclophosphamide in a mouse mammary cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietrzyk, Joanna; Nevozhay, Dmitry; Milczarek, Magdalena; Filip, Beata; Kutner, Andrzej

    2008-10-01

    Active and less toxic vitamin D analogs could be useful for clinical applications. In the present study, we evaluated the toxicity and antitumor effect of two new synthetic analogs of vitamin D, namely PRI-1906 [(24E)-24a-Homo-(1S)-1,25-dihydroxyergocalciferol] and its side-chain unsaturated homo analog PRI-1907. The toxicity and calcemic activity, as well as antitumor effect of calcitriol analogs was investigated in vivo. The studies were performed in a mouse mammary 16/C cancer model. Since calcitriol and its analogs inhibited 16/C tumor growth only slightly, we applied them in the combined therapy with cyclophosphamide (CY). Moreover, cell cycle analysis and VDR and p27 expression were investigated. The LD50 values after five daily subcutaneous (s.c.) injections were 7.8, 10.0 and 2.4 microg/kg per day for calcitriol, PRI-1906 and PRI-1907, respectively. The serum calcium level increased to 40, 23 and 63% over the control for these compounds. We also compare the antitumor activity of the PRI-1906 with the calcitriol and previously studied PRI-2191 (1,24-dihydroxyvitamin D3, tacalcitol). Statistically significant inhibition of tumor growth by calcitriol up to the eighth day was observed in all schedules applied. PRI-1906 inhibited the tumor growth at doses 1 and 5 microg/kg per day, and PRI-2191 only at the dose 5 microg/kg per day. Addition of vitamin D analogs increased the antitumor effect of CY. PRI-1906 exhibited toxicity higher than PRI-2191 but lower than calcitriol and antitumor activity similar to both PRI-2191 and calcitriol. This new analog seems to be a good candidate for the combined treatment of mammary cancer.

  5. A common model for cytokine receptor activation: combined scissor-like rotation and self-rotation of receptor dimer induced by class I cytokine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Pang

    Full Text Available The precise mechanism by which the binding of a class I cytokine to the extracellular domain of its corresponding receptor transmits a signal through the cell membrane remains unclear. Receptor activation involves a cytokine-receptor complex with a 1∶2 stoichiometry. Previously we used our transient-complex theory to calculate the rate constant of the initial cytokine-receptor binding to form a 1∶1 complex. Here we computed the binding pathway leading to the 1∶2 activation complex. Three cytokine systems (growth hormone, erythropoietin, and prolactin were studied, and the focus was on the binding of the extracellular domain of the second receptor molecule after forming the 1∶1 complex. According to the transient-complex theory, translational and rotation diffusion of the binding entities bring them together to form a transient complex, which has near-native relative separation and orientation but not the short-range specific native interactions. Subsequently conformational rearrangement leads to the formation of the native complex. We found that the changes in relative orientations between the two receptor molecules from the transient complex to the 1∶2 native complex are similar for the three cytokine-receptor systems. We thus propose a common model for receptor activation by class I cytokines, involving combined scissor-like rotation and self-rotation of the two receptor molecules. Both types of rotations seem essential: the scissor-like rotation separates the intracellular domains of the two receptor molecules to make room for the associated Janus kinase molecules, while the self-rotation allows them to orient properly for transphosphorylation. This activation model explains a host of experimental observations. The transient-complex based approach presented here may provide a strategy for designing antagonists and prove useful for elucidating activation mechanisms of other receptors.

  6. Predictive modelling of the individual and combined effect of water activity and temperature on the radial growth of Fusarium verticilliodes and F. proliferatum on corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samapundo, S; Devlieghere, F; De Meulenaer, B; Geeraerd, A H; Van Impe, J F; Debevere, J M

    2005-11-15

    The major objective of this study was to develop validated models to describe the effect of a(w) and temperature on the radial growth on corn of the two major fumonisin producing Fusaria, namely Fusarium verticilliodes and F. proliferatum. The growth of these two isolates on corn was therefore studied at water activities between 0.810-0.985 and temperatures between 15 and 30 degrees C. Minimum a(w) for growth was 0.869 and 0.854 for F. verticilliodes and F. proliferatum, respectively. No growth took place at a(w) values equal to 0.831 and 0.838 for F. verticilliodes and F. proliferatum, respectively. The colony growth rates, g (mm d(-1)) were determined by fitting a flexible growth model describing the change in colony diameter (mm) with respect to time (days). Secondary models, relating the colony growth rate with a(w) or a(w) and temperature were developed. A third order polynomial equation and the linear Arrhenius-Davey model were used to describe the combined effect of temperature and a(w) on g. The combined modelling approaches, predicting g (mm d(-1)) at any a(w) and/or temperature were validated on independently collected data. All models proved to be good predictors of the growth rates of both isolates on maize within the experimental conditions. The third order polynomial equation had bias factors of 1.042 and 1.054 and accuracy factors of 1.128 and 1.380 for F. verticilliodes and F. proliferatum, respectively. The linear Arrhenius-Davey model had bias factors of 0.978 and 1.002 and accuracy factors of 1.098 and 1.122 for F. verticilliodes and F. proliferatum, respectively. The results confirm the general finding that a(w) has a greater influence on fungal growth than temperature. The developed models can be applied for the prevention of Fusarium growth on maize and the development of models that incorporate other factors important to mould growth on maize.

  7. Phyloclimatic modeling: combining phylogenetics and bioclimatic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesson, C; Culham, A

    2006-10-01

    We investigate the impact of past climates on plant diversification by tracking the "footprint" of climate change on a phylogenetic tree. Diversity within the cosmopolitan carnivorous plant genus Drosera (Droseraceae) is focused within Mediterranean climate regions. We explore whether this diversity is temporally linked to Mediterranean-type climatic shifts of the mid-Miocene and whether climate preferences are conservative over phylogenetic timescales. Phyloclimatic modeling combines environmental niche (bioclimatic) modeling with phylogenetics in order to study evolutionary patterns in relation to climate change. We present the largest and most complete such example to date using Drosera. The bioclimatic models of extant species demonstrate clear phylogenetic patterns; this is particularly evident for the tuberous sundews from southwestern Australia (subgenus Ergaleium). We employ a method for establishing confidence intervals of node ages on a phylogeny using replicates from a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. This chronogram shows that many clades, including subgenus Ergaleium and section Bryastrum, diversified during the establishment of the Mediterranean-type climate. Ancestral reconstructions of bioclimatic models demonstrate a pattern of preference for this climate type within these groups. Ancestral bioclimatic models are projected into palaeo-climate reconstructions for the time periods indicated by the chronogram. We present two such examples that each generate plausible estimates of ancestral lineage distribution, which are similar to their current distributions. This is the first study to attempt bioclimatic projections on evolutionary time scales. The sundews appear to have diversified in response to local climate development. Some groups are specialized for Mediterranean climates, others show wide-ranging generalism. This demonstrates that Phyloclimatic modeling could be repeated for other plant groups and is fundamental to the understanding of

  8. Anti-tumor activity of an anti-DR5 monoclonal antibody, TRA-8, in combination with taxane/platinum-based chemotherapy in an ovarian cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevis, Kerri S; McNally, Lacey R; Sellers, Jeffery C; Della Manna, Deborah; Londoño Joshi, Angelina; Amm, Hope; Straughn, J Michael; Buchsbaum, Donald J

    2011-04-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) mediates apoptosis via binding to death receptors and enhances the anti-tumor effect of conventional cancer therapies. We evaluated the efficacy of TRA-8, an agonistic antibody to DR5, combined with docetaxel and carboplatin in vitro in an intraperitoneal (IP) ovarian cancer model. Luciferase positive ES2 cells (ES2H) were treated in 96 well plates with TRA-8, carboplatin, docetaxel, and combination therapy. Cell viability was assessed using ATP-lite assay. Apoptosis was confirmed via Western blot analysis. ES2H cells were injected IP into female athymic nude mice. Animals were sorted based on bioluminescent signal with the following treatments: 1) untreated; 2) TRA-8 alone; 3) docetaxel+carboplatin; and 4) docetaxel+carboplatin+TRA-8. Animals receiving TRA-8 antibody were injected IP with 200 μg of TRA-8 twice weekly until death. Animals receiving docetaxel+carboplatin were injected IP with 5mg/kg and 15 mg/kg respectively every 3 weeks until death. Animals were assessed for tumor burden using bioluminescence imaging and overall survival. Combination therapy reduced viability of ES2H cells in vitro over single agent therapy. Tumor burden was lowest in the chemotherapy+TRA-8 group at days 23 (pTRA-8 group (41 days) compared to the chemotherapy only group (34 days) and control group (27 days) as determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis (pTRA-8 reduced cell-viability via activation of apoptotic pathways, reduced tumor burden and improved survival in this ovarian cancer model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Deterministic combination of numerical and physical coastal wave models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, H.W.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas; Jakobsen, K.P.

    2007-01-01

    A deterministic combination of numerical and physical models for coastal waves is developed. In the combined model, a Boussinesq model MIKE 21 BW is applied for the numerical wave computations. A piston-type 2D or 3D wavemaker and the associated control system with active wave absorption provides...

  10. Active coherent beam combining of diode lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Shawn M; Creedon, Kevin J; Kansky, Jan E; Augst, Steven J; Missaggia, Leo J; Connors, Michael K; Huang, Robin K; Chann, Bien; Fan, Tso Yee; Turner, George W; Sanchez-Rubio, Antonio

    2011-03-15

    We have demonstrated active coherent beam combination (CBC) of up to 218 semiconductor amplifiers with 38.5 W cw output using up to eleven one-dimensional 21-element individually addressable diode amplifier arrays operating at 960 nm. The amplifier array elements are slab-coupled-optical-waveguide semiconductor amplifiers (SCOWAs) set up in a master-oscillator-power-amplifier configuration. Diffractive optical elements divide the master-oscillator beam to seed multiple arrays of SCOWAs. A SCOWA was phase actuated by adjusting the drive current to each element and controlled using a stochastic-parallel-gradient-descent (SPGD) algorithm for the active CBC. The SPGD is a hill-climbing algorithm that maximizes on-axis intensity in the far field, providing phase locking without needing a reference beam.

  11. Anti-ulcerogenic Activity of Aqueous Extract of Unripe Fruit of Musa sapientum Linn in Combination with Vitamin C on Ulcer Induced Models in Experimental Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Moke Emuesiri Goodies; Omorodion Lisa Iziegbe; Akpoguma Hitler Augustine; Imere Precious; Ahante Ejiroghene

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of unripe fruit of Musa sapientum Linn in combination with Vitamin C on aspirin and ethanol induced ulcer models in Wistar rats. Study Design: Anti-ulcer study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria, between February and April, 2016. Methodology: Forty-five rats divided into 9 groups of five were used for each model. Doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg...

  12. Individual and combined manipulation of muscarinic, NMDA, and benzodiazepine receptor activity in the water maze task: implications for a rat model of Alzheimer dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, D P; Ighanian, K; Boon, F

    2000-06-15

    Recent evidence indicates that Alzheimer disease typically involves different degrees of impairment in a variety of neurotransmitter systems, behaviors, and cognitive abilities in different patients. To investigate the relations between neurotransmitter system, behavioral, and cognitive impairments in an animal model of Alzheimer disease we studied spatial learning in a Morris water maze in male Long-Evans rats given neurochemical agents that targeted muscarinic cholinergic, NMDA, or benzodiazepine systems. Naive rats given a single agent or a combination of agents were severely impaired in place responding and had behavioral strategy impairments. Rats made familiar with the required water maze behavioral strategies by non-spatial pretraining performed as well as controls if given a single agent. Non-spatially pretrained rats with manipulation of both muscarinic cholinergic and NMDA or muscarinic cholinergic and benzodiazepine systems had a specific place response impairment but no behavioral strategy impairments. The results suggest that impairment of both muscarinic cholinergic and NMDA, or muscarinic cholinergic and benzodiazepine systems may model some aspects of human Alzheimer disease (impairments in navigation in familiar environments), but not other aspects of this disorder (global dementia leading to general loss of adaptive behavior). Previous research suggests that impairment of both muscarinic cholinergic and serotonergic systems may provide a better model of global dementia. The water maze testing and detailed behavioral analysis techniques used here appear to provide a means of investigating the contributions of various combinations of neurotransmitter system impairments to an animal model of Alzheimer disease.

  13. Combining structure-based pharmacophore modeling, virtual screening, and in silico ADMET analysis to discover novel tetrahydro-quinoline based pyruvate kinase isozyme M2 activators with antitumor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen C

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Can Chen,1,2,* Ting Wang,1,3,* Fengbo Wu,1,* Wei Huang,4 Gu He,1 Liang Ouyang,1 Mingli Xiang,1 Cheng Peng,4 Qinglin Jiang1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Department of Pharmacy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 2College of Pharmacy and the First Affiliated Hospital, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, 3Department of Cardiology, Genenal Hospital of Chengdu Military Command, Chengdu, 4State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Systematic Research, Development and Utilization of Chinese Medicine, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Compared with normal differentiated cells, cancer cells upregulate the expression of pyruvate kinase isozyme M2 (PKM2 to support glycolytic intermediates for anabolic processes, including the synthesis of nucleic acids, amino acids, and lipids. In this study, a combination of the structure-based pharmacophore modeling and a hybrid protocol of virtual screening methods comprised of pharmacophore model-based virtual screening, docking-based virtual screening, and in silico ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity analysis were used to retrieve novel PKM2 activators from commercially available chemical databases. Tetrahydroquinoline derivatives were identified as potential scaffolds of PKM2 activators. Thus, the hybrid virtual screening approach was applied to screen the focused tetrahydroquinoline derivatives embedded in the ZINC database. Six hit compounds were selected from the final hits and experimental studies were then performed. Compound 8 displayed a potent inhibitory effect on human lung cancer cells. Following treatment with Compound 8, cell viability, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS production were examined in A549 cells. Finally, we evaluated the effects of Compound 8 on mice xenograft tumor models in vivo. These results may provide important

  14. Cardioprotective activity of placental growth factor combined with oral supplementation of L-arginine in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo L

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Liyun Luo,1,* Bairong Chen,1,* Yin Huang,1 Zibin Liang,2 Songbiao Li,1 Yuelan Yin,1 Jian Chen,1 Wei Wu1 1Department of Cardiology, 2Department of Oncological Radiotherapy, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: Exogenous administration of placental growth factor (PlGF stimulates angiogenesis and improves ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (AMI, and supplementation with L-arginine ameliorates endothelial function. The objective of the present study was to compare the cardioprotective effects of combination therapy of PlGF and L-arginine with those of direct administration of PlGF alone in a rat model of AMI.Materials and methods: Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham group, normal saline group, L-arginine group, PlGF group, and combination group (PlGF + L-arginine. An AMI rat model was established by ligation of the left anterior descending of coronary arteries. After 4 weeks of postligation treatment, cardiac function, scar area, angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, myocardial endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and collagen I protein content, and plasma concentration of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP were studied. Echocardiography, Masson’s staining, immunohistochemical analyses, Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed.Results: Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, left ventricular fraction shortening (LVFS, and capillary and arteriole densities were higher in the PlGF group than in the normal saline group (P<0.01. Scar area, collagen I protein content, and plasma concentration of BNP were decreased in the PlGF group (P<0.01. Myocardial eNOS protein level was elevated in the L-arginine group and PlGF + L-arginine group (P<0.01. Compared with the PlGF group, LVEF, LVFS, myocardial eNOS, and capillary and arteriole densities were

  15. Biological activities of triazine derivatives. Combining DFT and QSAR results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdouline Larif

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the relationship between activities and structures, a 3D-QSAR study is applied to a set of 43 molecules based on triazines. This study was conducted using the principal component analysis (PCA method, the multiple linear regression method (MLR and the artificial neural network (ANN. The predicted values of activities are in good agreement with the experimental results. The artificial neural network (ANN techniques, considering the relevant descriptors obtained from the MLR, showed a correlation coefficient of 0.9 with an 8-3-1 ANN model which is a good result. As a result of quantitative structure–activity relationships, we found that the model proposed in this study is constituted of major descriptors used to describe these molecules. The obtained results suggested that the proposed combination of several calculated parameters could be useful to predict the biological activity of triazine derivatives.

  16. A Test of the Combined Effects Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimsey, William D.; And Others

    Two waves of telephone interviews with a sample of 141 voters were used in a study of political communication effects during the 1974 congressional election in the Illinois 24th Congressional District. Seven variables specified by the combined-effects model were derived from the interviews and factor analyzed. Two factors were found and…

  17. Activity in the fronto-parietal network indicates numerical inductive reasoning beyond calculation: An fMRI study combined with a cognitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Taatgen, Niels A; Borst, Jelmer P; Li, Kuncheng

    2016-05-19

    Numerical inductive reasoning refers to the process of identifying and extrapolating the rule involved in numeric materials. It is associated with calculation, and shares the common activation of the fronto-parietal regions with calculation, which suggests that numerical inductive reasoning may correspond to a general calculation process. However, compared with calculation, rule identification is critical and unique to reasoning. Previous studies have established the central role of the fronto-parietal network for relational integration during rule identification in numerical inductive reasoning. The current question of interest is whether numerical inductive reasoning exclusively corresponds to calculation or operates beyond calculation, and whether it is possible to distinguish between them based on the activity pattern in the fronto-parietal network. To directly address this issue, three types of problems were created: numerical inductive reasoning, calculation, and perceptual judgment. Our results showed that the fronto-parietal network was more active in numerical inductive reasoning which requires more exchanges between intermediate representations and long-term declarative knowledge during rule identification. These results survived even after controlling for the covariates of response time and error rate. A computational cognitive model was developed using the cognitive architecture ACT-R to account for the behavioral results and brain activity in the fronto-parietal network.

  18. Improvement of Physical Decline Through Combined Effects of Muscle Enhancement and Mitochondrial Activation by a Gastric Hormone Ghrelin in Male 5/6Nx CKD Model Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Masanori; Hagiwara, Aika; Miyashita, Kazutoshi; Wakino, Shu; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Kentaro; Fujii, Chikako; Sato, Masaaki; Mitsuishi, Masanori; Muraki, Ayako; Hayashi, Koichi; Doi, Toshio; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    Because a physical decline correlates with an increased risk of a wide range of disease and morbidity, an improvement of physical performance is expected to bring significant clinical benefits. The primary cause of physical decline in 5/6 nephrectomized (5/6Nx) chronic kidney disease model mice has been regarded as a decrease in muscle mass; however, our recent study showed that a decrease in muscle mitochondria plays a critical role. In the present study, we examined the effects of a gastric hormone ghrelin, which has been reported to promote muscle mitochondrial oxidation, on the physical decline in the chronic kidney disease model mice, focusing on the epigenetic modulations of a mitochondrial activator gene, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). Ghrelin treatment improved a decline in exercise endurance of 5/6Nx mice, associated with an increase in both of the muscle mass and mitochondrial amount. The expression level of PGC-1α was decreased in the skeletal muscle of 5/6Nx mice, which was associated with an increase in the methylation ratio of the cytosine residue at 260 base pairs upstream of the initiation point. Conversely, ghrelin treatment de-methylated the cytosine residue and increased the expression of PGC-1α. A representative muscle anabolic factor, IGF-1, did not affect the expression of PGC-1α and muscle mitochondrial amount, although it increased muscle mass. As a result, IGF-1 treatment in 5/6Nx mice did not increase the decreased exercise endurance as effectively as ghrelin treatment did. These findings indicate an advantage of ghrelin treatment for a recovery of physical decline.

  19. Preparation and evaluation of combination tablet containing incompatible active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Cui, Fude; Yonezawa, Yorinobu; Sunada, Hisakazu

    2003-07-01

    Combination preparation plays an important role in clinical treatment because of its better and wider curative synergism and weaker side effects. However, the existence of incompatibility between active ingredients or between active ingredients and excipients presents a serious obstacle in the preparation of such combination solid dosage forms. In this study, aspirin and ranitidine hydrochloride, between which there existed a chemical interaction, were selected as model drugs. Aspirin powders without any additives were granulated with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) water solution as a binder using a Wurster coating apparatus and the operation conditions were optimized by Artificial Neural Network (ANN) analysis. Under these conditions, the aspirin granules prepared showed good flowability and compressibility. On the other hand, ranitidine hydrochloride was coated with Aquacoat (ethyl cellulose aqueous dispersion) after preliminary granulation with the Wurster coating apparatus. The aspirin granules and coated ranitidine hydrochloride particles were compressed into tablets with suitable excipients. The combination tablets showed good dissolution, content uniformity and improved stability of active ingredients.

  20. Anoxic Activated Sludge Monitoring with Combined Nitrate and Titrimetric Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B.; Gernaey, Krist; Vanrolleghem, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental procedure for anoxic activated sludge monitoring with combined nitrate and titrimetric measurements is proposed and evaluated successfully with two known carbon sources, (-)acetate and dextrose. For nitrate measurements an ion-selective nitrate electrode is applied to allow...... was with the carbon source in excess, since excess nitrate provoked nitrite build-up thereby complicating the data interpretation. A conceptual model could quantitatively describe the experimental observations and thus link the experimentally measured proton production with the consumption of electron acceptor...... and carbon source during denitrification....

  1. Adapted Active Appearance Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Séguier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Active Appearance Models (AAMs are able to align efficiently known faces under duress, when face pose and illumination are controlled. We propose Adapted Active Appearance Models to align unknown faces in unknown poses and illuminations. Our proposal is based on the one hand on a specific transformation of the active model texture in an oriented map, which changes the AAM normalization process; on the other hand on the research made in a set of different precomputed models related to the most adapted AAM for an unknown face. Tests on public and private databases show the interest of our approach. It becomes possible to align unknown faces in real-time situations, in which light and pose are not controlled.

  2. ACTIVATED CARBON/REFRIGERANT COMBINATIONS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    2001-03-01

    Mar 1, 2001 ... Nigerian Journal of Technology Vol. 20. No. ... Federal university of Technology ... Activated carbon is the adsorbent while ammonia, ethanol and methanol are the adsorbate. The ... production is not a new phenomenon.

  3. Modeling Cytoskeletal Active Matter Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Robert

    Active networks of filamentous proteins and crosslinking motor proteins play a critical role in many important cellular processes. One of the most important microtubule-motor protein assemblies is the mitotic spindle, a self-organized active liquid-crystalline structure that forms during cell division and that ultimately separates chromosomes into two daughter cells. Although the spindle has been intensively studied for decades, the physical principles that govern its self-organization and function remain mysterious. To evolve a better understanding of spindle formation, structure, and dynamics, I investigate course-grained models of active liquid-crystalline networks composed of microtubules, modeled as hard spherocylinders, in diffusive equilibrium with a reservoir of active crosslinks, modeled as hookean springs that can adsorb to microtubules and and translocate at finite velocity along the microtubule axis. This model is investigated using a combination of brownian dynamics and kinetic monte carlo simulation. I have further refined this model to simulate spindle formation and kinetochore capture in the fission yeast S. pombe. I then make predictions for experimentally realizable perturbations in motor protein presence and function in S. pombe.

  4. Antiarrhythmic effect of the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channel inhibitor ICA combined with either amiodarone or dofetilide in an isolated heart model of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhoff, Jeppe Egedal; Diness, Jonas Goldin; Abildgaard, Lea;

    2016-01-01

    Dose is an important parameter in terms of both efficacy and adverse effects in pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Both of the class III antiarrhythmics dofetilide and amiodarone have documented anti-AF effects. While dofetilide has dose-related ventricular side effects...... that combination of subefficacious concentrations of an SK channel blocker and either dofetilide or amiodarone can maintain anti-AF properties, while the risk of ventricular arrhythmias is reduced....

  5. Convex Combination of Multiple Statistical Models with Application to VAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petsatodis, Theodoros; Boukis, Christos; Talantzis, Fotios

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust Voice Activity Detector (VAD) based on the observation that the distribution of speech captured with far-field microphones is highly varying, depending on the noise and reverberation conditions. The proposed VAD employs a convex combination scheme comprising three...... statistical distributions - a Gaussian, a Laplacian, and a two-sided Gamma - to effectively model captured speech. This scheme shows increased ability to adapt to dynamic acoustic environments. The contribution of each distribution to this convex combination is automatically adjusted based on the statistical...

  6. Activity of daptomycin or linezolid in combination with rifampin or gentamicin against biofilm-forming Enterococcus faecalis or E. faecium in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model using simulated endocardial vegetations and an in vivo survival assay using Galleria mellonella larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Megan K; Arvanitis, Marios; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; LaPlante, Kerry L

    2014-08-01

    Enterococci are the third most frequent cause of infective endocarditis. A high-inoculum stationary-phase in vitro pharmacodynamic model with simulated endocardial vegetations was used to simulate the human pharmacokinetics of daptomycin at 6 or 10 mg/kg of body weight/day or linezolid at 600 mg every 12 h (q12h), alone or in combination with gentamicin at 1.3 mg/kg q12h or rifampin at 300 mg q8h or 900 mg q24h. Biofilm-forming, vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (vancomycin-resistant enterococcus [VRE]) strains were tested. At 24, 48, and 72 h, all daptomycin-containing regimens demonstrated significantly more activity (decline in CFU/g) than any linezolid-containing regimen against biofilm-forming E. faecalis. The addition of gentamicin to daptomycin (at 6 or 10 mg/kg) in the first 24 h significantly improved bactericidal activity. In contrast, the addition of rifampin delayed the bactericidal activity of daptomycin against E. faecalis, and the addition of rifampin antagonized the activities of all regimens against VRE at 24 h. Also, against VRE, the addition of gentamicin to linezolid at 72 h improved activity and was bactericidal. Rifampin significantly antagonized the activity of linezolid against VRE at 72 h. In in vivo Galleria mellonella survival assays, linezolid and daptomycin improved survival. Daptomycin at 10 mg/kg improved survival significantly over that with linezolid against E. faecalis. The addition of gentamicin improved the efficacy of daptomycin against E. faecalis and those of linezolid and daptomycin against VRE. We conclude that in enterococcal infection models, daptomycin has more activity than linezolid alone. Against biofilm-forming E. faecalis, the addition of gentamicin in the first 24 h causes the most rapid decline in CFU/g. Of interest, the addition of rifampin decreased the activity of daptomycin against both E. faecalis and VRE.

  7. Activity in the fronto-parietal network indicates numerical inductive reasoning beyond calculation : An fMRI study combined with a cognitive model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Taatgen, Niels A; Borst, Jelmer P; Li, Kuncheng

    2016-01-01

    Numerical inductive reasoning refers to the process of identifying and extrapolating the rule involved in numeric materials. It is associated with calculation, and shares the common activation of the fronto-parietal regions with calculation, which suggests that numerical inductive reasoning may corr

  8. Activity in the fronto-parietal network indicates numerical inductive reasoning beyond calculation: An fMRI study combined with a cognitive model

    OpenAIRE

    Peipeng Liang; Xiuqin Jia; Niels A Taatgen; Borst, Jelmer P.; Kuncheng Li

    2016-01-01

    Numerical inductive reasoning refers to the process of identifying and extrapolating the rule involved in numeric materials. It is associated with calculation, and shares the common activation of the fronto-parietal regions with calculation, which suggests that numerical inductive reasoning may correspond to a general calculation process. However, compared with calculation, rule identification is critical and unique to reasoning. Previous studies have established the central role of the front...

  9. Teaching physiology by combined passive (pedagogical) and active (andragogical) methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D; Birge, B

    1995-06-01

    Pedagogy and andragogy are models of education based, respectively, on passive and active learning. This project compared two balanced sections of an undergraduate course in physiology. Both sections used the pedagogical method of didactic lectures to present basic material. Students in section 01 were given multiple-choice examinations, a pedagogical procedure, over the lecture content for the purpose of performance evaluation. In section 02 the lectures were used as an information source, which students combined with other information researched in the library to draft essays on assigned topics, i.e., an andragogical approach. Grading of the essays constituted 75% of a student's performance evaluation, with participation in class discussions making up the remaining 25%. There was no significant difference in overall performance outcome between the two sections (P > 0.47). Students from both sections valued the lectures, even though they served a different purpose in each section. However, overall the student rating of section 02 was significantly higher than that of section 01 (P teachers, because the ratings of the two instructors were virtually identical (P > 0.98). These results suggest that a combined pedagogical and andragogical approach is an acceptable model for teaching introductory physiology.

  10. Transformations in oscillatory activity and evoked responses in primary somatosensory cortex in middle age: a combined computational neural modeling and MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, David A; Pritchett, Dominique L; Hosseini-Varnamkhasti, Paymon; Corkin, Suzanne; Hämäläinen, Matti; Moore, Christopher I; Jones, Stephanie R

    2010-09-01

    Oscillatory brain rhythms and evoked responses are widely believed to impact cognition, but relatively little is known about how these measures are affected by healthy aging. The present study used MEG to examine age-related changes in spontaneous oscillations and tactile evoked responses in primary somatosensory cortex (SI) in healthy young (YA) and middle-aged (MA) adults. To make specific predictions about neurophysiological changes that mediate age-related MEG changes, we applied a biophysically realistic model of SI that accurately reproduces SI MEG mu rhythms, containing alpha (7-14 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) components, and evoked responses. Analyses of MEG data revealed a significant increase in prestimulus mu power in SI, driven predominately by greater mu-beta dominance, and a larger and delayed M70 peak in the SI evoked response in MA. Previous analysis with our computational model showed that the SI mu rhythm could be reproduced with a stochastic sequence of rhythmic approximately 10 Hz feedforward (FF) input to the granular layers of SI (representative of lemniscal thalamic input) followed nearly simultaneously by approximately 10 Hz feedback (FB) input to the supragranular layers (representative of input from high order cortical or non-specific thalamic sources) (Jones et al., 2009). In the present study, the model further predicted that the rhythmic FF and FB inputs become stronger with age. Further, the FB input is predicted to arrive more synchronously to SI on each cycle of the 10 Hz input in MA. The simulated neurophysiological changes are sufficient to account for the age-related differences in both prestimulus mu rhythms and evoked responses. Thus, the model predicts that a single set of neurophysiological changes intimately links these age-related changes in neural dynamics. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A combined model reduction algorithm for controlled biochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Thomas J; van der Graaf, Piet H; Tindall, Marcus J

    2017-02-13

    Systems Biology continues to produce increasingly large models of complex biochemical reaction networks. In applications requiring, for example, parameter estimation, the use of agent-based modelling approaches, or real-time simulation, this growing model complexity can present a significant hurdle. Often, however, not all portions of a model are of equal interest in a given setting. In such situations methods of model reduction offer one possible approach for addressing the issue of complexity by seeking to eliminate those portions of a pathway that can be shown to have the least effect upon the properties of interest. In this paper a model reduction algorithm bringing together the complementary aspects of proper lumping and empirical balanced truncation is presented. Additional contributions include the development of a criterion for the selection of state-variable elimination via conservation analysis and use of an 'averaged' lumping inverse. This combined algorithm is highly automatable and of particular applicability in the context of 'controlled' biochemical networks. The algorithm is demonstrated here via application to two examples; an 11 dimensional model of bacterial chemotaxis in Escherichia coli and a 99 dimensional model of extracellular regulatory kinase activation (ERK) mediated via the epidermal growth factor (EGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor pathways. In the case of the chemotaxis model the algorithm was able to reduce the model to 2 state-variables producing a maximal relative error between the dynamics of the original and reduced models of only 2.8% whilst yielding a 26 fold speed up in simulation time. For the ERK activation model the algorithm was able to reduce the system to 7 state-variables, incurring a maximal relative error of 4.8%, and producing an approximately 10 fold speed up in the rate of simulation. Indices of controllability and observability are additionally developed and demonstrated throughout the paper. These provide

  12. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF COMBINATION DRUGS FOR TREATING VAGINOSIS DIFFERENT ETIOLOGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Bobritskaya L.A.; Osolodchenko T. P; Ruban E. A.

    2014-01-01

    Investigated the antimicrobial activity of the combination preparation in capsules "Meraflam" clinical of microbial strains isolated from patients with bacterial vaginosis . Experimentally proved the therapeutic dose of 0.3 g ornidazole in combination with Flamini 0.05 g, improve tolerability and expand the range of antibacterial action of the drug. In view of the antimicrobial capacity of diclofenac sodium from the combination of ofloxacin proposed for use in an in...

  13. On Activity modelling in process modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Aiordachioaie

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is looking to the dynamic feature of the meta-models of the process modelling process, the time. Some principles are considered and discussed as main dimensions of any modelling activity: the compatibility of the substances, the equipresence of phenomena and the solvability of the model. The activity models are considered and represented at meta-level.

  14. Antioxidant activity of dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination in neuroprotective therapy in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Kurysheva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the antioxidant activity of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and timolol fixed combinations and to compare it with other fixed combinations.Methods: Antioxidant activity (AOA of dorzolamide/timolol (Cosopt, dorzolamide/timolol (Dorzopt Plus, latanoprost/timolol, brimonidine/timolol, travoprost/timolol and bimatoprost/timolol fixed combinations was measured in vitro using the model of oxida- tive hemolysis.Results: Dorzolamide/timolol (Cosopt AOA was higher than that of other fixed combinations and increased with the quantity of the drugs added to the model system: 40%, 52% and 75% in 30 μl, 60 μl and 90 μl respectively.Conclusion: these findings suggest that dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination has potential advantages over the other fixed combinations due to its high antioxidant activity and might be used as the neuroptotective agent for glaucoma treatment.

  15. Antioxidant activity of dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination in neuroprotective therapy in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Kurysheva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the antioxidant activity of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and timolol fixed combinations and to compare it with other fixed combinations.Methods: Antioxidant activity (AOA of dorzolamide/timolol (Cosopt, dorzolamide/timolol (Dorzopt Plus, latanoprost/timolol, brimonidine/timolol, travoprost/timolol and bimatoprost/timolol fixed combinations was measured in vitro using the model of oxida- tive hemolysis.Results: Dorzolamide/timolol (Cosopt AOA was higher than that of other fixed combinations and increased with the quantity of the drugs added to the model system: 40%, 52% and 75% in 30 μl, 60 μl and 90 μl respectively.Conclusion: these findings suggest that dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination has potential advantages over the other fixed combinations due to its high antioxidant activity and might be used as the neuroptotective agent for glaucoma treatment.

  16. Thalidomide combined with irradiation alters the activity of two proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Ece; Aydemir, Esra; Korcum, Aylin Fidan; Fişkın, Kayahan

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of thalidomide, a drug known for its anti‑angiogenic and antitumor properties, at its cytotoxic dose previously determined as 40 µg/ml (according to four cytotoxic test results). The effect of the drug alone and in combination with radiotherapy using Cobalt 60 (60Co) at 45 Gy on the enzymatic activity of substance‑P degrading A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)10 and neprilysin (NEP) was investigated in the mouse breast cancer cell lines 4T1 and 4T1 heart metastases post‑capsaicin (4THMpc). Thalidomide (40 µg/ml) exerted differing effects on the activities of ADAM10 and NEP enzymes. In 4T1 cells, 40 µg/ml thalidomide alone did not alter ADAM10 enzyme activity. 60Co irradiation at 45 Gy alone caused a 42% inhibition in ADAM10 activity, however, the inhibition increased to 89% when combined therapy was used. By contrast, in the 4THMpc cell line, 40 µg/ml thalidomide alone induced a 66.6% increase in ADAM10 enzyme activity. Radiotherapy alone and thalidomide with 60Co combined therapy caused a 33.3 and 40% inhibition of ADAM10 activity, respectively. In 4T1 cells, thalidomide alone caused a 40.9% increase in NEP activity. Radiation therapy alone or in combination with the drug caused a 40.7% increase in NEP activity. In more aggressive 4THMpc cells, thalidomide alone caused a 26.6% increase in NEP activity. Radiotherapy alone and combined therapy caused a 33.3 and 37% increase in enzyme activity, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate that thalidomide alone or in combination with radiotherapy exhibits significant cytotoxic effects on 4T1 and 4THMpc mouse breast cancer cell lines indicating that this drug affects the enzymatic activity of ADAM10 and NEP in vitro.

  17. Activities and Products at IVS combination center at BKG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, S.; Lösler, M.

    2013-08-01

    The IVS combination center is primarily responsible to provide rapid EOP products based on observation campaigns twice a week and a long-term EOP series which is updated four times a year. Besides EOP products, methods and analysis of combined station coordinates and source positions are evolving and new products are developed in order to expand the range of combined VLBI products. Within the last year the combination center continuously worked on several improvements and refinements of the combination procedure: outlier test have been improved, the detection of unsuitable sessions in order to improve the stability of the results, the modeling of station coordinates of the reference frame generation and the data presentation on the combination centers website. Besides the routine combination of 24h VLBI sessions, several other projects have been developed, e.g. the preparation of the latest VLBI reference frame (VTRF) including the calculation of station height variations and baseline lengths generation derived by the combination of station coordinates. The combination center is furthermore intensely working on the combination of source coordinates and on providing user friendly online analysis tools on the combination centers website in order to meet the user requirements.

  18. Preclinical antitumor activity of ethyldeshydroxysparsomycin in combination with cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofs, H P; Wagener, D J; De Valk-Bakker, V; Van Rennes, H; De Vos, D; Doesburg, W H; Ottenheijm, H C; De Grip, W J

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of cisplatin (CDDP) in combination with the protein synthesis inhibitor ethyldeshydroxysparsomycin (EDSM) has been tested in two tumor models at various schedules. Mice with L1210 leukemia or B16 melanoma were treated with CDDP alone or in combination with EDSM. Against L1210 leukemia, which is sensitive to CDDP, combinations elicited increases in life-span for all treatment schedules compared to those achieved with the corresponding dose of CDDP. Moreover, the combination of EDSM with this platinum compound yielded a cure rate > 80%, compared to cisplatin efficacy is only seen when the tumor is sensitive to CDDP.

  19. Pesticide Removal by Combined Ozonation and Granular Activated Carbon Filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlandini, E.

    1999-01-01

    This research aimed to idendfy and understand mechanisms that underlie the beneficial effect of ozonation on removal of pesdcides and other micropoUutants by Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) filtradon. This allows optimization of the combination of these two processes, termed Biological Activated Car

  20. Pesticide Removal by Combined Ozonation and Granular Activated Carbon Filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlandini, E.

    1999-01-01

    This research aimed to idendfy and understand mechanisms that underlie the beneficial effect of ozonation on removal of pesdcides and other micropoUutants by Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) filtradon. This allows optimization of the combination of these two processes, termed Biological Activated

  1. Human platelets produced in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice upon transplantation of human cord blood CD34(+) cells are functionally active in an ex vivo flow model of thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Isabelle I; Thijs, Tim; Brunaud, Christine; De Meyer, Simon F; Thys, Johan; Vanhoorelbeke, Karen; Deckmyn, Hans

    2009-12-01

    Xenotransplantation systems have been used with increasing success to better understand human hematopoiesis and thrombopoiesis. In this study, we demonstrate that production of human platelets in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice after transplantation of unexpanded cord-blood CD34(+) cells was detected within 10 days after transplantation, with the number of circulating human platelets peaking at 2 weeks (up to 87 x 10(3)/microL). This rapid human platelet production was followed by a second wave of platelet formation 5 weeks after transplantation, with a population of 5% still detected after 8 weeks, attesting for long-term engraftment. Platelets issued from human hematopoietic stem cell progenitors are functional, as assessed by increased CD62P expression and PAC1 binding in response to collagen-related peptide and thrombin receptor-activating peptide activation and their ability to incorporate into thrombi formed on a collagen-coated surface in an ex vivo flow model of thrombosis. This interaction was abrogated by addition of inhibitory monoclonal antibodies against human glycoprotein Ibalpha (GPIbalpha) and GPIIb/IIIa. Thus, our mouse model with production of human platelets may be further explored to study the function of genetically modified platelets, but also to investigate the effect of stimulators or inhibitors of human thrombopoiesis in vivo.

  2. Focal radiation therapy combined with 4-1BB activation and CTLA-4 blockade yields long-term survival and a protective antigen-specific memory response in a murine glioma model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Belcaid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults and is associated with a poor prognosis. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen -4 (CTLA-4 blocking antibodies have demonstrated an ability to generate robust antitumor immune responses against a variety of solid tumors. 4-1BB (CD137 is expressed by activated T lymphocytes and served as a co-stimulatory signal, which promotes cytotoxic function. Here, we evaluate a combination immunotherapy regimen involving 4-1BB activation, CTLA-4 blockade, and focal radiation therapy in an immune-competent intracranial GBM model. METHODS: GL261-luciferace cells were stereotactically implanted in the striatum of C57BL/6 mice. Mice were treated with a triple therapy regimen consisted of 4-1BB agonist antibodies, CTLA-4 blocking antibodies, and focal radiation therapy using a small animal radiation research platform and mice were followed for survival. Numbers of brain-infiltrating lymphocytes were analyzed by FACS analysis. CD4 or CD8 depleting antibodies were administered to determine the relative contribution of T helper and cytotoxic T cells in this regimen. To evaluate the ability of this immunotherapy to generate an antigen-specific memory response, long-term survivors were re-challenged with GL261 glioma en B16 melanoma flank tumors. RESULTS: Mice treated with triple therapy had increased survival compared to mice treated with focal radiation therapy and immunotherapy with 4-1BB activation and CTLA-4 blockade. Animals treated with triple therapy exhibited at least 50% long-term tumor free survival. Treatment with triple therapy resulted in a higher density of CD4+ and CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Mechanistically, depletion of CD4+ T cells abrogated the antitumor efficacy of triple therapy, while depletion of CD8+ T cells had no effect on the treatment response. CONCLUSION: Combination therapy with 4-1BB activation and CTLA-4 blockade in the setting of focal radiation therapy

  3. In vitro activity of nicotinamide/antileishmanial drug combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Gazanion, Elodie; Vergnes, Baptiste; Seveno, Marie; Garcia, Deborah; Oury, Bruno; Ait-Oudhia, K.; Ouaissi, A.; Sereno, Denis

    2011-01-01

    To improve the management of leishmaniasis, new drugs and/or alternative therapeutic strategies are required. Combination therapy of antileishmanial drugs is currently considered as one of the most rational approaches to lower treatment failure rate and limit drug resistance spreading. Nicotinamide (NAm), also known as vitamin B3 that is already is used in human therapy, exerts in vitro antileishmanial activity. Drug combination studies, performed on L. infantum axenic amastigotes, revealed t...

  4. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF COMBINATION DRUGS FOR TREATING VAGINOSIS DIFFERENT ETIOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobritskaya L. A.,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigated the antimicrobial activity of the combination preparation in capsules "Meraflam" clinical of microbial strains isolated from patients with bacterial vaginosis . Experimentally proved the therapeutic dose of 0.3 g ornidazole in combination with Flamini 0.05 g, improve tolerability and expand the range of antibacterial action of the drug. In view of the antimicrobial capacity of diclofenac sodium from the combination of ofloxacin proposed for use in an integrated circuit - inflammatory treatment of infectious diseases , including bacterial vaginosis.

  5. Generic active appearance models revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Alabort-i-Medina, Joan; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The proposed Active Orientation Models (AOMs) are gen- erative models of facial shape and appearance. Their main dierences with the well-known paradigm of Active Appearance Models (AAMs) are (i) they use a dierent statistical model of appearance, (ii) they are accompanied by a robust algorithm for m

  6. Study of the combined effect of temperature, pH and water activity on the radial growth rate of the white-rot basidiomycete Physisporinus vitreus by using a hyphal growth model

    CERN Document Server

    Fuhr, M J; Schubert, M; Schwarze, F W M R; Herrmann, H J

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates environmental effects on the growth of fungal colonies of P. vitreus by using a lattice-free discrete modelling approach called FGM (Fuhr et al. (2010), arXiv:1101.1747), in which hyphae and nutrients are considered as discrete structures. A discrete modelling approach allows studying the underlying mechanistic rule concerning the basic architecture and dynamic of fungal networks on the scale of a single colony. By comparing simulations of the FGM with laboratory experiments of growing fungal colonies on malt extract agar we show that combined effect of temperature, pH and water activity on the radial growth rate of a fungal colony on a macroscopic scale may be explained by a power law for the growth costs of hyphal expansion on a microscopic scale. The information about the response of the fungal mycelium on a microscopic scale to environmental conditions is essential to simulate its behavior in complex structure substrates such as wood, where the impact of the fungus to the woo...

  7. In vitro activity of nicotinamide/antileishmanial drug combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazanion, Elodie; Vergnes, Baptiste; Seveno, Marie; Garcia, Deborah; Oury, Bruno; Ait-Oudhia, Khatima; Ouaissi, Ali; Sereno, Denis

    2011-01-01

    To improve the management of leishmaniasis, new drugs and/or alternative therapeutic strategies are required. Combination therapy of antileishmanial drugs is currently considered as one of the most rational approaches to lower treatment failure rate and limit drug resistance spreading. Nicotinamide (NAm), also known as vitamin B3 that is already is used in human therapy, exerts in vitro antileishmanial activity. Drug combination studies, performed on L. infantum axenic amastigotes, revealed that NAm significantly improves the antileishmanial activity of trivalent antimony in a synergistic manner while it shows additive activity with amphotericin B and slightly antagonizes pentamidine activity. NAm also significantly increases the toxicity of pentavalent antimony against the intracellular forms of L. infantum, L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis. The potential of NAm to be used as adjuvant during leishmaniasis chemotherapy is further discussed.

  8. Combined paracetamol and amitriptyline adsorption to activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Groenlykke, Thor Buch; Abildtrup, Ulla;

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. High-gram drug doses seen in multiple-drug poisonings might be close to the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal (AC). The aim was to determine the maximum adsorption capacities (Q(m)) of amitriptyline and paracetamol, separately and in combination, to AC. Methods. ACs (Carbomix...

  9. Combined optimization model for sustainable energization strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtew, Mohammed Seid

    Access to energy is a foundation to establish a positive impact on multiple aspects of human development. Both developed and developing countries have a common concern of achieving a sustainable energy supply to fuel economic growth and improve the quality of life with minimal environmental impacts. The Least Developing Countries (LDCs), however, have different economic, social, and energy systems. Prevalence of power outage, lack of access to electricity, structural dissimilarity between rural and urban regions, and traditional fuel dominance for cooking and the resultant health and environmental hazards are some of the distinguishing characteristics of these nations. Most energy planning models have been designed for developed countries' socio-economic demographics and have missed the opportunity to address special features of the poor countries. An improved mixed-integer programming energy-source optimization model is developed to address limitations associated with using current energy optimization models for LDCs, tackle development of the sustainable energization strategies, and ensure diversification and risk management provisions in the selected energy mix. The Model predicted a shift from traditional fuels reliant and weather vulnerable energy source mix to a least cost and reliable modern clean energy sources portfolio, a climb on the energy ladder, and scored multifaceted economic, social, and environmental benefits. At the same time, it represented a transition strategy that evolves to increasingly cleaner energy technologies with growth as opposed to an expensive solution that leapfrogs immediately to the cleanest possible, overreaching technologies.

  10. Activated sludge model No. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gujer, W.; Henze, M.; Mino, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) can predict oxygen consumption, sludge production, nitrification and denitrification of activated sludge systems. It relates to the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) and corrects for some defects of ASM I. In addition to ASM1, ASM3 includes storage...

  11. An information theoretic approach for combining neural network process models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, D V.; Bartlett, E B.; Seagrave, R C.

    1999-07-01

    Typically neural network modelers in chemical engineering focus on identifying and using a single, hopefully optimal, neural network model. Using a single optimal model implicitly assumes that one neural network model can extract all the information available in a given data set and that the other candidate models are redundant. In general, there is no assurance that any individual model has extracted all relevant information from the data set. Recently, Wolpert (Neural Networks, 5(2), 241 (1992)) proposed the idea of stacked generalization to combine multiple models. Sridhar, Seagrave and Barlett (AIChE J., 42, 2529 (1996)) implemented the stacked generalization for neural network models by integrating multiple neural networks into an architecture known as stacked neural networks (SNNs). SNNs consist of a combination of the candidate neural networks and were shown to provide improved modeling of chemical processes. However, in Sridhar's work SNNs were limited to using a linear combination of artificial neural networks. While a linear combination is simple and easy to use, it can utilize only those model outputs that have a high linear correlation to the output. Models that are useful in a nonlinear sense are wasted if a linear combination is used. In this work we propose an information theoretic stacking (ITS) algorithm for combining neural network models. The ITS algorithm identifies and combines useful models regardless of the nature of their relationship to the actual output. The power of the ITS algorithm is demonstrated through three examples including application to a dynamic process modeling problem. The results obtained demonstrate that the SNNs developed using the ITS algorithm can achieve highly improved performance as compared to selecting and using a single hopefully optimal network or using SNNs based on a linear combination of neural networks.

  12. [Activity of an ampicillin/sulbactam combination in respiratory infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, P; Manara, G; Grassi, G; Gialdroni Grassi, G

    1989-01-01

    The combination of sulbactam (S) plus ampicillin (A) extends the activity of ampicillin (Amp) against beta-lactamase producing strains. This combination is therefore useful in many clinical situations including LRTI. A clinical trial was carried out to evaluate the clinical and bacteriological efficacy of S-Amp in LRTI in comparison with Amp alone. Concerning clinical outcome the results were satisfactory in 83.3% of cases for S-Amp group and 82.3% of cases for Amp group. Pathogen eradication was achieved in 87.5% and 70.5% of cases respectively for the S-Amp and Amp group.

  13. Activity of Sulfa Drugs and Their Combinations against Stationary Phase B. burgdorferi In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Feng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is a most common vector-borne disease in the US. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with the standard two- to four-week antibiotic treatment, at least 10%–20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS. While the cause for this is unclear, one possibility is that persisting organisms are not killed by current Lyme antibiotics. In our previous studies, we screened an FDA drug library and an NCI compound library on B. burgdorferi and found some drug hits including sulfa drugs as having good activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells. In this study, we evaluated the relative activity of three commonly used sulfa drugs, sulfamethoxazole (Smx, dapsone (Dps, sulfachlorpyridazine (Scp, and also trimethoprim (Tmp, and assessed their combinations with the commonly prescribed Lyme antibiotics for activities against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells. Using the same molarity concentration, dapsone, sulfachlorpyridazine and trimethoprim showed very similar activity against stationary phase B. burgdorferi enriched in persisters; however, sulfamethoxazole was the least active drug among the three sulfa drugs tested. Interestingly, contrary to other bacterial systems, Tmp did not show synergy in drug combinations with the three sulfa drugs at their clinically relevant serum concentrations against B. burgdorferi. We found that sulfa drugs combined with other antibiotics were more active than their respective single drugs and that four-drug combinations were more active than three-drug combinations. Four-drug combinations dapsone + minocycline + cefuroxime + azithromycin and dapsone + minocycline + cefuroxime + rifampin showed the best activity against stationary phase B. burgdorferi in these sulfa drug combinations. However, these four-sulfa-drug–containing combinations still had considerably less activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells than the

  14. ARMA-GM combined forewarning model for the quality control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xingyuan; Yang Xu

    2005-01-01

    Three forecasting models are set up: the auto-regressive moving average model, the grey forecasting model for the rate of qualified products Pt, and the grey forecasting model for time intervals of the quality catastrophes. Then a combined forewarning system for the quality of products is established, which contains three models, judgment rules and forewarning state illustration. Finally with an example of the practical production, this modeling system is proved fairly effective.

  15. Mathematical Model of Asynchronous Motor with Embedded Combined Braking Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Solencov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a conclusion of a mathematical model pertaining to asynchronous motor with embedded combined braking device on the basis of electromechanical brake and electromagnetic slip coupling. The mathematical model has been obtained in an orthogonal coordinate system a, b, which is fixed with respect to the asymmetric part of the asynchronous motor with embedded combined braking device. The model makes it possible to investigate transient processes in various asynchronous motors with embedded braking devices.

  16. Pesticide removal by combined ozonation and granular activated carbon filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Orlandini, E.

    1999-01-01

    Since the seventies, new water treatment processes have been introduced in the production of drinking water from surface water. Their major aim was to adequately cope with the disinfection of this water, and/or with the removal of pesticides and other organic micropollutants from it. This research focused on Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) filtration, which is a combination of ozonation and GAC filtration. Its general goal was identification and understanding of the mechanisms that underlie...

  17. Event-Based Activity Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2004-01-01

    We present and discuss a modeling approach that supports event-based modeling of information and activity in information systems. Interacting human actors and IT-actors may carry out such activity. We use events to create meaningful relations between information structures and the related activit...

  18. Combined forecasts from linear and nonlinear time series models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Terui (Nobuhiko); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractCombined forecasts from a linear and a nonlinear model are investigated for time series with possibly nonlinear characteristics. The forecasts are combined by a constant coefficient regression method as well as a time varying method. The time varying method allows for a locally (non)line

  19. Direct model fitting to combine dithered ACS images

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoudian, Haniyeh

    2013-01-01

    The information lost in images of undersampled CCD cameras can be recovered with the technique of `dithering'. A number of subexposures is taken with sub-pixel shifts in order to record structures on scales smaller than a pixel. The standard method to combine such exposures, `Drizzle', averages after reversing the displacements, including rotations and distortions. More sophisticated methods are available to produce, e.g., Nyquist sampled representations of band-limited inputs. While the combined images produced by these methods can be of high quality, their use as input for forward-modelling techniques in gravitational lensing is still not optimal, because the residual artefacts still affect the modelling results in unpredictable ways. In this paper we argue for an overall modelling approach that takes into account the dithering and the lensing without the intermediate product of a combined image. As one building block we introduce an alternative approach to combine dithered images by direct model fitting wi...

  20. Active control: Wind turbine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.

    1999-01-01

    This report is a part of the reporting of the work done in the project 'Active Control of Wind Turbines'. This project aim is to develop a simulation model for design of control systems for turbines with pitch control and to use that model to designcontrollers. This report describes the model...... developed for controller design and analysis. Emphasis has been put on establishment of simple models describing the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine in adequate details for controller design. This hasbeen done with extensive use of measurements as the basis for selection of model complexity and model...... validation as well as parameter estimation. The model includes a simple model of the structure of the turbine including tower and flapwise blade bending,a detailed model of the gear box and induction generator, a linearized aerodynamic model including modelling of induction lag and actuator and sensor models...

  1. Combining models and measurements for European scale exceedance mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denby, B.; Horálek, J.; Kurfürst, P.; de Smet, P.; de Leeuw, F.

    2009-04-01

    There is a need at the European policy and management level to have access to comprehensive assessments of air quality on the European scale. In support of this need the European Topic Centre for Air Quality and Climate Change carries out, on behalf of the European Environmental Agency, a range of European scale air quality mapping activities. In this paper statistical interpolation techniques have been applied to map and assess the rural background concentrations of PM10 and ozone on a daily basis over all of Europe. These daily maps are further used to determine exceedances of the air quality directive limit values for annual and daily mean PM10 as well as the percentile (26'th highest) 8 hour running mean for ozone. The maps are created using multiple linear regression of both the LOTOS-EUROS and EMEP chemical transport models along with daily air quality data taken from Airbase. Residual kriging of the regression fields is then applied for the final maps. Comparisons are made when using different models, different interpolation methods and when using annual instead of daily statistics. In addition to the assessment maps attention is also given to estimating the uncertainty of the maps. The methodology for determining the uncertainty in exceedances is described and maps of the uncertainty, along with probability of exceedance maps, are provided. By the use of cross-validation methods the quality of the maps is assessed. The results show that models alone do not provide useful assessment maps of exceedances for either PM10 or ozone. When used in combination with measurements both of the models give similar levels of uncertainty. The uncertainty is, in almost all cases, reduced when daily maps are used to determine exceedances rather than the use of annual statistics.

  2. Combining SKU-level sales forecasts from models and experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Legerstee (Rianne)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe study the performance of SKU-level sales forecasts which linearly combine statistical model forecasts and expert forecasts. Using a large and unique database containing model forecasts for monthly sales of various pharmaceutical products and forecasts given by about fifty experts, we

  3. Methodologies in the modeling of combined chemo-radiation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassberger, C.; Paganetti, H.

    2016-11-01

    The variety of treatment options for cancer patients has increased significantly in recent years. Not only do we combine radiation with surgery and chemotherapy, new therapeutic approaches such as immunotherapy and targeted therapies are starting to play a bigger role. Physics has made significant contributions to radiation therapy treatment planning and delivery. In particular, treatment plan optimization using inverse planning techniques has improved dose conformity considerably. Furthermore, medical physics is often the driving force behind tumor control and normal tissue complication modeling. While treatment optimization and outcome modeling does focus mainly on the effects of radiation, treatment modalities such as chemotherapy are treated independently or are even neglected entirely. This review summarizes the published efforts to model combined modality treatments combining radiation and chemotherapy. These models will play an increasing role in optimizing cancer therapy not only from a radiation and drug dosage standpoint, but also in terms of spatial and temporal optimization of treatment schedules.

  4. Active control: Wind turbine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, Henrik

    1999-07-01

    This report is a part of the reporting of the work done in the project `Active Control of Wind Turbines`. This project aim is to develop a simulation model for design of control systems for turbines with pitch control and to use that model to design controllers. This report describes the model developed for controller design and analysis. Emphasis has been put on establishment of simple models describing the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine in adequate details for controller design. This has been done with extensive use of measurements as the basis for selection of model complexity and model validation as well as parameter estimation. The model includes a simple model of the structure of the turbine including tower and flapwise blade bending, a detailed model of the gear box and induction generator, a linearized aerodynamic model including modelling of induction lag and actuator and sensor models. The models are all formulated as linear differential equations. The models are validated through comparisons with measurements performed on a Vestas WD 34 400 kW wind turbine. It is shown from a control point of view simple linear models can be used to describe the dynamic behavior of a pitch controlled wind turbine. The model and the measurements corresponds well in the relevant frequency range. The developed model is therefore applicable for controller design. (au) EFP-91. 18 ills., 22 refs.

  5. Forecasting China's natural gas consumption based on a combination model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Xu; Weiguo Wang

    2010-01-01

    Ensuring a sufficient energy supply is essential to a country.Natural gas constitutes a vital part in energy supply and therefore forecasting natural gas consumption reliably and accurately is an essential part of a country's energy policy.Over the years,studies have shown that a combinative model gives better projected results compared to a single model.In this study,we used Polynomial Curve and Moving Average Combination Projection (PCMACP) model to estimate the future natural gas consumption in China from 2009 to 2015.The new proposed PCMACP model shows more reliable and accurate results:its Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) is less than those of any previous models within the investigated range.According to the PCMACP model,the average annual growth rate will increase for the next 7 years and the amount of natural gas consumption will reach 171600 million cubic meters in 2015 in China.

  6. Patterns of Adolescents' Participation in Organized Activities: Are Sports Best when Combined with Other Activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linver, Miriam R.; Roth, Jodie L.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Although many adolescents participate in sports and other types of organized activities, little extant research explores how youth development outcomes may vary for youth involved in different combinations of activities. The present study uses the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a large, nationally…

  7. Capstone Teaching Models: Combining Simulation, Analytical Intuitive Learning Processes, History and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Maurice; Brown, Steve; Tabibzadeh, Kambiz

    2012-01-01

    For the past decade teaching models have been changing, reflecting the dynamics, complexities, and uncertainties of today's organizations. The traditional and the more current active models of learning have disadvantages. Simulation provides a platform to combine the best aspects of both types of teaching practices. This research explores the…

  8. Capstone Teaching Models: Combining Simulation, Analytical Intuitive Learning Processes, History and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Maurice; Brown, Steve; Tabibzadeh, Kambiz

    2012-01-01

    For the past decade teaching models have been changing, reflecting the dynamics, complexities, and uncertainties of today's organizations. The traditional and the more current active models of learning have disadvantages. Simulation provides a platform to combine the best aspects of both types of teaching practices. This research explores the…

  9. Fast Newton active appearance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kossaifi, Jean; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Pantic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Active Appearance Models (AAMs) are statistical models of shape and appearance widely used in computer vision to detect landmarks on objects like faces. Fitting an AAM to a new image can be formulated as a non-linear least-squares problem which is typically solved using iterative methods. Owing to i

  10. Combination Ciprofloxacin and Metronidazole for Active Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L Greenbloom

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental evidence underscores the contribution of intestinal bacteria to the inflammatory process of Crohn's disease. This open study examined the efficacy and safety of combination ciprofloxacin and metronidazole for patients with active Crohn's disease of the ileum and/or colon. Seventy-two patients with active Crohn's disease of the ileum (n=27, ileocolon (n=22 or colon (n=23 were treated with ciprofloxacin 500 mg bid and metronidazole 250 mg tid for a mean of 10 weeks. Clinical remission was defined as a Harvey-Bradshaw index of three points or less; an index reduction of at least three points indicated a clinical response. Clinical remission was observed in 49 patients (68%, and 55 patients (76% showed a clinical response. A clinical response was noted in 29 of 43 patients (67% who were not taking concurrent prednisone treatment and in 26 of 29 patients (90% receiving prednisone (mean dose of 15 mg/day. A clinical response also occurred in a greater proportion of patients with colonic disease, with or without ileal involvement (84%, compared with patients with ileal disease alone (64%, and in patients without resection (86% compared with those with previous resection (61%. Five patients discontinued antibiotics because of adverse events. After a mean follow-up of nine months, clinical remission was maintained in 26 patients off treatment and in 12 patients who continued antibiotic therapy. Ciprofloxacin in combination with metronidazole is well tolerated and appears to play a beneficial role in achieving clinical remission for patients with active Crohn's disease, particularly when there is involvement of the colon.

  11. Mixed Models: Combining Incompatible Scalar Models in Any Spacetime Dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Klauder, John R

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, covariant scalar field theory models are either super renormalizable, strictly renormalizable, or nonrenormalizable. The goal of `Mixed Models' is to make sense of sums of these distinct examples, e.g., $g\\varphi^4_3+g'\\varphi^6_3+g''\\varphi^8_3$, which includes an example of each kind for spacetime dimension $n=3$. We show how the several interactions such mixed models have may be turned on and off in any order without any difficulties. Analogous results are shown for $g\\varphi^4_n+g'\\varphi^{138}_n$, etc., for all $n\\ge3$. Different categories hold for $n=2$ such as, e.g., ${g P(\\varphi)_2+g' N\\!P}(\\varphi)_2$, that involve polynomial ($P$) and suitable nonpolynomial ($N\\!P$) interactions, etc. Analogous situations for $n=1$ (time alone) offer simple `toy' examples of how such mixed models may be constructed.

  12. Modelling the benefits of a new class of anthelmintic in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathwick, D M

    2012-05-04

    Since 2009 two new classes of anthelmintics have been registered for use in sheep in New Zealand. This raises challenging questions about how such new actives should be used, not only to minimise the development of resistance to them, thereby ensuring their availability as effective treatments for as long as possible, but also to minimise the further development of resistance to the other anthelmintic classes. One strategy which appears to offer considerable potential for slowing the development of resistance is the use of combinations of different anthelmintic classes, although this approach remains contentious in some countries. The potential benefit of using anthelmintics in combination is particularly relevant to two recently released anthelmintic compounds because one, monepantel, is presently only available as a single active product while the other, derquantel, is only available in combination with abamectin. A simulation modelling approach was used to investigate the potential benefits of using anthelmintics in combination. The rate at which resistance develops to a new 'active' when used alone was compared to an equivalent compound used in combination with a second compound from an alternative class (in this case, abamectin), when various levels of resistance occur to the second active. In addition, the potential of a new active to reduce further development of resistance to the second compound in the combination was evaluated. Finally, the use of combinations as compared to sequential or rotational use patterns, in the presence of side resistance between two actives was investigated. The modelling simulations suggest a significant advantage to both compounds when they are used in combination, especially if both initially have high efficacy. The development of resistance to the new active was delayed, although to a lesser extent, even when the efficacy of the second active in the combination was only 50%. Under a 'low-refugia' management environment

  13. Modeling interdisciplinary activities involving Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Steffen Møllegaard

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a didactical model is presented. The goal of the model is to work as a didactical tool, or conceptual frame, for developing, carrying through and evaluating interdisciplinary activities involving the subject of mathematics and philosophy in the high schools. Through the terms...... of Horizontal Intertwining, Vertical Structuring and Horizontal Propagation the model consists of three phases, each considering different aspects of the nature of interdisciplinary activities. The theoretical modelling is inspired by work which focuses on the students abilities to concept formation in expanded...... domains (Michelsen, 2001, 2005a, 2005b). Furthermore the theoretical description rest on a series of qualitative interviews with teachers from the Danish high school (grades 9-11) conducted recently. The special case of concrete interdisciplinary activities between mathematics and philosophy is also...

  14. High resolution gravity models combining terrestrial and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Richard H.; Pavlis, Nikolaos K.; Wang, Yan M.

    1992-01-01

    Spherical harmonic expansions to degree 360 have been developed that combine satellite potential coefficient information, terrestrial gravity data, satellite altimeter information as a direct tracking data type and topographic information. These models define improved representations of the Earth's gravitational potential beyond that available from just satellite or terrestrial data. The development of the degree 360 models, however, does not imply a uniform accuracy in the determination of the gravity field as numerous geographic areas are devoid of terrestrial data or the resolution of such data is limited to, for example, 100 km. This paper will consider theoretical and numerical questions related to the combination of the various data types. Various models of the combination process are discussed with a discussion of various correction terms for the different models. Various sources of gravity data will be described. The new OSU91 360 model will be discussed with comparisons made to previous 360 models and to other potential coefficient models that are complete to degree 50. Future directions in high degree potential coefficient models will be discussed.

  15. A Bayesian Combination Forecasting Model for Retail Supply Chain Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J. Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Retailing plays an important part in modern economic development, and supply chain coordination is the research focus in retail operations management. This paper reviews the collaborative forecasting process within the framework of the collaborative planning, forecasting and replenishment of retail supply chain. A Bayesian combination forecasting model is proposed to integrate multiple forecasting resources and coordinate forecasting processes among partners in the retail supply chain. Based on simulation results for retail sales, the effectiveness of this combination forecasting model is demonstrated for coordinating the collaborative forecasting processes, resulting in an improvement of demand forecasting accuracy in the retail supply chain.

  16. Ionospheric parameter modelling and anomaly discovery by combining the wavelet transform with autoregressive models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana V. Mandrikova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to new mathematical tools for ionospheric parameter analysis and anomaly discovery during ionospheric perturbations. The complex structure of processes under study, their a-priori uncertainty and therefore the complex structure of registered data require a set of techniques and technologies to perform mathematical modelling, data analysis, and to make final interpretations. We suggest a technique of ionospheric parameter modelling and analysis based on combining the wavelet transform with autoregressive integrated moving average models (ARIMA models. This technique makes it possible to study ionospheric parameter changes in the time domain, make predictions about variations, and discover anomalies caused by high solar activity and lithospheric processes prior to and during strong earthquakes. The technique was tested on critical frequency foF2 and total electron content (TEC datasets from Kamchatka (a region in the Russian Far East and Magadan (a town in the Russian Far East. The mathematical models introduced in the paper facilitated ionospheric dynamic mode analysis and proved to be efficient for making predictions with time advance equal to 5 hours. Ionospheric anomalies were found using model error estimates, those anomalies arising during increased solar activity and strong earthquakes in Kamchatka.

  17. Study of the combined effect of electro-activated solutions and heat treatment on the destruction of spores of Clostridium sporogenes and Geobacillus stearothermophilus in model solution and vegetable puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liato, Viacheslav; Labrie, Steve; Viel, Catherine; Benali, Marzouk; Aïder, Mohammed

    2015-10-01

    The combined effect of heat treatment and electro-activated solution (EAS) on the heat resistance of spores of Clostridium sporogenes and Geobacillus stearothermophilus was assessed under various heating and exposure time combinations. The acid and neutral EAS showed the highest inhibitory activity, indicating that these solutions may be considered as strong sporicidal disinfectants. These EAS were able to cause a reduction of ≥6 log of spores of C. sporogenes at 60 °C in only 1 min of exposition. For G. stearothermophilus spores, a reduction of 4.5 log was observed at 60 °C in 1 min, while in 5 min, ≥7 log CFU/ml reduction was observed. Inoculated puree of pea and corn were used as a food matrix for the determination of the heat resistance of these spores during the treatments in glass capillaries. The inactivation kinetics of the spores was studied in an oil bath. Combined treatment by EAS and temperature demonstrated a significant decrease in the heat resistance of C. sporogenes. The D100°C in pea puree with NaCl solution was 66.86 min while with acid and neutral EAS it was reduced down to 3.97 and 2.19 min, respectively. The spore of G. stearothermophilus displayed higher heat resistance as confirmed by other similar studies. Its D130°C in pea puree showed a decrease from 1.45 min in NaCl solution down to 1.30 and 0.93 min for acid and neutral EAS, respectively. The differences between the spores of these species are attributable to their different sensitivities with respect to pH, Redox potential and oxygen.

  18. TIME SERIES FORECASTING WITH MULTIPLE CANDIDATE MODELS: SELECTING OR COMBINING?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Lean; WANG Shouyang; K. K. Lai; Y.Nakamori

    2005-01-01

    Various mathematical models have been commonly used in time series analysis and forecasting. In these processes, academic researchers and business practitioners often come up against two important problems. One is whether to select an appropriate modeling approach for prediction purposes or to combine these different individual approaches into a single forecast for the different/dissimilar modeling approaches. Another is whether to select the best candidate model for forecasting or to mix the various candidate models with different parameters into a new forecast for the same/similar modeling approaches. In this study, we propose a set of computational procedures to solve the above two issues via two judgmental criteria. Meanwhile, in view of the problems presented in the literature, a novel modeling technique is also proposed to overcome the drawbacks of existing combined forecasting methods. To verify the efficiency and reliability of the proposed procedure and modeling technique, the simulations and real data examples are conducted in this study.The results obtained reveal that the proposed procedure and modeling technique can be used as a feasible solution for time series forecasting with multiple candidate models.

  19. Multilayer hydrogel coatings to combine hemocompatibility and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Marion; Vahdatzadeh, Maryam; Konradi, Rupert; Friedrichs, Jens; Maitz, Manfred F; Freudenberg, Uwe; Werner, Carsten

    2015-07-01

    While silver-loaded catheters are widely used to prevent early-onset catheter-related infections [1], long term antimicrobial protection of indwelling catheters remains to be achieved [2] and antiseptic functionalization of coatings often impairs their hemocompatibility characteristics. Therefore, this work aimed to capitalize on the antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles, incorporated in anticoagulant poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-heparin hydrogel coatings [3] on thermoplastic polyurethane materials. For prolonged antimicrobial activity, the silver-containing starPEG-heparin hydrogel layers were shielded with silver-free hydrogel layers of otherwise similar composition. The resulting multi-layered gel coatings showed long term antiseptic efficacy against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains in vitro, and similarly performed well when incubated with freshly drawn human whole blood with respect to hemolysis, platelet activation and plasmatic coagulation. The introduced hydrogel multilayer system thus offers a promising combination of hemocompatibility and long-term antiseptic capacity to meet an important clinical need.

  20. Combined photovoltaic/thermal solar array dc electrical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krikorian, J.S. Jr.

    1981-12-01

    An electrical model of a combined photovoltaic/thermal solar array has been developed to predict the steady state behavior of the line currents, power output and array voltage. The effects of temperature on the solar cell characteristics is included in the analysis. The model includes line isolation diodes and ''open cell'' bypass diodes. A numerical procedure based on the Contraction Mapping Fixed Point Theorem is used to solve the associated nonlinear equations. 6 refs.

  1. Combined Estimation of Hydrogeologic Conceptual Model and Parameter Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Philip D.; Ye, Ming; Neuman, Shlomo P.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2004-03-01

    The objective of the research described in this report is the development and application of a methodology for comprehensively assessing the hydrogeologic uncertainties involved in dose assessment, including uncertainties associated with conceptual models, parameters, and scenarios. This report describes and applies a statistical method to quantitatively estimate the combined uncertainty in model predictions arising from conceptual model and parameter uncertainties. The method relies on model averaging to combine the predictions of a set of alternative models. Implementation is driven by the available data. When there is minimal site-specific data the method can be carried out with prior parameter estimates based on generic data and subjective prior model probabilities. For sites with observations of system behavior (and optionally data characterizing model parameters), the method uses model calibration to update the prior parameter estimates and model probabilities based on the correspondence between model predictions and site observations. The set of model alternatives can contain both simplified and complex models, with the requirement that all models be based on the same set of data. The method was applied to the geostatistical modeling of air permeability at a fractured rock site. Seven alternative variogram models of log air permeability were considered to represent data from single-hole pneumatic injection tests in six boreholes at the site. Unbiased maximum likelihood estimates of variogram and drift parameters were obtained for each model. Standard information criteria provided an ambiguous ranking of the models, which would not justify selecting one of them and discarding all others as is commonly done in practice. Instead, some of the models were eliminated based on their negligibly small updated probabilities and the rest were used to project the measured log permeabilities by kriging onto a rock volume containing the six boreholes. These four

  2. Modeling interdisciplinary activities involving Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Steffen Møllegaard

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a didactical model is presented. The goal of the model is to work as a didactical tool, or conceptual frame, for developing, carrying through and evaluating interdisciplinary activities involving the subject of mathematics and philosophy in the high schools. Through the terms...... domains (Michelsen, 2001, 2005a, 2005b). Furthermore the theoretical description rest on a series of qualitative interviews with teachers from the Danish high school (grades 9-11) conducted recently. The special case of concrete interdisciplinary activities between mathematics and philosophy is also...

  3. Direct model fitting to combine dithered ACS images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, H.; Wucknitz, O.

    2013-08-01

    The information lost in images of undersampled CCD cameras can be recovered with the technique of "dithering". A number of subexposures is taken with sub-pixel shifts in order to record structures on scales smaller than a pixel. The standard method to combine such exposures, "Drizzle", averages after reversing the displacements, including rotations and distortions. More sophisticated methods are available to produce, e.g., Nyquist sampled representations of band-limited inputs. While the combined images produced by these methods can be of high quality, their use as input for forward-modelling techniques in gravitational lensing is still not optimal, because the residual artefacts still affect the modelling results in unpredictable ways. In this paper we argue for an overall modelling approach that takes into account the dithering and the lensing without the intermediate product of a combined image. As one building block we introduce an alternative approach to combine dithered images by direct model fitting with a least-squares approach including a regularization constraint. We present tests with simulated and real data that show the quality of the results. The additional effects of gravitational lensing and the convolution with an instrumental point spread function can be included in a natural way, avoiding the possible systematic errors of previous procedures.

  4. Activated by Combined Magnrtic Field Gravitropic Reaction Reply on Nanodose of Biologicaly Active Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheykina, Nadezhda; Bogatina, Nina

    The new science direction nanotechnologies initiated a big jump in the pharmacology and medicine. This leads to the big development of homeopathy. The most interest appeared while investigating of the reaction of biological object on the nano dose of iologically substances. The changing of concentration (in nmol/l) of biologically active material is also possible during weak energy action. For instance, weak combined magnetic field may change a little the concentration of ions that are oriented parallel to the external magnetic field and, by the analogy with said above, lead to the similar effects. Simple estimations give the value for the threshold to the magnetic field by two orders smaller than the geomagnetic field. By this investigation we wanted to understand whether the analogy in the action of nano dose of biologically active substances and weak combined magnetic field presents and whether the action of one of these factors may be replaced by other one. The effect of one of biologically active substances NPA (Naphtyl-Phtalame Acid) solution with the concentration 0.01 mol/l on the gravitropic reaction of cress roots was investigated. It was shown that its effect was the inhibition of cress roots gravitropic reaction. The same inhibition was achieved by the combined magnetic field action on the cress roots, germinated in water. The alternative component of the combined magnetic field coincided formally with the cyclotron frequency of NPA ions. So the analogy in the action of nano dose of biologically active substances and weak combined magnetic field was shown. The combined magnetic field using allows to decrease sufficiently the dose of biologically active substances. This fact can be of great importance in pharmacy and medicine.

  5. Synergetic effects for p-nitrophenol abatement using a combined activated carbon adsorption-electrooxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明华; 戴启洲; 雷乐成; 汪大翚

    2004-01-01

    A novel fluidized electrochemical reactor that integrated advanced electrochemical oxidation with activated carbon (AC) fluidization in a single cell was developed to model pollutant p-nitrophenol (PNP) abatement. AC fluidization could enhance COD removal by 22%-30%. In such a combined process, synergetic effects on PNP and COD removal was found, with their removal rate being enhanced by 137.8% and 97.8%, respectively. AC could be electrochemically regen erated and reused, indicating the combined process would be promising for treatment of biorefractory organic pollutants.

  6. Inhibitory activity of Bifidobacterium adolescent combined with cisplatin on melanoma in mice and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore inhibitory activity of Bifidobacterium adolescent combined with cisplatin on the growth of melanoma(B16)in mice and the underlying mechanism.C57 mice were inoculated with B16 cancer cells to construct mouse model of melanoma and treated with bifidobacterium adolescent combined with cisplatin.Ratios of inhibitory activity on the growth of melanoma(B 16)were calculated.Pathology changes of the tumor were observed by HE staining.B 16 cell cycles were examined on a flow cytometer.Lymphocyte proliferation was measured with MTT assay and the T-cell subset was measured by double marked fluorescence.When bifidobacterium of 1010 cfu/L was injected,the ratio of inhibitory activity on the growth of melanoma(B16)reached 54%,which was similar to that of cisplatin group.The ratio of inhibitory activity reached 74.45% when the mice were treated by bifidobacterium combined with cisplatin,HE staining shows that bifidobacterium inhibited B16 cell proliferation and enhanced the cisplati(n)s killing activity on B16 cells.The results of flow cytometry demonstrated that B16 cell proliferation was arrested at G1 stage after treatment with bifidobacterium.The B16 cell proliferation was arrested at S stage after treatment with cisplatin.The CD4+ percentage increased and the difference was significant compared with the normal group after treatment with bifidobacterium,indicating that T-cell immune activity was enhanced.Treatment with bifidobacterium combined with cisplatin can enhance the inhibitory activity on the growth of melanoma(B16)of cisplatin.The mechanism of the inhibitory activity on B 16 cell proliferation is correlated with the enhanced immune activity in mice.

  7. Combined influence of healthy diet and active lifestyle on cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-García, M; Ortega, F B; Ruiz, J R; González-Gross, M; Labayen, I; Jago, R; Martínez-Gómez, D; Dallongeville, J; Bel-Serrat, S; Marcos, A; Manios, Y; Breidenassel, C; Widhalm, K; Gottrand, F; Ferrari, M; Kafatos, A; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; De Henauw, S; Castillo, M J; Sjöström, M

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the combined influence of diet quality and physical activity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adolescents, adolescents (n = 1513; 12.5-17.5 years) participating in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study were studied. Dietary intake was registered using a 24-h recall and a diet quality index was calculated. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry. Lifestyle groups were computed as: healthy diet and active, unhealthy diet but active, healthy diet but inactive, and unhealthy diet and inactive. CVD risk factor measurements included cardiorespiratory fitness, adiposity indicators, blood lipid profile, blood pressure, and insulin resistance. A CVD risk score was computed. The healthy diet and active group had a healthier cardiorespiratory profile, fat mass index (FMI), triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C ratio (all P ≤ 0.05). Overall, active adolescents showed higher cardiorespiratory fitness, lower FMI, TC/HDL-C ratio, and homeostasis model assessment index and healthier blood pressure than their inactive peers with either healthy or unhealthy diet (all P ≤ 0.05). Healthy diet and active group had healthier CVD risk score compared with the inactive groups (all P ≤ 0.02). Thus, a combination of healthy diet and active lifestyle is associated with decreased CVD risk in adolescents. Moreover, an active lifestyle may reduce the adverse consequences of an unhealthy diet. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A combined mean dynamic topography model - DTU16MDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole; Nielsen, Karina; Maximenko, Nikolai

    2017-04-01

    The new DTU16MDT is obtained by combining the geodetic mean dynamic topography DTU15MDT with drifter mean velocities. DTU15MDT had been derived using the gravity model EIGEN-6C4 combined with the DTU15MSS mean sea surface model. The EIGEN-6C4 is derived using the full series of GOCE data and provides a better resolution. The better resolution fixes a few problems related to geoid signals in the former model DTU13MDT. Slicing in the GOCO05S gravity model up to harmonic degree 150 has solved some issues related to striations. Compared to the DTU13MSS, the DTU15MSS has been derived by including re-tracked CRYOSAT-2 altimetry also, hence, increasing its resolution. Also, some issues in the Polar regions have been solved. Finally, the filtering was re-evaluated by adjusting the quasi-gaussian filter width to optimize the fit to drifter velocities. Subsequently, the drifter velocities were integrated to enhance the resolution of the MDT. The results show that the new MDT resolves the details of the ocean circulation much better. Finally, mean drifter velocities have been integrated in the computations for the combined MDT model.

  9. Efficacy of PTX3 and Posaconazole Combination in a Rat Model of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    OpenAIRE

    Marra, Emanuele; Sousa, Vitor L.; Gaziano,Roberta; Pacello, M. Lucrezia; Arseni, Brunilde; Aurisicchio, Luigi; De Santis, Rita; Salvatori, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Posaconazole is currently used for the prophylaxis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Limitations to posaconazole usage are drug-drug interactions and side effects. PTX3 is an innate immunity glycoprotein with opsonic activity, proven to be protective in IPA animal models. This study investigated the combination of posaconazole with PTX3. The results indicate synergy between PTX3 and posaconazole against aspergillosis, suggesting that a combination of reduced doses of posaconazole wit...

  10. EVALUATION OF BEHAVIORAL ACTIVITY OF BACOPA MONNIERA AND SYZYGIUM CUMINI IN COMBINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal Pramod Homdeo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a major factor responsible for behavioral disorder. The main objective of the present work is to investigate the evaluation of behavioral activity of Bacopa monniera (aerial part and Syzygium cumini (seed coat, individually and in combination by using different extracts (viz; ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and methanol: water. Three different models which are used for behivoral activity such as Forced swim test (FST, Elevated plus maze method (EPM, Open field test (OFT. The result of FST indicated that immobility time significantly decreased in group treated with combination of methanolic extract of Bacopa monniera and ethyl acetate extract of Syzygium cumini in dose (200/40 mg/kg as compared to control. The result of EPM indicated that percent no of open arm entries and time spent in group treated with combination of methanolic extract of Bacopa monniera and ethyl acetate extract of Syzygium cumini in dose (200/40 mg/kg as compared to control. OFT indicates that number of occurrences at center and duration at center significantly increased in group treated with combination of methanolic extract of Bacopa monniera and ethyl acetate extract of Syzygium cumini in dose (200/40 mg/kg as compared to control group. Therefore it is clearly proved that Bacopa monniera and Syzygium cumini plant in combination showed promising behavioral activity.

  11. Model-based efficiency evaluation of combine harvester traction drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Häberle

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the research the drive train of the combine harvesters is investigated in detail. The focus on load and power distribution, energy consumption and usage distribution are explicitly explored on two test machines. Based on the lessons learned during field operations, model-based studies of energy saving potential in the traction train of combine harvesters can now be quantified. Beyond that the virtual machine trial provides an opportunity to compare innovative drivetrain architectures and control solutions under reproducible conditions. As a result, an evaluation method is presented and generically used to draw comparisons under local representative operating conditions.

  12. Active Learning for Player Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Learning models of player behavior has been the focus of several studies. This work is motivated by better understanding of player behavior, a knowledge that can ultimately be employed to provide player-adapted or personalized content. In this paper, we propose the use of active learning for player...... experience modeling. We use a dataset from hundreds of players playing Infinite Mario Bros. as a case study and we employ the random forest method to learn mod- els of player experience through the active learning approach. The results obtained suggest that only part of the dataset (up to half the size...... of the full dataset) is necessary for the construction of accu- rate models that are as accurate as those constructed from the full dataset. This indicates the potential of the method and its benefits in cases when obtaining the data is expensive or time, storage or effort consuming. The results also indicate...

  13. Active Learning for Player Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Learning models of player behavior has been the focus of several studies. This work is motivated by better understanding of player behavior, a knowledge that can ultimately be employed to provide player-adapted or personalized content. In this paper, we propose the use of active learning for player...... experience modeling. We use a dataset from hundreds of players playing Infinite Mario Bros. as a case study and we employ the random forest method to learn mod- els of player experience through the active learning approach. The results obtained suggest that only part of the dataset (up to half the size...... of the full dataset) is necessary for the construction of accu- rate models that are as accurate as those constructed from the full dataset. This indicates the potential of the method and its benefits in cases when obtaining the data is expensive or time, storage or effort consuming. The results also indicate...

  14. Single and Combined Effects of As (III) and Acetochlor on Phosphatase Activity in Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun; ZHANG Feng; ZHANG Guan-cai; GUAN Lian-zhu

    2013-01-01

    The actions and interactions of acetochlor and As on the soil phosphatase activity were investigated after 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 30 and 60 d of exposure under control conditions. The soils were exposed to various concentrations of acetochlor and As individually and simultaneously. The results showed that acetochlor, As only, and combined pollution all clearly inhibited soil phosphatase activity. The maximum inhibition ratios of soil phosphatase activity by acetochlor, As only and combined pollution were 36.44, 74.12 and 61.29%, respectively. Two kinetic models,ν=c/(1+bi) (model 1) andν=c(1+ai)/(l+bi) (model 2), were used to describe the relationship between the concentrations of As and acetochlor and the activity of soil phosphatase. The semi-effect dose (ED50) values induced by As and acetochlor stress based on the inhibition of soil phosphatase were 18.1 and 33.11 mg kg-1, respectively, according to calculation by model 1. The interactive effect of acetochlor with As on soil phosphatase primarily consisted of significant antagonism effects at the higher concentrations tested. The step regression results show that the toxicity order was As (III)>acetochlor>As (III)×acetochlor throughout the incubation period.

  15. Combined paracetamol and amitriptyline adsorption to activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Groenlykke, Thor Buch; Abildtrup, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. High-gram drug doses seen in multiple-drug poisonings might be close to the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal (AC). The aim was to determine the maximum adsorption capacities (Q(m)) of amitriptyline and paracetamol, separately and in combination, to AC. Methods. ACs (Carbomix......® and Norit Ready-To-Use) were tested in vitro. At pH 1.2 and pH 7.2, 0.250 g AC and paracetamol and/or amitriptyline were mixed and incubated. The AC: drug ratios were 10:1, 5:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1. The mixed-drug adsorption vials contained the same AC: paracetamol ratios, but amitriptyline was added as fixed...... Ready-To-Use. The tested pH differences had minor effect on the adsorption. The mixed-drug adsorption showed about 40% Q(m) reduction of each drug with increasing amounts of drug/g AC, but the total gram of drug adsorbed to AC was increased compared to one-drug conditions. Conclusion. The adsorption...

  16. Biological aerosol detection with combined passive-active infrared measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifarraguerri, Agustin I.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.; Ben-David, Avishai

    2004-12-01

    A data collection experiment was performed in November of 2003 to measure aerosol signatures using multiple sensors, all operating in the long-wave infrared. The purpose of this data collection experiment was to determine whether combining passive hyperspectral and LIDAR measurements can substantially improve biological aerosol detection performance. Controlled releases of dry aerosols, including road dust, egg albumin and two strains of Bacillus Subtilis var. Niger (BG) spores were performed using the ECBC/ARTEMIS open-path aerosol test chamber located in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD. The chamber provides a ~ 20' path without optical windows. Ground truth devices included 3 aerodynamic particle sizers, an optical particle size spectrometer, 6 nephelometers and a high-volume particle sampler. Two sensors were used to make measurements during the test: the AIRIS long-wave infrared imaging spectrometer and the FAL CO2 LIDAR. The AIRIS and FAL data sets were analyzed for detection performance relative to the ground truth. In this paper we present experimental results from the individual sensors as well as results from passive-active sensor fusion. The sensor performance is presented in the form of receiver operating characteristic curves.

  17. Combined paracetamol and amitriptyline adsorption to activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Groenlykke, Thor Buch; Abildtrup, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. High-gram drug doses seen in multiple-drug poisonings might be close to the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal (AC). The aim was to determine the maximum adsorption capacities (Q(m)) of amitriptyline and paracetamol, separately and in combination, to AC. Methods. ACs (Carbomix...... dose (0.080 g) to all samples. Drug concentrations in the liquid phase were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/UV-detection. Results. Q(m), amitriptyline, were 0.49 g/g Carbomix® and 0.70 g/g Norit Ready-To-Use, and Q(m), paracetamol, were 0.63 g/g Carbomix® and 0.72 g/g Norit...... Ready-To-Use. The tested pH differences had minor effect on the adsorption. The mixed-drug adsorption showed about 40% Q(m) reduction of each drug with increasing amounts of drug/g AC, but the total gram of drug adsorbed to AC was increased compared to one-drug conditions. Conclusion. The adsorption...

  18. Multi-Model Combination techniques for Hydrological Forecasting: Application to Distributed Model Intercomparison Project Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajami, N K; Duan, Q; Gao, X; Sorooshian, S

    2005-04-11

    This paper examines several multi-model combination techniques: the Simple Multi-model Average (SMA), the Multi-Model Super Ensemble (MMSE), Modified Multi-Model Super Ensemble (M3SE) and the Weighted Average Method (WAM). These model combination techniques were evaluated using the results from the Distributed Model Intercomparison Project (DMIP), an international project sponsored by the National Weather Service (NWS) Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD). All of the multi-model combination results were obtained using uncalibrated DMIP model outputs and were compared against the best uncalibrated as well as the best calibrated individual model results. The purpose of this study is to understand how different combination techniques affect the skill levels of the multi-model predictions. This study revealed that the multi-model predictions obtained from uncalibrated single model predictions are generally better than any single member model predictions, even the best calibrated single model predictions. Furthermore, more sophisticated multi-model combination techniques that incorporated bias correction steps work better than simple multi-model average predictions or multi-model predictions without bias correction.

  19. An Analytical Tire Model with Flexible Carcass for Combined Slips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tire mechanical characteristics under combined cornering and braking/driving situations have significant effects on vehicle directional controls. The objective of this paper is to present an analytical tire model with flexible carcass for combined slip situations, which can describe tire behavior well and can also be used for studying vehicle dynamics. The tire forces and moments come mainly from the shear stress and sliding friction at the tread-road interface. In order to describe complicated tire characteristics and tire-road friction, some key factors are considered in this model: arbitrary pressure distribution; translational, bending, and twisting compliance of the carcass; dynamic friction coefficient; anisotropic stiffness properties. The analytical tire model can describe tire forces and moments accurately under combined slip conditions. Some important properties induced by flexible carcass can also be reflected. The structural parameters of a tire can be identified from tire measurements and the computational results using the analytical model show good agreement with test data.

  20. The anti-cancer effects of carotenoids and other phytonutrients resides in their combined activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnewiel-Hermoni, Karin; Khanin, Marina; Danilenko, Michael; Zango, Gabriel; Amosi, Yaara; Levy, Joseph; Sharoni, Yoav

    2015-04-15

    Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cancer. It is now accepted that the actions of any specific phytonutrient alone do not explain the observed health benefits of diets rich in fruits and vegetables as nutrients that were taken alone in clinical trials did not show consistent preventive effects. The considerable cost and complexity of such clinical trials requires prudent selection of combinations of ingredients rather than single compounds. Indeed, synergistic inhibition of prostate and mammary cancer cell growth was evident when using combinations of low concentrations of various carotenoids or carotenoids with retinoic acid and the active metabolite of vitamin-D. In this study we aimed to develop simple and sensitive in vitro methods which provide information on potent combinations suitable for inclusion in clinical studies for cancer prevention. We, thus, used reporter gene assays of the transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor in hormone-dependent prostate cancer cells and of the electrophile/antioxidant response element (EpRE/ARE) transcription system. We found that combinations of several carotenoids (e.g., lycopene, phytoene and phytofluene), or carotenoids and polyphenols (e.g., carnosic acid and curcumin) and/or other compounds (e.g., vitamin E) synergistically inhibit the androgen receptor activity and activate the EpRE/ARE system. The activation of EpRE/ARE was up to four fold higher than the sum of the activities of the single ingredients, a robust hallmark of synergy. Such combinations can further be tested in the more complex in vivo models and human studies.

  1. Combining Spatial and Telemetric Features for Learning Animal Movement Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kapicioglu, Berk; Wikelski, Martin; Broderick, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new graphical model for tracking radio-tagged animals and learning their movement patterns. The model provides a principled way to combine radio telemetry data with an arbitrary set of userdefined, spatial features. We describe an efficient stochastic gradient algorithm for fitting model parameters to data and demonstrate its effectiveness via asymptotic analysis and synthetic experiments. We also apply our model to real datasets, and show that it outperforms the most popular radio telemetry software package used in ecology. We conclude that integration of different data sources under a single statistical framework, coupled with appropriate parameter and state estimation procedures, produces both accurate location estimates and an interpretable statistical model of animal movement.

  2. Multi-Model Combination Techniques for Hydrological Forecasting: Application to Distributed Model Intercomparison Project Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajami, N; Duan, Q; Gao, X; Sorooshian, S

    2006-05-08

    This paper examines several multi-model combination techniques: the Simple Multimodel Average (SMA), the Multi-Model Super Ensemble (MMSE), Modified Multi-Model Super Ensemble (M3SE) and the Weighted Average Method (WAM). These model combination techniques were evaluated using the results from the Distributed Model Intercomparison Project (DMIP), an international project sponsored by the National Weather Service (NWS) Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD). All of the multi-model combination results were obtained using uncalibrated DMIP model outputs and were compared against the best uncalibrated as well as the best calibrated individual model results. The purpose of this study is to understand how different combination techniques affect the skill levels of the multi-model predictions. This study revealed that the multi-model predictions obtained from uncalibrated single model predictions are generally better than any single member model predictions, even the best calibrated single model predictions. Furthermore, more sophisticated multi-model combination techniques that incorporated bias correction steps work better than simple multi-model average predictions or multi-model predictions without bias correction.

  3. A muscle model for hybrid muscle activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klauer Christian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To develop model-based control strategies for Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES in order to support weak voluntary muscle contractions, a hybrid model for describing joint motions induced by concurrent voluntary-and FES induced muscle activation is proposed. It is based on a Hammerstein model – as commonly used in feedback controlled FES – and exemplarily applied to describe the shoulder abduction joint angle. Main component of a Hammerstein muscle model is usually a static input nonlinearity depending on the stimulation intensity. To additionally incorporate voluntary contributions, we extended the static non-linearity by a second input describing the intensity of the voluntary contribution that is estimated by electromyography (EMG measurements – even during active FES. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN is used to describe the static input non-linearity. The output of the ANN drives a second-order linear dynamical system that describes the combined muscle activation and joint angle dynamics. The tunable parameters are adapted to the individual subject by a system identification approach using previously recorded I/O-data. The model has been validated in two healthy subjects yielding RMS values for the joint angle error of 3.56° and 3.44°, respectively.

  4. Combined effect of PLGA and curcumin on wound healing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chereddy, Kiran Kumar; Coco, Régis; Memvanga, Patrick B; Ucakar, Bernard; des Rieux, Anne; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle; Préat, Véronique

    2013-10-28

    Wound healing is a complex process involving many interdependent and overlapping sequences of physiological actions. The application of exogenous lactate released from poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymer accelerated angiogenesis and wound healing processes. Curcumin is a well-known topical wound healing agent for both normal and diabetic-impaired wounds. Hence, we hypothesized that the PLGA nanoparticles encapsulating curcumin could much potentially accelerate the wound healing. In a full thickness excisional wound healing mouse model, PLGA-curcumin nanoparticles showed a twofold higher wound healing activity compared to that of PLGA or curcumin. Histology and RT-PCR studies confirmed that PLGA-curcumin nanoparticles exhibited higher re-epithelialization, granulation tissue formation and anti-inflammatory potential. PLGA nanoparticles offered various benefits for the encapsulated curcumin like protection from light degradation, enhanced water solubility and showed a sustained release of curcumin over a period of 8 days. In conclusion, we demonstrated the additive effect of lactic acid from PLGA and encapsulated curcumin for the active healing of wounds.

  5. Demand Model Combining Stated And Revealed Preference Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Londero Brandli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The revealed and stated preference methods have been contributing a lot for the development of the econometric literature in the attempt of determining the variables that influence the individual decision in a choice process. This article combines preference data, with the objective of obtaining the advantages of the complementarity of the forces and frankness of both types of data. The approach involves the estimate of a model only with RP data, only with SP data and combining RP and SP data. The application is in the housing market, where it is observed, through the literature, that most of the papers of the consumer's choice has restricted the only one approaches. The utility functions obtained show the relative importance of the attributes, the tendency of behavior through the signs and its significance statistical. The results analysis of the models indicates differences and similarities about the attribute’s behavior.

  6. User Modeling Combining Access Logs, Page Content and Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Fortuna, Blaz; Grobelnik, Marko

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes an approach to modeling users of large Web sites based on combining different data sources: access logs and content of the accessed pages are combined with semantic information about the Web pages, the users and the accesses of the users to the Web site. The assumption is that we are dealing with a large Web site providing content to a large number of users accessing the site. The proposed approach represents each user by a set of features derived from the different data sources, where some feature values may be missing for some users. It further enables user modeling based on the provided characteristics of the targeted user subset. The approach is evaluated on real-world data where we compare performance of the automatic assignment of a user to a predefined user segment when different data sources are used to represent the users.

  7. Anatomical evaluation of CT-MRI combined femoral model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Gyu-Ha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both CT and MRI are complementary to each other in that CT can produce a distinct contour of bones, and MRI can show the shape of both ligaments and bones. It will be ideal to build a CT-MRI combined model to take advantage of complementary information of each modality. This study evaluated the accuracy of the combined femoral model in terms of anatomical inspection. Methods Six normal porcine femora (180 ± 10 days, 3 lefts and 3 rights with ball markers were scanned by CT and MRI. The 3D/3D registration was performed by two methods, i.e. the landmark-based 3 points-to-3 points and the surface matching using the iterative closest point (ICP algorithm. The matching accuracy of the combined model was evaluated with statistical global deviation and locally measure anatomical contour-based deviation. Statistical analysis to assess any significant difference between accuracies of those two methods was performed using univariate repeated measures ANOVA with the Turkey post hoc test. Results This study revealed that the local 2D contour-based measurement of matching deviation was 0.5 ± 0.3 mm in the femoral condyle, and in the middle femoral shaft. The global 3D contour matching deviation of the landmark-based matching was 1.1 ± 0.3 mm, but local 2D contour deviation through anatomical inspection was much larger as much as 3.0 ± 1.8 mm. Conclusion Even with human-factor derived errors accumulated from segmentation of MRI images, and limited image quality, the matching accuracy of CT-&-MRI combined 3D models was 0.5 ± 0.3 mm in terms of local anatomical inspection.

  8. Combined Injury Modeling: Radiation and Burn Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    when radiation exposure is combined with burn. For instance, in the Chernobyl accident, hepatic encephalopathy was a major cause of death in patients...for radiation injury that block apoptosis and have demonstrated increased survival in animal models (Whitnall and Pellmar 2007). Cell loss also... Animal studies are needed to resolve this information gap. However, Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) approval for these types

  9. Patterns of adolescents' participation in organized activities: are sports best when combined with other activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linver, Miriam R; Roth, Jodie L; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-03-01

    Although many adolescents participate in sports and other types of organized activities, little extant research explores how youth development outcomes may vary for youth involved in different combinations of activities. The present study uses the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a large, nationally representative sample, to compare activity patterns of adolescents ages 10-18 years (n = 1,711). A cluster analytic technique revealed 5 activity clusters: sports-focused, sports plus other activities, primarily school-based activities, primarily religious youth groups, and low activity involvement. Activity patterns were examined in conjunction with 5 categories of youth development outcomes, including competence (e.g., academic ability), confidence (e.g., self-concept of ability), connections (e.g., talking with friends), character (e.g., externalizing behavior problems), and caring (e.g., prosocial behavior). Results showed that those who participated only in sports had more positive outcomes compared with those who had little or no involvement in organized activities, but less positive outcomes compared with those who participated in sports plus other activities.

  10. The new RETScreen model for combined heat and power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, U. [Natural Resources Canada, Varennes, PQ (Canada). CANMET Energy Diversification Laboratory

    2004-07-01

    RETScreen{sup R} is unique renewable energy awareness, decision-support and capacity building computer program designed to evaluate the energy performance, cost and viability of potential renewable energy technologies (RETs). The program has recently included a combined heat and power (CHP) model which includes the energy analysis for reciprocating engines, gas turbines, gas turbine combined cycle, fuel cells, steam turbines, microturbines, and geothermal energy. It was developed at the RETScreen International Renewable Energy Decision Support Centre at CANMET (Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology). The tool consists of a standardised and integrated renewable energy analysis software that can be used worldwide to evaluate the energy production, life-cycle costs and greenhouse gas emission reductions for various types of RETs, and then compare them with those of conventional energy sources. Global climate change mitigation depends on widespread use of RETs around the world to meet the commitments of the Kyoto Protocol for cleaner air. The use of this computer program can help reduce the cost of pre-feasibility studies by providing information to help make better decisions about the technical and economic viability of potential projects. The CHP model considers landfill gas, biomass, bagasse, biodiesel, hydrogen, natural gas, petroleum, coal and municipal wastes. The model can be used for heating only, power only, cooling only, combined heat and power, single or multiple buildings, district energy or industrial processes. 22 figs.

  11. Language Model Combination and Adaptation Using Weighted Finite State Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Gales, M. J. F.; Hieronymus, J. L.; Woodland, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    In speech recognition systems language model (LMs) are often constructed by training and combining multiple n-gram models. They can be either used to represent different genres or tasks found in diverse text sources, or capture stochastic properties of different linguistic symbol sequences, for example, syllables and words. Unsupervised LM adaption may also be used to further improve robustness to varying styles or tasks. When using these techniques, extensive software changes are often required. In this paper an alternative and more general approach based on weighted finite state transducers (WFSTs) is investigated for LM combination and adaptation. As it is entirely based on well-defined WFST operations, minimum change to decoding tools is needed. A wide range of LM combination configurations can be flexibly supported. An efficient on-the-fly WFST decoding algorithm is also proposed. Significant error rate gains of 7.3% relative were obtained on a state-of-the-art broadcast audio recognition task using a history dependently adapted multi-level LM modelling both syllable and word sequences

  12. Solvation of chromone using combined Discrete/SCRF models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, Carlos; Galembeck, Sergio E.

    1998-06-01

    The solvation of chromone has been investigated using three different combined Discrete/SCRF models. Four chromone-H 2O complexes and one chromone-4H 2O complex were obtained from geometry optimizations at the HF/6-31G(d) level. Three SCRF methods (PCM/6-31G(d), PCM/AM1 and SM2/AM1) were applied to such complexes in order to: (1) evaluate the reliability of the combined Discrete/SCRF models; (2) investigate the effects of the explicit water molecules on the free energy of solvation; and (3) analyze the characteristics of the different solvation sites of chromone. The results show that explicit solvent molecules exert a large influence on the free energy of solvation of a given molecular system providing some information about the solvation sites. Thus, the interaction of the carbonyl oxygen of chromone with the explicit water molecules is stronger than interaction provided by the ether oxygen, providing the complexes with the former interaction a more hydrophobic free energy of solvation than those with the latter. On the other hand, the comparison of the free energies of solvation for solutes with explicit water molecules in the first hydration shell and the free energies of solvation of the molecular system computed in an all-continuum approach reveals that the combined Discrete/SCRF models constitute a very reasonable strategy.

  13. Combined analysis of effective Higgs portal dark matter models

    CERN Document Server

    Beniwal, Ankit; Savage, Christopher; Scott, Pat; Weniger, Christoph; White, Martin; Williams, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    We combine and extend the analyses of effective scalar, vector, Majorana and Dirac fermion Higgs portal models of Dark Matter (DM), in which DM couples to the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson via an operator of the form $\\mathcal{O}_{\\textrm{DM}}\\, H^\\dagger H$. For the fermion models, we take an admixture of scalar $\\overline{\\psi} \\psi$ and pseudoscalar $\\overline{\\psi} i\\gamma_5 \\psi$ interaction terms. For each model, we apply constraints on the parameter space based on the Planck measured DM relic density and the LHC limits on the Higgs invisible branching ratio. For the first time, we perform a consistent study of the indirect detection prospects for these models based on the WMAP7/Planck observations of the CMB, a combined analysis of 15 dwarf spheroidal galaxies by Fermi-LAT and the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). We also perform a correct treatment of the momentum-dependent direct search cross-section that arises from the pseudoscalar interaction term in the fermionic DM theories. We find, i...

  14. Combating Combination of Hypertension and Diabetes in Different Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talma Rosenthal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rat experimental models are used extensively for studying physiological mechanisms and treatments of hypertension and diabetes co-existence. Each one of these conditions is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and the combination of the two conditions is a potent enhancer of CVD. Five major animal models that advanced our understanding of the mechanisms and therapeutic approaches in humans are discussed in this review: Zucker, Goto-Kakizaki, SHROB, SHR/NDmcr-cp and Cohen Rosenthal diabetic hypertensive (CRDH rats. The use of various drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors (ACEIs, various angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs, to combat the effects of concomitant pathologies on the combination of diabetes and hypertension, as well as the non-pharmacological approach are reviewed in detail for each rat model. Results from experiments on these models indicate that classical factors contributing to the pathology of hypertension and diabetes combination—Including hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia—can now be treated, although these treatments do not completely prevent renal complications. Animal studies have focused on several mechanisms involved in hypertension/diabetes that remain to be translated into clinical medicine, including hypoxia, oxidative stress, and advanced glycation. Several target molecules have been identified that need to be incorporated into a treatment modality. The challenge continues to be the identification and interpretation of the clinical evidence from the animal models and their application to human treatment.

  15. Combined Grammar for the Modeling of Building Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, S.; Peter, M.; Fritsch, D.; Philipp, D.; Baier, P.; Dibak, C.

    2013-11-01

    As spatial grammars have proven successful and efficient to deliver LOD3 models, the next challenge is their extension to indoor applications, leading to LOD4 models. Therefore, a combined indoor grammar for the automatic generation of indoor models from erroneous and incomplete observation data is presented. In building interiors where inaccurate observation data is available, the grammar can be used to make the reconstruction process robust, and verify the reconstructed geometries. In unobserved building interiors, the grammar can generate hypotheses about possible indoor geometries matching the style of the rest of the building. The grammar combines concepts from L-systems and split grammars. It is designed in such way that it can be derived from observation data fully automatically. Thus, manual predefinitions of the grammar rules usually required to tune the grammar to a specific building style, become obsolete. The potential benefit of using our grammar as support for indoor modeling is evaluated based on an example where the grammar has been applied to automatically generate an indoor model from erroneous and incomplete traces gathered by foot-mounted MEMS/IMU positioning systems.

  16. Combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium transport model for solution conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Malcolm S; Leij, Feike J

    2014-02-01

    Solute transport in karst aquifers is primarily constrained to relatively complex and inaccessible solution conduits where transport is often rapid, turbulent, and at times constrictive. Breakthrough curves generated from tracer tests in solution conduits are typically positively-skewed with long tails evident. Physical nonequilibrium models to fit breakthrough curves for tracer tests in solution conduits are now routinely employed. Chemical nonequilibrium processes are likely important interactions, however. In addition to partitioning between different flow domains, there may also be equilibrium and nonequilibrium partitioning between the aqueous and solid phases. A combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium (PCNE) model was developed for an instantaneous release similar to that developed by Leij and Bradford (2009) for a pulse release. The PCNE model allows for partitioning open space in solution conduits into mobile and immobile flow regions with first-order mass transfer between the two regions to represent physical nonequilibrium in the conduit. Partitioning between the aqueous and solid phases proceeds either as an equilibrium process or as a first-order process and represents chemical nonequilibrium for both the mobile and immobile regions. Application of the model to three example breakthrough curves demonstrates the applicability of the combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium model to tracer tests conducted in karst aquifers, with exceptionally good model fits to the data. The three models, each from a different state in the United States, exhibit very different velocities, dispersions, and other transport properties with most of the transport occurring via the fraction of mobile water. Fitting the model suggests the potentially important interaction of physical and chemical nonequilibrium processes.

  17. An immunological model for detecting bot activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Md E.; Phoha, Vir V.; Sultan, Md A.

    2009-05-01

    We develop a hierarchical immunological model to detect bot activities in a computer network. In the proposed model antibody (detector)-antigen (foreign object) reactions are defined using negative selection based approach and negative systems-properties are defined by various temporal as well as non-temporal systems features. Theory of sequential hypothesis testing has been used in the literature for identifying spatial-temporal correlations among malicious remote hosts and among the bots within a botnet. We use it for combining multiple immunocomputing based decisions too. Negative selection based approach defines a self and helps identifying non-selves. We define non-selves with respect to various systems characteristics and then use different combinations of non-selves to design bot detectors. Each detector operates at the client sites of the network under surveillance. A match with any of the detectors suggests presence of a bot. Preliminary results suggest that the proposed model based solutions can improve the identification of bot activities.

  18. Test Case Generation For Concurrent Object-Oriented Systems Using Combinational Uml Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagatika Dalai, Arup Abhinna Acharya, Durga Prasad Mohapatra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is an important phase of software development to ensure the quality and reliability of the software. Due to some limitations of code based testing method, the researcher has been taken a new method to work upon UML model based testing. It is found that different UML model is having different coverage and capable of detecting different kinds of faults. Here we have taken combinational UML models to have better coverage and fault detection capability. Testing concurrent system is difficult task because due to concurrent interaction among the threads and the system results in test case explosion. In this paper we have presented an approach of generating test cases for concurrent systems using combinational UML models i.e. sequence diagram and activity diagram .Then a Sequence-Activity Graph (SAG is constructed from these two diagrams. Then that graph is traversed to generate test cases which are able to minimize test case explosion.

  19. Complex human activities recognition using interval temporal syntactic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏利民; 韩芬; 王军

    2016-01-01

    A novel method based on interval temporal syntactic model was proposed to recognize human activities in video flow. The method is composed of two parts: feature extract and activities recognition. Trajectory shape descriptor, speeded up robust features (SURF) and histograms of optical flow (HOF) were proposed to represent human activities, which provide more exhaustive information to describe human activities on shape, structure and motion. In the process of recognition, a probabilistic latent semantic analysis model (PLSA) was used to recognize sample activities at the first step. Then, an interval temporal syntactic model, which combines the syntactic model with the interval algebra to model the temporal dependencies of activities explicitly, was introduced to recognize the complex activities with a time relationship. Experiments results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in comparison with other state-of-the-art methods on the public databases for the recognition of complex activities.

  20. Combining nitric oxide release with anti-inflammatory activity preserves nigrostriatal dopaminergic innervation and prevents motor impairment in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine model of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Impagnatiello Francesco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current evidence suggests a role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD and in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP model of basal ganglia injury. Reportedly, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs mitigate DAergic neurotoxicity in rodent models of PD. Consistent with these findings, epidemiological analysis indicated that certain NSAIDs may prevent or delay the progression of PD. However, a serious impediment of chronic NSAID therapy, particularly in the elderly, is gastric, renal and cardiac toxicity. Nitric oxide (NO-donating NSAIDs, have a safer profile while maintaining anti-inflammatory activity of parent compounds. We have investigated the oral activity of the NO-donating derivative of flurbiprofen, [2-fluoro-α-methyl (1,1'-biphenyl-4-acetic-4-(nitrooxybutyl ester], HCT1026 (30 mg kg-1 daily in rodent chow in mice exposed to the parkinsonian neurotoxin MPTP. Methods Ageing mice were fed with a control, flurbiprofen, or HCT1026 diet starting ten days before MPTP administration and continuing for all the experimental period. Striatal high affinity synaptosomial dopamine up-take, motor coordination assessed with the rotarod, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH- and dopamine transporter (DAT fiber staining, stereological cell counts, immunoblotting and gene expression analyses were used to assess MPTP-induced nigrostriatal DAergic toxicity and glial activation 1-40 days post-MPTP. Results HCT1026 was well tolerated and did not cause any measurable toxic effect, whereas flurbiprofen fed mice showed severe gastrointestinal side-effects. HCT1026 efficiently counteracted motor impairment and reversed MPTP-induced decreased synaptosomal [3H]dopamine uptake, TH- and DAT-stained fibers in striatum and TH+ neuron loss in subtantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc, as opposed to age-matched mice fed with a control diet. These effects were associated to a significant decrease in reactive

  1. Symbolic Processing Combined with Model-Based Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark

    2009-01-01

    A computer program for the detection of present and prediction of future discrete states of a complex, real-time engineering system utilizes a combination of symbolic processing and numerical model-based reasoning. One of the biggest weaknesses of a purely symbolic approach is that it enables prediction of only future discrete states while missing all unmodeled states or leading to incorrect identification of an unmodeled state as a modeled one. A purely numerical approach is based on a combination of statistical methods and mathematical models of the applicable physics and necessitates development of a complete model to the level of fidelity required for prediction. In addition, a purely numerical approach does not afford the ability to qualify its results without some form of symbolic processing. The present software implements numerical algorithms to detect unmodeled events and symbolic algorithms to predict expected behavior, correlate the expected behavior with the unmodeled events, and interpret the results in order to predict future discrete states. The approach embodied in this software differs from that of the BEAM methodology (aspects of which have been discussed in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles), which provides for prediction of future measurements in the continuous-data domain.

  2. Modeling electrically active viscoelastic membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitikantha Roy

    Full Text Available The membrane protein prestin is native to the cochlear outer hair cell that is crucial to the ear's amplification and frequency selectivity throughout the whole acoustic frequency range. The outer hair cell exhibits interrelated dimensional changes, force generation, and electric charge transfer. Cells transfected with prestin acquire unique active properties similar to those in the native cell that have also been useful in understanding the process. Here we propose a model describing the major electromechanical features of such active membranes. The model derived from thermodynamic principles is in the form of integral relationships between the history of voltage and membrane resultants as independent variables and the charge density and strains as dependent variables. The proposed model is applied to the analysis of an active force produced by the outer hair cell in response to a harmonic electric field. Our analysis reveals the mechanism of the outer hair cell active (isometric force having an almost constant amplitude and phase up to 80 kHz. We found that the frequency-invariance of the force is a result of interplay between the electrical filtering associated with prestin and power law viscoelasticity of the surrounding membrane. Paradoxically, the membrane viscoelasticity boosts the force balancing the electrical filtering effect. We also consider various modes of electromechanical coupling in membrane with prestin associated with mechanical perturbations in the cell. We consider pressure or strains applied step-wise or at a constant rate and compute the time course of the resulting electric charge. The results obtained here are important for the analysis of electromechanical properties of membranes, cells, and biological materials as well as for a better understanding of the mechanism of hearing and the role of the protein prestin in this mechanism.

  3. Class II: a comparison of activator and activator headgear combination appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Y; Tankuter, N

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate skeletal and dental effects of activator and activator high-pull headgear combination appliances on growing patients with Class II, division 1 malocclusion. The material consisted of pre- and post-treatment cephalograms of 17 boys and 20 girls. Seventeen patients (eight male and nine female) were treated with an activator, the remaining 20 (9 male and 11 female) were treated with an activator high-pull headgear combination (AHGC) appliance. Changes due to treatment were compared with a group of 19 (nine male and ten female) untreated children. ANB angle was significantly reduced and mandibular growth development was favourable in both treatment groups. The AHGC appliance was more effective in the reduction of the maxillary prognathism. An increase of the anterior facial height and clockwise rotation of the occlusal plane was observed in the patients treated with activator appliance. The cant of the mandibular plane remained stable during both treatment periods. On the other hand, the forward displacement of the upper first molars was reduced significantly and the axial inclination of the lower incisors was controlled much better with the AHGC appliance.

  4. Human Activity-Understanding: A Multilayer Approach Combining Body Movements and Contextual Descriptors Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Granata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A deep understanding of human activity is key to successful human-robot interaction (HRI. The translation of sensed human behavioural signals/cues and context descriptors into an encoded human activity remains a challenge because of the complex nature of human actions. In this paper, we propose a multilayer framework for the understanding of human activity to be implemented in a mobile robot. It consists of a perception layer which exploits a D-RGB-based skeleton tracking output used to simulate a physical model of virtual human dynamics in order to compensate for the inaccuracy and inconsistency of the raw data. A multi-support vector machine (MSVM model trained with features describing the human motor coordination through temporal segments in combination with environment descriptors (object affordance is used to recognize each sub-activity (classification layer. The interpretation of sequences of classified elementary actions is based on discrete hidden Markov models (DHMMs (interpretation layer. The framework assessment was performed on the Cornell Activity Dataset (CAD-120 [1]. The performances of our method are comparable with those presented in [2] and clearly show the relevance of this model-based approach.

  5. RCCtrust: A Combined Trust Model for Electronic Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Zhang; Hua-Jun Chen; Xiao-Hong Jiang; Hao Sheng; Zhao-Hui Wu

    2009-01-01

    Previous trust models are mainly focused on reputational mechanism based on explicit trust ratings.However,the large amount of user-generated content and community context published on Web is often ignored.Without enough information,there are several problems with previous trust models:first,they cannot determine in which field one user trusts in another,so many models assume that trust exists in all fields.Second some models are not able to delineate the variation of trust SCales,therefore they regard each user trusts all his friends to the same extent.Third,since these models only focus on explicit trust ratings,so the trust matrix is very sparse.To Solve these problems,we present RCCtrust-a trust model which combines Reputation-,Content-and Context-based mechanisms to provide more accurate,fine-grained and efficient trust management for the electronic community.We extract trust-related information from user-generated content and community context from Web to extend reputation-based trust models. We introduce role-based and behavior-based reasoning functionalities to infer users'i nterests and category-specific trust relationships.Following the study in sociology, RCCtrust exploits similarities between pairs of users to depict difierentiated trust scales.The experimental results show that RCCtrust outperforin8 pure user similarity method and linear decay trust-aware technique in both accuracy and coverage for a Recommender System.

  6. Research of combined liver-kidney transplantation model in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiageng Zhu; Jun Li; Ruipeng Jia; Jianghao Su; Mingshun Shen; Zhigang Cao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To set up a simple and reliable rat model of combined liver-kidney transplantation. Methods: SD rats served as both donors and recipients. 4℃ sodium lactate Ringer's was infused from portal veins to donated livers,and from abdominal aorta to donated kidneys, respectively. Anastomosis of the portal vein and the inferior vena cava (IVC) inferior to the right kidney between the graft and the recipient was performed by a double cuff method, then the superior hepatic vena cava with suture. A patch of donated renal artery was anastomosed to the recipient abdominal aorta. The urethra and bile duct were reconstructed with a simple inside bracket. Results: Among 65 cases of combined liver-kidney transplantation, the success rate in the late 40 cases was 77.5%. The function of the grafted liver and kidney remained normal. Conclusion: This rat model of combined liver-kidney transplantation can be established in common laboratory conditions with high success rate and meet the needs of renal transplantation experiment.

  7. A joint calibration model for combining predictive distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Agati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In many research fields, as for example in probabilistic weather forecasting, valuable predictive information about a future random phenomenon may come from several, possibly heterogeneous, sources. Forecast combining methods have been developed over the years in order to deal with ensembles of sources: the aim is to combine several predictions in such a way to improve forecast accuracy and reduce risk of bad forecasts.In this context, we propose the use of a Bayesian approach to information combining, which consists in treating the predictive probability density functions (pdfs from the individual ensemble members as data in a Bayesian updating problem. The likelihood function is shown to be proportional to the product of the pdfs, adjusted by a joint “calibration function” describing the predicting skill of the sources (Morris, 1977. In this paper, after rephrasing Morris’ algorithm in a predictive context, we propose to model the calibration function in terms of bias, scale and correlation and to estimate its parameters according to the least squares criterion. The performance of our method is investigated and compared with that of Bayesian Model Averaging (Raftery, 2005 on simulated data.

  8. Discovery of structural characteristics of RIP1K for activity control using the combination method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Eun Ju; Do, Yun-Ju; Lee, Myoung Hwi; Kim, Eunhee; Kang, Nam Sook

    2015-11-01

    Receptor-interacting protein kinases 1 (RIPK1) plays an important role in necroptotic disease; it is therefore useful to identify structural characteristics controlling RIPK1 activity. Serine residues such as Ser89 and Ser161 have been reported to be important for RIPK1 activity. ATP binding to the RIPK1 hinge region occurs prior to the transfer of the phosphate group to serine residues. We therefore investigated the regulatory function of residues in the RIPK1 hinge region using a combination of molecular modeling and protein stability experiments. We analyzed the structure and evaluated the kinetic activity and stability of RIPK1 hinge region mutants. In this way, we identified Glu93 and Glu96 as key residues that regulate RIP1K activity, suggesting that mutation of these residues might be related to necroptotic diseases. The presence of a clinical mutation in RIPK1 Glu93 in endometritis patients is consistent with our data.

  9. A two-stage decentralised system combining high rate activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campaigns towards re-use of wastewater are not very common in Africa among other factors, due to a ... and alternating charcoal filters (ACF) are combined and used to treat wastewater to standards fit for reuse in agriculture. ... Article Metrics.

  10. Combining microsimulation and spatial interaction models for retail location analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Tomoki; Fotheringham, A. Stewart; Hanaoka, Kazumasa; Clarke, Graham; Ballas, Dimitris; Yano, Keiji

    2007-12-01

    Although the disaggregation of consumers is crucial in understanding the fragmented markets that are dominant in many developed countries, it is not always straightforward to carry out such disaggregation within conventional retail modelling frameworks due to the limitations of data. In particular, consumer grouping based on sampled data is not assured to link with the other statistics that are vital in estimating sampling biases and missing variables in the sampling survey. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a useful combination of spatial interaction modelling and microsimulation approaches for the reliable estimation of retail interactions based on a sample survey of consumer behaviour being linked with other areal statistics. We demonstrate this approach by building an operational retail interaction model to estimate expenditure flows from households to retail stores in a local city in Japan, Kusatsu City.

  11. Modeling plasmonic scattering combined with thin-film optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, M; Klenk, R; Lux-Steiner, M Ch; Topic, M; Krc, J

    2011-01-14

    Plasmonic scattering from metal nanostructures presents a promising concept for improving the conversion efficiency of solar cells. The determination of optimal nanostructures and their position within the solar cell is crucial to boost the efficiency. Therefore we established a one-dimensional optical model combining plasmonic scattering and thin-film optics to simulate optical properties of thin-film solar cells including metal nanoparticles. Scattering models based on dipole oscillations and Mie theory are presented and their integration in thin-film semi-coherent optical descriptions is explained. A plasmonic layer is introduced in the thin-film structure to simulate scattering properties as well as parasitic absorption in the metal nanoparticles. A proof of modeling concept is given for the case of metal-island grown silver nanoparticles on glass and ZnO:Al/glass substrates. Using simulations a promising application of the nanoparticle integration is shown for the case of CuGaSe(2) solar cells.

  12. Combining Wavelet Transform and Hidden Markov Models for ECG Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Boudy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at providing new insights on the electrocardiogram (ECG segmentation problem using wavelets. The wavelet transform has been originally combined with a hidden Markov models (HMMs framework in order to carry out beat segmentation and classification. A group of five continuous wavelet functions commonly used in ECG analysis has been implemented and compared using the same framework. All experiments were realized on the QT database, which is composed of a representative number of ambulatory recordings of several individuals and is supplied with manual labels made by a physician. Our main contribution relies on the consistent set of experiments performed. Moreover, the results obtained in terms of beat segmentation and premature ventricular beat (PVC detection are comparable to others works reported in the literature, independently of the type of the wavelet. Finally, through an original concept of combining two wavelet functions in the segmentation stage, we achieve our best performances.

  13. A New Segmentation Model--Combined Mumford-Shah Model with Narrow Band

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zheng(王峥); Yang Xin; Shi Pengfei

    2004-01-01

    A segmentation model that combines the Mumford-Shah (M-S) model and narrow band scheme of level set is presented. The M-S model is a desirable model for image segmentation, but computationally time-consuming. This paper introduces a fast segmentation model, which combines the M-S model and narrow band scheme using new initialization method. The new initialization method is based on fast marching method, and the computing time is O(n). In each iteration step, the new segmentation model only deals with the data in narrow band instead of the whole image. Comparing M-S model and new narrow band M-S, experiments show that the two models can obtain almost the same segmentation result, but the computing time of new narrow band M-S model is much less than M-S model.

  14. Bumblebees minimize control challenges by combining active and passive modes in unsteady winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Sridhar; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Engels, Thomas; Schneider, Kai; Wang, Chun; Sesterhenn, Jörn; Liu, Hao

    2016-10-01

    The natural wind environment that volant insects encounter is unsteady and highly complex, posing significant flight-control and stability challenges. It is critical to understand the strategies insects employ to safely navigate in natural environments. We combined experiments on free flying bumblebees with high-fidelity numerical simulations and lower-order modeling to identify the mechanics that mediate insect flight in unsteady winds. We trained bumblebees to fly upwind towards an artificial flower in a wind tunnel under steady wind and in a von Kármán street formed in the wake of a cylinder. Analysis revealed that at lower frequencies in both steady and unsteady winds the bees mediated lateral movement with body roll - typical casting motion. Numerical simulations of a bumblebee in similar conditions permitted the separation of the passive and active components of the flight trajectories. Consequently, we derived simple mathematical models that describe these two motion components. Comparison between the free-flying live and modeled bees revealed a novel mechanism that enables bees to passively ride out high-frequency perturbations while performing active maneuvers at lower frequencies. The capacity of maintaining stability by combining passive and active modes at different timescales provides a viable means for animals and machines to tackle the challenges posed by complex airflows.

  15. Promoting Coordinated Development of Community-Based Information Standards for Modeling in Biology: The COMBINE Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucka, Michael; Nickerson, David P; Bader, Gary D; Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; Demir, Emek; Garny, Alan; Golebiewski, Martin; Myers, Chris J; Schreiber, Falk; Waltemath, Dagmar; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The Computational Modeling in Biology Network (COMBINE) is a consortium of groups involved in the development of open community standards and formats used in computational modeling in biology. COMBINE's aim is to act as a coordinator, facilitator, and resource for different standardization efforts whose domains of use cover related areas of the computational biology space. In this perspective article, we summarize COMBINE, its general organization, and the community standards and other efforts involved in it. Our goals are to help guide readers toward standards that may be suitable for their research activities, as well as to direct interested readers to relevant communities where they can best expect to receive assistance in how to develop interoperable computational models.

  16. A NEW COMBINED LOCAL AND NON-LOCAL PBL MODEL FOR METEOROLOGY AND AIR QUALITY MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new version of the Asymmetric Convective Model (ACM) has been developed to describe sub-grid vertical turbulent transport in both meteorology models and air quality models. The new version (ACM2) combines the non-local convective mixing of the original ACM with local eddy diff...

  17. A NEW COMBINED LOCAL AND NON-LOCAL PBL MODEL FOR METEOROLOGY AND AIR QUALITY MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new version of the Asymmetric Convective Model (ACM) has been developed to describe sub-grid vertical turbulent transport in both meteorology models and air quality models. The new version (ACM2) combines the non-local convective mixing of the original ACM with local eddy diff...

  18. Contribution of satellite laser ranging to combined gravity field models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, A.; Krauss, S.; Hausleitner, W.; Baur, O.

    2012-02-01

    In the framework of satellite-only gravity field modeling, satellite laser ranging (SLR) data is typically exploited to recover long-wavelength features. This contribution provides a detailed discussion of the SLR component of GOCO02S, the latest release of combined models within the GOCO series. Over a period of five years (January 2006 to December 2010), observations to LAGEOS-1, LAGEOS-2, Ajisai, Stella, and Starlette were analyzed. We conducted a series of closed-loop simulations and found that estimating monthly sets of spherical harmonic coefficients beyond degree five leads to exceedingly ill-posed normal equation systems. Therefore, we adopted degree five as the spectral resolution for real data analysis. We compared our monthly coefficient estimates of degree two with SLR and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) time series provided by the Center for Space Research (CSR) at Austin, Texas. Significant deviations in C20 were noted between SLR and GRACE; the agreement is better for the non-zonal coefficients. Fitting sinusoids together with a linear trend to our C20 time series yielded a rate of (-1.75 ± 0.6) × 10-11/yr; this drift is equivalent to a geoid change from pole to equator of 0.35 ± 0.12 mm/yr or an apparent Greenland mass loss of 178.5 ± 61.2 km3/yr. The mean of all monthly solutions, averaged over the five-year period, served as input for the satellite-only model GOCO02S. The contribution of SLR to the combined gravity field model is highest for C20, and hence is essential for the determination of the Earth's oblateness.

  19. A large scale hydrological model combining Budyko hypothesis and stochastic soil moisture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Z.; Zhang, X.

    2012-04-01

    Based on the Budyko hypothesis, the actual evapotranspiration, E,is controlled by the water conditions and the energy conditions, which are represented by the amount of annual precipitation, P and potential evaporation, E0, respectively. Some theoretical or empirical equations have been proposed to represent the Budyko curve. We here select Choudhury's equation to describe the Budyko curve (Mezentsev, 1954; Choudhury, 1999; Yang et al., 2008; Roderick and Farquhar, 2011). ɛ = (1+ φ -α)-1/α ,ɛ = E-,φ = E0 P P Rodriguez-Iturbe et al. (1999) proposed a stochastic soil moisture model based on a Poisson distributed rainfall assumption. Porporato et al. (2004) described the average water balance based on stochastic soil moisture model as following, γ- 1 ɛ = 1 -φ(·γ)φ--(·e-γ),γ = Zr- Γ γ- - Γ γ-,γ h φ φ where, h means the average rainfall depth, Zr means basin water storage ability. Combining these two equation, we can get the relation between α and γ. Then we develop a large scale hydrological model to estimate annual runoff from P, E0, h and Zr. ( -α)- 1/α 0.5946 Zr- R = (1- ɛ)P,ɛ = 1+ φ ,a = 0.7078γ ,γ = h This method has good performance when it is applied to estimate annual runoff in the Yellow River Basin and the Yangtze River Basin. The impacts of climate changes (P, E0 and h) and human activities (Zr) are also discussed with this method.

  20. Combining multiblock and detailed fluid flow models (LOVI) - MASIT17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alopaeus, V.; Moilanen, P.; Visuri, O.; Laakkonen, M.; Aittamaa, J. (Helsinki University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry and Materials Sciences, Department of Biotechnology and Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)); Heiskanen, K.; Wierink, G. (Helsinki University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry and Materials Sciences, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Espoo (Finland)); Manninen, M.; Seppaelae, M. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    The goal of this research project is to develop models for scale-up, design and operation of heterogeneous reactors. By computing a detailed fluid flow field and using it in a multiblock-model the computing times can be kept reasonable. Our modelling is based on phenomenological models verified on experimental results. Several experimental apparatuses have been used to study gas-liquid flow (tapered channel, 14/200dm3 stirred vessels and the 'giraffe') and bubble-particle interactions. A particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) apparatus is being purchased during 2008 to study fluid flow fields. There has been extensive experimental activity. During this project phenomenological models have been verified, numerical methods for the calculation of population balances have been improved, a novel local mixing time analysis method has been developed and automated multiblock generation algorithms have been developed. A method of evaluating CFD results with a single glance with a two-block model has been introduced. Fermentation process of Galilaeus and the flotation cell of Outotec have been modelled. (orig.)

  1. Activity Recognition Using Biomechanical Model Based Pose Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Reiss, Attila; Hendeby, Gustaf; Bleser, Gabriele; Stricker, Didier

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel activity recognition method based on signal-oriented and model-based features is presented. The model-based features are calculated from shoulder and elbow joint angles and torso orientation, provided by upper-body pose estimation based on a biomechanical body model. The recognition performance of signal-oriented and model-based features is compared within this paper, and the potential of improving recognition accuracy by combining the two approaches is proved: the accu...

  2. [Cerebrovascular and antiserotoninergic activity of the combination of tropoxin and mexidol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, A A; Gan'shina, T S; Turilova, A I; Mirzoian, R S

    2011-01-01

    The results of experiments on narcotized rats showed that tropoxin substantially reduces the constrictor reactions of cerebral blood vessels to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine, while not increasing the blood flow in the carotid system of either intact rats or animals with model ischemic damage of brain. In contrast, mexidol increases the cerebral blood flow in rats under conditions of global transient ischemia of brain. A combination of tropoxin and mexidol retains both the anti-serotoninergic activity of tropoxin and the vasodilating effect of mexidol.

  3. The activity of etoposide (VP16) in combination chemotherapy against human bladder cancer cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    The activity of Etoposide (VP16) in combination chemotherapy against four human transitional cell carcinoma cell lines of bladder (TCCaB) was determined by in vitro colony formation assay. Four anti-tumor agents (methotrexate: MTX, vinblastine: VBL, adriamycin: ADM, cisplatin: DDP) were used for combination chemotherapy with VP16. The ADM + VP16 combination exhibited a strong synergistic antitumor effect against the human TCCaBs compared with other combinations in this study. The combination ...

  4. Combining segmentation and attention: a new foveal attention model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca eMarfil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial vision systems cannot process all the information that they receive from the world in real time because it is highly expensive and inefficient in terms of computational cost. Inspired by biological perception systems, articial attention models pursuit to select only the relevant part of the scene. Besides, it is well established that the units of attention on human vision are not merely spatial but closely related to perceptual objects (proto-objects. This implies a strong bidirectional relationship between segmentation and attention processes. Therefore, while the segmentation process is the responsible to extract the proto-objects from the scene, attention can guide segmentation, arising the concept of foveal attention. When the focus of attention is deployed from one visual unit to another, the rest of the scene is perceived but at a lower resolution that the focused object. The result is a multi-resolution visual perception in which the fovea, a dimple on the central retina, provides the highest resolution vision. In this paper, a bottom-up foveal attention model is presented. In this model the input image is a foveal image represented using a Cartesian Foveal Geometry (CFG, which encodes the field of view of the sensor as a fovea (placed in the focus of attention surrounded by a set of concentric rings with decreasing resolution. Then multirresolution perceptual segmentation is performed by building a foveal polygon using the Bounded Irregular Pyramid (BIP. Bottom-up attention is enclosed in the same structure, allowing to set the fovea over the most salient image proto-object. Saliency is computed as a linear combination of multiple low level features such us colour and intensity contrast, symmetry, orientation and roundness. Obtained results from natural images show that the performance of the combination of hierarchical foveal segmentation and saliency estimation is good in terms of accuracy and speed.

  5. Does a triple combination have better activity than double combinations against multiresistant fungi? Experimental in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Vicente, Adela; Guarro, Josep; Capilla, Javier

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the in vitro interactions of amphotericin B (AmB), voriconazole (VRC) and anidulafungin (AFG) in double and triple combinations against four species of multiresistant fungi (Fusarium solani, Lomentospora prolificans, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis and Scopulariopsis brumptii) were evaluated. In general, AmB combined with AFG was the most synergistic, especially against F. solani (7/8; 87.5%) when low concentrations of AmB were used, i.e. 0.125-0.5 µg/mL. The least active combination was AmB + VRC, with the lowest percentage of synergy against S. brevicaulis (2/11; 18.2%) and, in general, high concentrations of both antifungals were needed to achieve synergy. The triple combination was also highly synergistic against F. solani and S. brevicaulis, especially when the lowest concentrations of AmB were used, suggesting that use of combined therapies would reduce the toxicity of therapy. The triple combination was more effective than the double combinations in some cases, but not against all strains, suggesting that administration of three drugs is not always useful in the treatment of infections due to multiresistant fungi. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of PTX3 and posaconazole combination in a rat model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Emanuele; Sousa, Vitor L; Gaziano, Roberta; Pacello, M Lucrezia; Arseni, Brunilde; Aurisicchio, Luigi; De Santis, Rita; Salvatori, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    Posaconazole is currently used for the prophylaxis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Limitations to posaconazole usage are drug-drug interactions and side effects. PTX3 is an innate immunity glycoprotein with opsonic activity, proven to be protective in IPA animal models. This study investigated the combination of posaconazole with PTX3. The results indicate synergy between PTX3 and posaconazole against aspergillosis, suggesting that a combination of reduced doses of posaconazole with the immune response enhancer PTX3 might represent a treatment option with a higher therapeutic index than posaconazole.

  7. Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

    2010-08-31

    The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the process to follow changes in the power load demand, and to improve performance during transitions between power levels. Another objective of the proposed work was to educate graduate and undergraduate students in the application of process systems and control to coal technology. Educational materials were developed for use in engineering courses to further broaden this exposure to many students. ASPENTECH software was used to perform steady-state and dynamic simulations of an IGCC power plant. Linear systems analysis techniques were used to assess the steady-state and dynamic operability of the power plant under various plant operating conditions. Model predictive control (MPC) strategies were developed to improve the dynamic operation of the power plants. MATLAB and SIMULINK software were used for systems analysis and control system design, and the SIMULINK functionality in ASPEN DYNAMICS was used to test the control strategies on the simulated process. Project funds were used to support a Ph.D. student to receive education and training in coal technology and the application of modeling and simulation techniques.

  8. Education Knowledge System Combination Model Based on the Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lei; LI Dehua; LI Xiaojian; WU Chunxiang

    2007-01-01

    Resources are the base and core of education information, but current web education resources have no structure and it is still difficult to reuse them and make them can be self assembled and developed continually. According to the knowledge structure of course and text, the relation among knowledge points, knowledge units from three levels of media material, we can build education resource components, and build TKCM (Teaching Knowledge Combination Model) based on resource components. Builders can build and assemble knowledge system structure and make knowledge units can be self assembled, thus we can develop and consummate them continually. Users can make knowledge units can be self assembled and renewed, and build education knowledge system to satisfy users' demand under the form of education knowledge system.

  9. On the combined gravity gradient modeling for applied geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Veryaskin, Alexey

    2007-01-01

    Gravity gradiometry research and development has intensified in recent years to the extent that technologies providing a resolution of about 1 Eotvos per 1 sec average shall likely soon be available for multiple critical applications such as natural resources exploration, oil reservoir monitoring and defence establishment. Much of the content of this paper was composed a decade ago, and only minor modifications were required for the conclusions to be just as applicable today. In this paper we demonstrate how gravity gradient data can be modeled, and show some examples of how gravity gradient data can be combined in order to extract valuable information. In particular, this study demonstrates the importance of two gravity gradient components, Txz and Tyz which, when processed together, can provide more information on subsurface density contrasts than that derived solely from the vertical gravity gradient (Tzz).

  10. Levofloxacin-ceftriaxone combination attenuates lung inflammation in a mouse model of bacteremic pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae via inhibition of cytolytic activities of pneumolysin and autolysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majhi, Arnab; Adhikary, Rana; Bhattacharyya, Aritra; Mahanti, Sayantika; Bishayi, Biswadev

    2014-09-01

    In this study, our objective was to determine whether a synergistic antimicrobial combination in vitro would be beneficial in the downregulation of pneumococcal virulence genes and whether the associated inflammation of the lung tissue induced by multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in vivo needs to be elucidated in order to consider this mode of therapy in case of severe pneumococcal infection. We investigated in vivo changes in the expression of these virulence determinants using an efficacious combination determined in previous studies. BALB/c mice were infected with 10(6) CFU of bacteria. Intravenous levofloxacin at 150 mg/kg and/or ceftriaxone at 50 mg/kg were initiated 18 h postinfection; the animals were sacrificed 0 to 24 h after the initiation of treatment. The levels of cytokines, chemokines, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the serum and lungs, along with the levels of myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide the inflammatory cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), changes in pneumolysin and autolysin gene expression and COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression in the lungs were estimated. Combination therapy downregulated inflammation and promoted bacterial clearance. Pneumolysin and autolysin expression was downregulated, with a concomitant decrease in the expression of COX-2 and iNOS in lung tissue. Thus, the combination of levofloxacin and ceftriaxone can be considered for therapeutic use even in cases of pneumonia caused by drug-resistant isolates.

  11. An empirical movement model for sixgill sharks in Puget Sound: Combining observed and unobserved behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Phillip S. LEVIN, Peter HORNE, Kelly S. ANDREWS, Greg WILLIAMS

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the movement of animals is fundamental to population and community ecology. Historically, it has been difficult to quantify movement patterns of most fishes, but technological advances in acoustic telemetry have increased our abilities to monitor their movement. In this study, we combined small-scale active acoustic tracking with large-scale passive acoustic monitoring to develop an empirical movement model for sixgill sharks in Puget Sound, WA, USA. We began by testing whether ...

  12. Cognitive Virtualization: Combining Cognitive Models and Virtual Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan Q. Tran; David I. Gertman; Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; Ronald L. Boring; Alan R. Mecham

    2007-08-01

    3D manikins are often used in visualizations to model human activity in complex settings. Manikins assist in developing understanding of human actions, movements and routines in a variety of different environments representing new conceptual designs. One such environment is a nuclear power plant control room, here they have the potential to be used to simulate more precise ergonomic assessments of human work stations. Next generation control rooms will pose numerous challenges for system designers. The manikin modeling approach by itself, however, may be insufficient for dealing with the desired technical advancements and challenges of next generation automated systems. Uncertainty regarding effective staffing levels; and the potential for negative human performance consequences in the presence of advanced automated systems (e.g., reduced vigilance, poor situation awareness, mistrust or blind faith in automation, higher information load and increased complexity) call for further research. Baseline assessment of novel control room equipment(s) and configurations needs to be conducted. These design uncertainties can be reduced through complementary analysis that merges ergonomic manikin models with models of higher cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, decision-making, and problem-solving. This paper will discuss recent advancements in merging a theoretical-driven cognitive modeling framework within a 3D visualization modeling tool to evaluate of next generation control room human factors and ergonomic assessment. Though this discussion primary focuses on control room design, the application for such a merger between 3D visualization and cognitive modeling can be extended to various areas of focus such as training and scenario planning.

  13. Combining Users' Activity Survey and Simulators to Evaluate Human Activity Recognition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkune, Gorka; Almeida, Aitor; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Chen, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating human activity recognition systems usually implies following expensive and time-consuming methodologies, where experiments with humans are run with the consequent ethical and legal issues. We propose a novel evaluation methodology to overcome the enumerated problems, which is based on surveys for users and a synthetic dataset generator tool. Surveys allow capturing how different users perform activities of daily living, while the synthetic dataset generator is used to create properly labelled activity datasets modelled with the information extracted from surveys. Important aspects, such as sensor noise, varying time lapses and user erratic behaviour, can also be simulated using the tool. The proposed methodology is shown to have very important advantages that allow researchers to carry out their work more efficiently. To evaluate the approach, a synthetic dataset generated following the proposed methodology is compared to a real dataset computing the similarity between sensor occurrence frequencies. It is concluded that the similarity between both datasets is more than significant. PMID:25856329

  14. MCNP modelling of a combined neutron/gamma counter

    CERN Document Server

    Bourva, L C A; Ottmar, H; Weaver, D R

    1999-01-01

    A series of Monte Carlo neutron calculations for a combined gamma/passive neutron coincidence counter has been performed. This type of device, part of a suite of non-destructive assay instruments utilised for the enforcement of the Euratom nuclear safeguards within the European Union, is to be used for high accuracy measurements of the plutonium content of small samples of nuclear materials. The multi-purpose Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) code version 4B has been used to model in detail the neutron coincidence detector and to investigate the leakage self-multiplication of PuO sub 2 and mixed U-Pu oxide (MOX) reference samples used to calibrate the instrument. The MCNP calculations have been used together with a neutron coincidence counting interpretative model to determine characteristic parameters of the detector. A comparative study to both experimental and previous numerical results has been performed. Sensitivity curves of the variation of the detector's efficiency, epsilon, to, alpha, the ratio of (alpha...

  15. Combined effects of water temperature and copper ion concentration on catalase activity in Crassostrea ariakensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Yang, Hongshuai; Liu, Jiahui; Li, Yanhong; Liu, Zhigang

    2015-07-01

    A central composite experimental design and response surface method were used to investigate the combined effects of water temperature (18-34°C) and copper ion concentration (0.1-1.5 mg/L) on the catalase (CAT) activity in the digestive gland of Crassostrea ariakensis. The results showed that the linear effects of temperature were significant ( P0.05), and the quadratic effects of copper ion concentration were significant ( P0.05), and the effect of temperature was greater than that of copper ion concentration. A model equation of CAT enzyme activity in the digestive gland of C. ariakensis toward the two factors of interest was established, with R 2, Adj. R 2 and Pred. R 2 values as high as 0.943 7, 0.887 3 and 0.838 5, respectively. These findings suggested that the goodness of fit to experimental data and predictive capability of the model were satisfactory, and could be practically applied for prediction under the conditions of the study. Overall, the results suggest that the simultaneous variation of temperature and copper ion concentration alters the activity of the antioxidant enzyme CAT by modulating active oxygen species metabolism, which may be utilized as a biomarker to detect the effects of copper pollution.

  16. Estimating Sea Surface Salinity and Wind Using Combined Passive and Active L-Band Microwave Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Chaubell, Mario J.

    2012-01-01

    Several L-band microwave radiometer and radar missions have been, or will be, operating in space for land and ocean observations. These include the NASA Aquarius mission and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, both of which use combined passive/ active L-band instruments. Aquarius s passive/active L-band microwave sensor has been designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. SMAP s primary objectives are for soil moisture and freeze/thaw detection, but it will operate continuously over the ocean, and hence will have significant potential for ocean surface research. In this innovation, an algorithm has been developed to retrieve simultaneously ocean surface salinity and wind from combined passive/active L-band microwave observations of sea surfaces. The algorithm takes advantage of the differing response of brightness temperatures and radar backscatter to salinity, wind speed, and direction, thus minimizing the least squares error (LSE) measure, which signifies the difference between measurements and model functions of brightness temperatures and radar backscatter. The algorithm uses the conjugate gradient method to search for the local minima of the LSE. Three LSE measures with different measurement combinations have been tested. The first LSE measure uses passive microwave data only with retrieval errors reaching 1 to 2 psu (practical salinity units) for salinity, and 1 to 2 m/s for wind speed. The second LSE measure uses both passive and active microwave data for vertical and horizontal polarizations. The addition of active microwave data significantly improves the retrieval accuracy by about a factor of five. To mitigate the impact of Faraday rotation on satellite observations, the third LSE measure uses measurement combinations invariant under the Faraday rotation. For Aquarius, the expected RMS SSS (sea surface salinity) error will be less than about 0.2 psu for low winds, and increases to 0.3 psu at 25 m/s wind speed

  17. Modelling of Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtanjeka, Ž.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge wastewater treatment is a highly complex physical, chemical and biological process, and variations in wastewater flow rate and its composition, combined with time-varying reactions in a mixed culture of microorganisms, make this process non-linear and unsteady. The efficiency of the process is established by measuring the quantities that indicate quality of the treated wastewater, but they can only be determined at the end of the process, which is when the water has already been processed and is at the outlet of the plant and released into the environment.If the water quality is not acceptable, it is already too late for its improvement, which indicates the need for a feed forward process control based on a mathematical model. Since there is no possibility of retracing the process steps back, all the mistakes in the control of the process could induce an ecological disaster of a smaller or bigger extent. Therefore, models that describe this process well may be used as a basis for monitoring and optimal control of the process development. This work analyzes the process of biological treatment of wastewater in the Velika Gorica plant. Two empirical models for the description of the process were established, multiple linear regression model (MLR with 16 predictor variables and piecewise linear regression model (PLR with 17 predictor variables. These models were developed with the aim to predict COD value of the effluent wastewater at the outlet, after treatment. The development of the models is based on the statistical analysis of experimental data, which are used to determine the relations among individual variables. In this work are applied linear models based on multiple linear regression (MLR and partial least squares (PLR methods. The used data were obtained by everyday measurements of the quantities that indicate the quality of the input and output water, working conditions of the plant and the quality of the activated sludge

  18. Music-induced emotions can be predicted from a combination of brain activity and acoustic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ian; Williams, Duncan; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Weaver, James; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2015-12-01

    It is widely acknowledged that music can communicate and induce a wide range of emotions in the listener. However, music is a highly-complex audio signal composed of a wide range of complex time- and frequency-varying components. Additionally, music-induced emotions are known to differ greatly between listeners. Therefore, it is not immediately clear what emotions will be induced in a given individual by a piece of music. We attempt to predict the music-induced emotional response in a listener by measuring the activity in the listeners electroencephalogram (EEG). We combine these measures with acoustic descriptors of the music, an approach that allows us to consider music as a complex set of time-varying acoustic features, independently of any specific music theory. Regression models are found which allow us to predict the music-induced emotions of our participants with a correlation between the actual and predicted responses of up to r=0.234,pemotions can be predicted by their neural activity and the properties of the music. Given the large amount of noise, non-stationarity, and non-linearity in both EEG and music, this is an encouraging result. Additionally, the combination of measures of brain activity and acoustic features describing the music played to our participants allows us to predict music-induced emotions with significantly higher accuracies than either feature type alone (p<0.01).

  19. Combination of Accumulated Motion and Color Segmentation for Human Activity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kompatsiaris

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The automated analysis of activity in digital multimedia, and especially video, is gaining more and more importance due to the evolution of higher-level video processing systems and the development of relevant applications such as surveillance and sports. This paper presents a novel algorithm for the recognition and classification of human activities, which employs motion and color characteristics in a complementary manner, so as to extract the most information from both sources, and overcome their individual limitations. The proposed method accumulates the flow estimates in a video, and extracts “regions of activity” by processing their higher-order statistics. The shape of these activity areas can be used for the classification of the human activities and events taking place in a video and the subsequent extraction of higher-level semantics. Color segmentation of the active and static areas of each video frame is performed to complement this information. The color layers in the activity and background areas are compared using the earth mover's distance, in order to achieve accurate object segmentation. Thus, unlike much existing work on human activity analysis, the proposed approach is based on general color and motion processing methods, and not on specific models of the human body and its kinematics. The combined use of color and motion information increases the method robustness to illumination variations and measurement noise. Consequently, the proposed approach can lead to higher-level information about human activities, but its applicability is not limited to specific human actions. We present experiments with various real video sequences, from sports and surveillance domains, to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  20. Antipityrosporum Ovale Activity Of A Herbal Drug Combination Of Wrightia Tinctoria And Hisbiscus Rosasinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirshnamoorthy J R

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Antipityosporum activity of a herbal drug combination of Wrighria tinctoria and Hibiscus rosasinensis was tested in vitro against the isolates of Pityrosporum ovale recovered from dandruff. The drug combination exhibited fungicidal activity at a concentration ranging between 500 to1000 pg/ml.

  1. Aligning Learning Activities with Instructional Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvitch, Rachel; Metzler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Model-based instruction has been increasingly used in physical education for the past two decades. Metzler (2011) identified eight instructional models that are commonly used in physical education today. Each model is designed to promote certain kinds of learning outcomes for students and to address different combinations of the national…

  2. Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Keyser, W.; Gevaert, V.; Verdonck, F.;

    2009-01-01

    and a stormwater infiltration pond scenario, as an example of a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS). A case for Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was simulated and resulted in a reduced surface water concentration for the latter scenario. However, the model also showed that this was at the expense......Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modelling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and stormwater drainage systems. However, some micropollutants have the tendency to occur in more than one...... environmental medium. In this work, a multimedia fate and transport model (MFTM) is “wrapped around” a dynamic IUWS model for organic micropollutants to enable integrated environmental assessment. The combined model was tested on a hypothetical catchment using two scenarios: a reference scenario...

  3. Meeting report from the first meetings of the Computational Modeling in Biology Network (COMBINE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Novère, Nicolas; Hucka, Michael; Anwar, Nadia; Bader, Gary D; Demir, Emek; Moodie, Stuart; Sorokin, Anatoly

    2011-11-30

    The Computational Modeling in Biology Network (COMBINE), is an initiative to coordinate the development of the various community standards and formats in computational systems biology and related fields. This report summarizes the activities pursued at the first annual COMBINE meeting held in Edinburgh on October 6-9 2010 and the first HARMONY hackathon, held in New York on April 18-22 2011. The first of those meetings hosted 81 attendees. Discussions covered both official COMBINE standards-(BioPAX, SBGN and SBML), as well as emerging efforts and interoperability between different formats. The second meeting, oriented towards software developers, welcomed 59 participants and witnessed many technical discussions, development of improved standards support in community software systems and conversion between the standards. Both meetings were resounding successes and showed that the field is now mature enough to develop representation formats and related standards in a coordinated manner.

  4. Performance of a combined passive/active solar house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, J.L.

    1983-10-01

    This paper describes a residence designed and built to demonstrate that active and passive solar homes could be built economically by conventional home builders. The systems were designed for simplicity and cost effectiveness. The home was built in 56 days with conventional building materials and built by labourers with no particular training in energy efficient building techniques. After one season of operation the energy use data shows impressive performance. The auxiliary fuel requirement for the heating season was only 0.035 MJ/m/sup 20/C-day (1.72 Btu/ft/sup 20/F-day). Economically the home is equally impressive. An independent appraiser of the home valued the construction at US $67,500. In reality the home cost US $59,000 including contractor's overhead and profit. Subtracting from this the amount US $4000 for the Federal Solar Tax Credit results in an owner cost of US $55,000. The project intended to demonstrate that given proper consideration for design, construction techniques, and solar systems integration, a solar structure need not cost more than conventional construction.

  5. Antitumor effect of combined NAMPT and CD73 inhibition in an ovarian cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sociali, Giovanna; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Magnone, Mirko; Zamporlini, Federica; Emionite, Laura; Sturla, Laura; Bianchi, Giovanna; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Nahimana, Aimable; Nencioni, Alessio; Raffaelli, Nadia; Bruzzone, Santina

    2016-01-19

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a crucial enzyme in the biosynthesis of intracellular NAD+. NAMPT inhibitors have potent anticancer activity in several preclinical models by depleting NAD+ and ATP levels. Recently, we demonstrated that CD73 enables the utilization of extracellular NAD+/nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) by converting them to Nicotinamide riboside (NR), which can cross the plasmamembrane and fuel intracellular NAD+ biosynthesis in human cells. These processes are herein confirmed to also occur in a human ovarian carcinoma cell line (OVCAR-3), by means of CD73 or NRK1 specific silencing. Next, we investigated the anti-tumor activity of the simultaneous inhibition of NAMPT (with FK866) and CD73 (with α, β-methylene adenosine 5'-diphosphate, APCP), in an in vivo human ovarian carcinoma model. Interestingly, the combined therapy was found to significantly decrease intratumor NAD+, NMN and ATP levels, compared with single treatments. In addition, the concentration of these nucleotides in ascitic exudates was more remarkably reduced in animals treated with both FK866 and APCP compared with single treatments. Importantly, tumors treated with FK866 in combination with APCP contained a statistically significant lower proportion of Ki67 positive proliferating cells and a higher percentage of necrotic area. Finally, a slight but significant increase in animal survival in response to the combined therapy, compared to the single agents, could be demonstrated. Our results indicate that the pharmacological inhibition of CD73 enzymatic activity could be considered as a means to potentiate the anti-cancer effects of NAMPT inhibitors.

  6. Europlanet/IDIS: Combining Diverse Planetary Observations and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Walter; Capria, Maria Teresa; Chanteur, Gerard

    2013-04-01

    Planetary research involves a diversity of research fields from astrophysics and plasma physics to atmospheric physics, climatology, spectroscopy and surface imaging. Data from all these disciplines are collected from various space-borne platforms or telescopes, supported by modelling teams and laboratory work. In order to interpret one set of data often supporting data from different disciplines and other missions are needed while the scientist does not always have the detailed expertise to access and utilize these observations. The Integrated and Distributed Information System (IDIS) [1], developed in the framework of the Europlanet-RI project, implements a Virtual Observatory approach ([2] and [3]), where different data sets, stored in archives around the world and in different formats, are accessed, re-formatted and combined to meet the user's requirements without the need of familiarizing oneself with the different technical details. While observational astrophysical data from different observatories could already earlier be accessed via Virtual Observatories, this concept is now extended to diverse planetary data and related model data sets, spectral data bases etc. A dedicated XML-based Europlanet Data Model (EPN-DM) [4] was developed based on data models from the planetary science community and the Virtual Observatory approach. A dedicated editor simplifies the registration of new resources. As the EPN-DM is a super-set of existing data models existing archives as well as new spectroscopic or chemical data bases for the interpretation of atmospheric or surface observations, or even modeling facilities at research institutes in Europe or Russia can be easily integrated and accessed via a Table Access Protocol (EPN-TAP) [5] adapted from the corresponding protocol of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance [6] (IVOA-TAP). EPN-TAP allows to search catalogues, retrieve data and make them available through standard IVOA tools if the access to the archive

  7. Evaluation of drug combination for glioblastoma based on an intestine-liver metabolic model on microchip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Mingsha; Mao, Sifeng; Liu, Hanyang; He, Ziyi; Li, Hai-Fang; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2017-08-30

    An intestine-liver-glioblastoma biomimetic system was developed to evaluate the drug combination therapy for glioblastoma. A hollow fiber (HF) was embedded into the upper layer of the microfluidic chip for culturing Caco-2 cells to mimic drug delivery as an artificial intestine. HepG2 cells cultured in the bottom chamber of the chip acted as an artificial liver for metabolizing the drugs. The dual-drug combination to glioblastoma U251 cells was evaluated based on the intestine-liver metabolic model. The drugs, irinotecan (CPT-11), temozolomide (TMZ) and cyclophosphamide (CP), were used to dynamically stimulate the cells by continuous infusion into the intestine unit. After intestine absorption and liver metabolism, the prodrugs were transformed to active metabolites, which induced glioblastoma cells apoptosis. The anticancer activity of the CPT-11 and TMZ combination is significantly enhanced compared to that of the single drug treatments. Combination index (CI) values of the combination groups, CPT-11 and TMZ, CPT-11 and CP, and TMZ and CP, at half maximal inhibitory concentration were 0.137, 0.288, and 0.482, respectively. The results indicated that the CPT-11 and TMZ combination was superior to the CPT-11 and CP group as well as the TMZ and CP group towards the U251 cells. The metabolism mechanism of CPT-11 and TMZ was further studied by coupling with mass spectrometric analysis. The biomimetic model enables the performance of long-term cell co-culture, drug delivery, metabolism and real-time analysis of drug effects, promising systematic in vitro mimicking of physiological and pharmacological processes.

  8. Optimization of finite difference forward modeling for elastic waves based on optimum combined window functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wang; Xiaohong, Meng; Hong, Liu; Wanqiu, Zheng; Yaning, Liu; Sheng, Gui; Zhiyang, Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full waveform inversion and reverse time migration are active research areas for seismic exploration. Forward modeling in the time domain determines the precision of the results, and numerical solutions of finite difference have been widely adopted as an important mathematical tool for forward modeling. In this article, the optimum combined of window functions was designed based on the finite difference operator using a truncated approximation of the spatial convolution series in pseudo-spectrum space, to normalize the outcomes of existing window functions for different orders. The proposed combined window functions not only inherit the characteristics of the various window functions, to provide better truncation results, but also control the truncation error of the finite difference operator manually and visually by adjusting the combinations and analyzing the characteristics of the main and side lobes of the amplitude response. Error level and elastic forward modeling under the proposed combined system were compared with outcomes from conventional window functions and modified binomial windows. Numerical dispersion is significantly suppressed, which is compared with modified binomial window function finite-difference and conventional finite-difference. Numerical simulation verifies the reliability of the proposed method.

  9. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of individual and combined phenolics in Olea europaea leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok-Hwan; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2010-05-01

    Olive leaves, an agricultural waste, have great potential as a natural antioxidant. The current study was made to assess the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of both the individual and combined phenolics in olive leaf extract. A combined phenolics mixture was prepared by amount ratios of the phenolic compounds in the olive leaf extract. The results showed that both the individual and combined phenolics exhibited good radical scavenging abilities, and also revealed superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity. In terms of antimicrobial activity, both oleuropein and caffeic acid showed inhibition effects against microorganisms. Furthermore, the antimicrobial effect of the combined phenolics was significantly higher than those of the individual phenolics. These results show that the combination of olive leaf extract phenolics possessed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. This study indicates that olive leaf extract might be a valuable bioactive source, and would seem to be applicable in both the health and medical food.

  10. Toxicity of copper and cadmium in combinations to Duckweed analyzed by the biotic ligand model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Ayumi; Shoji, Ryo

    2008-06-01

    The biotic ligand model (BLM) of acute toxicity to aquatic organisms is based on the concept that metals binding onto biotic ligand may cause toxic effect on the organism. The BLM can take into incorporation between metal speciation and the protective effects of competing cations account. The demonstrated BLM can provide a good estimation of the amount of single metal effect under various conditions such as pH, coexistence of other non toxic cations. However, toxic metals are often found as mixture in nature. This study estimated combined toxicity of Cu and Cd examined by growth inhibition of Duckweed (Lemna paucicostata) by using single toxicity data as toxic unit (TU) derived by three types of model, BLM and two conventional models, free ion activity model (FIAM), and total metal concentration model. According to our results, single toxicity data derived by the BLM can estimate combined toxicity described as a function of TU. Particularly under the high level of heavy metals stress, BLM clearly predicted toxicity of heavy metals compared with other two models. According to numeric correlation (R(2), root mean square error), the order is BLM (R=0.83, RMSE=13.5)> total metal concentration model (R=0.41, RMSE=24.9)> FIAM (R=0.36, RMSE=26.1).

  11. Modeling of active beam units with Modelica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarini, Alessandro; Hultmark, Göran; Vorre, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an active beam model suitable for building energy simulations with the programming language Modelica. The model encapsulates empirical equations derived by a novel active beam terminal unit that operates with low-temperature heating and high-temperature cooling systems....... Measurements from a full-scale experiment are used to compare the thermal behavior of the active beam with the one predicted by simulations. The simulation results show that the model corresponds closely with the actual operation. The model predicts the outlet water temperature of the active beam...... with a maximum mean absolute error of 0.18 °C. In term of maximum mean absolute percentage error, simulation results differ by 0.9%. The methodology presented is general enough to be applied for modeling other active beam units. Modeling of active beam units with Modelica. Available from: https...

  12. Effects of Tocotrienol and Lovastatin Combination on Osteoblast and Osteoclast Activity in Estrogen-Deficient Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Abdul-Majeed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins are HMGCoA reductase inhibitors and had been demonstrated to stimulate bone formation in rodents after high oral doses. Observational studies on patients treated with oral statins were varied. Delta-tocotrienol had been found to stimulate the cleavage of HMGCoA reductase and inhibit its activity. Tocotrienols were found to have both catabolic and anabolic effects on bone in different animal models of osteoporosis. The current study aimed to ascertain the effects of delta–tocotrienol and lovastatin combination on biochemical and static bone histomorphometric parameters in a postmenopausal rat model at clinically tolerable doses. 48 Sprague Dawley female rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: (1 baseline control group; (2 sham-operated control group; (3 ovariectomised control group; (4 ovariectomised and 11 mg/kg lovastatin; (5 ovariectomised and 60 mg/kg delta-tocotrienol; (6 ovariectomised and 60 mg/kg delta-tocotrienol + 11 mg/kg lovastatin. These treatments were given daily via oral gavage for 8 weeks. Delta-tocotrienol plus lovastatin treatment significantly increased bone formation and reduced bone resorption compared to the other groups. Therefore, the combined treatment may have synergistic or additive effects and have the potential to be used as an antiosteoporotic agent in patients who are at risk of both osteoporosis and hypercholesterolemia, especially in postmenopausal women.

  13. Coordinated cell motility is regulated by a combination of LKB1 farnesylation and kinase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, S.; Hou, Y.; Zoine, J. T.; Saltz, J.; Zhang, C.; Chen, Z.; Cooper, L. A. D.; Marcus, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    Cell motility requires the precise coordination of cell polarization, lamellipodia formation, adhesion, and force generation. LKB1 is a multi-functional serine/threonine kinase that associates with actin at the cellular leading edge of motile cells and suppresses FAK. We sought to understand how LKB1 coordinates these multiple events by systematically dissecting LKB1 protein domain function in combination with live cell imaging and computational approaches. We show that LKB1-actin colocalization is dependent upon LKB1 farnesylation leading to RhoA-ROCK-mediated stress fiber formation, but membrane dynamics is reliant on LKB1 kinase activity. We propose that LKB1 kinase activity controls membrane dynamics through FAK since loss of LKB1 kinase activity results in morphologically defective nascent adhesion sites. In contrast, defective farnesylation mislocalizes nascent adhesion sites, suggesting that LKB1 farnesylation serves as a targeting mechanism for properly localizing adhesion sites during cell motility. Together, we propose a model where coordination of LKB1 farnesylation and kinase activity serve as a multi-step mechanism to coordinate cell motility during migration. PMID:28102310

  14. Melanoma: A model for testing new agents in combination therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streicher Howard Z

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Treatment for both early and advanced melanoma has changed little since the introduction of interferon and IL-2 in the early 1990s. Recent data from trials testing targeted agents or immune modulators suggest the promise of new strategies to treat patients with advanced melanoma. These include a new generation of B-RAF inhibitors with greater selectivity for the mutant protein, c-Kit inhibitors, anti-angiogenesis agents, the immune modulators anti-CTLA4, anti-PD-1, and anti-CD40, and adoptive cellular therapies. The high success rate of mutant B-RAF and c-Kit inhibitors relies on the selection of patients with corresponding mutations. However, although response rates with small molecule inhibitors are high, most are not durable. Moreover, for a large subset of patients, reliable predictive biomarkers especially for immunologic modulators have not yet been identified. Progress may also depend on identifying additional molecular targets, which in turn depends upon a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to response or resistance. More challenging but equally important will be understanding how to optimize the treatment of individual patients using these active agents sequentially or in combination with each other, with other experimental treatment, or with traditional anticancer modalities such as chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery. Compared to the standard approach of developing new single agents for licensing in advanced disease, the identification and validation of patient specific and multi-modality treatments will require increased involvement by several stakeholders in designing trials aimed at identifying, even in early stages of drug development, the most effective way to use molecularly guided approaches to treat tumors as they evolve over time.

  15. Learning models of activities involving interacting objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Hamilton, Howard J.;

    2013-01-01

    We propose the LEMAIO multi-layer framework, which makes use of hierarchical abstraction to learn models for activities involving multiple interacting objects from time sequences of data concerning the individual objects. Experiments in the sea navigation domain yielded learned models that were...... then successfully applied to activity recognition, activity simulation and multi-target tracking. Our method compares favourably with respect to previously reported results using Hidden Markov Models and Relational Particle Filtering....

  16. Active Learning of Classification Models with Likert-Scale Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yanbing; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2017-01-01

    Annotation of classification data by humans can be a time-consuming and tedious process. Finding ways of reducing the annotation effort is critical for building the classification models in practice and for applying them to a variety of classification tasks. In this paper, we develop a new active learning framework that combines two strategies to reduce the annotation effort. First, it relies on label uncertainty information obtained from the human in terms of the Likert-scale feedback. Second, it uses active learning to annotate examples with the greatest expected change. We propose a Bayesian approach to calculate the expectation and an incremental SVM solver to reduce the time complexity of the solvers. We show the combination of our active learning strategy and the Likert-scale feedback can learn classification models more rapidly and with a smaller number of labeled instances than methods that rely on either Likert-scale labels or active learning alone.

  17. Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Keyser, W.; Gevaert, V.; Verdonck, F.;

    2010-01-01

    Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modeling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOS) and stormwater drainage systems However, some micropollutants tend to appear in more than one environment...

  18. SPR imaging combined with cyclic voltammetry for the detection of neural activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR detects changes in refractive index at a metal-dielectric interface. In this study, SPR imaging (SPRi combined with cyclic voltammetry (CV was applied to detect neural activity in isolated bullfrog sciatic nerves. The neural activities induced by chemical and electrical stimulation led to an SPR response, and the activities were recorded in real time. The activities of different parts of the sciatic nerve were recorded and compared. The results demonstrated that SPR imaging combined with CV is a powerful tool for the investigation of neural activity.

  19. Modeling Workflow Using UML Activity Diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Yinxing(韦银星); Zhang Shensheng

    2004-01-01

    An enterprise can improve its adaptability in the changing market by means of workflow technologies. In the build time, the main function of Workflow Management System (WFMS) is to model business process. Workflow model is an abstract representation of the real-world business process. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) activity diagram is an important visual process modeling language proposed by the Object Management Group (OMG). The novelty of this paper is representing workflow model by means of UML activity diagram. A translation from UML activity diagram to π-calculus is established. Using π-calculus, the deadlock property of workflow is analyzed.

  20. Microbial dynamics in a High Arctic glacier forefield: a combined field, laboratory, and modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, James A.; Arndt, Sandra; Šabacká, Marie; Benning, Liane G.; Barker, Gary L.; Blacker, Joshua J.; Yallop, Marian L.; Wright, Katherine E.; Bellas, Christopher M.; Telling, Jonathan; Tranter, Martyn; Anesio, Alexandre M.

    2016-10-01

    Modelling the development of soils in glacier forefields is necessary in order to assess how microbial and geochemical processes interact and shape soil development in response to glacier retreat. Furthermore, such models can help us predict microbial growth and the fate of Arctic soils in an increasingly ice-free future. Here, for the first time, we combined field sampling with laboratory analyses and numerical modelling to investigate microbial community dynamics in oligotrophic proglacial soils in Svalbard. We measured low bacterial growth rates and growth efficiencies (relative to estimates from Alpine glacier forefields) and high sensitivity of bacterial growth rates to soil temperature (relative to temperate soils). We used these laboratory measurements to inform parameter values in a new numerical model and significantly refined predictions of microbial and biogeochemical dynamics of soil development over a period of roughly 120 years. The model predicted the observed accumulation of autotrophic and heterotrophic biomass. Genomic data indicated that initial microbial communities were dominated by bacteria derived from the glacial environment, whereas older soils hosted a mixed community of autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria. This finding was simulated by the numerical model, which showed that active microbial communities play key roles in fixing and recycling carbon and nutrients. We also demonstrated the role of allochthonous carbon and microbial necromass in sustaining a pool of organic material, despite high heterotrophic activity in older soils. This combined field, laboratory, and modelling approach demonstrates the value of integrated model-data studies to understand and quantify the functioning of the microbial community in an emerging High Arctic soil ecosystem.

  1. Behavioral phenotypes in schizophrenic animal models with multiple combinations of genetic and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Hirotake; Mouri, Akihiro; Noda, Yukihiro

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial psychiatric disorder in which both genetic and environmental factors play a role. Genetic [e.g., Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), Neuregulin-1 (NRG1)] and environmental factors (e.g., maternal viral infection, obstetric complications, social stress) may act during the developmental period to increase the incidence of schizophrenia. In animal models, interactions between susceptibility genes and the environment can be controlled in ways not possible in humans; therefore, such models are useful for investigating interactions between or within factors in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We provide an overview of schizophrenic animal models investigating interactions between or within factors. First, we reviewed gene-environment interaction animal models, in which schizophrenic candidate gene mutant mice were subjected to perinatal immune activation or adolescent stress. Next, environment-environment interaction animal models, in which mice were subjected to a combination of perinatal immune activation and adolescent administration of drugs, were described. These animal models showed interaction between or within factors; behavioral changes, which were obscured by each factor, were marked by interaction of factors and vice versa. Appropriate behavioral approaches with such models will be invaluable for translational research on novel compounds, and also for providing insight into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  2. Combined Mechanistic and Transport Modelling of Metal Humate Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryan, N. D.; Jones, D.; Griffin, D.

    1999-01-01

    RMC-Environmental Contribution to Task 4, (Model Development and Testing). Reporting period 1998.......RMC-Environmental Contribution to Task 4, (Model Development and Testing). Reporting period 1998....

  3. Nonlinearly combined impacts of initial perturbation from human activities and parameter perturbation from climate change on the grassland ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Human activities and climate change are important factors that affect grassland ecosystems. A new optimization approach, the approach of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP related to initial and parameter perturbations, is employed to explore the nonlinearly combined impacts of human activities and climate change on a grassland ecosystem using a theoretical grassland model. In our study, it is assumed that the initial perturbations and parameter perturbations are regarded as human activities and climate change, respectively. Numerical results indicate that the climate changes causing the maximum effect in the grassland ecosystem are different under disparate intensities of human activities. This implies the pattern of climate change is very critical to the maintenance or degradation of grassland ecosystem in light of high intensity of human activities and that the grassland ecosystem should be rationally managed when the moisture index decreases. The grassland ecosystem influenced by the nonlinear combination of human activities and climate change undergoes abrupt change, while the grassland ecosystem affected by other types of human activities and climate change fails to show the abrupt change under a certain range of perturbations with the theoretical model. The further numerical analyses also indicate that the growth of living biomass and the evaporation from soil surface shaded by the wilted biomass may be crucial factors contributing to the abrupt change of the grassland equilibrium state within the theoretical model.

  4. Evaluation of the antidepressant activity of Moringa oleifera alone and in combination with fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ginpreet; Invally, Mihir; Sanzagiri, Resham; Buttar, Harpal S

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of mental depression has increased in recent years, and has become a serious health problem in most countries of the world, including India. Due to the high cost of antidepressant synthetic drugs and their accompanying side effects, the discovery of safer antidepressant herbal remedies is on the rise. Moringa oleifera (MO) (drumstick) has been used in traditional folk medicine, and in Ayurveda, it is considered as a valuable remedy for treating nervous system disorders as well as memory enhancing agent. The present study was designed to evaluate the acute and chronic behavioral and antidepressant effects of alcoholic extracts of MO leaves in standardized mouse models of depression. Alcoholic extracts of MO (MOE) leaves were prepared, and phytoconstituents were determined using appropriate chemical analytical methods. Following preliminary dose-finding toxicity studies, the biological activity of MOE was tested in Swiss albino mice. Animals were divided into six groups: Groups 1 and 2 served as vehicle control and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) standard control, respectively. Groups 3 and 4 served as treatment groups and were orally administered ethanolic MOE at doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Groups 5 and 6, respectively, received combination doses of MOE 100 mg/kg + 10 mg fluoxetine, and MOE 200 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg fluoxetine. Following acute and 14 days chronic treatments, all animals were tested using behavioral models of depression, such as forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), and locomotor activity test (LAT). Significant changes in all tested activities (FST, TST, LAT) of chronically dosed mice were observed, especially in animals given simultaneously combined doses of 200 mg/kg/day MOE + 10 mg/kg/day fluoxetine for 14 days. The antidepressant effect of MOE may have been invoked through the noradrenergic-serotonergic neurotransmission pathway, which is the hallmark of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) class of

  5. Evaluation of the antidepressant activity of Moringa oleifera alone and in combination with fluoxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginpreet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of mental depression has increased in recent years, and has become a serious health problem in most countries of the world, including India. Due to the high cost of antidepressant synthetic drugs and their accompanying side effects, the discovery of safer antidepressant herbal remedies is on the rise. Moringa oleifera (MO (drumstick has been used in traditional folk medicine, and in Ayurveda, it is considered as a valuable remedy for treating nervous system disorders as well as memory enhancing agent. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the acute and chronic behavioral and antidepressant effects of alcoholic extracts of MO leaves in standardized mouse models of depression. Materials and Methods: Alcoholic extracts of MO (MOE leaves were prepared, and phytoconstituents were determined using appropriate chemical analytical methods. Following preliminary dose-finding toxicity studies, the biological activity of MOE was tested in Swiss albino mice. Animals were divided into six groups: Groups 1 and 2 served as vehicle control and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg standard control, respectively. Groups 3 and 4 served as treatment groups and were orally administered ethanolic MOE at doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Groups 5 and 6, respectively, received combination doses of MOE 100 mg/kg + 10 mg fluoxetine, and MOE 200 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg fluoxetine. Following acute and 14 days chronic treatments, all animals were tested using behavioral models of depression, such as forced swim test (FST, tail suspension test (TST, and locomotor activity test (LAT. Results: Significant changes in all tested activities (FST, TST, LAT of chronically dosed mice were observed, especially in animals given simultaneously combined doses of 200 mg/kg/day MOE + 10 mg/kg/day fluoxetine for 14 days. The antidepressant effect of MOE may have been invoked through the noradrenergic-serotonergic neurotransmission pathway, which is the

  6. Combined activity of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and polymyxin B against gram-negative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1974-07-01

    The activity of the three two-drug combinations of sulfamethoxazole (SMX), trimethoprim (TMP), and polymyxin B (PB) against 52 clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli was studied by a "checkerboard" agar dilution method. The organisms studied included strains of Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Providence, Proteus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The majority of these isolates were resistant to at least two of the three agents used in the combined studies and to the most commonly used antimicrobials. The TMP-PB combination demonstrated enhanced activity more frequently than the other two-drug combinations, showing synergism or addition in 85% of the combined studies; indifference or antagonism was also observed least frequently with TMP-PB. The great majority (83%) of Enterobacter-Klebsiella-Serratia isolates were susceptible to enhanced activity of all combinations. Proteus-Providence isolates were frequently susceptible (63%), but combined activity was indifferent or antagonistic against 60% of P. aeruginosa. Twelve isolates were selected for "killing-curve" assays in which an inoculum was incubated with SMX, TMP, and PB individually and in various two- and three-drug combinations. Surviving bacteria were counted at timed intervals over 24 h of incubation. The triple combination (SMX-TMP-PB) was synergistic against 9 of 12 isolates, whereas TMP-PB and SMX-PB showed synergism against 5 and 3 isolates, respectively. These data suggest that, although TMP-PB will often show enhanced activity against the gram-negative bacilli studied here, optimal antibacterial activity will be demonstrated when the three-drug combination is used.

  7. In vitro bactericidal activity of amoxicillin, gentamicin, rifampicin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole alone or in combination against Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisivon, A; Guiomar, C; Carbon, C

    1990-03-01

    The in vitro bactericidal activity of amoxicillin, gentamicin, rifampicin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole alone or in combination was determined against seven strains of Listeria monocytogenes by the killing curve method. Amoxicillin plus gentamicin was the most rapidly bactericidal combination, whereas trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was less bactericidal at 6 h but as bactericidal at 24 h. The combination of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole with either amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin or rifampicin did not result in antagonism, but the combinations were no more active than trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole alone. The interaction of amoxicillin with rifampin was fairly antagonistic (1 log10 difference). The combination of amoxicillin and ciprofloxacin, although producing antagonism during the first 6 h, was more active at 24 h than amoxicillin alone and prevented the regrowth observed with ciprofloxacin alone. Ciprofloxacin and rifampicin interacted antagonistically during the first 6 h, and the combination was not very bactericidal (3 log10) but prevented the emergence of mutants, as observed with each drug alone, when used at concentrations greater than the MICs for the strain tested. These regimens merit evaluation in in vivo models of Listeria monocytogenes meningitis.

  8. Antifungal activities of the combination of tacrolimus and itraconazole against Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Hiroko; Okabayashi, Ken; Kano, Rui; Watanabe, Shinichi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2005-06-01

    Tacrolimus was reported to have no antifungal activity against dermatophytes, but it might show a synergistic fungicidal activity with azoles against dermatophytes as in the case of pathogenic yeasts. Therefore, we examined the antifungal activity of tacrolimus combined with itraconazole (ITZ) against five strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes by measuring cell growth and performing MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) testing. The mean colony diameter of T. mentagrophytes on 1/10 diluted Sabouraud dextrose agar (dSDA) with tacrolimus combined with ITZ was significantly shorter than that on dSDA with tacrolimus or ITZ. MICs of tacrolimus, ITZ, and tacrolimus combined with ITZ against T. mentagrophytes were determined, respectively. The results revealed a synergistic activity of tacrolimus in combination with ITZ against T. mentagrophytes.

  9. Traditional, Cyber and Combined Bullying Roles: Differences in Risky Online and Offline Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachs, Sebastian; Junger, Marianne; Sittichai, Ruthaychonee

    2015-01-01

    This study (1) reports frequency rates of mutually exclusive traditional, cyber and combined (both traditional and cyber) bullying roles; and (2) investigates whether adolescents belonging to particular bullying roles show higher levels of involvement in risky online activities (Compulsive Internet

  10. Traditional, Cyber and Combined Bullying Roles: Differences in Risky Online and Offline Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachs, Sebastian; Junger, M.; Sittichai, Ruthaychonee

    2015-01-01

    This study (1) reports frequency rates of mutually exclusive traditional, cyber and combined (both traditional and cyber) bullying roles; and (2) investigates whether adolescents belonging to particular bullying roles show higher levels of involvement in risky online activities (Compulsive Internet

  11. Numerical Modelling of Sediment Transport in Combined Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlütter, Flemming

    A conceptual sediment transport model has been developed. Through a case study a comparison with other numerical models is performed.......A conceptual sediment transport model has been developed. Through a case study a comparison with other numerical models is performed....

  12. Discursive Positionings and Emotions in Modelling Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Wajeeh

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modelling is suggested as an activity through which students engage in meaningful mathematics. In the current research, the modelling activity of a group of four seventh-grade students was analysed using the discursive analysis framework. The research findings show that the positionings and emotions of the group members during their…

  13. SOFOMORE: Combined EEG source and forward model reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlhut, Carsten; Mørup, Morten; Winther, Ole;

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new EEG source localization method that simultaneously performs source and forward model reconstruction (SOFOMORE) in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Reconstruction of the forward model is motivated by the many uncertainties involved in the forward model, including the representat......We propose a new EEG source localization method that simultaneously performs source and forward model reconstruction (SOFOMORE) in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Reconstruction of the forward model is motivated by the many uncertainties involved in the forward model, including...... the representation of the cortical surface, conductivity distribution, and electrode positions. We demonstrate in both simulated and real EEG data that reconstruction of the forward model improves localization of the underlying sources....

  14. Students’ mathematical learning in modelling activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Blomhøj, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Ten years of experience with analyses of students’ learning in a modelling course for first year university students, led us to see modelling as a didactical activity with the dual goal of developing students’ modelling competency and enhancing their conceptual learning of mathematical concepts...... involved. We argue that progress in students’ conceptual learning needs to be conceptualised separately from that of progress in their modelling competency. Findings are that modelling activities open a window to the students’ images of the mathematical concepts involved; that modelling activities can...... create and help overcome hidden cognitive conflicts in students’ understanding; that reflections within modelling can play an important role for the students’ learning of mathematics. These findings are illustrated with a modelling project concerning the world population....

  15. Development of a Pressure-Dependent Constitutive Model with Combined Multilinear Kinematic and Isotropic Hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2003-01-01

    The development of a pressure-dependent constitutive model with combined multilinear kinematic and isotropic hardening is presented. The constitutive model is developed using the ABAQUS user material subroutine (UMAT). First the pressure-dependent plasticity model is derived. Following this, the combined bilinear and combined multilinear hardening equations are developed for von Mises plasticity theory. The hardening rule equations are then modified to include pressure dependency. The method for implementing the new constitutive model into ABAQUS is given.

  16. A model combining oscillations and attractor dynamics for generation of grid cell firing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Hasselmo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Different models have been able to account for different features of the data on grid cell firing properties, including the relationship of grid cells to cellular properties and network oscillations. This paper describes a model that combines elements of two major classes of models of grid cells: models using interference of oscillations and models using attractor dynamics. This model includes a population of units with oscillatory input representing input from the medial septum. These units are termed heading angle cells because their connectivity depends upon heading angle in the environment as well as the spatial phase coded by the cell. These cells project to a population of grid cells. The sum of the heading angle input results in standing waves of circularly symmetric input to the grid cell population. Feedback from the grid cell population increases the activity of subsets of the heading angle cells, resulting in the network settling into activity patterns that resemble the patterns of firing fields in a population of grid cells. The properties of heading angle cells firing as conjunctive grid-by-head-direction cells can shift the grid cell firing according to movement velocity. The pattern of interaction of oscillations requires use of separate populations that fire on alternate cycles of the net theta rhythmic input to grid cells, similar to recent neurophysiological data on theta cycle skipping in medial entorhinal cortex.

  17. Modelling Typical Online Language Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine; Stickler, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the methods and results of a four-year-long research project focusing on the language learning activity of individual learners using online tasks conducted at the University of Guanajuato (Mexico) in 2009-2013. An activity-theoretical model (Blin, 2010; Engeström, 1987) of the typical language learning activity was used to…

  18. Evaluating a Model of Youth Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods: Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a…

  19. Planck focal plane instruments: advanced modelization and combined analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonca, Andrea; Mennella, Aniello

    2012-08-01

    This thesis is the result of my work as research fellow at IASF-MI, Milan section of the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, part of INAF, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica. This work started in January 2006 in the context of the PhD school program in Astrophysics held at the Physics Department of Universita' degli Studi di Milano under the supervision of Aniello Mennella. The main topic of my work is the software modelling of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) radiometers. The LFI is one of the two instruments on-board the European Space Agency Planck Mission for high precision measurements of the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). I was also selected to participate at the International Doctorate in Antiparticles Physics, IDAPP. IDAPP is funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR) and coordinated by Giovanni Fiorentini (Universita' di Ferrara) with the objective of supporting the growing collaboration between the Astrophysics and Particles Physics communities. It is an international program in collaboration with the Paris PhD school, involving Paris VI, VII and XI Universities, leading to a double French-Italian doctoral degree title. My work was performed with the co-tutoring of Jean-Michel Lamarre, Instrument Scientist of the High Frequency Instrument (HFI), the bolometric instrument on-board Planck. Thanks to this collaboration I had the opportunity to work with the HFI team for four months at the Paris Observatory, so that the focus of my activity was broadened and included the study of cross-correlation between HFI and LFI data. Planck is the first CMB mission to have on-board the same satellite very different detection technologies, which is a key element for controlling systematic effects and improve measurements quality.

  20. A Constraint Satisfaction Neural Network and Heuristic Combined Approach for Concurrent Activities Scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN JiHong(闫纪红); WU Cheng(吴澄)

    2003-01-01

    Scheduling activities in concurrent product development process is of great sig-nificance to shorten development lead time and minimize the cost. Moreover, it can eliminate theunnecessary redesign periods and guarantee that serial activities can be executed as concurrently aspossible. This paper presents a constraint satisfaction neural network and heuristic combined ap-proach for concurrent activities scheduling. In the combined approach, the neural network is usedto obtain a feasible starting time of all the activities based on sequence constraints, the heuris-tic algorithm is used to obtain a feasible solution of the scheduling problem based on resourceconstraints. The feasible scheduling solution is obtained by a gradient optimization function. Sim-ulations have shown that the proposed combined approach is efficient and feasible with respect toconcurrent activities scheduling.

  1. Combination of Alternative Models by Mutual Data Assimilation: Supermodeling With A Suite of Primitive Equation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, G. S.; Selten, F.

    2016-12-01

    Different models of climate and weather commonly give projections/predictions that differ widely in their details. While averaging of model outputs almost always improves results, nonlinearity implies that further improvement can be obtained from model interaction in run time, as has already been demonstrated with toy systems of ODEs and idealized quasigeostrophic models. In the supermodeling scheme, models effectively assimilate data from one another and partially synchronize with one another. Spread among models is manifest as a spread in possible inter-model connection coefficients, so that the models effectively "agree to disagree". Here, we construct a supermodel formed from variants of the SPEEDO model, a primitive-equation atmospheric model (SPEEDY) coupled to ocean and land. A suite of atmospheric models, coupled to the same ocean and land, is chosen to represent typical differences among climate models by varying model parameters. Connections are introduced between all pairs of corresponding independent variables at synoptic-scale intervals. Strengths of the inter-atmospheric connections can be considered to represent inverse inter-model observation error. Connection strengths are adapted based on an established procedure that extends the dynamical equations of a pair of synchronizing systems to synchronize parameters as well. The procedure is applied to synchronize the suite of SPEEDO models with another SPEEDO model regarded as "truth", adapting the inter-model connections along the way. The supermodel with trained connections gives marginally lower error in all fields than any weighted combination of the separate model outputs when used in "weather-prediction mode", i.e. with constant nudging to truth. Stronger results are obtained if a supermodel is used to predict the formation of coherent structures or the frequency of such. Partially synchronized SPEEDO models give a better representation of the blocked-zonal index cycle than does a weighted average

  2. INVESTIGATION OF DIFFERENT MODELS OF COMBINED PARALLEL FLASH BINARY CYCLES

    OpenAIRE

    A. Jafar Yazdi*

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is a comparative study of the different geothermal power plant concepts, based on the energy and exergy analysis. The cycles studied in this paper are the combination of single and double flash power plants with two different ORC cycles as basic Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), ORC with IHE, regenerative ORC and regenerative ORC with an IHE. The main gain due to using combined flash-binary power plants with various types of ORCs is to achieve optimum and efficient energy uti...

  3. Design developing conceptual models blade with geometric combined surface

    OpenAIRE

    Juraev, T. H.; Bukhara Technological Institute of Engineering, Bukhara

    2013-01-01

    A conceptual model of the blade using the methods of geometricmodeling principles of industrial design and CAD technologies. Variants are functional use of the proposed model for various working bodies.

  4. Antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil alone and in combination with other essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA RAI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Kon K, Rai M. 2012. Antibacterial activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil alone and in combination with other essential oils. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 50-56. Essential oils (EOs from plants represent an alternative approach in combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One of the EOs with proven antibacterial properties is Thymus vulgaris EO. The purpose of the present work was to investigate in vitro antibacterial activity of T. vulgaris EO alone and in combination with other EOs. The activity of T. vulgaris EO was screened in combination with 34 EOs against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by disk diffusion method; then the most effective combinations were evaluated by broth microdilution method. Against S. aureus the synergistic effect was found in combination of T. vulgaris and Cinnamomum zeylonicum EOs with fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC index of 0.26; Juniperus communis and Picea abies EOs showed additive effect (FIC indexes were 0.74 and 0.78, respectively. Combination of T. vulgaris EO with Aniba rosaeodora and Melissa officinalis EOs demonstrated synergistic effect against E. coli (FIC indexes were 0.23 and 0.34, respectively; combination of T. vulgaris and Mentha piperita EOs was additive (FIC index 0.55. Therefore, combining T. vulgaris EO with other EOs has potential in further enhancing its antibacterial properties.

  5. Antimalarial activity of Ageratum conyzoides in combination with chloroquine and artesunate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ukwe Chinwe V; Ekwunife Obinna I; Epueke Ebele A; Ubaka Chukwuemeka M

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the suppressive and curative activity of aqueous leaf extract of Ageratum conyzoides (A. conyzoides) in combination with chloroquine and artesunate, respectively against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. Methods: Using malaria (Plasmodium berghei) infected albino mice of both sexes, aqueous extracts of A. conyzoides in combination with chloroquine and artesunate were tested for antimalarial activity, respectively. Four-day suppressive test and Rane's curative test were carried out. Results: Suppressive tests showed significant dose dependent reduction in parasitemia level produced by the extract-chloroquine and extract-artesunate combinations. Suppressive activities of both extract-drug combinations were greater than the individual drugs alone. Extract-chloroquine (100:5) produced the highest suppressive effect (98% suppression). Curative tests showed absolute survival in two extract-drug combinations. Two extract-drug combinations produced higher curative effects than the individual drugs alone. The highest dose combinations of extract-chloroquine (100:5) and extract-artesunate (100:5) produced absolute parasitemia clearance (cure) in the infected mice. Conclusions: The study indicated that aqueous extract of A. conyzoides had the ability to potentiate the antimalarial activity of chloroquine and artesunate against induced plasmodiasis in mice. It contributes a lot in the malaria endemic and poverty stricken tropics.

  6. Combined effect of blood pressure and physical activity on cardiovascular mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatten, Lars J; Nilsen, Tom I L; Holmen, Jostein

    2006-10-01

    High blood pressure increases cardiovascular mortality, but whether the effect is counteracted by physical activity is not clear. The combined association of blood pressure and physical activity on cardiovascular mortality was assessed in a cohort of 30 597 women and 30 508 men, using standardized blood pressure measurements and information on usual frequency, duration, and intensity of physical exercise. During 16 years of follow-up, 1942 women and 2824 men with no history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes, who had never used blood pressure medication, died from cardiovascular causes. Cardiovascular mortality increased continuously with increasing blood pressure, and, at each blood pressure level, risk was higher in men and women with no physical activity compared with those who reported high physical activity. High activity combined with increasing pressure, however, yielded higher risk than high activity combined with normotensive pressure. Compared with the reference (systolic pressure 120-129 mmHg and high activity), the relative risk of cardiovascular death for systolic pressure of 140-159 mmHg combined with high activity was 1.21 (95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.52), compared with a relative risk of 1.73 (95% confidence interval, 1.37-2.19) in men with no activity. For women, the corresponding relative risks were 1.47 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.09) in the high activity group and 1.93 (95% confidence interval, 1.39-2.69) for no activity. The combined results for diastolic pressure and physical activity displayed similar patterns. The results support the hypothesis that cardiovascular health of individuals with moderate hypertension will benefit from regular physical exercise.

  7. Computer-aided biokinetic modelling combined with in vitro data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Jongh, J. de; Sandt, J. van de; Blaauboer, B.; Hissink, E.; Bogaards, J.; Bladeren, P. van

    1995-01-01

    Within the framework of in vitro alternatives for in vivo safety assessment, the kinetic behaviour of a compound can be described by biokinetic models. These models, with emphasis on the physiologically based pharmacokinetic models, need a variety of biological, physicochemical and biochemical param

  8. Influence of perturbative phase noise on active coherent polarization beam combining system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pengfei; Zhou, Pu; Wang, Xiaolin; Ma, Yanxing; Su, Rongtao; Liu, Zejin

    2013-12-02

    In this manuscript, the influence of perturbative phase noise on active coherent polarization beam combining (CPBC) system is studied theoretically and experimentally. By employing a photo-detector to obtain phase error signal for feedback loop, actively coherent polarization beam combining of two 20 W-level single mode polarization-maintained (PM) fiber amplifiers are demonstrated with more than 94% combining efficiency. Then the influence of perturbative phase noise on active CPBC system is illustrated by incorporating a simulated phase noise signal in one of the two amplifiers. Experimental results show that the combining efficiency of the CPBC system is susceptible to the frequency or amplitude of the perturbative phase noise. In order to ensure the combining efficiency of the unit of CPBC system higher than 90%, the competence of our active phase control module for high power operation is discussed, which suggests that it could be worked at 100s W power level. The relationship between residual phase noise of the active controller and the normalized voltage signal of the photo-detector is developed and validated experimentally. Experimental results correspond exactly with the theoretically analyzed combining efficiency. Our method offers a useful approach to estimate the influence of phase noise on CPBC system.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of the combination between cytotoxic drug and efflux transporter inhibitors based on a tumour growth inhibition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostelly, Alexandre; Payen, Léa; Guitton, Jérôme; Di Pietro, Attilio; Falson, Pierre; Honorat, Mylène; Boumendjel, Ahcène; Gèze, Annabelle; Freyer, Gilles; Tod, Michel

    2014-04-01

    ATP-Binding Cassette transporters such as ABCG2 confer resistance to various anticancer drugs including irinotecan and its active metabolite, SN38. Early quantitative evaluation of efflux transporter inhibitors-cytotoxic combination requires quantitative drug-disease models. A proof-of-concept study has been carried out for studying the effect of a new ABCG2 transporter inhibitor, MBLI87 combined to irinotecan in mice xenografted with cells overexpressing ABCG2. Mice were treated with irinotecan alone or combined to MBLI87, and tumour size was periodically measured. To model those data, a tumour growth inhibition model was developed. Unperturbed tumour growth was modelled using Simeoni's model. Drug effect kinetics was accounted for by a Kinetic-Pharmacodynamic approach. Effect of inhibitor was described with a pharmacodynamic interaction model where inhibitor enhances activity of cytotoxic. This model correctly predicted tumour growth dynamics from our study. MBLI87 increased irinotecan potency by 20% per μmol of MBLI87. This model retains enough complexity to simultaneously describe tumour growth and effect of this type of drug combination. It can thus be used as a template to early evaluate efflux transporter inhibitors in-vivo.

  10. Science Letters:Synergetic effects for p-nitrophenol abatement using a combined activated carbon adsorption-electrooxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明华; 戴启洲; 雷乐成; 汪大翚

    2004-01-01

    A novel fluidized electrochemical reactor that integrated advanced electrochemical oxidation with activated carbon (AC) fluidization in a single cell was developed to model pollutant p-nitrophenol (PNP) abatement. AC fluidization could enhance COD removal by 22%-30%. In such a combined process, synergetic effects on PNP and COD removal was found, with their removal rate being enhanced by 137.8% and 97.8%, respectively. AC could be electrochemically regenerated and reused, indicating the combined process would be promising for treatment of biorefractory organic pollutants.

  11. Combining Bayesian Networks and Agent Based Modeling to develop a decision-support model in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Bao Anh; Ertsen, Maurits; Schoups, Gerrit

    2016-04-01

    Complexity and uncertainty in natural resources management have been focus themes in recent years. Within these debates, with the aim to define an approach feasible for water management practice, we are developing an integrated conceptual modeling framework for simulating decision-making processes of citizens, in our case in the Day river area, Vietnam. The model combines Bayesian Networks (BNs) and Agent-Based Modeling (ABM). BNs are able to combine both qualitative data from consultants / experts / stakeholders, and quantitative data from observations on different phenomena or outcomes from other models. Further strengths of BNs are that the relationship between variables in the system is presented in a graphical interface, and that components of uncertainty are explicitly related to their probabilistic dependencies. A disadvantage is that BNs cannot easily identify the feedback of agents in the system once changes appear. Hence, ABM was adopted to represent the reaction among stakeholders under changes. The modeling framework is developed as an attempt to gain better understanding about citizen's behavior and factors influencing their decisions in order to reduce uncertainty in the implementation of water management policy.

  12. Operative and diagnostic hysteroscopy: A novel learning model combining new animal models and virtual reality simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassil, Alfred; Rubod, Chrystèle; Borghesi, Yves; Kerbage, Yohan; Schreiber, Elie Servan; Azaïs, Henri; Garabedian, Charles

    2017-04-01

    Hysteroscopy is one of the most common gynaecological procedure. Training for diagnostic and operative hysteroscopy can be achieved through numerous previously described models like animal models or virtual reality simulation. We present our novel combined model associating virtual reality and bovine uteruses and bladders. End year residents in obstetrics and gynaecology attended a full day workshop. The workshop was divided in theoretical courses from senior surgeons and hands-on training in operative hysteroscopy and virtual reality Essure(®) procedures using the EssureSim™ and Pelvicsim™ simulators with multiple scenarios. Theoretical and operative knowledge was evaluated before and after the workshop and General Points Averages (GPAs) were calculated and compared using a Student's T test. GPAs were significantly higher after the workshop was completed. The biggest difference was observed in operative knowledge (0,28 GPA before workshop versus 0,55 after workshop, pTeaching operative and diagnostic hysteroscopy is essential. Managing this training through a full day workshop using a combined animal model and virtual reality simulation is an efficient model not described before. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Wind gust estimation by combining numerical weather prediction model and statistical post-processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlakas, Platon; Drakaki, Eleni; Galanis, George; Spyrou, Christos; Kallos, George

    2017-04-01

    The continuous rise of off-shore and near-shore activities as well as the development of structures, such as wind farms and various offshore platforms, requires the employment of state-of-the-art risk assessment techniques. Such analysis is used to set the safety standards and can be characterized as a climatologically oriented approach. Nevertheless, a reliable operational support is also needed in order to minimize cost drawbacks and human danger during the construction and the functioning stage as well as during maintenance activities. One of the most important parameters for this kind of analysis is the wind speed intensity and variability. A critical measure associated with this variability is the presence and magnitude of wind gusts as estimated in the reference level of 10m. The latter can be attributed to different processes that vary among boundary-layer turbulence, convection activities, mountain waves and wake phenomena. The purpose of this work is the development of a wind gust forecasting methodology combining a Numerical Weather Prediction model and a dynamical statistical tool based on Kalman filtering. To this end, the parameterization of Wind Gust Estimate method was implemented to function within the framework of the atmospheric model SKIRON/Dust. The new modeling tool combines the atmospheric model with a statistical local adaptation methodology based on Kalman filters. This has been tested over the offshore west coastline of the United States. The main purpose is to provide a useful tool for wind analysis and prediction and applications related to offshore wind energy (power prediction, operation and maintenance). The results have been evaluated by using observational data from the NOAA's buoy network. As it was found, the predicted output shows a good behavior that is further improved after the local adjustment post-process.

  14. Disease Combinations Associated with Physical Activity Identified: The SMILE Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dörenkamp (Sarah); I. Mesters (Ilse); J. Schepers (Jan); R. Vos (Rein); M. van den Akker (Marjan); J.A.W. Teijink (J. A W); R.A. de Bie (Robert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn the search of predictors of inadequate physical activity, an investigation was conducted into the association between multimorbidity and physical activity (PA). So far the sum of diseases used as a measure of multimorbidity reveals an inverse association. How specific combinations of

  15. Spatiotemporally synchronized cancer combination therapy using photo-activated nanoparticle drug delivery systems (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-03-01

    This talk will introduce a new nanotechnology platform for cancer combination therapy that utilizes near infrared light activation not only for photodynamic damage but also as an extrinsic mechanism to initiate release of complimentary drugs to suppress dynamic bursts in molecular signaling networks that promote tumor cell survival and treatment escape. The goal is to achieve co-delivery with concomitant activity of photodynamic, molecular inhibitor and chemotherapeutic agents, selectively within the tumor. This approach overcomes challenges in achieving synergistic interactions using sequential drug delivery. Conventional drug delivery is compromised by the differential pharmacokinetics of individual agents and potentially antagonistic effects—such as vascular shutdown by one agent that limits delivery of the second. Here, photodynamic damage—which efficiently kills drug-resistant cells via damage of common proteins involved in drug-resistance (such as anti-apoptosis factors and drug-efflux transporters)—is synchronized spatially and temporally with the photo-initiated release of complimentary agents—to enable full interaction amongst the individual therapies. This spatiotemporal synchronization offers new prospects for exploiting time-sensitive synergistic interactions. Specific implementations of these concepts will be presented in preclinical models of cancer. Strategies to enable molecular-targeting of cancer cells via site-specific attachment of targeting moieties to the outer lipid shell of these nanovehicles will also be discussed. If successful in humans, this new paradigm for synchronized, tumor-focused combination therapy will ultimately supersede the present use of chronic drug injection by increasing efficacy per cycle whilst reducing systemic exposure to toxic drugs.

  16. Anticancer activity of NOB1-targeted shRNA combination with TRAIL in epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang; Xu, Tianmin; Teng, Hong; Cui, Manhua

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) based strategy is a promising targeted therapeutic approach for the treatment of ovarian cancer. However, the effectiveness of the treatment remains limited due to the inherent or acquired resistance of tumor cells to TRAIL. Our previously study demonstrated that downregulation of NOB1 (NIN1/RPN12 binding protein 1 homolog) expression by a lentiviral short hairpin RNA (shRNA) delivery system (Lv/sh-NOB1) suppressed ovarian cancer growth. Here, Lv/sh-NOB1 and TRAIL were combined and tested the effects of this combination on ovarian cancer cells to identify more effective therapeutics against ovarian cancer by several in vitro experiments. Tumor growth ability in SKVO3 xenograft nude mice was also determined to define this combination treatment effect in tumorigenesis in vivo. In vitro assay showed that Lv/sh-NOB1 in combination with TRAIL treatment in ovarian cancer cell synergistically suppressed the proliferation and colony formation, as well as induced cell apoptosis and increased the activity of caspase-3, -8 and -9. In vivo assay showed that Lv/sh-NOB1 combination with TRAIL synergistically suppressed tumor growth of nude mice model. Importantly, we found that downregulation of NOB1 could upregulate DR5 expression and active MAPK pathway, which might contribute to increase sensitivity TRAIL to ovarian cancer cells. These findings suggested that Lv/sh-NOB1 combination with TRAIL treatment may be a potential treatment approach for ovarian cancer.

  17. Model heterogeneous acid catalysts and metal-support interactions: A combined surface science and catalysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boszormenyi, I.

    1991-05-01

    This (<100 [Angstrom]) silica-alumina layers were tested as potential model heterogeneous acid catalysts for combined surface science and catalysis studies. Three preparation methods were used: oxidation of r3 [times] r3 R30 Al/Si(111) structure in UHV; deposition on Si(lll) from aqueous solution; and argon ion beam sputter deposition in UHV. The homogeneous thin layers are amorphous, and the chemical environment of surface atoms is similar to that of Si, Al and oxygen atoms on high surface area acid catalysts. Since the ion beam-deposited thin layer of silica-alumina has the same composition as the target zeolite this deposition method is a promising tool to prepare model catalysts using practical catalyst targets. The silica-alumina layers are active in cumene cracking, a typical acid catalyzed reaction. In order to clearly distinguish background reactions and the acid catalyzed reaction at least 20 cm[sup 2] catalyst surface area is needed. Two series of model platinum-alumina catalysts were prepared in a combined UHV -- high pressure reactor cell apparatus by depositing alumina on polycrystalline Pt foil and by vapor depositing Pt on a thin alumina layer on Au. Both model surfaces have been prepared with and without chlorine. AES, CO desorption as well as methyl cyclopentane (MCP) hydrogenolysis studies indicate that the Pt surface area is always higher if a chlorination step is involved. Selectivity patterns in MCP ring opening on Pt-on-alumina'' and on alumina-on-Pt'' are different; only the former is a linear combination of selective and statistical ring opening. Product distribution, however, changes with coverage and reaction time. The properties of the two model catalyst systems and role of chlorine in MCP hydrogenolysis are also discussed.

  18. Model heterogeneous acid catalysts and metal-support interactions: A combined surface science and catalysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boszormenyi, I.

    1991-05-01

    This (<100 {Angstrom}) silica-alumina layers were tested as potential model heterogeneous acid catalysts for combined surface science and catalysis studies. Three preparation methods were used: oxidation of r3 {times} r3 R30 Al/Si(111) structure in UHV; deposition on Si(lll) from aqueous solution; and argon ion beam sputter deposition in UHV. The homogeneous thin layers are amorphous, and the chemical environment of surface atoms is similar to that of Si, Al and oxygen atoms on high surface area acid catalysts. Since the ion beam-deposited thin layer of silica-alumina has the same composition as the target zeolite this deposition method is a promising tool to prepare model catalysts using practical catalyst targets. The silica-alumina layers are active in cumene cracking, a typical acid catalyzed reaction. In order to clearly distinguish background reactions and the acid catalyzed reaction at least 20 cm{sup 2} catalyst surface area is needed. Two series of model platinum-alumina catalysts were prepared in a combined UHV -- high pressure reactor cell apparatus by depositing alumina on polycrystalline Pt foil and by vapor depositing Pt on a thin alumina layer on Au. Both model surfaces have been prepared with and without chlorine. AES, CO desorption as well as methyl cyclopentane (MCP) hydrogenolysis studies indicate that the Pt surface area is always higher if a chlorination step is involved. Selectivity patterns in MCP ring opening on ``Pt-on-alumina`` and on ``alumina-on-Pt`` are different; only the former is a linear combination of selective and statistical ring opening. Product distribution, however, changes with coverage and reaction time. The properties of the two model catalyst systems and role of chlorine in MCP hydrogenolysis are also discussed.

  19. An empirical movement model for sixgill sharks in Puget Sound: Combining observed and unobserved behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Phillip S. LEVIN; Peter HORNE; Kelly S. ANDREWS; Greg WILLIAMS

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the movement of animals is fundamental to population and community ecology.Historically,it has been difficult to quantify movement patterns of most fishes,but technological advances in acoustic telemetry have increased our abilities to monitor their movement.In this study,we combined small-scale active acoustic tracking with large-scale passive acoustic monitoring to develop an empirical movement model for sixgill sharks in Puget Sound,WA,USA.We began by testing whether a correlated random walk model described the daily movement of sixgills; however,the model failed to capture home-ranging behavior.We added this behavior and used the resultant model (a biased random walk model) to determine whether daily movement patterns are able to explain large-scale seasonal movement.The daily model did not explain the larger-scale patterns of movement observed in the passive monitoring data.In order to create the large-scale patterns,sixgills must have performed behaviors (large,fast directed movements) that were unobserved during small-scale active tracking.In addition,seasonal shifts in location were not captured by the daily model.We added these ‘unobserved' behaviors to the model and were able to capture large-scale seasonal movement of sixgill sharks over 150 days.The development of empirical models of movement allows researchers to develop hypotheses and test mechanisms responsible for a species movement behavior and spatial distribution.This knowledge will increase our ability to successfully manage species of concern [Current Zoology 58 (1):103-115,2012].

  20. Inhibition of triple-negative breast cancer models by combinations of antibodies to EGFR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Daniela A.; Gaborit, Nadège; Maron, Ruth; Cohen-Dvashi, Hadas; Porat, Ziv; Pareja, Fresia; Lavi, Sara; Lindzen, Moshit; Ben-Chetrit, Nir; Sela, Michael; Yarden, Yosef

    2013-01-01

    Breast tumors lacking expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and the estrogen and the progesterone receptors (triple negative; TNBC) are more aggressive than other disease subtypes, and no molecular targeted agents are currently available for their treatment. Because TNBC commonly displays EGF receptor (EGFR) expression, and combinations of monoclonal antibodies to EGFR effectively inhibit other tumor models, we addressed the relevance of this strategy to treatment of TNBC. Unlike a combination of the clinically approved monoclonal antibodies, cetuximab and panitumumab, which displaced each other and displayed no cooperative effects, several other combinations resulted in enhanced inhibition of TNBC’s cell growth both in vitro and in animals. The ability of certain antibody mixtures to remove EGFR from the cell surface and to promote its intracellular degradation correlated with the inhibitory potential. However, unlike EGF-induced sorting of EGFR to lysosomal degradation, the antibody-induced pathway displayed independence from the intrinsic kinase activity and dimer formation ability of EGFR, and it largely avoided the recycling route. In conclusion, although TNBC clinical trials testing EGFR inhibitors reported lack of benefit, our results offer an alternative strategy that combines noncompetitive antibodies to achieve robust degradation of EGFR and tumor inhibition. PMID:23319610

  1. Combining logistic regression and neural networks to create predictive models.

    OpenAIRE

    Spackman, K. A.

    1992-01-01

    Neural networks are being used widely in medicine and other areas to create predictive models from data. The statistical method that most closely parallels neural networks is logistic regression. This paper outlines some ways in which neural networks and logistic regression are similar, shows how a small modification of logistic regression can be used in the training of neural network models, and illustrates the use of this modification for variable selection and predictive model building wit...

  2. Functional copmponents produced by multi-jet modelling combined with electroforming and machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baier, Oliver

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In fuel cell technology, certain components are used that are responsible for guiding liquid media. When these components are produced by conventional manufacturing, there are often sealing issues, and trouble- and maintenance-free deployment cannot be ensured. Against this background, a new process combination has been developed in a joint project between the University of Duisburg-Essen, the Center for Fuel Cell Technology (ZBT, and the company Galvano-T electroplating forming GmbH. The approach is to combine multi-jet modelling (MJM, electroforming and milling in order to produce a defined external geometry. The wax models are generated on copper base plates and copper-coated to a desirable thickness. Following this, the undefined electroplated surfaces are machined to achieve the desired measurement, and the wax is melted out. This paper presents, first, how this process is technically feasible, then describes how the MJM on a 3-D Systems ThermoJet was adapted to stabilise the process.In the AiF-sponsored ZIM project, existing limits and possibilities are shown and different approaches of electroplating are investigated. This paper explores whether or not activation of the wax structure by a conductive initial layer is required. Using the described process chain, different parts were built: a heat exchanger, a vaporiser, and a reformer (in which pellets were integrated in an intermediate step. In addition, multiple-layer parts with different functions were built by repeating the process combination several times.

  3. Combination of multispectral remote sensing, variable rate technology and environmental modeling for citrus pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qian; Chang, Ni-Bin; Yang, Chenghai; Srilakshmi, Kanth R

    2008-01-01

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of south Texas is an agriculturally rich area supporting intensive production of vegetables, fruits, grain sorghum, and cotton. Modern agricultural practices involve the combined use of irrigation with the application of large amounts of agrochemicals to maximize crop yields. Intensive agricultural activities in past decades might have caused potential contamination of soil, surface water, and groundwater due to leaching of pesticides in the vadose zone. In an effort to promote precision farming in citrus production, this paper aims at developing an airborne multispectral technique for identifying tree health problems in a citrus grove that can be combined with variable rate technology (VRT) for required pesticide application and environmental modeling for assessment of pollution prevention. An unsupervised linear unmixing method was applied to classify the image for the grove and quantify the symptom severity for appropriate infection control. The PRZM-3 model was used to estimate environmental impacts that contribute to nonpoint source pollution with and without the use of multispectral remote sensing and VRT. Research findings using site-specific environmental assessment clearly indicate that combination of remote sensing and VRT may result in benefit to the environment by reducing the nonpoint source pollution by 92.15%. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of precision farming for citrus production in the nexus of industrial ecology and agricultural sustainability.

  4. Enhanced Antitumor Activity with Combining Effect of mTOR Inhibition and Microtubule Stabilization in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Wong, Chi Hang; Lau, Cecilia Pik Yuk; Hui, Connie Wun Chun; Lui, Vivian Wai Yan; Chan, Stephen Lam; Yeo, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the microtubules are shown to be potential targets for treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). PI3K/Akt/mTOR activation is associated with resistance to microtubule inhibitors. Here, we evaluated the antitumor activity by cotargeting of the mTOR (using allosteric mTOR inhibitor everolimus) and the microtubules (using novel microtubule-stabilizing agent patupilone) in HCC models. In vitro studies showed that either targeting mTOR signaling with everolimus or targeting microtubules with patupilone was able to suppress HCC cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. Cotargeting of the mTOR (by everolimus) and the microtubules (by patupilone, at low nM) resulted in enhanced growth inhibition in HCC cells (achieving maximal growth inhibition of 60–87%), demonstrating potent antitumor activity of this combination. In vivo studies showed that everolimus treatment alone for two weeks was able to inhibit the growth of Hep3B xenografts. Strikingly, the everolimus/patupilone combination induced a more significant antitumor activity. Mechanistic study demonstrated that this enhanced antitumor effect was accompanied by marked cell apoptosis induction and antiangiogenic activity, which were more significant than single-agent treatments. Our findings demonstrated that the everolimus/patupilone combination, which had potent antitumor activity, was a potential therapeutic strategy for HCC. PMID:23509629

  5. Enhanced Antitumor Activity with Combining Effect of mTOR Inhibition and Microtubule Stabilization in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR and the microtubules are shown to be potential targets for treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. PI3K/Akt/mTOR activation is associated with resistance to microtubule inhibitors. Here, we evaluated the antitumor activity by cotargeting of the mTOR (using allosteric mTOR inhibitor everolimus and the microtubules (using novel microtubule-stabilizing agent patupilone in HCC models. In vitro studies showed that either targeting mTOR signaling with everolimus or targeting microtubules with patupilone was able to suppress HCC cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. Cotargeting of the mTOR (by everolimus and the microtubules (by patupilone, at low nM resulted in enhanced growth inhibition in HCC cells (achieving maximal growth inhibition of 60–87%, demonstrating potent antitumor activity of this combination. In vivo studies showed that everolimus treatment alone for two weeks was able to inhibit the growth of Hep3B xenografts. Strikingly, the everolimus/patupilone combination induced a more significant antitumor activity. Mechanistic study demonstrated that this enhanced antitumor effect was accompanied by marked cell apoptosis induction and antiangiogenic activity, which were more significant than single-agent treatments. Our findings demonstrated that the everolimus/patupilone combination, which had potent antitumor activity, was a potential therapeutic strategy for HCC.

  6. Urban traffic noise assessment by combining measurement and model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Graafland, F.; Wessels, P.W.; Basten, T.G.H.

    2013-01-01

    A model based monitoring system is applied on a local scale in an urban area to obtain a better understanding of the traffic noise situation. The system consists of a scalable sensor network and an engineering model. A better understanding is needed to take appropriate and cost efficient measures,

  7. Reservoir Modeling Combining Geostatistics with Markov Chain Monte Carlo Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zunino, Andrea; Lange, Katrine; Melnikova, Yulia;

    2014-01-01

    , multi-step forward model (rock physics and seismology) and to provide realistic estimates of uncertainties. To generate realistic models which represent samples of the prior distribution, and to overcome the high computational demand, we reduce the search space utilizing an algorithm drawn from...

  8. Multilayer piezoelectric transducer models combined with Field II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David; Willatzen, Morten; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-01-01

    with a polymer ring, and submerged into water. The transducer models are developed to account for any external electrical loading impedance in the driving circuit. The models are adapted to calculate the surface acceleration needed by the Field II software in predicting pressure pulses at any location in front...

  9. A combined BEM/FEM method for IC substrate modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrik, E.

    2006-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis was done in the context of the modeling of parasitic physical effects, like field couplings and crosstalk, that may adversely affect the functional performance of Integrated Circuits (ICs). The modeling of parasitic effects, through simulations with the resultin

  10. Antifungal activity of Rubus chingii extract combined with fluconazole against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Chen, Jia; Yu, Yi-qun; Cao, Yong-bing; Jiang, Yuan-ying

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of Rubus chingii extract in combination with fluconazole (FLC) against FLC-resistant Candida albicans 100 in vitro. A R. chingii extract and FLC-resistant C. albicans fungus suspension were prepared. The minimum inhibitory concentration and fractional inhibitory concentration index of R. chingii extract combined with FLC against C. albicans were determined, after which growth curves for C. albicans treated with R. chingii extract, FLC alone and a combination of these preparations were constructed. Additionally, the mechanisms of drug combination against C. albicans were explored by flow cytometry, gas chromatographic mass spectrometry and drug efflux pump function detection. R. chingii extract combined with FLC showed significant synergy. Flow cytometry suggested that C. albicans cells mainly arrest in G1 and S phases when they have been treated with the drug combination. The drug combination resulted in a marked decrease in the ergosterol content of the cell membrane. Additionally, efflux of Rhodamine 6G decreased with increasing concentrations of R. chingii extract. R. chingii extract combined with FLC has antifungal activity against FLC-resistant C. albicans.

  11. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of a combination of tramadol-ibuprofen in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidambarann Suthakaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain is the major concern of patients attending dental clinics, and satisfactory pain relief has always been difficult to achieve. Since the pathophysiology of pain is a complex, central and peripheral nervous system process, combined analgesic regimens with different mechanisms of action as a multimodal approach are becoming popular among the clinicians and dentists. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of ibuprofen and tramadol when used alone or in combination in animal models of pain and inflammation. Animals and Methods: The animals were divided into six groups with six animals in each group. Analgesic activity was assessed by hot plate method in rats and by acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice. Paw edema model in rats after induction with 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenan was used to assess the anti-inflammatory activity. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance followed by Tukey's honestly significant difference post hoc test was used for statistical analysis. Results and Conclusion: Combined use of tramadol and ibuprofen provided enhanced analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of pain and inflammation.

  12. Multivariate Modelling of Extreme Load Combinations for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a model for estimating the joint probability distribution of two load components acting on a wind turbine blade cross section. The model addresses the problem of modelling the probability distribution of load time histories with large periodic components by dividing the signal...... into a periodic part and a perturbation term, where each part has a known probability distribution. The proposed model shows good agreement with simulated data under stationary conditions, and a design load envelope based on this model is comparable to the load envelope estimated using the standard procedure...... for determining contemporaneous loads. By defining a joint probability distribution and full return-period contours for multiple load components, the suggested procedure gives the possibility for determining the most critical loading direction in a blade cross section, or for carrying out reliability analysis...

  13. Comparison of high-latitude thermospheric meridional winds II: combined FPI, radar and model climatologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, E.M.; Aruliah, A.; Mueller-Wodarg, I.C.F.; Aylward, A. [Atmospheric Physics Lab., Univ. Coll. London, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The climatological behaviour of the thermospheric meridional wind above Kiruna, Sweden (67.4 N, 20.4 E) has been investigated for seasonal and solar cycle dependence using six different techniques, comprising both model and experimental sources. Model output from both the empirical Horizontal Wind Model (HWM) (Hedin et al., 1988) and the numerical coupled thermosphere and ionosphere model (CTIM) are compared to the measured behaviour at kiruna, as a single site example. The empirical International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model is used as input to an implementation of servo theory, to provide another climatology combining empirical input with a theoretical framework. The experimental techniques have been introduced in a companion paper in this issue and provide climatologies from direct measurements, using fabry-perot interferometers (FPI), together with 2 separate techniques applied to the European incoherent scatter radar (EISCAT) database to derive neutral winds. One of these techniques uses the same implementation of servo theory as has been used with the IRI model. Detailed comparisons for each season and solar activity category allow for conclusions to be drawn as to the major influences on the climatological behaviour of the wind at this latitude. Comparison of the incoherent scatter radar (ISR) derived neutral winds with FPI, empirical model and numerical model winds is important to our understanding and judgement of the validity of the techniques used to derive thermospheric wind databases. The comparisons also test model performance and indicate possible reasons for differences found between the models. In turn, the conclusions point to possible improvements in their formulation. In particular it is found that the empirical models are over-reliant on mid-latitude data in their formulation, and fail to provide accurate estimates of the winds at high-latitudes. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of high-latitude thermospheric meridionalwinds II: combined FPI, radar and model Climatologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Griffin

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The climatological behaviour of the thermospheric meridional wind above Kiruna, Sweden (67.4°N, 20.4°E has been investigated for seasonal and solar cycle dependence using six different techniques, comprising both model and experimental sources. Model output from both the empirical Horizontal Wind Model (HWM (Hedin et al., 1988 and the numerical Coupled Thermosphere and Ionosphere Model (CTIM are compared to the measured behaviour at Kiruna, as a single site example. The empirical International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model is used as input to an implementation of servo theory, to provide another climatology combining empirical input with a theoretical framework. The experimental techniques have been introduced in a companion paper in this issue and provide climatologies from direct measurements, using Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPI, together with 2 separate techniques applied to the European Incoherent Scatter radar (EISCAT database to derive neutral winds. One of these techniques uses the same implementation of servo theory as has been used with the IRI model. Detailed comparisons for each season and solar activity category allow for conclusions to be drawn as to the major influences on the climatological behaviour of the wind at this latitude. Comparison of the incoherent scatter radar (ISR derived neutral winds with FPI, empirical model and numerical model winds is important to our understanding and judgement of the validity of the techniques used to derive thermospheric wind databases. The comparisons also test model performance and indicate possible reasons for differences found between the models. In turn, the conclusions point to possible improvements in their formulation. In particular it is found that the empirical models are over-reliant on mid-latitude data in their formulation, and fail to provide accurate estimates of the winds at high-latitudes.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics

  15. In vitro activities of antimicrobial agents, alone and in combination, against Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S C; Chen, Y C; Luh, K T; Hsieh, W C

    1995-11-01

    In vitro activities of 15 antimicrobial agents against 90 strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from blood cultures from hospitalized patients were determined using the agar dilution method. Imipenem, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin had the best antimicrobial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC50s) of 0.25 mu g/ml and MIC90s of 0.5-1 mu g/ml. beta-lactam antibiotics other than imipenem had poor activity, with MIC50s ranging from 8 to 64 mu g/ml and MIC90s from 32 to > or = 256 mu g/ml. The checkerboard titration method was used to study the effects of combination of two antimicrobial agents. Combinations of ceftazidime, aztreonam, imipenem, or ciprofloxacin with amikacin showed either synergistic effects or partial synergistic effects for 40.9%-86.4% of 22 tested strains. The best in vitro activity was observed with the combination of imipenem and amikacin. No antagonistic effects were observed with the combination of imipenem and amikacin. Synergistic effects were confirmed by time-kill curve studies. In conclusion, imipenem, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin were the three most active agents against human blood isolates of A. baumannii. The combination of a beta-lactam or ciprofloxacin with amikacin was synergistic for some of the isolates.

  16. Activity-based resource capability modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Shao-wu; XU Xiao-fei; WANG Gang; SUN Xue-dong

    2008-01-01

    To analyse and optimize a enterprise process in a wide scope, an activity-based method of modeling resource capabilities is presented. It models resource capabilities by means of the same structure as an activity, that is, resource capabilities are defined by input objects, actions and output objects. A set of activity-based re-source capability modeling rules and matching rules between an activity and a resource are introduced. This method can not only be used to describe capability of manufacturing tools, but also capability of persons and applications, etc. It unifies methods of modeling capability of all kinds of resources in an enterprise and supports the optimization of the resource allocation of a process.

  17. Incremental activity modeling in multiple disjoint cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy, Chen Change; Xiang, Tao; Gong, Shaogang

    2012-09-01

    Activity modeling and unusual event detection in a network of cameras is challenging, particularly when the camera views are not overlapped. We show that it is possible to detect unusual events in multiple disjoint cameras as context-incoherent patterns through incremental learning of time delayed dependencies between distributed local activities observed within and across camera views. Specifically, we model multicamera activities using a Time Delayed Probabilistic Graphical Model (TD-PGM) with different nodes representing activities in different decomposed regions from different views and the directed links between nodes encoding their time delayed dependencies. To deal with visual context changes, we formulate a novel incremental learning method for modeling time delayed dependencies that change over time. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using a synthetic data set and videos captured from a camera network installed at a busy underground station.

  18. Combined Hand Gesture — Speech Model for Human Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Tzong Cheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a dynamic hand gesture detection technology to effectively detect dynamic hand gesture areas, and a hand gesture recognition technology to improve the dynamic hand gesture recognition rate. Meanwhile, the corresponding relationship between state sequences in hand gesture and speech models is considered by integrating speech recognition technology with a multimodal model, thus improving the accuracy of human behavior recognition. The experimental results proved that the proposed method can effectively improve human behavior recognition accuracy and the feasibility of system applications. Experimental results verified that the multimodal gesture-speech model provided superior accuracy when compared to the single modal versions.

  19. Combined hand gesture--speech model for human action recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheng-Tzong; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Li, Jian-Pan

    2013-12-12

    This study proposes a dynamic hand gesture detection technology to effectively detect dynamic hand gesture areas, and a hand gesture recognition technology to improve the dynamic hand gesture recognition rate. Meanwhile, the corresponding relationship between state sequences in hand gesture and speech models is considered by integrating speech recognition technology with a multimodal model, thus improving the accuracy of human behavior recognition. The experimental results proved that the proposed method can effectively improve human behavior recognition accuracy and the feasibility of system applications. Experimental results verified that the multimodal gesture-speech model provided superior accuracy when compared to the single modal versions.

  20. Modeling of Combined Phenomena Affecting an AUV Stealth Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Gerigk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper some results of research connected with modeling the basic stealth characteristics of an AUV vehicle are presented. First of all a general approach to design of the stealth AUV autonomous underwater vehicles under consideration is introduced. Then the AUV stealth vehicle concept is briefly described. Next a method of modeling of the stealth characteristics is briefly described. As an example of the stealth characteristics investigations some results of modeling the boundary layer and wake are presented. Some remarks regarding the behavior of the AUV stealth vehicle in the submerged conditions are given. The final conclusions are presented.

  1. Mathematical models for predicting indoor air quality from smoking activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, W R

    1999-05-01

    Much progress has been made over four decades in developing, testing, and evaluating the performance of mathematical models for predicting pollutant concentrations from smoking in indoor settings. Although largely overlooked by the regulatory community, these models provide regulators and risk assessors with practical tools for quantitatively estimating the exposure level that people receive indoors for a given level of smoking activity. This article reviews the development of the mass balance model and its application to predicting indoor pollutant concentrations from cigarette smoke and derives the time-averaged version of the model from the basic laws of conservation of mass. A simple table is provided of computed respirable particulate concentrations for any indoor location for which the active smoking count, volume, and concentration decay rate (deposition rate combined with air exchange rate) are known. Using the indoor ventilatory air exchange rate causes slightly higher indoor concentrations and therefore errs on the side of protecting health, since it excludes particle deposition effects, whereas using the observed particle decay rate gives a more accurate prediction of indoor concentrations. This table permits easy comparisons of indoor concentrations with air quality guidelines and indoor standards for different combinations of active smoking counts and air exchange rates. The published literature on mathematical models of environmental tobacco smoke also is reviewed and indicates that these models generally give good agreement between predicted concentrations and actual indoor measurements.

  2. Active life in old age. Combining measures of functional ability and social participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, K; Holstein, B E; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    1999-01-01

    . SUBJECTS: A random sample of 75-year-old people who were invited to participate in the study (participation rate: 89, n = 477). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: ALC is a combination of two dichotomized variables: functional ability (dependent vs not dependent of help) and social participation (low vs. high). RESULTS......This paper describes a new measure of Active Life Expectancy, called Active Life Classification (ALC) in which the criterion for successful aging is a combination of good functional ability and high social participation. OBJECTIVES: 1) to describe the distribution of ALC among 75-year-old men...... were associated with ALC. CONCLUSIONS: It is an advantage to combine functional ability and social participation in the description of quality of life in old age, as 1) a high social participation may compensate for a poor functional ability, and vice versa, 2) the combined measure is meaningful...

  3. Modelling Odor Decoding in the Antennal Lobe by Combining Sequential Firing Rate Models with Bayesian Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas Rivera, Dario; Bitzer, Sebastian; Kiebel, Stefan J.

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory information that is received by the insect brain is encoded in the form of spatiotemporal patterns in the projection neurons of the antennal lobe. These dense and overlapping patterns are transformed into a sparse code in Kenyon cells in the mushroom body. Although it is clear that this sparse code is the basis for rapid categorization of odors, it is yet unclear how the sparse code in Kenyon cells is computed and what information it represents. Here we show that this computation can be modeled by sequential firing rate patterns using Lotka-Volterra equations and Bayesian online inference. This new model can be understood as an ‘intelligent coincidence detector’, which robustly and dynamically encodes the presence of specific odor features. We found that the model is able to qualitatively reproduce experimentally observed activity in both the projection neurons and the Kenyon cells. In particular, the model explains mechanistically how sparse activity in the Kenyon cells arises from the dense code in the projection neurons. The odor classification performance of the model proved to be robust against noise and time jitter in the observed input sequences. As in recent experimental results, we found that recognition of an odor happened very early during stimulus presentation in the model. Critically, by using the model, we found surprising but simple computational explanations for several experimental phenomena. PMID:26451888

  4. Modelling Odor Decoding in the Antennal Lobe by Combining Sequential Firing Rate Models with Bayesian Inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Cuevas Rivera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory information that is received by the insect brain is encoded in the form of spatiotemporal patterns in the projection neurons of the antennal lobe. These dense and overlapping patterns are transformed into a sparse code in Kenyon cells in the mushroom body. Although it is clear that this sparse code is the basis for rapid categorization of odors, it is yet unclear how the sparse code in Kenyon cells is computed and what information it represents. Here we show that this computation can be modeled by sequential firing rate patterns using Lotka-Volterra equations and Bayesian online inference. This new model can be understood as an 'intelligent coincidence detector', which robustly and dynamically encodes the presence of specific odor features. We found that the model is able to qualitatively reproduce experimentally observed activity in both the projection neurons and the Kenyon cells. In particular, the model explains mechanistically how sparse activity in the Kenyon cells arises from the dense code in the projection neurons. The odor classification performance of the model proved to be robust against noise and time jitter in the observed input sequences. As in recent experimental results, we found that recognition of an odor happened very early during stimulus presentation in the model. Critically, by using the model, we found surprising but simple computational explanations for several experimental phenomena.

  5. A void coalescence model for combined tension and shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, C.; Chen, Z. T.

    2009-03-01

    The influence of shear loading on damage development in Gurson-based models has long been neglected resulting in inadequate fracture strain predictions at low triaxiality where shear effects become significant. The plastic limit-load fracture criterion used in advanced Gurson models neglects the influence of shear loading and overestimates the fracture strain and porosity at low triaxiality. In this paper, we extend the recently proposed shear damage model of Xue [1] to provide a stronger physical foundation by removing the simplifying assumptions. Then we directly modify the plastic limit-load fracture criterion by coupling with the extended shear damage model to account for shear weakening and failure of the intervoid ligament in void coalescence. We apply the modified plastic limit-load criterion to predict the necking of sheet tensile specimens and find very good agreement with the available experimental results.

  6. A Combined Statistical-Microstructural Model for Simulation of Sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRAGINSKY,MICHAEL V.; DEHOFF,ROBERT T.; OLEVSKY,EUGENE A.; TIKARE,VEENA

    1999-10-22

    Sintering theory has been developed either as the application of complex diffusion mechanisms to a simple geometry or as the deformation and shrinkage of a continuum body. They present a model that can treat in detail both the evolution of microstructure and the sintering mechanisms, on the mesoscale, so that constitutive equations with detail microstructural information can be generated. The model is capable of simulating vacancy diffusion by grain boundary diffusion, annihilation of vacancies at grain boundaries resulting in densification, and coarsening of the microstructural features. In this paper, they review the stereological theory of sintering and its application to microstructural evolution and the diffusion mechanism, which lead to sintering. They then demonstrate how these stereological concepts and diffusion mechanisms were incorporated into a kinetic Monte Carlo model to simulate sintering. Finally, they discuss the limitations of this model.

  7. Formulation of a Combined Transportation and Inventory Optimization Model with Multiple Time Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Krishnakumari,

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Most distribution network design models existing in the literature have focused on minimizing the costs of inventory and transportation. During the analysis of supply chain of currency management problem it is observed that the transportation of currency from various sources to various destinations and the required inventory to be maintained to meet the emerging demands requires formulation of a combined problem. This framework aims to support the coordination of inventory and transportation activities to properly manage the inventory profiles and currency flows between source locations and distribution centers. This paper considers a multi-period inventory and transportation model for a single commodity. The key contribution of this paper is, a mathematical programming formulation of transportation cum inventory problem is proposed and an algorithm for this new formulation as a multi period decision process is intended. A numerical example of currency transportation cum inventory is presented to illustrate the proposed algorithm

  8. Model study of combined electrical and near-infrared neural stimulation on the bullfrog sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Mengxian; Mou, Zongxia

    2017-07-01

    This paper implemented a model study of combined electrical and near-infrared (808 nm) neural stimulation (NINS) on the bullfrog sciatic nerve. The model includes a COMSOL model to calculate the electric-field distribution of the surrounding area of the nerve, a Monte Carlo model to simulate light transport and absorption in the bullfrog sciatic nerve during NINS, and a NEURON model to simulate the neural electrophysiology changes under electrical stimulus and laser irradiation. The optical thermal effect is considered the main mechanism during NINS. Therefore, thermal change during laser irradiation was calculated by the Monte Carlo method, and the temperature distribution was then transferred to the NEURON model to stimulate the sciatic nerve. The effects on thermal response by adjusting the laser spot size, energy of the beam, and the absorption coefficient of the nerve are analyzed. The effect of the ambient temperature on the electrical stimulation or laser stimulation and the interaction between laser irradiation and electrical stimulation are also studied. The results indicate that the needed stimulus threshold for neural activation or inhibition is reduced by laser irradiation. Additionally, the needed laser energy for blocking the action potential is reduced by electrical stimulus. Both electrical and laser stimulation are affected by the ambient temperature. These results provide references for subsequent animal experiments and could be of great help to future basic and applied studies of infrared neural stimulation (INS).

  9. A combined gray neural network model of seasonal heating load forecast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAOXiaozhuang; YANGChangzhi

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal heating load time sequence has the double trends of increasing and fluctuating, so it''s difficult to select a model to forecast it. In this paper, a combined model of gray model and artificial neural network model was presented to forecast seasonal heating load. A concrete model was established and was verified through actual examples.

  10. PATTERNS OF ACTIVITY IN A GLOBAL MODEL OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, S. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Viall, N. M., E-mail: stephen.bradshaw@rice.edu, E-mail: Nicholeen.M.Viall@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    In this work we investigate the global activity patterns predicted from a model active region heated by distributions of nanoflares that have a range of frequencies. What differs is the average frequency of the distributions. The activity patterns are manifested in time lag maps of narrow-band instrument channel pairs. We combine hydrodynamic and forward modeling codes with a magnetic field extrapolation to create a model active region and apply the time lag method to synthetic observations. Our aim is not to reproduce a particular set of observations in detail, but to recover some typical properties and patterns observed in active regions. Our key findings are the following. (1) Cooling dominates the time lag signature and the time lags between the channel pairs are generally consistent with observed values. (2) Shorter coronal loops in the core cool more quickly than longer loops at the periphery. (3) All channel pairs show zero time lag when the line of sight passes through coronal loop footpoints. (4) There is strong evidence that plasma must be re-energized on a timescale comparable to the cooling timescale to reproduce the observed coronal activity, but it is likely that a relatively broad spectrum of heating frequencies are operating across active regions. (5) Due to their highly dynamic nature, we find nanoflare trains produce zero time lags along entire flux tubes in our model active region that are seen between the same channel pairs in observed active regions.

  11. Combining FMEA with DEMATEL models to solve production process problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sang-Bing; Zhou, Jie; Gao, Yang; Wang, Jiangtao; Li, Guodong; Zheng, Yuxiang; Ren, Peng; Xu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is an analysis tool for identifying and preventing flaws or defects in products during the design and process planning stage, preventing the repeated occurrence of problems, reducing the effects of these problems, enhancing product quality and reliability, saving costs, and improving competitiveness. However, FMEA can only analyze one influence factor according to its priority, rendering this method ineffective for systems containing multiple FMs whose effects are simultaneous or interact with one another. Accordingly, when FMEA fails to identify the influence factors and the factors being influenced, the most crucial problems may be placed in lower priority or remain unresolved. Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) facilitates the determination of cause and effect factors; by identifying the causal factors that should be prioritized, prompt and effective solutions to core problems can be derived, thereby enhancing performance. Using the photovoltaic cell manufacturing industry in China as the research target, the present study combined FMEA with DEMATEL to amend the flaws of FMEA and enhance its effectiveness. First, FMEA was used to identify items requiring improvement. Then, DEMATEL was employed to examine the interactive effects and causal relationships of these items. Finally, the solutions to the problems were prioritized. The proposed method effectively combined the advantages of FMEA and DEMATEL to facilitate the identification of core problems and prioritization of solutions in the Chinese photovoltaic cell industry.

  12. Local Inflammation in Fracture Hematoma: Results from a Combined Trauma Model in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Horst

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous studies showed significant interaction between the local and systemic inflammatory response after severe trauma in small animal models. The purpose of this study was to establish a new combined trauma model in pigs to investigate fracture-associated local inflammation and gain information about the early inflammatory stages after polytrauma. Material and Methods. Combined trauma consisted of tibial fracture, lung contusion, liver laceration, and controlled hemorrhage. Animals were mechanically ventilated and under ICU-monitoring for 48 h. Blood and fracture hematoma samples were collected during the time course of the study. Local and systemic levels of serum cytokines and diverse alarmins were measured by ELISA kit. Results. A statistical significant difference in the systemic serum values of IL-6 and HMGB1 was observed when compared to the sham. Moreover, there was a statistical significant difference in the serum values of the fracture hematoma of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and HMGB1 when compared to the systemic inflammatory response. However a decrease of local proinflammatory concentrations was observed while anti-inflammatory mediators increased. Conclusion. Our data showed a time-dependent activation of the local and systemic inflammatory response. Indeed it is the first study focusing on the local and systemic inflammatory response to multiple-trauma in a large animal model.

  13. General Quantum Modeling of Combining Concepts: A Quantum Field Model in Fock Space

    CERN Document Server

    Aerts, Diederik

    2007-01-01

    We extend a quantum model in Hilbert space developed in Aerts (2007a) into a quantum field theoric model in Fock space for the modeling of the combination of concepts. Items and concepts are represented by vectors in Fock space and membership weights of items are modeled by quantum probabilities. We apply this theory to model the disjunction of concepts and show that the predictions of our theory for the membership weights of items regarding the disjunction of concepts match with great accuracy the complete set of results of an experiment conducted by Hampton (1988b). It are the quantum effects of interference and superposition of that are at the origin of the effects of overextension and underextension observed by Hampton as deviations from a classical use of the disjunction. It is essential for the perfect matches we obtain between the predictions of the quantum field model and Hampton's experimental data that items can be in superpositions of `different numbers states' which proves that the genuine structu...

  14. Nonlinear model predictive control using parameter varying BP-ARX combination model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.-F.; Xiao, L.-F.; Qian, J.-X.; Li, H.

    2012-03-01

    A novel back-propagation AutoRegressive with eXternal input (BP-ARX) combination model is constructed for model predictive control (MPC) of MIMO nonlinear systems, whose steady-state relation between inputs and outputs can be obtained. The BP neural network represents the steady-state relation, and the ARX model represents the linear dynamic relation between inputs and outputs of the nonlinear systems. The BP-ARX model is a global model and is identified offline, while the parameters of the ARX model are rescaled online according to BP neural network and operating data. Sequential quadratic programming is employed to solve the quadratic objective function online, and a shift coefficient is defined to constrain the effect time of the recursive least-squares algorithm. Thus, a parameter varying nonlinear MPC (PVNMPC) algorithm that responds quickly to large changes in system set-points and shows good dynamic performance when system outputs approach set-points is proposed. Simulation results in a multivariable stirred tank and a multivariable pH neutralisation process illustrate the applicability of the proposed method and comparisons of the control effect between PVNMPC and multivariable recursive generalised predictive controller are also performed.

  15. Explorations in combining cognitive models of individuals and system dynamics models of groups.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.

    2008-07-01

    This report documents a demonstration model of interacting insurgent leadership, military leadership, government leadership, and societal dynamics under a variety of interventions. The primary focus of the work is the portrayal of a token societal model that responds to leadership activities. The model also includes a linkage between leadership and society that implicitly represents the leadership subordinates as they directly interact with the population. The societal model is meant to demonstrate the efficacy and viability of using System Dynamics (SD) methods to simulate populations and that these can then connect to cognitive models depicting individuals. SD models typically focus on average behavior and thus have limited applicability to describe small groups or individuals. On the other hand, cognitive models readily describe individual behavior but can become cumbersome when used to describe populations. Realistic security situations are invariably a mix of individual and population dynamics. Therefore, the ability to tie SD models to cognitive models provides a critical capability that would be otherwise be unavailable.

  16. Combining fisetin and ionizing radiation suppresses the growth of mammalian colorectal cancers in xenograft tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Jyh-Der; Wang, Bo-Shen; Chiu, Shu-Jun; Chang, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chen, Fu-Du; Avirmed, Shiirevnyamba; Lee, Yi-Jang

    2016-12-01

    Fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), which belongs to the flavonoid group of polyphenols and is found in a wide range of plants, has been reported to exhibit a number of biological activities in human cancer cells, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, anti-invasive and antiproliferative effects. Although previous in vitro studies have shown that fisetin treatment increases the apoptotic rate and enhances the radiosensitivity of human colorectal cancer cells, the in vivo effects of fisetin on tumor growth remain unclear. In the present study a murine xenograft tumor model was employed to investigate the therapeutic effects of fisetin in combination with radiation on CT-26 colon cancer cells and human HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. This revealed that intratumoral injection of fisetin significantly suppressed the growth of CT-26 tumors compared with the untreated control group, but had little effect on the growth of HCT116 tumors. However, fisetin in combination with 2-Gy radiation enhanced tumor suppressor activity in murine colon and human colorectal xenograft tumors, as compared with 2-Gy fractionated radiation administered alone for 5 days and fisetin alone. Interestingly, fisetin downregulated the expression of the oncoprotein securin in a p53-independent manner. However, securin-null HCT116 tumors showed only moderate sensitivity to fisetin treatment, and the combination of fisetin and radiation did not significantly suppress securin-null HCT116 tumor growth compared with normal HCT116 tumors. Therefore, the role of securin in mediating the effect of fisetin on colorectal cancer growth warrants further investigation. In conclusion, the results of the current study provide important preclinical data for evaluating the efficacy of fisetin and radiation combination treatment as an adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for human colorectal cancers.

  17. Activity and interactions of antibiotic and phytochemical combinations against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premkumar Jayaraman, Meena K Sakharkar, Chu Sing Lim, Thean Hock Tang, Kishore R. Sakharkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the in vitro activities of seven antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, tetracycline, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, polymyxin B and piperacillin and six phytochemicals (protocatechuic acid, gallic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, berberine and myricetin against five P. aeruginosa isolates, alone and in combination are evaluated. All the phytochemicals under investigation demonstrate potential inhibitory activity against P. aeruginosa. The combinations of sulfamethoxazole plus protocatechuic acid, sulfamethoxazole plus ellagic acid, sulfamethoxazole plus gallic acid and tetracycline plus gallic acid show synergistic mode of interaction. However, the combinations of sulfamethoxazole plus myricetin shows synergism for three strains (PA01, DB5218 and DR3062. The synergistic combinations are further evaluated for their bactericidal activity against P. aeruginosa ATCC strain using time-kill method. Sub-inhibitory dose responses of antibiotics and phytochemicals individually and in combination are presented along with their interaction network to suggest on the mechanism of action and potential targets for the phytochemicals under investigation. The identified synergistic combinations can be of potent therapeutic value against P. aeruginosa infections. These findings have potential implications in delaying the development of resistance as the antibacterial effect is achieved with lower concentrations of both drugs (antibiotics and phytochemicals.

  18. In vitro activity of JPC 2067 alone and in combination with sulfamethoxazole against nocardia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookherjee, Swagatam; Shoen, Carolyn; Cynamon, Michael

    2012-02-01

    JPC 2067 is a novel dihydrotriazine dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor that is being developed as an antimalarial therapeutic. We evaluated the in vitro activity of JPC 2067 alone and in combination with sulfamethoxazole (SMX) against a panel of nocardia isolates. The MIC(50)s and MIC(90)s for JPC 2067, SMX, and the combination were 0.125 μg/ml and 4 μg/ml, 16 μg/ml and 32 μg/ml, and 0.03 μg/ml and 2 μg/ml, respectively. JPC 2067 alone and in combination with SMX should be evaluated further to understand its clinical potential.

  19. Forecasting RMB Exchange Rate Based on a Nonlinear Combination Model of ARFIMA, SVM, and BPNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various models to predict financial time series like the RMB exchange rate. In this paper, considering the complex characteristics of RMB exchange rate, we build a nonlinear combination model of the autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average (ARFIMA model, the support vector machine (SVM model, and the back-propagation neural network (BPNN model to forecast the RMB exchange rate. The basic idea of the nonlinear combination model (NCM is to make the prediction more effective by combining different models’ advantages, and the weight of the combination model is determined by a nonlinear weighted mechanism. The RMB exchange rate against US dollar (RMB/USD and the RMB exchange rate against Euro (RMB/EUR are used as the empirical examples to evaluate the performance of NCM. The results show that the prediction performance of the nonlinear combination model is better than the single models and the linear combination models, and the nonlinear combination model is suitable for the prediction of the special time series, such as the RMB exchange rate.

  20. In Vitro Activities of Antibiotic Combinations Against Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hsu Chen

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Combination therapy has been recommended to treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections worldwide. The purpose of the present study was to determine the in vitro activities of piperacillin, cefepime, aztreonam, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin alone and in combination against 100 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa from one medical center in southern Taiwan. The combination susceptibility assay was performed using the checkerboard technique. The percentage of resistance of P. aeruginosa to single agents in our study was relatively high for the Asia-Pacific area, except to aztreonam. Piperacillin plus amikacin exhibited the highest potential for synergy (59/100 in this study. Moreover, a high percentage of synergism was also noted with amikacin combined with cefepime (7/100 or aztreonam (16/100. The combination of two beta-lactams, such as cefepime with piperacillin, and aztreonam with cefepime or piperacillin, showed synergistic effects against some P. aeruginosa isolates. Although ciprofloxacin is a good anti-pseudomonal agent, a very low potential for synergy with other antibiotics was demonstrated in this study. No antagonism was exhibited by any combination in our study. Among piperacillin-resistant strains, there was synergy with a beta-lactam plus amikacin, including the combination of piperacillin and amikacin. However, the combination of two beta-lactams, such as piperacillin and cefepime or aztreonam, did not have any synergistic activity against these strains. In summary, the combinations of amikacin with the tested beta-lactams (piperacillin, aztreonam, cefepime had a greater synergistic effect against P. aeruginosa, even piperacillin-resistant strains, than other combinations. Understanding the synergistic effect on clinical strains may help clinicians choose better empirical therapy in an area with high prevalence of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa.

  1. The Combination Forecasting Model of Grain Production Based on Stepwise Regression Method and RBF Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Yang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the accuracy of grain production forecasting, this study proposed a new combination forecasting model, the model combined stepwise regression method with RBF neural network by assigning proper weights using inverse variance method. By comparing different criteria, the result indicates that the combination forecasting model is superior to other models. The performance of the models is measured using three types of error measurement, which are Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE, Theil Inequality Coefficient (Theil IC and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE. The model with smallest value of MAPE, Theil IC and RMSE stands out to be the best model in predicting the grain production. Based on the MAPE, Theil IC and RMSE evaluation criteria, the combination model can reduce the forecasting error and has high prediction accuracy in grain production forecasting, making the decision more scientific and rational.

  2. Modeling Social Influence via Combined Centralized and Distributed Planning Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, James; Guest, Clark

    2010-01-01

    Real world events are driven by a mixture of both centralized and distributed control of individual agents based on their situational context and internal make up. For example, some people have partial allegiances to multiple, contradictory authorities, as well as to their own goals and principles. This can create a cognitive dissonance that can be exploited by an appropriately directed psychological influence operation (PSYOP). An Autonomous Dynamic Planning and Execution (ADP&E) approach is proposed for modeling both the unperturbed context as well as its reaction to various PSYOP interventions. As an illustrative example, the unrest surrounding the Iranian elections in the summer of 2009 is described in terms applicable to an ADP&E modeling approach. Aspects of the ADP&E modeling process are discussed to illustrate its application and advantages for this example.

  3. COMBINING SCENE MODEL AND FUSION FOR NIGHT VIDEO ENHANCEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jing; Yang Tao; Pan Quan; Cheng Yongmei

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a video context enhancement method for night surveillance. The basic idea is to extract and fuse the meaningful information of video sequence captured from a fixed camera under different illuminations. A unique characteristic of the algorithm is to separate the image context into two classes and estimate them in different ways. One class contains basic surrounding scene information and scene model, which is obtained via background modeling and object tracking in daytime video sequence. The other class is extracted from nighttime video, including frequently moving region, high illumination region and high gradient region. The scene model and pixel-wise difference method are used to segment the three regions. A shift-invariant discrete wavelet based image fusion technique is used to integral all those context information in the final result. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed approach can provide much more details and meaningful information for nighttime video.

  4. Learning models of activities involving interacting objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Hamilton, Howard J.;

    2013-01-01

    We propose the LEMAIO multi-layer framework, which makes use of hierarchical abstraction to learn models for activities involving multiple interacting objects from time sequences of data concerning the individual objects. Experiments in the sea navigation domain yielded learned models that were...

  5. Capturing Appearance Variation in Active Appearance Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Maaten, L.J.P.; Hendriks, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents an extension of active appearance models (AAMs) that is better capable of dealing with the large variation in face appearance that is encountered in large multi-person face data sets. Instead of the traditional PCA-based texture model, our extended AAM employs a mixture of probabi

  6. Learning models of activities involving interacting objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Hamilton, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    We propose the LEMAIO multi-layer framework, which makes use of hierarchical abstraction to learn models for activities involving multiple interacting objects from time sequences of data concerning the individual objects. Experiments in the sea navigation domain yielded learned models that were t...

  7. Mechanism of Sporicidal Activity for the Synergistic Combination of Peracetic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Mark J; Schwarz, J Spencer; Burke, Peter A; McDonnell, Gerald; Denyer, Stephen P; Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2015-12-04

    There is still great interest in controlling bacterial endospores. The use of chemical disinfectants and, notably, oxidizing agents to sterilize medical devices is increasing. With this in mind, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and peracetic acid (PAA) have been used in combination, but until now there has been no explanation for the observed increase in sporicidal activity. This study provides information on the mechanism of synergistic interaction of PAA and H2O2 against bacterial spores. We performed investigations of the efficacies of different combinations, including pretreatments with the two oxidizers, against wild-type spores and a range of spore mutants deficient in the spore coat or small acid-soluble spore proteins. The concentrations of the two biocides were also measured in the reaction vessels, enabling the assessment of any shift from H2O2 to PAA formation. This study confirmed the synergistic activity of the combination of H2O2 and PAA. However, we observed that the sporicidal activity of the combination is largely due to PAA and not H2O2. Furthermore, we observed that the synergistic combination was based on H2O2 compromising the spore coat, which was the main spore resistance factor, likely allowing better penetration of PAA and resulting in the increased sporicidal activity.

  8. Conditioned Reinforcement and Locomotor Activating Effects of Caffeine and Ethanol Combinations in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Megan L.T.; May, Christina E.; Griffin, William C.

    2013-01-01

    A growing trend among ethanol drinkers, especially young adults, is to combine caffeinated energy drinks with ethanol during a drinking episode. The primary active ingredient of these mixers is caffeine, which may significantly interact with ethanol. We tested the two hypotheses that caffeine would enhance ethanol-conditioned place preference and also enhance ethanol-stimulated locomotor activity. The interactive pharmacology of ethanol and caffeine was examined in C57BL/6J (B6) mice in a conditioned place preference procedure with 1.75 g/kg ethanol and 3 mg/kg caffeine. Additionally, we used B6 mice to evaluate ethanol/caffeine combinations on locomotor activity using 3 doses of ethanol (1.75, 2.5 and 3.25 g/kg) and 2 two doses of caffeine (3 and 15 mg/kg). Both ethanol and caffeine administered alone increased preference for the drug paired side, though the effect of caffeine was more modest than that of ethanol. The drug combination produced significant place preference itself, but this was not greater than that for ethanol alone. Additionally, the combination of caffeine and ethanol significantly increased locomotion compared to giving either drug alone. The effect was strongest with a stimulatory dose of ethanol (1.75 g/kg) and waned with increasing doses of ethanol. Thus, combinations of caffeine and ethanol had significant conditioned reinforcing and locomotor activating effects in mice. PMID:23872371

  9. Distribution and change of microbial activity in combined UASB and AFB reactors for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, J.; Chen, H.; Ji, M.; Yue, P.L. [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-04-01

    A thermophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was combined with a mesophilic aerobic fluidized bed (AFB) reactor for treatment of a medium strength wastewater with 2,700 mg COD l{sup -1}. The COD removal efficiency reached 75% with a removal rate of 0.2 g COD l{sup -1} h{sup -1} at an overall hydraulic retention time 14 hours. The distribution of microbial activity and its change with hydraulic retention time in the two reactors were investigated by measuring ATP concentration in the reactors and specific ATP content of the biomass. In the UASB reactor, the difference in specific ATP was significant between the sludge bed and blanket solution (0.02 mg ATP g VS{sup -1} versus 0.85 mg ATP g VS{sup -1}) even though the ATP concentrations in these two zones were similar. A great pH gradient up to 4 was developed along the UASB reactor. Since a high ATP or biological activity in the blanket solution could only be maintained in a narrow pH range from 6.5 to 7.5, the sludge granules showed a high pH tolerance and buffering capacity up to pH 11. The suspended biomass in AFB reactor had a higher specific ATP than the biomass fixed in polyurethane carriers (1.6 mg ATP g VS{sup -1} versus 1.1 mg ATP g VS{sup -1}), which implies a starvation status of the immobilized cells due to mass transfer limitation. The aerobes had to work under starvation conditions in this polishing reactor. The anaerobic biomass brought into AFB reactor contributed to an increase in suspended solids, but not the COD removal because of its fast deactivation under aerobic conditions. A second order kinetic model was proposed for ATP decline of the anaerobes. The results on distribution of microbial activity in the two reactors as well as its change with hydraulic retention time lead to further performance improvement of the combined anaerobic/aerobic reactor system. (orig.)

  10. Modelling the Active Hearing Process in Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Daniele; Homer, Martin; Jackson, Joe; Robert, Daniel; Champneys, Alan

    2011-11-01

    A simple microscopic mechanistic model is described of the active amplification within the Johnston's organ of the mosquito species Toxorhynchites brevipalpis. The model is based on the description of the antenna as a forced-damped oscillator coupled to a set of active threads (ensembles of scolopidia) that provide an impulsive force when they twitch. This twitching is in turn controlled by channels that are opened and closed if the antennal oscillation reaches a critical amplitude. The model matches both qualitatively and quantitatively with recent experiments. New results are presented using mathematical homogenization techniques to derive a mesoscopic model as a simple oscillator with nonlinear force and damping characteristics. It is shown how the results from this new model closely resemble those from the microscopic model as the number of threads approach physiologically correct values.

  11. Combined drug and surgery treatment of plutonium-contaminated wounds: indications obtained using a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Nina M; Coudert, Sylvie; Wilk, Jean Claude; Renault, Daniel; Angulo, Jaime F; Van der Meeren, Anne

    2014-06-01

    There is an important requirement following accidental actinide contamination of wounds to limit the dissemination and retention of such alpha-emitting radionuclides. To reduce wound and systemic contamination, treatment approaches include chelation therapy with or without wound excision. However, it has been hypothesized that wound excision could lead to increased contaminant release and systemic organ retention. This study in the rat addresses this question. Anesthetized rats were contaminated with plutonium nitrate following wounding by deep incision of hind leg muscle. Excision of tissue at the contaminated site was performed 7 d later with or without Diethylene Triamine Pentaacetic Acid (DTPA) treatment (30 μmol kg⁻¹ i.v.). Pu urinary excretion was then measured for a further 3 d, and animals were euthanized at 14 d after contamination. Tissue samples were evaluated for Pu activity and histology. At 7 d after contamination, around 50% of the initial activity remained at the wound site. An average of 16% of this activity was then removed by surgery. Surgery alone resulted in increased urinary excretion, suggesting release from the wound site, but no subsequent increases in organ retention (bone, liver) were observed at 14 d. Indeed, organ Pu activity was slightly reduced. The combination of surgery and DTPA or DTPA treatment alone was much more effective than excision alone as shown by the markedly increased urinary Pu excretion and decreased tissue levels. This is the first report in an experimental rodent model of resection of Pu-contaminated wound. Urinary excretion data provide evidence for the release of activity as a result of surgery, but this does not appear to lead to further Pu organ retention. However, a combination of prior DTPA treatment with wound excision is particularly effective.

  12. Infectious diseases among animals : combining models with data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijer, A.A. de

    2003-01-01

    To eradicate or control the spread of infectious diseases, knowledge on the spread of the infection between (groups of) animals is necessary. Models can include such information and can subsequently be used to observe the efficacy of various control measures in fighting the infection. However, the a

  13. COMBINING SOURCES IN STABLE ISOTOPE MIXING MODELS: ALTERNATIVE METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotope mixing models are often used to quantify source contributions to a mixture. Examples include pollution source identification; trophic web studies; analysis of water sources for soils, plants, or water bodies; and many others. A common problem is having too many s...

  14. Synthesis, in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of novel pyrimidine-benzimidazol combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng-Ju; Yang, Ang; Gu, Yi-Fei; Zhang, Xiao-Song; Shao, Kun-Peng; Xue, Deng-Qi; He, Peng; Jiang, Teng-Fei; Zhang, Qiu-Rong; Liu, Hong-Min

    2014-06-15

    A series of novel 4-substituted-2-{[(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methyl] thio}-6-methylpyrimidine derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against four human cancer cell lines and inhibitory activities against five type culture strains in vitro. Some of synthetic pyrimidine-benzimidazol combinations showed good inhibitory activities against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, especially compounds 7b and 7c. Compounds 7a and 7d exhibited enhanced activities against MGC-803 in vitro, when compared to 5-Fu.

  15. Traditional, Cyber and Combined Bullying Roles: Differences in Risky Online and Offline Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wachs

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study (1 reports frequency rates of mutually exclusive traditional, cyber and combined (both traditional and cyber bullying roles; and (2 investigates whether adolescents belonging to particular bullying roles show higher levels of involvement in risky online activities (Compulsive Internet Use (CIU, online grooming victimization, and sexting and risky offline activities (bad behavior in school, drinking alcohol and truancy than non-involved adolescents. The sample comprised self-reports of 1928 German, Dutch and Thai adolescents (Age = 12–18; M = 14.52; SD = 1.6. The results revealed age, sex and country differences in bullying frequency rates. CIU, sending of sexts and risky offline activities were most strongly associated with combined bully-victims. The receiving of sexts was most strongly associated with combined bullies; and online grooming victimization was most strongly related to cyber bully-victims. Another important finding is that the associations between risky offline activities and combined bullying are stronger than for traditional and cyber bullying. The findings contribute to better understanding of the associations between varying bullying roles and risky online and offline activities among adolescents. In sum, the results underscore the need to promote life skills rather than adopting more conventional approaches, which focus almost exclusively on reduction of risks.

  16. Clinical regressions and broad immune activation following combination therapy targeting human NKT cells in myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Joshua; Neparidze, Natalia; Zhang, Lin; Nair, Shiny; Monesmith, Tamara; Sundaram, Ranjini; Miesowicz, Fred; Dhodapkar, Kavita M; Dhodapkar, Madhav V

    2013-01-17

    Natural killer T (iNKT) cells can help mediate immune surveillance against tumors in mice. Prior studies targeting human iNKT cells were limited to therapy of advanced cancer and led to only modest activation of innate immunity. Clinical myeloma is preceded by an asymptomatic precursor phase. Lenalidomide was shown to mediate antigen-specific costimulation of human iNKT cells. We treated 6 patients with asymptomatic myeloma with 3 cycles of combination of α-galactosylceramide-loaded monocyte-derived dendritic cells and low-dose lenalidomide. Therapy was well tolerated and led to reduction in tumor-associated monoclonal immunoglobulin in 3 of 4 patients with measurable disease. Combination therapy led to activation-induced decline in measurable iNKT cells and activation of NK cells with an increase in NKG2D and CD56 expression. Treatment also led to activation of monocytes with an increase in CD16 expression. Each cycle of therapy was associated with induction of eosinophilia as well as an increase in serum soluble IL2 receptor. Clinical responses correlated with pre-existing or treatment-induced antitumor T-cell immunity. These data demonstrate synergistic activation of several innate immune cells by this combination and the capacity to mediate tumor regression. Combination therapies targeting iNKT cells may be of benefit toward prevention of cancer in humans.

  17. Computational Models for Analysis of Illicit Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat

    Numerous illicit activities happen in our society, which, from time to time affect the population by harming individuals directly or indirectly. Researchers from different disciplines have contributed to developing strategies to analyze such activities, in order to help law enforcement agents....... These models include a model for analyzing evolution of terrorist networks; a text classification model for detecting suspicious text and identification of suspected authors of anonymous emails; and a semantic analysis model for news reports, which may help analyze the illicit activities in certain area...... with location and temporal information. For the network evolution, the hierarchical agglomerative clustering approach has been applied to terrorist networks as case studies. The networks' evolutions show that how individual actors who are initially isolated from each other are converted in small groups, which...

  18. Active Gel Model of Amoeboid Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Callan-Jones, A C

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model of amoeboid cell motility based on active gel theory. Modeling the motile apparatus of a eukaryotic cell as a confined layer of finite length of poroelastic active gel permeated by a solvent, we first show that, due to active stress and gel turnover, an initially static and homogeneous layer can undergo a contractile-type instability to a polarized moving state in which the rear is enriched in gel polymer. This agrees qualitatively with motile cells containing an actomyosin-rich uropod at their rear. We find that the gel layer settles into a steadily moving, inhomogeneous state at long times, sustained by a balance between contractility and filament turnover. In addition, our model predicts an optimal value of the gel-susbstrate adhesion leading to maximum layer speed, in agreement with cell motility assays. The model may be relevant to motility of cells translocating in complex, confining environments that can be mimicked experimentally by cell migration through microchannels.

  19. Learning to Combine Collection-centric and Document-centric Models for Resource Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Learning to Combine Collection-centric and Document-centric Models for Resource Selection Krisztian Balog University of Stavanger krisztian.balog...where we employ a learning-to-rank approach to combine various (instantiations of) resource rank- ing models. Further, we show that vertical selec...on all metrics (Demeester et al., 2014). We also experimented with the combination of the CC and DC strategies in our par- ticipation last year, using

  20. Modelling of Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtanjeka, Ž.; Deverić Meštrović, B.; Ležajić, Z.; Bevetek, A.; Čurlin; M.

    2008-01-01

    Activated sludge wastewater treatment is a highly complex physical, chemical and biological process, and variations in wastewater flow rate and its composition, combined with time-varying reactions in a mixed culture of microorganisms, make this process non-linear and unsteady. The efficiency of the process is established by measuring the quantities that indicate quality of the treated wastewater, but they can only be determined at the end of the process, which is when the water has already b...

  1. Evaluation of the transdermal permeation of different paraben combinations through a pig ear skin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caon, Thiago; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira

    2010-05-31

    Although parabens have several features of ideal preservatives, different studies have shown that they may affect human health due to their estrogenic activity. Therefore, various strategies have been applied to reduce their skin penetration. However, the effect of paraben combinations on transdermal permeation has not yet been investigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate paraben permeation in pig ear skin using a Franz diffusion cell system with capillary electrophoresis detection, in order to identify which paraben combinations (defined by a factorial design) have the lowest skin permeation. The permeation of isolated parabens was also evaluated and the permeation characteristics, obtained by the Moser model, confirmed that lipophilicity and molecular weight may influence the systemic absorption of these compounds. In previous tests using isolated parabens, methyl and ethyl parabens presented greater retention in the epidermis compared to the dermis, while propyl and butyl parabens had similar retention profiles in these layers. An increase in ethanol concentration and experimental time promoted greater parabens retention in the dermis compared to the epidermis. The binary combinations of methyl and ethyl parabens as well as of methyl and propyl parabens (added to several cosmetic products in order to increase the antimicrobial spectrum) reduced significantly their permeation rates through pig ear skin (with the exception of EP), probably due to the high retention of these parabens in the epidermis and dermis.

  2. Fall-Detection Algorithm Using 3-Axis Acceleration: Combination with Simple Threshold and Hidden Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongha Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Falls are a serious medical and social problem among the elderly. This has led to the development of automatic fall-detection systems. To detect falls, a fall-detection algorithm that combines a simple threshold method and hidden Markov model (HMM using 3-axis acceleration is proposed. To apply the proposed fall-detection algorithm and detect falls, a wearable fall-detection device has been designed and produced. Several fall-feature parameters of 3-axis acceleration are introduced and applied to a simple threshold method. Possible falls are chosen through the simple threshold and are applied to two types of HMM to distinguish between a fall and an activity of daily living (ADL. The results using the simple threshold, HMM, and combination of the simple method and HMM were compared and analyzed. The combination of the simple threshold method and HMM reduced the complexity of the hardware and the proposed algorithm exhibited higher accuracy than that of the simple threshold method.

  3. Modelling of combined cycle power plants using biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurado, F.; Cano, A. [University of Jaen (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Carpio, J. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2003-04-01

    The olive tree in Spain can generate large quantities of by-product biomass suitable for gasification. Gasification technologies under development would enable these fuels to be used in gas turbines. Biomass conversion to a clean essentially ash-free form, usually by gasification and purification, is necessary to obtain high efficiency. This paper reports results of detailed full-load performance modelling of cogeneration systems based on gasifier/gas turbine technologies. (Author)

  4. Combined treatment of retting flax wastewater using Fenton oxidation and granular activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohair I. Abou-Elela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The process of retting flax produces a huge amount of wastewater which is characterized with bad unpleasant smell and high concentration of organic materials. Treatment of such waste had always been difficult because of the presence of refractory organic pollutants such as lignin. In this study, treatment of retting wastewater was carried out using combined system of Fenton oxidation process followed by adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC. The effects of operating condition on Fenton oxidation process such as hydrogen peroxide and iron concentration were investigated. In addition, kinetic study of the adsorption process was elaborated. The obtained results indicated that degradation of organic matters follows a pseudo-first order reaction with regression coefficient of 0.98. The kinetic model suggested that the rate of reaction was highly affected by the concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, the results indicated that the treatment module was very efficient in removing the organic and inorganic pollutants. The average percentage removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solid (TSS, oil, and grease was 98.60%, 86.60%, and 94.22% with residual values of 44, 20, and 5 mg/L, respectively. The treated effluent was complying with the National Regulatory Standards for wastewater discharge into surface water or reuse in the retting process.

  5. A Method for Combined Passive-Active Microwave Retrievals of Cloud and Precipitation Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, William S.; Kummerow, Christian D.; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Giglio, Louis

    1996-10-01

    Three-dimensional tropical squall-line simulations from the Goddard cumulus ensemble (GCE) model are used as input to radiative computations of upwelling microwave brightness temperatures and radar reflectivities at selected microwave sensor frequencies. These cloud/radiative calculations form the basis of a physical cloud/precipitation profile retrieval method that yields estimates of the expected values of the hydrometeor water contents. Application of the retrieval method to simulated nadir-view observations of the aircraft-borne Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) and NASA ER-2 Doppler radar (EDOP) produce random errors of 23%, 19%, and 53% in instantaneous estimates of integrated precipitating liquid, integrated precipitating ice, and surface rain rate, respectively.On 5 October 1993, during the Convection and Atmospheric Moisture Experiment (CAMEX), the AMPR and EDOP were used to observe convective systems in the vicinity of the Florida peninsula. Although the AMPR data alone could be used to retrieve cloud and precipitation vertical profiles over the ocean, retrievals of high-resolution vertical precipitation structure and profile information over land required the combination of AMPR and EDOP observations.No validation data are available for this study; however, the retrieved precipitation distributions from the convective systems are compatible with limited radar climatologies of such systems, as well as being radiometrically consistent with both the AMPR and EDOP observations. In the future, the retrieval method will be adapted to the passive and active microwave measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite sensors.

  6. In vitro activity of moxalactam alone and in combination with penicillin against common meningeal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, P H; Dunphy, M G

    1982-03-01

    Moxalactam demonstrated marked activity against beta-lactamase-positive and -negative Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis by both standard minimal inhibitory concentration testing and growth curve studies. Moxalactam was ineffective against S. pneumoniae partially susceptible to penicillin G. Moxalactam (5 micrograms/ml) and penicillin (1 microgram/ml) in combination were indifferent to each other's antibacterial activity, exerting neither synergism nor antagonism against these organisms.

  7. Traditional, Cyber and Combined Bullying Roles: Differences in Risky Online and Offline Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Wachs; Marianne Junger; Ruthaychonee Sittichai

    2015-01-01

    This study (1) reports frequency rates of mutually exclusive traditional, cyber and combined (both traditional and cyber) bullying roles; and (2) investigates whether adolescents belonging to particular bullying roles show higher levels of involvement in risky online activities (Compulsive Internet Use (CIU), online grooming victimization, and sexting) and risky offline activities (bad behavior in school, drinking alcohol and truancy) than non-involved adolescents. The sample comprised self-r...

  8. Effects of Cu, Zn and Pb Combined Pollution on Soil Hydrolase Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FENG Dan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To study the relations between soil enzyme activities and heavy metal pollution, the combined effects of Cu, Zn and Pb on the three hydrolase activities, including invertase(IN, urease(Uand alkaline phosphatase(ALPwere investigated via an orthogonal experiment. Results showed as the following: When the concentration of Cu was 400 mg·kg-1, the U and ALP activities were decreased 51% and 44%, separately; When Zn was at 500 mg·kg-1, IN and ALP activities were only decreased 3% and 9%, while U activity was increased; When Pb was at 500 mg·kg-1, IN and U activities were increased, while ALP activity was decreased 13%. As a whole, Cu was considered as the most remarkable influence factor for IN, U and ALP activity regardless of interactions among the heavy metals, Zn came second, and Pb mainly showed activation. Considering interactions, Cu×Zn could significantly influence U activity(P<0.05, effects of Cu×Pb and Cu×Zn on ALP activity were remarkable(95% confidence interval. The response of ALP activity was more sensitive than the other two enzymes. Soil ALP activity might be a sensitive tool for assessing the pollution degree of Cu.

  9. The combined effects of atrazine and lead (Pb): relative microbial activities and herbicide dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qinglin; Wang, Hui; Yang, Baoshan; He, Fei

    2014-04-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of single and combined pollution from different concentrations of atrazine (field rate, FR, 2.0 mg kg(-1) and 5 times FR, 10 mg kg(-1)) and lead (Pb) (300 mg kg(-1) and 600 mg kg(-1)) on enzyme activity, basal soil respiration (BSR), and net nitrogen (N) mineralization (NNM) in soil after exposure for 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. In addition, residual atrazine was measured in the samples of combined contamination. Results showed that the notable effects of either or both contaminants on the microbial activity and biological processes. Enzyme activity data demonstrated that the order of sensitivity to contamination was urease>invertase>catalase. BSR was strongly stimulated by atrazine/Pb at the early exposure (0-7 days for single contaminant and 7-14 days for combined contaminants). The stimulation effects on BSR were higher at low concentrations of the contamination (FR and Pb300). The combined treatments of 5FR+Pb600 inhibit BSR and NNM. Overall, the parameters associated with N cycling (urease and NNM) were more sensitive than others. Both Pb concentrations (300 and 600 mg/kg) had little influence on the dissipation of high concentrations of atrazine (5FR) during the 28-day-incubation. This study has provided useful information on potential ecotoxicology effects of combined contamination of atrazine and Pb on relative microbial biological process.

  10. Antibacterial activity of combination of synthetic and biopolymer non-woven structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, Sukhwinder K; Özsel, Burcak Kaya; Yadav, Ramesh; Kaur, Ginpreet; Chintamaneni, Meena; Buttar, Harpal S

    2015-12-01

    Fibrous structures and synthetic polymer blends offer potential usages in making biomedical devices, textiles used in medical practices, food packaging, tissue engineering, environmental applications and biomedical arena. These products are also excellent candidates for building scaffolds to grow stem cells for implantation, to make tissue engineering grafts, to make stents to open up blood vessels caused by atherosclerosis or narrowed by blood clots, for drug delivery systems for micro- to nano-medicines, for transdermal patches, and for healing of wounds and burn care. The current study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of woven and non-woven forms of nano- and macro-scale blended polymers having biocompatible and biodegradable characteristics. The antimicrobial activity of non-woven fibrous structures created with the combination of synthetic and biopolymer was assessed using Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes using pour plate method. Structural evaluation of the fabricated samples was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Broad spectrum antibacterial activities were found from the tested materials consisting of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with chitosan and nylon-6 combined with chitosan and formic acid. The combination of PVA with chitosan was more bactericidal or bacteriostatic than that of nylon-6 combined with chitosan and formic acid. PVA combination with chitosan appears to be a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent.

  11. Combining active and passive seismic methods for the characterization of urban sites in Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Ashraf; Poggi, Valerio; Fäh, Donat; Hassoup, Awad; Omran, Awad

    2017-07-01

    The geology at Kottamiya, Rehab City and Zahraa-Madinat-Nasr to the East of Cairo (Egypt) is composed of low-velocity sediments on top of a rigid rock basement. Such sediments include the loose sands of the Gebel Ahmar formation, marl and shales of Maadi formation, in addition to sparse quaternary soil covers. Due to the contrast of the seismic impedance with the underlying bedrock, these soft sediments have the potential of considerably amplifying the ground motion during an earthquake. For the evaluation of site-specific seismic hazard, we computed the seismic site response in these areas by developing 1-D velocity models and derived average seismic velocities, including Vs30. To do that, we applied different active and passive source techniques, including the horizontal to vertical Fourier spectral ratio of ambient vibration recordings and multichannel analysis of artificially generated surface waves. A set of models representing the velocity structure of the site is then obtained by combined inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves and ellipticity functions. While dispersion curves are used to constrain the uppermost low-velocity part of the soil profile, ellipticity helps in resolving the structure at the depth of the sediment-bedrock interface. From the retrieved velocity models, numerical ground-motion amplification is finally derived using 1-D SH-wave transfer function. We account for uncertainty in amplification by using a statistical model that accounts for the misfit of all the inverted velocity profiles. The study reveals that the different sites experience an important frequency-dependent amplification, with largest amplification occurring at the resonance frequencies of the sites. Amplification up to a factor of 5 is found, with some variability depending on the soil type (Vs30 ranges between 340 and 415 m s-2). Moreover, amplification is expected in the frequency range that is important for buildings (0.8-10 Hz), which is additional confirmation

  12. Modeling Atmospheric Activity of Cool Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, C. J.

    2003-10-01

    This review discusses a set of simple models for cool-star activity with which we compute (1) photospheric field patterns on stars of different activity levels, (2) the associated outer-atmospheric field configurations, and (3) the soft X-ray emission that is expected to result from the ensemble of loop atmospheres in the coronae of these stars. The model is based on empirically-determined properties of solar activity. It allows us to extrapolate to stars of significantly higher and lower activity than seen on the present-day Sun through its cycle. With it, we can, for example, gain insight into stellar field patterns (including a possible formation mechanism for polar starspots), as well as in the properties of coronal heating (helpful in the identification of the quiescent coronal heating mechanism). Lacking comprehensive theoretical understanding, the model's reliance on empirical solar data means that the multitude of processes involved are approximated to be independent of rotation rate, activity level, and fundamental stellar parameters, or -- where unavoidably necessary -- assumed to simply scale with activity. An evaluation of the most important processes involved guides a discussion of the limits of the model, of the limitations in our knowledge, and of future needs. "I propose to adopt such rules as will ensure the testability of scientific statements; which is to say, their falsifiability." Karl Popper (1902-1994)

  13. Antimicrobial activity of clinically used antiseptics and wound irrigating agents in combination with wound dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Tobias; Limoochi-Deli, Simin; Lahmer, Armin; Jacobsen, Frank; Goertz, Ole; Steinau, Hans-Ulrich; Seipp, Hans-Martin; Steinstraesser, Lars

    2011-04-01

    A primary strategy for preventing and treating wound infection in chronic wounds is the use of topical antiseptics and wound irrigating agents. However, their interaction with commonly used wound dressings has not yet been investigated. In this study, the authors analyzed the antimicrobial activity of antiseptics and wound irrigating agents used with commercially available wound dressings. Five clinically used antiseptics and wound irrigating agents (Prontosan, Lavasept, Braunol, Octenisept, and Betaisodona) were tested in the presence or absence of 42 wound dressings against Staphylococcus aureus. The determination of antibacterial activity was performed by disk diffusion assay. Povidone-iodine-based products showed sufficient antimicrobial activity in 64 to 78 percent of the combinations assessed (p > 0.01). The octenidine derivate Octenisept showed sufficient antimicrobial activity in 54 percent of combinations. Polyhexamethylene biguanide derivatives demonstrated sufficient antimicrobial activity in 32 percent of the combinations. This study revealed that commonly used wound dressings dramatically reduce antibacterial activity of clinically used antiseptics and wound irrigating agents in vitro.

  14. Combined effects of cadmium and butachlor on soil enzyme activities and microbial community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhua; Lu, Yitong; Shen, Guoqing

    2007-02-01

    The combined effects of cadmium (Cd, 10 mg/kg of soil) and butachlor (5, 10 and 50 mg/kg of soil) on enzyme activities and microbial community structure were assessed in phaeozem soil. The result showed that phosphatase activities were decreased in soils with Cd (10 mg/kg of soil) alone whereas urease acitivities were unaffected by Cd. Urease and phosphatase activities were significantly reduced by high butachlor concentration (50 mg/kg of soil). When Cd and butachlor concentrations in soils were added at milligram ratio of 2:1 or 1:2, urease and phosphatase activities were decreased, while enzyme activities were greatly improved at the ratio of 1:5. This study indicates that the combined effects of Cd and butachlor on soil urease and phosphatase activities depend largely on the addition concentration ratios to soils. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis showed that the changes occurring in RAPD profiles of different treated samples included variation in loss of normal bands and appearance of new bands compared with the control soil. The RAPD fingerprints showed substantial differences between the control and treated soil samples, with apparent changes in the number and size of amplified DNA fragments. The results showed that the addition of high concentration butachlor and the combined applied Cd and butachlor significantly affected the diversity of microbial community. The present results suggest that RAPD analysis in conjunction with other biomarkers such as soil enzyme parameter etc. would prove a powerful ecotoxicological tool.

  15. Combined calibration and sensitivity analysis for a water quality model of the Biebrza River, Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perk, van der M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    1995-01-01

    A study was performed to quantify the error in results of a water quality model of the Biebrza River, Poland, due to uncertainties in calibrated model parameters. The procedure used in this study combines calibration and sensitivity analysis. Finally,the model was validated to test the model capabil

  16. Mathematical Modeling on Combined Mid-infrared and Hot Air Drying of Beef Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lei Xie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the drying models and characteristics of Combined Mid-Infrared and Hot Air (CMIHA drying BEEF MEAT (BM, a laboratory scale CMIHA dryer was applied to the treatment of BM samples in a temperature range from 40-70°C, with air velocity of 1m/s and mid-infrared of 2.8-3.1 m. Microsoft visual C sharp (C# was used to develop a Moisture Prediction System (MPS to digitize the prediction process. The results indicated that the Modified Henderson and Pabis model could present better predictions for the moisture transfer than others and the MPS could predict the moisture ratio through the whole drying process conveniently. Besides, higher temperature could accelerate effective diffusivities to increase drying rate, thus shorten the drying time. The activation energy of BM dried with CMIHA was 32.83 kJ/mol. All of these could be used in the design and operation of the combination drying beef meat.

  17. Quality and Knowledge Content in Music Activities in Preschool: The Impact of Human Materiality Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman Nilsson, Marie-Helene; Holmberg, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, pedagogical research has been child centered, where materialities often have been considered as objects and tools. However, in recent posthuman research, attempts have been made to consider human materiality combinations to have impact on pedagogical activities in preschool, but to a large extent music as an issue has been…

  18. Quality and Knowledge Content in Music Activities in Preschool: The Impact of Human Materiality Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman Nilsson, Marie-Helene; Holmberg, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, pedagogical research has been child centered, where materialities often have been considered as objects and tools. However, in recent posthuman research, attempts have been made to consider human materiality combinations to have impact on pedagogical activities in preschool, but to a large extent music as an issue has been…

  19. Combining Wireless Sensor Networks and Groundwater Transport Models: Protocol and Model Development in a Simulative Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, K.; Urteaga, I.; Han, Q.; Porta, L.; Jayasumana, A.; Illangasekare, T.

    2007-12-01

    , and protocols necessary for a closed-loop simulation online, combining work across multiple disciplines. This simulation environment will expedite software development and a large-scale experimental aquifer will be used for further validation of the techniques. The results presented here address: setup of a WSN simulator which cooperates with transport models, development of fault detection techniques into the WSN routing protocol which are particular to this application, and planned steps in building a transport model capable of working in the WSN context.

  20. Combination radiotherapy in an orthotopic mouse brain tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, Tamalee R; Camphausen, Kevin

    2012-03-06

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are the most common and aggressive adult primary brain tumors. In recent years there has been substantial progress in the understanding of the mechanics of tumor invasion, and direct intracerebral inoculation of tumor provides the opportunity of observing the invasive process in a physiologically appropriate environment. As far as human brain tumors are concerned, the orthotopic models currently available are established either by stereotaxic injection of cell suspensions or implantation of a solid piece of tumor through a complicated craniotomy procedure. In our technique we harvest cells from tissue culture to create a cell suspension used to implant directly into the brain. The duration of the surgery is approximately 30 minutes, and as the mouse needs to be in a constant surgical plane, an injectable anesthetic is used. The mouse is placed in a stereotaxic jig made by Stoetling (figure 1). After the surgical area is cleaned and prepared, an incision is made; and the bregma is located to determine the location of the craniotomy. The location of the craniotomy is 2 mm to the right and 1 mm rostral to the bregma. The depth is 3 mm from the surface of the skull, and cells are injected at a rate of 2 μl every 2 minutes. The skin is sutured with 5-0 PDS, and the mouse is allowed to wake up on a heating pad. From our experience, depending on the cell line, treatment can take place from 7-10 days after surgery. Drug delivery is dependent on the drug composition. For radiation treatment the mice are anesthetized, and put into a custom made jig. Lead covers the mouse's body and exposes only the brain of the mouse. The study of tumorigenesis and the evaluation of new therapies for GBM require accurate and reproducible brain tumor animal models. Thus we use this orthotopic brain model to study the interaction of the microenvironment of the brain and the tumor, to test the effectiveness of different therapeutic agents with and without

  1. Research of combination model for prediction of the trend of outbreak of hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-ping CHEN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish a combination model of autoregressive integrated moving average model and the grey dynamics (ARIMA-GM of hepatitis B incidence rate (1/100 000 to predict the trend of outbreak of hepatitis B, as to provide a scientific basis for the early discovery of the infectious diseases for the performance of countermeasures of controlling its spread. Methods The monthly incidence of hepatitis B in Qian'an city, Hebei province, was collected from Jan 2004 to Dec 2012, and a model (ARIMA was reproduced with SPSS software. The GM (1,1 model was used to correct the residual sequence with a threshold value, and a combined forecasting model was reproduced. This combination model was used to predict the monthly incidence rate in this city in 2013. Results The model ARIMA(0,1,1(0,1,112 was established successfully and the residual sequence was a white noise sequence. Then the GM (1,1 model with a threshold of 3 was used to correct its residuals and obtain its nonlinear feature extraction of information. The forecasting model met required precision standards (C=0.673, P=0.877, the fitting accuracy of which was basically qualified. The results showed that the MAE, MAPE of the ARIMA-GM combined model were smaller than that of a single model, and the combined model could improve the prediction accuracy. Using the combined model to forecast the incidence of hepatitis B during Jan 2013 to Dec 2013, the overall trend was relatively consistent with the condition of previous years. Conclusion The ARIMA-GM combined model can better fit the incidence rate of hepatitis B with a greater accuracy than the seasonal ARIMA model. The prediction results can provide the reference for the early warning system of HBV. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.01.12

  2. Combining catchment and instream modelling to assess physical habitat quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin

    observations showed that juvenile trout in stream Ledreborg prefered lower water depths and water velocities than juvenile trout in larger Danish streams, e.g. River Gudenå. Repeated electrofishing in the stream revealed big differences in temporal and spatial distribution of the trouts on the four reaches...... and abundance of trout on the reaches. • Comparison of reference condition minimum run-off and WUA curves suggested that summer low flow were not a limiting factor on the physical habitat quality for juvenile trout under reference conditions. • Habitat hydraulic modelling suggested that stream Ledreborg had...... the best potential physical habitat quality for trout fry and juvenile trout and the lowest potential physical habitat quality for adult trout. This finding supports previous evaluations of the stream as a trout habitat, concluding that stream Ledreborg has very few suitable habitats for adult trout...

  3. Adsorption behavior of redox-active suppressor additives: Combined electrochemical and STM studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai, N.T.M.; Huynh, T.M.T. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern (Switzerland); Fluegel, A.; Mayer, D. [BASF SE, Global Business Unit Electronic Materials, 67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany); Broekmann, P., E-mail: peter.broekmann@iac.unibe.ch [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern (Switzerland); BASF SE, Global Business Unit Electronic Materials, 67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2011-08-30

    Highlights: > Janus Green B and safranine are prototypical redox-active leveler additives for copper electroplating. > Their redox-transitions lie within the copper potential window. > Reduced additives are identified as active species for the leveling effect. > Electro-reduction affects in particular the central aromatic cores of the additives. - Abstract: The redox chemistry and the related surface phase behavior of Safranine (SAF) and Janus Green B (JGB) have been studied by means of cyclic voltammetry in combination with in situ Scanning Tunneling Microscopy using HOPG (Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite) and single crystalline Cu(1 0 0) as model substrates, both revealing different widths of the accessible potential windows. JGB and SAF serve as prototypical heterocyclic suppressor/leveler additives that are used for the metallization of 3D-TSVs (3D Through Silicon Vias) following a classical 'leveling' concept. SAF can be considered as the reductive decomposition product of JGB that is formed at the copper/electrolyte interface upon electroplating. Both additives reveal a pronounced pH-dependent redox-chemistry with redox-transitions lying close to or even beyond the anodic limit of the copper potential window. Affected by these redox-processes are in particular the aromatic cores of those heterocycles that can be (quasi)reversibly reduced by a two electron transfer process within the potential window of copper. Therefore we identify the reduced form of those dyes as the active components for the suppressing/leveling effect in copper plating. STM data clearly shows a dye surface phase behavior that is crucially determined by its potential-dependent redox-chemistry. This will be exemplarily discussed for the SAF dye. On chloride-modified Cu(1 0 0) mono-reduced SAF forms a structurally well-defined monolayer of cationic stacking polymers. However, this coupled anion/cation layer reveals only minor suppressing capabilities with respect to the copper

  4. Evaluation of combination therapy for Burkholderia cenocepacia lung infection in different in vitro and in vivo models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackman, Gilles; Crabbé, Aurélie; Rigole, Petra; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Verstraete, Glenn; Cappoen, Davie; Vervaet, Chris; Cos, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for life-threatening infections in cystic fibrosis patients. B. cenocepacia is extremely resistant towards antibiotics and therapy is complicated by its ability to form biofilms. We investigated the efficacy of an alternative antimicrobial strategy for B. cenocepacia lung infections using in vitro and in vivo models. A screening of the NIH Clinical Collection 1&2 was performed against B. cenocepacia biofilms formed in 96-well microtiter plates in the presence of tobramycin to identify repurposing candidates with potentiator activity. The efficacy of selected hits was evaluated in a three-dimensional (3D) organotypic human lung epithelial cell culture model. The in vivo effect was evaluated in the invertebrate Galleria mellonella and in a murine B. cenocepacia lung infection model. The screening resulted in 60 hits that potentiated the activity of tobramycin against B. cenocepacia biofilms, including four imidazoles of which econazole and miconazole were selected for further investigation. However, a potentiator effect was not observed in the 3D organotypic human lung epithelial cell culture model. Combination treatment was also not able to increase survival of infected G. mellonella. Also in mice, there was no added value for the combination treatment. Although potentiators of tobramycin with activity against biofilms of B. cenocepacia were identified in a repurposing screen, the in vitro activity could not be confirmed nor in a more sophisticated in vitro model, neither in vivo. This stresses the importance of validating hits resulting from in vitro studies in physiologically relevant model systems. PMID:28248999

  5. Combining Diffusion and Grey Models Based on Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms to Forecast Motherboard Shipments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Kwun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important for executives to predict the future trends. Otherwise, their companies cannot make profitable decisions and investments. The Bass diffusion model can describe the empirical adoption curve for new products and technological innovations. The Grey model provides short-term forecasts using four data points. This study develops a combined model based on the rolling Grey model (RGM and the Bass diffusion model to forecast motherboard shipments. In addition, we investigate evolutionary optimization algorithms to determine the optimal parameters. Our results indicate that the combined model using a hybrid algorithm outperforms other methods for the fitting and forecasting processes in terms of mean absolute percentage error.

  6. Neural Network for Combining Linear and Non-Linear Modelling of Dynamic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a method to combine linear models with MLP networks. In other words to find a method to make a non-linear and multivariable model that performs at least as good as a linear model, when the training data lacks information.......The purpose of this paper is to develop a method to combine linear models with MLP networks. In other words to find a method to make a non-linear and multivariable model that performs at least as good as a linear model, when the training data lacks information....

  7. Active illumination and appearance model for face alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahraman, Fatih; Gokmen, M.; Darkner, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Illumination conditions have an explicit effect on the performance of face recognition systems. In particular, varying the illumination upon the face imposes such, complex effects that the identification often fails to provide a stable performance level. In this paper, we propose an approach......, integrating face identity and illumination models in order to reach acceptable and stable face recognition rates. For this purpose, Active Appearance Model (A AM) and illumination model of faces are combined in order to obtain an illumination invariant face localization. The proposed method is an integrated......, is sufficient. There is no need to build complex models for illumination. As a result, this paper has presented a simple and efficient method for face modeling and face alignment in order to increase the performance of face localization by means of the proposed illumination invariant AIA method for face...

  8. Forecasting and Analysis of Agricultural Product Logistics Demand in Tibet Based on Combination Forecasting Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenfeng; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Over the years,the logistics development in Tibet has fallen behind the transport. Since the opening of Qinghai-Tibet Railway in2006,the opportunity for development of modern logistics has been brought to Tibet. The logistics demand analysis and forecasting is a prerequisite for regional logistics planning. By establishing indicator system for logistics demand of agricultural products,agricultural product logistics principal component regression model,gray forecasting model,BP neural network forecasting model are built. Because of the single model’s limitations,quadratic-linear programming model is used to build combination forecasting model to predict the logistics demand scale of agricultural products in Tibet over the next five years. The empirical analysis results show that combination forecasting model is superior to single forecasting model,and it has higher precision,so combination forecasting model will have much wider application foreground and development potential in the field of logistics.

  9. PAH exposure through soil ingestion: Combining digestion models and bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiele, T.R. van de; Verstraete, W. [Ghent University (BE).Laboratory Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET); Siciliano, S.D. [University of Saskatchewan (Canada). Department of Soil Science

    2003-07-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants through soil ingestion is an important issue in current health risk assessment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) or their metabolites pose risks to humans due to their toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic or even (anti)estrogenic properties. PAH mobilization from a soil matrix (49.1{+-}1.5 mg PAH/kg DW) was assessed using a Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME). PAH GC-MS analysis was performed on the pellet and supernatant of SHIME digests and gave 101, 92, 89 and 97% recovery for water, stomach, duodenal and colon digests, respectively. PAH release was highest for the water extract (0.51%) and the stomach digestion (0.44%). Lower mobilized fractions in the duodenum (0.13%) and colon (0.30%) digests could be attributed to PAH complexation with bile salts, dissolved organic matter or colon microbiota. The digestion model provides us with relevant information to what extent soil bound PAHs are mobilized in the gastrointestinal tract and thus reach the gut wall, prior to absorption. (orig.)

  10. Efficient pan-European river flood hazard modelling through a combination of statistical and physical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprotny, Dominik; Morales-Nápoles, Oswaldo; Jonkman, Sebastiaan N.

    2017-07-01

    Flood hazard is currently being researched on continental and global scales, using models of increasing complexity. In this paper we investigate a different, simplified approach, which combines statistical and physical models in place of conventional rainfall-run-off models to carry out flood mapping for Europe. A Bayesian-network-based model built in a previous study is employed to generate return-period flow rates in European rivers with a catchment area larger than 100 km2. The simulations are performed using a one-dimensional steady-state hydraulic model and the results are post-processed using Geographical Information System (GIS) software in order to derive flood zones. This approach is validated by comparison with Joint Research Centre's (JRC) pan-European map and five local flood studies from different countries. Overall, the two approaches show a similar performance in recreating flood zones of local maps. The simplified approach achieved a similar level of accuracy, while substantially reducing the computational time. The paper also presents the aggregated results on the flood hazard in Europe, including future projections. We find relatively small changes in flood hazard, i.e. an increase of flood zones area by 2-4 % by the end of the century compared to the historical scenario. However, when current flood protection standards are taken into account, the flood-prone area increases substantially in the future (28-38 % for a 100-year return period). This is because in many parts of Europe river discharge with the same return period is projected to increase in the future, thus making the protection standards insufficient.

  11. Matrix viscoplasticity and its shielding by active mechanics in microtissue models: experiments and mathematical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Alan S.; Wang, Hailong; Copeland, Craig R.; Chen, Christopher S.; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Reich, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    The biomechanical behavior of tissues under mechanical stimulation is critically important to physiological function. We report a combined experimental and modeling study of bioengineered 3D smooth muscle microtissues that reveals a previously unappreciated interaction between active cell mechanics and the viscoplastic properties of the extracellular matrix. The microtissues’ response to stretch/unstretch actuations, as probed by microcantilever force sensors, was dominated by cellular actomyosin dynamics. However, cell lysis revealed a viscoplastic response of the underlying model collagen/fibrin matrix. A model coupling Hill-type actomyosin dynamics with a plastic perfectly viscoplastic description of the matrix quantitatively accounts for the microtissue dynamics, including notably the cells’ shielding of the matrix plasticity. Stretch measurements of single cells confirmed the active cell dynamics, and were well described by a single-cell version of our model. These results reveal the need for new focus on matrix plasticity and its interactions with active cell mechanics in describing tissue dynamics. PMID:27671239

  12. Quantifying antiviral activity optimizes drug combinations against hepatitis C virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Yoshiki [School of Medicine, College of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa, Japan; Nakajim, Syo [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Sciences, Chiba, J; Ohash, Hirofumi [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan: Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Sciences, Chiba, J; Tanaka, Yasuhito [Department of Virology and Liver Unit, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medicinal Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; Wakita, Takaji [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Perelson, Alan S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Iwami, Shingo [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan: PRESTO, JST, Saitama, Japan: CREST, JST, Saitama, Japan; Watashi, Koichi [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan: Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Sciences, Chiba, J

    2016-03-21

    Cell culture study combing a mathematical model and computer simulation quantifies the anti-hepatitis C virus drug efficacy at any concentrations and any combinations in preclinical settings, and can obtain rich basic evidences for selecting optimal treatments prior to costly clinical trials.

  13. Combined MIMO adaptive and decentralized controllers for broadband active noise and vibration control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, A.P.; Wesselink, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Model errors in multiple-input multiple-output adaptive controllers for reduction of broadband noise and vibrations may lead to unstable systems or increased error signals. In this paper, a combination of high-authority control (HAC) and low-authority control (LAC) is considered for improved perform

  14. Combining estimates of interest in prognostic modelling studies after multiple imputation: current practice and guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holder Roger L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple imputation (MI provides an effective approach to handle missing covariate data within prognostic modelling studies, as it can properly account for the missing data uncertainty. The multiply imputed datasets are each analysed using standard prognostic modelling techniques to obtain the estimates of interest. The estimates from each imputed dataset are then combined into one overall estimate and variance, incorporating both the within and between imputation variability. Rubin's rules for combining these multiply imputed estimates are based on asymptotic theory. The resulting combined estimates may be more accurate if the posterior distribution of the population parameter of interest is better approximated by the normal distribution. However, the normality assumption may not be appropriate for all the parameters of interest when analysing prognostic modelling studies, such as predicted survival probabilities and model performance measures. Methods Guidelines for combining the estimates of interest when analysing prognostic modelling studies are provided. A literature review is performed to identify current practice for combining such estimates in prognostic modelling studies. Results Methods for combining all reported estimates after MI were not well reported in the current literature. Rubin's rules without applying any transformations were the standard approach used, when any method was stated. Conclusion The proposed simple guidelines for combining estimates after MI may lead to a wider and more appropriate use of MI in future prognostic modelling studies.

  15. Quantitative structure–activity relationship study of P2X7 receptor inhibitors using combination of principal component analysis and artificial intelligence methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Shahlaei, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    P2X7 antagonist activity for a set of 49 molecules of the P2X7 receptor antagonists, derivatives of purine, was modeled with the aid of chemometric and artificial intelligence techniques. The activity of these compounds was estimated by means of combination of principal component analysis (PCA), as a well-known data reduction method, genetic algorithm (GA), as a variable selection technique, and artificial neural network (ANN), as a non-linear modeling method. First, a linear regression, combined with PCA, (principal component regression) was operated to model the structure–activity relationships, and afterwards a combination of PCA and ANN algorithm was employed to accurately predict the biological activity of the P2X7 antagonist. PCA preserves as much of the information as possible contained in the original data set. Seven most important PC's to the studied activity were selected as the inputs of ANN box by an efficient variable selection method, GA. The best computational neural network model was a fully-connected, feed-forward model with 7−7−1 architecture. The developed ANN model was fully evaluated by different validation techniques, including internal and external validation, and chemical applicability domain. All validations showed that the constructed quantitative structure–activity relationship model suggested is robust and satisfactory. PMID:26600858

  16. Quantitative structure-activity relationship study of P2X7 receptor inhibitors using combination of principal component analysis and artificial intelligence methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Shahlaei, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    P2X7 antagonist activity for a set of 49 molecules of the P2X7 receptor antagonists, derivatives of purine, was modeled with the aid of chemometric and artificial intelligence techniques. The activity of these compounds was estimated by means of combination of principal component analysis (PCA), as a well-known data reduction method, genetic algorithm (GA), as a variable selection technique, and artificial neural network (ANN), as a non-linear modeling method. First, a linear regression, combined with PCA, (principal component regression) was operated to model the structure-activity relationships, and afterwards a combination of PCA and ANN algorithm was employed to accurately predict the biological activity of the P2X7 antagonist. PCA preserves as much of the information as possible contained in the original data set. Seven most important PC's to the studied activity were selected as the inputs of ANN box by an efficient variable selection method, GA. The best computational neural network model was a fully-connected, feed-forward model with 7-7-1 architecture. The developed ANN model was fully evaluated by different validation techniques, including internal and external validation, and chemical applicability domain. All validations showed that the constructed quantitative structure-activity relationship model suggested is robust and satisfactory.

  17. In vitro activity of tigecycline alone and antimicrobial combinations against clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyukmin; Kim, Hyunsoo; Seo, Young Hee; Yong, Dongeun; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Younsop

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we determined the in vitro activity of various combinations of antimicrobial agents against 54 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates. The combined activity of ceftriaxone (CRO) and azithromycin (AZM), CRO and doxycycline (DOX), CRO and spectinomycin (SPT), cefixime (CFX) and AZM, CFX and DOX, and CFX and SPT was determined using a checkerboard method. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) values for all combinations were either additive or indifferent, and no synergistic or antagonistic effects were found. The FICI comparison in each combination did not show any difference according to the N.gonorrhoeae-resistant phenotypes and genotypic characteristics, including penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae, tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae, stratified MIC of all antibiotics, and N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing. MIC50 and MIC90 of tigecycline by agar dilution were 0.5 mg/L and 0.5 mg/L, respectively, which were lower than that of tetracycline and DOX. Additive/indifference results could suggest that combinations that include CRO may be used safely without a significant likelihood of generating resistance.

  18. Anticancer activity of Noscapine, an opioid alkaloid in combination with Cisplatin in human non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Mahavir; Patel, Apurva R; Sachdeva, Pratik; Jackson, Tanise; Singh, Mandip

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of Noscapine (Nos) and Cisplatin (Cis) combination treatment in vitro in A549 and H460 lung cancer cells, in vivo in murine xenograft model and to investigate the underlying mechanism. The combination index values (< 0.6) suggested synergistic effects of Nos+Cis and resulted in the highest increase in percentage of apoptotic NSCLC cells and increased expression of p53, p21, caspase 3, cleaved caspase 3, cleaved PARP, Bax, and decreased expression of Bcl₂ and surviving proteins compared with treatment with either agent. Nos+Cis treatment reduced tumor volume by 78.1 ± 7.5% compared with 38.2 ± 6.8% by Cis or 35.4 ± 6.9% by Nos alone in murine xenograft lung cancer model. Nos+Cis treatment decreased expression of pAkt, Akt, cyclin D1, survivin, PARP, Bcl₂, and increased expression of p53, p21, Bax, cleaved PARP, caspase 3, cleaved caspase 3, cleaved caspase 8, caspase 8, cleaved caspase 9 and caspase 9 compared to single-agent treated and control groups. Our results suggest that Nos enhanced the anticancer activity of Cis in an additive to synergistic manner by activating multiple signaling pathways including apoptosis. These findings suggest potential benefit for use of Nos and Cis combination in treatment of lung cancer.

  19. The activity model of legal psychologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Bogdanovich,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose an activity model of legal psychologist work. As a basis for the construction of the system of legal psychologist activity, we use trajectory of teenager living in the legal field. As the main activities within their respective specializations, we highlighted prevention, maintenance and rehabilitation. We define the main activities necessary for the development within the FGOSIII specialization 050407 “Pedagogy and Psychology of deviant behavior”: general and pathopsychologic diagnostics, development activity and psychological education, psycho-correction, psychological counseling. Accordingly, we define the types of psychological practices. We highlight the motivational and integrative practice (teaching introductory and trainee. We propose a system of training modules, ensuring the formation of the necessary competencies. The modules feature is their focus on practice (the association of training courses with the main types of psychological practice.

  20. Antitumor activity of Noscapine in combination with Doxorubicin in triple negative breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahavir B Chougule

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer activity and mechanism of action of Noscapine alone and in combination with Doxorubicin against triple negative breast cancer (TNBC. METHODS: TNBC cells were pretreated with Noscapine or Doxorubicin or combination and combination index values were calculated using isobolographic method. Apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL staining. Female athymic Nu/nu mice were xenografted with MDA-MB-231 cells and the efficacy of Noscapine, Doxorubicin and combination was determined. Protein expression, immunohistochemical staining were evaluated in harvested tumor tissues. RESULTS: Noscapine inhibited growth of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells with the IC(50 values of 36.16±3.76 and 42.7±4.3 µM respectively. The CI values (<0.59 were suggestive of strong synergistic interaction between Noscapine and Doxorubicin and combination treatment showed significant increase in apoptotic cells. Noscapine showed dose dependent reduction in the tumor volumes at a dose of 150-550 mg/kg/day compared to controls. Noscapine (300 mg/kg, Doxorubicin (1.5 mg/kg and combination treatment reduced tumor volume by 39.4±5.8, 34.2±5.7 and 82.9±4.5 percent respectively and showed decreased expression of NF-KB pathway proteins, VEGF, cell survival, and increased expression of apoptotic and growth inhibitory proteins compared to single-agent treatment and control groups. CONCLUSIONS: Noscapine potentiated the anticancer activity of Doxorubicin in a synergistic manner against TNBC tumors via inactivation of NF-KB and anti-angiogenic pathways while stimulating apoptosis. These findings suggest potential benefit for use of oral Noscapine and Doxorubicin combination therapy for treatment of more aggressive TNBC.

  1. Ratiometric dosing of anticancer drug combinations: controlling drug ratios after systemic administration regulates therapeutic activity in tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Lawrence D; Harasym, Troy O; Tardi, Paul G; Harasym, Natashia L; Shew, Clifford R; Johnstone, Sharon A; Ramsay, Euan C; Bally, Marcel B; Janoff, Andrew S

    2006-07-01

    Anticancer drug combinations can act synergistically or antagonistically against tumor cells in vitro depending on the ratios of the individual agents comprising the combination. The importance of drug ratios in vivo, however, has heretofore not been investigated, and combination chemotherapy treatment regimens continue to be developed based on the maximum tolerated dose of the individual agents. We systematically examined three different drug combinations representing a range of anticancer drug classes with distinct molecular mechanisms (irinotecan/floxuridine, cytarabine/daunorubicin, and cisplatin/daunorubicin) for drug ratio-dependent synergy. In each case, synergistic interactions were observed in vitro at certain drug/drug molar ratio ranges (1:1, 5:1, and 10:1, respectively), whereas other ratios were additive or antagonistic. We were able to maintain fixed drug ratios in plasma of mice for 24 hours after i.v. injection for all three combinations by controlling and overcoming the inherent dissimilar pharmacokinetics of individual drugs through encapsulation in liposomal carrier systems. The liposomes not only maintained drug ratios in the plasma after injection, but also delivered the formulated drug ratio directly to tumor tissue. In vivo maintenance of drug ratios shown to be synergistic in vitro provided increased efficacy in preclinical tumor models, whereas attenuated antitumor activity was observed when antagonistic drug ratios were maintained. Fixing synergistic drug ratios in pharmaceutical carriers provides an avenue by which anticancer drug combinations can be optimized prospectively for maximum therapeutic activity during preclinical development and differs from current practice in which dosing regimens are developed empirically in late-stage clinical trials based on tolerability.

  2. A combined planning and self-efficacy intervention to promote physical activity: a multiple mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koring, Milena; Richert, Jana; Parschau, Linda; Ernsting, Anna; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Many individuals are motivated to improve their physical activity levels, but often fail to act upon their intention. Interventions fostering volitional strategies, such as action planning, coping planning, and self-efficacy beliefs, can help to translate intentions into behavior. This study examines the effectiveness and the mechanisms of a combined planning and self-efficacy intervention to promote physical activity among motivated individuals. Participants (N = 883) were randomly assigned to the intervention or to a waiting-list control condition. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that the intervention resulted in significantly more physical activity, higher levels of action planning, coping planning, and volitional self-efficacy beliefs (p planning, coping planning, and volitional self-efficacy mediate between the intervention and physical activity. The study shows that the intervention successfully fostered physical activity and unfolds the underlying self-regulatory mechanisms of the intervention's effectiveness.

  3. Increased activity of colistin in combination with amikacin against Escherichia coli co-producing NDM-5 and MCR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu-Feng; Tao, Meng-Ting; Feng, Youjun; Yang, Run-Shi; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Ya-Hong; Sun, Jian

    2017-06-01

    Colistin and carbapenem are two lines of last-resort antibiotics against lethal infections caused by MDR Gram-negative pathogens. The emergence of carbapenemase-positive Escherichia coli with colistin resistance poses a serious threat to public health worldwide. Here we report, for the first time (to the best of our knowledge), a novel combination therapy used for the treatment of E. coli co-producing MCR-1 and NDM-5. The MICs of colistin were determined alone and with 1-4 mg/L amikacin. A 7-by-4 time-kill array of colistin (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 mg/L) and amikacin (0, 1, 2 and 4 mg/L) over 48 h was designed to characterize the in vitro activity of these agents alone and in combination against each E. coli isolate at an inoculum of 10 6 and 10 8 cfu/mL. The sigmoid E max model was utilized for better delineation of the concentration-effect relationship of each combination. In vivo effectiveness was investigated using a mouse model (combination therapy with intraperitoneal colistin plus amikacin compared with monotherapy). For colistin-resistant isolates, the addition of amikacin demonstrated augmented susceptibility, reducing colistin MICs below the current susceptibility breakpoint. A concentration-dependent decrease in the EC 50 values of colistin was observed for all study isolates in the presence of increasing amikacin concentrations. Further in vivo treatment experiments demonstrated that this combination could achieve 1.5-2.8 log 10 killing after 24 h of therapy, while monotherapy was unable to achieve such a killing effect. The combination of colistin and amikacin may be a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of lethal infections caused by NDM-5-bearing MCR-1-positive superbugs.

  4. The Kolb Model Modified for Classroom Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svinicki, Marilla D.; Dixon, Nancy M.

    1987-01-01

    The experiential learning model of Kolb provides a framework for examining the selection of a broader range of classroom activities than is in current use. Experiential learning cycle, experiential learning as instructional design, and student as actor versus student as receiver are discussed. (MLW)

  5. The Seasons Explained by Refutational Modeling Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frede, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the principles and investigation of a small-group laboratory activity based on refutational modeling to teach the concept of seasons to preservice elementary teachers. The results show that these teachers improved significantly when they had to refute their initial misconceptions practically. (Contains 8 figures and 1 table.)

  6. Realistic Real World Contexts: Model Eliciting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doruk, Bekir Kürsat

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have proposed a variety of methods to make a connection between real life and mathematics so that it can be learned in a practical way and enable people to utilise mathematics in their daily lives. Model-eliciting activities (MEAs) were developed to fulfil this need and are very capable of serving this purpose. The reason MEAs are so…

  7. Estimating an Activity Driven Hidden Markov Model

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, David A.; Shakeel, Asif

    2015-01-01

    We define a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) in which each hidden state has time-dependent $\\textit{activity levels}$ that drive transitions and emissions, and show how to estimate its parameters. Our construction is motivated by the problem of inferring human mobility on sub-daily time scales from, for example, mobile phone records.

  8. Does birth weight influence physical activity in youth? A combined analysis of four studies using objectively measured physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridgway, Charlotte L; Brage, Søren; Sharp, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    Animal models suggest growth restriction in utero leads to lower levels of motor activity. Furthermore, individuals with very low birth weight report lower levels of physical activity as adults. The aim of this study was to examine whether birth weight acts as a biological determinant of physical...... for ≥3 days, ≥10 hours day. Data was standardized to allow comparisons between different monitors. Total physical activity was assessed as counts per minute (cpm), with time spent above moderate activity (MVPA) >2,000 counts and time spent sedentary (...

  9. Nonlinear combined forecasting model based on fuzzy adaptive variable weight and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ai-hua; MEI Chi; E Jia-qiang; SHI Zhang-ming

    2010-01-01

    In order to enhance forecasting precision of problems about nonlinear time series in a complex industry system,a new nonlinear fuzzy adaptive variable weight combined forecasting model was established by using conceptions of the relative error,the change tendency of the forecasted object,gray basic weight and adaptive control coefficient on the basis of the method of fuzzy variable weight.Based on Visual Basic 6.0 platform,a fuzzy adaptive variable weight combined forecasting and management system was developed.The application results reveal that the forecasting precisions from the new nonlinear combined forecasting model are higher than those of other single combined forecasting models and the combined forecasting and management system is very powerful tool for the required decision in complex industry system.

  10. Combining Diffusion and Grey Models Based on Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms to Forecast Motherboard Shipments

    OpenAIRE

    Fu-Kwun Wang; Yu-Yao Hsiao; Ku-Kuang Chang

    2012-01-01

    It is important for executives to predict the future trends. Otherwise, their companies cannot make profitable decisions and investments. The Bass diffusion model can describe the empirical adoption curve for new products and technological innovations. The Grey model provides short-term forecasts using four data points. This study develops a combined model based on the rolling Grey model (RGM) and the Bass diffusion model to forecast motherboard shipments. In addition, we investigate evolutio...

  11. Combining Diffusion and Grey Models Based on Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms to Forecast Motherboard Shipments

    OpenAIRE

    Fu-Kwun Wang; Yu-Yao Hsiao; Ku-Kuang Chang

    2012-01-01

    It is important for executives to predict the future trends. Otherwise, their companies cannot make profitable decisions and investments. The Bass diffusion model can describe the empirical adoption curve for new products and technological innovations. The Grey model provides short-term forecasts using four data points. This study develops a combined model based on the rolling Grey model (RGM) and the Bass diffusion model to forecast motherboard shipments. In addition, we investigate evolutio...

  12. The combined effect of anthracene and cadmium on photosynthetic activity of three Desmodesmus (Chlorophyta) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokora, Wojciech; Tukaj, Zbigniew

    2010-09-01

    Individual toxicity of heavy metals (HM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to plants living in water bodies is well-documented. In view of frequent joint occurrence of these compounds in the environment, plants are subjected to damage from their combined action. Cadmium and anthracene can generate production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We have recently detected elevated activity of Fe- and Mn-SOD isoforms, indicating chloroplast and mitochondrion as the main sites of combined toxicity of HM and PAH. In the present paper, short-term (1-24 h) experiments on the mechanism of combined toxicity of anthracene and cadmium to the photosynthesis of three Desmodesmus species are reported. Inhibition, stimulation or no effect on the oxygen evolution was observed following the treatment with the contaminants when applied either separately or jointly. The response pattern was both strongly species- and time-dependent. In contrast, the photosynthetic activity of cells, expressed by chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, was substantially unaffected, since no effect or, in several cases, a slight stimulation of PS II quantum efficiency (Phi PS II) were noted. A characteristic relationship between the SOD activity and the qN values was observed. The treatment of Desmodesmus cells with anthracene or cadmium had either no effect or slightly enhanced either the SOD activity or the qN value, whereas the mixture of the contaminants resulted in a multifold increase in both the SOD activity and the qN values. The results suggest that chloroplasts of algae are well protected against the combined action of the two contaminants the toxicity of which should be attributed to nucleocytoplasmic compartments and reproductive processes of the cell cycle.

  13. Prediction of calcium-binding sites by combining loop-modeling with machine learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altman Russ B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein ligand-binding sites in the apo state exhibit structural flexibility. This flexibility often frustrates methods for structure-based recognition of these sites because it leads to the absence of electron density for these critical regions, particularly when they are in surface loops. Methods for recognizing functional sites in these missing loops would be useful for recovering additional functional information. Results We report a hybrid approach for recognizing calcium-binding sites in disordered regions. Our approach combines loop modeling with a machine learning method (FEATURE for structure-based site recognition. For validation, we compared the performance of our method on known calcium-binding sites for which there are both holo and apo structures. When loops in the apo structures are rebuilt using modeling methods, FEATURE identifies 14 out of 20 crystallographically proven calcium-binding sites. It only recognizes 7 out of 20 calcium-binding sites in the initial apo crystal structures. We applied our method to unstructured loops in proteins from SCOP families known to bind calcium in order to discover potential cryptic calcium binding sites. We built 2745 missing loops and evaluated them for potential calcium binding. We made 102 predictions of calcium-binding sites. Ten predictions are consistent with independent experimental verifications. We found indirect experimental evidence for 14 other predictions. The remaining 78 predictions are novel predictions, some with intriguing potential biological significance. In particular, we see an enrichment of beta-sheet folds with predicted calcium binding sites in the connecting loops on the surface that may be important for calcium-mediated function switches. Conclusion Protein crystal structures are a potentially rich source of functional information. When loops are missing in these structures, we may be losing important information about binding sites and active

  14. Combining modelled and remote sensing soil moisture anomalies for an operational global drought monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammalleri, Carmelo; Vogt, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Soil moisture anomalies (i.e., deviations from the climatology) are often seen as a reliable tool to monitor and quantify the occurrence of drought events and their potential impacts, especially in agricultural and naturally vegetated lands. Soil moisture datasets (or their proxy) can be derived from a variety of sources, including land-surface models and thermal and microwave satellite remote sensing images. However, each data source has different advantages and drawbacks that prevent to unequivocally prefer one dataset over the others, especially in global applications that encompass a wide range of soil moisture regimes. The analysis of the spatial reliability of the different datasets at global scale is further complicated by the lack of reliable long-term soil moisture records for a ground validation over most regions. To overcome this limitation, in recent years the Triple Collocation (TC) technique has been deployed in order to quantify the likely errors associated to three mutually-independent datasets without assuming that one of them represents the "truth". In this study, three global datasets of soil moisture anomalies are investigated: the first one derived from the runs of the Lisflood hydrological model, the second one obtained from the combined active/passive microwave dataset produced in the framework of the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI), and the last one derived from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Land Surface Temperature (LST) observations. A preliminary analysis of the three datasets aimed at detecting the areas where the TC technique can be successfully applied, hence the spatial distribution of the random error variance for each model is evaluated. This study allows providing useful advises for a robust combination of the three datasets into a single product for a more reliable global drought monitoring.

  15. Antifibrotic activities of pirfenidone in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pirfenidone is an orally active small molecule that has recently been evaluated in large clinical trials for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a fatal disease in which the uncontrolled deposition of extracellular matrix leads to progressive loss of lung function. This review describes the activity of pirfenidone in several well-characterised animal models of fibrosis in the lung, liver, heart and kidney. In these studies, treatment-related reductions in fibrosis are associated with modulation of cytokines and growth factors, with the most commonly reported effect being reduction of transforming growth factor-β. The consistent antifibrotic activity of pirfenidone in a broad array of animal models provides a strong preclinical rationale for the clinical characterisation of pirfenidone in pulmonary fibrosis and, potentially, other conditions with a significant fibrotic component.

  16. Models of Hemodynamics and Hematopoiesis Following Hemorrhage for Use in Combined Injury Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    resulting from a nuclear detonation and will assist in medical planning . Hemorrhage, Combined Injury, Ordinary Differential Equation Model, Fluid...Computer models can help predict the resource requirements for attending to casualties and assist in medical planning . Model extensions described in this...first phase, involves the restitution of plasma proteins to support plasma oncotic pressure and continued blood volume expansion. While this increase

  17. Activity of clarithromycin or rifampin alone or in combination against experimental Rhodococcus equi infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Alexandra J; Giguère, Steeve; Berghaus, Londa J; Hondalus, Mary K

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of mice with the combination of clarithromycin with rifampin resulted in a significantly lower number of Rhodococcus equi CFU in the organs of mice than treatment with either drug alone or placebo. There was no significant difference in the number of R. equi CFU between mice treated with clarithromycin monotherapy, rifampin monotherapy, or placebo. The combination of clarithromycin with rifampin conferred a clear advantage over either drug as monotherapy in this model of chronic R. equi infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Concepts of disability: the Activity Space Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, J A

    1995-03-01

    This paper describes a new conceptual framework for functional assessment, the Activity Space Model (ASM). According to this model, functional impairments may lead to restrictions in an individual's activity space, a multidimensional space that represents human potential for activity. For each elementary ability, restrictions in the corresponding dimension of the activity space can be evaluated by deriving a difficulty curve that depicts the relationship between the level of performance and the psychophysical cost of activity. The effect of disease on daily functioning is explained in terms of a tradeoff between the psychophysical cost and the value of each act of behavior to the disabled individual. These two constructs are measured on the same scale and expressed in units of difficulty. The location of each task within the activity space in relation to the difficulty curve determines whether it will be performed or avoided at a given point in time. The ASM has both theoretical and practical implications. It offers a new, integrated perspective on disability and suggests new strategies for developing and evaluating functional assessment measures.

  19. Molluscicidal activity of Lawsonia inermis and its binary and tertiary combinations with other plant derived molluscicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A; Singh, D K

    2001-03-01

    Molluscicidal activity of leaf, bark and seed of Lawsonia inermis against Lymnaea acuminata and Indoplanorbis exustus was studied. Highest toxicity was observed in the seed of Lawsonia inermis. Toxicity of binary (1:1) and tertiary (1:1:1) combinations of the essential oil of cedar (Cedrus deodara Roxh) and neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), powder from bulb of garlic (Allium sativum Linn), and oleoresin extracted from rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc) with Lawsonia inermis and Embelia ribes fruit powder were studied against L. acuminata and I. exustus. L. inermis seed powder in combination with Cedrus deodara oil and Azadirachta indica oil was more toxic than their individual components and other combinations.

  20. Activity Recognition in Egocentric video using SVM, kNN and Combined SVMkNN Classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanal Kumar, K. P.; Bhavani, R., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Egocentric vision is a unique perspective in computer vision which is human centric. The recognition of egocentric actions is a challenging task which helps in assisting elderly people, disabled patients and so on. In this work, life logging activity videos are taken as input. There are 2 categories, first one is the top level and second one is second level. Here, the recognition is done using the features like Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG), Motion Boundary Histogram (MBH) and Trajectory. The features are fused together and it acts as a single feature. The extracted features are reduced using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The features that are reduced are provided as input to the classifiers like Support Vector Machine (SVM), k nearest neighbor (kNN) and combined Support Vector Machine (SVM) and k Nearest Neighbor (kNN) (combined SVMkNN). These classifiers are evaluated and the combined SVMkNN provided better results than other classifiers in the literature.

  1. Combined Prediction Model of Death Toll for Road Traffic Accidents Based on Independent and Dependent Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong-xiang, Feng; Shi-sheng, Lu; Wei-hua, Zhang; Nan-nan, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In order to build a combined model which can meet the variation rule of death toll data for road traffic accidents and can reflect the influence of multiple factors on traffic accidents and improve prediction accuracy for accidents, the Verhulst model was built based on the number of death tolls for road traffic accidents in China from 2002 to 2011; and car ownership, population, GDP, highway freight volume, highway passenger transportation volume, and highway mileage were chosen as the factors to build the death toll multivariate linear regression model. Then the two models were combined to be a combined prediction model which has weight coefficient. Shapley value method was applied to calculate the weight coefficient by assessing contributions. Finally, the combined model was used to recalculate the number of death tolls from 2002 to 2011, and the combined model was compared with the Verhulst and multivariate linear regression models. The results showed that the new model could not only characterize the death toll data characteristics but also quantify the degree of influence to the death toll by each influencing factor and had high accuracy as well as strong practicability. PMID:25610454

  2. Combined Prediction Model of Death Toll for Road Traffic Accidents Based on Independent and Dependent Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhong-xiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to build a combined model which can meet the variation rule of death toll data for road traffic accidents and can reflect the influence of multiple factors on traffic accidents and improve prediction accuracy for accidents, the Verhulst model was built based on the number of death tolls for road traffic accidents in China from 2002 to 2011; and car ownership, population, GDP, highway freight volume, highway passenger transportation volume, and highway mileage were chosen as the factors to build the death toll multivariate linear regression model. Then the two models were combined to be a combined prediction model which has weight coefficient. Shapley value method was applied to calculate the weight coefficient by assessing contributions. Finally, the combined model was used to recalculate the number of death tolls from 2002 to 2011, and the combined model was compared with the Verhulst and multivariate linear regression models. The results showed that the new model could not only characterize the death toll data characteristics but also quantify the degree of influence to the death toll by each influencing factor and had high accuracy as well as strong practicability.

  3. Mathematical model of radon activity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Zambianchi, Pedro, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Present work describes a mathematical model that quantifies the time dependent amount of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn altogether and their activities within an ionization chamber as, for example, AlphaGUARD, which is used to measure activity concentration of Rn in soil gas. The differential equations take into account tree main processes, namely: the injection of Rn into the cavity of detector by the air pump including the effect of the traveling time Rn takes to reach the chamber; Rn release by the air exiting the chamber; and radioactive decay of Rn within the chamber. Developed code quantifies the activity of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn isotopes separately. Following the standard methodology to measure Rn activity in soil gas, the air pump usually is turned off over a period of time in order to avoid the influx of Rn into the chamber. Since {sup 220}Rn has a short half-life time, approximately 56s, the model shows that after 7 minutes the activity concentration of this isotope is null. Consequently, the measured activity refers to {sup 222}Rn, only. Furthermore, the model also addresses the activity of {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn progeny, which being metals represent potential risk of ionization chamber contamination that could increase the background of further measurements. Some preliminary comparison of experimental data and theoretical calculations is presented. Obtained transient and steady-state solutions could be used for planning of Rn in soil gas measurements as well as for accuracy assessment of obtained results together with efficiency evaluation of chosen measurements procedure. (author)

  4. RooStatsCms: a tool for analyses modelling, combination and statistical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piparo, D.; Schott, G.; Quast, G.

    2009-12-01

    The RooStatsCms (RSC) software framework allows analysis modelling and combination, statistical studies together with the access to sophisticated graphics routines for results visualisation. The goal of the project is to complement the existing analyses by means of their combination and accurate statistical studies.

  5. RooStatsCms: a tool for analyses modelling, combination and statistical studies

    CERN Document Server

    Piparo, D; Quast, Prof G

    2008-01-01

    The RooStatsCms (RSC) software framework allows analysis modelling and combination, statistical studies together with the access to sophisticated graphics routines for results visualisation. The goal of the project is to complement the existing analyses by means of their combination and accurate statistical studies.

  6. A mathematical model of combined therapies against cancer using viruses and inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with a procedure for combined therapies against cancer using oncolytic viruses and inhibitors. Replicating genetically modified adenoviruses infect cancer cells, reproduce inside them and eventually cause their death (lysis). As infected cells die, the viruses inside them are released and then proceed to infect other tumor cells. The successful entry of virus into cancer cells is related to the presence of the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR). Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (known as MEK) inhibitors can promote CAR expression, resulting in enhanced adenovirus entry into cancer cells. However, MEK inhibitors can also cause G1 cell-cycle arrest, inhibiting reproduction of the virus. To design an effective synergistic therapy, the promotion of virus infection must be optimally balanced with inhibition of virus production. We introduce a mathematical model to describe the effects of MEK inhibitors and viruses on tumor cells, and use it to explore the reduction of the tumor size that can be achieved by the combined therapies. Furthermore, we find an optimal dose of inhibitor: Poptimal = 1 - μ/δ for a certain initial density of cells (where μ is the removal rate of the dead cells and δ is the death rate of the infected cells). The optimal timing of MEK inhibitors is also numerically studied.

  7. A mathematical model of combined therapies against cancer using viruses and inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO YouShan; GUO Qian

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with a procedure for combined therapies against cancer using oncolytic viruses and inhibitors. Replicating genetically modified adenoviruses infect cancer cells, reproduce inside them and eventually cause their death (lysis). As infected cells die, the viruses inside them are released and then proceed to infect other tumor cells. The successful entry of virus into cancer cells is related to the presence of the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR). Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (known as MEK) inhibitors can promote CAR expression, resulting in enhanced adenovirus entry into cancer cells. However, MEK inhibitors can also cause G1 cell-cycle arrest, inhibiting reproduction of the virus. To design an effective synergistic therapy, the promotion of virus infection must be optimally balanced with inhibition of virus production. We introduce a mathematical model to describe the effects of MEK inhibitors and viruses on tumor cells, and use it to explore the reduction of the tumor size that can be achieved by the combined therapies. Furthermore, we find an optimal dose of inhibitor: Poptimal = I - μ/δ for a certain initial density of cells (where μ is the removal rate of the dead cells and δ is the death rate of the infected cells). The optimal timing of MEK inhibitors is also numerically studied.

  8. Combining Costs and Benefits of Animal Activities to Assess Net Yield Outcomes in Apple Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Manu E; Luck, Gary W

    2016-01-01

    Diverse animal communities influence ecosystem function in agroecosystems through positive and negative plant-animal interactions. Yet, past research has largely failed to examine multiple interactions that can have opposing impacts on agricultural production in a given context. We collected data on arthropod communities and yield quality and quantity parameters (fruit set, yield loss and net outcomes) in three major apple-growing regions in south-eastern Australia. We quantified the net yield outcome (accounting for positive and negative interactions) of multiple animal activities (pollination, fruit damage, biological control) across the entire growing season on netted branches, which excluded vertebrate predators of arthropods, and open branches. Net outcome was calculated as the number of undamaged fruit at harvest as a proportion of the number of blossoms (i.e., potential fruit yield). Vertebrate exclusion resulted in lower levels of fruit set and higher levels of arthropod damage to apples, but did not affect net outcomes. Yield quality and quantity parameters (fruit set, yield loss, net outcomes) were not directly associated with arthropod functional groups. Model variance and significant differences between the ratio of pest to beneficial arthropods between regions indicated that complex relationships between environmental factors and multiple animal interactions have a combined effect on yield. Our results show that focusing on a single crop stage, species group or ecosystem function/service can overlook important complexity in ecological processes within the system. Accounting for this complexity and quantifying the net outcome of ecological interactions within the system, is more informative for research and management of biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes.

  9. Enhanced antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate in combination with rapamycin in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Pan, Jing; Lubet, Ronald A; Komas, Steven M; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Wang, Yian; You, Ming

    2015-04-01

    3-Bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) is an alkylating agent and a well-known inhibitor of energy metabolism. Rapamycin is an inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase mTOR. Both 3-BrPA and rapamycin show chemopreventive efficacy in mouse models of lung cancer. Aerosol delivery of therapeutic drugs for lung cancer has been reported to be an effective route of delivery with little systemic distribution in humans. In this study, 3-BrPA and rapamycin were evaluated in combination for their preventive effects against lung cancer in mice by aerosol treatment, revealing a synergistic ability as measured by tumor multiplicity and tumor load compared treatment with either single-agent alone. No evidence of liver toxicity was detected by monitoring serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzymes. To understand the mechanism in vitro experiments were performed using human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. 3-BrPA and rapamycin also synergistically inhibited cell proliferation. Rapamycin alone blocked the mTOR signaling pathway, whereas 3-BrPA did not potentiate this effect. Given the known role of 3-BrPA as an inhibitor of glycolysis, we investigated mitochondrial bioenergetics changes in vitro in 3-BrPA-treated NSCLC cells. 3-BrPA significantly decreased glycolytic activity, which may be due to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion and decreased expression of GAPDH. Our results demonstrate that rapamycin enhanced the antitumor efficacy of 3-BrPA, and that dual inhibition of mTOR signaling and glycolysis may be an effective therapeutic strategy for lung cancer chemoprevention.

  10. Combining Costs and Benefits of Animal Activities to Assess Net Yield Outcomes in Apple Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    Diverse animal communities influence ecosystem function in agroecosystems through positive and negative plant-animal interactions. Yet, past research has largely failed to examine multiple interactions that can have opposing impacts on agricultural production in a given context. We collected data on arthropod communities and yield quality and quantity parameters (fruit set, yield loss and net outcomes) in three major apple-growing regions in south-eastern Australia. We quantified the net yield outcome (accounting for positive and negative interactions) of multiple animal activities (pollination, fruit damage, biological control) across the entire growing season on netted branches, which excluded vertebrate predators of arthropods, and open branches. Net outcome was calculated as the number of undamaged fruit at harvest as a proportion of the number of blossoms (i.e., potential fruit yield). Vertebrate exclusion resulted in lower levels of fruit set and higher levels of arthropod damage to apples, but did not affect net outcomes. Yield quality and quantity parameters (fruit set, yield loss, net outcomes) were not directly associated with arthropod functional groups. Model variance and significant differences between the ratio of pest to beneficial arthropods between regions indicated that complex relationships between environmental factors and multiple animal interactions have a combined effect on yield. Our results show that focusing on a single crop stage, species group or ecosystem function/service can overlook important complexity in ecological processes within the system. Accounting for this complexity and quantifying the net outcome of ecological interactions within the system, is more informative for research and management of biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes. PMID:27391022

  11. Short communication: Combined antimicrobial activity of reuterin and diacetyl against foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langa, S; Martín-Cabrejas, I; Montiel, R; Landete, J M; Medina, M; Arqués, J L

    2014-10-01

    Reuterin (β-hydroxypropionialdehyde) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial substance produced by some strains of Lactobacillus reuteri during anaerobic fermentation of glycerol. Some of these strains are able to survive and produce reuterin in cheese and yogurt when added as adjuncts to the starter. Similarly, in fermented dairy foods, other inhibitory compounds such as lactic acid and diacetyl are produced during fermentation. In this work, we studied the combined effect of reuterin and diacetyl under different pH conditions against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes. Results from agar spot assays showed that the antimicrobial activity of reuterin-producing strains against the gram-negative bacteria tested was enhanced as the concentration of diacetyl increased to 50 mg/kg, and was higher under acidic conditions (pH 5.0) for the 3 pathogenic strains. The combination of reuterin and diacetyl had an additive effect against L. monocytogenes only at diacetyl concentrations of 50 mg/kg and pH 5.0. In addition, growth kinetics studies showed that the combination of 1 activity unit (AU)/mL of reuterin with 100mg/kg diacetyl increased the lag time of the 3 pathogens. In milk, synergistic antimicrobial activity was observed with the combination of 1 AU/mL reuterin and 50 or 100 mg/kg of diacetyl on the gram-negative strains tested, and with 1 AU/mL reuterin and 100 mg/kg of diacetyl on L. monocytogenes. The greatest inhibition of the 3 pathogens was achieved in acidified milk at pH 5.0 with reuterin (1 AU/mL) and diacetyl (100 mg/kg). Based on these results, the combination of reuterin and diacetyl in acidified dairy products could be a promising strategy to control food pathogens in these products.

  12. Combined Thickness of the Modeled Saddle Mountains Basalt and Mabton Interbed Geomodel Units (smthk_f)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The smthk_f grid represents the modeled combined thickness of the Saddle Mountains Basalt and Mabton interbed geomodel units at a 500 foot resolution. It is one grid...

  13. Potential Benefits of Combining Anomaly Detection with View Planning for UAV Infrastructure Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R Abraham Martin; Landen Blackburn; Joshua Pulsipher; Kevin Franke; John D Hedengren

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for UAV-based 3D modeling of large infrastructure objects, such as pipelines, canals and levees, that combines anomaly detection with automatic on-board 3D view planning...

  14. Computational Models for Analysis of Illicit Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat

    Numerous illicit activities happen in our society, which, from time to time affect the population by harming individuals directly or indirectly. Researchers from different disciplines have contributed to developing strategies to analyze such activities, in order to help law enforcement agents...... traditional models for both of the tasks. Apart from these globally organized crimes and cybercrimes, there happen specific world issues which affect geographic locations and take the form of bursts of public violence. These kinds of issues have received little attention by the academicians. These issues have...... to describe the phenomenon of contagious public outrage, which eventually leads to the spread of violence following a disclosure of some unpopular political decisions and/or activity. The results shed a new light on terror activity and provide some hint on how to curb the spreading of violence within...

  15. Oscillations and multiple steady states in active membrane transport models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, F M; Bisch, P M

    1994-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of some non-linear extensions of the six-state alternating access model for active membrane transport is investigated. We use stoichio-metric network analysis to study the stability of steady states. The bifurcation analysis has been done through standard numerical methods. For the usual six-state model we have proved that there is only one steady state, which is globally asymptotically stable. When we added an autocatalytic step we found self-oscillations. For the competition between a monomer cycle and a dimer cycle, with steps of dimer formation, we have also found self-oscillations. We have also studied models involving the formation of a complex with other molecules. The addition of two steps for formation of a complex of the monomer with another molecule does not alter either the number or the stability of steady states of the basic six-state model. The model which combines the formation of a complex with an autocatalytic step shows both self-oscillations and multiple steady states. The results lead us to conclude that oscillations could be produced by active membrane transport systems if the transport cycle contains a sufficiently large number of steps (six in the present case) and is coupled to at least one autocatalytic reaction,. Oscillations are also predicted when the monomer cycle is coupled to a dimer cycle. In fact, the autocatalytic reaction can be seen as a simplification of the model involving competition between monomer and dimer cycles, which seems to be a more realistic description of biological systems. A self-regulation mechanism of the pumps, related to the multiple stationary states, is expected only for a combined effect of autocatalysis and formation of complexes with other molecules. Within the six-state model this model also leads to oscillation.

  16. Combination of electrochemical, spectrometric and other analytical techniques for high throughput screening of pharmaceutically active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzen, Sibel; Ozkan, Sibel A

    2010-08-01

    Recently, use of electrochemistry and combination of this method with spectroscopic and other analytical techniques are getting one of the important approaches in drug discovery and research as well as quality control, drug stability, determination of physiological activity, measurement of neurotransmitters. Many fundamental physiological processes are depending on oxido-reduction reactions in the body. Therefore, it may be possible to find connections between electrochemical and biochemical reactions concerning electron transfer pathways. Applications of electrochemical techniques to redox-active drug development and studies are one of the recent interests in drug discovery. In this review, the latest developments related to the use of electrochemical techniques in drug research in order to evaluate possible combination spectrometric methods with electrochemical techniques.

  17. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea in combination with lycopene in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Anusha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Portulaca oleracea (P. oleracea in combination with lycopene against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods : Hepatotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (0.1 ml/kg b.w for 14 days. The aqueous extract of P. oleracea in combination with lycopene (50 mg/kg b.w was administered to the experimental animals at two selected doses for 14 days. The hepatoprotective activity of the combination was evaluated by the liver function marker enzymes in the serum [aspartate transaminases (AST, alanine transaminases (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (Alk.P, total bilirubin (TB, total protein (TP and total cholesterol (TC], pentobarbitone induced sleeping time (PST and histopathological studies of liver. Results : Both the treatment groups showed hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity by significantly restoring the levels of serum enzymes to normal which was comparable to that of silymarin group. Besides, the results obtained from PST and histopathological results also support the study. Conclusions : The oral administration of P. oleracea in combination with lycopene significantly ameliorates CCl 4 hepatotoxicity in rats.

  18. Pharmacodynamic activity of Dapivirine and Maraviroc single entity and combination topical gels for HIV-1 prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Yandura, Sarah; Wang, Lin; Moncla, Bernard; Teeple, Elizabeth A.; Devlin, Brid; Nuttall, Jeremy; Brown, Elizabeth R.; Rohan, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dapivirine (DPV), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and maraviroc (MVC), a CCR5 antagonist, were formulated into aqueous gels designed to prevent mucosal HIV transmission. Methods 0.05% DPV, 0.1% MVC, 0.05% DPV/0.1% MVC and placebo gels were evaluated for pH, viscosity, osmolality, and in vitro release. In vitro assays and mucosal tissues were used to evaluate anti-HIV activity. Viability (Lactobacilli only) and epithelial integrity in cell lines and mucosal tissues defined safety. Results The gels were acidic and viscous. DPV gel had an osmolality of 893 mOsm/kg while the other gels had an osmolality of <100 mOsm/kg. MVC release was similar from the single and combination gels (~5 μg/cm2/min1/2), while DPV release was 10-fold less from the single as compared to the combination gel (0.4331 μg/cm2/min1/2). Titrations of the gels showed 10-fold more drug was needed to protect ectocervical than colonic tissue. The combination gel showed ~10- and 100-fold improved activity as compared to DPV and MVC gel, respectively. All gels were safe. Conclusions The DPV/MVC gel showed a benefit blocking HIV infection of mucosal tissue compared to the single entity gels. Combination products with drugs affecting unique steps in the viral replication cycle would be advantageous for HIV prevention. PMID:26078001

  19. Active house: A contemporary housing model for flood affected population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stratimirović Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of architectural knowledge in the struggle for a better future can be seen in the attitude that a good design or a good architectural solution, does not belong solely to the privileged ones as an improvement of the basic requirements, rather quite the opposite, that it is created as a response to a need. The goal of physical and emotional wellbeing, combined with a long term strategy for reducing the negative impact of the built environment by converting it into a positive influence upon the natural ecosystem, brings together and advances bioclimatic principles, architectural design and sustainable construction in the contemporary housing model dubbed the Active House. The Active House Workshop was held, as part of a wider student initiative New Housing Models for Flood Affected Population, at the University of Belgrade - Faculty of Architecture. The purpose of the campaign was to provide help to flood affected communities and assistance in efforts for repairing buildings in Serbia, hit by the severe floods of May 2014. Students came up with nine design solutions for small family homes, which incorporate the principles of Active House into existing construction techniques. In an architectural context, when concerning repair work after flooding, the need to consider problems related to contemporary living conditions through the ‘active’ category is seen in a new understanding of nature which allows the replacement of a passive restoration model, with an active models for designing in interaction with the environment.

  20. PROJECT ACTIVITY ANALYSIS WITHOUT THE NETWORK MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Munapo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper presents a new procedure for analysing and managing activity sequences in projects. The new procedure determines critical activities, critical path, start times, free floats, crash limits, and other useful information without the use of the network model. Even though network models have been successfully used in project management so far, there are weaknesses associated with the use. A network is not easy to generate, and dummies that are usually associated with it make the network diagram complex – and dummy activities have no meaning in the original project management problem. The network model for projects can be avoided while still obtaining all the useful information that is required for project management. What are required are the activities, their accurate durations, and their predecessors.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die navorsing beskryf ’n nuwerwetse metode vir die ontleding en bestuur van die sekwensiële aktiwiteite van projekte. Die voorgestelde metode bepaal kritiese aktiwiteite, die kritieke pad, aanvangstye, speling, verhasing, en ander groothede sonder die gebruik van ’n netwerkmodel. Die metode funksioneer bevredigend in die praktyk, en omseil die administratiewe rompslomp van die tradisionele netwerkmodelle.

  1. Lovastatin inhibits VEGFR and AKT activation: synergistic cytotoxicity in combination with VEGFR inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong T Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a recent study, we demonstrated the ability of lovastatin, a potent inhibitor of mevalonate synthesis, to inhibit the function of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. Lovastatin attenuated ligand-induced receptor activation and downstream signaling through the PI3K/AKT pathway. Combining lovastatin with gefitinib, a potent EGFR inhibitor, induced synergistic cytotoxicity in a variety of tumor derived cell lines. The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR and EGFR share similar activation, internalization and downstream signaling characteristics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The VEGFRs, particularly VEGFR-2 (KDR, Flt-1, play important roles in regulating tumor angiogenesis by promoting endothelial cell proliferation, survival and migration. Certain tumors, such as malignant mesothelioma (MM, also express both the VEGF ligand and VEGFRs that act in an autocrine loop to directly stimulate tumor cell growth and survival. In this study, we have shown that lovastatin inhibits ligand-induced VEGFR-2 activation through inhibition of receptor internalization and also inhibits VEGF activation of AKT in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC and H28 MM cells employing immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Combinations of lovastatin and a VEGFR-2 inhibitor showed more robust AKT inhibition than either agent alone in the H28 MM cell line. Furthermore, combining 5 µM lovastatin treatment, a therapeutically relevant dose, with two different VEGFR-2 inhibitors in HUVEC and the H28 and H2052 mesothelioma derived cell lines demonstrated synergistic cytotoxicity as demonstrated by MTT cell viability and flow cytometric analyses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results highlight a novel mechanism by which lovastatin can regulate VEGFR-2 function and a potential therapeutic approach for MM through combining statins with VEGFR-2 inhibitors.

  2. Combining traditional anatomy lectures with e-learning activities: how do students perceive their learning experience?

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate how students perceived their learning experience when combining traditional anatomy lectures with preparatory e-learning activities that consisted of fill-in-the-blank assignments, videos, and multiple-choice quizzes. Methods A qualitative study was conducted to explore changes in study behaviour and perception of learning. Three group interviews with students were conducted and thematically analysed. Results Data was categorized into fo...

  3. Combining universal beauty and cultural context in a unifying model of visual aesthetic experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eRedies

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, I propose a model of visual aesthetic experience that combines formalist and contextual aspects of aesthetics. The model distinguishes between two modes of processing. First, perceptual processing is based on the intrinsic form of an artwork, which may or may not be beautiful. If it is beautiful, a beauty-responsive mechanism is activated in the brain. This bottom-up mechanism is universal amongst humans; it is widespread in the visual brain and responsive across visual modalities. Second, cognitive processing is based on contextual information, such as the depicted content, the intentions of the artist or the circumstances of the presentation of the artwork. Cognitive processing is partially top-down and varies between individuals according to their cultural experience. Processing in the two channels is parallel and largely independent. In the general case, an aesthetic experience is induced if processing in both channels is favorable, i.e., if there is resonance in the perceptual processing channel (aesthetics of perception, and successful mastering in the cognitive processing channel (aesthetics of cognition. I speculate that this combinatorial mechanism has evolved to mediate social bonding between members of a (cultural group of people. Primary emotions can be elicited via both channels and modulate the degree of the aesthetic experience. Two special cases are discussed. First, in a subset of (post-modern art, beauty no longer plays a prominent role. Second, in some forms of abstract art, beautiful form can be enjoyed with minimal cognitive processing. The model is applied to examples of Western art. Finally, implications of the model are discussed.In summary, the proposed model resolves the seeming contradiction between formalist perceptual approaches to aesthetic experience, which are based on the intrinsic beauty of artworks, and contextual approaches, which account for highly individual and culturally dependent aspects of

  4. Combining universal beauty and cultural context in a unifying model of visual aesthetic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redies, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    In this work, I propose a model of visual aesthetic experience that combines formalist and contextual aspects of aesthetics. The model distinguishes between two modes of processing. First, perceptual processing is based on the intrinsic form of an artwork, which may or may not be beautiful. If it is beautiful, a beauty-responsive mechanism is activated in the brain. This bottom-up mechanism is universal amongst humans; it is widespread in the visual brain and responsive across visual modalities. Second, cognitive processing is based on contextual information, such as the depicted content, the intentions of the artist or the circumstances of the presentation of the artwork. Cognitive processing is partially top-down and varies between individuals according to their cultural experience. Processing in the two channels is parallel and largely independent. In the general case, an aesthetic experience is induced if processing in both channels is favorable, i.e., if there is resonance in the perceptual processing channel ("aesthetics of perception"), and successful mastering in the cognitive processing channel ("aesthetics of cognition"). I speculate that this combinatorial mechanism has evolved to mediate social bonding between members of a (cultural) group of people. Primary emotions can be elicited via both channels and modulate the degree of the aesthetic experience. Two special cases are discussed. First, in a subset of (post-)modern art, beauty no longer plays a prominent role. Second, in some forms of abstract art, beautiful form can be enjoyed with minimal cognitive processing. The model is applied to examples of Western art. Finally, implications of the model are discussed. In summary, the proposed model resolves the seeming contradiction between formalist perceptual approaches to aesthetic experience, which are based on the intrinsic beauty of artworks, and contextual approaches, which account for highly individual and culturally dependent aspects of aesthetics.

  5. Cell extraction combined with off-line HPLC for screening active compounds from Coptis chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng; Wu, Xiao-Dan; Yu, Ya-Ming; Duan, Hongquan; Zhou, Jing; Xu, Liang

    2016-04-01

    Cell membrane chromatography is a useful tool for screening active compounds from natural products. As the reason of separation mechanism, traditional cell membrane chromatography could not be used for screening the active compounds absorbed through the cell membrane and influencing the cell signal transduction pathway. In this work, we establish a new method named cell extraction combined with off-line HPLC for screening the compounds penetrating the cell membrane. This is the first time 3 T3-L1 adipocyte culture has been combined with HPLC technology. Compared with other cell membrane chromatography methods, there is good resolution and no further analysis by other chromatographic steps is required. On co-incubating crude extracts of Coptis chinensis with cells and analyzing the compounds extracted by the cells, active compounds such as berberine were detected. Glucose consumption tests showed that berberine could increase glucose consumption by insulin-resistant 3 T3-L1 adipocytes. The levels of intracellular berberine correlated with its activity. The results indicate that the developed method could be an alternative method for screening active compounds from natural products.

  6. Ciliated protozoa community of a combined UASB-activated sludge system in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Castro, Isabel Cristina Vidal; Greinert-Goulart, Juliane Araújo; Rossetto, Renato; Guimarães, José Roberto; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate the abundance and taxonomic composition of ciliated protozoa in the activated sludge of a full-scale combined anaerobic-aerobic system operating in a tropical country and (2) to study the relationship between the effluent quality, the physicochemical variables, and the ciliates present in the operating system. The total ciliate fauna of the activated sludge of the Piçarrão Wastewater Treatment Plant (Piçarrão WWTP) was composed of 36 morphospecies belonging to 33 genera. These included 21 species observed in the activated sludge samples on the day of collection and 15 species found in cultures. The activated sludge of the Piçarrão WWTP contained a diversified ciliate community composed mainly of indicator organisms. The most frequently occurring morphospecies were Aspidisca cicada, Vorticella spp., Gastronauta aloisi, Acineria uncinata, and Epistylis plicatilis complex. These results showed that satisfactory operating conditions prevailed at the Piçarrão WWTP. In the combined UASB-activated sludge system, the presence of Aspidisca cicada suggests the occurrence of denitrification in the process while the presence of Acineria uncinata and G. alosi indicates the removal of carbonaceous organic matter.

  7. Combination of activity and lying/standing data for detection of oestrus in cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    is measured by a sensor attached to the hind leg of the cow. Activity and lying/standing behaviour are modelled as a discrete event system, constructed using automata theory. In an attempt to estimate a biologically relevant lying balance, a lying balance indicator is constructed and is influencing transition......The objective of this study is to develop an algorithm for detecting oestrus in dairy cows from measurements of activity and duration of lying/standing periods. Each cows activity is measured by a sensor attached to the neck that returns an activity index for each hour. Duration of lying...

  8. Influence of combined pollution of antimony and arsenic on culturable soil microbial populations and enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiongshan; He, Mengchang; Wang, Ying

    2011-01-01

    The effects of both combined and single pollution of antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) in different concentrations on culturable soil microbial populations and enzyme activities were studied under laboratory conditions. Joint effects of both Sb and As were different from that of Sb or As alone. The inhibition rate of culturable soil microbial populations under Sb and As pollution followed the order: bacterial > fungi > actinomycetes. There existed antagonistic inhibiting effect on urease and acid phophatase and synergistic inhibiting effect on protease under the combined pollution of Sb (III) and As (III). Only urease appeared to be the most sensitive indicator under Sb (V) and As (V) pollution, and there existed antagonistic inhibiting effect on acid phophatase and synergistic inhibiting effect on urease and protease under Sb (V) and As (V) combined pollution at most time. In this study, we also confirmed that the trivalent states of Sb and As were more toxic to all the microbes tested and more inhibitory on microbial enzyme activities then their pentavalent counterparts. The results also suggest that not only the application rate of the two metalloids but also the chemical form of metalloids should be considered while assessing the effect of metalloid on culturable microbial populations and enzyme activities. Urease and acid phosphatase can be used as potential biomarkers to evaluate the intensity of Sb (III) and As (III) stress.

  9. Doxorubicin in Combination with a Small TGFβ Inhibitor: A Potential Novel Therapy for Metastatic Breast Cancer in Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Abhik; Wang, Long; Agyin, Joseph; Tang, Yuping; Lin, Shu; Yeh, I-Tien; De, Keya; Sun, Lu-Zhe

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggested that induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) might confer both metastatic and self-renewal properties to breast tumor cells resulting in drug resistance and tumor recurrence. TGFβ is a potent inducer of EMT and has been shown to promote tumor progression in various breast cancer cell and animal models. Principal Findings We report that chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin activates TGFβ signaling in human and murine breast cancer cells. Doxorubicin induced EMT, promoted invasion and enhanced generation of cells with stem cell phenotype in murine 4T1 breast cancer cells in vitro, which were significantly inhibited by a TGFβ type I receptor kinase inhibitor (TβRI-KI). We investigated the potential synergistic anti-tumor activity of TβR1-KI in combination with doxorubicin in animal models of metastatic breast cancer. Combination of Doxorubicin and TβRI-KI enhanced the efficacy of doxorubicin in reducing tumor growth and lung metastasis in the 4T1 orthotopic xenograft model in comparison to single treatments. Doxorubicin treatment alone enhanced metastasis to lung in the human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 orthotopic xenograft model and metastasis to bone in the 4T1 orthotopic xenograft model, which was significantly blocked when TβR1-KI was administered in combination with doxorubicin. Conclusions These observations suggest that the adverse activation of TGFβ pathway by chemotherapeutics in the cancer cells together with elevated TGFβ levels in tumor microenvironment may lead to EMT and generation of cancer stem cells resulting in the resistance to the chemotherapy. Our results indicate that the combination treatment of doxorubicin with a TGFβ inhibitor has the potential to reduce the dose and consequently the toxic side-effects of doxorubicin, and improve its efficacy in the inhibition of breast cancer growth and metastasis. PMID:20442777

  10. Doxorubicin in combination with a small TGFbeta inhibitor: a potential novel therapy for metastatic breast cancer in mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhik Bandyopadhyay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggested that induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT might confer both metastatic and self-renewal properties to breast tumor cells resulting in drug resistance and tumor recurrence. TGFbeta is a potent inducer of EMT and has been shown to promote tumor progression in various breast cancer cell and animal models. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report that chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin activates TGFbeta signaling in human and murine breast cancer cells. Doxorubicin induced EMT, promoted invasion and enhanced generation of cells with stem cell phenotype in murine 4T1 breast cancer cells in vitro, which were significantly inhibited by a TGFbeta type I receptor kinase inhibitor (TbetaRI-KI. We investigated the potential synergistic anti-tumor activity of TbetaR1-KI in combination with doxorubicin in animal models of metastatic breast cancer. Combination of Doxorubicin and TbetaRI-KI enhanced the efficacy of doxorubicin in reducing tumor growth and lung metastasis in the 4T1 orthotopic xenograft model in comparison to single treatments. Doxorubicin treatment alone enhanced metastasis to lung in the human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 orthotopic xenograft model and metastasis to bone in the 4T1 orthotopic xenograft model, which was significantly blocked when TbetaR1-KI was administered in combination with doxorubicin. CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest that the adverse activation of TGFbeta pathway by chemotherapeutics in the cancer cells together with elevated TGFbeta levels in tumor microenvironment may lead to EMT and generation of cancer stem cells resulting in the resistance to the chemotherapy. Our results indicate that the combination treatment of doxorubicin with a TGFbeta inhibitor has the potential to reduce the dose and consequently the toxic side-effects of doxorubicin, and improve its efficacy in the inhibition of breast cancer growth and metastasis.

  11. A "Kane's Dynamics" Model for the Active Rack Isolation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, R. D.; Beech, G. S.; Rao, N. N. S.; Rupert, J. K.; Kim, Y. K.

    2001-01-01

    Many microgravity space science experiments require vibratory acceleration levels unachievable without active isolation. The Boeing Corporation's Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) employs a novel combination of magnetic actuation and mechanical linkages to address these isolation requirements on the International Space Station (ISS). ARIS provides isolation at the rack (International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR)) level. Effective model-based vibration isolation requires: (1) an appropriate isolation device, (2) an adequate dynamic (i.e., mathematical) model of that isolator, and (3) a suitable, corresponding controller. ARIS provides the ISS response to the first requirement. This paper presents one response to the second, in a state space framework intended to facilitate an optimal-controls approach to the third. The authors use "Kane's Dynamics" to develop a state-space, analytical (algebraic) set of linearized equations of motion for ARIS.

  12. A "Kanes's Dynamics" Model for the Active Rack Isolation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, R. David; Beech, Geoffrey

    1999-01-01

    Many microgravity space-science experiments require vibratory acceleration levels unachievable without active isolation. The Boeing Corporation's Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) employs a novel combination of magnetic actuation and mechanical linkages, to address these isolation requirements on the International Space Station (ISS). ARIS provides isolation at the rack (international Standard Payload Rack, or ISPR) level. Effective model-based vibration isolation requires (1) an appropriate isolation device, (2) an adequate dynamic (i.e., mathematical) model of that isolator, and (3) a suitable, corresponding controller. ARIS provides the ISS response to the first requirement. This paper presents one response to the second, in a state-space framework intended to facilitate an optimal-controls approach to the third. The authors use "Kane's Dynamics" to develop an state-space, analytical (algebraic) set of linearized equations of motion for ARIS.

  13. Tumor therapy with a urokinase plasminogen activator-activated anthrax lethal toxin alone and in combination with paclitaxel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Alexander N.; Liu, Shihui; Zhang, Yi; McKenzie, Andrew T.; Leppla, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    PA-U2, an engineered anthrax protective antigen that is activated by urokinase was combined with wild-type lethal factor in the treatment of Colo205 colon adenocarcinoma in vitro and B16-BL6 mouse melanoma in vitro and in vivo. This therapy was also tested in combination with the small molecule paclitaxel, based on prior reports suggesting synergy between ERK1/2 inhibition and chemotherapeutics. Colo205 was sensitive to PA-U2/LF while B16-BL6 was not. For the combination treatment of B16-BL6, paclitaxel showed a dose response in vitro, but cells remained resistant to PA-U2/LF even in the presence of paclitaxel. In vivo, each therapy slowed tumor progression, and an additive effect between the two was observed. Since LF targets tumor vasculature while paclitaxel is an anti-mitotic, it is possible the agents were acting against different cells in the stroma, precluding a synergistic effect. The engineered anthrax toxin PA-U2/LF warrants further development and testing, possibly in combination with an anti-angiogenesis therapy such as sunitinib or sorafinib. PMID:22843210

  14. BAYESIAN FORECASTS COMBINATION TO IMPROVE THE ROMANIAN INFLATION PREDICTIONS BASED ON ECONOMETRIC MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Simionescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many types of econometric models used in predicting the inflation rate, but in this study we used a Bayesian shrinkage combination approach. This methodology is used in order to improve the predictions accuracy by including information that is not captured by the econometric models. Therefore, experts’ forecasts are utilized as prior information, for Romania these predictions being provided by Institute for Economic Forecasting (Dobrescu macromodel, National Commission for Prognosis and European Commission. The empirical results for Romanian inflation show the superiority of a fixed effects model compared to other types of econometric models like VAR, Bayesian VAR, simultaneous equations model, dynamic model, log-linear model. The Bayesian combinations that used experts’ predictions as priors, when the shrinkage parameter tends to infinite, improved the accuracy of all forecasts based on individual models, outperforming also zero and equal weights predictions and naïve forecasts.

  15. Research on Short-Term Wind Power Prediction Based on Combined Forecasting Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-Term wind power forecasting is crucial for power grid since the generated energy of wind farm fluctuates frequently. In this paper, a physical forecasting model based on NWP and a statistical forecasting model with optimized initial value in the method of BP neural network are presented. In order to make full use of the advantages of the models presented and overcome the limitation of the disadvantage, the equal weight model and the minimum variance model are established for wind power prediction. Simulation results show that the combination forecasting model is more precise than single forecasting model and the minimum variance combination model can dynamically adjust weight of each single method, restraining the forecasting error further.

  16. Measurement and modeling of depth cue combination: in defense of weak fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, M S; Maloney, L T; Johnston, E B; Young, M

    1995-02-01

    Various visual cues provide information about depth and shape in a scene. When several of these cues are simultaneously available in a single location in the scene, the visual system attempts to combine them. In this paper, we discuss three key issues relevant to the experimental analysis of depth cue combination in human vision: cue promotion, dynamic weighting of cues, and robustness of cue combination. We review recent psychophysical studies of human depth cue combination in light of these issues. We organize the discussion and review as the development of a model of the depth cue combination process termed modified weak fusion (MWF). We relate the MWF framework to Bayesian theories of cue combination. We argue that the MWF model is consistent with previous experimental results and is a parsimonious summary of these results. While the MWF model is motivated by normative considerations, it is primarily intended to guide experimental analysis of depth cue combination in human vision. We describe experimental methods, analogous to perturbation analysis, that permit us to analyze depth cue combination in novel ways. In particular these methods allow us to investigate the key issues we have raised. We summarize recent experimental tests of the MWF framework that use these methods.

  17. Impacts of combining reanalyses and weather station data on the accuracy of discharge modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essou, Gilles R. C.; Brissette, François; Lucas-Picher, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    Reanalyses are important sources of meteorological data. Recent studies have shown that precipitation and temperature data from reanalysis present a strong potential for hydrological modelling, especially in regions with a sparse observational network. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impacts of the combination of three global atmospheric reanalyses - ERA-Interim, CFSR and MERRA - and one gridded observation dataset on the accuracy of hydrological model discharge simulations. Two combination approaches were used. The first one combined reanalyses and the observational database using a weighted average of the precipitation and temperature inputs. The second one consisted in using all meteorological inputs separately and combining the simulated hydrographs. The combinations were performed over 460 Canadian watersheds (representing regions with a low density of weather stations) and 370 US watersheds (representing regions with a higher density of weather stations). Results showed significant improvements in the simulated discharges for 68% and 92% of the Canadian watersheds for the input combinations and output combinations, respectively. Moreover, both approaches led to significant improvements in the simulated discharges for 72% of the US watersheds studied. For all watersheds where simulated discharges using observational data had a Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) lower than 0.5, the combination with reanalyses resulted in a median NSE increase of 0.3. This indicates that reanalysis can successfully compensate for deficiencies in the surface observation record and provide significantly better hydrological modelling performance.

  18. Object tracking using active appearance models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2001-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that (near) real-time object tracking can be accomplished by the deformable template model; the Active Appearance Model (AAM) using only low-cost consumer electronics such as a PC and a web-camera. Successful object tracking of perspective, rotational and translational...... transformations was carried out using a training set of five images. The tracker was automatically initialised by a described multi-scale initialisation method and achieved a performance in the range of 7-10 frames per second....

  19. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of combined therapy of silver nanoparticles and visible blue light against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour El Din S

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Suzanne Nour El Din,1 Tarek A El-Tayeb,2 Khaled Abou-Aisha,1 Mohamed El-Azizi1 1Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, German University in Cairo, 2National Institute for Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have been used as potential antimicrobial agents against resistant pathogens. We investigated the possible therapeutic use of AgNPs in combination with visible blue light against a multidrug resistant clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro and in vivo. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs against P. aeruginosa (1×105 colony forming unit/mL was investigated at its minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and sub-MIC, alone and in combination with blue light at 460 nm and 250 mW for 2 hours. The effect of this combined therapy on the treated bacteria was then visualized using transmission electron microscope. The therapy was also assessed in the prevention of biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa on AgNP-impregnated gelatin biopolymer discs. Further, in vivo investigations were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the combined therapy to prevent burn-wound colonization and sepsis in mice and, finally, to treat a real infected horse with antibiotic-unresponsive chronic wound. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs and visible blue light was significantly enhanced (P<0.001 when both agents were combined compared to each agent alone when AgNPs were tested at MIC, 1/2, or 1/4 MIC. Transmission electron microscope showed significant damage to the cells that were treated with the combined therapy compared to other cells that received either the AgNPs or blue light. In addition, the combined treatment significantly (P<0.001 inhibited biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa on gelatin discs compared to each agent individually. Finally, the combined therapy effectively treated a horse suffering from a chronic wound caused by mixed

  20. A Combined Cooperative Braking Model with a Predictive Control Strategy in an Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqiang Guo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative braking with regenerative braking and mechanical braking plays an important role in electric vehicles for energy-saving control. Based on the parallel and the series cooperative braking models, a combined model with a predictive control strategy to get a better cooperative braking performance is presented. The balance problem between the maximum regenerative energy recovery efficiency and the optimum braking stability is solved through an off-line process optimization stream with the collaborative optimization algorithm (CO. To carry out the process optimization stream, the optimal Latin hypercube design (Opt LHD is presented to discrete the continuous design space. To solve the poor real-time problem of the optimization, a high-precision predictive model based on the off-line optimization data of the combined model is built, and a predictive control strategy is proposed and verified through simulation. The simulation results demonstrate that the predictive control strategy and the combined model are reasonable and effective.

  1. Combining Metabolite-Based Pharmacophores with Bayesian Machine Learning Models for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Ekins

    Full Text Available Integrated computational approaches for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb are useful to identify new molecules that could lead to future tuberculosis (TB drugs. Our approach uses information derived from the TBCyc pathway and genome database, the Collaborative Drug Discovery TB database combined with 3D pharmacophores and dual event Bayesian models of whole-cell activity and lack of cytotoxicity. We have prioritized a large number of molecules that may act as mimics of substrates and metabolites in the TB metabolome. We computationally searched over 200,000 commercial molecules using 66 pharmacophores based on substrates and metabolites from Mtb and further filtering with Bayesian models. We ultimately tested 110 compounds in vitro that resulted in two compounds of interest, BAS 04912643 and BAS 00623753 (MIC of 2.5 and 5 μg/mL, respectively. These molecules were used as a starting point for hit-to-lead optimization. The most promising class proved to be the quinoxaline di-N-oxides, evidenced by transcriptional profiling to induce mRNA level perturbations most closely resembling known protonophores. One of these, SRI58 exhibited an MIC = 1.25 μg/mL versus Mtb and a CC50 in Vero cells of >40 μg/mL, while featuring fair Caco-2 A-B permeability (2.3 x 10-6 cm/s, kinetic solubility (125 μM at pH 7.4 in PBS and mouse metabolic stability (63.6% remaining after 1 h incubation with mouse liver microsomes. Despite demonstration of how a combined bioinformatics/cheminformatics approach afforded a small molecule with promising in vitro profiles, we found that SRI58 did not exhibit quantifiable blood levels in mice.

  2. Combined chemical and structural signals of biomaterials synergistically activate cell-cell communications for improving tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yachen; Peng, Jinliang; Dong, Xin; Xu, Yuhong; Li, Haiyan; Chang, Jiang

    2017-06-01

    Biomaterials are only used as carriers of cells in the conventional tissue engineering. Considering the multi-cell environment and active cell-biomaterial interactions in tissue regeneration process, in this study, structural signals of aligned electrospun nanofibers and chemical signals of bioglass (BG) ionic products in cell culture medium are simultaneously applied to activate fibroblast-endothelial co-cultured cells in order to obtain an improved skin tissue engineering construct. Results demonstrate that the combined biomaterial signals synergistically activate fibroblast-endothelial co-culture skin tissue engineering constructs through promotion of paracrine effects and stimulation of gap junctional communication between cells, which results in enhanced vascularization and extracellular matrix protein synthesis in the constructs. Structural signals of aligned electrospun nanofibers play an important role in stimulating both of paracrine and gap junctional communication while chemical signals of BG ionic products mainly enhance paracrine effects. In vivo experiments reveal that the activated skin tissue engineering constructs significantly enhance wound healing as compared to control. This study indicates the advantages of synergistic effects between different bioactive signals of biomaterials can be taken to activate communication between different types of cells for obtaining tissue engineering constructs with improved functions. Tissue engineering can regenerate or replace tissue or organs through combining cells, biomaterials and growth factors. Normally, for repairing a specific tissue, only one type of cells, one kind of biomaterials, and specific growth factors are used to support cell growth. In this study, we proposed a novel tissue engineering approach by simply using co-cultured cells and combined biomaterial signals. Using a skin tissue engineering model, we successfully proved that the combined biomaterial signals such as surface nanostructures

  3. Modelling Proteasome and Proteasome Regulator Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Liepe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteasomes are key proteases involved in a variety of processes ranging from the clearance of damaged proteins to the presentation of antigens to CD8+ T-lymphocytes. Which cleavage sites are used within the target proteins and how fast these proteins are degraded have a profound impact on immune system function and many cellular metabolic processes. The regulation of proteasome activity involves different mechanisms, such as the substitution of the catalytic subunits, the binding of regulatory complexes to proteasome gates and the proteasome conformational modifications triggered by the target protein itself. Mathematical models are invaluable in the analysis; and potentially allow us to predict the complex interactions of proteasome regulatory mechanisms and the final outcomes of the protein degradation rate and MHC class I epitope generation. The pioneering attempts that have been made to mathematically model proteasome activity, cleavage preference variation and their modification by one of the regulatory mechanisms are reviewed here.

  4. Anti-malarial activities of Andrographis paniculata and Hedyotis corymbosa extracts and their combination with curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swain Bijay K

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herbal extracts of Andrographis paniculata (AP and Hedyotis corymbosa (HC are known as hepato-protective and fever-reducing drugs since ancient time and they have been used regularly by the people in the south Asian sub-continent. Methanolic extracts of these two plants were tested in vitro on choloroquine sensitive (MRC-pf-20 and resistant (MRC-pf-303 strains of Plasmodium falciparum for their anti-malarial activity. Methods Growth inhibition was determined using different concentrations of these plant extracts on synchronized P. falciparum cultures at the ring stage. The interactions between these two plant extracts and individually with curcumin were studied in vitro. The performance of these two herbal extracts in isolation and combination were further evaluated in vivo on Balb/c mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA and their efficacy was compared with that of curcumin. The in vivo toxicity of the plant derived compounds as well as their parasite stage-specificity was studied. Results The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 of AP (7.2 μg/ml was found better than HC (10.8 μg/ml. Combination of these two herbal drugs showed substantial enhancement in their anti-malarial activity. Combinatorial effect of each of these with curcumin also revealed anti-malarial effect. Additive interaction between the plant extracts (AP + HC and their individual synergism with curcumin (AP+CUR, HC+CUR were evident from this study. Increased in vivo potency was also observed with the combination of plant extracts over the individual extracts and curcumin. Both the plant extracts were found to inhibit the ring stage of the parasite and did not show any in vivo toxicity, whether used in isolation or in combination. Conclusion Both these two plant extracts in combination with curcumin could be an effective, alternative source of herbal anti-malarial drugs.

  5. Internal Model Based Active Disturbance Rejection Control

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Jinwen; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The basic active disturbance rejection control (BADRC) algorithm with only one order higher extended state observer (ESO) proves to be robust to both internal and external disturbances. An advantage of BADRC is that in many applications it can achieve high disturbance attenuation level without requiring a detailed model of the plant or disturbance. However, this can be regarded as a disadvantage when the disturbance characteristic is known since the BADRC algorithm cannot exploit such informa...

  6. Evaluation of efficacy of combination of methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine with leflunomide in active rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikumar N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several new drugs for rheumatoid arthritis are available including leflunomide. Comparative studies of treatment with leflunomide (against methotrexate report a better quality of life. Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of combination of methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine with leflunomide, a new disease modifying antirheumatoid drug. Analysis was of intent to treat group. Materials and Methods: This was an open labeled, randomized, comparative clinical trial in the department of rheumatology and immunology, at a tertiary care center in Bangalore. Patients who have diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis as per American College of Rheumatology aged between 18 and 60 years were recruited and randomized to receive leflunomide (10 mg/day p.o. or a combination of methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine (7.5 mg/week p.o. and 200 mg/day p.o., respectively along with folate supplementation for 12 weeks. The European League Against Rheumatism criteria of improvement according to disease activity score 28 was considered as the primary efficacy variable. Baseline and end of study values were evaluated. The duration of the study period was 1 year. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Wilcoxon Signed rank test were used for statistical analysis. Results: After 12 weeks, improvement noted in patients treated with leflunomide was similar to those treated with a combination of methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine. There was no statistical significance in improvement in disease activity between the two groups (P = 0.377. Conclusion: Combination of methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine is equivalent to leflunomide in terms of efficacy in reducing disease activity in the initial treatment of severe rheumatoid arthritis.

  7. Evaluation of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for treatment of ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R J Hunter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The objective was to define the mechanism of the growth inhibition of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC alone and evaluate its activity in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD. Scientific Methods: In vitro growth inhibition assays were completed with AHCC alone and in combination with PLD in panel of human cancer cell lines  and findings confirmed in vivo in an ovarian cancer xenograft mouse model.  AHCC mechanism of action was evaluated with immunoblotting and flow cytometry studies. Major Findings: The in vitro growth inhibition assays demonstrated additive activity when AHCC is co-administered with PLD.  The combination of AHCC with PLD demonstrated a 64.1% reduction in tumor growth compared to the untreated group (p value = 0.03 and a 31.2% improvement in tumor response with combination regimen compared to PLD alone. No difference in toxicity was observed in the control or treatment groups.  An increased expression of Bcl-2 was observed and induction of apoptosis confirmed in presence of AHCC. Conclusions: There is potential improvement in PLD activity when co-administered with AHCC and decrease side effects of PLD.  A clinical study to evaluate of the combination of AHCC plus PLD in the treatment of ovarian cancer is being pursued. Industrial Relevance: This study presents an example of the successful integration of a well- known herbal supplement, AHCC, with traditional western medicine cytotoxic agent, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, for the treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer.    In addition to providing evidence of the efficacy of AHCC, the mechanism of improved activity was also investigated.   Using a traditional approach this study provides pre-clinical data to support the benefits previously observed and reported in the clinical setting and supports future endeavors to integrate AHCC into standard of care to be given with chemotherapy. .  These finding are particularly beneficial in the

  8. Combining traditional anatomy lectures with e-learning activities: how do students perceive their learning experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Lukas; Wieser, Heike; Waldboth, Simone; Mischo-Kelling, Maria

    2016-02-21

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how students perceived their learning experience when combining traditional anatomy lectures with preparatory e-learning activities that consisted of fill-in-the-blank assignments, videos, and multiple-choice quizzes. A qualitative study was conducted to explore changes in study behaviour and perception of learning. Three group interviews with students were conducted and thematically analysed. Data was categorized into four themes: 1. Approaching the course material, 2. Understanding the material, 3. Consolidating the material, and 4. Perceived learning outcome. Students appreciated the clear structure of the course, and reported that online activities encouraged them towards a first engagement with the material. They felt that they were more active during in-class sessions, described self-study before the end-of-term exam as easier, and believed that contents would remain in their memories for a longer time. By adjusting already existing resources, lectures can be combined fairly easily and cost-effectively with preparatory e-learning activities. The creation of online components promote well-structured courses, can help minimize 'student passivity' as a characteristic element of lectures, and can support students in distributing their studies throughout the term, thus suggesting enhanced learning. Further research work should be designed to confirm the afore-mentioned findings through objective measurements of student learning outcomes.

  9. A combined Preisach–Hyperbolic Tangent model for magnetic hysteresis of Terfenol-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talebian, Soheil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hojjat, Yousef, E-mail: yhojjat@modares.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghodsi, Mojtaba [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat (Oman); Karafi, Mohammad Reza [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzamohammadi, Shahed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    This study presents a new model using the combination of Preisach and Hyperbolic Tangent models, to predict the magnetic hysteresis of Terfenol-D at different frequencies. Initially, a proper experimental setup was fabricated and used to obtain different magnetic hysteresis curves of Terfenol-D; such as major, minor and reversal loops. Then, it was shown that the Hyperbolic Tangent model is precisely capable of modeling the magnetic hysteresis of the Terfenol-D for both rate-independent and rate-dependent cases. Empirical equations were proposed with respect to magnetic field frequency which can calculate the non-dimensional coefficients needed by the model. These empirical equations were validated at new frequencies of 100 Hz and 300 Hz. Finally, the new model was developed through the combination of Preisach and Hyperbolic Tangent models. In the combined model, analytical relations of the Hyperbolic Tangent model for the first order reversal loops determined the weighting function of the Preisach model. This model reduces the required experiments and errors due to numerical differentiations generally needed for characterization of the Preisach function. In addition, it can predict the rate-dependent hysteresis as well as rate-independent hysteresis. - Highlights: • Different hysteresis curves of Terfenol-D are experimentally obtained at 0–200 Hz. • A new model is presented using combination of Preisach and Hyperbolic Tangent models. • The model predicts both rate-independent and rate-dependent hystereses of Terfenol-D. • The analytical model reduces the numerical errors and number of required experiments.

  10. Combining Targeted Metabolomic Data with a Model of Glucose Metabolism: Toward Progress in Chondrocyte Mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Daniel; Carlson, Ross P.; McCutchen, Carley N.

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a debilitating disease likely involving altered metabolism of the chondrocytes in articular cartilage. Chondrocytes can respond metabolically to mechanical loads via cellular mechanotransduction, and metabolic changes are significant because they produce the precursors to the tissue matrix necessary for cartilage health. However, a comprehensive understanding of how energy metabolism changes with loading remains elusive. To improve our understanding of chondrocyte mechanotransduction, we developed a computational model to calculate the rate of reactions (i.e. flux) across multiple components of central energy metabolism based on experimental data. We calculated average reaction flux profiles of central metabolism for SW1353 human chondrocytes subjected to dynamic compression for 30 minutes. The profiles were obtained solving a bounded variable linear least squares problem, representing the stoichiometry of human central energy metabolism. Compression synchronized chondrocyte energy metabolism. These data are consistent with dynamic compression inducing early time changes in central energy metabolism geared towards more active protein synthesis. Furthermore, this analysis demonstrates the utility of combining targeted metabolomic data with a computational model to enable rapid analysis of cellular energy utilization. PMID:28056047

  11. Evaluation of antidepressant like activity of curcumin and its combination with fluoxetine and imipramine: an acute and chronic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmukhani, Jayesh; Anovadiya, Ashish; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu B

    2011-01-01

    Curcumin is the active ingredient of commonly used spice Curuma longa Linn. In the present study, the antidepressant like activity of curcumin and its combination with fluoxetine and imipramine was studied in acute model (three doses 24, 5 and 1 h before test) of forced swimming test (FST) in glass jar and tail suspension test (TST) in mice and in chronic model (14 day study) of FST with water wheel in rats. All the tests were carried out in the following seven groups (n = 6 in each group), drugs being given orally (doses for mice): Group 1 (vehicle), group 2 (curcumin 50 mg/kg), group 3 (curcumin 100 mg/kg), group 4 (fluoxetine 20 mg/kg), group 5 (imipramine 15 mg/kg), group 6 (curcumin 100 mg/kg plus fluoxetine 20 mg/kg) and group 7 (curcumin 100 mg/kg plus imipramine 15 mg/kg). Equivalent doses for rats were used. Both the acute model of FST and TST, and the chronic model of FST with water wheel showed significant antidepressant like activity of curcumin in 100 mg/kg dose as compared to vehicle control (p imipramine (p > 0.05) but its addition to fluoxetine and imipramine did not improve their antidepressant activity (p > 0.05). Curcumin increased both the swimming and climbing behavior in FST, thus its antidepressant like activity could be due to an increase in serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine levels in the brain. Curcumin can be a useful antidepressant especially in cases which respond to drugs having mixed effects on serotonin and catecholamines levels in the brain.

  12. Modelling the impacts of Combined Sewer Overflows on the river Seine water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Stéphanie; Mouchel, Jean-Marie; Servais, Pierre; Flipo, Nicolas; Poulin, Michel; Blanc, Stéphanie; Chabanel, Matthieu; Paffoni, Catherine

    2007-04-01

    To achieve the objectives of the European Water Framework Directive (EWFD), the Seine basin Water Authority has constructed a number of prospective scenarios forecasting the impact of planned investments in water quality. Paris and its suburbs were given special attention because of their impact on the river Seine. Paris sewer system and overflow control is of major concern in future management plans. The composition and fate of the urban effluents have been characterized through numerous in situ samplings, laboratory experiments and modelling studies. The PROSE model was especially designed to simulate the impact on the river of both permanent dry-weather effluents and of highly transient Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO). It was also used to represent the impact of Paris at large spatial and temporal scales. In addition to immediate effects on oxygen levels, heavy particulate organic matter loads that settle downstream of the outlets contribute to permanent oxygen consumption. Until the late 90s, the 50 km long reach of the Seine inside Paris was permanently affected by high oxygen consumption accounting for 112% of the flux upstream of the city. 20% of this demand resulted from CSO. However, the oxygenation of the system is strong due to high phytoplankton activity. As expected, the model results predict a reduction of both permanent dry-weather effluents and CSOs in the future that will greatly improve the oxygen levels (concentrations higher than 7.3 mgO(2) L(-1), 90% of the time instead of 4.0 mgO(2) L(-1) in the late 90s). The main conclusion is that, given the spatial and temporal extent of the impact of many CSOs, water quality models should take into account the CSOs in order to be reliable.

  13. 寒、热方剂对水浸应激型胃溃疡寒、热证模型大鼠胃组织SOD活性、MDA含量的影响%The Influence of Cold or Heat Prescription on SOD Activity,MDA Contents in Gastric Tissue on Gastric Ulcer Induced by Bondage Water Immersion Stress Combined with Cold or Heat Syndrome Model Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冀; 毕珺辉; 柴剑波; 李胜志; 高彦宇; 肖洪彬; 赵雪莹

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨水浸应激型胃溃疡寒、热证模型的自由基代谢机制及寒、热方剂对该模型的自由基代谢的影响,阐明其方证相应的客观规律.方法:采用寒因素(冰水,0.3 mol/LNaOH液)、热因素(8%干辣椒粉的60%乙醇混悬液)分别结合水浸应激法,建立实验性大鼠胃溃疡寒、热证模型.采用黄嘌呤氧化酶法(羟氨法)、硫代巴比妥酸法检测胃组织中SOD活力及MDA含量.结果:SOD方面,水应激胃溃疡组、水应激胃溃疡寒证组、水应激胃溃疡热证组与空白比较活力下降,有显著性差异(P<0.01),但寒证与热证间比较无明显差异.MDA方面,水应激胃溃疡组、水应激胃溃疡热证组、单纯热证组与与空白比较含量明显升高,有显著性差异(P<0.01),且以水应激胃溃疡热证组升高最为显著.大黄黄连泻心汤、理中丸可选择性针对相应的寒性、热性模型体现出对自由基代谢的调节作用.结论:通过“方证相应”理论验证了“病证结合”胃溃疡寒、热证模型的可行性.水浸应激型胃溃疡寒、热证模型存在自由基代谢异常.MDA可作为水浸应激型胃溃疡热证的微观指征.%Objective: To explore the free radical metabolize mechanism of gastric ulcer model induced by bondage water immersion stress combined with cold or heat syndrome, and the influence of cold or heat prescription on free radical me-tabolizable mechanism. And to observe the basic mechanism of action and objective regularity of "formula - syndrome corresponding" of cold or heat formula on gastric ulcer model combined with cold or heat syndrome. Methods; Adopting cold or heat factors combined with bondage water immersion stress methods to establish gastric ulcer model combined with cold and heat syndrome. Using xanthine oxidase method to detect the activity of SOD and thibabituric acid(TBA) method to detect the contents of MDA in gastric tissue. Results:Compared with the blank group, the

  14. Self-organizing model of motor cortical activities during drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Siming H.; Si, Jennie; Schwartz, Andrew B.

    1996-05-01

    The population vector algorithm has been developed to combine the simultaneous direction- related activities of a population of motor cortical neurons to predict the trajectory of the arm movement. In our study, we consider a self-organizing model of a neural representation of the arm trajectory based on neuronal discharge rates. Self-organizing feature mapping (SOFM) is used to select the optimal set of weights in the model to determine the contribution of individual neuron to the overall movement. The correspondence between the movement directions and the discharge patterns of the motor cortical neurons is established in the output map. The topology preserving property of the SOFM is used to analyze real recorded data of a behavior monkey. The data used in this analysis were taken while the monkey was drawing spirals and doing the center out movement. Using such a statistical model, the monkey's arm moving directions could be well predicted based on the motor cortex neuronal firing information.

  15. Electricity Price Forecast Using Combined Models with Adaptive Weights Selected and Errors Calibrated by Hidden Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A combined forecast with weights adaptively selected and errors calibrated by Hidden Markov model (HMM is proposed to model the day-ahead electricity price. Firstly several single models were built to forecast the electricity price separately. Then the validation errors from every individual model were transformed into two discrete sequences: an emission sequence and a state sequence to build the HMM, obtaining a transmission matrix and an emission matrix, representing the forecasting ability state of the individual models. The combining weights of the individual models were decided by the state transmission matrixes in HMM and the best predict sample ratio of each individual among all the models in the validation set. The individual forecasts were averaged to get the combining forecast with the weights obtained above. The residuals of combining forecast were calibrated by the possible error calculated by the emission matrix of HMM. A case study of day-ahead electricity market of Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM, USA, suggests that the proposed method outperforms individual techniques of price forecasting, such as support vector machine (SVM, generalized regression neural networks (GRNN, day-ahead modeling, and self-organized map (SOM similar days modeling.

  16. Simulation model structure numerically robust to changes in magnitude and combination of input and output variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bjarne D.; Jakobsen, Arne

    1999-01-01

    instabilities prevent the practical use of such a system model for more than one input/output combination and for other magnitudes of refrigerating capacities.A higher numerical robustness of system models can be achieved by making a model for the refrigeration cycle the core of the system model and by using...... variables with narrow definition intervals for the exchange of information between the cycle model and the component models.The advantages of the cycle-oriented method are illustrated by an example showing the refrigeration cycle similarities between two very different refrigeration systems.......Mathematical models of refrigeration systems are often based on a coupling of component models forming a “closed loop” type of system model. In these models the coupling structure of the component models represents the actual flow path of refrigerant in the system. Very often numerical...

  17. In vivo determination of fluctuating forces during endosome trafficking using a combination of active and passive microrheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Damien; Nguyen, Thi-Hanh; Gallet, François; Wilhelm, Claire

    2010-04-06

    Regulation of intracellular trafficking is a central issue in cell biology. The forces acting on intracellular vesicles (endosomes) can be assessed in living cells by using a combination of active and passive microrheology. This dual approach is based on endosome labeling with magnetic nanoparticles. The resulting magnetic endosomes act both as probes that can be manipulated with external magnetic fields to infer the viscoelastic modulus of their surrounding microenvironment, and as biological vehicles that are trafficked along the microtubule network by means of forces generated by molecular motors. The intracellular viscoelastic modulus exhibits power law dependence with frequency, which is microtubule and actin-dependent. The mean square displacements of endosomes do not follow the predictions of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, which offers evidence for active force generation. Microtubule disruption brings the intracellular medium closer to thermal equilibrium: active forces acting on the endosomes depend on microtubule-associated motors. The power spectra of these active forces, deduced through the use of a generalized Langevin equation, show a power law decrease with frequency and reveal an actin-dependent persistence of the force with time. Experimental spectra have been reproduced by a simple model consisting in a series of force steps power-law distributed in time. This model enlightens the role of the cytoskeleton dependent force exerted on endosomes to perform intracellular trafficking. In this work, the influence of cytoskeleton components and molecular motors on intracellular viscoelasticity and transport is addressed. The use of an original probe, the magnetic endosome, allows retrieving the power spectrum of active forces on these organelles thanks to interrelated active and passive measures. Finally a computational model gives estimates of the force itself and hence of the number of the motors pulling on endosomes.

  18. In vivo determination of fluctuating forces during endosome trafficking using a combination of active and passive microrheology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Robert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regulation of intracellular trafficking is a central issue in cell biology. The forces acting on intracellular vesicles (endosomes can be assessed in living cells by using a combination of active and passive microrheology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This dual approach is based on endosome labeling with magnetic nanoparticles. The resulting magnetic endosomes act both as probes that can be manipulated with external magnetic fields to infer the viscoelastic modulus of their surrounding microenvironment, and as biological vehicles that are trafficked along the microtubule network by means of forces generated by molecular motors. The intracellular viscoelastic modulus exhibits power law dependence with frequency, which is microtubule and actin-dependent. The mean square displacements of endosomes do not follow the predictions of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, which offers evidence for active force generation. Microtubule disruption brings the intracellular medium closer to thermal equilibrium: active forces acting on the endosomes depend on microtubule-associated motors. The power spectra of these active forces, deduced through the use of a generalized Langevin equation, show a power law decrease with frequency and reveal an actin-dependent persistence of the force with time. Experimental spectra have been reproduced by a simple model consisting in a series of force steps power-law distributed in time. This model enlightens the role of the cytoskeleton dependent force exerted on endosomes to perform intracellular trafficking. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this work, the influence of cytoskeleton components and molecular motors on intracellular viscoelasticity and transport is addressed. The use of an original probe, the magnetic endosome, allows retrieving the power spectrum of active forces on these organelles thanks to interrelated active and passive measures. Finally a computational model gives estimates of the force itself

  19. Profile-QSAR: a novel meta-QSAR method that combines activities across the kinase family to accurately predict affinity, selectivity, and cellular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Eric; Mukherjee, Prasenjit; Sullivan, David; Jansen, Johanna

    2011-08-22

    Profile-QSAR is a novel 2D predictive model building method for kinases. This "meta-QSAR" method models the activity of each compound against a new kinase target as a linear combination of its predicted activities against a large panel of 92 previously studied kinases comprised from 115 assays. Profile-QSAR starts with a sparse incomplete kinase by compound (KxC) activity matrix, used to generate Bayesian QSAR models for the 92 "basis-set" kinases. These Bayesian QSARs generate a complete "synthetic" KxC activity matrix of predictions. These synthetic activities are used as "chemical descriptors" to train partial-least squares (PLS) models, from modest amounts of medium-throughput screening data, for predicting activity against new kinases. The Profile-QSAR predictions for the 92 kinases (115 assays) gave a median external R²(ext) = 0.59 on 25% held-out test sets. The method has proven accurate enough to predict pairwise kinase selectivities with a median correlation of R²(ext) = 0.61 for 958 kinase pairs with at least 600 common compounds. It has been further expanded by adding a "C(k)XC" cellular activity matrix to the KxC matrix to predict cellular activity for 42 kinase driven cellular assays with median R²(ext) = 0.58 for 24 target modulation assays and R²(ext) = 0.41 for 18 cell proliferation assays. The 2D Profile-QSAR, along with the 3D Surrogate AutoShim, are the foundations of an internally developed iterative medium-throughput screening (IMTS) methodology for virtual screening (VS) of compound archives as an alternative to experimental high-throughput screening (HTS). The method has been applied to 20 actual prospective kinase projects. Biological results have so far been obtained in eight of them. Q² values ranged from 0.3 to 0.7. Hit-rates at 10 uM for experimentally tested compounds varied from 25% to 80%, except in K5, which was a special case aimed specifically at finding "type II" binders, where none of the compounds were predicted to be

  20. Enhancement of active corrosion protection via combination of inhibitor-loaded nanocontainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedim, J; Poznyak, S K; Kuznetsova, A; Raps, D; Hack, T; Zheludkevich, M L; Ferreira, M G S

    2010-05-01

    The present work reports the synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) nanocontainers loaded with different corrosion inhibitors (vanadate, phosphate, and 2-mercaptobenzothiazolate) and the characterization of the resulting pigments by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The anticorrosion activity of these nanocontainers with respect to aluminum alloy AA2024 was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The bare metallic substrates were immersed in dispersions of nanocontainers in sodium chloride solution and tested to understand the inhibition mechanisms and efficiency. The nanocontainers were also incorporated into commercial coatings used for aeronautical applications to study the active corrosion protection properties in systems of industrial relevance. The results show that an enhancement of the active protection effect can be reached when nanocontainers loaded with different inhibitors are combined in the same protective coating system.

  1. On a Quantum Model of Brain Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, K.-H.; Fichtner, L.; Freudenberg, W.; Ohya, M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main activities of the brain is the recognition of signals. A first attempt to explain the process of recognition in terms of quantum statistics was given in [6]. Subsequently, details of the mathematical model were presented in a (still incomplete) series of papers (cf. [7, 2, 5, 10]). In the present note we want to give a general view of the principal ideas of this approach. We will introduce the basic spaces and justify the choice of spaces and operations. Further, we bring the model face to face with basic postulates any statistical model of the recognition process should fulfill. These postulates are in accordance with the opinion widely accepted in psychology and neurology.

  2. Active Appearance Model Based Hand Gesture Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the application of hand gesture recognition in monocular image sequences using Active Appearance Model (AAM). For this work, the proposed algorithm is conposed of constructing AAMs and fitting the models to the interest region. In training stage, according to the manual labeled feature points, the relative AAM is constructed and the corresponding average feature is obtained. In recognition stage, the interesting hand gesture region is firstly segmented by skin and movement cues.Secondly, the models are fitted to the image that includes the hand gesture, and the relative features are extracted.Thirdly, the classification is done by comparing the extracted features and average features. 30 different gestures of Chinese sign language are applied for testing the effectiveness of the method. The Experimental results are given indicating good performance of the algorithm.

  3. Effects of combined growth of biogenic and xenobiotic substrates on degradation of xenobiotic by activated sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Nguyen Phuc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to research about supplementation of different concentrations of the substrate on the degradation rate of xenobiotic and to determine the optimal concentrations of the auxiliary substrates that are most beneficial of xenobiotic degradation rate. 2,4-dichlorophenol acid (2,4-D was used representative xenobiotic organic compounds, while peptone and sugar used for auxiliary substrates. The activated sludge was completely break down 100 mg/l of 2,4-D for three consecutive times. The different concentrations between biogenic substracts of sucrose and peptone were fed separately or combined into the medium containing 200 mg/l of 2,4-D and 140 mg SS/l of activated sludge. The results showed that sugar and peptone could affect 2,4-D degradation rate to several different degree at different concentrations. In separate supplementation, 2,4-D degradation completed within 25 hours, 40 mg/l sugar and 150 mg/l peptone concentrations were found to be the optimal concentrations. In combined case, 2,4-D was consumed totally within 20 hours and the optimal concentration of the combined sugar and peptone concentrations were 40 and 150 mg/l, respectively.

  4. Active Pedicle Epithelial Flap Transposition Combined with Amniotic Membrane Transplantation for Treatment of Nonhealing Corneal Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of active pedicle epithelial flap transposition combined with amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT in treating nonhealing corneal ulcers. Material and Methods. Eleven patients (11 eyes with nonhealing corneal ulcer who underwent the combined surgery were included. Postoperatively, ulcer healing time was detected by corneal fluorescein staining. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, surgical complications, and recurrence were recorded. Corneal status was inspected by the laser scanning confocal microscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT. Results. The primary diseases were herpes simplex keratitis (8 eyes, corneal graft ulcer (2 eyes, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (1 eye. All epithelial flaps were intact following surgery, without shedding or displacement. Mean ulcer healing time was 10.8±3.1 days, with a healing rate of 91%. Vision significantly improved from 1.70 to 0.82 log MAR (P=0.001. A significant decrease in inflammatory cell infiltration and corneal stromal edema was revealed 2 months postoperatively by confocal microscopy and AS-OCT. Corneal ulcer recurred in 1 eye. None of the patients developed major complications. Conclusion. Active pedicle epithelial flap transposition combined with AMT is a simple and effective treatment for nonhealing corneal ulcers.

  5. Macrofilaricidal Activity in Wuchereria bancrofti after 2 Weeks Treatment with a Combination of Rifampicin plus Doxycycline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yaw Debrah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with the filarial nematode Wuchereria bancrofti can lead to lymphedema, hydrocele, and elephantiasis. Since adult worms cause pathology in lymphatic filariasis (LF, it is imperative to discover macrofilaricidal drugs for the treatment of the infection. Endosymbiotic Wolbachia in filariae have emerged as a new target for antibiotics which can lead to macrofilaricidal effects. In Ghana, a pilot study was carried out with 39 LF-infected men; 12 were treated with 200 mg doxycycline/day for 4 weeks, 16 were treated with a combination of 200 mg doxycycline/day + 10 mg/kg/day rifampicin for 2 weeks, and 11 patients received placebo. Patients were monitored for Wolbachia and microfilaria loads, antigenaemia, and filarial dance sign (FDS. Both 4-week doxycycline and the 2-week combination treatment reduced Wolbachia load significantly. At 18 months posttreatment, four-week doxycycline resulted in 100% adult worm loss, and the 2-week combination treatment resulted in a 50% adult worm loss. In conclusion, this pilot study with a combination of 2-week doxycycline and rifampicin demonstrates moderate macrofilaricidal activity against W. bancrofti.

  6. The Combination of Antidepressant Duloxetine with Piracetam in Mice does not Produce Enhancement of Nootropic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Pravin Popatrao; Addepalli, Veeranjaneyulu; Sarkar, Amrita; Patel, Sonam; Savai, Jay

    2014-09-01

    There is a strong association between depression and memory impairment. The present study aims to assess the nootropic activity of duloxetine and piracetam combination. Male Swiss Albino mice were divided randomly into 4 groups. Treatment of normal saline (10 ml/kg), duloxetine (10 mg/kg), piracetam (100 mg/kg), and duloxetine (5 mg/kg) plus piracetam (50 mg/kg) were given through intra-peritoneal route to group I-IV, respectively. Transfer latency in elevated plus maze (EPM) and time spent in target quadrant in Morris water maze (MWM) were recorded. Estimation of brain monoamines in hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and whole brain were done using HPLC with fluorescence detector. Piracetam treated group showed significant decrease in transfer latency in EPM and increase in time spent in target quadrant recorded in MWM. Combination treated group failed to produce statistically significant nootropic effect in both EPM and MWM. Combination treated group failed to increase brain monoamine levels when compared against duloxetine and piracetam treated groups, separately. But there was exception of significant increase in norepinephrine levels in hippocampi when compared against duloxetine treated group. Results indicate no cognitive benefits with piracetam plus duloxetine combination. These findings can be further probed with the aim of understanding the interaction between duloxetine and piracetam as a future endeavor.

  7. Combined physical and chemical nonequilibrium transport model: Analytical solution, moments, and application to colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transport of solutes and colloids in porous media is influenced by a variety of physical and chemical nonequilibrium processes. A combined physical–chemical nonequilibrium (PCNE) model was therefore used to describe general mass transport. The model partitions the pore space into “mobile” and “i...

  8. Modelling Combined Heat Exchange in the Leading Edge of Perspective Aircraft Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandinsky Roman O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper gas dynamic numerical modelling of leading edge flow is presented and thermal loading parameters are determined. Numerical modelling of combined radiative and conductive heat transfer of the wing edge is carried out, thermal state of structure is given and the results are analyzed.

  9. A finite-element model for healing of cutaneous wounds combining contraction, angiogenesis and closure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermolen, F.J.; Javierre, E.

    2011-01-01

    A simplified finite-element model for wound healing is proposed. The model takes into account the sequential steps of dermal regeneration, wound contraction, angiogenesis and wound closure. An innovation in the present study is the combination of the aforementioned partially overlapping processes,

  10. [Combined hopping-superexchange mechanism of charge transfer in DNA; a model with nearest interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhno, V D; Sultanov, V B

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the earlier developed combined hopping-superexchange mechanism of charge transfer in DNA, a model with all nearest interactions between nucleobases is proposed. It is shown that the transfer rates for various types of nucleotide sequences calculated within this model are in a good agreement with experimental data.

  11. A finite-element model for healing of cutaneous wounds combining contraction, angiogenesis and closure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermolen, F.J.; Javierre, E.

    2011-01-01

    A simplified finite-element model for wound healing is proposed. The model takes into account the sequential steps of dermal regeneration, wound contraction, angiogenesis and wound closure. An innovation in the present study is the combination of the aforementioned partially overlapping processes, w

  12. Description and application of the combined surface and groundwater flow model MOGROW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querner, E.P.

    1997-01-01

    In the Netherlands shallow groundwater tables prevail in many parts, such that groundwater and surface water are closely interlinked. Thus the use of a combined groundwater and surface water model is necessary to predict the effect of certain measures on a regional scale. Therefore the model MOGROW

  13. Modelling plant interspecific interactions from experiments of perennial crop mixtures to predict optimal combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halty, Virginia; Valdés, Matías; Tejera, Mauricio; Picasso, Valentín; Fort, Hugo

    2017-07-28

    The contribution of plant species richness to productivity and ecosystem functioning is a long standing issue in Ecology, with relevant implications for both conservation and agriculture. Both experiments and quantitative modelling are fundamental to the design of sustainable agroecosystems and the optimization of crop production. We modelled communities of perennial crop mixtures by using a generalized Lotka-Volterra model, i.e. a model such that the interspecific interactions are more general than purely competitive. We estimated model parameters -carrying capacities and interaction coefficientsfrom, respectively, the observed biomass of monocultures and bicultures measured in a large diversity experiment of seven perennial forage species in Iowa, United States. The sign and absolute value of the interaction coefficients showed that the biological interactions between species pairs included amensalism, competition, and parasitism (asymmetric positive-negative interaction), with various degrees of intensity. We tested the model fit by simulating the combinations of more than two species and comparing them with the polycultures experimental data. Overall, theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the experiments. Using this model, we also simulated species combinations that were not sown. From all possible mixtures (sown and not sown) we identified which are the most productive species combinations. Our results demonstrate that a combination of experiments and modelling can contribute to the design of sustainable agricultural systems in general and to the optimization of crop production in particular. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. The novel microtubule targeting agent BAL101553 in combination with radiotherapy in treatment-refractory tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashish; Broggini-Tenzer, Angela; Vuong, Van; Messikommer, Alessandra; Nytko, Katarzyna J; Guckenberger, Matthias; Bachmann, Felix; Lane, Heidi A; Pruschy, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Resistance to microtubule targeting agents (MTA) represents a major drawback in successful cancer therapy with MTAs. Here we investigated the combined treatment modality of the novel MTA BAL101553 in combination with radiotherapy in paclitaxel and epothilone-resistant tumor models. Multiple regimens of BAL101553, or its active moiety BAL27862 for in vitro experiments, were probed in combination with radiotherapy in P-glycoprotein-overexpressing, human colon adenocarcinoma cells (SW480) and in tubulin-mutated human NSCLC cells (A549EpoB40) and tumors thereof. BAL27862 reduced the proliferative activity of SW480 and A549EpoB40 tumor cells with similar potency as in A549 wildtype cells. Combined treatment of BAL27862 with ionizing radiation in vitro resulted in an additive reduction of clonogenicity. Moreover, treatment of paclitaxel- and epothilone-resistant tumors with fractionated irradiation and different regimens of BAL101553 (a single i.v. bolus vs. oral daily) suppressed tumor growth and resulted in an extended additive tumor growth delay with strong reduction of tumor proliferation and mean tumor vessel density. BAL101553 is a promising alternative in taxane- and epothilone-refractory tumors as part of a combined treatment modality with ionizing radiation. Its potent antitumor effect is not only tumor cell-directed but also targets the tumor microenvironment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Combining balneotherapy and health promotion to promote active and healthy ageing: the Balaruc-MACVIA-LR(®) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, H; Bernard, P L; Canovas, G; Raffort, N; Desfour, H; Soriteau, L; Noguès, M; Camuzat, T; Mercier, J; Dupeyron, A; Quéré, I; Laffont, I; Hérisson, C; Solimene, H; Bousquet, J

    2016-12-01

    Scaling up and replication of successful innovative integrated care models for chronic diseases is one of the targets of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA). MACVIA-LR(®) (MAladies Chroniques pour un VIeillissement Actif en Languedoc-Roussillon) is a Reference Site of the EIP on AHA. The main objective of MACVIA-LR(®) is to develop innovative solutions in order to (1) improve the care of patients affected by chronic diseases, (2) reduce avoidable hospitalization and (3) scale up the innovation to regions of Europe. The MACVIA-LR(®) project also aims to assess all possible aspects of medicine-including non-pharmacologic approaches-in order to maintain health and prevent chronic diseases. These approaches include hydrotherapy and balneotherapy which can be of great importance if health promotion strategies are considered. Balneotherapy at Balaruc-les-Bains focusses on musculoskeletal diseases and chronic venous insufficiency of the lower limbs. Each year, over 46,000 people attend an 18-day course related to a new falls prevention initiative combining balneotherapy and education. On arrival, each person receives a flyer providing information on the risk of fall and, depending on this risk, a course is proposed combining education and physical activity. A pilot study assesses the impact of the course 6 and 12 months later. This health promotion strategy for active and healthy ageing follows the FEMTEC (World Federation of Hydrotherapy and Climatotherapy) concept.

  16. A Model Based Control methodology combining Blade Pitch and Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps in a common framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian; Bergami, Leonardo; Andersen, Peter Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates how adaptive trailing edge flaps and classical blade pitch can work in concert using a model-based state space control formulation. The trade-off between load reduction and actuator activity is decided by setting different weights in the objective function used by the model......-based controller. The combined control approach allow to achieve higher load alleviations, furthermore, in the presence of e.g. deterioration of an actuator, it enables an online re-tuning of the workload distribution of blade pitch and trailing edge flaps, thus potentially increasing the smart rotor reliability....

  17. A Model Based Control methodology combining Blade Pitch and Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps in a common framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This work investigates how adaptive trailing edge flaps and classical blade pitch can work in concert using a model-based state space control formulation. The trade-off between load reduction and actuator activity is decided by setting different weights in the objective function used by the model......-based controller. The combined control approach allow to achieve higher load alleviations, furthermore, in the presence of e.g. deterioration of an actuator, it enables an online re-tuning of the workload distribution of blade pitch and trailing edge flaps, thus potentially increasing the smart rotor reliability....

  18. A novel fluorescence derivatization method combined with HPLC for determining the activities of endogenous caspase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiachi; Lu, Ye; Liang, Jianying

    2012-11-07

    A novel fluorescence derivatization method combined with HPLC was developed to detect the activity of caspase-3 and -8 in two cell lines (Hela cells and A549 cells) which were activated by low temperature-assisted ultraviolet irradiation (LT-UV), mitomycin C (MMC) and camptothecin during the apoptosis, respectively. Two peptide substrates for either caspase-3 or -8 were designed, of which peptide fragments were obtained by enzymatic modification, followed by fluorescence derivatization. A single fluorescent product was formed when a peptide was heated at 120 °C for 10 min in a neutral aqueous medium (pH 7.0) containing catechol, sodium periodate and sodium borate. Commercial kits for detecting the activity of caspase-3 and -8 were used as a control. The relative activity of the caspases detected by fluorescence derivatization was similar to that obtained by commercial kits, which indicated that the novel method is reliable. The activity assays of recombinant human caspases showed that the novel method provided higher selectivity than that of commercial kits, which proved it to be more accurate for determining the activity of caspases in apoptosis.

  19. Establishment of rat model of combined kidney-adrenal gland allotransplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanjun Shi; Ruipeng Jia; Jiageng Zhu; Guangcheng Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To establish a rat model of combined kidney-adrenal gland and allotransplantation, and to explore the immunoprotecive effect of the transplanted adrenal gland on the transplanted kidney in the combined transplantation.Methods: SD rats 160 served as donors and recipients. The combined kidney-adrenal gland allotransplantation was performed.Infusion was conducted and prepared at prime position ,and the kidney and adrenal gland were at the left side. Direct vascular anastomosis and operation of connecting ureter attached part of bladder with the bladder were conducted. The kidney pedicle of the right side was ligated. Results: A stable and mature rat model of combined transplantation was established. The warm ischemia time was 30 seconds, and the cold ischemia time was 90-120min. The average time was 100 min. The operation time was 150 min.The survival time of the recipients was 21 days. The successful rate of the operation was 75%. Conclusion: The model of the combined kidney-adrenal gland allotransplantation can be established with higher successful rate. The model can be used to explore that transplanted adrenal gland may have immunoprotecive effect on the transplanted kidney in the combined transplantation.

  20. Combination therapy targeting the tumor microenvironment is effective in a model of human ocular melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schafer Peter H

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ocular melanoma is the leading intraocular malignancy. There is no effective treatment for metastatic ocular melanoma. We sought a treatment targeting the tumor microenvironment as well as the tumor cells. Methods Migration of HUVEC cells, the ability of HUVEC cells to form tubes, and proliferative capacity of a human ocular melanoma cell line were tested in the presence of lenalidomide and sorafenib alone and in combination. The compounds were also tested in a rat aortic ring assay and were tested in a highly aggressive human ocular melanoma xenograft model. Results Lenalidomide and Sorafenib inhibit HUVEC ability to migrate and form tubes and when used in combination the inhibition is increased. The agents alone and in combination inhibit outgrowth in the rat aortic ring model. The combination of the agents improved the inhibition over either single agent. In a xenograft model, combination therapy inhibited tumor growth over inhibition by single agent alone in a significant fashion (p Conclusion Lenalidomide and sorafenib are effective at targeting endothelial cells, inhibiting growth of ocular melanoma cells and can inhibit growth of tumors in a xenograft model as well as inhibit development of metastases. Combining these agents works in an additive to synergistic way to inhibit the growth of tumors and development of metastases.

  1. An Activation Threshold Model for Response Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Hayley J.; McMorland, Angus J. C.; Stinear, Cathy M.; Coxon, James P.; Byblow, Winston D.

    2017-01-01

    Reactive response inhibition (RI) is the cancellation of a prepared response when it is no longer appropriate. Selectivity of RI can be examined by cueing the cancellation of one component of a prepared multi-component response. This substantially delays execution of other components. There is debate regarding whether this response delay is due to a selective neural mechanism. Here we propose a computational activation threshold model (ATM) and test it against a classical “horse-race” model using behavioural and neurophysiological data from partial RI experiments. The models comprise both facilitatory and inhibitory processes that compete upstream of motor output regions. Summary statistics (means and standard deviations) of predicted muscular and neurophysiological data were fit in both models to equivalent experimental measures by minimizing a Pearson Chi-square statistic. The ATM best captured behavioural and neurophysiological dynamics of partial RI. The ATM demonstrated that the observed modulation of corticomotor excitability during partial RI can be explained by nonselective inhibition of the prepared response. The inhibition raised the activation threshold to a level that could not be reached by the original response. This was necessarily followed by an additional phase of facilitation representing a secondary activation process in order to reach the new inhibition threshold and initiate the executed component of the response. The ATM offers a mechanistic description of the neural events underlying RI, in which partial movement cancellation results from a nonselective inhibitory event followed by subsequent initiation of a new response. The ATM provides a framework for considering and exploring the neuroanatomical constraints that underlie RI. PMID:28085907

  2. Voice Activity Detection in Noisy Environments Based on Double-Combined Fourier Transform and Line Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsoo Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new voice activity detector for noisy environments is proposed. In conventional algorithms, the endpoint of speech is found by applying an edge detection filter that finds the abrupt changing point in a feature domain. However, since the frame energy feature is unstable in noisy environments, it is difficult to accurately find the endpoint of speech. Therefore, a novel feature extraction algorithm based on the double-combined Fourier transform and envelope line fitting is proposed. It is combined with an edge detection filter for effective detection of endpoints. Effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is evaluated and compared to other VAD algorithms using two different databases, which are AURORA 2.0 database and SITEC database. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs well under a variety of noisy conditions.

  3. Combined effects of weight loss and physical activity on all-cause mortality of overweight men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, J N; Grønbaek, M; Schnohr, Peter

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the excess deaths associated with weight loss in combination with leisure time physical activity among overweight or obese people.......To estimate the excess deaths associated with weight loss in combination with leisure time physical activity among overweight or obese people....

  4. [A study of combination treatment with nacom (levodopa + carbodope) and citicoline in the model of Parkinson disease in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashkin, V A; Shekunova, E V; Makarova, M N; Makarov, V G

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of the combined use of citicoline (neipilept) and levodopa/carbidopa (nakom) in the rotenone model of Parkinson's disease in rats. Rotenone was administrated during 14 days in dose 2 mg/kg/day subcutaneously. The duration of treatment was 7 days, intragastrically. Alteration of locomotor behavior components, muscular rigidity in resistance to passive flexion in the ankle joint and signs of extrapyramidal disorders were assessed. Combined therapy led to the decrease in muscle rigidity (the decrease of gibbosity in resistance to passive flexion in the ankle joint). There was a decrease in oligokinesia that emerged in higher vertical and horizontal locomotor activity of experimental animals, decrease in the time of head turning during climbing down the pole and total time of climbing down the pole. The combination of drugs had a more pronounced therapeutic effect on extrapyramidal disorders compared to monotherapy.

  5. ENSO and annual cycle interaction: the combination mode representation in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-Li; Zuo, Jinqing; Jin, Fei-Fei; Stuecker, Malte F.

    2016-06-01

    Recent research demonstrated the existence of a combination mode (C-mode) originating from the atmospheric nonlinear interaction between the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific warm pool annual cycle. In this paper, we show that the majority of coupled climate models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) are able to reproduce the observed spatial pattern of the C-mode in terms of surface wind anomalies reasonably well, and about half of the coupled models are able to reproduce spectral power at the combination tone periodicities of about 10 and/or 15 months. Compared to the CMIP5 historical simulations, the CMIP5 Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) simulations can generally exhibit a more realistic simulation of the C-mode due to prescribed lower boundary forcing. Overall, the multi-model ensemble average of the CMIP5 models tends to capture the C-mode better than the individual models. Furthermore, the models with better performance in simulating the ENSO mode tend to also exhibit a more realistic C-mode with respect to its spatial pattern and amplitude, in both the CMIP5 historical and AMIP simulations. This study shows that the CMIP5 models are able to simulate the proposed combination mode mechanism to some degree, resulting from their reasonable performance in representing the ENSO mode. It is suggested that the main ENSO periods in the current climate models needs to be further improved for making the C-mode better.

  6. Theoretical modeling suggests that synergy may result from combined use of two biocontrol agents for controlling foliar pathogens under spatial heterogeneous conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X-M; Jeger, M J

    2013-08-01

    There has been a trend for combined use of several biocontrol agents (BCAs) with an expectation of synergistic interactions among BCAs. However, previous modeling studies suggested that, under homogeneous and temporal-fluctuating conditions, combined use of two BCAs, in most cases, only results in efficacies similar to the more efficacious one used alone; a result consistent with published experimental data. The present modeling study investigated whether combined use of two mycoparasitic BCAs, two competitive BCAs, or a mycoparasitic and a competitive BCA leads to synergistic interactions under spatially heterogeneous conditions. In the model, there were two patches with varying relative sizes and two BCAs differentially adapted to the two patches. Within the range of model parameter values considered, combined use of two BCAs is more effective than the more efficacious BCA used alone in 72% of the simulated cases. There was also a considerable proportion (≈21%) of model simulations in which combined use of two BCAs led to synergy (i.e., efficacy was greater than expected under the assumption of Bliss independence, especially when each of the two BCAs can only survive in one [different] patch). Combined use of a mycoparasitic BCA with a competitive one is more likely to result in synergy than the other two BCA combinations. When biocontrol activities of individual BCAs are low or moderate, biocontrol efficacy arising from combined use of two BCAs does not depend greatly on biocontrol mechanisms. However, for high BCA activities, combined use with at least one competitive BCA resulted in better control than combined use of two mycoparasitic BCAs. The present modeling study emphasized the need for understanding the degree of spatial patchiness and quantitative relationships between biocontrol activities and external conditions in order to apply commercial BCAs effectively.

  7. Combination of Model Checking and Theorem Proving to Verify Embedded Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jian-yu; ZHANG De-yun; DONG Hao; CHEN Hai-quan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a scheme of combining model checking and theorem proving techniques to verify high trustworthy embedded software is proposed. The software model described in state machine of unified model language is transformed into the input modeling language of a model checker in which the model is analyzed with associated property specifications expressed in temporal logic. The software model which has been verified by model checker is then transformed into abstract specifications of a theorem prover , in which the model will be refined, verified and translated into source C code. The transformation rules from state machine to input language of model checker and abstract specifications of theorem prover are given. The experiment shows that the proposed scheme can effectively improve the development and verification of high trustworthy embedded software.

  8. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewater using a combined wet air oxidation/activated sludge process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, C.J.; Petty, S.E.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1983-02-01

    A lab-scale treatability study for using thermal and biological oxidation to treat a biomass gasification wastewater (BGW) having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 46,000 mg/l is described. Wet air oxidation (WA0) at 300/sup 0/C and 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) was used to initially treat the BGW and resulted in a COD reduction of 74%. This was followed by conventional activated sludge treatment using operating conditions typical of municipal sewage treatment plants. This resulted in an additional 95% COD removal. Overall COD reduction for the combined process was 99%. A detailed chemical analysis of the raw BGW and thermal and biological effluents was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These results showed a 97% decrease in total extractable organics with WA0 and a 99.6% decrease for combined WA0 and activated sludge treatment. Components of the treated waters tended to be fewer in number and more highly oxidized. An experiment was conducted to determine the amount of COD reduction caused by volatilization during biological treatment. Unfortunately, this did not yield conclusive results. Treatment of BGW using WA0 followed by activated sludge appears to be very effective and investigations at a larger scale are recommended.

  9. Removal of atrazine in water by combination of activated carbon and dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanraes, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.vanraes@ugent.be [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Willems, Gert; Nikiforov, Anton [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Surmont, Pieter; Lynen, Frederic [Separation Science Group, Department of Organic Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S4-bis, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Vandamme, Jeroen; Van Durme, Jim [Research Group Molecular Odor Chemistry, Department of Microbial and Molecular Systems (M2S), KU Leuven, Technology Campus, Gebroeders De Smetstraat 1, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Verheust, Yannick P.; Van Hulle, Stijn W.H.; Dumoulin, Ann [Department of Industrial Biological Sciences, Ghent University, Graaf Karel de Goedelaan 5, 8500 Kortrijk (Belgium); Leys, Christophe [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Increasing input power with a factor 3.5 leads to deeper atrazine oxidation without significantly changing energy yield of atrazine removal. • Chlorine containing oxidation by-products of first and later generations are detected with HPLC–MS analysis, in agreement with literature. • Desorption analysis shows lower atrazine concentration and higher by-product concentration on activated carbon textile after plasma treatment. • Comparison with plasma reactors described in literature for atrazine decomposition confirms relatively high energy efficiency of our reactor. - Abstract: Efficiency of modern wastewater treatment plants to remove or decompose persistent contaminants in low concentration is often insufficient to meet the demands imposed by governmental laws. Novel, efficient and cheap methods are required to address this global issue. We developed a new type of plasma reactor, in which atrazine decomposition by atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in dry air is combined with micropollutant adsorption on activated carbon textile and with extra bubbling of generated ozone. Investigation of reaction kinetics and by-product analysis shows that increasing input power with a factor 3.5 leads to deeper atrazine oxidation without significantly changing energy yield of atrazine removal. By-products of first and later generations are detected with HPLC–MS analysis in water and adsorbed on the activated carbon textile. Our reactor is compared in energy efficiency with reactors described in literature, showing that combination of plasma discharge with pollutant adsorption and ozone recycling is attractive for future applications of water treatment.

  10. An Application of Combined Model for Tehran Metropolitan Area Incorporating Captive Travel Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar A. Zargari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome deficiencies of the sequential transportation planning approach, this research applies a Combined Trip Distribution and Assignment Model (CTDAM for the simultaneous prediction. The proposed combined model can itself be reformulated as an Equivalent Minimization Problem (EMP. When applying the Evans algorithm to the EMP, the CTDAM is expected to be usable in a realistic application. The objective of this research is to compare the conventional sequential procedure and CTDAM by applying both models to a large urban transportation network for captive trip purposes. Several evaluation measures were utilized to compare the results and confirm that the proposed model can efficiently satisfy several convergence criterions. It became clear that the User Equilibrium (UE assignment in the proposed model can be obtained relatively swifter than the Sequential Model (SM and can be efficiently used in large transportation networks. Furthermore, the comparing results point out the performance of the CTDAM is significantly better than SM.

  11. Fault detection and identification based on combining logic and model in a wall-climbing robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong JIANG; Hongguang WANG; Lijin FANG; Mingyang ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    A combined logic- and model-based approach to fault detection and identification (FDI) in a suction foot control system of a wall-climbing robot is presented in this paper. For the control system, some fault models are derived by kinematics analysis. Moreover, the logic relations of the system states are known in advance. First, a fault tree is used to analyze the system by evaluating the basic events (elementary causes), which can lead to a root event (a particular fault). Then, a multiple-model adaptive estimation algorithm is used to detect and identify the model-known faults. Finally, based on the system states of the robot and the results of the estimation, the model-unknown faults are also identified using logical reasoning. Experiments show that the proposed approach based on the combination of logical reasoning and model estimating is efficient in the FDI of the robot.

  12. Combined Acoustic and Pronunciation Modelling for Non-Native Speech Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Bouselmi, Ghazi; Illina, Irina

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present several adaptation methods for non-native speech recognition. We have tested pronunciation modelling, MLLR and MAP non-native pronunciation adaptation and HMM models retraining on the HIWIRE foreign accented English speech database. The ``phonetic confusion'' scheme we have developed consists in associating to each spoken phone several sequences of confused phones. In our experiments, we have used different combinations of acoustic models representing the canonical and the foreign pronunciations: spoken and native models, models adapted to the non-native accent with MAP and MLLR. The joint use of pronunciation modelling and acoustic adaptation led to further improvements in recognition accuracy. The best combination of the above mentioned techniques resulted in a relative word error reduction ranging from 46% to 71%.

  13. Experimental and Pathalogical study of Pistacia atlantica, butyrate, Lactobacillus casei and their combination on rat ulcerative colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Mahdi; Ghasemi-Niri, Seyedeh Farnaz; Maqbool, Faheem; Baeeri, Maryam; Memariani, Zahra; Pousti, Iraj; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Pistacia atlantica (P. atlantica), butyrate, Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) and especially their combination therapy on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat colitis model. Rats were divided into seven groups. Four groups received oral P. atlantica, butyrate, L. casei and the combination of three agents for 10 consecutive days. The remaining groups were negative and positive controls and a sham group. Macroscopic and histopathological examinations were carried out along with determination of the specific biomarker of colonic oxidative stress, the myeloperoxidase (MPO). Compared with controls, the combination therapy exhibited a significant alleviation of colitis in terms of pathological scores and reduction of MPO activity (55%, p=0.0009). Meanwhile, the macroscopic appearance such as stool consistency, tissue and histopathological scores (edema, necrosis and neutrophil infiltration) were improved. Although single therapy by each P. atlantica, butyrate, and L. casei was partially beneficial in reduction of colon oxidative stress markers, the combination therapy was much more effective. In conclusion, the combination therapy was able to reduce the severity of colitis that is clear from biochemical markers. Future studies have to focus on clinical effects of this combination in management of human ulcerative colitis. Further molecular and signaling pathway studies will help to understand the mechanisms involved in the treatment of colitis and inflammatory diseases.

  14. Travelling waves in a model of quasi-active dendrites with active spines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, Y.

    2010-05-01

    Dendrites, the major components of neurons, have many different types of branching structures and are involved in receiving and integrating thousands of synaptic inputs from other neurons. Dendritic spines with excitable channels can be present in large densities on the dendrites of many cells. The recently proposed Spike-Diffuse-Spike (SDS) model that is described by a system of point hot-spots (with an integrate-and-fire process) embedded throughout a passive tree has been shown to provide a reasonable caricature of a dendritic tree with supra-threshold dynamics. Interestingly, real dendrites equipped with voltage-gated ion channels can exhibit not only supra-threshold responses, but also sub-threshold dynamics. This sub-threshold resonant-like oscillatory behaviour has already been shown to be adequately described by a quasi-active membrane. In this paper we introduce a mathematical model of a branched dendritic tree based upon a generalisation of the SDS model where the active spines are assumed to be distributed along a quasi-active dendritic structure. We demonstrate how solitary and periodic travelling wave solutions can be constructed for both continuous and discrete spine distributions. In both cases the speed of such waves is calculated as a function of system parameters. We also illustrate that the model can be naturally generalised to an arbitrary branched dendritic geometry whilst remaining computationally simple. The spatio-temporal patterns of neuronal activity are shown to be significantly influenced by the properties of the quasi-active membrane. Active (sub- and supra-threshold) properties of dendrites are known to vary considerably among cell types and animal species, and this theoretical framework can be used in studying the combined role of complex dendritic morphologies and active conductances in rich neuronal dynamics.

  15. In vitro activity of antibiotics alone and in combination against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev, R; Shulman, D; Shulman, S T; Glogowski, W G

    1986-01-01

    The MICs for 90% of the organisms tested (MIC90S) of 11 antibiotics against 24 clinical isolates of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans were determined by the MIC 2000 system. The lowest MIC90S (16 micrograms/ml) were observed with ceftriaxone and rifampin. The next lowest MIC90S were found with cephapirin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol (3.12 micrograms/ml). The MIC90S of penicillin, ampicillin, ticarcillin, piperacillin, and amikacin were each greater than or equal to 12.5 micrograms/ml. Antibiotic synergy was studied by the killing curve method and was defined as a greater than or equal to 2 log10 reduction in CFU when two antibiotics were used in combination at one-fourth the MBC for each compared with the effect of each antibiotic alone at one-half the MBC. Synergism between rifampin and penicillin, cephapirin, or ceftriaxone was tested for with 12 A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. In 7 of 37 instances, synergism was demonstrated for the combinations rifampin plus ceftriaxone (n = 3) or rifampin plus penicillin (n = 4); in 9 instances, an additive effect was noted, and impaired killing with drug combinations compared with the effect of a single antibiotic was suggested in 4 strains. The majority of strains were indifferent to the combinations. Similarly, variable results were observed when the combination of trimethoprim and cephapirin was tested against eight A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. Our data suggest that rifampin and cephapirin are the most active of the 11 antibiotics studied against A. actinomycetemcomitans. In addition, in vitro synergism between rifampin and other antibiotics or between trimethoprim and cephapirin was not consistently demonstrable.

  16. Assessing the influence of biofilm surface roughness on mass transfer by combining optical coherence tomography and two-dimensional modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Wagner, Michael; Lackner, Susanne; Horn, Harald

    2016-05-01

    Imaging and modeling are two major approaches in biofilm research to understand the physical and biochemical processes involved in biofilm development. However, they are often used separately. In this study we combined these two approaches to investigate substrate mass transfer and mass flux. Cross-sectional biofilm images were acquired by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for biofilms grown on carriers. A 2D biofilm model was developed incorporating OCT images as well as a simplified biofilm geometry serving as structural templates. The model incorporated fluid flow, substrate transfer and biochemical conversion of substrates and simulated the hydrodynamics surrounding the biofilm structure as well as the substrate distribution. The method allowed detailed analysis of the hydrodynamics and mass transfer characteristics at the micro-scale. Biofilm activity with respect to substrate fluxes was compared among different combinations of flow, substrate availability and biomass density. The combined approach revealed that higher substrate fluxes at heterogeneous biofilm surface under two conditions: pure diffusion and when high flow velocity along the biofilms surface renders the whole liquid-biofilm interface to be highly active. In-between the two conditions the substrate fluxes across the surface of smooth biofilm geometry were higher than that of the heterogeneous biofilms.

  17. Enhanced activation of motor execution networks using action observation combined with imagination of lower limb movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Villiger

    Full Text Available The combination of first-person observation and motor imagery, i.e. first-person observation of limbs with online motor imagination, is commonly used in interactive 3D computer gaming and in some movie scenes. These scenarios are designed to induce a cognitive process in which a subject imagines himself/herself acting as the agent in the displayed movement situation. Despite the ubiquity of this type of interaction and its therapeutic potential, its relationship to passive observation and imitation during observation has not been directly studied using an interactive paradigm. In the present study we show activation resulting from observation, coupled with online imagination and with online imitation of a goal-directed lower limb movement using functional MRI (fMRI in a mixed block/event-related design. Healthy volunteers viewed a video (first-person perspective of a foot kicking a ball. They were instructed to observe-only the action (O, observe and simultaneously imagine performing the action (O-MI, or imitate the action (O-IMIT. We found that when O-MI was compared to O, activation was enhanced in the ventralpremotor cortex bilaterally, left inferior parietal lobule and left insula. The O-MI and O-IMIT conditions shared many activation foci in motor relevant areas as confirmed by conjunction analysis. These results show that (i combining observation with motor imagery (O-MI enhances activation compared to observation-only (O in the relevant foot motor network and in regions responsible for attention, for control of goal-directed movements and for the awareness of causing an action, and (ii it is possible to extensively activate the motor execution network using O-MI, even in the absence of overt movement. Our results may have implications for the development of novel virtual reality interactions for neurorehabilitation interventions and other applications involving training of motor tasks.

  18. Enhanced activation of motor execution networks using action observation combined with imagination of lower limb movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villiger, Michael; Estévez, Natalia; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kiper, Daniel; Kollias, Spyros S; Eng, Kynan; Hotz-Boendermaker, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    The combination of first-person observation and motor imagery, i.e. first-person observation of limbs with online motor imagination, is commonly used in interactive 3D computer gaming and in some movie scenes. These scenarios are designed to induce a cognitive process in which a subject imagines himself/herself acting as the agent in the displayed movement situation. Despite the ubiquity of this type of interaction and its therapeutic potential, its relationship to passive observation and imitation during observation has not been directly studied using an interactive paradigm. In the present study we show activation resulting from observation, coupled with online imagination and with online imitation of a goal-directed lower limb movement using functional MRI (fMRI) in a mixed block/event-related design. Healthy volunteers viewed a video (first-person perspective) of a foot kicking a ball. They were instructed to observe-only the action (O), observe and simultaneously imagine performing the action (O-MI), or imitate the action (O-IMIT). We found that when O-MI was compared to O, activation was enhanced in the ventralpremotor cortex bilaterally, left inferior parietal lobule and left insula. The O-MI and O-IMIT conditions shared many activation foci in motor relevant areas as confirmed by conjunction analysis. These results show that (i) combining observation with motor imagery (O-MI) enhances activation compared to observation-only (O) in the relevant foot motor network and in regions responsible for attention, for control of goal-directed movements and for the awareness of causing an action, and (ii) it is possible to extensively activate the motor execution network using O-MI, even in the absence of overt movement. Our results may have implications for the development of novel virtual reality interactions for neurorehabilitation interventions and other applications involving training of motor tasks.

  19. Combining bifurcation and sensitivity analysis for ecological models. Model analysis, and the allegory of the caveEcological Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Voorn, George A. K.; Kooi, Bob W.

    2017-06-01

    Plato's well-known allegory of the cave describes an observer chained in a cave facing a blank wall on which shadows are projected of objects that are outside the cave. Only by breaking free from the chains can the observer submerge from the cave to see what the objects really look like. Ecological model features compare to the objects outside the cave in this allegory. By performing model analysis light is shed on these features, creating projections that researchers can see. Model analysis methodologies like bifurcation analysis and sensitivity analysis each focus on particular model features and thus allow researchers to uncover only part of the model behaviour. By combining methodologies for model analysis possibilities arise for unravelling more of the model's behaviour, allowing researchers to `break free'. In this paper benefits and issues of combining model analysis methodologies are discussed using a case study. The case study involves three representations of the well-known Rosenzweig-MacArthur predator-prey model, namely the usual one where state variables and parameters have dimensions, a dimensionless representation, and a generalized representation. Based on the results we argue that researchers should combine bifurcation and sensitivity analysis methodologies when analyzing ecological models.

  20. Decision-making method for railway emergency based on combination weighting and cloud model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Wang, Fuzhang; Wang, Pu

    2017-01-01

    Aiming at the problems of randomness and fuzziness of railway emergency, this paper introduces a decision-making method of railway emergency based on combination weighting and cloud model. Firstly, In order to enhance the subjective and objective consistency of combined weights, the adjustment equations of weight coefficient are established with the Euclidean distance, then combined weights are calculated by means of improved analytic hierarchy process(IAHP) and entropy weight method. Secondly, the decision-making information of experts is converted into the cloud parameters of indexes with cloud model, and the cloud parameters of alternatives are obtained by integrating the combined weights and cloud parameters of indexes. Thirdly, the best alternative is obtained by analyzing and comparing the cloud parameters or cloud images of alternatives. Finally, the effectiveness and feasibility of the method are verified by a case.

  1. A Combined Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Research of Quinolinone Derivatives as Androgen Receptor Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuwei; Bai, Fang; Cao, Hong; Li, Jiazhong; Liu, Huanxiang; Gramatica, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Antiandrogens bicalutamide, flutamide and enzalutamide etc. have been used in clinical trials to treat prostate cancer by binding to and antagonizing androgen receptor (AR). Although initially effective, the drug resistance problem will emerge eventually, which results in a high medical need for novel AR antagonist exploitation. Here in this work, to facilitate the rational design of novel AR antagonists, we studied the structure-activity relationships of a series of 2-quinolinone derivatives and investigated the structural requirements for their antiandrogenic activities. Different modeling methods, including 2D MLR, 3D CoMFA and CoMSIA, were implemented to evolve QSAR models. All these models, thoroughly validated, demonstrated satisfactory results especially for the good predictive abilities. The contour maps from 3D CoMFA and CoMSIA models provide visualized explanation of key structural characteristics relevant to the antiandrogenic activities, which is summarized to a position-specific conclusion at the end. The obtained results from this research are practically useful for rational design and screening of promising chemicals with high antiandrogenic activities.

  2. Why combine diet and physical activity in the same international research society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranowski Tom

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research in diet and physical activity in the U.S. started in very different traditions, with behavioral science input being uneven in their development. Investigators and policy makers in Europe have recognized the complementarity of diet and physical activity and incorporated them both under the label Public Health Nutrition. Joining these disciplines internationally offers the opportunity to benefit all, since the problems addressed are human, not specific to any one country. In regard to why combine diet and physical activity, at the biological level, there is reason to believe that diet and physical activity working in concert can remodel physiological structures and processes toward healthful ends. The diet and physical activity behaviors themselves vary in characteristics and are similar in others. The behavioral science components of these two disciplines face similar problems, and can learn from the advances made by the other, in the areas of measurement, correlates and intervention. By working together, knowledge will be enhanced from uncovering complementary and interactive relationships between diet and physical activity, and in relation to disease risks, that may result in designing more effective and efficient interventions and policies. Since the behavioral sciences are at a disadvantage in comparison to the biological sciences in terms of scientific advances and thereby capturing the popular imagination for solutions to health problems, we must redouble our efforts to enhance funding for behavioral research in regard to diet and physical activity and to make the research advances necessary to prevent the medicalizing of essentially social and behavioral problems. Nutrition and physical activity should most effectively do this together.

  3. A new spatial coherence model and analytical coefficients for multi-support response spectrum combination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Junjie; Chen Hu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a new spatial coherence model of seismic ground motions is proposed by a fitting procedure. The analytical expressions of modal combination (correlation) coefficients of structural response are developed for multi-support seismic excitations. The coefficients from both the numerical integration and analytical solutions are compared to verify the accuracy of the solutions. It is shown that the analytical expressions of numerical modal combination coefficients are of high accuracy. The results of random responses of an example bridge show that the analytical modal combination coefficients developed in this paper are accurate enough to meet the requirements needed in practice. In addition, the computational efficiency of the analytical solutions of the modal combination coefficients is demonstrated by the response computation of the example bridge. It is found that the time required for the structural response analysis by using the analytical modal combination coefficients is less than 1/20 of that using numerical integral methods.

  4. Solar resources estimation combining digital terrain models and satellite images techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, J.L.; Batlles, F.J. [Universidad de Almeria, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Ctra. Sacramento s/n, 04120-Almeria (Spain); Zarzalejo, L.F. [CIEMAT, Departamento de Energia, Madrid (Spain); Lopez, G. [EPS-Universidad de Huelva, Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica y Termica, Huelva (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    One of the most important steps to make use of any renewable energy is to perform an accurate estimation of the resource that has to be exploited. In the designing process of both active and passive solar energy systems, radiation data is required for the site, with proper spatial resolution. Generally, a radiometric stations network is used in this evaluation, but when they are too dispersed or not available for the study area, satellite images can be utilized as indirect solar radiation measurements. Although satellite images cover wide areas with a good acquisition frequency they usually have a poor spatial resolution limited by the size of the image pixel, and irradiation must be interpolated to evaluate solar irradiation at a sub-pixel scale. When pixels are located in flat and homogeneous areas, correlation of solar irradiation is relatively high, and classic interpolation can provide a good estimation. However, in complex topography zones, data interpolation is not adequate and the use of Digital Terrain Model (DTM) information can be helpful. In this work, daily solar irradiation is estimated for a wide mountainous area using a combination of Meteosat satellite images and a DTM, with the advantage of avoiding the necessity of ground measurements. This methodology utilizes a modified Heliosat-2 model, and applies for all sky conditions; it also introduces a horizon calculation of the DTM points and accounts for the effect of snow covers. Model performance has been evaluated against data measured in 12 radiometric stations, with results in terms of the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 10%, and a Mean Bias Error (MBE) of +2%, both expressed as a percentage of the mean value measured. (author)

  5. Calibration and scaling of GRACE, GOCO03S and classical hydrosphere models for further model combination preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birylo, Monika; Kuczynska-Siehien, Joanna

    2014-05-01

    Equivalent water thickness (EWT) observation is a crucial part of a water cycle monitoring. A phenomenon which is going to be analyzed is an elementary natural issue. Monitoring and understanding of the water cycle phenomenon is an important part of economy, can provide a possibility of drought and flood prediction, atmosphere monitoring, river state, storage of drink water. Evaluating a method of a modern, effective and accurate water cycle monitoring will give an opportunity to prevent many disasters. Authors will test a new hydrosphere model that will be a combination of gradiometric and classical hydrosphere models. A sample area will be a territory of Poland, but an idea is to evaluate a method that can be used globally. Two satellite models will give a modern, almost in real-time presentation, while classical models will give details. The aim of the paper is to calibrate and scale to the same level all mentioned models as a basis for further model combination preparation.

  6. Dispersion modeling of selected PAHs in urban air: A new approach combining dispersion model with GIS and passive air sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáňka, Ondřej; Melymuk, Lisa; Čupr, Pavel; Dvorská, Alice; Klánová, Jana

    2014-10-01

    This study introduces a new combined air concentration measurement and modeling approach that we propose can be useful in medium and long term air quality assessment. A dispersion study was carried out for four high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an urban area with industrial, traffic and domestic heating sources. A geographic information system (GIS) was used both for processing of input data as well as visualization of the modeling results. The outcomes of the dispersion model were compared to the results of passive air sampling (PAS). Despite discrepancies between measured and modeled concentrations, an approach combining the two techniques is promising for future air quality assessment. Differences between measured and modeled concentrations, in particular when measured values exceed the modeled concentrations, are indicative of undocumented, sporadic pollutant sources. Thus, these differences can also be useful for assessing and refining emission inventories.

  7. The Combination of Antidepressant Duloxetine with Piracetam in Mice does not Produce Enhancement of Nootropic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    There is a strong association between depression and memory impairment. The present study aims to assess the nootropic activity of duloxetine and piracetam combination. Male Swiss Albino mice were divided randomly into 4 groups. Treatment of normal saline (10 ml/kg), duloxetine (10 mg/kg), piracetam (100 mg/kg), and duloxetine (5 mg/kg) plus piracetam (50 mg/kg) were given through intra-peritoneal route to group I-IV, respectively. Transfer latency in elevated plus maze (EPM) and time spent i...

  8. Utilization of activated sludge plants for enhanced treatment of combined sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolavcic, B; Svardal, K; Wandl, G; Günther, N; Spatzierer, G

    2008-01-01

    A process is introduced which utilizes secondary clarifiers for the treatment of combined sewage. Under storm water conditions, surplus sewage bypasses the aeration tanks after primary treatment and is directly introduced into the secondary clarifiers. The hydraulic capacity of existing activated sludge plants can be increased without additional tank volume. Particulate matter as well as dissolved compounds are removed to a high extent. Investigations on a full scale treatment plant (100,000 p.e.) show that the effluent quality is comparable with full biological treatment, even if the hydraulic loading is increased by 50%. IWA Publishing 2008.

  9. Towards a Method for Combined Model-based Testing and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Brian

    Efficient and effective verification and validation of complex embedded systems is challenging, and requires the use of various tools and techniques, such as model-based testing and analysis. The aim of this paper is to devise an overall \\method{} for how analysis and testing may be used in combi...... interesting combinations and workflows, but also that formulation of more specific combination patterns will be useful to encourage future tool collaborations....

  10. Experimental study of anti-inflammatory activity of the new combined with drug urolytolytic action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iermolenko T.I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines provide their versatile complex influence on the course of the pathological process in the kidneys due to biologically active compounds. Specifically, they cause the direct impact on the concrements formation. The search of drugs which would contain high biological compounds of plant origin is an actual issue of modern pharmacology. The aim of investigation was to study the anti-inflammatory activity of the new combined drug of urolytolytic action, which includes the total plant extract and succinate buffer complex. Materials and methods: aseptic exudative inflammation was caused by subplantar introduction of 0,1 ml of 1% solution of λ-karahenin in the right hind paw of rats, the investigated drug was administered at doses 1, 2 and 4 ml/kg. The influence of the studied drug was evaluated in terms of swelling limbs volume. It is shown that the severity of antiexudative action of flarosukcine had dose-dependent nature, increasing from dose of 1,0 ml/kg to 2,0 ml/kg (by 5,5%. Further dose increase to 4,0 ml/kg, was not defined by significant increase of activity. Anti-inflammatory activity of the drug ranged from 25 to 33%, which can be regarded as quite distinct, since in pharmacological study of anti-inflammatory drugs pharmacological activity level of at least 20% is significant.

  11. Biological effects of combined inactivation of plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijnen, H R; Moons, L; Beelen, V; Carmelie, P; Collen, D

    1995-10-01

    Mice with combined homozygous deficiency of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) (T-U-), of t-PA and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) (T-P-), of u-PA and PAI-1 (U-P-) or of t-PA, u-PA, and PAI-1 (T-U-P-) were generated by inbreeding of mice with the respective deficiencies. Homologous recombination at the t-PA, u-PA and PAI-1 locus was verified by Southern blot analysis of genomic tail tip DNA, and confirmed by measurement of antigen levels in plasma or urine. T-P- and U-P- mice were apparently healthy and fertile. T-U- mice showed extensive fibrin deposition with calcification in the liver, whereas T-U-P- mice were significantly (p measured 4 h after injection of a 125I-fibrin-labeled clot prepared from plasma of wild-type (WT) mice into the jugular vein, was (mean +/- SEM of n experiments) 2 +/- 1% (n = 8) for T-P-, 49 +/- 6% (n = 9) for U-P-, 1 +/- 1% (n = 4) for T-U- and 3 +/- 3% (n = 3) for T-U-P- mice, as compared to 32 +/- 4% (n = 10) for WT, 1 +/- 0% (n = 7) for T-, 30 +/- 5% (n = 5) for U- and 58 +/- 10% (n = 6) for P- mice. Plasminogen-dependent lysis of 125I-fibrin-labeled matrix and of 3H-proline-labeled subendothelial matrix (mean +/- SEM; n = 4 to 6) was lower with thioglycollate-stimulated macrophages obtained from U-P- mice (22 +/- 7% and 5 +/- 1%, respectively), as compared to WT mice (57 +/- 14% and 18 +/- 5%, respectively) and T-P- mice (87 +/- 6% and 27 +/- 4%, respectively). A similar decrease was previously observed with U- mice, but not with T- or P- mice. Thus, the phenotype of mice with combined deficiency of t-PA and PAI-1 or of u-PA and PAI-1 is similar to the phenotype observed in mice with single deficiency of the plasminogen activator. Additional deletion of PAI-1 does not affect viability, fertility, macrophage function or thrombolytic potential of the single deficient mice. Additional deletion of PAI in mice with combined deficiency of t-PA and u-PA does not restore the

  12. A