WorldWideScience

Sample records for activity combined models

  1. Modelling of the Secondary Clarifier Combined with the Activated Sludge Model no. 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, René; Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    Modelling of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants is today generally based on the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 combined with a very simple model for the secondary settler. This paper describes the development of a model for the secondary clarifier based on the general flux theory for zone...... model is a purely empirical model, which connects the effluent quality with the hydraulic load, suspended solids load and the nitrate load. The paper describes the model and gives some basic examples on computer simulations and verification of the model....

  2. A WKYMVm-containing combination elicits potent anti-tumor activity in heterotopic cancer animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Doo Kim

    Full Text Available The development of efficient anti-cancer therapy has been a topic of intense interest for several decades. Combined administration of certain molecules and immune cells has been shown to be an effective form of anti-cancer therapy. Here, we examined the effects of administering an immune stimulating peptide (WKYMVm, 5-fluoro-uracil (5-FU, and mature dendritic cells (mDCs against heterotopic cancer animal model. Administration of the triple combination strongly reduced tumor volume in CT-26-inoculated heterotopic cancer animal model. The induced anti-tumor activity was well correlated with FAS expression, caspase-3 activation, and cancer cell apoptosis. The triple combination treatment caused recruitment of CD8 T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK cells into the tumor. The production of two cytokines, IFN-γ and IL-12, were strongly stimulated by administration of the triple combination. Depletion of CD8 T lymphocytes or NK cells by administration of anti-CD8 or anti-asialoGM1 antibody inhibited the anti-tumor activity and cytokine production of the triple combination. The triple combination strongly inhibited metastasis of colon cancer cells in a heterotopic cancer animal model as well as in a metastatic cancer animal model, and enhanced the survival rate of the mice model. Adoptive transfer of CD8 T lymphocytes and NK cells further increased the survival rate. Taken together, we suggest that the use of triple combination therapy of WKYMVm, 5-FU, and mDCs may have implications in solid tumor and metastasis treatment.

  3. RESEARCH ON ACTIVE VIBRATION CONTROL BASED ON COMBINED MODEL FOR COUPLED SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Junchuan; Zhao Guoqun; Song Kongjie

    2004-01-01

    A novel combined model of the vibration control for the coupled flexible system and its general mathematic description are developed. In presented model, active and passive controls as well as force and moment controls are combined into a single unit to achieve the efficient vibration control of the flexible structures by multi-approaches. Considering the complexity of the energy transmission in the vibrating system, the transmission channels of the power flow transmitted into the foundation are discussed, and the general forces and the corresponding velocities are combined into a single function, respectively. Under the control strategy of the minimum power flow, the transmission characteristics of the power flow are investigated. From the presented numerical examples, it is obvious that the analytical model is effective, and both force and moment controls are able to depress vibration energy substantially.

  4. Computational modeling of epileptiform activities in medial temporal lobe epilepsy combined with in vitro experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sora; Jun, Sang Beom; Lee, Hyang Woon; Lee, Seungjun

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a comprehensive computational model that is able to reproduce three epileptiform activities. The model targets a hippocampal formation that is known to be an important lesion in medial temporal lobe epilepsy. It consists of four sub-networks consisting of excitatory and inhibitory neurons and well-known signal pathways, with consideration of propagation delay. The three epileptiform activities involve fast and slow interictal discharge and ictal discharge, and those activities can be induced in vitro by application of 4-Aminopyridine in entorhinal cortex combined hippocampal slices. We model the three epileptiform activities upon previously reported biological mechanisms and verify the simulation results by comparing them with in vitro experimental data obtained using a microelectrode array. We use the results of Granger causality analysis of recorded data to set input gains of signal pathways in the model, so that the compatibility between the computational and experimental models can be improved. The proposed model can be expanded to evaluate the suppression effect of epileptiform activities due to new treatment methods. PMID:27416961

  5. Combining EEG Microstates with fMRI Structural Features for Modeling Brain Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, Kostas; Bourbakis, Nikolaos

    2015-12-01

    Combining information from Electroencephalography (EEG) and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has been a topic of increased interest recently. The main advantage of the EEG is its high temporal resolution, in the scale of milliseconds, while the main advantage of fMRI is the detection of functional activity with good spatial resolution. The advantages of each modality seem to complement each other, providing better insight in the neuronal activity of the brain. The main goal of combining information from both modalities is to increase the spatial and the temporal localization of the underlying neuronal activity captured by each modality. This paper presents a novel technique based on the combination of these two modalities (EEG, fMRI) that allow a better representation and understanding of brain activities in time. EEG is modeled as a sequence of topographies, based on the notion of microstates. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) were used to model the temporal evolution of the topography of the average Event Related Potential (ERP). For each model the Fisher score of the sequence is calculated by taking the gradient of the trained model parameters. The Fisher score describes how this sequence deviates from the learned HMM. Canonical Partial Least Squares (CPLS) were used to decompose the two datasets and fuse the EEG and fMRI features. In order to test the effectiveness of this method, the results of this methodology were compared with the results of CPLS using the average ERP signal of a single channel. The presented methodology was able to derive components that co-vary between EEG and fMRI and present significant differences between the two tasks.

  6. The role of ECL2 in CGRP receptor activation: a combined modelling and experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Michael. J.; Watkins, Harriet A.; Taddese, Bruck; Karakullukcu, Z. Gamze; Barwell, James; Smith, Kevin J.; Hay, Debbie L.; Poyner, David R.; Reynolds, Christopher A.; Conner, Alex C.

    2013-01-01

    The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor is a complex of a calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), which is a family B G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and receptor activity modifying protein 1. The role of the second extracellular loop (ECL2) of CLR in binding CGRP and coupling to Gs was investigated using a combination of mutagenesis and modelling. An alanine scan of residues 271–294 of CLR showed that the ability of CGRP to produce cAMP was impaired by point mutations at 13 residues; most of these also impaired the response to adrenomedullin (AM). These data were used to select probable ECL2-modelled conformations that are involved in agonist binding, allowing the identification of the likely contacts between the peptide and receptor. The implications of the most likely structures for receptor activation are discussed. PMID:24047872

  7. Sterilizing Activities of Novel Combinations Lacking First- and Second-Line Drugs in a Murine Model of Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Kathy; Minkowski, Austin; Amoabeng, Opokua; Peloquin, Charles A.; Taylor, Dinesh; Andries, Koen; Wallis, Robert S.; Mdluli, Khisimuzi E.; Eric L Nuermberger

    2012-01-01

    Novel oral regimens composed of new drugs with potent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and no cross-resistance with existing agents are needed to shorten and simplify treatment for both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis. As part of a continuing effort to evaluate novel drug combinations for treatment-shortening potential in a murine model, we performed two long-term, relapse-based experiments. In the first experiment, several 3- and 4-drug combinations containing new...

  8. Learning Activities That Combine Science Magic Activities with the 5E Instructional Model to Influence Secondary-School Students' Attitudes to Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jang-Long; Cheng, Meng-Fei; Chang, Ying-Chi; Li, Hsiao-Wen; Chang, Jih-Yuan; Lin, Deng-Min

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how learning materials based on Science Magic activities affect student attitudes to science. A quasi-experimental design was conducted to explore the combination of Science Magic with the 5E Instructional Model to develop learning materials for teaching a science unit about friction. The participants…

  9. Combining Cattle Activity and Progesterone Measurements Using Hidden Semi-Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Jared Michael; Tøgersen, Frede Aakmann; Friggens, Nic;

    2011-01-01

    ability to identify oestrus is investigated as this is of great importance to farm management. Progesterone concentration is a more accurate but more expensive method than pedometer counts, and we evaluate the added benefits of a model that includes this variable. The resulting model is biologically...

  10. Combining EEG and MEG for the reconstruction of epileptic activity using a calibrated realistic volume conductor model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Aydin

    Full Text Available To increase the reliability for the non-invasive determination of the irritative zone in presurgical epilepsy diagnosis, we introduce here a new experimental and methodological source analysis pipeline that combines the complementary information in EEG and MEG, and apply it to data from a patient, suffering from refractory focal epilepsy. Skull conductivity parameters in a six compartment finite element head model with brain anisotropy, constructed from individual MRI data, are estimated in a calibration procedure using somatosensory evoked potential (SEP and field (SEF data. These data are measured in a single run before acquisition of further runs of spontaneous epileptic activity. Our results show that even for single interictal spikes, volume conduction effects dominate over noise and need to be taken into account for accurate source analysis. While cerebrospinal fluid and brain anisotropy influence both modalities, only EEG is sensitive to skull conductivity and conductivity calibration significantly reduces the difference in especially depth localization of both modalities, emphasizing its importance for combining EEG and MEG source analysis. On the other hand, localization differences which are due to the distinct sensitivity profiles of EEG and MEG persist. In case of a moderate error in skull conductivity, combined source analysis results can still profit from the different sensitivity profiles of EEG and MEG to accurately determine location, orientation and strength of the underlying sources. On the other side, significant errors in skull modeling are reflected in EEG reconstruction errors and could reduce the goodness of fit to combined datasets. For combined EEG and MEG source analysis, we therefore recommend calibrating skull conductivity using additionally acquired SEP/SEF data.

  11. Extracellular neural microstimulation may activate much larger regions than expected by simulations: a combined experimental and modeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Joucla

    Full Text Available Electrical stimulation of the central nervous system has been widely used for decades for either fundamental research purposes or clinical treatment applications. Yet, very little is known regarding the spatial extent of an electrical stimulation. If pioneering experimental studies reported that activation threshold currents (TCs increase with the square of the neuron-to-electrode distance over a few hundreds of microns, there is no evidence that this quadratic law remains valid for larger distances. Moreover, nowadays, numerical simulation approaches have supplanted experimental studies for estimating TCs. However, model predictions have not yet been validated directly with experiments within a common paradigm. Here, we present a direct comparison between experimental determination and modeling prediction of TCs up to distances of several millimeters. First, we combined patch-clamp recording and microelectrode array stimulation in whole embryonic mouse spinal cords to determine TCs. Experimental thresholds did not follow a quadratic law beyond 1 millimeter, but rather tended to remain constant for distances larger than 1 millimeter. We next built a combined finite element--compartment model of the same experimental paradigm to predict TCs. While theoretical TCs closely matched experimental TCs for distances <250 microns, they were highly overestimated for larger distances. This discrepancy remained even after modifications of the finite element model of the potential field, taking into account anisotropic, heterogeneous or dielectric properties of the tissue. In conclusion, these results show that quadratic evolution of TCs does not always hold for large distances between the electrode and the neuron and that classical models may underestimate volumes of tissue activated by electrical stimulation.

  12. The Combined Strength of Thermodynamics and Comparative Planetology: Application of Activity Models to Core Formation in Terrestrial Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Pando, K. M.; Danielson, L. R.

    2015-01-01

    how large the effect of Si can be, these epsilon values correspond to activity coefficients (gamma) for As of 0.01 when XSi = 0, and up to gamma = 23 when XSi = 0.2. Combining these new results with previous determinations [5,6] of epsilon parameters for S and C for these elements allows us calculate activity of Ge, In, As, and Sb in Fe-Ni-Si-S-C-O metallic liquids. We apply this new model to sever-al terrestrial bodies such as Earth (Si-rich core), Mars (S-rich core), Moon (S-, C-, and Si-poor core), and Vesta, and examine the resulting core and mantle concentrations of these elements. Mantle concentrations of these four elements are well explained for Earth and Mars in models that call for mid-mantle equilibration between Si-bearing and S-bearing FeNi cores, respectively. Modeling results for the Moon and Vesta will also be presented.

  13. Combining classical metrology models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Roldán

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The results obtained in the graphic analysis of the modulation of the Cuarto Real de Santo Domingo building in Granada, Spain, (ROLDÁN, 2011 have provided new insights to further approach the research on possible use the double-scale in historical monumental architecture. We propose the characterization of the singularities of the system, from the implications and graphic representation required by the metrological scheme identified, as well as the variety of typologies that are presented in their modular frames, and the iterative combination of two-scale modules which allow operational approximations to fractions and ratios not explicitly present in the system.

  14. Interventions for healthy eating and physical activity among obese elementary schoolchildren : observing changes of the combined effects of behavioral models

    OpenAIRE

    Duangchan, Patcharee; Yoelao, Dusadee; Macaskill, Ann; Intarakamhang, Ungsinun; Suprasonsin, Chittiwat

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this experimental research was to examine the effectiveness of the SSII-Healthy Eating Intervention and Physical Activity intervention programs at the end of intervention implementation in term of combined effects. The sample of this study was 21 students in Sawadeewittaya School, aged 9-11 years, who met the inclusion criteria and consented to participate in the study. The dependent variables included knowledge about obesity-related Type 2 diabetes, healthy eating behavior, health...

  15. Combined control effects of brake and active suspension control on the global safety of a full-car nonlinear model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamna, Rodrigue; Youn, Edward; Youn, Iljoong

    2014-05-01

    This paper focuses on the active safety of a full-vehicle nonlinear model during cornering. At first, a previously developed electronic stability controller (ESC) based on vehicle simplified model is applied to the full-car nonlinear model in order to control the vehicle yaw rate and side-slip angle. The ESC system was shown beneficial not only in tracking the vehicle path as close as possible, but it also helped in reducing the vehicle roll angle and influences ride comfort and road-holding capability; to tackle that issue and also to have better attitude motion, making use of optimal control theory the active suspension control gain is developed from a vehicle linear model and used to compute the active suspension control force of the vehicle nonlinear model. The active suspension control algorithm used in this paper includes the integral action of the suspension deflection in order to make zero the suspension deflection steady state and keep the vehicle chassis flat. Keeping the chassis flat reduces the vehicle load transfer and that is helpful for road holding and yaw rate tracking. The effects of the two controllers when they work together are analysed using various computer simulations with different steering wheel manoeuvres.

  16. Modelling combined effect of chloramine and copper on ammonia-oxidizing microbial activity using a biostability approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Dipok Chandra; Sathasivan, Arumugam; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2015-11-01

    Continuous and batch laboratory experiments were used to evaluate the combined effects of copper and chloramine on ammonia oxidizing microbes present in otherwise high nitrifying water samples. The experimental data were analyzed using a biostability concept and quantified with the biostable residual concentratrion (BRC) of monochloramine, or the concentration that prevents the onset of nitrification. In the batch experiments, copper dosing ≥0.25 mg-Cu L(-1) resulted in complete inhibition of nitrification, and a lower copper dosing (0.1 mg-Cu L(-1)) delayed nitrification. The BRC was systematically lowered with the addition of copper. For example, a free-ammonium concentration of 0.1 mg-N L(-1) had a BRC of 0.73 mg-Cl2 L(-1) with no Cu, but addition of 0.1 mg-Cu L(-1) lowered the BRC to 0.16 mg-Cl2 L(-1), while addition of 0.25 mg-Cu L(-1) eliminated the need to add chloramine (BRC = 0). A non-competitive inhibition model fit the experimental data well with a copper threshold of 0.044 mg-Cu L(-1) and can be used to estimate Cu doses needed to prevent nitrification based on the chloramine concentration. Full scale systems applications need further study.

  17. Decision-tree-model identification of nitrate pollution activities in groundwater: A combination of a dual isotope approach and chemical ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Dongmei; Pang, Fengmei; Meng, Fanqiao; Wang, Zhongliang; Wu, Wenliang

    2015-09-01

    To develop management practices for agricultural crops to protect against NO3- contamination in groundwater, dominant pollution activities require reliable classification. In this study, we (1) classified potential NO3- pollution activities via an unsupervised learning algorithm based on δ15N- and δ18O-NO3- and physico-chemical properties of groundwater at 55 sampling locations; and (2) determined which water quality parameters could be used to identify the sources of NO3- contamination via a decision tree model. When a combination of δ15N-, δ18O-NO3- and physico-chemical properties of groundwater was used as an input for the k-means clustering algorithm, it allowed for a reliable clustering of the 55 sampling locations into 4 corresponding agricultural activities: well irrigated agriculture (28 sampling locations), sewage irrigated agriculture (16 sampling locations), a combination of sewage irrigated agriculture, farm and industry (5 sampling locations) and a combination of well irrigated agriculture and farm (6 sampling locations). A decision tree model with 97.5% classification success was developed based on SO42 - and Cl- variables. The NO3- and the δ15N- and δ18O-NO3- variables demonstrated limitation in developing a decision tree model as multiple N sources and fractionation processes both resulted in difficulties of discriminating NO3- concentrations and isotopic values. Although only the SO42 - and Cl- were selected as important discriminating variables, concentration data alone could not identify the specific NO3- sources responsible for groundwater contamination. This is a result of comprehensive analysis. To further reduce NO3- contamination, an integrated approach should be set-up by combining N and O isotopes of NO3- with land-uses and physico-chemical properties, especially in areas with complex agricultural activities.

  18. Activity of Colistin in Combination with Meropenem, Tigecycline, Fosfomycin, Fusidic Acid, Rifampin or Sulbactam against Extensively Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Murine Thigh-Infection Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Fan

    Full Text Available Few effective therapeutic options are available for treating severe infections caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB. Using a murine thigh-infection model, we examined the in vivo efficacy of colistin in combination with meropenem, tigecycline, fosfomycin, fusidic acid, rifampin, or sulbactam against 12 XDR-AB strains. Colistin, tigecycline, rifampin, and sulbactam monotherapy significantly decreased bacterial counts in murine thigh infections compared with those observed in control mice receiving no treatment. Colistin was the most effective agent tested, displaying bactericidal activity against 91.7% of strains at 48 h post-treatment. With strains showing a relatively low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for meropenem (MIC ≤ 32 mg/L, combination therapy with colistin plus meropenem caused synergistic inhibition at both 24 h and 48 h post-treatment. However, when the meropenem MIC was ≥64 mg/L, meropenem did not significantly alter the efficacy of colistin. The addition of rifampin and fusidic acid significantly improved the efficacy of colistin, showing a synergistic effect in 100% and 58.3% of strains after 24 h of treatment, respectively, while the addition of tigecycline, fosfomycin, or sulbactam did not show obvious synergistic activity. No clear differences in activities were observed between colistin-rifampin and colistin-fusidic acid combination therapy with most strains. Overall, our in vivo study showed that administering colistin in combination with rifampin or fusidic acid is more efficacious in treating XDR-AB infections than other combinations. The colistin-meropenem combination may be another appropriate option if the MIC is ≤32 mg/L. Further clinical studies are urgently needed to confirm the relevance of these findings.

  19. Activity of Colistin in Combination with Meropenem, Tigecycline, Fosfomycin, Fusidic Acid, Rifampin or Sulbactam against Extensively Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Murine Thigh-Infection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiumei; Cong, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Few effective therapeutic options are available for treating severe infections caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB). Using a murine thigh-infection model, we examined the in vivo efficacy of colistin in combination with meropenem, tigecycline, fosfomycin, fusidic acid, rifampin, or sulbactam against 12 XDR-AB strains. Colistin, tigecycline, rifampin, and sulbactam monotherapy significantly decreased bacterial counts in murine thigh infections compared with those observed in control mice receiving no treatment. Colistin was the most effective agent tested, displaying bactericidal activity against 91.7% of strains at 48 h post-treatment. With strains showing a relatively low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for meropenem (MIC ≤ 32 mg/L), combination therapy with colistin plus meropenem caused synergistic inhibition at both 24 h and 48 h post-treatment. However, when the meropenem MIC was ≥64 mg/L, meropenem did not significantly alter the efficacy of colistin. The addition of rifampin and fusidic acid significantly improved the efficacy of colistin, showing a synergistic effect in 100% and 58.3% of strains after 24 h of treatment, respectively, while the addition of tigecycline, fosfomycin, or sulbactam did not show obvious synergistic activity. No clear differences in activities were observed between colistin-rifampin and colistin-fusidic acid combination therapy with most strains. Overall, our in vivo study showed that administering colistin in combination with rifampin or fusidic acid is more efficacious in treating XDR-AB infections than other combinations. The colistin-meropenem combination may be another appropriate option if the MIC is ≤32 mg/L. Further clinical studies are urgently needed to confirm the relevance of these findings. PMID:27315107

  20. Comparing nonsynergy gamma models and interaction models to predict growth of emetic Bacillus cereus for combinations of pH and water activity values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesta-Peters, E.G.; Reij, M.W.; Zwietering, M.H.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to test the absence (gamma hypothesis) or occurrence of synergy between two growth-limiting factors, i.e., pH and water activity (aw), using a systematic approach for model selection. In this approach, preset criteria were used to evaluate the performance of models. Such a systema

  1. Enhancement of Antibacterial Activity of Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Combination with Antibiotics, on Model Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Jyothi Kora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanoparticles used in this study were prepared from AgNO3 using NaBH4 in the presence of capping agents such as citrate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and polyvinylpyrrolidone. The formed nanoparticles were characterized with UV-Vis, TEM, and XRD. The generation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed from the appearance of yellow colour and an absorption maximum between 399 and 404 nm. The produced nanoparticles were found to be spherical in shape and polydisperse. For citrate, SDS, and PVP capped nanoparticles, the average particle sizes were 38.3±13.5, 19.3±6.0, and 16.0±4.8 nm, respectively. The crystallinity of the nanoparticles in FCC structure is confirmed from the SAED and XRD patterns. Also, the combined antibacterial activity of these differently capped nanoparticles with selected antibiotics (streptomycin, ampicillin, and tetracycline was evaluated on model Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, employing disc diffusion assay. The activity of the tested antibiotics was enhanced in combination with all the stabilized nanoparticles, against both the Gram classes of bacteria. The combined effects of silver nanoparticles and antibiotics were more prominent with PVP capped nanoparticles as compared to citrate and SDS capped ones. The results of this study demonstrate potential therapeutic applications of silver nanoparticles in combination with antibiotics.

  2. A common model for cytokine receptor activation: combined scissor-like rotation and self-rotation of receptor dimer induced by class I cytokine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Pang

    Full Text Available The precise mechanism by which the binding of a class I cytokine to the extracellular domain of its corresponding receptor transmits a signal through the cell membrane remains unclear. Receptor activation involves a cytokine-receptor complex with a 1∶2 stoichiometry. Previously we used our transient-complex theory to calculate the rate constant of the initial cytokine-receptor binding to form a 1∶1 complex. Here we computed the binding pathway leading to the 1∶2 activation complex. Three cytokine systems (growth hormone, erythropoietin, and prolactin were studied, and the focus was on the binding of the extracellular domain of the second receptor molecule after forming the 1∶1 complex. According to the transient-complex theory, translational and rotation diffusion of the binding entities bring them together to form a transient complex, which has near-native relative separation and orientation but not the short-range specific native interactions. Subsequently conformational rearrangement leads to the formation of the native complex. We found that the changes in relative orientations between the two receptor molecules from the transient complex to the 1∶2 native complex are similar for the three cytokine-receptor systems. We thus propose a common model for receptor activation by class I cytokines, involving combined scissor-like rotation and self-rotation of the two receptor molecules. Both types of rotations seem essential: the scissor-like rotation separates the intracellular domains of the two receptor molecules to make room for the associated Janus kinase molecules, while the self-rotation allows them to orient properly for transphosphorylation. This activation model explains a host of experimental observations. The transient-complex based approach presented here may provide a strategy for designing antagonists and prove useful for elucidating activation mechanisms of other receptors.

  3. Phyloclimatic modeling: combining phylogenetics and bioclimatic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesson, C; Culham, A

    2006-10-01

    We investigate the impact of past climates on plant diversification by tracking the "footprint" of climate change on a phylogenetic tree. Diversity within the cosmopolitan carnivorous plant genus Drosera (Droseraceae) is focused within Mediterranean climate regions. We explore whether this diversity is temporally linked to Mediterranean-type climatic shifts of the mid-Miocene and whether climate preferences are conservative over phylogenetic timescales. Phyloclimatic modeling combines environmental niche (bioclimatic) modeling with phylogenetics in order to study evolutionary patterns in relation to climate change. We present the largest and most complete such example to date using Drosera. The bioclimatic models of extant species demonstrate clear phylogenetic patterns; this is particularly evident for the tuberous sundews from southwestern Australia (subgenus Ergaleium). We employ a method for establishing confidence intervals of node ages on a phylogeny using replicates from a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. This chronogram shows that many clades, including subgenus Ergaleium and section Bryastrum, diversified during the establishment of the Mediterranean-type climate. Ancestral reconstructions of bioclimatic models demonstrate a pattern of preference for this climate type within these groups. Ancestral bioclimatic models are projected into palaeo-climate reconstructions for the time periods indicated by the chronogram. We present two such examples that each generate plausible estimates of ancestral lineage distribution, which are similar to their current distributions. This is the first study to attempt bioclimatic projections on evolutionary time scales. The sundews appear to have diversified in response to local climate development. Some groups are specialized for Mediterranean climates, others show wide-ranging generalism. This demonstrates that Phyloclimatic modeling could be repeated for other plant groups and is fundamental to the understanding of

  4. Active coherent beam combining of diode lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Shawn M; Creedon, Kevin J; Kansky, Jan E; Augst, Steven J; Missaggia, Leo J; Connors, Michael K; Huang, Robin K; Chann, Bien; Fan, Tso Yee; Turner, George W; Sanchez-Rubio, Antonio

    2011-03-15

    We have demonstrated active coherent beam combination (CBC) of up to 218 semiconductor amplifiers with 38.5 W cw output using up to eleven one-dimensional 21-element individually addressable diode amplifier arrays operating at 960 nm. The amplifier array elements are slab-coupled-optical-waveguide semiconductor amplifiers (SCOWAs) set up in a master-oscillator-power-amplifier configuration. Diffractive optical elements divide the master-oscillator beam to seed multiple arrays of SCOWAs. A SCOWA was phase actuated by adjusting the drive current to each element and controlled using a stochastic-parallel-gradient-descent (SPGD) algorithm for the active CBC. The SPGD is a hill-climbing algorithm that maximizes on-axis intensity in the far field, providing phase locking without needing a reference beam.

  5. Predictive modelling of the combined effect of temperature and water activity on the in vitro growth of Erwinia spp. infecting potato tubers in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh, AA.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Erwinia carotovora ssp. atroseptica (Eca, Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora (Ecc and Erwinia chrysanthemi (Ech, are the main cause of potato tuber decay (soft rot in storage and stem rot in the field (blackleg. The bacteria are characterized by the production of several extracellular pectic enzymes among them Pectate Lyase (PEL activity is the most important key of pathogenesis. It has been reported that ecological parameters such as humidity and temperature, greatly influence the disease development. The objective of this work was to determine the in vitro effect of water activity (0.960, 0.980, 0.997 and temperature (10, 15 and 20°C and their interactions on the growth parameters of Eca, Ecc and Ech using optical density (OD measurement. The maximum specific growth rate (µmax was calculated under each aw-temperature combinations for the three Erwinia species. Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of aw and temperature on µmax. We noticed that Eca and Ecc grow faster than Ech in our condition. A second aim of this work was to monitor the PEL specific activity under the combined effect of these two factors (aw-temperature. Our results showed an increase of PEL specific activity with the temperature whatever are the bacterial strains. But contrary to growth, this research did not show an increase of PEL specific activity with aw except the treatment at 15 and 20°C for all bacteria strains. According to our obtained results on growth and PEL production we concluded that Eca 03034/1 and Ecc 030033 had the same ecological behavior comparatively to Ech 03/016/1 in the range of the values of the two factors (aw and temperature investigated here. To our knowledge, this research is the first publication which pointed out the combined in vitro effect of aw and temperature on the growth of Erwinia genius according to literature data.

  6. Combining structure-based pharmacophore modeling, virtual screening, and in silico ADMET analysis to discover novel tetrahydro-quinoline based pyruvate kinase isozyme M2 activators with antitumor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen C

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Can Chen,1,2,* Ting Wang,1,3,* Fengbo Wu,1,* Wei Huang,4 Gu He,1 Liang Ouyang,1 Mingli Xiang,1 Cheng Peng,4 Qinglin Jiang1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Department of Pharmacy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 2College of Pharmacy and the First Affiliated Hospital, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, 3Department of Cardiology, Genenal Hospital of Chengdu Military Command, Chengdu, 4State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Systematic Research, Development and Utilization of Chinese Medicine, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Compared with normal differentiated cells, cancer cells upregulate the expression of pyruvate kinase isozyme M2 (PKM2 to support glycolytic intermediates for anabolic processes, including the synthesis of nucleic acids, amino acids, and lipids. In this study, a combination of the structure-based pharmacophore modeling and a hybrid protocol of virtual screening methods comprised of pharmacophore model-based virtual screening, docking-based virtual screening, and in silico ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity analysis were used to retrieve novel PKM2 activators from commercially available chemical databases. Tetrahydroquinoline derivatives were identified as potential scaffolds of PKM2 activators. Thus, the hybrid virtual screening approach was applied to screen the focused tetrahydroquinoline derivatives embedded in the ZINC database. Six hit compounds were selected from the final hits and experimental studies were then performed. Compound 8 displayed a potent inhibitory effect on human lung cancer cells. Following treatment with Compound 8, cell viability, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS production were examined in A549 cells. Finally, we evaluated the effects of Compound 8 on mice xenograft tumor models in vivo. These results may provide important

  7. Deterministic combination of numerical and physical coastal wave models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, H.W.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas; Jakobsen, K.P.

    2007-01-01

    the interface between the numerical and physical models. The link between numerical and physical models is given by an ad hoc unified wave generation theory which is devised in the study. This wave generation theory accounts for linear dispersion and shallow water non-linearity. Local wave phenomena (evanescent......A deterministic combination of numerical and physical models for coastal waves is developed. In the combined model, a Boussinesq model MIKE 21 BW is applied for the numerical wave computations. A piston-type 2D or 3D wavemaker and the associated control system with active wave absorption provides...

  8. Activity in the fronto-parietal network indicates numerical inductive reasoning beyond calculation: An fMRI study combined with a cognitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Taatgen, Niels A; Borst, Jelmer P; Li, Kuncheng

    2016-01-01

    Numerical inductive reasoning refers to the process of identifying and extrapolating the rule involved in numeric materials. It is associated with calculation, and shares the common activation of the fronto-parietal regions with calculation, which suggests that numerical inductive reasoning may correspond to a general calculation process. However, compared with calculation, rule identification is critical and unique to reasoning. Previous studies have established the central role of the fronto-parietal network for relational integration during rule identification in numerical inductive reasoning. The current question of interest is whether numerical inductive reasoning exclusively corresponds to calculation or operates beyond calculation, and whether it is possible to distinguish between them based on the activity pattern in the fronto-parietal network. To directly address this issue, three types of problems were created: numerical inductive reasoning, calculation, and perceptual judgment. Our results showed that the fronto-parietal network was more active in numerical inductive reasoning which requires more exchanges between intermediate representations and long-term declarative knowledge during rule identification. These results survived even after controlling for the covariates of response time and error rate. A computational cognitive model was developed using the cognitive architecture ACT-R to account for the behavioral results and brain activity in the fronto-parietal network. PMID:27193284

  9. 21 CFR 347.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... antiseptic active ingredients. Any one (two when required to be in combination) or more of the active... generally recognized as safe and effective single first aid antiseptic active ingredient, or any...

  10. Anoxic Activated Sludge Monitoring with Combined Nitrate and Titrimetric Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B.; Gernaey, Krist; Vanrolleghem, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental procedure for anoxic activated sludge monitoring with combined nitrate and titrimetric measurements is proposed and evaluated successfully with two known carbon sources, (-)acetate and dextrose. For nitrate measurements an ion-selective nitrate electrode is applied to allow...... was with the carbon source in excess, since excess nitrate provoked nitrite build-up thereby complicating the data interpretation. A conceptual model could quantitatively describe the experimental observations and thus link the experimentally measured proton production with the consumption of electron acceptor...... and carbon source during denitrification....

  11. Synergistic antiarrhythmic effect of combining inhibition of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels and voltage-gated Na(+) channels in an isolated heart model of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhoff, Jeppe Egedal; Goldin Diness, Jonas; Sheykhzade, Majid;

    2015-01-01

    would be subefficacious as monotherapy, may prevent atrial fibrillation (AF) and have reduced proarrhythmic potential in the ventricles. METHODS: Subefficacious concentrations of ranolazine, flecainide, and lidocaine were tested alone or in combination with the SK channel blocker N-(pyridin-2-yl)-4...

  12. Technological Forecasting---Model Selection, Model Stability, and Combining Models

    OpenAIRE

    Nigel Meade; Towhidul Islam

    1998-01-01

    The paper identifies 29 models that the literature suggests are appropriate for technological forecasting. These models are divided into three classes according to the timing of the point of inflexion in the innovation or substitution process. Faced with a given data set and such a choice, the issue of model selection needs to be addressed. Evidence used to aid model selection is drawn from measures of model fit and model stability. An analysis of the forecasting performance of these models u...

  13. Combined experimental and modeling studies of microwave activated CH4/H2/Ar plasmas for microcrystalline, nanocrystalline, and ultrananocrystalline diamond deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richley, James C.; Fox, Oliver J. L.; Ashfold, Michael N. R.; Mankelevich, Yuri A.

    2011-03-01

    A comprehensive study of microwave (MW) activated CH4/H2/Ar plasmas used for diamond chemical vapor deposition is reported, focusing particularly on the effects of gross variations in the H2/Ar ratio in the input gas mixture (from H2/Ar mole fraction ratios of > 10:1, through to ˜1:99). Absolute column densities of C2(a) and CH(X) radicals and of H(n = 2) atoms have been determined by cavity ringdown spectroscopy, as functions of height (z) above a substrate and of process conditions (CH4, H2, and Ar input mole fractions, total pressure, p, and input microwave power, P). Optical emission spectroscopy has also been used to explore the relative densities of electronically excited H atoms, and CH, C2, and C3 radicals, as functions of these same process conditions. These experimental data are complemented by extensive 2D (r, z) modeling of the plasma chemistry, which provides a quantitative rationale for all of the experimental observations. Progressive replacement of H2 by Ar (at constant p and P) leads to an expanded plasma volume. Under H2-rich conditions, > 90% of the input MW power is absorbed through rovibrational excitation of H2. Reducing the H2 content (as in an Ar-rich plasma) leads to a reduction in the absorbed power density; the plasma necessarily expands in order to accommodate a given input power. The average power density in an Ar-rich plasma is much lower than that in an H2-rich plasma operating at the same p and P. Progressive replacement of H2 by Ar is shown also to result in an increased electron temperature, an increased [H]/[H2] number density ratio, but little change in the maximum gas temperature in the plasma core (which is consistently ˜3000 K). Given the increased [H]/[H2] ratio, the fast H-shifting (CyHx + H ↔ CyHx-1 + H2; y = 1-3) reactions ensure that the core of Ar-rich plasma contains much higher relative abundances of "product" species like C atoms, and C2, and C3 radicals. The effects of Ar dilution on the absorbed power

  14. Combined experimental and modeling studies of microwave activated CH4/H2/Ar plasmas for microcrystalline, nanocrystalline, and ultrananocrystalline diamond deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive study of microwave (MW) activated CH4/H2/Ar plasmas used for diamond chemical vapor deposition is reported, focusing particularly on the effects of gross variations in the H2/Ar ratio in the input gas mixture (from H2/Ar mole fraction ratios of > 10:1, through to ∼1:99). Absolute column densities of C2(a) and CH(X) radicals and of H(n = 2) atoms have been determined by cavity ringdown spectroscopy, as functions of height (z) above a substrate and of process conditions (CH4, H2, and Ar input mole fractions, total pressure, p, and input microwave power, P). Optical emission spectroscopy has also been used to explore the relative densities of electronically excited H atoms, and CH, C2, and C3 radicals, as functions of these same process conditions. These experimental data are complemented by extensive 2D (r, z) modeling of the plasma chemistry, which provides a quantitative rationale for all of the experimental observations. Progressive replacement of H2 by Ar (at constant p and P) leads to an expanded plasma volume. Under H2-rich conditions, > 90% of the input MW power is absorbed through rovibrational excitation of H2. Reducing the H2 content (as in an Ar-rich plasma) leads to a reduction in the absorbed power density; the plasma necessarily expands in order to accommodate a given input power. The average power density in an Ar-rich plasma is much lower than that in an H2-rich plasma operating at the same p and P. Progressive replacement of H2 by Ar is shown also to result in an increased electron temperature, an increased [H]/[H2] number density ratio, but little change in the maximum gas temperature in the plasma core (which is consistently ∼3000 K). Given the increased [H]/[H2] ratio, the fast H-shifting (CyHx + H ↔ CyHx-1 + H2; y = 1-3) reactions ensure that the core of Ar-rich plasma contains much higher relative abundances of ''product'' species like C atoms, and C2, and C3 radicals. The effects of Ar dilution on the absorbed power

  15. Activity in the fronto-parietal network indicates numerical inductive reasoning beyond calculation : An fMRI study combined with a cognitive model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Taatgen, Niels A; Borst, Jelmer P; Li, Kuncheng

    2016-01-01

    Numerical inductive reasoning refers to the process of identifying and extrapolating the rule involved in numeric materials. It is associated with calculation, and shares the common activation of the fronto-parietal regions with calculation, which suggests that numerical inductive reasoning may corr

  16. Evaluation of antidepressant activity of ondansetron alone and in combination with fluoxetine-an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal M. Parekar

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Our study concludes that ondansetron alone and in combination with fluoxetine possesses significant antidepressant activity in animal models of depression. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 90-97

  17. Antioxidant activity of dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination in neuroprotective therapy in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Kurysheva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the antioxidant activity of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and timolol fixed combinations and to compare it with other fixed combinations.Methods: Antioxidant activity (AOA of dorzolamide/timolol (Cosopt, dorzolamide/timolol (Dorzopt Plus, latanoprost/timolol, brimonidine/timolol, travoprost/timolol and bimatoprost/timolol fixed combinations was measured in vitro using the model of oxida- tive hemolysis.Results: Dorzolamide/timolol (Cosopt AOA was higher than that of other fixed combinations and increased with the quantity of the drugs added to the model system: 40%, 52% and 75% in 30 μl, 60 μl and 90 μl respectively.Conclusion: these findings suggest that dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination has potential advantages over the other fixed combinations due to its high antioxidant activity and might be used as the neuroptotective agent for glaucoma treatment.

  18. Antioxidant activity of dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination in neuroprotective therapy in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Kurysheva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the antioxidant activity of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and timolol fixed combinations and to compare it with other fixed combinations.Methods: Antioxidant activity (AOA of dorzolamide/timolol (Cosopt, dorzolamide/timolol (Dorzopt Plus, latanoprost/timolol, brimonidine/timolol, travoprost/timolol and bimatoprost/timolol fixed combinations was measured in vitro using the model of oxida- tive hemolysis.Results: Dorzolamide/timolol (Cosopt AOA was higher than that of other fixed combinations and increased with the quantity of the drugs added to the model system: 40%, 52% and 75% in 30 μl, 60 μl and 90 μl respectively.Conclusion: these findings suggest that dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination has potential advantages over the other fixed combinations due to its high antioxidant activity and might be used as the neuroptotective agent for glaucoma treatment.

  19. Thalidomide combined with irradiation alters the activity of two proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Ece; Aydemir, Esra; Korcum, Aylin Fidan; Fişkın, Kayahan

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of thalidomide, a drug known for its anti‑angiogenic and antitumor properties, at its cytotoxic dose previously determined as 40 µg/ml (according to four cytotoxic test results). The effect of the drug alone and in combination with radiotherapy using Cobalt 60 (60Co) at 45 Gy on the enzymatic activity of substance‑P degrading A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)10 and neprilysin (NEP) was investigated in the mouse breast cancer cell lines 4T1 and 4T1 heart metastases post‑capsaicin (4THMpc). Thalidomide (40 µg/ml) exerted differing effects on the activities of ADAM10 and NEP enzymes. In 4T1 cells, 40 µg/ml thalidomide alone did not alter ADAM10 enzyme activity. 60Co irradiation at 45 Gy alone caused a 42% inhibition in ADAM10 activity, however, the inhibition increased to 89% when combined therapy was used. By contrast, in the 4THMpc cell line, 40 µg/ml thalidomide alone induced a 66.6% increase in ADAM10 enzyme activity. Radiotherapy alone and thalidomide with 60Co combined therapy caused a 33.3 and 40% inhibition of ADAM10 activity, respectively. In 4T1 cells, thalidomide alone caused a 40.9% increase in NEP activity. Radiation therapy alone or in combination with the drug caused a 40.7% increase in NEP activity. In more aggressive 4THMpc cells, thalidomide alone caused a 26.6% increase in NEP activity. Radiotherapy alone and combined therapy caused a 33.3 and 37% increase in enzyme activity, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate that thalidomide alone or in combination with radiotherapy exhibits significant cytotoxic effects on 4T1 and 4THMpc mouse breast cancer cell lines indicating that this drug affects the enzymatic activity of ADAM10 and NEP in vitro.

  20. Activities and Products at IVS combination center at BKG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, S.; Lösler, M.

    2013-08-01

    The IVS combination center is primarily responsible to provide rapid EOP products based on observation campaigns twice a week and a long-term EOP series which is updated four times a year. Besides EOP products, methods and analysis of combined station coordinates and source positions are evolving and new products are developed in order to expand the range of combined VLBI products. Within the last year the combination center continuously worked on several improvements and refinements of the combination procedure: outlier test have been improved, the detection of unsuitable sessions in order to improve the stability of the results, the modeling of station coordinates of the reference frame generation and the data presentation on the combination centers website. Besides the routine combination of 24h VLBI sessions, several other projects have been developed, e.g. the preparation of the latest VLBI reference frame (VTRF) including the calculation of station height variations and baseline lengths generation derived by the combination of station coordinates. The combination center is furthermore intensely working on the combination of source coordinates and on providing user friendly online analysis tools on the combination centers website in order to meet the user requirements.

  1. Pesticide Removal by Combined Ozonation and Granular Activated Carbon Filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlandini, E.

    1999-01-01

    This research aimed to idendfy and understand mechanisms that underlie the beneficial effect of ozonation on removal of pesdcides and other micropoUutants by Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) filtradon. This allows optimization of the combination of these two processes, termed Biological Activated Car

  2. Human platelets produced in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice upon transplantation of human cord blood CD34(+) cells are functionally active in an ex vivo flow model of thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Isabelle I; Thijs, Tim; Brunaud, Christine; De Meyer, Simon F; Thys, Johan; Vanhoorelbeke, Karen; Deckmyn, Hans

    2009-12-01

    Xenotransplantation systems have been used with increasing success to better understand human hematopoiesis and thrombopoiesis. In this study, we demonstrate that production of human platelets in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice after transplantation of unexpanded cord-blood CD34(+) cells was detected within 10 days after transplantation, with the number of circulating human platelets peaking at 2 weeks (up to 87 x 10(3)/microL). This rapid human platelet production was followed by a second wave of platelet formation 5 weeks after transplantation, with a population of 5% still detected after 8 weeks, attesting for long-term engraftment. Platelets issued from human hematopoietic stem cell progenitors are functional, as assessed by increased CD62P expression and PAC1 binding in response to collagen-related peptide and thrombin receptor-activating peptide activation and their ability to incorporate into thrombi formed on a collagen-coated surface in an ex vivo flow model of thrombosis. This interaction was abrogated by addition of inhibitory monoclonal antibodies against human glycoprotein Ibalpha (GPIbalpha) and GPIIb/IIIa. Thus, our mouse model with production of human platelets may be further explored to study the function of genetically modified platelets, but also to investigate the effect of stimulators or inhibitors of human thrombopoiesis in vivo.

  3. Focal radiation therapy combined with 4-1BB activation and CTLA-4 blockade yields long-term survival and a protective antigen-specific memory response in a murine glioma model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Belcaid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults and is associated with a poor prognosis. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen -4 (CTLA-4 blocking antibodies have demonstrated an ability to generate robust antitumor immune responses against a variety of solid tumors. 4-1BB (CD137 is expressed by activated T lymphocytes and served as a co-stimulatory signal, which promotes cytotoxic function. Here, we evaluate a combination immunotherapy regimen involving 4-1BB activation, CTLA-4 blockade, and focal radiation therapy in an immune-competent intracranial GBM model. METHODS: GL261-luciferace cells were stereotactically implanted in the striatum of C57BL/6 mice. Mice were treated with a triple therapy regimen consisted of 4-1BB agonist antibodies, CTLA-4 blocking antibodies, and focal radiation therapy using a small animal radiation research platform and mice were followed for survival. Numbers of brain-infiltrating lymphocytes were analyzed by FACS analysis. CD4 or CD8 depleting antibodies were administered to determine the relative contribution of T helper and cytotoxic T cells in this regimen. To evaluate the ability of this immunotherapy to generate an antigen-specific memory response, long-term survivors were re-challenged with GL261 glioma en B16 melanoma flank tumors. RESULTS: Mice treated with triple therapy had increased survival compared to mice treated with focal radiation therapy and immunotherapy with 4-1BB activation and CTLA-4 blockade. Animals treated with triple therapy exhibited at least 50% long-term tumor free survival. Treatment with triple therapy resulted in a higher density of CD4+ and CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Mechanistically, depletion of CD4+ T cells abrogated the antitumor efficacy of triple therapy, while depletion of CD8+ T cells had no effect on the treatment response. CONCLUSION: Combination therapy with 4-1BB activation and CTLA-4 blockade in the setting of focal radiation therapy

  4. Computational Models for Analysis of Illicit Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat

    Numerous illicit activities happen in our society, which, from time to time affect the population by harming individuals directly or indirectly. Researchers from different disciplines have contributed to developing strategies to analyze such activities, in order to help law enforcement agents dev...... population globally sensitive to specific world issues. The models discuss the dynamics of population in response to such issues. All the models presented in the thesis can be combined for a systematic analysis of illicit activities.......Numerous illicit activities happen in our society, which, from time to time affect the population by harming individuals directly or indirectly. Researchers from different disciplines have contributed to developing strategies to analyze such activities, in order to help law enforcement agents...... devise policies to minimize them. These activities include cybercrimes, terrorist attacks or violent actions in response to certain world issues. Beside such activities, there are several other related activities worth analyzing, for which computational models have been presented in this thesis...

  5. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF COMBINATION DRUGS FOR TREATING VAGINOSIS DIFFERENT ETIOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobritskaya L. A.,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigated the antimicrobial activity of the combination preparation in capsules "Meraflam" clinical of microbial strains isolated from patients with bacterial vaginosis . Experimentally proved the therapeutic dose of 0.3 g ornidazole in combination with Flamini 0.05 g, improve tolerability and expand the range of antibacterial action of the drug. In view of the antimicrobial capacity of diclofenac sodium from the combination of ofloxacin proposed for use in an integrated circuit - inflammatory treatment of infectious diseases , including bacterial vaginosis.

  6. Study of the combined effect of temperature, pH and water activity on the radial growth rate of the white-rot basidiomycete Physisporinus vitreus by using a hyphal growth model

    CERN Document Server

    Fuhr, M J; Schubert, M; Schwarze, F W M R; Herrmann, H J

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates environmental effects on the growth of fungal colonies of P. vitreus by using a lattice-free discrete modelling approach called FGM (Fuhr et al. (2010), arXiv:1101.1747), in which hyphae and nutrients are considered as discrete structures. A discrete modelling approach allows studying the underlying mechanistic rule concerning the basic architecture and dynamic of fungal networks on the scale of a single colony. By comparing simulations of the FGM with laboratory experiments of growing fungal colonies on malt extract agar we show that combined effect of temperature, pH and water activity on the radial growth rate of a fungal colony on a macroscopic scale may be explained by a power law for the growth costs of hyphal expansion on a microscopic scale. The information about the response of the fungal mycelium on a microscopic scale to environmental conditions is essential to simulate its behavior in complex structure substrates such as wood, where the impact of the fungus to the woo...

  7. Combined optimization model for sustainable energization strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtew, Mohammed Seid

    Access to energy is a foundation to establish a positive impact on multiple aspects of human development. Both developed and developing countries have a common concern of achieving a sustainable energy supply to fuel economic growth and improve the quality of life with minimal environmental impacts. The Least Developing Countries (LDCs), however, have different economic, social, and energy systems. Prevalence of power outage, lack of access to electricity, structural dissimilarity between rural and urban regions, and traditional fuel dominance for cooking and the resultant health and environmental hazards are some of the distinguishing characteristics of these nations. Most energy planning models have been designed for developed countries' socio-economic demographics and have missed the opportunity to address special features of the poor countries. An improved mixed-integer programming energy-source optimization model is developed to address limitations associated with using current energy optimization models for LDCs, tackle development of the sustainable energization strategies, and ensure diversification and risk management provisions in the selected energy mix. The Model predicted a shift from traditional fuels reliant and weather vulnerable energy source mix to a least cost and reliable modern clean energy sources portfolio, a climb on the energy ladder, and scored multifaceted economic, social, and environmental benefits. At the same time, it represented a transition strategy that evolves to increasingly cleaner energy technologies with growth as opposed to an expensive solution that leapfrogs immediately to the cleanest possible, overreaching technologies.

  8. Active CPW-fed slot antennas for power combining applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormanyos, Brian K.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1992-01-01

    We have combined integrated circuit antenna technology with microwave oscillator design to build an active slot-oscillator. The design is planar, does not require via holes and is compatible with monolithic transistor technology. The CPW-fed antenna impedance is calculated using a full-wave analysis technique. Slot-oscillators were built at 7, 13, and 22 GHz, and the predicted oscillation frequencies agree well with experiments. The design is easily scaled to millimeter-wave frequencies and can be extended to power combining arrays.

  9. Antibiofilm Activity of Manuka Honey in Combination with Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Campeau, Michelle E. M.; Robin Patel

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the in vitro activity of Manuka honey against biofilm bacteria in combination with antibiotics and visualized the effect of Manuka honey on bacterial biofilms using scanning electron microscopy. The fractional biofilm eradication concentration (∑FBEC ) index for vancomycin plus Manuka honey against S. aureus IDRL-4284 biofilms was 0.34, indicating a synergistic interaction. The ∑FBEC  index for gentamicin plus Manuka honey against P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms was 0.78–0.82, indicat...

  10. ARMA-GM combined forewarning model for the quality control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xingyuan; Yang Xu

    2005-01-01

    Three forecasting models are set up: the auto-regressive moving average model, the grey forecasting model for the rate of qualified products Pt, and the grey forecasting model for time intervals of the quality catastrophes. Then a combined forewarning system for the quality of products is established, which contains three models, judgment rules and forewarning state illustration. Finally with an example of the practical production, this modeling system is proved fairly effective.

  11. The bivariate combined model for spatial data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyens, Thomas; Lawson, Andrew B; Kirby, Russell S; Faes, Christel

    2016-08-15

    To describe the spatial distribution of diseases, a number of methods have been proposed to model relative risks within areas. Most models use Bayesian hierarchical methods, in which one models both spatially structured and unstructured extra-Poisson variance present in the data. For modelling a single disease, the conditional autoregressive (CAR) convolution model has been very popular. More recently, a combined model was proposed that 'combines' ideas from the CAR convolution model and the well-known Poisson-gamma model. The combined model was shown to be a good alternative to the CAR convolution model when there was a large amount of uncorrelated extra-variance in the data. Less solutions exist for modelling two diseases simultaneously or modelling a disease in two sub-populations simultaneously. Furthermore, existing models are typically based on the CAR convolution model. In this paper, a bivariate version of the combined model is proposed in which the unstructured heterogeneity term is split up into terms that are shared and terms that are specific to the disease or subpopulation, while spatial dependency is introduced via a univariate or multivariate Markov random field. The proposed method is illustrated by analysis of disease data in Georgia (USA) and Limburg (Belgium) and in a simulation study. We conclude that the bivariate combined model constitutes an interesting model when two diseases are possibly correlated. As the choice of the preferred model differs between data sets, we suggest to use the new and existing modelling approaches together and to choose the best model via goodness-of-fit statistics. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26928309

  12. Event-Based Activity Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2004-01-01

    We present and discuss a modeling approach that supports event-based modeling of information and activity in information systems. Interacting human actors and IT-actors may carry out such activity. We use events to create meaningful relations between information structures and the related activit...

  13. Active control: Wind turbine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.

    1999-01-01

    validation as well as parameter estimation. The model includes a simple model of the structure of the turbine including tower and flapwise blade bending,a detailed model of the gear box and induction generator, a linearized aerodynamic model including modelling of induction lag and actuator and sensor models......This report is a part of the reporting of the work done in the project 'Active Control of Wind Turbines'. This project aim is to develop a simulation model for design of control systems for turbines with pitch control and to use that model to designcontrollers. This report describes the model...... developed for controller design and analysis. Emphasis has been put on establishment of simple models describing the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine in adequate details for controller design. This hasbeen done with extensive use of measurements as the basis for selection of model complexity and model...

  14. Direct model fitting to combine dithered ACS images

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoudian, Haniyeh

    2013-01-01

    The information lost in images of undersampled CCD cameras can be recovered with the technique of `dithering'. A number of subexposures is taken with sub-pixel shifts in order to record structures on scales smaller than a pixel. The standard method to combine such exposures, `Drizzle', averages after reversing the displacements, including rotations and distortions. More sophisticated methods are available to produce, e.g., Nyquist sampled representations of band-limited inputs. While the combined images produced by these methods can be of high quality, their use as input for forward-modelling techniques in gravitational lensing is still not optimal, because the residual artefacts still affect the modelling results in unpredictable ways. In this paper we argue for an overall modelling approach that takes into account the dithering and the lensing without the intermediate product of a combined image. As one building block we introduce an alternative approach to combine dithered images by direct model fitting wi...

  15. EVALUATION OF BEHAVIORAL ACTIVITY OF BACOPA MONNIERA AND SYZYGIUM CUMINI IN COMBINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Dalal Pramod Homdeo; Duragkar Nandakishor Jiwanrao; Bodele Sishupal Bhanudas; Salpekar Prathamesh Ramesh; Katolkar Parimal Pradip

    2011-01-01

    Stress is a major factor responsible for behavioral disorder. The main objective of the present work is to investigate the evaluation of behavioral activity of Bacopa monniera (aerial part) and Syzygium cumini (seed coat), individually and in combination by using different extracts (viz; ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and methanol: water). Three different models which are used for behivoral activity such as Forced swim test (FST), Elevated plus maze method (EPM), Open field test (OFT). The...

  16. Patterns of Adolescents' Participation in Organized Activities: Are Sports Best when Combined with Other Activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linver, Miriam R.; Roth, Jodie L.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Although many adolescents participate in sports and other types of organized activities, little extant research explores how youth development outcomes may vary for youth involved in different combinations of activities. The present study uses the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a large, nationally…

  17. Forecasting China's natural gas consumption based on a combination model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Xu; Weiguo Wang

    2010-01-01

    Ensuring a sufficient energy supply is essential to a country.Natural gas constitutes a vital part in energy supply and therefore forecasting natural gas consumption reliably and accurately is an essential part of a country's energy policy.Over the years,studies have shown that a combinative model gives better projected results compared to a single model.In this study,we used Polynomial Curve and Moving Average Combination Projection (PCMACP) model to estimate the future natural gas consumption in China from 2009 to 2015.The new proposed PCMACP model shows more reliable and accurate results:its Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) is less than those of any previous models within the investigated range.According to the PCMACP model,the average annual growth rate will increase for the next 7 years and the amount of natural gas consumption will reach 171600 million cubic meters in 2015 in China.

  18. COMBINING LONG MEMORY AND NONLINEAR MODEL OUTPUTS FOR INFLATION FORECAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Kuswanto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Long memory and nonlinearity have been proven as two models that are easily to be mistaken. In other words, nonlinearity is a strong candidate of spurious long memory by introducing a certain degree of fractional integration that lies in the region of long memory. Indeed, nonlinear process belongs to short memory with zero integration order. The idea of the forecast is to obtain the future condition with minimum error. Some researches argued that no matter what the model is, the important thing is we can generate a reliable forecast. Several tests have been proposed to solve the problem of distinguishing long memory and nonlinearity appears in a series. The power of the tests is somehow questionable in the sense that there is still a probability to obtain spurious result. To overcome this, model combination will be one of the solutions dealing with uncertainty in the model selection. In this case, it is assumed that both processes are candidates of best models with certain power to generate a good forecast. This research investigates the performance three model combination approaches to forecast the Indonesia inflation i.e., simple combination using balance weight as well as inverse Mean Prediction Error (MSPE weight and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA. These methods are capable to generate a reliable forecast in very short lead time. Combination using BMA outperforms the simple averaging for 1 ahead forecast, while MSPE performs best for long lead forecasts.

  19. Capstone Teaching Models: Combining Simulation, Analytical Intuitive Learning Processes, History and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Maurice; Brown, Steve; Tabibzadeh, Kambiz

    2012-01-01

    For the past decade teaching models have been changing, reflecting the dynamics, complexities, and uncertainties of today's organizations. The traditional and the more current active models of learning have disadvantages. Simulation provides a platform to combine the best aspects of both types of teaching practices. This research explores the…

  20. Mixed Models: Combining Incompatible Scalar Models in Any Spacetime Dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Klauder, John R

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, covariant scalar field theory models are either super renormalizable, strictly renormalizable, or nonrenormalizable. The goal of `Mixed Models' is to make sense of sums of these distinct examples, e.g., $g\\varphi^4_3+g'\\varphi^6_3+g''\\varphi^8_3$, which includes an example of each kind for spacetime dimension $n=3$. We show how the several interactions such mixed models have may be turned on and off in any order without any difficulties. Analogous results are shown for $g\\varphi^4_n+g'\\varphi^{138}_n$, etc., for all $n\\ge3$. Different categories hold for $n=2$ such as, e.g., ${g P(\\varphi)_2+g' N\\!P}(\\varphi)_2$, that involve polynomial ($P$) and suitable nonpolynomial ($N\\!P$) interactions, etc. Analogous situations for $n=1$ (time alone) offer simple `toy' examples of how such mixed models may be constructed.

  1. Combination treatment with doxorubicin and gamitrinib synergistically augments anticancer activity through enhanced activation of Bim

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Lim, Jaehwa; Jo, Da-Eun; Park, Soo-Ah; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Kang, Byoung Heon

    2014-01-01

    Background A common approach to cancer therapy in clinical practice is the combination of several drugs to boost the anticancer activity of available drugs while suppressing their unwanted side effects. In this regard, we examined the efficacy of combination treatment with the widely-used genotoxic drug doxorubicin and the mitochondriotoxic Hsp90 inhibitor gamitrinib to exploit disparate stress signaling pathways for cancer therapy. Methods The cytotoxicity of the drugs as single agents or in...

  2. High resolution gravity models combining terrestrial and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Richard H.; Pavlis, Nikolaos K.; Wang, Yan M.

    1992-01-01

    Spherical harmonic expansions to degree 360 have been developed that combine satellite potential coefficient information, terrestrial gravity data, satellite altimeter information as a direct tracking data type and topographic information. These models define improved representations of the Earth's gravitational potential beyond that available from just satellite or terrestrial data. The development of the degree 360 models, however, does not imply a uniform accuracy in the determination of the gravity field as numerous geographic areas are devoid of terrestrial data or the resolution of such data is limited to, for example, 100 km. This paper will consider theoretical and numerical questions related to the combination of the various data types. Various models of the combination process are discussed with a discussion of various correction terms for the different models. Various sources of gravity data will be described. The new OSU91 360 model will be discussed with comparisons made to previous 360 models and to other potential coefficient models that are complete to degree 50. Future directions in high degree potential coefficient models will be discussed.

  3. Study of the combined effect of electro-activated solutions and heat treatment on the destruction of spores of Clostridium sporogenes and Geobacillus stearothermophilus in model solution and vegetable puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liato, Viacheslav; Labrie, Steve; Viel, Catherine; Benali, Marzouk; Aïder, Mohammed

    2015-10-01

    The combined effect of heat treatment and electro-activated solution (EAS) on the heat resistance of spores of Clostridium sporogenes and Geobacillus stearothermophilus was assessed under various heating and exposure time combinations. The acid and neutral EAS showed the highest inhibitory activity, indicating that these solutions may be considered as strong sporicidal disinfectants. These EAS were able to cause a reduction of ≥6 log of spores of C. sporogenes at 60 °C in only 1 min of exposition. For G. stearothermophilus spores, a reduction of 4.5 log was observed at 60 °C in 1 min, while in 5 min, ≥7 log CFU/ml reduction was observed. Inoculated puree of pea and corn were used as a food matrix for the determination of the heat resistance of these spores during the treatments in glass capillaries. The inactivation kinetics of the spores was studied in an oil bath. Combined treatment by EAS and temperature demonstrated a significant decrease in the heat resistance of C. sporogenes. The D100°C in pea puree with NaCl solution was 66.86 min while with acid and neutral EAS it was reduced down to 3.97 and 2.19 min, respectively. The spore of G. stearothermophilus displayed higher heat resistance as confirmed by other similar studies. Its D130°C in pea puree showed a decrease from 1.45 min in NaCl solution down to 1.30 and 0.93 min for acid and neutral EAS, respectively. The differences between the spores of these species are attributable to their different sensitivities with respect to pH, Redox potential and oxygen.

  4. Multilayer hydrogel coatings to combine hemocompatibility and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Marion; Vahdatzadeh, Maryam; Konradi, Rupert; Friedrichs, Jens; Maitz, Manfred F; Freudenberg, Uwe; Werner, Carsten

    2015-07-01

    While silver-loaded catheters are widely used to prevent early-onset catheter-related infections [1], long term antimicrobial protection of indwelling catheters remains to be achieved [2] and antiseptic functionalization of coatings often impairs their hemocompatibility characteristics. Therefore, this work aimed to capitalize on the antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles, incorporated in anticoagulant poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-heparin hydrogel coatings [3] on thermoplastic polyurethane materials. For prolonged antimicrobial activity, the silver-containing starPEG-heparin hydrogel layers were shielded with silver-free hydrogel layers of otherwise similar composition. The resulting multi-layered gel coatings showed long term antiseptic efficacy against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains in vitro, and similarly performed well when incubated with freshly drawn human whole blood with respect to hemolysis, platelet activation and plasmatic coagulation. The introduced hydrogel multilayer system thus offers a promising combination of hemocompatibility and long-term antiseptic capacity to meet an important clinical need.

  5. Active illumination and appearance model for face alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahraman, Fatih; Gokmen, M.; Darkner, Sune;

    2010-01-01

    Active Illumination and Appearance Model (AIA) which combines identity, illumination and shape components in a single model and allows us to control them, separately. One of the major advantage of the proposed AIA model is that efficient model fitting is achieved, whilst maintaining performance against...

  6. TIME SERIES FORECASTING WITH MULTIPLE CANDIDATE MODELS: SELECTING OR COMBINING?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Lean; WANG Shouyang; K. K. Lai; Y.Nakamori

    2005-01-01

    Various mathematical models have been commonly used in time series analysis and forecasting. In these processes, academic researchers and business practitioners often come up against two important problems. One is whether to select an appropriate modeling approach for prediction purposes or to combine these different individual approaches into a single forecast for the different/dissimilar modeling approaches. Another is whether to select the best candidate model for forecasting or to mix the various candidate models with different parameters into a new forecast for the same/similar modeling approaches. In this study, we propose a set of computational procedures to solve the above two issues via two judgmental criteria. Meanwhile, in view of the problems presented in the literature, a novel modeling technique is also proposed to overcome the drawbacks of existing combined forecasting methods. To verify the efficiency and reliability of the proposed procedure and modeling technique, the simulations and real data examples are conducted in this study.The results obtained reveal that the proposed procedure and modeling technique can be used as a feasible solution for time series forecasting with multiple candidate models.

  7. Two-band combined model of a resonant tunneling diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-band combined model of a resonant tunneling diode, based on the semiclassical and quantum mechanical (the wave function formalism) approaches is proposed. The main specific feature of this model is the possibility of taking into account the interaction between different classical or quantum mechanical device regions with simultaneous consideration of the Γ-X intervalley scattering. It is shown that this model gives satisfactory agreement with the experimental data on the current-voltage characteristics and allows explanation of the plateau region in these characteristics within the stationary model

  8. Active Learning for Player Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Learning models of player behavior has been the focus of several studies. This work is motivated by better understanding of player behavior, a knowledge that can ultimately be employed to provide player-adapted or personalized content. In this paper, we propose the use of active learning for player...... experience modeling. We use a dataset from hundreds of players playing Infinite Mario Bros. as a case study and we employ the random forest method to learn mod- els of player experience through the active learning approach. The results obtained suggest that only part of the dataset (up to half the size...

  9. Finite element models applied in active structural acoustic control

    OpenAIRE

    Oude Nijhuis, Marco H.H.; de Boer; Rao, Vittal S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the modeling of systems for active structural acoustic control. The finite element method is applied to model structures including the dynamics of piezoelectric sensors and actuators. A model reduction technique is presented to make the finite element model suitable for controller design. The reduced structural model is combined with an acoustic model which uses the radiation mode concept. For a test case consisting of a rectangular plate with one piezo patch the model re...

  10. Activated by Combined Magnrtic Field Gravitropic Reaction Reply on Nanodose of Biologicaly Active Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheykina, Nadezhda; Bogatina, Nina

    The new science direction nanotechnologies initiated a big jump in the pharmacology and medicine. This leads to the big development of homeopathy. The most interest appeared while investigating of the reaction of biological object on the nano dose of iologically substances. The changing of concentration (in nmol/l) of biologically active material is also possible during weak energy action. For instance, weak combined magnetic field may change a little the concentration of ions that are oriented parallel to the external magnetic field and, by the analogy with said above, lead to the similar effects. Simple estimations give the value for the threshold to the magnetic field by two orders smaller than the geomagnetic field. By this investigation we wanted to understand whether the analogy in the action of nano dose of biologically active substances and weak combined magnetic field presents and whether the action of one of these factors may be replaced by other one. The effect of one of biologically active substances NPA (Naphtyl-Phtalame Acid) solution with the concentration 0.01 mol/l on the gravitropic reaction of cress roots was investigated. It was shown that its effect was the inhibition of cress roots gravitropic reaction. The same inhibition was achieved by the combined magnetic field action on the cress roots, germinated in water. The alternative component of the combined magnetic field coincided formally with the cyclotron frequency of NPA ions. So the analogy in the action of nano dose of biologically active substances and weak combined magnetic field was shown. The combined magnetic field using allows to decrease sufficiently the dose of biologically active substances. This fact can be of great importance in pharmacy and medicine.

  11. Combined Estimation of Hydrogeologic Conceptual Model and Parameter Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Philip D.; Ye, Ming; Neuman, Shlomo P.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2004-03-01

    The objective of the research described in this report is the development and application of a methodology for comprehensively assessing the hydrogeologic uncertainties involved in dose assessment, including uncertainties associated with conceptual models, parameters, and scenarios. This report describes and applies a statistical method to quantitatively estimate the combined uncertainty in model predictions arising from conceptual model and parameter uncertainties. The method relies on model averaging to combine the predictions of a set of alternative models. Implementation is driven by the available data. When there is minimal site-specific data the method can be carried out with prior parameter estimates based on generic data and subjective prior model probabilities. For sites with observations of system behavior (and optionally data characterizing model parameters), the method uses model calibration to update the prior parameter estimates and model probabilities based on the correspondence between model predictions and site observations. The set of model alternatives can contain both simplified and complex models, with the requirement that all models be based on the same set of data. The method was applied to the geostatistical modeling of air permeability at a fractured rock site. Seven alternative variogram models of log air permeability were considered to represent data from single-hole pneumatic injection tests in six boreholes at the site. Unbiased maximum likelihood estimates of variogram and drift parameters were obtained for each model. Standard information criteria provided an ambiguous ranking of the models, which would not justify selecting one of them and discarding all others as is commonly done in practice. Instead, some of the models were eliminated based on their negligibly small updated probabilities and the rest were used to project the measured log permeabilities by kriging onto a rock volume containing the six boreholes. These four

  12. Inhibitory activity of Bifidobacterium adolescent combined with cisplatin on melanoma in mice and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore inhibitory activity of Bifidobacterium adolescent combined with cisplatin on the growth of melanoma(B16)in mice and the underlying mechanism.C57 mice were inoculated with B16 cancer cells to construct mouse model of melanoma and treated with bifidobacterium adolescent combined with cisplatin.Ratios of inhibitory activity on the growth of melanoma(B 16)were calculated.Pathology changes of the tumor were observed by HE staining.B 16 cell cycles were examined on a flow cytometer.Lymphocyte proliferation was measured with MTT assay and the T-cell subset was measured by double marked fluorescence.When bifidobacterium of 1010 cfu/L was injected,the ratio of inhibitory activity on the growth of melanoma(B16)reached 54%,which was similar to that of cisplatin group.The ratio of inhibitory activity reached 74.45% when the mice were treated by bifidobacterium combined with cisplatin,HE staining shows that bifidobacterium inhibited B16 cell proliferation and enhanced the cisplati(n)s killing activity on B16 cells.The results of flow cytometry demonstrated that B16 cell proliferation was arrested at G1 stage after treatment with bifidobacterium.The B16 cell proliferation was arrested at S stage after treatment with cisplatin.The CD4+ percentage increased and the difference was significant compared with the normal group after treatment with bifidobacterium,indicating that T-cell immune activity was enhanced.Treatment with bifidobacterium combined with cisplatin can enhance the inhibitory activity on the growth of melanoma(B16)of cisplatin.The mechanism of the inhibitory activity on B 16 cell proliferation is correlated with the enhanced immune activity in mice.

  13. Synergetic effects for p-nitrophenol abatement using a combined activated carbon adsorption-electrooxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明华; 戴启洲; 雷乐成; 汪大翚

    2004-01-01

    A novel fluidized electrochemical reactor that integrated advanced electrochemical oxidation with activated carbon (AC) fluidization in a single cell was developed to model pollutant p-nitrophenol (PNP) abatement. AC fluidization could enhance COD removal by 22%-30%. In such a combined process, synergetic effects on PNP and COD removal was found, with their removal rate being enhanced by 137.8% and 97.8%, respectively. AC could be electrochemically regen erated and reused, indicating the combined process would be promising for treatment of biorefractory organic pollutants.

  14. EVALUATION OF BEHAVIORAL ACTIVITY OF BACOPA MONNIERA AND SYZYGIUM CUMINI IN COMBINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal Pramod Homdeo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a major factor responsible for behavioral disorder. The main objective of the present work is to investigate the evaluation of behavioral activity of Bacopa monniera (aerial part and Syzygium cumini (seed coat, individually and in combination by using different extracts (viz; ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and methanol: water. Three different models which are used for behivoral activity such as Forced swim test (FST, Elevated plus maze method (EPM, Open field test (OFT. The result of FST indicated that immobility time significantly decreased in group treated with combination of methanolic extract of Bacopa monniera and ethyl acetate extract of Syzygium cumini in dose (200/40 mg/kg as compared to control. The result of EPM indicated that percent no of open arm entries and time spent in group treated with combination of methanolic extract of Bacopa monniera and ethyl acetate extract of Syzygium cumini in dose (200/40 mg/kg as compared to control. OFT indicates that number of occurrences at center and duration at center significantly increased in group treated with combination of methanolic extract of Bacopa monniera and ethyl acetate extract of Syzygium cumini in dose (200/40 mg/kg as compared to control group. Therefore it is clearly proved that Bacopa monniera and Syzygium cumini plant in combination showed promising behavioral activity.

  15. A combined model for tsunami generation and propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Vania; Baptista, Maria Ana; Avilez-Valente, Paulo; Miranda, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Several tsunami models apply different wave models and numerical schemes with the aim of modelling the wide variety of wave phenomena, as its generation, propagation, transformation and run-up. However, models are limited by mathematical and numerical formulations which constrain their scope of applications. Combined models are an interesting option as they allow merging the advantages of different existent models into a single one. In this work a tsunami combined model which couples the GeoClaw code, an extension of the Clawpack software for geophysical flows using adaptive finite volume methods, with the fully non-linear, phase-resolving, time-stepping Boussinesq wave model FUNWAVE-TVD for near-shore water wave propagation is presented. GeoClaw is used for the seismic tsunami generation of the 1969 Portugal tsunami and with FUNWAVE-TVD we study the propagation of the tsunami and near-shore surface elevations. Both codes have been individually benchmarked with some mandatory established benchmark problems. The results obtained from the numerical simulation are compared with existent observational data along the Portuguese coast for this historical event. This work received funding from FCT (SFRH/BD/96725/2013) and project ASTARTE - Assessment Strategy and risk Reduction For Tsunamis in Europe - Grant 603839 - FP7.

  16. The combined gravity field model GOCO05c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecher, Thomas; Pail, Roland; Gruber, Thomas; GOCO Project Team

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of the static gravity field is of importance for various scientific disciplines, such as geodesy, geophysics and oceanography. While for geophysics the gravity field provides insight into the Earth's interior, the geoid serves as an important reference surface for oceanographic applications. Moreover this reference surface is a key parameter on the way to a globally unified height system. In order to exploit the full potential of gravity measurements and to achieve the best gravity field solution, all kinds of complementary gravity field information have to be combined. By combining GRACE and GOCE information, a state of the art satellite-only gravity field is available, which is highly accurate at the very long to medium wavelengths (80-100 km). By adding information from terrestrial/airborne gravimetry and satellite altimetry, which both are measurement techniques providing short wavelength gravity information beyond the resolution of GOCE, the full gravity field spectrum can be obtained. This paper focuses on the presentation of the combined gravity field model GOCO05c, a global gravity field model up to degree and order 720 based on full normal equation systems (more than 500,000 parameters). During the calculation of GOCO05c we put emphasis on the question how the complementary data types can be combined in a global gravity field model in the way that all data types keep their specific strengths and are not degraded by the combination with other information in certain wavelengths. Realistic stochastic modelling and a tailored weighting scheme among all available data results in different regional relative weighting of satellite and terrestrial data in the combined solution, mainly depending on the quality of the available terrestrial gravity information. From this procedure, as complementary product realistic error estimates are available in terms of a full-covariance matrix, which can be mapped in a spatial error grid reflecting regionally specific

  17. Combined paracetamol and amitriptyline adsorption to activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Groenlykke, Thor Buch; Abildtrup, Ulla;

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. High-gram drug doses seen in multiple-drug poisonings might be close to the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal (AC). The aim was to determine the maximum adsorption capacities (Q(m)) of amitriptyline and paracetamol, separately and in combination, to AC. Methods. ACs (Carbomix......® and Norit Ready-To-Use) were tested in vitro. At pH 1.2 and pH 7.2, 0.250 g AC and paracetamol and/or amitriptyline were mixed and incubated. The AC: drug ratios were 10:1, 5:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1. The mixed-drug adsorption vials contained the same AC: paracetamol ratios, but amitriptyline was added as fixed...... dose (0.080 g) to all samples. Drug concentrations in the liquid phase were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/UV-detection. Results. Q(m), amitriptyline, were 0.49 g/g Carbomix® and 0.70 g/g Norit Ready-To-Use, and Q(m), paracetamol, were 0.63 g/g Carbomix® and 0.72 g/g Norit...

  18. Combined paracetamol and amitriptyline adsorption to activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Groenlykke, Thor Buch; Abildtrup, Ulla;

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. High-gram drug doses seen in multiple-drug poisonings might be close to the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal (AC). The aim was to determine the maximum adsorption capacities (Q(m)) of amitriptyline and paracetamol, separately and in combination, to AC. Methods. ACs (Carbomix......® and Norit Ready-To-Use) were tested in vitro. At pH 1.2 and pH 7.2, 0.250 g AC and paracetamol and/or amitriptyline were mixed and incubated. The AC: drug ratios were 10:1, 5:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1. The mixed-drug adsorption vials contained the same AC: paracetamol ratios, but amitriptyline was added as fixed...... Ready-To-Use. The tested pH differences had minor effect on the adsorption. The mixed-drug adsorption showed about 40% Q(m) reduction of each drug with increasing amounts of drug/g AC, but the total gram of drug adsorbed to AC was increased compared to one-drug conditions. Conclusion. The adsorption...

  19. Antibiofilm Activity of Manuka Honey in Combination with Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E. M. Campeau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the in vitro activity of Manuka honey against biofilm bacteria in combination with antibiotics and visualized the effect of Manuka honey on bacterial biofilms using scanning electron microscopy. The fractional biofilm eradication concentration (∑FBEC  index for vancomycin plus Manuka honey against S. aureus IDRL-4284 biofilms was 0.34, indicating a synergistic interaction. The ∑FBEC  index for gentamicin plus Manuka honey against P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms was 0.78–0.82, indicating an additive interaction. Scanning electron microscopy of S. aureus IDRL-4284 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms exposed to Manuka honey and artificial honey containing the same sugar composition as Manuka honey showed that the former had more pronounced effects than the latter on both S. aureus and P. aeruginosa biofilms. Visualized effects included distorted cell morphologies for both bacteria and a decrease in P. aeruginosa extracellular matrix. In conclusion, Manuka honey has a synergistic interaction with vancomycin against S. aureus biofilms and an additive interaction with gentamicin against P. aeruginosa biofilms.

  20. Adaptive Digital Image Watermarking Based on Combination of HVS Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Foris

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper two new blind adaptive digital watermarking methods of color images are presented. The adaptability is based on perceptual watermarking which exploits Human Visual System (HVS models. The first method performs watermark embedding in transform domain of DCT and the second method is based on DWT. Watermark is embedded into transform domain of a chosen color image component in a selected color space. Both methods use a combination of HVS models to select perceptually significant transform coefficients and at the same time to determine the bounds of modification of selected coefficients. The final HVS model consists of three parts. The first part is the HVS model in DCT (DWT domain. The second part is the HVS model based on Region of Interest and finally the third part is the HVS model based on Noise Visibility Function. Watermark has a form of a real number sequence with normal distribution.

  1. Single and Combined Effects of As (III) and Acetochlor on Phosphatase Activity in Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun; ZHANG Feng; ZHANG Guan-cai; GUAN Lian-zhu

    2013-01-01

    The actions and interactions of acetochlor and As on the soil phosphatase activity were investigated after 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 30 and 60 d of exposure under control conditions. The soils were exposed to various concentrations of acetochlor and As individually and simultaneously. The results showed that acetochlor, As only, and combined pollution all clearly inhibited soil phosphatase activity. The maximum inhibition ratios of soil phosphatase activity by acetochlor, As only and combined pollution were 36.44, 74.12 and 61.29%, respectively. Two kinetic models,ν=c/(1+bi) (model 1) andν=c(1+ai)/(l+bi) (model 2), were used to describe the relationship between the concentrations of As and acetochlor and the activity of soil phosphatase. The semi-effect dose (ED50) values induced by As and acetochlor stress based on the inhibition of soil phosphatase were 18.1 and 33.11 mg kg-1, respectively, according to calculation by model 1. The interactive effect of acetochlor with As on soil phosphatase primarily consisted of significant antagonism effects at the higher concentrations tested. The step regression results show that the toxicity order was As (III)>acetochlor>As (III)×acetochlor throughout the incubation period.

  2. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells combined with minocycline improve spinal cord injury in a rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Dayong; Zeng, Wei; Fu, Yunfeng; Gao, Meng; Lv, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess that the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) combination with minocycline improve spinal cord injury (SCI) in rat model. In the present study, the Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group, SCI group, BMSCs group, Minocycline group and BMSCs + minocycline group. Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) test and MPO activity were used to assess the effect of combination therapy on locomotion and neutrophil infiltration. ...

  3. Effect of combined function of temperature and water activity on the growth of Vibrio harveyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Zhou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio harveyi is considered as a causative agent of the systemic disease, vibriosis, which occurs in many biological fields. The effects of temperatures (12.9-27.1 ºC and water activity (NaCl% 0.6%-3.4% on V. harveyi were investigated. The behavior and growth characteristics of V. harveyi was studied and modeled. Growth curves were fitted by using Gompertz and Baranyi models, and the Baranyi model showed a better fittness. Then, the maximum growth rates (µmax and lag phase durations (LPD, λ obtained from both Gompertz and Baranyi model were modeled as a combination function of temperature and water activity using the response surface and Arrhenius-Davey models for secondary model. The value of r², MSE, bias and accuracy factor suggest Baranyi model has better fitness than Gompertz model. Furthermore, validation of the developed models with independent data from ComBase also shown better interrelationship between observed and predicted growth parameter when using Baranyi model.

  4. The anti-cancer effects of carotenoids and other phytonutrients resides in their combined activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnewiel-Hermoni, Karin; Khanin, Marina; Danilenko, Michael; Zango, Gabriel; Amosi, Yaara; Levy, Joseph; Sharoni, Yoav

    2015-04-15

    Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cancer. It is now accepted that the actions of any specific phytonutrient alone do not explain the observed health benefits of diets rich in fruits and vegetables as nutrients that were taken alone in clinical trials did not show consistent preventive effects. The considerable cost and complexity of such clinical trials requires prudent selection of combinations of ingredients rather than single compounds. Indeed, synergistic inhibition of prostate and mammary cancer cell growth was evident when using combinations of low concentrations of various carotenoids or carotenoids with retinoic acid and the active metabolite of vitamin-D. In this study we aimed to develop simple and sensitive in vitro methods which provide information on potent combinations suitable for inclusion in clinical studies for cancer prevention. We, thus, used reporter gene assays of the transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor in hormone-dependent prostate cancer cells and of the electrophile/antioxidant response element (EpRE/ARE) transcription system. We found that combinations of several carotenoids (e.g., lycopene, phytoene and phytofluene), or carotenoids and polyphenols (e.g., carnosic acid and curcumin) and/or other compounds (e.g., vitamin E) synergistically inhibit the androgen receptor activity and activate the EpRE/ARE system. The activation of EpRE/ARE was up to four fold higher than the sum of the activities of the single ingredients, a robust hallmark of synergy. Such combinations can further be tested in the more complex in vivo models and human studies.

  5. Model-based efficiency evaluation of combine harvester traction drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Häberle

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the research the drive train of the combine harvesters is investigated in detail. The focus on load and power distribution, energy consumption and usage distribution are explicitly explored on two test machines. Based on the lessons learned during field operations, model-based studies of energy saving potential in the traction train of combine harvesters can now be quantified. Beyond that the virtual machine trial provides an opportunity to compare innovative drivetrain architectures and control solutions under reproducible conditions. As a result, an evaluation method is presented and generically used to draw comparisons under local representative operating conditions.

  6. Modeling Of Combinational Circuits Based On Ternary Multiplexer Using VHDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Sathish kumar,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for defining, analyzing, testing and implementing the basic combinational circuitry with VHDL Simulator. This paper shows the potential of VHDL modeling and simulation that can be applied to Ternary switching circuits to verify its functionality and timing specifications. A novel method is brought out for implementing the basic combinational circuitry with minimum number of multiplexers. It also includes 1-bit and 2-bit position shifter and Barrel shifter. Method of coding is illustrated with respect to block diagram. An intention is to show how proposed simulator can be used to simulate MVL circuits and to evaluate systemperformance.

  7. Patterns of adolescents' participation in organized activities: are sports best when combined with other activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linver, Miriam R; Roth, Jodie L; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-03-01

    Although many adolescents participate in sports and other types of organized activities, little extant research explores how youth development outcomes may vary for youth involved in different combinations of activities. The present study uses the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a large, nationally representative sample, to compare activity patterns of adolescents ages 10-18 years (n = 1,711). A cluster analytic technique revealed 5 activity clusters: sports-focused, sports plus other activities, primarily school-based activities, primarily religious youth groups, and low activity involvement. Activity patterns were examined in conjunction with 5 categories of youth development outcomes, including competence (e.g., academic ability), confidence (e.g., self-concept of ability), connections (e.g., talking with friends), character (e.g., externalizing behavior problems), and caring (e.g., prosocial behavior). Results showed that those who participated only in sports had more positive outcomes compared with those who had little or no involvement in organized activities, but less positive outcomes compared with those who participated in sports plus other activities.

  8. An Analytical Tire Model with Flexible Carcass for Combined Slips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tire mechanical characteristics under combined cornering and braking/driving situations have significant effects on vehicle directional controls. The objective of this paper is to present an analytical tire model with flexible carcass for combined slip situations, which can describe tire behavior well and can also be used for studying vehicle dynamics. The tire forces and moments come mainly from the shear stress and sliding friction at the tread-road interface. In order to describe complicated tire characteristics and tire-road friction, some key factors are considered in this model: arbitrary pressure distribution; translational, bending, and twisting compliance of the carcass; dynamic friction coefficient; anisotropic stiffness properties. The analytical tire model can describe tire forces and moments accurately under combined slip conditions. Some important properties induced by flexible carcass can also be reflected. The structural parameters of a tire can be identified from tire measurements and the computational results using the analytical model show good agreement with test data.

  9. New Asteroid Models Derived From Combined Photometric Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durech, Josef; Kaasalainen, M.; Warner, B. D.

    2007-10-01

    The lightcurve inversion method is a powerful tool for deriving asteroid physical models (spin states and shapes) from their disk-integrated photometry. A typical input data set for a main belt asteroid consists of tens of lightcurves from at least three apparitions. As has been shown by Kaasalainen (2004, A&A 422, L39), it is also possible to use calibrated photometry sparse in time. This approach has been tested on synthetic data sets with accuracy and cadence expected for the Pan-STARRS project (Durech et al. 2006, EM&P 97, 179). At present, new accurate photometric data are not yet available. However, it is possible to combine sparse photometry obtained during astrometric observations with a few dense lightcurves and in some cases derive new asteroid models from such combined data sets. We present about twenty new asteroid models derived from combined data sets. Dense lightcurves (the majority of them from the Uppsala Asteroid Photometric Catalogue) were combined with sparse photometric data from astrometric observations carried out at the US Naval Observatory in Flagstaff. The accuracy of the sparse photometry is about 0.08-0.1 mag, which is in some cases enough to derive a unique model. We have performed many tests that confirm credibility of our results and show typical uncertainties in the shape/pole/period determination. Although the shape models are coarse and may change with new data, the error in the pole direction is usually not higher than 20 deg of arc. In some cases, when the pole direction is not unique, the only physical parameters that can be determined are the rotation period and the ecliptic latitude of the spin axis.

  10. Experimental Models Combining TBI, Hemorrhagic Shock, and Hypoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Lai Yee; Deng-Bryant, Ying; Shear, Deborah; Tortella, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) provide important tools for studying the pathobiology of brain trauma and for evaluating therapeutic or diagnostic targets. Incorporation of additional insults such as hemorrhagic shock (HS) and/or hypoxemia (HX) into these models more closely recreates clinical scenarios as TBI often occurs in conjunction with these systemic insults (i.e., polytrauma). We have developed a rat model of polytrauma that combines penetrating TBI, HS and HX. Following brain trauma, HX was induced by reducing the inspired oxygen while HS was induced by withdrawing blood to lower the mean arterial pressure. The physiological, histological, and behavioral aspects of this animal model have been characterized and have demonstrated exacerbating effects of systemic insults on penetrating TBI. As such, this model may facilitate the use of simultaneous assessments of multiple mechanisms and provide a platform for testing novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets. PMID:27604733

  11. Combining Spatial and Telemetric Features for Learning Animal Movement Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kapicioglu, Berk; Wikelski, Martin; Broderick, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new graphical model for tracking radio-tagged animals and learning their movement patterns. The model provides a principled way to combine radio telemetry data with an arbitrary set of userdefined, spatial features. We describe an efficient stochastic gradient algorithm for fitting model parameters to data and demonstrate its effectiveness via asymptotic analysis and synthetic experiments. We also apply our model to real datasets, and show that it outperforms the most popular radio telemetry software package used in ecology. We conclude that integration of different data sources under a single statistical framework, coupled with appropriate parameter and state estimation procedures, produces both accurate location estimates and an interpretable statistical model of animal movement.

  12. Emphasis: an active management model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Nuclear Materials Management was founded and has grown on the basis of promoting professionalism in the nuclear industry. This paper is concerned with professional management of nuclear material. The paper introduces the reader to Emphasis, an active management model. The management model provides the framework to assist a manager in directing his available resources. Emphasis provides for establishing goals, identifying and selecting objectives, matching objectives to specific personnel, preparing and monitoring action plans, and evaluating results. The model stresses crisis prevention by systematically administering and controlling resources. A critical requirement for implementation of the model is the desire to manage, to be in charge of the situation. The nuclear industry does need managers - people who realize the sensitive nature of the industry, professionals who insist on improved performance

  13. Integrated Turbine-Based Combined Cycle Dynamic Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haid, Daniel A.; Gamble, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    A Turbine-Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) dynamic simulation model has been developed to demonstrate all modes of operation, including mode transition, for a turbine-based combined cycle propulsion system. The High Mach Transient Engine Cycle Code (HiTECC) is a highly integrated tool comprised of modules for modeling each of the TBCC systems whose interactions and controllability affect the TBCC propulsion system thrust and operability during its modes of operation. By structuring the simulation modeling tools around the major TBCC functional modes of operation (Dry Turbojet, Afterburning Turbojet, Transition, and Dual Mode Scramjet) the TBCC mode transition and all necessary intermediate events over its entire mission may be developed, modeled, and validated. The reported work details the use of the completed model to simulate a TBCC propulsion system as it accelerates from Mach 2.5, through mode transition, to Mach 7. The completion of this model and its subsequent use to simulate TBCC mode transition significantly extends the state-of-the-art for all TBCC modes of operation by providing a numerical simulation of the systems, interactions, and transient responses affecting the ability of the propulsion system to transition from turbine-based to ramjet/scramjet-based propulsion while maintaining constant thrust.

  14. Demand Model Combining Stated And Revealed Preference Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Londero Brandli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The revealed and stated preference methods have been contributing a lot for the development of the econometric literature in the attempt of determining the variables that influence the individual decision in a choice process. This article combines preference data, with the objective of obtaining the advantages of the complementarity of the forces and frankness of both types of data. The approach involves the estimate of a model only with RP data, only with SP data and combining RP and SP data. The application is in the housing market, where it is observed, through the literature, that most of the papers of the consumer's choice has restricted the only one approaches. The utility functions obtained show the relative importance of the attributes, the tendency of behavior through the signs and its significance statistical. The results analysis of the models indicates differences and similarities about the attribute’s behavior.

  15. Combined Use of Gene Expression Modeling and siRNA Screening Identifies Genes and Pathways Which Enhance the Activity of Cisplatin When Added at No Effect Levels to Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ada W Y; Hung, Stacy S; Backstrom, Ian; Ricaurte, Daniel; Kwok, Brian; Poon, Steven; McKinney, Steven; Segovia, Romulo; Rawji, Jenna; Qadir, Mohammed A; Aparicio, Samuel; Stirling, Peter C; Steidl, Christian; Bally, Marcel B

    2016-01-01

    Platinum-based combination chemotherapy is the standard treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While cisplatin is effective, its use is not curative and resistance often emerges. As a consequence of microenvironmental heterogeneity, many tumour cells are exposed to sub-lethal doses of cisplatin. Further, genomic heterogeneity and unique tumor cell sub-populations with reduced sensitivities to cisplatin play a role in its effectiveness within a site of tumor growth. Being exposed to sub-lethal doses will induce changes in gene expression that contribute to the tumour cell's ability to survive and eventually contribute to the selective pressures leading to cisplatin resistance. Such changes in gene expression, therefore, may contribute to cytoprotective mechanisms. Here, we report on studies designed to uncover how tumour cells respond to sub-lethal doses of cisplatin. A microarray study revealed changes in gene expressions that occurred when A549 cells were exposed to a no-observed-effect level (NOEL) of cisplatin (e.g. the IC10). These data were integrated with results from a genome-wide siRNA screen looking for novel therapeutic targets that when inhibited transformed a NOEL of cisplatin into one that induced significant increases in lethality. Pathway analyses were performed to identify pathways that could be targeted to enhance cisplatin activity. We found that over 100 genes were differentially expressed when A549 cells were exposed to a NOEL of cisplatin. Pathways associated with apoptosis and DNA repair were activated. The siRNA screen revealed the importance of the hedgehog, cell cycle regulation, and insulin action pathways in A549 cell survival and response to cisplatin treatment. Results from both datasets suggest that RRM2B, CABYR, ALDH3A1, and FHL2 could be further explored as cisplatin-enhancing gene targets. Finally, pathways involved in repairing double-strand DNA breaks and INO80 chromatin remodeling were enriched in both

  16. Combined Use of Gene Expression Modeling and siRNA Screening Identifies Genes and Pathways Which Enhance the Activity of Cisplatin When Added at No Effect Levels to Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada W Y Leung

    Full Text Available Platinum-based combination chemotherapy is the standard treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. While cisplatin is effective, its use is not curative and resistance often emerges. As a consequence of microenvironmental heterogeneity, many tumour cells are exposed to sub-lethal doses of cisplatin. Further, genomic heterogeneity and unique tumor cell sub-populations with reduced sensitivities to cisplatin play a role in its effectiveness within a site of tumor growth. Being exposed to sub-lethal doses will induce changes in gene expression that contribute to the tumour cell's ability to survive and eventually contribute to the selective pressures leading to cisplatin resistance. Such changes in gene expression, therefore, may contribute to cytoprotective mechanisms. Here, we report on studies designed to uncover how tumour cells respond to sub-lethal doses of cisplatin. A microarray study revealed changes in gene expressions that occurred when A549 cells were exposed to a no-observed-effect level (NOEL of cisplatin (e.g. the IC10. These data were integrated with results from a genome-wide siRNA screen looking for novel therapeutic targets that when inhibited transformed a NOEL of cisplatin into one that induced significant increases in lethality. Pathway analyses were performed to identify pathways that could be targeted to enhance cisplatin activity. We found that over 100 genes were differentially expressed when A549 cells were exposed to a NOEL of cisplatin. Pathways associated with apoptosis and DNA repair were activated. The siRNA screen revealed the importance of the hedgehog, cell cycle regulation, and insulin action pathways in A549 cell survival and response to cisplatin treatment. Results from both datasets suggest that RRM2B, CABYR, ALDH3A1, and FHL2 could be further explored as cisplatin-enhancing gene targets. Finally, pathways involved in repairing double-strand DNA breaks and INO80 chromatin remodeling were

  17. Crack arrest saturation model under combined electrical and mechanical loadings

    OpenAIRE

    R.R. Bhargava; A. Setia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The investigation aims at proposing a model for cracked piezoelectric strip which is capable to arrest the crack.Design/methodology/approach: Under the combined effect of electrical and mechanical loadings applied at the edges of the strip, the developed saturation zone is produced at each tip of the crack. To arrest further opening of the crack, the rims of the developed saturation zones are subjected to in-plane cohesive, normal uniform constant saturation point electrical displace...

  18. Evaluation of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for treatment of ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    R J Hunter; Fujii, H; K Wakame; Gaikwad, A; J K Wolf; Smith, J A

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The objective was to define the mechanism of the growth inhibition of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) alone and evaluate its activity in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD). Scientific Methods: In vitro growth inhibition assays were completed with AHCC alone and in combination with PLD in panel of human cancer cell lines  and findings confirmed in vivo in an ovarian cancer xenograft mouse model.  AHCC mechanism of action was evaluated with immunoblotting a...

  19. Language Model Combination and Adaptation Using Weighted Finite State Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Gales, M. J. F.; Hieronymus, J. L.; Woodland, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    In speech recognition systems language model (LMs) are often constructed by training and combining multiple n-gram models. They can be either used to represent different genres or tasks found in diverse text sources, or capture stochastic properties of different linguistic symbol sequences, for example, syllables and words. Unsupervised LM adaption may also be used to further improve robustness to varying styles or tasks. When using these techniques, extensive software changes are often required. In this paper an alternative and more general approach based on weighted finite state transducers (WFSTs) is investigated for LM combination and adaptation. As it is entirely based on well-defined WFST operations, minimum change to decoding tools is needed. A wide range of LM combination configurations can be flexibly supported. An efficient on-the-fly WFST decoding algorithm is also proposed. Significant error rate gains of 7.3% relative were obtained on a state-of-the-art broadcast audio recognition task using a history dependently adapted multi-level LM modelling both syllable and word sequences

  20. Asteroid models from combined sparse and dense photometric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durech, J.; Kaasalainen, M.; Warner, B. D.; Fauerbach, M.; Marks, S. A.; Fauvaud, S.; Fauvaud, M.; Vugnon, J.-M.; Pilcher, F.; Bernasconi, L.; Behrend, R.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Shape and spin state are basic physical characteristics of an asteroid. They can be derived from disc-integrated photometry by the lightcurve inversion method. Increasing the number of asteroids with known basic physical properties is necessary to better understand the nature of individual objects as well as for studies of the whole asteroid population. Methods: We use the lightcurve inversion method to obtain rotation parameters and coarse shape models of selected asteroids. We combine sparse photometric data from the US Naval Observatory with ordinary lightcurves from the Uppsala Asteroid Photometric Catalogue and the Palmer Divide Observatory archive, and show that such combined data sets are in many cases sufficient to derive a model even if neither sparse photometry nor lightcurves can be used alone. Our approach is tested on multiple-apparition lightcurve inversion models and we show that the method produces consistent results. Results: We present new shape models and spin parameters for 24 asteroids. The shape models are only coarse but describe the global shape characteristics well. The typical error in the pole direction is ~10-20°. For a further 18 asteroids, inversion led to a unique determination of the rotation period but the pole direction was not well constrained. In these cases we give only an estimate of the ecliptic latitude of the pole.

  1. Combating Combination of Hypertension and Diabetes in Different Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talma Rosenthal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rat experimental models are used extensively for studying physiological mechanisms and treatments of hypertension and diabetes co-existence. Each one of these conditions is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and the combination of the two conditions is a potent enhancer of CVD. Five major animal models that advanced our understanding of the mechanisms and therapeutic approaches in humans are discussed in this review: Zucker, Goto-Kakizaki, SHROB, SHR/NDmcr-cp and Cohen Rosenthal diabetic hypertensive (CRDH rats. The use of various drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors (ACEIs, various angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs, to combat the effects of concomitant pathologies on the combination of diabetes and hypertension, as well as the non-pharmacological approach are reviewed in detail for each rat model. Results from experiments on these models indicate that classical factors contributing to the pathology of hypertension and diabetes combination—Including hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia—can now be treated, although these treatments do not completely prevent renal complications. Animal studies have focused on several mechanisms involved in hypertension/diabetes that remain to be translated into clinical medicine, including hypoxia, oxidative stress, and advanced glycation. Several target molecules have been identified that need to be incorporated into a treatment modality. The challenge continues to be the identification and interpretation of the clinical evidence from the animal models and their application to human treatment.

  2. Class II: a comparison of activator and activator headgear combination appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Y; Tankuter, N

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate skeletal and dental effects of activator and activator high-pull headgear combination appliances on growing patients with Class II, division 1 malocclusion. The material consisted of pre- and post-treatment cephalograms of 17 boys and 20 girls. Seventeen patients (eight male and nine female) were treated with an activator, the remaining 20 (9 male and 11 female) were treated with an activator high-pull headgear combination (AHGC) appliance. Changes due to treatment were compared with a group of 19 (nine male and ten female) untreated children. ANB angle was significantly reduced and mandibular growth development was favourable in both treatment groups. The AHGC appliance was more effective in the reduction of the maxillary prognathism. An increase of the anterior facial height and clockwise rotation of the occlusal plane was observed in the patients treated with activator appliance. The cant of the mandibular plane remained stable during both treatment periods. On the other hand, the forward displacement of the upper first molars was reduced significantly and the axial inclination of the lower incisors was controlled much better with the AHGC appliance.

  3. Test Case Generation For Concurrent Object-Oriented Systems Using Combinational Uml Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagatika Dalai, Arup Abhinna Acharya, Durga Prasad Mohapatra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is an important phase of software development to ensure the quality and reliability of the software. Due to some limitations of code based testing method, the researcher has been taken a new method to work upon UML model based testing. It is found that different UML model is having different coverage and capable of detecting different kinds of faults. Here we have taken combinational UML models to have better coverage and fault detection capability. Testing concurrent system is difficult task because due to concurrent interaction among the threads and the system results in test case explosion. In this paper we have presented an approach of generating test cases for concurrent systems using combinational UML models i.e. sequence diagram and activity diagram .Then a Sequence-Activity Graph (SAG is constructed from these two diagrams. Then that graph is traversed to generate test cases which are able to minimize test case explosion.

  4. Combining nitric oxide release with anti-inflammatory activity preserves nigrostriatal dopaminergic innervation and prevents motor impairment in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine model of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Impagnatiello Francesco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current evidence suggests a role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD and in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP model of basal ganglia injury. Reportedly, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs mitigate DAergic neurotoxicity in rodent models of PD. Consistent with these findings, epidemiological analysis indicated that certain NSAIDs may prevent or delay the progression of PD. However, a serious impediment of chronic NSAID therapy, particularly in the elderly, is gastric, renal and cardiac toxicity. Nitric oxide (NO-donating NSAIDs, have a safer profile while maintaining anti-inflammatory activity of parent compounds. We have investigated the oral activity of the NO-donating derivative of flurbiprofen, [2-fluoro-α-methyl (1,1'-biphenyl-4-acetic-4-(nitrooxybutyl ester], HCT1026 (30 mg kg-1 daily in rodent chow in mice exposed to the parkinsonian neurotoxin MPTP. Methods Ageing mice were fed with a control, flurbiprofen, or HCT1026 diet starting ten days before MPTP administration and continuing for all the experimental period. Striatal high affinity synaptosomial dopamine up-take, motor coordination assessed with the rotarod, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH- and dopamine transporter (DAT fiber staining, stereological cell counts, immunoblotting and gene expression analyses were used to assess MPTP-induced nigrostriatal DAergic toxicity and glial activation 1-40 days post-MPTP. Results HCT1026 was well tolerated and did not cause any measurable toxic effect, whereas flurbiprofen fed mice showed severe gastrointestinal side-effects. HCT1026 efficiently counteracted motor impairment and reversed MPTP-induced decreased synaptosomal [3H]dopamine uptake, TH- and DAT-stained fibers in striatum and TH+ neuron loss in subtantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc, as opposed to age-matched mice fed with a control diet. These effects were associated to a significant decrease in reactive

  5. Discovery of structural characteristics of RIP1K for activity control using the combination method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Eun Ju; Do, Yun-Ju; Lee, Myoung Hwi; Kim, Eunhee; Kang, Nam Sook

    2015-11-01

    Receptor-interacting protein kinases 1 (RIPK1) plays an important role in necroptotic disease; it is therefore useful to identify structural characteristics controlling RIPK1 activity. Serine residues such as Ser89 and Ser161 have been reported to be important for RIPK1 activity. ATP binding to the RIPK1 hinge region occurs prior to the transfer of the phosphate group to serine residues. We therefore investigated the regulatory function of residues in the RIPK1 hinge region using a combination of molecular modeling and protein stability experiments. We analyzed the structure and evaluated the kinetic activity and stability of RIPK1 hinge region mutants. In this way, we identified Glu93 and Glu96 as key residues that regulate RIP1K activity, suggesting that mutation of these residues might be related to necroptotic diseases. The presence of a clinical mutation in RIPK1 Glu93 in endometritis patients is consistent with our data.

  6. Symbolic Processing Combined with Model-Based Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark

    2009-01-01

    A computer program for the detection of present and prediction of future discrete states of a complex, real-time engineering system utilizes a combination of symbolic processing and numerical model-based reasoning. One of the biggest weaknesses of a purely symbolic approach is that it enables prediction of only future discrete states while missing all unmodeled states or leading to incorrect identification of an unmodeled state as a modeled one. A purely numerical approach is based on a combination of statistical methods and mathematical models of the applicable physics and necessitates development of a complete model to the level of fidelity required for prediction. In addition, a purely numerical approach does not afford the ability to qualify its results without some form of symbolic processing. The present software implements numerical algorithms to detect unmodeled events and symbolic algorithms to predict expected behavior, correlate the expected behavior with the unmodeled events, and interpret the results in order to predict future discrete states. The approach embodied in this software differs from that of the BEAM methodology (aspects of which have been discussed in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles), which provides for prediction of future measurements in the continuous-data domain.

  7. RCCtrust: A Combined Trust Model for Electronic Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Zhang; Hua-Jun Chen; Xiao-Hong Jiang; Hao Sheng; Zhao-Hui Wu

    2009-01-01

    Previous trust models are mainly focused on reputational mechanism based on explicit trust ratings.However,the large amount of user-generated content and community context published on Web is often ignored.Without enough information,there are several problems with previous trust models:first,they cannot determine in which field one user trusts in another,so many models assume that trust exists in all fields.Second some models are not able to delineate the variation of trust SCales,therefore they regard each user trusts all his friends to the same extent.Third,since these models only focus on explicit trust ratings,so the trust matrix is very sparse.To Solve these problems,we present RCCtrust-a trust model which combines Reputation-,Content-and Context-based mechanisms to provide more accurate,fine-grained and efficient trust management for the electronic community.We extract trust-related information from user-generated content and community context from Web to extend reputation-based trust models. We introduce role-based and behavior-based reasoning functionalities to infer users'i nterests and category-specific trust relationships.Following the study in sociology, RCCtrust exploits similarities between pairs of users to depict difierentiated trust scales.The experimental results show that RCCtrust outperforin8 pure user similarity method and linear decay trust-aware technique in both accuracy and coverage for a Recommender System.

  8. A joint calibration model for combining predictive distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Agati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In many research fields, as for example in probabilistic weather forecasting, valuable predictive information about a future random phenomenon may come from several, possibly heterogeneous, sources. Forecast combining methods have been developed over the years in order to deal with ensembles of sources: the aim is to combine several predictions in such a way to improve forecast accuracy and reduce risk of bad forecasts.In this context, we propose the use of a Bayesian approach to information combining, which consists in treating the predictive probability density functions (pdfs from the individual ensemble members as data in a Bayesian updating problem. The likelihood function is shown to be proportional to the product of the pdfs, adjusted by a joint “calibration function” describing the predicting skill of the sources (Morris, 1977. In this paper, after rephrasing Morris’ algorithm in a predictive context, we propose to model the calibration function in terms of bias, scale and correlation and to estimate its parameters according to the least squares criterion. The performance of our method is investigated and compared with that of Bayesian Model Averaging (Raftery, 2005 on simulated data.

  9. Research of combined liver-kidney transplantation model in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiageng Zhu; Jun Li; Ruipeng Jia; Jianghao Su; Mingshun Shen; Zhigang Cao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To set up a simple and reliable rat model of combined liver-kidney transplantation. Methods: SD rats served as both donors and recipients. 4℃ sodium lactate Ringer's was infused from portal veins to donated livers,and from abdominal aorta to donated kidneys, respectively. Anastomosis of the portal vein and the inferior vena cava (IVC) inferior to the right kidney between the graft and the recipient was performed by a double cuff method, then the superior hepatic vena cava with suture. A patch of donated renal artery was anastomosed to the recipient abdominal aorta. The urethra and bile duct were reconstructed with a simple inside bracket. Results: Among 65 cases of combined liver-kidney transplantation, the success rate in the late 40 cases was 77.5%. The function of the grafted liver and kidney remained normal. Conclusion: This rat model of combined liver-kidney transplantation can be established in common laboratory conditions with high success rate and meet the needs of renal transplantation experiment.

  10. Modified version of the combined model of photonucleon reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A refined version of the combined photonucleon-reaction model is described. This version makes it possible to take into account the effect of structural features of the doorway dipole state on photonucleon reactions in the energy range of Eγ ≤ 30 MeV. In relation to the previous version of the model, the treatment of isospin effects at the preequilibrium and evaporation reaction stages is refined; in addition, the description of the semidirect effect caused by nucleon emission from the doorway dipole state is improved. The model in question is used to study photonucleon reactions on the isotopes 35-56Ca and 102-134Sn in the energy range indicated above

  11. Combining microsimulation and spatial interaction models for retail location analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Tomoki; Fotheringham, A. Stewart; Hanaoka, Kazumasa; Clarke, Graham; Ballas, Dimitris; Yano, Keiji

    2007-12-01

    Although the disaggregation of consumers is crucial in understanding the fragmented markets that are dominant in many developed countries, it is not always straightforward to carry out such disaggregation within conventional retail modelling frameworks due to the limitations of data. In particular, consumer grouping based on sampled data is not assured to link with the other statistics that are vital in estimating sampling biases and missing variables in the sampling survey. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a useful combination of spatial interaction modelling and microsimulation approaches for the reliable estimation of retail interactions based on a sample survey of consumer behaviour being linked with other areal statistics. We demonstrate this approach by building an operational retail interaction model to estimate expenditure flows from households to retail stores in a local city in Japan, Kusatsu City.

  12. Combining Wavelet Transform and Hidden Markov Models for ECG Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Boudy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at providing new insights on the electrocardiogram (ECG segmentation problem using wavelets. The wavelet transform has been originally combined with a hidden Markov models (HMMs framework in order to carry out beat segmentation and classification. A group of five continuous wavelet functions commonly used in ECG analysis has been implemented and compared using the same framework. All experiments were realized on the QT database, which is composed of a representative number of ambulatory recordings of several individuals and is supplied with manual labels made by a physician. Our main contribution relies on the consistent set of experiments performed. Moreover, the results obtained in terms of beat segmentation and premature ventricular beat (PVC detection are comparable to others works reported in the literature, independently of the type of the wavelet. Finally, through an original concept of combining two wavelet functions in the segmentation stage, we achieve our best performances.

  13. Combining Wavelet Transform and Hidden Markov Models for ECG Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreão, Rodrigo Varejão; Boudy, Jérôme

    2006-12-01

    This work aims at providing new insights on the electrocardiogram (ECG) segmentation problem using wavelets. The wavelet transform has been originally combined with a hidden Markov models (HMMs) framework in order to carry out beat segmentation and classification. A group of five continuous wavelet functions commonly used in ECG analysis has been implemented and compared using the same framework. All experiments were realized on the QT database, which is composed of a representative number of ambulatory recordings of several individuals and is supplied with manual labels made by a physician. Our main contribution relies on the consistent set of experiments performed. Moreover, the results obtained in terms of beat segmentation and premature ventricular beat (PVC) detection are comparable to others works reported in the literature, independently of the type of the wavelet. Finally, through an original concept of combining two wavelet functions in the segmentation stage, we achieve our best performances.

  14. Combination of Thermal Subsystems Modelled by Rapid Circuit Transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Gerstenmaier, Y C; Wachutka, G

    2008-01-01

    This paper will deal with the modeling-problem of combining thermal subsystems (e.g. a semiconductor module or package with a cooling radiator) making use of reduced models. The subsystem models consist of a set of Foster-type thermal equivalent circuits, which are only behavioral models. A fast al-gorithm is presented for transforming the Foster-type circuits in Cauer-circuits which have physical behavior and therefore allow for the construction of the thermal model of the complete system. Then the set of Cauer-circuits for the complete system is transformed back into Foster-circuits to give a simple mathematical representation and applicability. The transfor-mation algorithms are derived in concise form by use of recur-sive relations. The method is exemplified by modeling and measurements on a single chip IGBT package mounted on a closed water cooled radiator. The thermal impedance of the complete system is constructed from the impedances of the sub-systems, IGBT-package and radiator, and also the impedance...

  15. A New Segmentation Model--Combined Mumford-Shah Model with Narrow Band

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zheng(王峥); Yang Xin; Shi Pengfei

    2004-01-01

    A segmentation model that combines the Mumford-Shah (M-S) model and narrow band scheme of level set is presented. The M-S model is a desirable model for image segmentation, but computationally time-consuming. This paper introduces a fast segmentation model, which combines the M-S model and narrow band scheme using new initialization method. The new initialization method is based on fast marching method, and the computing time is O(n). In each iteration step, the new segmentation model only deals with the data in narrow band instead of the whole image. Comparing M-S model and new narrow band M-S, experiments show that the two models can obtain almost the same segmentation result, but the computing time of new narrow band M-S model is much less than M-S model.

  16. New Asteroid Models Based on Combined Dense and Sparse Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuš, Josef; Durech, J.

    2010-10-01

    For thousands of asteroids we investigated several ten thousands of sparse photometric data from astrometric projects. These data are available on AstDyS server (Asteroids -- Dynamic Site, http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it). We picked 7 astrometric surveys and used their calibrated photometry in lightcurve inversion method for determination of asteroid's convex shapes and rotational states. We present nearly 100 new asteroid models derived from combined dense and sparse data sets, where sparse photometry is taken from AstDyS server and dense lightcurves are from the Uppsala Asteroid Photometric Catalogue (UAPC) and from several individual observers.

  17. Combined discriminative global and generative local models for visual tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liujun; Zhao, Qingjie; Chen, Yanming; Lv, Peng

    2016-03-01

    It is a challenging task to develop an effective visual tracking algorithm due to factors such as pose variation, rotation, and so on. Combined discriminative global and generative local appearance models are proposed to address this problem. Specifically, we develop a compact global object representation by extracting the low-frequency coefficients of the color and texture of the object based on two-dimensional discrete cosine transform. Then, with the global appearance representation, we learn a discriminative metric classifier in an online fashion to differentiate the target object from its background, which is very important to robustly indicate the changes in appearance. Second, we develop a new generative local model that exploits the scale invariant feature transform and its spatial geometric information. To make use of the advantages of the global discriminative model and the generative local model, we incorporate them into Bayesian inference framework. In this framework, the complementary models help the tracker locate the target more accurately. Furthermore, we use different mechanisms to update global and local templates to capture appearance changes. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach performs favorably against state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy.

  18. Combining catchment and instream modelling to assess physical habitat quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin

    which factors are controlling the run-off conditions in stream Ledreborg and to what degree • to assess the run-off reference condition of stream Ledreborg where intensive groundwater abstraction has taken place in 67 years using a simple rainfall-run-off-model • to assess how stream run-off affect......Study objectives After the implementation of EU's Water Framework Directive (WFD) in Denmark ecological impacts from groundwater exploitation on surface waters has to receive additional consideration. Small streams in particular are susceptible to changes in run-off but have only recieved little...... attention in past studies of run-off impact on the quality of stream physical habitats. This study combined catchment and instream models with instream habitat observations to assess the ecological impacts from groundwater exploitation on a small stream. The main objectives of this study was; • to assess...

  19. Contribution of satellite laser ranging to combined gravity field models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, A.; Krauss, S.; Hausleitner, W.; Baur, O.

    2012-02-01

    In the framework of satellite-only gravity field modeling, satellite laser ranging (SLR) data is typically exploited to recover long-wavelength features. This contribution provides a detailed discussion of the SLR component of GOCO02S, the latest release of combined models within the GOCO series. Over a period of five years (January 2006 to December 2010), observations to LAGEOS-1, LAGEOS-2, Ajisai, Stella, and Starlette were analyzed. We conducted a series of closed-loop simulations and found that estimating monthly sets of spherical harmonic coefficients beyond degree five leads to exceedingly ill-posed normal equation systems. Therefore, we adopted degree five as the spectral resolution for real data analysis. We compared our monthly coefficient estimates of degree two with SLR and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) time series provided by the Center for Space Research (CSR) at Austin, Texas. Significant deviations in C20 were noted between SLR and GRACE; the agreement is better for the non-zonal coefficients. Fitting sinusoids together with a linear trend to our C20 time series yielded a rate of (-1.75 ± 0.6) × 10-11/yr; this drift is equivalent to a geoid change from pole to equator of 0.35 ± 0.12 mm/yr or an apparent Greenland mass loss of 178.5 ± 61.2 km3/yr. The mean of all monthly solutions, averaged over the five-year period, served as input for the satellite-only model GOCO02S. The contribution of SLR to the combined gravity field model is highest for C20, and hence is essential for the determination of the Earth's oblateness.

  20. A combined statistical model for multiple motifs search

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Li-Feng; Liu Xin; Guan Shan

    2008-01-01

    Transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) play key roles in genebior 6.8 wavelet expression and regulation. They are short sequence segments with definite structure and can be recognized by the corresponding transcription factors correctly. From the viewpoint of statistics, the candidates of TFBS should be quite different from the segments that are randomly combined together by nucleotide. This paper proposes a combined statistical model for finding overrepresented short sequence segments in different kinds of data set. While the over-represented short sequence segment is described by position weight matrix, the nucleotide distribution at most sites of the segment should be far from the background nucleotide distribution. The central idea of this approach is to search for such kind of signals. This algorithm is tested on 3 data sets, including binding sites data set of cyclic AMP receptor protein in E.coli, PlantProm DB which is a non-redundant collection of proximal promoter sequences from different species, collection of the intergenic sequences of the whole genome of E.Coli. Even though the complexity of these three data sets is quite different, the results show that this model is rather general and sensible.

  1. Combining segmentation and attention: a new foveal attention model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca eMarfil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial vision systems cannot process all the information that they receive from the world in real time because it is highly expensive and inefficient in terms of computational cost. Inspired by biological perception systems, articial attention models pursuit to select only the relevant part of the scene. Besides, it is well established that the units of attention on human vision are not merely spatial but closely related to perceptual objects (proto-objects. This implies a strong bidirectional relationship between segmentation and attention processes. Therefore, while the segmentation process is the responsible to extract the proto-objects from the scene, attention can guide segmentation, arising the concept of foveal attention. When the focus of attention is deployed from one visual unit to another, the rest of the scene is perceived but at a lower resolution that the focused object. The result is a multi-resolution visual perception in which the fovea, a dimple on the central retina, provides the highest resolution vision. In this paper, a bottom-up foveal attention model is presented. In this model the input image is a foveal image represented using a Cartesian Foveal Geometry (CFG, which encodes the field of view of the sensor as a fovea (placed in the focus of attention surrounded by a set of concentric rings with decreasing resolution. Then multirresolution perceptual segmentation is performed by building a foveal polygon using the Bounded Irregular Pyramid (BIP. Bottom-up attention is enclosed in the same structure, allowing to set the fovea over the most salient image proto-object. Saliency is computed as a linear combination of multiple low level features such us colour and intensity contrast, symmetry, orientation and roundness. Obtained results from natural images show that the performance of the combination of hierarchical foveal segmentation and saliency estimation is good in terms of accuracy and speed.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Polyherbal Combination for Hypolipidemic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava R.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is defined as increase in the lipid content (group of fat or fat like substances along with their lipoprotein counterpart in blood. The present study was undertaken to explore the antihyperlipidemic effect of ethanolic extract from Fenugreek and Gymnema sylvestre and hydro-alcoholic extract from Curcuma longa in cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Oral administration of various extracts once in a day for two weeks significantly lowered the total cholesterol phospholipid, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins and increase the high density lipoprotein level. Present investigation shows that Curcumin caused more significant decrease in the total cholesterol level (1.36 %, serum level of triglyceride (1.32 %, and serum level of LDL (1.39 % as compared to other groups in cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. The study exhibited that elevated blood cholesterol; triglycerides, LDL, and decrease HDL which occur in Hyperlipidemia were significantly reduced by the administration of combination of Curcumin, Gymnema sylvestre and Fenugreek.

  3. Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

    2010-08-31

    The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the process to follow changes in the power load demand, and to improve performance during transitions between power levels. Another objective of the proposed work was to educate graduate and undergraduate students in the application of process systems and control to coal technology. Educational materials were developed for use in engineering courses to further broaden this exposure to many students. ASPENTECH software was used to perform steady-state and dynamic simulations of an IGCC power plant. Linear systems analysis techniques were used to assess the steady-state and dynamic operability of the power plant under various plant operating conditions. Model predictive control (MPC) strategies were developed to improve the dynamic operation of the power plants. MATLAB and SIMULINK software were used for systems analysis and control system design, and the SIMULINK functionality in ASPEN DYNAMICS was used to test the control strategies on the simulated process. Project funds were used to support a Ph.D. student to receive education and training in coal technology and the application of modeling and simulation techniques.

  4. Combination and Standar Model Scalar Boson Properties in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Mingshui

    2013-01-01

    Combination results of the recently discovered boson are presented using data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of up to 5.1 $\\invfb$ at 7 TeV and up to 12.2 $\\invfb$ at 8 TeV of proton-proton collisions collected with CMS experiment at LHC. The significance of the new boson is 6.9 $\\sigma$ with mass measured to be 125.8 $\\pm$ 0.4 (stat) $\\pm$ 0.4 (syst). The event yields obtained by the different analyses targeting specific decay modes and production mechanisms are consistent with those predicted for the stand model (SM) Higgs boson. The best-fit signal strength for all channels combined, expressed in units of the SM Higgs boson cross section, is 0.88 $\\pm$ 0.21 at the measured mass. The consistency of the couplins of the observed boson with those expected for the SM Higgs boson is tested in various ways, and no significant deviations are found. Results on the test of different spin-parity hypotheses of the observed boson are also shown, but with updated data samples corresponding to integrate...

  5. On the combined gravity gradient modeling for applied geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Veryaskin, Alexey

    2007-01-01

    Gravity gradiometry research and development has intensified in recent years to the extent that technologies providing a resolution of about 1 Eotvos per 1 sec average shall likely soon be available for multiple critical applications such as natural resources exploration, oil reservoir monitoring and defence establishment. Much of the content of this paper was composed a decade ago, and only minor modifications were required for the conclusions to be just as applicable today. In this paper we demonstrate how gravity gradient data can be modeled, and show some examples of how gravity gradient data can be combined in order to extract valuable information. In particular, this study demonstrates the importance of two gravity gradient components, Txz and Tyz which, when processed together, can provide more information on subsurface density contrasts than that derived solely from the vertical gravity gradient (Tzz).

  6. Combining multiple nondestructive inspection images with a generalized additive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, multiple nondestructive inspection (NDI) images are combined with a generalized additive model to achieve a more precise and reliable assessment of hidden corrosion in aircraft lap joints. Two inspection techniques are considered in this study. One is the conventional multi-frequency eddy current testing technique and the other is the pulsed eddy current technique. To characterize the thickness loss or equivalently to achieve a quantitative measure of corrosion, multiple NDI images are fused to produce a thickness map that reflected the amount of corrosion damage. These results are further compared with corresponding digital x-ray thickness maps, which are obtained by mapping the remaining thickness after the specimen is dissembled and all the corrosion products are cleaned. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms outperform the traditional calibration method aligned with a single testing approach

  7. Education Knowledge System Combination Model Based on the Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lei; LI Dehua; LI Xiaojian; WU Chunxiang

    2007-01-01

    Resources are the base and core of education information, but current web education resources have no structure and it is still difficult to reuse them and make them can be self assembled and developed continually. According to the knowledge structure of course and text, the relation among knowledge points, knowledge units from three levels of media material, we can build education resource components, and build TKCM (Teaching Knowledge Combination Model) based on resource components. Builders can build and assemble knowledge system structure and make knowledge units can be self assembled, thus we can develop and consummate them continually. Users can make knowledge units can be self assembled and renewed, and build education knowledge system to satisfy users' demand under the form of education knowledge system.

  8. Comparison of analgesic effects of nimesulide, paracetamol, and their combination in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mushtaq

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the analgesic activity of nimesulide and paracetamol alone and their combination in animal models for the degree of analgesia and the time course of action. Materials and Methods: Analgesia was studied in albino rats using formalin test and in albino mice using writhing test and the radiant heat method. For each test, four groups of six animals each were orally fed with a single dose of nimesulide, paracetamol, and combination of nimesulide + paracetamol and gum acacia as control, respectively. Results: In all the three test models, all three drug treatments showed significant analgesia (P < 0.001 as compared to control, but there was no significant difference in the analgesia produced by either drugs alone or in combination. The radiant heat method demonstrated a quicker onset and longer duration of action with nimesulide, whereas writhing test showed a quicker onset of action with paracetamol. In formalin test, greater degree of analgesia was seen with individual drugs than that of the combination, though this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Nimesulide and paracetamol combination offers no advantage over nimesulide alone or paracetamol alone, either in terms of degree of analgesia or onset of action. Therefore, our study supports the reports claiming irrationality of the fixed dose combination of nimesulide and paracetamol.

  9. Cognitive Virtualization: Combining Cognitive Models and Virtual Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan Q. Tran; David I. Gertman; Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; Ronald L. Boring; Alan R. Mecham

    2007-08-01

    3D manikins are often used in visualizations to model human activity in complex settings. Manikins assist in developing understanding of human actions, movements and routines in a variety of different environments representing new conceptual designs. One such environment is a nuclear power plant control room, here they have the potential to be used to simulate more precise ergonomic assessments of human work stations. Next generation control rooms will pose numerous challenges for system designers. The manikin modeling approach by itself, however, may be insufficient for dealing with the desired technical advancements and challenges of next generation automated systems. Uncertainty regarding effective staffing levels; and the potential for negative human performance consequences in the presence of advanced automated systems (e.g., reduced vigilance, poor situation awareness, mistrust or blind faith in automation, higher information load and increased complexity) call for further research. Baseline assessment of novel control room equipment(s) and configurations needs to be conducted. These design uncertainties can be reduced through complementary analysis that merges ergonomic manikin models with models of higher cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, decision-making, and problem-solving. This paper will discuss recent advancements in merging a theoretical-driven cognitive modeling framework within a 3D visualization modeling tool to evaluate of next generation control room human factors and ergonomic assessment. Though this discussion primary focuses on control room design, the application for such a merger between 3D visualization and cognitive modeling can be extended to various areas of focus such as training and scenario planning.

  10. Combined effects of water temperature and copper ion concentration on catalase activity in Crassostrea ariakensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Yang, Hongshuai; Liu, Jiahui; Li, Yanhong; Liu, Zhigang

    2015-07-01

    A central composite experimental design and response surface method were used to investigate the combined effects of water temperature (18-34°C) and copper ion concentration (0.1-1.5 mg/L) on the catalase (CAT) activity in the digestive gland of Crassostrea ariakensis. The results showed that the linear effects of temperature were significant ( P0.05), and the quadratic effects of copper ion concentration were significant ( P0.05), and the effect of temperature was greater than that of copper ion concentration. A model equation of CAT enzyme activity in the digestive gland of C. ariakensis toward the two factors of interest was established, with R 2, Adj. R 2 and Pred. R 2 values as high as 0.943 7, 0.887 3 and 0.838 5, respectively. These findings suggested that the goodness of fit to experimental data and predictive capability of the model were satisfactory, and could be practically applied for prediction under the conditions of the study. Overall, the results suggest that the simultaneous variation of temperature and copper ion concentration alters the activity of the antioxidant enzyme CAT by modulating active oxygen species metabolism, which may be utilized as a biomarker to detect the effects of copper pollution.

  11. Estimating Sea Surface Salinity and Wind Using Combined Passive and Active L-Band Microwave Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Chaubell, Mario J.

    2012-01-01

    Several L-band microwave radiometer and radar missions have been, or will be, operating in space for land and ocean observations. These include the NASA Aquarius mission and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, both of which use combined passive/ active L-band instruments. Aquarius s passive/active L-band microwave sensor has been designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. SMAP s primary objectives are for soil moisture and freeze/thaw detection, but it will operate continuously over the ocean, and hence will have significant potential for ocean surface research. In this innovation, an algorithm has been developed to retrieve simultaneously ocean surface salinity and wind from combined passive/active L-band microwave observations of sea surfaces. The algorithm takes advantage of the differing response of brightness temperatures and radar backscatter to salinity, wind speed, and direction, thus minimizing the least squares error (LSE) measure, which signifies the difference between measurements and model functions of brightness temperatures and radar backscatter. The algorithm uses the conjugate gradient method to search for the local minima of the LSE. Three LSE measures with different measurement combinations have been tested. The first LSE measure uses passive microwave data only with retrieval errors reaching 1 to 2 psu (practical salinity units) for salinity, and 1 to 2 m/s for wind speed. The second LSE measure uses both passive and active microwave data for vertical and horizontal polarizations. The addition of active microwave data significantly improves the retrieval accuracy by about a factor of five. To mitigate the impact of Faraday rotation on satellite observations, the third LSE measure uses measurement combinations invariant under the Faraday rotation. For Aquarius, the expected RMS SSS (sea surface salinity) error will be less than about 0.2 psu for low winds, and increases to 0.3 psu at 25 m/s wind speed

  12. On a combined adaptive tetrahedral tracing and edge diffraction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Carl R.

    A major challenge in architectural acoustics is the unification of diffraction models and geometric acoustics. For example, geometric acoustics is insufficient to quantify the scattering characteristics of acoustic diffusors. Typically the time-independent boundary element method (BEM) is the method of choice. In contrast, time-domain computations are of interest for characterizing both the spatial and temporal scattering characteristics of acoustic diffusors. Hence, a method is sought that predicts acoustic scattering in the time-domain. A prediction method, which combines an advanced image source method and an edge diffraction model, is investigated for the prediction of time-domain scattering. Adaptive tetrahedral tracing is an advanced image source method that generates image sources through an adaptive process. Propagating tetrahedral beams adapt to ensonified geometry mapping the geometric sound field in space and along boundaries. The edge diffraction model interfaces with the adaptive tetrahedral tracing process by the transfer of edge geometry and visibility information. Scattering is quantified as the contribution of secondary sources along a single or multiple interacting edges. Accounting for a finite number of diffraction permutations approximates the scattered sound field. Superposition of the geometric and scattered sound fields results in a synthesized impulse response between a source and a receiver. Evaluation of the prediction technique involves numerical verification and numerical validation. Numerical verification is based upon a comparison with analytic and numerical (BEM) solutions for scattering geometries. Good agreement is shown for the selected scattering geometries. Numerical validation is based upon experimentally determined scattered impulse responses of acoustic diffusors. Experimental data suggests that the predictive model is appropriate for high-frequency predictions. For the experimental determination of the scattered impulse

  13. Music-induced emotions can be predicted from a combination of brain activity and acoustic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ian; Williams, Duncan; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Weaver, James; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2015-12-01

    It is widely acknowledged that music can communicate and induce a wide range of emotions in the listener. However, music is a highly-complex audio signal composed of a wide range of complex time- and frequency-varying components. Additionally, music-induced emotions are known to differ greatly between listeners. Therefore, it is not immediately clear what emotions will be induced in a given individual by a piece of music. We attempt to predict the music-induced emotional response in a listener by measuring the activity in the listeners electroencephalogram (EEG). We combine these measures with acoustic descriptors of the music, an approach that allows us to consider music as a complex set of time-varying acoustic features, independently of any specific music theory. Regression models are found which allow us to predict the music-induced emotions of our participants with a correlation between the actual and predicted responses of up to r=0.234,pmusic induced emotions can be predicted by their neural activity and the properties of the music. Given the large amount of noise, non-stationarity, and non-linearity in both EEG and music, this is an encouraging result. Additionally, the combination of measures of brain activity and acoustic features describing the music played to our participants allows us to predict music-induced emotions with significantly higher accuracies than either feature type alone (p<0.01). PMID:26544602

  14. Music-induced emotions can be predicted from a combination of brain activity and acoustic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ian; Williams, Duncan; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Weaver, James; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2015-12-01

    It is widely acknowledged that music can communicate and induce a wide range of emotions in the listener. However, music is a highly-complex audio signal composed of a wide range of complex time- and frequency-varying components. Additionally, music-induced emotions are known to differ greatly between listeners. Therefore, it is not immediately clear what emotions will be induced in a given individual by a piece of music. We attempt to predict the music-induced emotional response in a listener by measuring the activity in the listeners electroencephalogram (EEG). We combine these measures with acoustic descriptors of the music, an approach that allows us to consider music as a complex set of time-varying acoustic features, independently of any specific music theory. Regression models are found which allow us to predict the music-induced emotions of our participants with a correlation between the actual and predicted responses of up to r=0.234,pmusic induced emotions can be predicted by their neural activity and the properties of the music. Given the large amount of noise, non-stationarity, and non-linearity in both EEG and music, this is an encouraging result. Additionally, the combination of measures of brain activity and acoustic features describing the music played to our participants allows us to predict music-induced emotions with significantly higher accuracies than either feature type alone (p<0.01).

  15. Radio Frequency-Activated Nanoliposomes for Controlled Combination Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekar, Swapnil A; Sarode, Ashish L; Bach, Alvin C; Bose, Arijit; Bothun, Geoffrey; Worthen, David R

    2015-12-01

    This work was conducted in order to design, characterize, and evaluate stable liposomes containing the hydrophobic drug raloxifene HCl (RAL) and hydrophilic doxycycline HCl (DOX), two potentially synergistic agents for treating osteoporosis and other bone lesions, in conjunction with a radio frequency-induced, hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticle-dependent triggering mechanism for drug release. Both drugs were successfully incorporated into liposomes by lipid film hydration, although combination drug loading compromised liposome stability. Liposome stability was improved by reducing the drug load and by including Pluronics® (PL) in the formulations. DOX did not appear to interact with the phospholipid membranes comprising the liposomes, and its release was maximized in the presence of radio frequency (RF) heating. In contrast, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P-NMR) analysis revealed that RAL developed strong interactions with the phospholipid membranes, most notably with lipid phosphate head groups, resulting in significant changes in membrane thermodynamics. Likewise, RAL release from liposomes was minimal, even in the presence of RF heating. These studies may offer useful insights into the design and optimization of multidrug containing liposomes. The effects of RAL on liposome characteristics and drug release performance underscore the importance of appropriate physical-chemical analysis in order to identify and characterize drug-lipid interactions that may profoundly affect liposome properties and performance early in the formulation development process. PMID:25899799

  16. Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Keyser, W.; Gevaert, V.; Verdonck, F.;

    2010-01-01

    Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modeling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOS) and stormwater drainage systems However, some micropollutants tend to appear in more than one environmental...... on the one hand a reference scenario with a combined sewerage system and on the other hand a stormwater infiltration pond scenario, as an example of a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) A case for Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was simulated and resulted in reduced surface water...... medium (air, water, sediment, soil, groundwater, etc) In this work, a multimedia fate and transport model (MFTM) is "wrapped around" a dynamic IUWS model for organic micropollutants to enable integrated environmental assessment The combined model was tested on a hypothetical catchment using two scenarios...

  17. Modelling of Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtanjeka, Ž.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge wastewater treatment is a highly complex physical, chemical and biological process, and variations in wastewater flow rate and its composition, combined with time-varying reactions in a mixed culture of microorganisms, make this process non-linear and unsteady. The efficiency of the process is established by measuring the quantities that indicate quality of the treated wastewater, but they can only be determined at the end of the process, which is when the water has already been processed and is at the outlet of the plant and released into the environment.If the water quality is not acceptable, it is already too late for its improvement, which indicates the need for a feed forward process control based on a mathematical model. Since there is no possibility of retracing the process steps back, all the mistakes in the control of the process could induce an ecological disaster of a smaller or bigger extent. Therefore, models that describe this process well may be used as a basis for monitoring and optimal control of the process development. This work analyzes the process of biological treatment of wastewater in the Velika Gorica plant. Two empirical models for the description of the process were established, multiple linear regression model (MLR with 16 predictor variables and piecewise linear regression model (PLR with 17 predictor variables. These models were developed with the aim to predict COD value of the effluent wastewater at the outlet, after treatment. The development of the models is based on the statistical analysis of experimental data, which are used to determine the relations among individual variables. In this work are applied linear models based on multiple linear regression (MLR and partial least squares (PLR methods. The used data were obtained by everyday measurements of the quantities that indicate the quality of the input and output water, working conditions of the plant and the quality of the activated sludge

  18. Combining interviewing and modeling for end-user energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studying energy consumption through the lens of households is an increasingly popular research avenue. This paper focuses on residential end-user energy conservation. It describes an approach that combines energy modeling and in-depth interviews for communicating about energy use and revealing consumer preferences for change at different levels and intervention points. Expert knowledge was embodied in a computer model for householders that calculates an individual's current energy consumption and helps assess personal savings potentials, while also bringing in socio-technical and economic elements beyond the user's direct control. The paper gives a detailed account of this computer information tool developed for interviewing purposes. It then describes the interview guidelines, data analysis, and main results. In general, interview subjects overestimated the environmental friendliness of their lifestyles. After experience with the program, they tended to rate external (technological, societal) factors as somewhat stronger determinants of their consumption levels than personal (behavioral and household investment) factors, with the notable exception of mobility. Concerning long-term energy perspectives, the majority of subjects felt that society has the ability to make a collective choice towards significantly lower energy consumption levels. Interviewees confirmed that the software and interactive sessions helped them think more holistically about the personal, social, and technological dimensions of energy conservation. Lessons can be applied to the development of future energy communication tools

  19. MCNP modelling of a combined neutron/gamma counter

    CERN Document Server

    Bourva, L C A; Ottmar, H; Weaver, D R

    1999-01-01

    A series of Monte Carlo neutron calculations for a combined gamma/passive neutron coincidence counter has been performed. This type of device, part of a suite of non-destructive assay instruments utilised for the enforcement of the Euratom nuclear safeguards within the European Union, is to be used for high accuracy measurements of the plutonium content of small samples of nuclear materials. The multi-purpose Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) code version 4B has been used to model in detail the neutron coincidence detector and to investigate the leakage self-multiplication of PuO sub 2 and mixed U-Pu oxide (MOX) reference samples used to calibrate the instrument. The MCNP calculations have been used together with a neutron coincidence counting interpretative model to determine characteristic parameters of the detector. A comparative study to both experimental and previous numerical results has been performed. Sensitivity curves of the variation of the detector's efficiency, epsilon, to, alpha, the ratio of (alpha...

  20. Crack arrest saturation model under combined electrical and mechanical loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Bhargava

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The investigation aims at proposing a model for cracked piezoelectric strip which is capable to arrest the crack.Design/methodology/approach: Under the combined effect of electrical and mechanical loadings applied at the edges of the strip, the developed saturation zone is produced at each tip of the crack. To arrest further opening of the crack, the rims of the developed saturation zones are subjected to in-plane cohesive, normal uniform constant saturation point electrical displacement. The problem is solved using Fourier integral transform method which reduces the problem to the solution of Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. This integral equation in turn is solved numerically.Findings: The expressions are derived for different intensity factors and energy release rate. A qualitative analysis of the parameters affecting the arrest of opening of the crack and fatigue crack growth with respect to strip thickness and material constants are presented graphically.Research limitations/implications: The investigations are carried out by considering the material electrical brittle. Consequently, the zones protrude along the straight lines ahead of the crack tips. And further, the small scale electrical yielding conditions are used.Practical implications: Piezoelectric materials are widely getting used nowadays, even in day to day life like piezoelectric cigarette lighter, children toys etc. And, its advance used in technology like transducers, actuators has been already in progress. So, the aspect of cracking of piezoelectric materials are of great practical importance.Originality/value: The piezoelectric material under the combined effect of electrical and mechanical loadings gives the assessment of electrical displacement which is required to arrest the crack. The various useful interpretations are also drawn from the graphs.

  1. Modeling of active beam units with Modelica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarini, Alessandro; Hultmark, Göran; Vorre, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an active beam model suitable for building energy simulations with the programming language Modelica. The model encapsulates empirical equations derived by a novel active beam terminal unit that operates with low-temperature heating and high-temperature cooling systems....... Measurements from a full-scale experiment are used to compare the thermal behavior of the active beam with the one predicted by simulations. The simulation results show that the model corresponds closely with the actual operation. The model predicts the outlet water temperature of the active beam...... with a maximum mean absolute error of 0.18 °C. In term of maximum mean absolute percentage error, simulation results differ by 0.9%. The methodology presented is general enough to be applied for modeling other active beam units. Modeling of active beam units with Modelica. Available from: https...

  2. New Mouse Models to Investigate the Efficacy of Drug Combinations in Human Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hanyang; Woolfson, Adrian; Jiang, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) comprises a simple and effective paradigm for generating new insights into the cellular origin, pathogenesis, and treatment of many types of human cancer. In particular, mouse models of CML have greatly facilitated the understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms and pathogenesis of this disease and have led to the identification of new drug targets that in some cases offer the possibility of functional cure. There are currently three established CML mouse models: the BCR-ABL transgenic model, the BCR-ABL retroviral transduction/transplantation model, and the xenotransplant immunodeficient model. Each has its own unique advantages and disadvantages. Depending on the question of interest, some models may be more appropriate than others. In this chapter, we describe a newly developed xenotransplant mouse model to determine the efficacy of novel therapeutic agents, either alone or in combination. The model facilitates the evaluation of the frequency of leukemic stem cells with long-term leukemia-initiating activity, a critical subcellular population that causes disease relapse and progression, through the utilization of primary CD34(+) CML stem/progenitor cells obtained from CML patients at diagnosis and prior to drug treatment. We have also investigated the effectiveness of new combination treatment strategies designed to prevent the development of leukemia in vivo using BCR-ABL (+) blast crisis cells as a model system. These types of in vivo studies are important for the prediction of individual patient responses to drug therapy, and have the potential to facilitate the design of personalized combination therapy strategies. PMID:27581149

  3. SPR imaging combined with cyclic voltammetry for the detection of neural activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR detects changes in refractive index at a metal-dielectric interface. In this study, SPR imaging (SPRi combined with cyclic voltammetry (CV was applied to detect neural activity in isolated bullfrog sciatic nerves. The neural activities induced by chemical and electrical stimulation led to an SPR response, and the activities were recorded in real time. The activities of different parts of the sciatic nerve were recorded and compared. The results demonstrated that SPR imaging combined with CV is a powerful tool for the investigation of neural activity.

  4. Modeling Students' Units Coordinating Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Boyce, Steven James

    2014-01-01

    Primarily via constructivist teaching experiment methodology, units coordination (Steffe, 1992) has emerged as a useful construct for modeling students' psychological constructions pertaining to several mathematical domains, including counting sequences, whole number multiplicative conceptions, and fractions schemes. I describe how consideration of units coordination as a Piagetian (1970b) structure is useful for modeling units coordination across contexts. In this study, I extend teaching ...

  5. Modeling Workflow Using UML Activity Diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Yinxing(韦银星); Zhang Shensheng

    2004-01-01

    An enterprise can improve its adaptability in the changing market by means of workflow technologies. In the build time, the main function of Workflow Management System (WFMS) is to model business process. Workflow model is an abstract representation of the real-world business process. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) activity diagram is an important visual process modeling language proposed by the Object Management Group (OMG). The novelty of this paper is representing workflow model by means of UML activity diagram. A translation from UML activity diagram to π-calculus is established. Using π-calculus, the deadlock property of workflow is analyzed.

  6. Combined activity of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and polymyxin B against gram-negative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1974-07-01

    The activity of the three two-drug combinations of sulfamethoxazole (SMX), trimethoprim (TMP), and polymyxin B (PB) against 52 clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli was studied by a "checkerboard" agar dilution method. The organisms studied included strains of Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Providence, Proteus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The majority of these isolates were resistant to at least two of the three agents used in the combined studies and to the most commonly used antimicrobials. The TMP-PB combination demonstrated enhanced activity more frequently than the other two-drug combinations, showing synergism or addition in 85% of the combined studies; indifference or antagonism was also observed least frequently with TMP-PB. The great majority (83%) of Enterobacter-Klebsiella-Serratia isolates were susceptible to enhanced activity of all combinations. Proteus-Providence isolates were frequently susceptible (63%), but combined activity was indifferent or antagonistic against 60% of P. aeruginosa. Twelve isolates were selected for "killing-curve" assays in which an inoculum was incubated with SMX, TMP, and PB individually and in various two- and three-drug combinations. Surviving bacteria were counted at timed intervals over 24 h of incubation. The triple combination (SMX-TMP-PB) was synergistic against 9 of 12 isolates, whereas TMP-PB and SMX-PB showed synergism against 5 and 3 isolates, respectively. These data suggest that, although TMP-PB will often show enhanced activity against the gram-negative bacilli studied here, optimal antibacterial activity will be demonstrated when the three-drug combination is used.

  7. Nonlinearly combined impacts of initial perturbation from human activities and parameter perturbation from climate change on the grassland ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Human activities and climate change are important factors that affect grassland ecosystems. A new optimization approach, the approach of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP related to initial and parameter perturbations, is employed to explore the nonlinearly combined impacts of human activities and climate change on a grassland ecosystem using a theoretical grassland model. In our study, it is assumed that the initial perturbations and parameter perturbations are regarded as human activities and climate change, respectively. Numerical results indicate that the climate changes causing the maximum effect in the grassland ecosystem are different under disparate intensities of human activities. This implies the pattern of climate change is very critical to the maintenance or degradation of grassland ecosystem in light of high intensity of human activities and that the grassland ecosystem should be rationally managed when the moisture index decreases. The grassland ecosystem influenced by the nonlinear combination of human activities and climate change undergoes abrupt change, while the grassland ecosystem affected by other types of human activities and climate change fails to show the abrupt change under a certain range of perturbations with the theoretical model. The further numerical analyses also indicate that the growth of living biomass and the evaporation from soil surface shaded by the wilted biomass may be crucial factors contributing to the abrupt change of the grassland equilibrium state within the theoretical model.

  8. Biological models for active vision: Towards a unified architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Terzic K.; Lobato D.; Saleiro M.; Martins J; Farrajota M.; Rodrigues J.M.F.; Du Buf J.M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Building a general-purpose, real-time active vision system completely based on biological models is a great challenge. We apply a number of biologically plausible algorithms which address different aspects of vision, such as edge and keypoint detection, feature extraction,optical flow and disparity, shape detection, object recognition and scene modelling into a complete system. We present some of the experiments from our ongoing work, where our system leverages a combination of algorithms to ...

  9. Traditional, Cyber and Combined Bullying Roles: Differences in Risky Online and Offline Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachs, Sebastian; Junger, M.; Sittichai, Ruthaychonee

    2015-01-01

    This study (1) reports frequency rates of mutually exclusive traditional, cyber and combined (both traditional and cyber) bullying roles; and (2) investigates whether adolescents belonging to particular bullying roles show higher levels of involvement in risky online activities (Compulsive Internet

  10. 21 CFR 347.60 - Labeling of permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... labeled for concurrent symptoms. (2) Combinations of skin protectant and first aid antiseptic active... § 347.50(b)(1), the required indications for first aid antiseptic drug products should be used....

  11. SYSTEMATIC SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY TECHNIQUE FOR EVALUATING COMBINED BIOLOIGCAL/GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A systematic scanning election microscope analytical technique has been developed to examine granular activated carbon used a a medium for biomass attachment in liquid waste treatment. The procedure allows for the objective monitoring, comparing, and trouble shooting of combined ...

  12. Modeling and optimization of multimode fused fiber combiners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Yu, Hao; Califano, Alessio; Braglia, Andrea; Perrone, Guido

    2016-03-01

    An effective method to predict the performance of multimode fused fiber combiners is presented. The realization of high power devices is strongly affected by the specific application, for instance whether used in fiber or in direct-diode lasers, and thus usually requires costly and time-consuming trial-and-error procedures. The proposed approach, which is based on ray tracing and statistical analysis, allows analyzing a-priori the impact of fiber dimensions, combiner geometry, glass material properties and laser beam quality on the coupling efficiency, therefore reducing the fabrication runs. Examples of application to 7-to-1 and 19-to-1 combiners are given and compared with experimental results.

  13. Combining an Optical Resonance Biosensor with Enzyme Activity Kinetics to Understand Protein Adsorption and Denaturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kerry A.; Finch, Craig A.; Anderson, Phillip; Vollmer, Frank; Hickman, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding protein adsorption and resultant conformation changes on modified and unmodified silicon dioxide surfaces is a subject of keen interest in biosensors, microfluidic systems and for medical diagnostics. However, it has been proven difficult to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption process on these surfaces as well as understand the topic of the denaturation of proteins and its effect on enzyme activity. A highly sensitive optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator was used to study a catalytic enzyme’s adsorption processes on different silane modified glass substrates (plain glass control, DETA, 13F, and SiPEG). The WGM sensor was able to obtain high resolution kinetic data of glucose oxidase (GO) adsorption with sensitivity of adsorption better than that possible with SPR. The kinetic data, in combination with a functional assay of the enzyme activity, was used to test hypotheses on adsorption mechanisms. By fitting numerical models to the WGM sensograms for protein adsorption, and by confirming numerical predictions of enzyme activity in a separate assay, we were able to identify mechanisms for GO adsorption on different alkylsilanes and infer information about the adsorption of protein on nanostructured surfaces. PMID:25453976

  14. Effects of chemical combinations on the parthenogenetic activation of mouse oocytes

    OpenAIRE

    HAN, BAO-SHENG; GAO, JUN-LING

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify an optimal method for the parthenogenetic activation of mouse oocytes. Ethanol (EH), strontium chloride (SrCl2) and ionomycin calcium salt were each combined with cytochalasin B to induce the parthenogenetic activation of CD-1® mouse oocytes. Among the EH combination groups, the blastocyst formation and hatching rates of the group that was activated with EH and CB for 5 min were significantly higher compared with those of the groups that were activated fo...

  15. Discursive Positionings and Emotions in Modelling Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Wajeeh

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modelling is suggested as an activity through which students engage in meaningful mathematics. In the current research, the modelling activity of a group of four seventh-grade students was analysed using the discursive analysis framework. The research findings show that the positionings and emotions of the group members during their…

  16. Students’ mathematical learning in modelling activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Blomhøj, Morten

    2013-01-01

    involved. We argue that progress in students’ conceptual learning needs to be conceptualised separately from that of progress in their modelling competency. Findings are that modelling activities open a window to the students’ images of the mathematical concepts involved; that modelling activities can......Ten years of experience with analyses of students’ learning in a modelling course for first year university students, led us to see modelling as a didactical activity with the dual goal of developing students’ modelling competency and enhancing their conceptual learning of mathematical concepts...... create and help overcome hidden cognitive conflicts in students’ understanding; that reflections within modelling can play an important role for the students’ learning of mathematics. These findings are illustrated with a modelling project concerning the world population....

  17. A Constraint Satisfaction Neural Network and Heuristic Combined Approach for Concurrent Activities Scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN JiHong(闫纪红); WU Cheng(吴澄)

    2003-01-01

    Scheduling activities in concurrent product development process is of great sig-nificance to shorten development lead time and minimize the cost. Moreover, it can eliminate theunnecessary redesign periods and guarantee that serial activities can be executed as concurrently aspossible. This paper presents a constraint satisfaction neural network and heuristic combined ap-proach for concurrent activities scheduling. In the combined approach, the neural network is usedto obtain a feasible starting time of all the activities based on sequence constraints, the heuris-tic algorithm is used to obtain a feasible solution of the scheduling problem based on resourceconstraints. The feasible scheduling solution is obtained by a gradient optimization function. Sim-ulations have shown that the proposed combined approach is efficient and feasible with respect toconcurrent activities scheduling.

  18. Preclinical Development of Ipilimumab and Nivolumab Combination Immunotherapy: Mouse Tumor Models, In Vitro Functional Studies, and Cynomolgus Macaque Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Mark J; Engelhardt, John J; Johnston, Robert J; Lu, Li-Sheng; Han, Minhua; Thudium, Kent; Yao, Dapeng; Quigley, Michael; Valle, Jose; Wang, Changyu; Chen, Bing; Cardarelli, Pina M; Blanset, Diann; Korman, Alan J

    2016-01-01

    The monoclonal antibodies ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4) and nivolumab (anti-PD-1) have shown remarkable antitumor activity in an increasing number of cancers. When combined, ipilimumab and nivolumab have demonstrated superior activity in patients with metastatic melanoma (CHECKMATE-067). Here we describe the preclinical development strategy that predicted these clinical results. Synergistic antitumor activity in mouse MC38 and CT26 colorectal tumor models was observed with concurrent, but not sequential CTLA-4 and PD-1 blockade. Significant antitumor activity was maintained using a fixed dose of anti-CTLA-4 antibody with decreasing doses of anti-PD-1 antibody in the MC38 model. Immunohistochemical and flow cytometric analyses confirmed that CD3+ T cells accumulated at the tumor margin and infiltrated the tumor mass in response to the combination therapy, resulting in favorable effector and regulatory T-cell ratios, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, and activation of tumor-specific T cells. Similarly, in vitro studies with combined ipilimumab and nivolumab showed enhanced cytokine secretion in superantigen stimulation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes and in mixed lymphocyte response assays. In a cynomolgus macaque toxicology study, dose-dependent immune-related gastrointestinal inflammation was observed with the combination therapy; this response had not been observed in previous single agent cynomolgus studies. Together, these in vitro assays and in vivo models comprise a preclinical strategy for the identification and development of highly effective antitumor combination immunotherapies. PMID:27610613

  19. Numerical Modelling of Sediment Transport in Combined Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlütter, Flemming

    A conceptual sediment transport model has been developed. Through a case study a comparison with other numerical models is performed.......A conceptual sediment transport model has been developed. Through a case study a comparison with other numerical models is performed....

  20. SOFOMORE: Combined EEG source and forward model reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlhut, Carsten; Mørup, Morten; Winther, Ole;

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new EEG source localization method that simultaneously performs source and forward model reconstruction (SOFOMORE) in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Reconstruction of the forward model is motivated by the many uncertainties involved in the forward model, including the representat......We propose a new EEG source localization method that simultaneously performs source and forward model reconstruction (SOFOMORE) in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Reconstruction of the forward model is motivated by the many uncertainties involved in the forward model, including...... the representation of the cortical surface, conductivity distribution, and electrode positions. We demonstrate in both simulated and real EEG data that reconstruction of the forward model improves localization of the underlying sources....

  1. Evaluating a Model of Youth Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods: Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a…

  2. Modelling Typical Online Language Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine; Stickler, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the methods and results of a four-year-long research project focusing on the language learning activity of individual learners using online tasks conducted at the University of Guanajuato (Mexico) in 2009-2013. An activity-theoretical model (Blin, 2010; Engeström, 1987) of the typical language learning activity was used to…

  3. Development of a Pressure-Dependent Constitutive Model with Combined Multilinear Kinematic and Isotropic Hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2003-01-01

    The development of a pressure-dependent constitutive model with combined multilinear kinematic and isotropic hardening is presented. The constitutive model is developed using the ABAQUS user material subroutine (UMAT). First the pressure-dependent plasticity model is derived. Following this, the combined bilinear and combined multilinear hardening equations are developed for von Mises plasticity theory. The hardening rule equations are then modified to include pressure dependency. The method for implementing the new constitutive model into ABAQUS is given.

  4. Antimalarial activity of Ageratum conyzoides in combination with chloroquine and artesunate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ukwe Chinwe V; Ekwunife Obinna I; Epueke Ebele A; Ubaka Chukwuemeka M

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the suppressive and curative activity of aqueous leaf extract of Ageratum conyzoides (A. conyzoides) in combination with chloroquine and artesunate, respectively against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. Methods: Using malaria (Plasmodium berghei) infected albino mice of both sexes, aqueous extracts of A. conyzoides in combination with chloroquine and artesunate were tested for antimalarial activity, respectively. Four-day suppressive test and Rane's curative test were carried out. Results: Suppressive tests showed significant dose dependent reduction in parasitemia level produced by the extract-chloroquine and extract-artesunate combinations. Suppressive activities of both extract-drug combinations were greater than the individual drugs alone. Extract-chloroquine (100:5) produced the highest suppressive effect (98% suppression). Curative tests showed absolute survival in two extract-drug combinations. Two extract-drug combinations produced higher curative effects than the individual drugs alone. The highest dose combinations of extract-chloroquine (100:5) and extract-artesunate (100:5) produced absolute parasitemia clearance (cure) in the infected mice. Conclusions: The study indicated that aqueous extract of A. conyzoides had the ability to potentiate the antimalarial activity of chloroquine and artesunate against induced plasmodiasis in mice. It contributes a lot in the malaria endemic and poverty stricken tropics.

  5. A model combining oscillations and attractor dynamics for generation of grid cell firing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Hasselmo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Different models have been able to account for different features of the data on grid cell firing properties, including the relationship of grid cells to cellular properties and network oscillations. This paper describes a model that combines elements of two major classes of models of grid cells: models using interference of oscillations and models using attractor dynamics. This model includes a population of units with oscillatory input representing input from the medial septum. These units are termed heading angle cells because their connectivity depends upon heading angle in the environment as well as the spatial phase coded by the cell. These cells project to a population of grid cells. The sum of the heading angle input results in standing waves of circularly symmetric input to the grid cell population. Feedback from the grid cell population increases the activity of subsets of the heading angle cells, resulting in the network settling into activity patterns that resemble the patterns of firing fields in a population of grid cells. The properties of heading angle cells firing as conjunctive grid-by-head-direction cells can shift the grid cell firing according to movement velocity. The pattern of interaction of oscillations requires use of separate populations that fire on alternate cycles of the net theta rhythmic input to grid cells, similar to recent neurophysiological data on theta cycle skipping in medial entorhinal cortex.

  6. Monthly water balance modeling: Probabilistic, possibilistic and hybrid methods for model combination and ensemble simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, M.; Zahraie, B.; Ajami, N. K.; Solomatine, D. P.

    2014-04-01

    Multi-model (ensemble, or committee) techniques have shown to be an effective way to improve hydrological prediction performance and provide uncertainty information. This paper presents two novel multi-model ensemble techniques, one probabilistic, Modified Bootstrap Ensemble Model (MBEM), and one possibilistic, FUzzy C-means Ensemble based on data Pattern (FUCEP). The paper also explores utilization of the Ordinary Kriging (OK) method as a multi-model combination scheme for hydrological simulation/prediction. These techniques are compared against Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) and Weighted Average (WA) methods to demonstrate their effectiveness. The mentioned techniques are applied to the three monthly water balance models used to generate stream flow simulations for two mountainous basins in the South-West of Iran. For both basins, the results demonstrate that MBEM and FUCEP generate more skillful and reliable probabilistic predictions, outperforming all the other techniques. We have also found that OK did not demonstrate any improved skill as a simple combination method over WA scheme for neither of the basins.

  7. Science Letters:Synergetic effects for p-nitrophenol abatement using a combined activated carbon adsorption-electrooxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明华; 戴启洲; 雷乐成; 汪大翚

    2004-01-01

    A novel fluidized electrochemical reactor that integrated advanced electrochemical oxidation with activated carbon (AC) fluidization in a single cell was developed to model pollutant p-nitrophenol (PNP) abatement. AC fluidization could enhance COD removal by 22%-30%. In such a combined process, synergetic effects on PNP and COD removal was found, with their removal rate being enhanced by 137.8% and 97.8%, respectively. AC could be electrochemically regenerated and reused, indicating the combined process would be promising for treatment of biorefractory organic pollutants.

  8. Integrated Combination of the Multi Hydrological Models by Applying the Least Square Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tayyab

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Different hydrological models show different outputs for specific catchment, thus combining all the models in suitable way is very important to improve the forecast. To solve the issue, researchers have applied different techniques which ranges from simple inter-comparison of different hydrological models to extended combination of hydrological models. The aim of this research is to find a suitable and applicable combination technique, by applying least square method to get more valuable flood forecasting results for the Jinshajiang River basin. The combination forecast has been compared with the results of the three models individually, based on the comparison of the simulation outputs and the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and Correlation coefficient. The result showed that the performance of combine system of three conceptual hydrological models including Xin’anjiang model, Antecedent Precipitation Index (API model and Tank model is much more reliable as compared to their individual performance.

  9. The activity model of legal psychologist

    OpenAIRE

    N.V. Bogdanovich,; V.A. Chernushevich

    2014-01-01

    We propose an activity model of legal psychologist work. As a basis for the construction of the system of legal psychologist activity, we use trajectory of teenager living in the legal field. As the main activities within their respective specializations, we highlighted prevention, maintenance and rehabilitation. We define the main activities necessary for the development within the FGOSIII specialization 050407 “Pedagogy and Psychology of deviant behavior”: general and pathopsychologic diagn...

  10. Infectious diseases among animals : combining models with data

    OpenAIRE

    de Koeijer, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    To eradicate or control the spread of infectious diseases, knowledge on the spread of the infection between (groups of) animals is necessary. Models can include such information and can subsequently be used to observe the efficacy of various control measures in fighting the infection. However, the availability of information and data to build and quantify these models is essential for applying such models in real life. In this thesis, models on the spread of infectious diseases in animals are...

  11. Spatiotemporally synchronized cancer combination therapy using photo-activated nanoparticle drug delivery systems (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-03-01

    This talk will introduce a new nanotechnology platform for cancer combination therapy that utilizes near infrared light activation not only for photodynamic damage but also as an extrinsic mechanism to initiate release of complimentary drugs to suppress dynamic bursts in molecular signaling networks that promote tumor cell survival and treatment escape. The goal is to achieve co-delivery with concomitant activity of photodynamic, molecular inhibitor and chemotherapeutic agents, selectively within the tumor. This approach overcomes challenges in achieving synergistic interactions using sequential drug delivery. Conventional drug delivery is compromised by the differential pharmacokinetics of individual agents and potentially antagonistic effects—such as vascular shutdown by one agent that limits delivery of the second. Here, photodynamic damage—which efficiently kills drug-resistant cells via damage of common proteins involved in drug-resistance (such as anti-apoptosis factors and drug-efflux transporters)—is synchronized spatially and temporally with the photo-initiated release of complimentary agents—to enable full interaction amongst the individual therapies. This spatiotemporal synchronization offers new prospects for exploiting time-sensitive synergistic interactions. Specific implementations of these concepts will be presented in preclinical models of cancer. Strategies to enable molecular-targeting of cancer cells via site-specific attachment of targeting moieties to the outer lipid shell of these nanovehicles will also be discussed. If successful in humans, this new paradigm for synchronized, tumor-focused combination therapy will ultimately supersede the present use of chronic drug injection by increasing efficacy per cycle whilst reducing systemic exposure to toxic drugs.

  12. Modelling of mass transfer in combination with radical reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, J. A. A.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2006-01-01

    The diffusion-reaction equations for different model versions have been solved using a finite-differencing technique. In all models a reactant A is transferred from the gas to the liquid phase and reacts in the liquid with B to form P. The calculations comprised a simple stoichiometric model, a syst

  13. Activity of glycopeptides in combination with amikacin or rifampin against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms on plastic catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, A; Ramirez de Arellano, E; Perea, E J

    1994-06-01

    The in vitro activity of vancomycin and teicoplanin (fourfold the MBC), alone and in combination with amikacin (16 mg/l) or rifampin (1 mg/l), against Staphylococcus epidermidis (slime-producing and non slime-producing strains) biofilms on different plastic catheters was evaluated. The addition of amikacin or rifampin significantly increased the activity of glycopeptides against sessile bacteria. With the slime-producing strain, these combinations were able to sterilize the surface of Vialon and polyvinylchloride catheters. It is concluded that the in vitro activity of glycopeptides against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms on plastic catheters can be increased by the addition of amikacin or rifampin. PMID:7957277

  14. Modelling activity transport behavior in PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activation and transport of corrosion products around a PWR circuit is a major concern to PWR plant operators as these may give rise to high personnel doses. The understanding of what controls dose rates on ex-core surfaces and shutdown releases has improved over the years but still several questions remain unanswered. For example the relative importance of particle and soluble deposition in the core to activity levels in the plant is not clear. Wide plant to plant and cycle to cycle variations are noted with no apparent explanations why such variations are observed. Over the past few years this group have been developing models to simulate corrosion product transport around a PWR circuit. These models form the basis for the latest version of the BOA code and simulate the movement of Fe and Ni around the primary circuit. Part of this development is to include the activation and subsequent transport of radioactive species around the circuit and this paper describes some initial modelling work in this area. A simple model of activation, release and deposition is described and then applied to explain the plant behaviour at Sizewell B and Vandellos II. This model accounts for activation in the core, soluble and particulate activity movement around the circuit and for activity capture ex-core on both the inner and outer oxides. The model gives a reasonable comparison with plant observations and highlights what controls activity transport in these plants and importantly what factors can be ignored. (authors)

  15. Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Keyser, W.; Gevaert, V.; Verdonck, F.;

    2009-01-01

    Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modelling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and stormwater drainage systems. However, some micropollutants have the tendency to occur in more than one...... stormwater infiltration pond scenario, as an example of a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS). A case for Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was simulated and resulted in a reduced surface water concentration for the latter scenario. However, the model also showed that this was at the expense of...

  16. Combined influence of leisure time physical activity and hip circumference on all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jane Nautrup; Grønbaek, M; Ängquist, Lars Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    Hip circumference has been shown to be inversely associated with mortality. Muscle atrophy in the gluteofemoral region may be a possible explanation and thus physical activity is likely to play an important role. We aimed to estimate the combined effects of hip circumference and physical activity...... followed to 2009 in the Danish Civil Registration System, with 1.3% loss to follow-up and 2513 deaths. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated for combinations of physical activity and hip circumference. Hip circumference was inversely associated with mortality irrespective of being physically active or not....... However, being physically active seemed to counterbalance some of the adverse health effects of a small hip circumference; when comparing inactive to active, the excess mortality at the 25(th) percentile of hip circumference is 40% in men (HR= 1.40, 95% CI: 1.14-1.72) and 33% in women (HR= 1.33, CI: 1...

  17. Combining Bayesian Networks and Agent Based Modeling to develop a decision-support model in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Bao Anh; Ertsen, Maurits; Schoups, Gerrit

    2016-04-01

    Complexity and uncertainty in natural resources management have been focus themes in recent years. Within these debates, with the aim to define an approach feasible for water management practice, we are developing an integrated conceptual modeling framework for simulating decision-making processes of citizens, in our case in the Day river area, Vietnam. The model combines Bayesian Networks (BNs) and Agent-Based Modeling (ABM). BNs are able to combine both qualitative data from consultants / experts / stakeholders, and quantitative data from observations on different phenomena or outcomes from other models. Further strengths of BNs are that the relationship between variables in the system is presented in a graphical interface, and that components of uncertainty are explicitly related to their probabilistic dependencies. A disadvantage is that BNs cannot easily identify the feedback of agents in the system once changes appear. Hence, ABM was adopted to represent the reaction among stakeholders under changes. The modeling framework is developed as an attempt to gain better understanding about citizen's behavior and factors influencing their decisions in order to reduce uncertainty in the implementation of water management policy.

  18. Activity transport models for PWR primary circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion products activated in the primary circuit form a major source of occupational radiation dose in the PWR reactors. Transport of corrosion activity is a complex process including chemistry, reactor physics, thermodynamics and hydrodynamics. All the mechanisms involved are not known and there is no comprehensive theory for the process, so experimental test loops and plant data are very important in research efforts. Several activity transport modelling attempts have been made to improve the water chemistry control and to minimise corrosion in PWR's. In this research report some of these models are reviewed with special emphasis on models designed for Soviet VVER type reactors. (51 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.)

  19. An empirical movement model for sixgill sharks in Puget Sound: Combining observed and unobserved behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Phillip S. LEVIN; Peter HORNE; Kelly S. ANDREWS; Greg WILLIAMS

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the movement of animals is fundamental to population and community ecology.Historically,it has been difficult to quantify movement patterns of most fishes,but technological advances in acoustic telemetry have increased our abilities to monitor their movement.In this study,we combined small-scale active acoustic tracking with large-scale passive acoustic monitoring to develop an empirical movement model for sixgill sharks in Puget Sound,WA,USA.We began by testing whether a correlated random walk model described the daily movement of sixgills; however,the model failed to capture home-ranging behavior.We added this behavior and used the resultant model (a biased random walk model) to determine whether daily movement patterns are able to explain large-scale seasonal movement.The daily model did not explain the larger-scale patterns of movement observed in the passive monitoring data.In order to create the large-scale patterns,sixgills must have performed behaviors (large,fast directed movements) that were unobserved during small-scale active tracking.In addition,seasonal shifts in location were not captured by the daily model.We added these ‘unobserved' behaviors to the model and were able to capture large-scale seasonal movement of sixgill sharks over 150 days.The development of empirical models of movement allows researchers to develop hypotheses and test mechanisms responsible for a species movement behavior and spatial distribution.This knowledge will increase our ability to successfully manage species of concern [Current Zoology 58 (1):103-115,2012].

  20. Model heterogeneous acid catalysts and metal-support interactions: A combined surface science and catalysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boszormenyi, I.

    1991-05-01

    This (<100 {Angstrom}) silica-alumina layers were tested as potential model heterogeneous acid catalysts for combined surface science and catalysis studies. Three preparation methods were used: oxidation of r3 {times} r3 R30 Al/Si(111) structure in UHV; deposition on Si(lll) from aqueous solution; and argon ion beam sputter deposition in UHV. The homogeneous thin layers are amorphous, and the chemical environment of surface atoms is similar to that of Si, Al and oxygen atoms on high surface area acid catalysts. Since the ion beam-deposited thin layer of silica-alumina has the same composition as the target zeolite this deposition method is a promising tool to prepare model catalysts using practical catalyst targets. The silica-alumina layers are active in cumene cracking, a typical acid catalyzed reaction. In order to clearly distinguish background reactions and the acid catalyzed reaction at least 20 cm{sup 2} catalyst surface area is needed. Two series of model platinum-alumina catalysts were prepared in a combined UHV -- high pressure reactor cell apparatus by depositing alumina on polycrystalline Pt foil and by vapor depositing Pt on a thin alumina layer on Au. Both model surfaces have been prepared with and without chlorine. AES, CO desorption as well as methyl cyclopentane (MCP) hydrogenolysis studies indicate that the Pt surface area is always higher if a chlorination step is involved. Selectivity patterns in MCP ring opening on ``Pt-on-alumina`` and on ``alumina-on-Pt`` are different; only the former is a linear combination of selective and statistical ring opening. Product distribution, however, changes with coverage and reaction time. The properties of the two model catalyst systems and role of chlorine in MCP hydrogenolysis are also discussed.

  1. Model heterogeneous acid catalysts and metal-support interactions: A combined surface science and catalysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boszormenyi, I.

    1991-05-01

    This (<100 [Angstrom]) silica-alumina layers were tested as potential model heterogeneous acid catalysts for combined surface science and catalysis studies. Three preparation methods were used: oxidation of r3 [times] r3 R30 Al/Si(111) structure in UHV; deposition on Si(lll) from aqueous solution; and argon ion beam sputter deposition in UHV. The homogeneous thin layers are amorphous, and the chemical environment of surface atoms is similar to that of Si, Al and oxygen atoms on high surface area acid catalysts. Since the ion beam-deposited thin layer of silica-alumina has the same composition as the target zeolite this deposition method is a promising tool to prepare model catalysts using practical catalyst targets. The silica-alumina layers are active in cumene cracking, a typical acid catalyzed reaction. In order to clearly distinguish background reactions and the acid catalyzed reaction at least 20 cm[sup 2] catalyst surface area is needed. Two series of model platinum-alumina catalysts were prepared in a combined UHV -- high pressure reactor cell apparatus by depositing alumina on polycrystalline Pt foil and by vapor depositing Pt on a thin alumina layer on Au. Both model surfaces have been prepared with and without chlorine. AES, CO desorption as well as methyl cyclopentane (MCP) hydrogenolysis studies indicate that the Pt surface area is always higher if a chlorination step is involved. Selectivity patterns in MCP ring opening on Pt-on-alumina'' and on alumina-on-Pt'' are different; only the former is a linear combination of selective and statistical ring opening. Product distribution, however, changes with coverage and reaction time. The properties of the two model catalyst systems and role of chlorine in MCP hydrogenolysis are also discussed.

  2. Reservoir Modeling Combining Geostatistics with Markov Chain Monte Carlo Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zunino, Andrea; Lange, Katrine; Melnikova, Yulia;

    2014-01-01

    We present a study on the inversion of seismic reflection data generated from a synthetic reservoir model. Our aim is to invert directly for rock facies and porosity of the target reservoir zone. We solve this inverse problem using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) method to handle the nonlinear......, multi-step forward model (rock physics and seismology) and to provide realistic estimates of uncertainties. To generate realistic models which represent samples of the prior distribution, and to overcome the high computational demand, we reduce the search space utilizing an algorithm drawn from...... geostatistics. The geostatistical algorithm learns the multiple-point statistics from prototype models, then generates proposal models which are tested by a Metropolis sampler. The solution of the inverse problem is finally represented by a collection of reservoir models in terms of facies and porosity, which...

  3. Combination of multispectral remote sensing, variable rate technology and environmental modeling for citrus pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qian; Chang, Ni-Bin; Yang, Chenghai; Srilakshmi, Kanth R

    2008-01-01

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of south Texas is an agriculturally rich area supporting intensive production of vegetables, fruits, grain sorghum, and cotton. Modern agricultural practices involve the combined use of irrigation with the application of large amounts of agrochemicals to maximize crop yields. Intensive agricultural activities in past decades might have caused potential contamination of soil, surface water, and groundwater due to leaching of pesticides in the vadose zone. In an effort to promote precision farming in citrus production, this paper aims at developing an airborne multispectral technique for identifying tree health problems in a citrus grove that can be combined with variable rate technology (VRT) for required pesticide application and environmental modeling for assessment of pollution prevention. An unsupervised linear unmixing method was applied to classify the image for the grove and quantify the symptom severity for appropriate infection control. The PRZM-3 model was used to estimate environmental impacts that contribute to nonpoint source pollution with and without the use of multispectral remote sensing and VRT. Research findings using site-specific environmental assessment clearly indicate that combination of remote sensing and VRT may result in benefit to the environment by reducing the nonpoint source pollution by 92.15%. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of precision farming for citrus production in the nexus of industrial ecology and agricultural sustainability.

  4. Functional copmponents produced by multi-jet modelling combined with electroforming and machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baier, Oliver

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In fuel cell technology, certain components are used that are responsible for guiding liquid media. When these components are produced by conventional manufacturing, there are often sealing issues, and trouble- and maintenance-free deployment cannot be ensured. Against this background, a new process combination has been developed in a joint project between the University of Duisburg-Essen, the Center for Fuel Cell Technology (ZBT, and the company Galvano-T electroplating forming GmbH. The approach is to combine multi-jet modelling (MJM, electroforming and milling in order to produce a defined external geometry. The wax models are generated on copper base plates and copper-coated to a desirable thickness. Following this, the undefined electroplated surfaces are machined to achieve the desired measurement, and the wax is melted out. This paper presents, first, how this process is technically feasible, then describes how the MJM on a 3-D Systems ThermoJet was adapted to stabilise the process.In the AiF-sponsored ZIM project, existing limits and possibilities are shown and different approaches of electroplating are investigated. This paper explores whether or not activation of the wax structure by a conductive initial layer is required. Using the described process chain, different parts were built: a heat exchanger, a vaporiser, and a reformer (in which pellets were integrated in an intermediate step. In addition, multiple-layer parts with different functions were built by repeating the process combination several times.

  5. Combination of multispectral remote sensing, variable rate technology and environmental modeling for citrus pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qian; Chang, Ni-Bin; Yang, Chenghai; Srilakshmi, Kanth R

    2008-01-01

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of south Texas is an agriculturally rich area supporting intensive production of vegetables, fruits, grain sorghum, and cotton. Modern agricultural practices involve the combined use of irrigation with the application of large amounts of agrochemicals to maximize crop yields. Intensive agricultural activities in past decades might have caused potential contamination of soil, surface water, and groundwater due to leaching of pesticides in the vadose zone. In an effort to promote precision farming in citrus production, this paper aims at developing an airborne multispectral technique for identifying tree health problems in a citrus grove that can be combined with variable rate technology (VRT) for required pesticide application and environmental modeling for assessment of pollution prevention. An unsupervised linear unmixing method was applied to classify the image for the grove and quantify the symptom severity for appropriate infection control. The PRZM-3 model was used to estimate environmental impacts that contribute to nonpoint source pollution with and without the use of multispectral remote sensing and VRT. Research findings using site-specific environmental assessment clearly indicate that combination of remote sensing and VRT may result in benefit to the environment by reducing the nonpoint source pollution by 92.15%. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of precision farming for citrus production in the nexus of industrial ecology and agricultural sustainability. PMID:17222960

  6. Discursive positionings and emotions in modelling activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Wajeeh

    2015-11-01

    Mathematical modelling is suggested as an activity through which students engage in meaningful mathematics. In the current research, the modelling activity of a group of four seventh-grade students was analysed using the discursive analysis framework. The research findings show that the positionings and emotions of the group members during their participation in the modelling activity changed as the activity proceeded. Overall, it can be said that three of the four group members acted as insiders, while the fourth acted as an outsider, and only, towards the end of the group's work on the activity, he acted as an insider. Moreover, the research findings point at four factors that affected the group members' positionings and emotions during the modelling activity: the member's characteristics, the member's history of learning experiences, the activity characteristics and the modelling phases. Furthermore, the different positionings of the group members in the different modelling phases were accompanied by different emotions experienced by them, where being an insider and a collaborator resulted in positive emotions, while being an outsider resulted in negative emotions.

  7. A combined BEM/FEM method for IC substrate modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrik, E.

    2006-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis was done in the context of the modeling of parasitic physical effects, like field couplings and crosstalk, that may adversely affect the functional performance of Integrated Circuits (ICs). The modeling of parasitic effects, through simulations with the resultin

  8. Multilayer pieozoelectric transducer models combined with Field II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David; Willatzen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    boundary with a polymer ring, and submerged into water. The transducer models are developed to account for any external electrical loading impedance in the driving circuit. The models are adapted to calculate the impulse surface acceleration needed by the Field II software in predicting pressure pulses at...

  9. Urban traffic noise assessment by combining measurement and model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Graafland, F.; Wessels, P.W.; Basten, T.G.H.

    2013-01-01

    A model based monitoring system is applied on a local scale in an urban area to obtain a better understanding of the traffic noise situation. The system consists of a scalable sensor network and an engineering model. A better understanding is needed to take appropriate and cost efficient measures, e

  10. Active life in old age. Combining measures of functional ability and social participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, K; Holstein, B E; Mortensen, Erik Lykke;

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a new measure of Active Life Expectancy, called Active Life Classification (ALC) in which the criterion for successful aging is a combination of good functional ability and high social participation. OBJECTIVES: 1) to describe the distribution of ALC among 75-year-old men....... SUBJECTS: A random sample of 75-year-old people who were invited to participate in the study (participation rate: 89, n = 477). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: ALC is a combination of two dichotomized variables: functional ability (dependent vs not dependent of help) and social participation (low vs. high). RESULTS...... were associated with ALC. CONCLUSIONS: It is an advantage to combine functional ability and social participation in the description of quality of life in old age, as 1) a high social participation may compensate for a poor functional ability, and vice versa, 2) the combined measure is meaningful...

  11. Multivariate Modelling of Extreme Load Combinations for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a model for estimating the joint probability distribution of two load components acting on a wind turbine blade cross section. The model addresses the problem of modelling the probability distribution of load time histories with large periodic components by dividing the signal...... into a periodic part and a perturbation term, where each part has a known probability distribution. The proposed model shows good agreement with simulated data under stationary conditions, and a design load envelope based on this model is comparable to the load envelope estimated using the standard procedure...... for determining contemporaneous loads. By defining a joint probability distribution and full return-period contours for multiple load components, the suggested procedure gives the possibility for determining the most critical loading direction in a blade cross section, or for carrying out reliability analysis...

  12. Activity-based resource capability modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Shao-wu; XU Xiao-fei; WANG Gang; SUN Xue-dong

    2008-01-01

    To analyse and optimize a enterprise process in a wide scope, an activity-based method of modeling resource capabilities is presented. It models resource capabilities by means of the same structure as an activity, that is, resource capabilities are defined by input objects, actions and output objects. A set of activity-based re-source capability modeling rules and matching rules between an activity and a resource are introduced. This method can not only be used to describe capability of manufacturing tools, but also capability of persons and applications, etc. It unifies methods of modeling capability of all kinds of resources in an enterprise and supports the optimization of the resource allocation of a process.

  13. Comparison of high-latitude thermospheric meridionalwinds II: combined FPI, radar and model Climatologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Griffin

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The climatological behaviour of the thermospheric meridional wind above Kiruna, Sweden (67.4°N, 20.4°E has been investigated for seasonal and solar cycle dependence using six different techniques, comprising both model and experimental sources. Model output from both the empirical Horizontal Wind Model (HWM (Hedin et al., 1988 and the numerical Coupled Thermosphere and Ionosphere Model (CTIM are compared to the measured behaviour at Kiruna, as a single site example. The empirical International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model is used as input to an implementation of servo theory, to provide another climatology combining empirical input with a theoretical framework. The experimental techniques have been introduced in a companion paper in this issue and provide climatologies from direct measurements, using Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPI, together with 2 separate techniques applied to the European Incoherent Scatter radar (EISCAT database to derive neutral winds. One of these techniques uses the same implementation of servo theory as has been used with the IRI model. Detailed comparisons for each season and solar activity category allow for conclusions to be drawn as to the major influences on the climatological behaviour of the wind at this latitude. Comparison of the incoherent scatter radar (ISR derived neutral winds with FPI, empirical model and numerical model winds is important to our understanding and judgement of the validity of the techniques used to derive thermospheric wind databases. The comparisons also test model performance and indicate possible reasons for differences found between the models. In turn, the conclusions point to possible improvements in their formulation. In particular it is found that the empirical models are over-reliant on mid-latitude data in their formulation, and fail to provide accurate estimates of the winds at high-latitudes.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics

  14. Verifying Snow Photochemistry Models by Combining Actinometry and UV Radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, G. J.; Simpson, W. R.

    2003-12-01

    In the past few years, experiments and modeling studies have shown that chemical processes in the snow pack may have significant impacts on the chemistry of the atmosphere. A number of these studies have suggested that solar UV radiation penetrating the snow pack is the driving force for some of these chemical processes. Owing to the need to quantify the extent of the photochemical processing in the snow pack, radiative transfer models have been developed for use in the snow pack. The goal of this study is the development and performance testing of radiative transfer models constrained with photometric measurements of UV irradiance. To test these models, we compare the modeled photolysis rates to photolysis rates measured by chemical actinometry within an artificial snow-like scattering medium. This snow analog was made by flash freezing small droplets of a dilute actinometer solution in liquid nitrogen. Radiative transfer models based on both the delta-Eddington and the DISORT methods were used. The DISORT model was TUV, developed by Lee-Taylor and Madronich. To use these models, measurements of the snow analog's optical properties are needed. The light attenuation and intensity were measured in the scattering medium using a cosine- response sensor coupled to a spectrometer by fiber optic. With these optical properties constraining the model, we can then predict photolysis rates as a function of depth within the snow analog. The veracity of the radiative transfer models in the absence of light scattering was tested using 2-nitrobenzaldehyde (NBA) as an actinometer in liquid solution. The model results were found to have good agreement with the actinometer in this control experiment. The photolysis rate of NBA with respect to depth was measured from the conversion of the NBA to 2-nitrosobenzoic acid. The snow analog was irradiated with a UV light source. After exposure, samples of the snow analog were collected with respect to depth and the conversion of the

  15. Triple combination of amantadine, ribavirin, and oseltamivir is highly active and synergistic against drug resistant influenza virus strains in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack T Nguyen

    Full Text Available The rapid emergence and subsequent spread of the novel 2009 Influenza A/H1N1 virus (2009 H1N1 has prompted the World Health Organization to declare the first pandemic of the 21st century, highlighting the threat of influenza to public health and healthcare systems. Widespread resistance to both classes of influenza antivirals (adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors occurs in both pandemic and seasonal viruses, rendering these drugs to be of marginal utility in the treatment modality. Worldwide, virtually all 2009 H1N1 and seasonal H3N2 strains are resistant to the adamantanes (rimantadine and amantadine, and the majority of seasonal H1N1 strains are resistant to oseltamivir, the most widely prescribed neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI. To address the need for more effective therapy, we evaluated the in vitro activity of a triple combination antiviral drug (TCAD regimen composed of drugs with different mechanisms of action against drug-resistant seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses. Amantadine, ribavirin, and oseltamivir, alone and in combination, were tested against amantadine- and oseltamivir-resistant influenza A viruses using an in vitro infection model in MDCK cells. Our data show that the triple combination was highly synergistic against drug-resistant viruses, and the synergy of the triple combination was significantly greater than the synergy of any double combination tested (P<0.05, including the combination of two NAIs. Surprisingly, amantadine and oseltamivir contributed to the antiviral activity of the TCAD regimen against amantadine- and oseltamivir-resistant viruses, respectively, at concentrations where they had no activity as single agents, and at concentrations that were clinically achievable. Our data demonstrate that the TCAD regimen composed of amantadine, ribavirin, and oseltamivir is highly synergistic against resistant viruses, including 2009 H1N1. The TCAD regimen overcomes baseline drug resistance to both classes of

  16. PATTERNS OF ACTIVITY IN A GLOBAL MODEL OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, S. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Viall, N. M., E-mail: stephen.bradshaw@rice.edu, E-mail: Nicholeen.M.Viall@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    In this work we investigate the global activity patterns predicted from a model active region heated by distributions of nanoflares that have a range of frequencies. What differs is the average frequency of the distributions. The activity patterns are manifested in time lag maps of narrow-band instrument channel pairs. We combine hydrodynamic and forward modeling codes with a magnetic field extrapolation to create a model active region and apply the time lag method to synthetic observations. Our aim is not to reproduce a particular set of observations in detail, but to recover some typical properties and patterns observed in active regions. Our key findings are the following. (1) Cooling dominates the time lag signature and the time lags between the channel pairs are generally consistent with observed values. (2) Shorter coronal loops in the core cool more quickly than longer loops at the periphery. (3) All channel pairs show zero time lag when the line of sight passes through coronal loop footpoints. (4) There is strong evidence that plasma must be re-energized on a timescale comparable to the cooling timescale to reproduce the observed coronal activity, but it is likely that a relatively broad spectrum of heating frequencies are operating across active regions. (5) Due to their highly dynamic nature, we find nanoflare trains produce zero time lags along entire flux tubes in our model active region that are seen between the same channel pairs in observed active regions.

  17. Activity and interactions of antibiotic and phytochemical combinations against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premkumar Jayaraman, Meena K Sakharkar, Chu Sing Lim, Thean Hock Tang, Kishore R. Sakharkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the in vitro activities of seven antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, tetracycline, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, polymyxin B and piperacillin and six phytochemicals (protocatechuic acid, gallic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, berberine and myricetin against five P. aeruginosa isolates, alone and in combination are evaluated. All the phytochemicals under investigation demonstrate potential inhibitory activity against P. aeruginosa. The combinations of sulfamethoxazole plus protocatechuic acid, sulfamethoxazole plus ellagic acid, sulfamethoxazole plus gallic acid and tetracycline plus gallic acid show synergistic mode of interaction. However, the combinations of sulfamethoxazole plus myricetin shows synergism for three strains (PA01, DB5218 and DR3062. The synergistic combinations are further evaluated for their bactericidal activity against P. aeruginosa ATCC strain using time-kill method. Sub-inhibitory dose responses of antibiotics and phytochemicals individually and in combination are presented along with their interaction network to suggest on the mechanism of action and potential targets for the phytochemicals under investigation. The identified synergistic combinations can be of potent therapeutic value against P. aeruginosa infections. These findings have potential implications in delaying the development of resistance as the antibacterial effect is achieved with lower concentrations of both drugs (antibiotics and phytochemicals.

  18. A Combined Statistical-Microstructural Model for Simulation of Sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRAGINSKY,MICHAEL V.; DEHOFF,ROBERT T.; OLEVSKY,EUGENE A.; TIKARE,VEENA

    1999-10-22

    Sintering theory has been developed either as the application of complex diffusion mechanisms to a simple geometry or as the deformation and shrinkage of a continuum body. They present a model that can treat in detail both the evolution of microstructure and the sintering mechanisms, on the mesoscale, so that constitutive equations with detail microstructural information can be generated. The model is capable of simulating vacancy diffusion by grain boundary diffusion, annihilation of vacancies at grain boundaries resulting in densification, and coarsening of the microstructural features. In this paper, they review the stereological theory of sintering and its application to microstructural evolution and the diffusion mechanism, which lead to sintering. They then demonstrate how these stereological concepts and diffusion mechanisms were incorporated into a kinetic Monte Carlo model to simulate sintering. Finally, they discuss the limitations of this model.

  19. A void coalescence model for combined tension and shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, C.; Chen, Z. T.

    2009-03-01

    The influence of shear loading on damage development in Gurson-based models has long been neglected resulting in inadequate fracture strain predictions at low triaxiality where shear effects become significant. The plastic limit-load fracture criterion used in advanced Gurson models neglects the influence of shear loading and overestimates the fracture strain and porosity at low triaxiality. In this paper, we extend the recently proposed shear damage model of Xue [1] to provide a stronger physical foundation by removing the simplifying assumptions. Then we directly modify the plastic limit-load fracture criterion by coupling with the extended shear damage model to account for shear weakening and failure of the intervoid ligament in void coalescence. We apply the modified plastic limit-load criterion to predict the necking of sheet tensile specimens and find very good agreement with the available experimental results.

  20. Formulation of a Combined Transportation and Inventory Optimization Model with Multiple Time Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Krishnakumari,

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Most distribution network design models existing in the literature have focused on minimizing the costs of inventory and transportation. During the analysis of supply chain of currency management problem it is observed that the transportation of currency from various sources to various destinations and the required inventory to be maintained to meet the emerging demands requires formulation of a combined problem. This framework aims to support the coordination of inventory and transportation activities to properly manage the inventory profiles and currency flows between source locations and distribution centers. This paper considers a multi-period inventory and transportation model for a single commodity. The key contribution of this paper is, a mathematical programming formulation of transportation cum inventory problem is proposed and an algorithm for this new formulation as a multi period decision process is intended. A numerical example of currency transportation cum inventory is presented to illustrate the proposed algorithm

  1. Modelling Odor Decoding in the Antennal Lobe by Combining Sequential Firing Rate Models with Bayesian Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas Rivera, Dario; Bitzer, Sebastian; Kiebel, Stefan J

    2015-10-01

    The olfactory information that is received by the insect brain is encoded in the form of spatiotemporal patterns in the projection neurons of the antennal lobe. These dense and overlapping patterns are transformed into a sparse code in Kenyon cells in the mushroom body. Although it is clear that this sparse code is the basis for rapid categorization of odors, it is yet unclear how the sparse code in Kenyon cells is computed and what information it represents. Here we show that this computation can be modeled by sequential firing rate patterns using Lotka-Volterra equations and Bayesian online inference. This new model can be understood as an 'intelligent coincidence detector', which robustly and dynamically encodes the presence of specific odor features. We found that the model is able to qualitatively reproduce experimentally observed activity in both the projection neurons and the Kenyon cells. In particular, the model explains mechanistically how sparse activity in the Kenyon cells arises from the dense code in the projection neurons. The odor classification performance of the model proved to be robust against noise and time jitter in the observed input sequences. As in recent experimental results, we found that recognition of an odor happened very early during stimulus presentation in the model. Critically, by using the model, we found surprising but simple computational explanations for several experimental phenomena. PMID:26451888

  2. Modelling Odor Decoding in the Antennal Lobe by Combining Sequential Firing Rate Models with Bayesian Inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Cuevas Rivera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory information that is received by the insect brain is encoded in the form of spatiotemporal patterns in the projection neurons of the antennal lobe. These dense and overlapping patterns are transformed into a sparse code in Kenyon cells in the mushroom body. Although it is clear that this sparse code is the basis for rapid categorization of odors, it is yet unclear how the sparse code in Kenyon cells is computed and what information it represents. Here we show that this computation can be modeled by sequential firing rate patterns using Lotka-Volterra equations and Bayesian online inference. This new model can be understood as an 'intelligent coincidence detector', which robustly and dynamically encodes the presence of specific odor features. We found that the model is able to qualitatively reproduce experimentally observed activity in both the projection neurons and the Kenyon cells. In particular, the model explains mechanistically how sparse activity in the Kenyon cells arises from the dense code in the projection neurons. The odor classification performance of the model proved to be robust against noise and time jitter in the observed input sequences. As in recent experimental results, we found that recognition of an odor happened very early during stimulus presentation in the model. Critically, by using the model, we found surprising but simple computational explanations for several experimental phenomena.

  3. Modelling Odor Decoding in the Antennal Lobe by Combining Sequential Firing Rate Models with Bayesian Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas Rivera, Dario; Bitzer, Sebastian; Kiebel, Stefan J.

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory information that is received by the insect brain is encoded in the form of spatiotemporal patterns in the projection neurons of the antennal lobe. These dense and overlapping patterns are transformed into a sparse code in Kenyon cells in the mushroom body. Although it is clear that this sparse code is the basis for rapid categorization of odors, it is yet unclear how the sparse code in Kenyon cells is computed and what information it represents. Here we show that this computation can be modeled by sequential firing rate patterns using Lotka-Volterra equations and Bayesian online inference. This new model can be understood as an ‘intelligent coincidence detector’, which robustly and dynamically encodes the presence of specific odor features. We found that the model is able to qualitatively reproduce experimentally observed activity in both the projection neurons and the Kenyon cells. In particular, the model explains mechanistically how sparse activity in the Kenyon cells arises from the dense code in the projection neurons. The odor classification performance of the model proved to be robust against noise and time jitter in the observed input sequences. As in recent experimental results, we found that recognition of an odor happened very early during stimulus presentation in the model. Critically, by using the model, we found surprising but simple computational explanations for several experimental phenomena. PMID:26451888

  4. Simulation and Analysis of a Combined Mobility Model with Obstacles

    OpenAIRE

    Pecchia, Emiliano; Erman, David; Popescu, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    The use of simulations have become increasingly frequent in the study and the performance evaluation of network systems. The simulation environment deeply influences the behavior of results, so a model that simulates a realistic movement of the nodes is necessary for the study of wireless networks. Simple mobility models do not provide realistic scenarios. Often movements are completely random, uncorrelated and in open space, without the chance of considering the effects of obstacles or rules...

  5. Local Inflammation in Fracture Hematoma: Results from a Combined Trauma Model in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Horst

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous studies showed significant interaction between the local and systemic inflammatory response after severe trauma in small animal models. The purpose of this study was to establish a new combined trauma model in pigs to investigate fracture-associated local inflammation and gain information about the early inflammatory stages after polytrauma. Material and Methods. Combined trauma consisted of tibial fracture, lung contusion, liver laceration, and controlled hemorrhage. Animals were mechanically ventilated and under ICU-monitoring for 48 h. Blood and fracture hematoma samples were collected during the time course of the study. Local and systemic levels of serum cytokines and diverse alarmins were measured by ELISA kit. Results. A statistical significant difference in the systemic serum values of IL-6 and HMGB1 was observed when compared to the sham. Moreover, there was a statistical significant difference in the serum values of the fracture hematoma of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and HMGB1 when compared to the systemic inflammatory response. However a decrease of local proinflammatory concentrations was observed while anti-inflammatory mediators increased. Conclusion. Our data showed a time-dependent activation of the local and systemic inflammatory response. Indeed it is the first study focusing on the local and systemic inflammatory response to multiple-trauma in a large animal model.

  6. Combining the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900 with histone deacetylase inhibitors enhances antitumor activity in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of solid tumors. While most studies have focused on the reexpression of silenced tumor suppressor genes, a number of genes/pathways are downregulated by HDACIs. This provides opportunities for combination therapy: agents that further disable these pathways through inhibition of residual gene function are speculated to enhance cell death in combination with HDACIs. A previous study from our group indicated that mitotic checkpoint kinases such as PLK1 and Aurora A are downregulated by HDACIs. We used in vitro and in vivo xenograft models of prostate cancer (PCA) to test whether combination of HDACIs with the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900 can synergistically or additively kill PCA cells. AMG 900 and HDACIs synergistically decreased cell proliferation activity and clonogenic survival in DU-145, LNCaP, and PC3 PCA cell lines compared to single-agent treatment. Cellular senescence, polyploidy, and apoptosis was significantly increased in all cell lines after combination treatment. In vivo xenograft studies indicated decreased tumor growth and decreased aurora B kinase activity in mice treated with low-dose AMG 900 and vorinostat compared to either agent alone. Pharmacodynamics was assessed by scoring for phosphorylated histone H3 through immunofluorescence. Our results indicate that combination treatment with low doses of AMG 900 and HDACIs could be a promising therapy for future clinical trials against PCA

  7. Does birth weight influence physical activity in youth? A combined analysis of four studies using objectively measured physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridgway, Charlotte L; Brage, Søren; Sharp, Stephen J;

    2011-01-01

    activity and sedentary time. This study uses combined analysis of three European cohorts and one from South America (n = 4,170). Birth weight was measured or parentally reported. Height and weight were measured and used to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). PA was objectively measured using accelerometry...

  8. Learning models of activities involving interacting objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Hamilton, Howard J.;

    2013-01-01

    We propose the LEMAIO multi-layer framework, which makes use of hierarchical abstraction to learn models for activities involving multiple interacting objects from time sequences of data concerning the individual objects. Experiments in the sea navigation domain yielded learned models that were t...

  9. Reducing hydrologic model uncertainty in monthly streamflow predictions using multimodel combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihua; Sankarasubramanian, A.

    2012-12-01

    Model errors are inevitable in any prediction exercise. One approach that is currently gaining attention in reducing model errors is by combining multiple models to develop improved predictions. The rationale behind this approach primarily lies on the premise that optimal weights could be derived for each model so that the developed multimodel predictions will result in improved predictions. A new dynamic approach (MM-1) to combine multiple hydrological models by evaluating their performance/skill contingent on the predictor state is proposed. We combine two hydrological models, "abcd" model and variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model, to develop multimodel streamflow predictions. To quantify precisely under what conditions the multimodel combination results in improved predictions, we compare multimodel scheme MM-1 with optimal model combination scheme (MM-O) by employing them in predicting the streamflow generated from a known hydrologic model (abcd model orVICmodel) with heteroscedastic error variance as well as from a hydrologic model that exhibits different structure than that of the candidate models (i.e., "abcd" model or VIC model). Results from the study show that streamflow estimated from single models performed better than multimodels under almost no measurement error. However, under increased measurement errors and model structural misspecification, both multimodel schemes (MM-1 and MM-O) consistently performed better than the single model prediction. Overall, MM-1 performs better than MM-O in predicting the monthly flow values as well as in predicting extreme monthly flows. Comparison of the weights obtained from each candidate model reveals that as measurement errors increase, MM-1 assigns weights equally for all the models, whereas MM-O assigns higher weights for always the best-performing candidate model under the calibration period. Applying the multimodel algorithms for predicting streamflows over four different sites revealed that MM-1 performs

  10. Explorations in combining cognitive models of individuals and system dynamics models of groups.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.

    2008-07-01

    This report documents a demonstration model of interacting insurgent leadership, military leadership, government leadership, and societal dynamics under a variety of interventions. The primary focus of the work is the portrayal of a token societal model that responds to leadership activities. The model also includes a linkage between leadership and society that implicitly represents the leadership subordinates as they directly interact with the population. The societal model is meant to demonstrate the efficacy and viability of using System Dynamics (SD) methods to simulate populations and that these can then connect to cognitive models depicting individuals. SD models typically focus on average behavior and thus have limited applicability to describe small groups or individuals. On the other hand, cognitive models readily describe individual behavior but can become cumbersome when used to describe populations. Realistic security situations are invariably a mix of individual and population dynamics. Therefore, the ability to tie SD models to cognitive models provides a critical capability that would be otherwise be unavailable.

  11. Modelling the Active Hearing Process in Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Daniele; Homer, Martin; Jackson, Joe; Robert, Daniel; Champneys, Alan

    2011-11-01

    A simple microscopic mechanistic model is described of the active amplification within the Johnston's organ of the mosquito species Toxorhynchites brevipalpis. The model is based on the description of the antenna as a forced-damped oscillator coupled to a set of active threads (ensembles of scolopidia) that provide an impulsive force when they twitch. This twitching is in turn controlled by channels that are opened and closed if the antennal oscillation reaches a critical amplitude. The model matches both qualitatively and quantitatively with recent experiments. New results are presented using mathematical homogenization techniques to derive a mesoscopic model as a simple oscillator with nonlinear force and damping characteristics. It is shown how the results from this new model closely resemble those from the microscopic model as the number of threads approach physiologically correct values.

  12. Daily reservoir inflow forecasting combining QPF into ANNs model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Daily reservoir inflow predictions with lead-times of several days are essential to the operational planning and scheduling of hydroelectric power system. The demand for quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF is increasing in hydropower operation with the dramatic advances in the numerical weather prediction (NWP models. This paper presents a simple and an effective algorithm for daily reservoir inflow predictions which solicits the observed precipitation, forecasted precipitation from QPF as predictors and discharges in following 1 to 6 days as predicted targets for multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks (MLP-ANNs modeling. An improved error back-propagation algorithm with self-adaptive learning rate and self-adaptive momentum coefficient is used to make the supervised training procedure more efficient in both time saving and search optimization. Several commonly used error measures are employed to evaluate the performance of the proposed model and the results, compared with that of ARIMA model, show that the proposed model is capable of obtaining satisfactory forecasting not only in goodness of fit but also in generalization. Furthermore, the presented algorithm is integrated into a practical software system which has been severed for daily inflow predictions with lead-times varying from 1 to 6 days of more than twenty reservoirs operated by the Fujian Province Grid Company, China.

  13. Application of Active Contour Model in Tracking Sequential Nearshore Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Hung HSIAO; Min-Chih HUANG

    2009-01-01

    In the present study,a generalized active contour model of gradient vector flow is combined with the video techniques of Argus system to delineate and track sequential nearshore wave crest profdes in the shoaling process,up to their breaking on the shorehne.Previous applications of active contour models to water wave problems are limited to controllable wave tank experiments.By contrast,our application in this study is in a nearshore field environment where oblique images obtained under natural and varying condition of ambient light are employed.Existing Argus techniques produce plane image data or time series data from a selected small subset of discrete pixels.By contrast,the active contour model produces line image data along continuous visible curves such as wave crest profdes.The combination of these two existing techniques,the active contour model and Argus methodologies,facilitates the estimates of the direction wave field and phase speeds within the whole area covered by camera.These estimates are useful for the purpose of inverse calculation of the water depth.Applications of the present techniques to Hsi-tzu bay where a beach restoration program is currently undertaken are illustrated.This extension of Argus video techniques provides new application of optical remote sensing to study the hydrodynamics and morphology of a nearshore environment.

  14. Traditional, Cyber and Combined Bullying Roles: Differences in Risky Online and Offline Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wachs

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study (1 reports frequency rates of mutually exclusive traditional, cyber and combined (both traditional and cyber bullying roles; and (2 investigates whether adolescents belonging to particular bullying roles show higher levels of involvement in risky online activities (Compulsive Internet Use (CIU, online grooming victimization, and sexting and risky offline activities (bad behavior in school, drinking alcohol and truancy than non-involved adolescents. The sample comprised self-reports of 1928 German, Dutch and Thai adolescents (Age = 12–18; M = 14.52; SD = 1.6. The results revealed age, sex and country differences in bullying frequency rates. CIU, sending of sexts and risky offline activities were most strongly associated with combined bully-victims. The receiving of sexts was most strongly associated with combined bullies; and online grooming victimization was most strongly related to cyber bully-victims. Another important finding is that the associations between risky offline activities and combined bullying are stronger than for traditional and cyber bullying. The findings contribute to better understanding of the associations between varying bullying roles and risky online and offline activities among adolescents. In sum, the results underscore the need to promote life skills rather than adopting more conventional approaches, which focus almost exclusively on reduction of risks.

  15. COMBINING SCENE MODEL AND FUSION FOR NIGHT VIDEO ENHANCEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jing; Yang Tao; Pan Quan; Cheng Yongmei

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a video context enhancement method for night surveillance. The basic idea is to extract and fuse the meaningful information of video sequence captured from a fixed camera under different illuminations. A unique characteristic of the algorithm is to separate the image context into two classes and estimate them in different ways. One class contains basic surrounding scene information and scene model, which is obtained via background modeling and object tracking in daytime video sequence. The other class is extracted from nighttime video, including frequently moving region, high illumination region and high gradient region. The scene model and pixel-wise difference method are used to segment the three regions. A shift-invariant discrete wavelet based image fusion technique is used to integral all those context information in the final result. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed approach can provide much more details and meaningful information for nighttime video.

  16. Models of fragmentation phenomena based on the symmetric group Sn and combinational analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various models for fragmentation phenomena are developed using methods from permutation groups and combinational analysis. The appearance and properties of power laws in these models are discussed. Various exactly soluble cases are studied

  17. The Combination Forecasting Model of Grain Production Based on Stepwise Regression Method and RBF Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Yang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the accuracy of grain production forecasting, this study proposed a new combination forecasting model, the model combined stepwise regression method with RBF neural network by assigning proper weights using inverse variance method. By comparing different criteria, the result indicates that the combination forecasting model is superior to other models. The performance of the models is measured using three types of error measurement, which are Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE, Theil Inequality Coefficient (Theil IC and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE. The model with smallest value of MAPE, Theil IC and RMSE stands out to be the best model in predicting the grain production. Based on the MAPE, Theil IC and RMSE evaluation criteria, the combination model can reduce the forecasting error and has high prediction accuracy in grain production forecasting, making the decision more scientific and rational.

  18. Combined drug and surgery treatment of plutonium-contaminated wounds: indications obtained using a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Nina M; Coudert, Sylvie; Wilk, Jean Claude; Renault, Daniel; Angulo, Jaime F; Van der Meeren, Anne

    2014-06-01

    There is an important requirement following accidental actinide contamination of wounds to limit the dissemination and retention of such alpha-emitting radionuclides. To reduce wound and systemic contamination, treatment approaches include chelation therapy with or without wound excision. However, it has been hypothesized that wound excision could lead to increased contaminant release and systemic organ retention. This study in the rat addresses this question. Anesthetized rats were contaminated with plutonium nitrate following wounding by deep incision of hind leg muscle. Excision of tissue at the contaminated site was performed 7 d later with or without Diethylene Triamine Pentaacetic Acid (DTPA) treatment (30 μmol kg⁻¹ i.v.). Pu urinary excretion was then measured for a further 3 d, and animals were euthanized at 14 d after contamination. Tissue samples were evaluated for Pu activity and histology. At 7 d after contamination, around 50% of the initial activity remained at the wound site. An average of 16% of this activity was then removed by surgery. Surgery alone resulted in increased urinary excretion, suggesting release from the wound site, but no subsequent increases in organ retention (bone, liver) were observed at 14 d. Indeed, organ Pu activity was slightly reduced. The combination of surgery and DTPA or DTPA treatment alone was much more effective than excision alone as shown by the markedly increased urinary Pu excretion and decreased tissue levels. This is the first report in an experimental rodent model of resection of Pu-contaminated wound. Urinary excretion data provide evidence for the release of activity as a result of surgery, but this does not appear to lead to further Pu organ retention. However, a combination of prior DTPA treatment with wound excision is particularly effective.

  19. Comparing Bayesian models for multisensory cue combination without mandatory integration

    OpenAIRE

    Beierholm, Ulrik R.; Shams, Ladan; Kording, Konrad P; Ma, Wei Ji

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian models of multisensory perception traditionally address the problem of estimating an underlying variable that is assumed to be the cause of the two sensory signals. The brain, however, has to solve a more general problem: it also has to establish which signals come from the same source and should be integrated, and which ones do not and should be segregated. In the last couple of years, a few models have been proposed to solve this problem in a Bayesian fashion. One of these ha...

  20. Combined TLR2/4-activated dendritic/tumor cell fusions induce augmented cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeo Koido

    Full Text Available Induction of antitumor immunity by dendritic cell (DC-tumor fusion cells (DC/tumor can be modulated by their activation status. In this study, to address optimal status of DC/tumor to induce efficient antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs, we have created various types of DC/tumor: 1 un-activated DC/tumor; 2 penicillin-killed Streptococcus pyogenes (OK-432; TLR4 agonist-activated DC/tumor; 3 protein-bound polysaccharides isolated from Coriolus versicolor (PSK; TLR2 agonist-activated DC/tumor; and 4 Combined OK-432- and PSK-activated DC/tumor. Moreover, we assessed the effects of TGF-β1 derived from DC/tumor on the induction of MUC1-specific CTLs. Combined TLR2- and TLR4-activated DC/tumor overcame immune-suppressive effect of TGF-β1 in comparison to those single activated or un-activated DC/tumor as demonstrated by: 1 up-regulation of MHC class II and CD86 expression on DC/tumor; 2 increased fusion efficiency; 3 increased production of fusions derived IL-12p70; 4 activation of CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells that produce high levels of IFN-γ; 5 augmented induction of CTL activity specific for MUC1; and 6 superior efficacy in inhibiting CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+ T cell generation. However, DC/tumor-derived TGF-β1 reduced the efficacy of DC/tumor vaccine in vitro. Incorporating combined TLRs-activation and TGF-β1-blockade of DC/tumor may enhance the effectiveness of DC/tumor-based cancer vaccines and have the potential applicability to the field of adoptive immunotherapy.

  1. Active Gel Model of Amoeboid Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Callan-Jones, A C

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model of amoeboid cell motility based on active gel theory. Modeling the motile apparatus of a eukaryotic cell as a confined layer of finite length of poroelastic active gel permeated by a solvent, we first show that, due to active stress and gel turnover, an initially static and homogeneous layer can undergo a contractile-type instability to a polarized moving state in which the rear is enriched in gel polymer. This agrees qualitatively with motile cells containing an actomyosin-rich uropod at their rear. We find that the gel layer settles into a steadily moving, inhomogeneous state at long times, sustained by a balance between contractility and filament turnover. In addition, our model predicts an optimal value of the gel-susbstrate adhesion leading to maximum layer speed, in agreement with cell motility assays. The model may be relevant to motility of cells translocating in complex, confining environments that can be mimicked experimentally by cell migration through microchannels.

  2. Infectious diseases among animals : combining models with data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijer, A.A. de

    2003-01-01

    To eradicate or control the spread of infectious diseases, knowledge on the spread of the infection between (groups of) animals is necessary. Models can include such information and can subsequently be used to observe the efficacy of various control measures in fighting the infection. However, the a

  3. Multilayer piezoelectric transducer models combined with Field II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David; Willatzen, Morten; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-01-01

    One-dimensional and three-dimensional axisymmetric transducer model have been compared to determine their feasibility to predict the volt-to-surface impulse response of a circular Pz27 piezoceramic disc. The ceramic is assumed mounted with silver electrodes, bounded at the outer circular boundary...

  4. Combining candidate and document models for expert search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Balog; M. de Rijke

    2008-01-01

    We describe our participation in the TREC 2008 Enterprise track and detail our language modeling-based approaches. For document search, our focus was on query expansion using profiles of top ranked experts and on document priors. We found that these techniques result in small, but noticeable improve

  5. Efficient Bayesian Estimation and Combination of GARCH-Type Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. David (David); L.F. Hoogerheide (Lennart)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper proposes an up-to-date review of estimation strategies available for the Bayesian inference of GARCH-type models. The emphasis is put on a novel efficient procedure named AdMitIS. The methodology automatically constructs a mixture of Student-t distributions as an approximation

  6. Modeling of Activated Sludge Floc Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim H. Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: The activated sludge system needs to improve the operational performance and to achieve more effective control. To realize this, a better quantitative understanding of the biofloc characteristics is required. The objectives of this study were to: (i Study the biofloc characteristics from kinetics-mass transfer interaction point of view by quantification of the weight of the aerobic portion of the activated sludge floc to the total floc weight. (ii Study the effect of bulk concentrations of oxygen and nitrates, power input and substrates diffusivity on the portion aerobic portion of the floc. Approach: An appropriate mathematical model based on heterogeneous modeling is developed for activated sludge flocs. The model was taking into account three growth processes: Carbon oxidation, nitrification and de-nitrification in terms of four components: substrate, nitrate, ammonia, and oxygen. The model accounts for the internal and external mass transfer limitations and relates the external mass transfer resistance with power input. The floc model equations were two- point boundary value differential equations. Therefore a central finite difference method is employed. Results: The percentage aerobic portion increased with increasing with oxygen bulk concentrations and power input and decreases when the bulk concentration of ammonia and substrate increases. Both will compete to consume the internal oxygen by autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria through aerobic growth processes. The biofloc activity through the profiles was either totally active or partially active. The totally active biofloc is either totally aerobic or aerobic and anoxic together. Conclusions: The heterogeneous floc model was able to describe the biofloc characteristics and reflects the real phenomena existing in the activated sludge processes.

  7. Conditioned Reinforcement and Locomotor Activating Effects of Caffeine and Ethanol Combinations in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Megan L.T. Hilbert; May, Christina E.; Griffin, William C.

    2013-01-01

    A growing trend among ethanol drinkers, especially young adults, is to combine caffeinated energy drinks with ethanol during a drinking episode. The primary active ingredient of these mixers is caffeine, which may significantly interact with ethanol. We tested the two hypotheses that caffeine would enhance ethanol-conditioned place preference and also enhance ethanol-stimulated locomotor activity. The interactive pharmacology of ethanol and caffeine was examined in C57BL/6J (B6) mice in a con...

  8. Feature extraction and recognition of epileptiform activity in EEG by combining PCA with ApEn

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chunmei; Zou, Junzhong; Zhang, Jian; WANG Min; Wang, Rubin

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for feature extraction and recognition of epileptiform activity in EEG signals. The method improves feature extraction speed of epileptiform activity without reducing recognition rate. Firstly, Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to the original EEG for dimension reduction and to the decorrelation of epileptic EEG and normal EEG. Then discrete wavelet transform (DWT) combined with approximate entropy (ApEn) is performed on epileptic EEG and normal EE...

  9. In vitro activity of moxalactam alone and in combination with penicillin against common meningeal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, P H; Dunphy, M G

    1982-03-01

    Moxalactam demonstrated marked activity against beta-lactamase-positive and -negative Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis by both standard minimal inhibitory concentration testing and growth curve studies. Moxalactam was ineffective against S. pneumoniae partially susceptible to penicillin G. Moxalactam (5 micrograms/ml) and penicillin (1 microgram/ml) in combination were indifferent to each other's antibacterial activity, exerting neither synergism nor antagonism against these organisms.

  10. Combined treatment of retting flax wastewater using Fenton oxidation and granular activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohair I. Abou-Elela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The process of retting flax produces a huge amount of wastewater which is characterized with bad unpleasant smell and high concentration of organic materials. Treatment of such waste had always been difficult because of the presence of refractory organic pollutants such as lignin. In this study, treatment of retting wastewater was carried out using combined system of Fenton oxidation process followed by adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC. The effects of operating condition on Fenton oxidation process such as hydrogen peroxide and iron concentration were investigated. In addition, kinetic study of the adsorption process was elaborated. The obtained results indicated that degradation of organic matters follows a pseudo-first order reaction with regression coefficient of 0.98. The kinetic model suggested that the rate of reaction was highly affected by the concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, the results indicated that the treatment module was very efficient in removing the organic and inorganic pollutants. The average percentage removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solid (TSS, oil, and grease was 98.60%, 86.60%, and 94.22% with residual values of 44, 20, and 5 mg/L, respectively. The treated effluent was complying with the National Regulatory Standards for wastewater discharge into surface water or reuse in the retting process.

  11. The combined effects of atrazine and lead (Pb): relative microbial activities and herbicide dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qinglin; Wang, Hui; Yang, Baoshan; He, Fei

    2014-04-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of single and combined pollution from different concentrations of atrazine (field rate, FR, 2.0 mg kg(-1) and 5 times FR, 10 mg kg(-1)) and lead (Pb) (300 mg kg(-1) and 600 mg kg(-1)) on enzyme activity, basal soil respiration (BSR), and net nitrogen (N) mineralization (NNM) in soil after exposure for 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. In addition, residual atrazine was measured in the samples of combined contamination. Results showed that the notable effects of either or both contaminants on the microbial activity and biological processes. Enzyme activity data demonstrated that the order of sensitivity to contamination was urease>invertase>catalase. BSR was strongly stimulated by atrazine/Pb at the early exposure (0-7 days for single contaminant and 7-14 days for combined contaminants). The stimulation effects on BSR were higher at low concentrations of the contamination (FR and Pb300). The combined treatments of 5FR+Pb600 inhibit BSR and NNM. Overall, the parameters associated with N cycling (urease and NNM) were more sensitive than others. Both Pb concentrations (300 and 600 mg/kg) had little influence on the dissipation of high concentrations of atrazine (5FR) during the 28-day-incubation. This study has provided useful information on potential ecotoxicology effects of combined contamination of atrazine and Pb on relative microbial biological process.

  12. Combined effects of cadmium and butachlor on soil enzyme activities and microbial community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhua; Lu, Yitong; Shen, Guoqing

    2007-02-01

    The combined effects of cadmium (Cd, 10 mg/kg of soil) and butachlor (5, 10 and 50 mg/kg of soil) on enzyme activities and microbial community structure were assessed in phaeozem soil. The result showed that phosphatase activities were decreased in soils with Cd (10 mg/kg of soil) alone whereas urease acitivities were unaffected by Cd. Urease and phosphatase activities were significantly reduced by high butachlor concentration (50 mg/kg of soil). When Cd and butachlor concentrations in soils were added at milligram ratio of 2:1 or 1:2, urease and phosphatase activities were decreased, while enzyme activities were greatly improved at the ratio of 1:5. This study indicates that the combined effects of Cd and butachlor on soil urease and phosphatase activities depend largely on the addition concentration ratios to soils. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis showed that the changes occurring in RAPD profiles of different treated samples included variation in loss of normal bands and appearance of new bands compared with the control soil. The RAPD fingerprints showed substantial differences between the control and treated soil samples, with apparent changes in the number and size of amplified DNA fragments. The results showed that the addition of high concentration butachlor and the combined applied Cd and butachlor significantly affected the diversity of microbial community. The present results suggest that RAPD analysis in conjunction with other biomarkers such as soil enzyme parameter etc. would prove a powerful ecotoxicological tool.

  13. Probabilistic forecasts of debris-flow hazard at the regional scale with a combination of models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malet, Jean-Philippe; Remaître, Alexandre

    2015-04-01

    Debris flows are one of the many active slope-forming processes in the French Alps, where rugged and steep slopes mantled by various slope deposits offer a great potential for triggering hazardous events. A quantitative assessment of debris-flow hazard requires the estimation, in a probabilistic framework, of the spatial probability of occurrence of source areas, the spatial probability of runout areas, the temporal frequency of events, and their intensity. The main objective of this research is to propose a pipeline for the estimation of these quantities at the region scale using a chain of debris-flow models. The work uses the experimental site of the Barcelonnette Basin (South French Alps), where 26 active torrents have produced more than 150 debris-flow events since 1850 to develop and validate the methodology. First, a susceptibility assessment is performed to identify the debris-flow prone source areas. The most frequently used approach is the combination of environmental factors with GIS procedures and statistical techniques, integrating or not, detailed event inventories. Based on a 5m-DEM and derivatives, and information on slope lithology, engineering soils and landcover, the possible source areas are identified with a statistical logistic regression model. The performance of the statistical model is evaluated with the observed distribution of debris-flow events recorded after 1850 in the study area. The source areas in the three most active torrents (Riou-Bourdoux, Faucon, Sanières) are well identified by the model. Results are less convincing for three other active torrents (Bourget, La Valette and Riou-Chanal); this could be related to the type of debris-flow triggering mechanism as the model seems to better spot the open slope debris-flow source areas (e.g. scree slopes), but appears to be less efficient for the identification of landslide-induced debris flows. Second, a susceptibility assessment is performed to estimate the possible runout distance

  14. Combining Models of Coronal Mass Ejections and Solar Dynamos

    OpenAIRE

    Warnecke, Jörn

    2013-01-01

    Observations show that Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are associated with twisted magnetic flux configurations. Conventionally, CMEs are modeled by shearing and twisting the footpoints of a certain distribution of magnetic flux at the solar surface and letting it evolve at the surface. Of course, the surface velocities and magnetic field patterns should ultimately be obtained from realistic simulations of the solar convection zone where the field is generated by dynamo action. Therefore, a uni...

  15. Modelling of combined cycle power plants using biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurado, F.; Cano, A. [University of Jaen (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Carpio, J. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2003-04-01

    The olive tree in Spain can generate large quantities of by-product biomass suitable for gasification. Gasification technologies under development would enable these fuels to be used in gas turbines. Biomass conversion to a clean essentially ash-free form, usually by gasification and purification, is necessary to obtain high efficiency. This paper reports results of detailed full-load performance modelling of cogeneration systems based on gasifier/gas turbine technologies. (Author)

  16. An active alignment method for post launch co-alignment of laser beam combiner systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, A. W.; Green, J. W.; Maynard, W. L.; Minott, P. O.; Krainak, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    A laser transmitter for high bandwidth geosynchronous satellite communications is described. High optical power is achieved by combining semiconductor laser diodes. An active alignment scheme is proposed for achieving the +/- 20 microrad post launch multiple laser angular co-alignment requirement.

  17. 21 CFR 343.22 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients for cardiovascular-rheumatologic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permitted combinations of active ingredients for cardiovascular-rheumatologic use. 343.22 Section 343.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERNAL ANALGESIC, ANTIPYRETIC,...

  18. Combined in vivo and in silico investigations of activation of glycolysis in contracting skeletal muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, J. P. J.; Groenendaal, W.; Wessels, B.; Wiseman, R. W.; Hilbers, P. A. J.; Nicolay, K.; Prompers, J. J.; Jeneson, J. A. L.; van Riel, N. A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Schmitz JP, Groenendaal W, Wessels B, Wiseman RW, Hilbers PA, Nicolay K, Prompers JJ, Jeneson JA, van Riel NA. Combined in vivo and in silico investigations of activation of glycolysis in contracting skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 304: C180-C193, 2013. First published October 31, 2012; d

  19. Event study combining magnetospheric and ionospheric perspectives of the substorm current wedge modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, V. A.; Nikolaev, A. V.; Kubyshkina, M. V.; Tsyganenko, N. A.; Singer, H. J.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Angelopoulos, V.; Nakamura, R.; Milan, S. E.; Coxon, J. C.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.

    2014-12-01

    Unprecedented spacecraft and instrumental coverage and the isolated nature and distinct step-like development of a substorm on 17 March 2010 has allowed validation of the two-loop substorm current wedge model (SCW2L). We find a close spatiotemporal relationship of the SCW with many other essential signatures of substorm activity in the magnetotail and demonstrate its azimuthally localized structure and stepwise expansion in the magnetotail. We confirm that ground SCW diagnostics makes it possible to reconstruct and organize the azimuthal spatiotemporal substorm development pattern with accuracy better than 1 h magnetic local time (MLT) in the case of medium-scale substorm. The Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE)-based study of global field-aligned current distribution indicates that (a) the SCW-related field-aligned current system consists of simultaneously activated R1- and R2-type currents, (b) their net currents have a R1-sense, and (c) locations of net current peaks are consistent with the SCW edge locations inferred from midlatitude variations. Thanks to good azimuthal coverage of four GOES and three Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms spacecraft, we evaluated the intensities of the SCW R1- and R2-like current loops (using the SCW2L model) obtained from combined magnetospheric and ground midlatitude magnetic observations and found the net currents consistent (within a factor of 2) with the AMPERE-based estimate. We also ran an adaptive magnetospheric model and show that SCW2L model outperforms it in predicting the magnetic configuration changes during substorm dipolarizations.

  20. Combining modeling and observations to better understand marine ecosystem dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curchitser, Enrique N.; Rose, Kenneth A.; Ito, Shin-ichi; Peck, Myron A.; Kishi, Michio J.

    2015-11-01

    The linkage between climate-scale variability and the dynamics of marine ecosystems has been the subject of increasing research. From global estimates and predictions of primary productivity to the dynamics of near-shore fish populations, the concept of environmental drivers affecting marine ecosystems is often used. Despite significant correlations between the environment and various aspects of the ecosystem, cause-and-effect relationships between climate and biology remain, in most cases, elusive. Additionally, in ecosystems experiencing high human activities (e.g., coastal development) or generating high commercial or recreational value (e.g., fisheries), understanding the ecosystem dynamics becomes more complicated by the need to consider humans as dynamic members of the ecosystem.

  1. Generalized weighted functional proportional mean combining forecasting model and its method of parameter estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万玉成; 盛昭瀚

    2004-01-01

    A new kind of combining forecasting model based on the generalized weighted functional proportional mean is proposed and the parameter estimation method of its weighting coefficients by means of the algorithm of quadratic programming is given. This model has extensive representation. It is a new kind of aggregative method of group forecasting.By taking the suitable combining form of the forecasting models and seeking the optimal parameter, the optimal combining form can be obtained and the forecasting accuracy can be improved. The effectiveness of this model is demonstrated by an example.

  2. Combined calibration and sensitivity analysis for a water quality model of the Biebrza River, Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perk, van der M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    1995-01-01

    A study was performed to quantify the error in results of a water quality model of the Biebrza River, Poland, due to uncertainties in calibrated model parameters. The procedure used in this study combines calibration and sensitivity analysis. Finally,the model was validated to test the model capabil

  3. Simulation model structure numerically robust to changes in magnitude and combination of input and output variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bjarne D.; Jakobsen, Arne

    1999-01-01

    instabilities prevent the practical use of such a system model for more than one input/output combination and for other magnitudes of refrigerating capacities.A higher numerical robustness of system models can be achieved by making a model for the refrigeration cycle the core of the system model and by using...

  4. Acupoints combination correlates with activation of cerebral areas A functional MRI study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinsheng Lai; Yong Huang; Chunzhi Tang; Junjun Yang; Yanqi Zou; Junxian Wu; Yangjia Lu; Renyong Lin

    2011-01-01

    Acupoint combination is a method used for acupoint treatment of patients. Traditionally, acupoints are matched along the meridian distribution, which is a common rule in clinical practice, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Cerebral scans with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been used in the study of acupuncture and acupoint specifically. In this study,fMRI was used to detect the activation of the brain areas under different acupoints, matched along different meridians, to elucidate the acupoint combination via a modern medical approach. Forty healthy volunteers were randomly divided into the following groups: Waiguan point (SJ5), Waiguan (SJ5) + Zhigou (SJ6) (2 acupoints come from the same meridian), Waiguan (SJ 5) + Neiguan (PC 6)(2 acupoints come from 2 meridians with the relationship of interior-exterior), Waiguan (SJ 5) +Yanglingquan (GB 34) (2 acupoints come from 2 meridians with the same name-Shaoyang Meridian), and sham point groups (needling in different points on the right hand). A real-time cerebral fMRI scan was simultaneously performed. The cerebral activation rate, and the number and strength of different regions of interest ware compared among the groups. The fMRI cerebral imaging confirmed that there were some differences in the activation of cerebral areas by the needlings in SJ 5, and in combination with other acupoints. Needling at SJ 5 alone greatly activated the right cerebellum, while needling at both SJ 5 and different co-needling points activated different cerebral functional areas.

  5. Combining Wireless Sensor Networks and Groundwater Transport Models: Protocol and Model Development in a Simulative Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, K.; Urteaga, I.; Han, Q.; Porta, L.; Jayasumana, A.; Illangasekare, T.

    2007-12-01

    , and protocols necessary for a closed-loop simulation online, combining work across multiple disciplines. This simulation environment will expedite software development and a large-scale experimental aquifer will be used for further validation of the techniques. The results presented here address: setup of a WSN simulator which cooperates with transport models, development of fault detection techniques into the WSN routing protocol which are particular to this application, and planned steps in building a transport model capable of working in the WSN context.

  6. Research of combination model for prediction of the trend of outbreak of hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-ping CHEN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish a combination model of autoregressive integrated moving average model and the grey dynamics (ARIMA-GM of hepatitis B incidence rate (1/100 000 to predict the trend of outbreak of hepatitis B, as to provide a scientific basis for the early discovery of the infectious diseases for the performance of countermeasures of controlling its spread. Methods The monthly incidence of hepatitis B in Qian'an city, Hebei province, was collected from Jan 2004 to Dec 2012, and a model (ARIMA was reproduced with SPSS software. The GM (1,1 model was used to correct the residual sequence with a threshold value, and a combined forecasting model was reproduced. This combination model was used to predict the monthly incidence rate in this city in 2013. Results The model ARIMA(0,1,1(0,1,112 was established successfully and the residual sequence was a white noise sequence. Then the GM (1,1 model with a threshold of 3 was used to correct its residuals and obtain its nonlinear feature extraction of information. The forecasting model met required precision standards (C=0.673, P=0.877, the fitting accuracy of which was basically qualified. The results showed that the MAE, MAPE of the ARIMA-GM combined model were smaller than that of a single model, and the combined model could improve the prediction accuracy. Using the combined model to forecast the incidence of hepatitis B during Jan 2013 to Dec 2013, the overall trend was relatively consistent with the condition of previous years. Conclusion The ARIMA-GM combined model can better fit the incidence rate of hepatitis B with a greater accuracy than the seasonal ARIMA model. The prediction results can provide the reference for the early warning system of HBV. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.01.12

  7. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antitumor activity of epsilon-poly-L-lysine and citral, alone or in combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ce; Zhao, Xingchen; Liu, Zonghui; Meng, Rizeng; Chen, Xiangrong; Guo, Na

    2016-01-01

    Background Food safety is an important worldwide public health concern, and microbial contamination in foods not only leads to food deterioration and shelf life reduction but also results in economic losses and disease. Objective The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of epsilon-poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) and citral combination against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) strains. The preliminary antioxidant and antitumor activities were also studied. Design Synergism is a positive interaction created when two compounds combine and exert an inhibitory effect that is greater than the sum of their individual effects. The synergistic antimicrobial effect of ε-PL and citral was studied using the checkerboard method against E. coli O157:H7. The minimal inhibitory concentration, time-kill, and scanning electron microscope assays were used to determine the antimicrobial activity of ε-PL and citral alone or in combination; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-scavenging assay and western blotting were used in antioxidant activity assays; cell viability assay was carried out to finish preliminary antitumor test. Results Minimal inhibitory concentrations of ε-PL and citral resisted to the five E. coli O157:H7 strains were 2–4 µg/mL and 0.5–1 µg/mL, and the fractional inhibitory concentration indices were 0.25–0.375. The results of time-kill assay revealed that a stronger bactericidal effect in a laboratory medium might be exerted in the combination against E. coli O157:H7 than that in a food model. The compounds alone or in combination exhibited a potential 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical–scavenging activity, and the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 and glutathione peroxidase 1 protein increased. The preliminary antitumor activity effect of the combination was better than ε-PL or citral alone. Conclusions These findings indicated that the combination of ε-PL and citral could not only be used as a promising naturally sourced food

  8. Quantifying antiviral activity optimizes drug combinations against hepatitis C virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Yoshiki [School of Medicine, College of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa, Japan; Nakajim, Syo [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Sciences, Chiba, J; Ohash, Hirofumi [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan: Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Sciences, Chiba, J; Tanaka, Yasuhito [Department of Virology and Liver Unit, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medicinal Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; Wakita, Takaji [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Perelson, Alan S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Iwami, Shingo [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan: PRESTO, JST, Saitama, Japan: CREST, JST, Saitama, Japan; Watashi, Koichi [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan: Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Sciences, Chiba, J

    2016-03-21

    Cell culture study combing a mathematical model and computer simulation quantifies the anti-hepatitis C virus drug efficacy at any concentrations and any combinations in preclinical settings, and can obtain rich basic evidences for selecting optimal treatments prior to costly clinical trials.

  9. Combined MIMO adaptive and decentralized controllers for broadband active noise and vibration control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, A.P.; Wesselink, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Model errors in multiple-input multiple-output adaptive controllers for reduction of broadband noise and vibrations may lead to unstable systems or increased error signals. In this paper, a combination of high-authority control (HAC) and low-authority control (LAC) is considered for improved perform

  10. The combination of IL-21 and IFN-alpha boosts STAT3 activation, cytotoxicity and experimental tumor therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Karsten W; Søndergaard, Henrik; Woetmann, Anders;

    2008-01-01

    such as IFN-alpha and IL-2 have multiple and severe side effects. Accordingly, they are generally used at sub-optimal doses, which limit their clinical efficacy. Here we hypothesized that a combination of IFN-alpha and IL-21, a novel cytokine of the IL-2 family with anti-cancer effects, will increase the anti......-cancer efficacy at sub-optimal cytokine doses. We show that the combined stimulation of target-cells with IFN-alpha and IL-21 triggers an increased STAT3 activation whereas the activation of other STATs including STAT1/2 is unaffected. In parallel, the combined stimulation with IFN-alpha and IL-21 triggers...... a selective increase in MHC class I expression and NK- and CD8(+) T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In an experimental in vivo model of renal carcinoma, the combined treatment of IFN-alpha and IL-21 also produces a significant anti-cancer effect as judged by an inhibition of tumor growth and an increased survival...

  11. Combining Diffusion and Grey Models Based on Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms to Forecast Motherboard Shipments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Kwun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important for executives to predict the future trends. Otherwise, their companies cannot make profitable decisions and investments. The Bass diffusion model can describe the empirical adoption curve for new products and technological innovations. The Grey model provides short-term forecasts using four data points. This study develops a combined model based on the rolling Grey model (RGM and the Bass diffusion model to forecast motherboard shipments. In addition, we investigate evolutionary optimization algorithms to determine the optimal parameters. Our results indicate that the combined model using a hybrid algorithm outperforms other methods for the fitting and forecasting processes in terms of mean absolute percentage error.

  12. Neural Network for Combining Linear and Non-Linear Modelling of Dynamic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a method to combine linear models with MLP networks. In other words to find a method to make a non-linear and multivariable model that performs at least as good as a linear model, when the training data lacks information.......The purpose of this paper is to develop a method to combine linear models with MLP networks. In other words to find a method to make a non-linear and multivariable model that performs at least as good as a linear model, when the training data lacks information....

  13. A Model Combining Oscillations and Attractor Dynamics for Generation of Grid Cell Firing

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E Hasselmo; Brandon, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Different models have been able to account for different features of the data on grid cell firing properties, including the relationship of grid cells to cellular properties and network oscillations. This paper describes a model that combines elements of two major classes of models of grid cells: models using interference of oscillations and models using attractor dynamics. This model includes a population of units with oscillatory input representing input from the medial septum. These units ...

  14. Quantitative structure-activity relationship study of P2X7 receptor inhibitors using combination of principal component analysis and artificial intelligence methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Shahlaei, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    P2X7 antagonist activity for a set of 49 molecules of the P2X7 receptor antagonists, derivatives of purine, was modeled with the aid of chemometric and artificial intelligence techniques. The activity of these compounds was estimated by means of combination of principal component analysis (PCA), as a well-known data reduction method, genetic algorithm (GA), as a variable selection technique, and artificial neural network (ANN), as a non-linear modeling method. First, a linear regression, combined with PCA, (principal component regression) was operated to model the structure-activity relationships, and afterwards a combination of PCA and ANN algorithm was employed to accurately predict the biological activity of the P2X7 antagonist. PCA preserves as much of the information as possible contained in the original data set. Seven most important PC's to the studied activity were selected as the inputs of ANN box by an efficient variable selection method, GA. The best computational neural network model was a fully-connected, feed-forward model with 7-7-1 architecture. The developed ANN model was fully evaluated by different validation techniques, including internal and external validation, and chemical applicability domain. All validations showed that the constructed quantitative structure-activity relationship model suggested is robust and satisfactory.

  15. Quantitative structure-activity relationship study of P2X7 receptor inhibitors using combination of principal component analysis and artificial intelligence methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Shahlaei, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    P2X7 antagonist activity for a set of 49 molecules of the P2X7 receptor antagonists, derivatives of purine, was modeled with the aid of chemometric and artificial intelligence techniques. The activity of these compounds was estimated by means of combination of principal component analysis (PCA), as a well-known data reduction method, genetic algorithm (GA), as a variable selection technique, and artificial neural network (ANN), as a non-linear modeling method. First, a linear regression, combined with PCA, (principal component regression) was operated to model the structure-activity relationships, and afterwards a combination of PCA and ANN algorithm was employed to accurately predict the biological activity of the P2X7 antagonist. PCA preserves as much of the information as possible contained in the original data set. Seven most important PC's to the studied activity were selected as the inputs of ANN box by an efficient variable selection method, GA. The best computational neural network model was a fully-connected, feed-forward model with 7-7-1 architecture. The developed ANN model was fully evaluated by different validation techniques, including internal and external validation, and chemical applicability domain. All validations showed that the constructed quantitative structure-activity relationship model suggested is robust and satisfactory. PMID:26600858

  16. A testbed combining visual perception models for geographic gaze contingent displays

    OpenAIRE

    Bektaş, Kenan; Coltekin, Arzu; Krüger, Jens; Duchowski, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a testbed featuring gaze-contingent displays (GCDs), in which we combined multiple models of the human visual system (HVS) to manage the visual level of detail. GCDs respond to the viewer’s gaze in real-time, rendering a space-variant visualization. Our testbed is optimized for testing mathematical models of the human visual perception utilized in GCDs. Specifically, we combined models of contrast sensitivity, color perception and depth of field; and customized our implementation f...

  17. Forecasting and Analysis of Agricultural Product Logistics Demand in Tibet Based on Combination Forecasting Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenfeng; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Over the years,the logistics development in Tibet has fallen behind the transport. Since the opening of Qinghai-Tibet Railway in2006,the opportunity for development of modern logistics has been brought to Tibet. The logistics demand analysis and forecasting is a prerequisite for regional logistics planning. By establishing indicator system for logistics demand of agricultural products,agricultural product logistics principal component regression model,gray forecasting model,BP neural network forecasting model are built. Because of the single model’s limitations,quadratic-linear programming model is used to build combination forecasting model to predict the logistics demand scale of agricultural products in Tibet over the next five years. The empirical analysis results show that combination forecasting model is superior to single forecasting model,and it has higher precision,so combination forecasting model will have much wider application foreground and development potential in the field of logistics.

  18. PAH exposure through soil ingestion: Combining digestion models and bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiele, T.R. van de; Verstraete, W. [Ghent University (BE).Laboratory Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET); Siciliano, S.D. [University of Saskatchewan (Canada). Department of Soil Science

    2003-07-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants through soil ingestion is an important issue in current health risk assessment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) or their metabolites pose risks to humans due to their toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic or even (anti)estrogenic properties. PAH mobilization from a soil matrix (49.1{+-}1.5 mg PAH/kg DW) was assessed using a Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME). PAH GC-MS analysis was performed on the pellet and supernatant of SHIME digests and gave 101, 92, 89 and 97% recovery for water, stomach, duodenal and colon digests, respectively. PAH release was highest for the water extract (0.51%) and the stomach digestion (0.44%). Lower mobilized fractions in the duodenum (0.13%) and colon (0.30%) digests could be attributed to PAH complexation with bile salts, dissolved organic matter or colon microbiota. The digestion model provides us with relevant information to what extent soil bound PAHs are mobilized in the gastrointestinal tract and thus reach the gut wall, prior to absorption. (orig.)

  19. Matrix viscoplasticity and its shielding by active mechanics in microtissue models: experiments and mathematical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Alan S.; Wang, Hailong; Copeland, Craig R.; Chen, Christopher S.; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Reich, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    The biomechanical behavior of tissues under mechanical stimulation is critically important to physiological function. We report a combined experimental and modeling study of bioengineered 3D smooth muscle microtissues that reveals a previously unappreciated interaction between active cell mechanics and the viscoplastic properties of the extracellular matrix. The microtissues’ response to stretch/unstretch actuations, as probed by microcantilever force sensors, was dominated by cellular actomyosin dynamics. However, cell lysis revealed a viscoplastic response of the underlying model collagen/fibrin matrix. A model coupling Hill-type actomyosin dynamics with a plastic perfectly viscoplastic description of the matrix quantitatively accounts for the microtissue dynamics, including notably the cells’ shielding of the matrix plasticity. Stretch measurements of single cells confirmed the active cell dynamics, and were well described by a single-cell version of our model. These results reveal the need for new focus on matrix plasticity and its interactions with active cell mechanics in describing tissue dynamics. PMID:27671239

  20. The activity model of legal psychologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Bogdanovich,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose an activity model of legal psychologist work. As a basis for the construction of the system of legal psychologist activity, we use trajectory of teenager living in the legal field. As the main activities within their respective specializations, we highlighted prevention, maintenance and rehabilitation. We define the main activities necessary for the development within the FGOSIII specialization 050407 “Pedagogy and Psychology of deviant behavior”: general and pathopsychologic diagnostics, development activity and psychological education, psycho-correction, psychological counseling. Accordingly, we define the types of psychological practices. We highlight the motivational and integrative practice (teaching introductory and trainee. We propose a system of training modules, ensuring the formation of the necessary competencies. The modules feature is their focus on practice (the association of training courses with the main types of psychological practice.

  1. Modeling stresses in piezoelectric smart structures under combined thermal and mechanical excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koko, Tamunoiyala S.; Smith, Malcolm J.; Orisamolu, Irewole R.

    1999-06-01

    In this paper, the integrated finite element methodology developed in our earlier work for designing active vibration control strategies in smart structures, is extended to compute the stresses and strains in the structure, due to combined thermal, mechanical and electrical excitations. A layered composite brick elements with linear strain-displacement and linear thermopiezoelectric constitutive relations is used to model the structure. The method, which has been encoded into a software called SMARTCOM provides a design and analysis capability that simultaneously accounts for the coupled thermopiezoelectric and control capabilities of the smart structural systems. Numerical examples are provided for structures with surface bonded piezoelectric sensors and actuators, under various types of mechanical, thermal and electrical load. Comparisons are made to other available solutions to verify the accuracy of the SMARTCOM simulations. The method provides accurate results and is seen as a valuable tool for the design and analysis of these smart structures.

  2. Effect of a combined program of physical activity and intellectual activity in the cognitive functioning of the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Vidal, Aurora; Prada Martínez, Aurora; Díaz Pereira, María del Pino; Martínez Patiño, María José

    2011-01-01

    Aerobic exercise done in an enriched environment with intellectual activity seems to improve cognitive performance associated with the aging process of humans, although the results can sometimes be contradictory. The objective of the present study was to ascertain to what degree the practice of combined aerobic exercise and memory strategies improve the cognitive functioning, in general, and to a more concrete measure in the cognitive memory domain of the elderly. Sixteen subjects, the majori...

  3. Combining estimates of interest in prognostic modelling studies after multiple imputation: current practice and guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holder Roger L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple imputation (MI provides an effective approach to handle missing covariate data within prognostic modelling studies, as it can properly account for the missing data uncertainty. The multiply imputed datasets are each analysed using standard prognostic modelling techniques to obtain the estimates of interest. The estimates from each imputed dataset are then combined into one overall estimate and variance, incorporating both the within and between imputation variability. Rubin's rules for combining these multiply imputed estimates are based on asymptotic theory. The resulting combined estimates may be more accurate if the posterior distribution of the population parameter of interest is better approximated by the normal distribution. However, the normality assumption may not be appropriate for all the parameters of interest when analysing prognostic modelling studies, such as predicted survival probabilities and model performance measures. Methods Guidelines for combining the estimates of interest when analysing prognostic modelling studies are provided. A literature review is performed to identify current practice for combining such estimates in prognostic modelling studies. Results Methods for combining all reported estimates after MI were not well reported in the current literature. Rubin's rules without applying any transformations were the standard approach used, when any method was stated. Conclusion The proposed simple guidelines for combining estimates after MI may lead to a wider and more appropriate use of MI in future prognostic modelling studies.

  4. Mathematical modeling of COD removal via the combined treatment of domestic wastewater and landfill leachate based on the PACT process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Bou, Ángel S; Nascentes, Alexandre Lioi; Costa Pereira, Barbara; Da Silva, Leonardo Duarte Batista; Alberto Ferreira, João; Campos, Juacyara Carbonelli

    2015-01-01

    The experiments performed in this study consisted of 16 batch reactors fed different mixtures of landfill leachate combined with synthetic wastewater treated using the Powdered Activated Carbon Treatment (PACT) process. The objective was to measure the COD mass removal per liter each day for each reactor using two models: the first model combined the variables PAC concentration (0 g·L(-1), 2 g·L(-1), 4 g·L(-1), and 6 g·L(-1)) and leachate rate in the wastewater (0%, 2%, 5%, and 10%), and the second model combined the PAC concentration and the influent COD. The Response Surface Methodology with Central Composite Design was used to describe the response surface of both models considered in this study. Domestic wastewater was produced under controlled conditions in the laboratory where the experiments were performed. The results indicated that the PAC effect was null when the influent did not contain leachate; however, as the concentration of leachate applied to the mixture was increased, the addition of a higher PAC concentration resulted in a better COD mass removal in the reactors. The adjusted R(2) values of the two models were greater than 0.95, and the predicted R(2) values were greater than 0.93. The models may be useful for wastewater treatment companies to calculate PAC requirements in order to meet COD mass removal objectives in combined treatment. PMID:25723064

  5. Combining ability of wheat genotypes in two models of diallel analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Benin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diallel analyses are commonly used for the estimate of population genetic effects. Different models can beused, with a direct effect on the inferences. The objective of this study was to determine and compare two diallel analysismodels, fixed and random, regarding the combining effects among six wheat genotypes. The experiment was conducted in thecounty of Capão do Leão/RS in the year 2006. Six wheat genotypes were used that were used for artificial crosses accordingto a complete diallel model without reciprocals, resulting in 15 hybrid combinations. The data were subjected to diallelanalyses according to model 2 of Griffing (fixed and BLUP (random. The results show that both diallel models indicatesimilar general combining ability effects. On the other hand, for the specific combining ability, the data must be used withcaution, considering the two models simultaneously.

  6. MODELING MERCURY CONTROL WITH POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents a mathematical model of total mercury removed from the flue gas at coal-fired plants equipped with powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection for Mercury control. The developed algorithms account for mercury removal by both existing equipment and an added PAC in...

  7. Molluscicidal activity of Lawsonia inermis and its binary and tertiary combinations with other plant derived molluscicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A; Singh, D K

    2001-03-01

    Molluscicidal activity of leaf, bark and seed of Lawsonia inermis against Lymnaea acuminata and Indoplanorbis exustus was studied. Highest toxicity was observed in the seed of Lawsonia inermis. Toxicity of binary (1:1) and tertiary (1:1:1) combinations of the essential oil of cedar (Cedrus deodara Roxh) and neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), powder from bulb of garlic (Allium sativum Linn), and oleoresin extracted from rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc) with Lawsonia inermis and Embelia ribes fruit powder were studied against L. acuminata and I. exustus. L. inermis seed powder in combination with Cedrus deodara oil and Azadirachta indica oil was more toxic than their individual components and other combinations. PMID:11495286

  8. Concepts of disability: the Activity Space Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, J A

    1995-03-01

    This paper describes a new conceptual framework for functional assessment, the Activity Space Model (ASM). According to this model, functional impairments may lead to restrictions in an individual's activity space, a multidimensional space that represents human potential for activity. For each elementary ability, restrictions in the corresponding dimension of the activity space can be evaluated by deriving a difficulty curve that depicts the relationship between the level of performance and the psychophysical cost of activity. The effect of disease on daily functioning is explained in terms of a tradeoff between the psychophysical cost and the value of each act of behavior to the disabled individual. These two constructs are measured on the same scale and expressed in units of difficulty. The location of each task within the activity space in relation to the difficulty curve determines whether it will be performed or avoided at a given point in time. The ASM has both theoretical and practical implications. It offers a new, integrated perspective on disability and suggests new strategies for developing and evaluating functional assessment measures.

  9. Modeling Aerobic Carbon Source Degradation Processes using Titrimetric Data and Combined Respirometric-Titrimetric Data: Experimental Data and Model Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Petersen, B.; Nopens, I.;

    2002-01-01

    Experimental data are presented that resulted from aerobic batch degradation experiments in activated sludge with simple carbon sources (acetate and dextrose) as substrates. Data collection was done using combined respirometric-titrimetric measurements. The respirometer consists of an open aerate...

  10. Combining Costs and Benefits of Animal Activities to Assess Net Yield Outcomes in Apple Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    Diverse animal communities influence ecosystem function in agroecosystems through positive and negative plant-animal interactions. Yet, past research has largely failed to examine multiple interactions that can have opposing impacts on agricultural production in a given context. We collected data on arthropod communities and yield quality and quantity parameters (fruit set, yield loss and net outcomes) in three major apple-growing regions in south-eastern Australia. We quantified the net yield outcome (accounting for positive and negative interactions) of multiple animal activities (pollination, fruit damage, biological control) across the entire growing season on netted branches, which excluded vertebrate predators of arthropods, and open branches. Net outcome was calculated as the number of undamaged fruit at harvest as a proportion of the number of blossoms (i.e., potential fruit yield). Vertebrate exclusion resulted in lower levels of fruit set and higher levels of arthropod damage to apples, but did not affect net outcomes. Yield quality and quantity parameters (fruit set, yield loss, net outcomes) were not directly associated with arthropod functional groups. Model variance and significant differences between the ratio of pest to beneficial arthropods between regions indicated that complex relationships between environmental factors and multiple animal interactions have a combined effect on yield. Our results show that focusing on a single crop stage, species group or ecosystem function/service can overlook important complexity in ecological processes within the system. Accounting for this complexity and quantifying the net outcome of ecological interactions within the system, is more informative for research and management of biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes. PMID:27391022

  11. Combining Costs and Benefits of Animal Activities to Assess Net Yield Outcomes in Apple Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Manu E; Luck, Gary W

    2016-01-01

    Diverse animal communities influence ecosystem function in agroecosystems through positive and negative plant-animal interactions. Yet, past research has largely failed to examine multiple interactions that can have opposing impacts on agricultural production in a given context. We collected data on arthropod communities and yield quality and quantity parameters (fruit set, yield loss and net outcomes) in three major apple-growing regions in south-eastern Australia. We quantified the net yield outcome (accounting for positive and negative interactions) of multiple animal activities (pollination, fruit damage, biological control) across the entire growing season on netted branches, which excluded vertebrate predators of arthropods, and open branches. Net outcome was calculated as the number of undamaged fruit at harvest as a proportion of the number of blossoms (i.e., potential fruit yield). Vertebrate exclusion resulted in lower levels of fruit set and higher levels of arthropod damage to apples, but did not affect net outcomes. Yield quality and quantity parameters (fruit set, yield loss, net outcomes) were not directly associated with arthropod functional groups. Model variance and significant differences between the ratio of pest to beneficial arthropods between regions indicated that complex relationships between environmental factors and multiple animal interactions have a combined effect on yield. Our results show that focusing on a single crop stage, species group or ecosystem function/service can overlook important complexity in ecological processes within the system. Accounting for this complexity and quantifying the net outcome of ecological interactions within the system, is more informative for research and management of biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes.

  12. Enhanced antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate in combination with rapamycin in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Pan, Jing; Lubet, Ronald A; Komas, Steven M; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Wang, Yian; You, Ming

    2015-04-01

    3-Bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) is an alkylating agent and a well-known inhibitor of energy metabolism. Rapamycin is an inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase mTOR. Both 3-BrPA and rapamycin show chemopreventive efficacy in mouse models of lung cancer. Aerosol delivery of therapeutic drugs for lung cancer has been reported to be an effective route of delivery with little systemic distribution in humans. In this study, 3-BrPA and rapamycin were evaluated in combination for their preventive effects against lung cancer in mice by aerosol treatment, revealing a synergistic ability as measured by tumor multiplicity and tumor load compared treatment with either single-agent alone. No evidence of liver toxicity was detected by monitoring serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzymes. To understand the mechanism in vitro experiments were performed using human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. 3-BrPA and rapamycin also synergistically inhibited cell proliferation. Rapamycin alone blocked the mTOR signaling pathway, whereas 3-BrPA did not potentiate this effect. Given the known role of 3-BrPA as an inhibitor of glycolysis, we investigated mitochondrial bioenergetics changes in vitro in 3-BrPA-treated NSCLC cells. 3-BrPA significantly decreased glycolytic activity, which may be due to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion and decreased expression of GAPDH. Our results demonstrate that rapamycin enhanced the antitumor efficacy of 3-BrPA, and that dual inhibition of mTOR signaling and glycolysis may be an effective therapeutic strategy for lung cancer chemoprevention. PMID:25644152

  13. Combining Costs and Benefits of Animal Activities to Assess Net Yield Outcomes in Apple Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Manu E; Luck, Gary W

    2016-01-01

    Diverse animal communities influence ecosystem function in agroecosystems through positive and negative plant-animal interactions. Yet, past research has largely failed to examine multiple interactions that can have opposing impacts on agricultural production in a given context. We collected data on arthropod communities and yield quality and quantity parameters (fruit set, yield loss and net outcomes) in three major apple-growing regions in south-eastern Australia. We quantified the net yield outcome (accounting for positive and negative interactions) of multiple animal activities (pollination, fruit damage, biological control) across the entire growing season on netted branches, which excluded vertebrate predators of arthropods, and open branches. Net outcome was calculated as the number of undamaged fruit at harvest as a proportion of the number of blossoms (i.e., potential fruit yield). Vertebrate exclusion resulted in lower levels of fruit set and higher levels of arthropod damage to apples, but did not affect net outcomes. Yield quality and quantity parameters (fruit set, yield loss, net outcomes) were not directly associated with arthropod functional groups. Model variance and significant differences between the ratio of pest to beneficial arthropods between regions indicated that complex relationships between environmental factors and multiple animal interactions have a combined effect on yield. Our results show that focusing on a single crop stage, species group or ecosystem function/service can overlook important complexity in ecological processes within the system. Accounting for this complexity and quantifying the net outcome of ecological interactions within the system, is more informative for research and management of biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes. PMID:27391022

  14. Short communication: Combined antimicrobial activity of reuterin and diacetyl against foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langa, S; Martín-Cabrejas, I; Montiel, R; Landete, J M; Medina, M; Arqués, J L

    2014-10-01

    Reuterin (β-hydroxypropionialdehyde) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial substance produced by some strains of Lactobacillus reuteri during anaerobic fermentation of glycerol. Some of these strains are able to survive and produce reuterin in cheese and yogurt when added as adjuncts to the starter. Similarly, in fermented dairy foods, other inhibitory compounds such as lactic acid and diacetyl are produced during fermentation. In this work, we studied the combined effect of reuterin and diacetyl under different pH conditions against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes. Results from agar spot assays showed that the antimicrobial activity of reuterin-producing strains against the gram-negative bacteria tested was enhanced as the concentration of diacetyl increased to 50 mg/kg, and was higher under acidic conditions (pH 5.0) for the 3 pathogenic strains. The combination of reuterin and diacetyl had an additive effect against L. monocytogenes only at diacetyl concentrations of 50 mg/kg and pH 5.0. In addition, growth kinetics studies showed that the combination of 1 activity unit (AU)/mL of reuterin with 100mg/kg diacetyl increased the lag time of the 3 pathogens. In milk, synergistic antimicrobial activity was observed with the combination of 1 AU/mL reuterin and 50 or 100 mg/kg of diacetyl on the gram-negative strains tested, and with 1 AU/mL reuterin and 100 mg/kg of diacetyl on L. monocytogenes. The greatest inhibition of the 3 pathogens was achieved in acidified milk at pH 5.0 with reuterin (1 AU/mL) and diacetyl (100 mg/kg). Based on these results, the combination of reuterin and diacetyl in acidified dairy products could be a promising strategy to control food pathogens in these products. PMID:25087026

  15. Short communication: Combined antimicrobial activity of reuterin and diacetyl against foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langa, S; Martín-Cabrejas, I; Montiel, R; Landete, J M; Medina, M; Arqués, J L

    2014-10-01

    Reuterin (β-hydroxypropionialdehyde) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial substance produced by some strains of Lactobacillus reuteri during anaerobic fermentation of glycerol. Some of these strains are able to survive and produce reuterin in cheese and yogurt when added as adjuncts to the starter. Similarly, in fermented dairy foods, other inhibitory compounds such as lactic acid and diacetyl are produced during fermentation. In this work, we studied the combined effect of reuterin and diacetyl under different pH conditions against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes. Results from agar spot assays showed that the antimicrobial activity of reuterin-producing strains against the gram-negative bacteria tested was enhanced as the concentration of diacetyl increased to 50 mg/kg, and was higher under acidic conditions (pH 5.0) for the 3 pathogenic strains. The combination of reuterin and diacetyl had an additive effect against L. monocytogenes only at diacetyl concentrations of 50 mg/kg and pH 5.0. In addition, growth kinetics studies showed that the combination of 1 activity unit (AU)/mL of reuterin with 100mg/kg diacetyl increased the lag time of the 3 pathogens. In milk, synergistic antimicrobial activity was observed with the combination of 1 AU/mL reuterin and 50 or 100 mg/kg of diacetyl on the gram-negative strains tested, and with 1 AU/mL reuterin and 100 mg/kg of diacetyl on L. monocytogenes. The greatest inhibition of the 3 pathogens was achieved in acidified milk at pH 5.0 with reuterin (1 AU/mL) and diacetyl (100 mg/kg). Based on these results, the combination of reuterin and diacetyl in acidified dairy products could be a promising strategy to control food pathogens in these products.

  16. Mathematical model of radon activity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Zambianchi, Pedro, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Present work describes a mathematical model that quantifies the time dependent amount of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn altogether and their activities within an ionization chamber as, for example, AlphaGUARD, which is used to measure activity concentration of Rn in soil gas. The differential equations take into account tree main processes, namely: the injection of Rn into the cavity of detector by the air pump including the effect of the traveling time Rn takes to reach the chamber; Rn release by the air exiting the chamber; and radioactive decay of Rn within the chamber. Developed code quantifies the activity of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn isotopes separately. Following the standard methodology to measure Rn activity in soil gas, the air pump usually is turned off over a period of time in order to avoid the influx of Rn into the chamber. Since {sup 220}Rn has a short half-life time, approximately 56s, the model shows that after 7 minutes the activity concentration of this isotope is null. Consequently, the measured activity refers to {sup 222}Rn, only. Furthermore, the model also addresses the activity of {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn progeny, which being metals represent potential risk of ionization chamber contamination that could increase the background of further measurements. Some preliminary comparison of experimental data and theoretical calculations is presented. Obtained transient and steady-state solutions could be used for planning of Rn in soil gas measurements as well as for accuracy assessment of obtained results together with efficiency evaluation of chosen measurements procedure. (author)

  17. Kinetic model of excess activated sludge thermohydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbierowicz, Mirosław; Chacuk, Andrzej

    2012-11-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of excess activated sludge suspensions was carried at temperatures ranging from 423 K to 523 K and under pressure 0.2-4.0 MPa. Changes of total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in a solid and liquid phase were measured during these studies. At the temperature 423 K, after 2 h of the process, TOC concentration in the reaction mixture decreased by 15-18% of the initial value. At 473 K total organic carbon removal from activated sludge suspension increased to 30%. It was also found that the solubilisation of particulate organic matter strongly depended on the process temperature. At 423 K the transfer of TOC from solid particles into liquid phase after 1 h of the process reached 25% of the initial value, however, at the temperature of 523 K the conversion degree of 'solid' TOC attained 50% just after 15 min of the process. In the article a lumped kinetic model of the process of activated sludge thermohydrolysis has been proposed. It was assumed that during heating of the activated sludge suspension to a temperature in the range of 423-523 K two parallel reactions occurred. One, connected with thermal destruction of activated sludge particles, caused solubilisation of organic carbon and an increase of dissolved organic carbon concentration in the liquid phase (hydrolysate). The parallel reaction led to a new kind of unsolvable solid phase, which was further decomposed into gaseous products (CO(2)). The collected experimental data were used to identify unknown parameters of the model, i.e. activation energies and pre-exponential factors of elementary reactions. The mathematical model of activated sludge thermohydrolysis appropriately describes the kinetics of reactions occurring in the studied system. PMID:22951329

  18. Combining Diffusion and Grey Models Based on Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms to Forecast Motherboard Shipments

    OpenAIRE

    Fu-Kwun Wang; Yu-Yao Hsiao; Ku-Kuang Chang

    2012-01-01

    It is important for executives to predict the future trends. Otherwise, their companies cannot make profitable decisions and investments. The Bass diffusion model can describe the empirical adoption curve for new products and technological innovations. The Grey model provides short-term forecasts using four data points. This study develops a combined model based on the rolling Grey model (RGM) and the Bass diffusion model to forecast motherboard shipments. In addition, we investigate evolutio...

  19. Crisis response simulation combining discrete-event and agent-based modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a crisis response simulation model architecture combining a discrete-event simulation (DES) environment for a crisis scenario with an agent-based model of the response organization. In multi-agent systems (MAS) as a computational organization, agents are modeled and implemented s

  20. [Theoretical model for compatibility of medicinal property combination of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Zhang, Yan-ling; Gu, Hao; Wang, Yun

    2015-08-01

    Medicinal properties are specific attributes of traditional Chinese medicines(TCM). The medicinal property theory is an important principle for the compatibility of traditional Chinese medicines. In this paper, medicinal properties, flavors and meridian tropism were combined to represent TCM medicinal properties; and multiple medicinal properties were further combined into medicinal property combination modes. TCMs and medicinal property combination modes were divided according to their efficacies, which were regarded as the concept of inductive logic programming and finally got medicinal property combination and compatibility rules with different efficacies. These medicinal property combination and compatibility rules were used to form the theoretical model through the entity grammar system, realize the automatic reasoning process from the medicinal property combination and compatibility to the efficacies, verify the reasoning result and analyze their rationality and limitations, in order to provide new ideas for revealing the relations between the TCM compatibility rules and efficacies. PMID:26790316

  1. Combining Activity DSM with Temporal Logic for Collaborative Planning and Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Baudin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an approach that implements enhanced scheduling algorithms to plan and schedule interventions in scientific facilities emitting various types of ionizing radiation such as the ones present at CERN in Geneva, (Switzerland or at GSI in Darmstadt (Germany. To deal with the collaborative process of activity creation and submission used in those organizations, we propose a framework to set the appropriate sequence or skeleton for the activities. This framework combines Allen’s Interval Algebra and DSM (Design Structure Matrix. It enables the sequence of activities to be automatically computed while gathering and taking into account the needs of users and testing their compatibility. It also deals with technical-type or resource-type constraints between activities as well as incompatible submissions. The work described in this paper includes details of the collaborative submission process and introduces suggestions for compromising as well as temporal calculations with the introduction of parameterized DSMs rather than binary ones.

  2. Combined treatment of retting flax wastewater using Fenton oxidation and granular activated carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Sohair I. Abou-Elela; Mohammed Eid M. Ali; Ibrahim, Hanan S.

    2016-01-01

    The process of retting flax produces a huge amount of wastewater which is characterized with bad unpleasant smell and high concentration of organic materials. Treatment of such waste had always been difficult because of the presence of refractory organic pollutants such as lignin. In this study, treatment of retting wastewater was carried out using combined system of Fenton oxidation process followed by adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC). The effects of operating condition on Fento...

  3. Lovastatin inhibits VEGFR and AKT activation: synergistic cytotoxicity in combination with VEGFR inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong T Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a recent study, we demonstrated the ability of lovastatin, a potent inhibitor of mevalonate synthesis, to inhibit the function of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. Lovastatin attenuated ligand-induced receptor activation and downstream signaling through the PI3K/AKT pathway. Combining lovastatin with gefitinib, a potent EGFR inhibitor, induced synergistic cytotoxicity in a variety of tumor derived cell lines. The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR and EGFR share similar activation, internalization and downstream signaling characteristics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The VEGFRs, particularly VEGFR-2 (KDR, Flt-1, play important roles in regulating tumor angiogenesis by promoting endothelial cell proliferation, survival and migration. Certain tumors, such as malignant mesothelioma (MM, also express both the VEGF ligand and VEGFRs that act in an autocrine loop to directly stimulate tumor cell growth and survival. In this study, we have shown that lovastatin inhibits ligand-induced VEGFR-2 activation through inhibition of receptor internalization and also inhibits VEGF activation of AKT in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC and H28 MM cells employing immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Combinations of lovastatin and a VEGFR-2 inhibitor showed more robust AKT inhibition than either agent alone in the H28 MM cell line. Furthermore, combining 5 µM lovastatin treatment, a therapeutically relevant dose, with two different VEGFR-2 inhibitors in HUVEC and the H28 and H2052 mesothelioma derived cell lines demonstrated synergistic cytotoxicity as demonstrated by MTT cell viability and flow cytometric analyses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results highlight a novel mechanism by which lovastatin can regulate VEGFR-2 function and a potential therapeutic approach for MM through combining statins with VEGFR-2 inhibitors.

  4. Integrated gasification combined-cycle research development and demonstration activities in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, H.M.

    1994-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has selected seven integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) advanced power systems for demonstration in the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, is managing a research development and demonstration (RD&D)program that supports the CCT program, and addresses long-term improvements in support of IGCC technology. This overview briefly describes the CCT projects and the supporting RD&D activities.

  5. Oscillations and multiple steady states in active membrane transport models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, F M; Bisch, P M

    1994-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of some non-linear extensions of the six-state alternating access model for active membrane transport is investigated. We use stoichio-metric network analysis to study the stability of steady states. The bifurcation analysis has been done through standard numerical methods. For the usual six-state model we have proved that there is only one steady state, which is globally asymptotically stable. When we added an autocatalytic step we found self-oscillations. For the competition between a monomer cycle and a dimer cycle, with steps of dimer formation, we have also found self-oscillations. We have also studied models involving the formation of a complex with other molecules. The addition of two steps for formation of a complex of the monomer with another molecule does not alter either the number or the stability of steady states of the basic six-state model. The model which combines the formation of a complex with an autocatalytic step shows both self-oscillations and multiple steady states. The results lead us to conclude that oscillations could be produced by active membrane transport systems if the transport cycle contains a sufficiently large number of steps (six in the present case) and is coupled to at least one autocatalytic reaction,. Oscillations are also predicted when the monomer cycle is coupled to a dimer cycle. In fact, the autocatalytic reaction can be seen as a simplification of the model involving competition between monomer and dimer cycles, which seems to be a more realistic description of biological systems. A self-regulation mechanism of the pumps, related to the multiple stationary states, is expected only for a combined effect of autocatalysis and formation of complexes with other molecules. Within the six-state model this model also leads to oscillation.

  6. Combined Prediction Model of Death Toll for Road Traffic Accidents Based on Independent and Dependent Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhong-xiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to build a combined model which can meet the variation rule of death toll data for road traffic accidents and can reflect the influence of multiple factors on traffic accidents and improve prediction accuracy for accidents, the Verhulst model was built based on the number of death tolls for road traffic accidents in China from 2002 to 2011; and car ownership, population, GDP, highway freight volume, highway passenger transportation volume, and highway mileage were chosen as the factors to build the death toll multivariate linear regression model. Then the two models were combined to be a combined prediction model which has weight coefficient. Shapley value method was applied to calculate the weight coefficient by assessing contributions. Finally, the combined model was used to recalculate the number of death tolls from 2002 to 2011, and the combined model was compared with the Verhulst and multivariate linear regression models. The results showed that the new model could not only characterize the death toll data characteristics but also quantify the degree of influence to the death toll by each influencing factor and had high accuracy as well as strong practicability.

  7. RooStatsCms: a tool for analyses modelling, combination and statistical studies

    CERN Document Server

    Piparo, D; Quast, Prof G

    2008-01-01

    The RooStatsCms (RSC) software framework allows analysis modelling and combination, statistical studies together with the access to sophisticated graphics routines for results visualisation. The goal of the project is to complement the existing analyses by means of their combination and accurate statistical studies.

  8. RooStatsCms: a tool for analyses modelling, combination and statistical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piparo, D.; Schott, G.; Quast, G.

    2009-12-01

    The RooStatsCms (RSC) software framework allows analysis modelling and combination, statistical studies together with the access to sophisticated graphics routines for results visualisation. The goal of the project is to complement the existing analyses by means of their combination and accurate statistical studies.

  9. A mathematical model of combined therapies against cancer using viruses and inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with a procedure for combined therapies against cancer using oncolytic viruses and inhibitors. Replicating genetically modified adenoviruses infect cancer cells, reproduce inside them and eventually cause their death (lysis). As infected cells die, the viruses inside them are released and then proceed to infect other tumor cells. The successful entry of virus into cancer cells is related to the presence of the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR). Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (known as MEK) inhibitors can promote CAR expression, resulting in enhanced adenovirus entry into cancer cells. However, MEK inhibitors can also cause G1 cell-cycle arrest, inhibiting reproduction of the virus. To design an effective synergistic therapy, the promotion of virus infection must be optimally balanced with inhibition of virus production. We introduce a mathematical model to describe the effects of MEK inhibitors and viruses on tumor cells, and use it to explore the reduction of the tumor size that can be achieved by the combined therapies. Furthermore, we find an optimal dose of inhibitor: Poptimal = 1 - μ/δ for a certain initial density of cells (where μ is the removal rate of the dead cells and δ is the death rate of the infected cells). The optimal timing of MEK inhibitors is also numerically studied.

  10. A mathematical model of combined therapies against cancer using viruses and inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO YouShan; GUO Qian

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with a procedure for combined therapies against cancer using oncolytic viruses and inhibitors. Replicating genetically modified adenoviruses infect cancer cells, reproduce inside them and eventually cause their death (lysis). As infected cells die, the viruses inside them are released and then proceed to infect other tumor cells. The successful entry of virus into cancer cells is related to the presence of the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR). Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (known as MEK) inhibitors can promote CAR expression, resulting in enhanced adenovirus entry into cancer cells. However, MEK inhibitors can also cause G1 cell-cycle arrest, inhibiting reproduction of the virus. To design an effective synergistic therapy, the promotion of virus infection must be optimally balanced with inhibition of virus production. We introduce a mathematical model to describe the effects of MEK inhibitors and viruses on tumor cells, and use it to explore the reduction of the tumor size that can be achieved by the combined therapies. Furthermore, we find an optimal dose of inhibitor: Poptimal = I - μ/δ for a certain initial density of cells (where μ is the removal rate of the dead cells and δ is the death rate of the infected cells). The optimal timing of MEK inhibitors is also numerically studied.

  11. Active house: A contemporary housing model for flood affected population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stratimirović Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of architectural knowledge in the struggle for a better future can be seen in the attitude that a good design or a good architectural solution, does not belong solely to the privileged ones as an improvement of the basic requirements, rather quite the opposite, that it is created as a response to a need. The goal of physical and emotional wellbeing, combined with a long term strategy for reducing the negative impact of the built environment by converting it into a positive influence upon the natural ecosystem, brings together and advances bioclimatic principles, architectural design and sustainable construction in the contemporary housing model dubbed the Active House. The Active House Workshop was held, as part of a wider student initiative New Housing Models for Flood Affected Population, at the University of Belgrade - Faculty of Architecture. The purpose of the campaign was to provide help to flood affected communities and assistance in efforts for repairing buildings in Serbia, hit by the severe floods of May 2014. Students came up with nine design solutions for small family homes, which incorporate the principles of Active House into existing construction techniques. In an architectural context, when concerning repair work after flooding, the need to consider problems related to contemporary living conditions through the ‘active’ category is seen in a new understanding of nature which allows the replacement of a passive restoration model, with an active models for designing in interaction with the environment.

  12. Phase Transitions in Model Active Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redner, Gabriel S.

    The amazing collective behaviors of active systems such as bird flocks, schools of fish, and colonies of microorganisms have long amazed scientists and laypeople alike. Understanding the physics of such systems is challenging due to their far-from-equilibrium dynamics, as well as the extreme diversity in their ingredients, relevant time- and length-scales, and emergent phenomenology. To make progress, one can categorize active systems by the symmetries of their constituent particles, as well as how activity is expressed. In this work, we examine two categories of active systems, and explore their phase behavior in detail. First, we study systems of self-propelled spherical particles moving in two dimensions. Despite the absence of an aligning interaction, this system displays complex emergent dynamics, including phase separation into a dense active solid and dilute gas. Using simulations and analytic modeling, we quantify the phase diagram and separation kinetics. We show that this nonequilibrium phase transition is analogous to an equilibrium vapor-liquid system, with binodal and spinodal curves and a critical point. We also characterize the dense active solid phase, a unique material which exhibits the structural signatures of a crystalline solid near the crystal-hexatic transition point, as well as anomalous dynamics including superdiffusive motion on intermediate timescales. We also explore the role of interparticle attraction in this system. We demonstrate that attraction drastically changes the phase diagram, which contains two distinct phase-separated regions and is reentrant as a function of propulsion speed. We interpret this complex situation with a simple kinetic model, which builds from the observed microdynamics of individual particles to a full description of the macroscopic phase behavior. We also study active nematics, liquid crystals driven out of equilibrium by energy-dissipating active stresses. The equilibrium nematic state is unstable in these

  13. Combined Thickness of the Modeled Saddle Mountains Basalt and Mabton Interbed Geomodel Units (smthk_f)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The smthk_f grid represents the modeled combined thickness of the Saddle Mountains Basalt and Mabton interbed geomodel units at a 500 foot resolution. It is one...

  14. Combined GPS and InSAR models of postseismic deformation from the Northridge Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, A.; Parker, J. W.; Peltzer, G.

    2002-01-01

    Models of combined Global Positioning System and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar data collected in the region of the Northridge earthquake indicate that significant afterslip on the main fault occurred following the earthquake.

  15. Circuit Level Modeling of Extra Combinational Delays in SRAM FPGAs Due to Transient Ionizing Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Darvishi, Mostafa; Blaquière, Yves; Thibeault, Claude

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel circuit level model that explains and confirms the extra combinational delays in a SRAM-FPGA (Virtex-5) due to radiation, which matches the experimental results by proton irradiation at TRIUMF.

  16. Distributional Models and Deep Learning Embeddings: Combining the Best of Both Worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Sergienya, Irina; Schütze, Hinrich

    2013-01-01

    There are two main approaches to the distributed representation of words: low-dimensional deep learning embeddings and high-dimensional distributional models, in which each dimension corresponds to a context word. In this paper, we combine these two approaches by learning embeddings based on distributional-model vectors - as opposed to one-hot vectors as is standardly done in deep learning. We show that the combined approach has better performance on a word relatedness judgment task.

  17. Local Inflammation in Fracture Hematoma: Results from a Combined Trauma Model in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Horst, K.; Eschbach, D.; Pfeifer, R.; S. Hübenthal; Sassen, M.; T. Steinfeldt; Wulf, H; Ruchholtz, S.; Pape, H. C.; F. Hildebrand

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous studies showed significant interaction between the local and systemic inflammatory response after severe trauma in small animal models. The purpose of this study was to establish a new combined trauma model in pigs to investigate fracture-associated local inflammation and gain information about the early inflammatory stages after polytrauma. Material and Methods. Combined trauma consisted of tibial fracture, lung contusion, liver laceration, and controlled hemorrhage. Ani...

  18. A "Kanes's Dynamics" Model for the Active Rack Isolation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, R. David; Beech, Geoffrey

    1999-01-01

    Many microgravity space-science experiments require vibratory acceleration levels unachievable without active isolation. The Boeing Corporation's Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) employs a novel combination of magnetic actuation and mechanical linkages, to address these isolation requirements on the International Space Station (ISS). ARIS provides isolation at the rack (international Standard Payload Rack, or ISPR) level. Effective model-based vibration isolation requires (1) an appropriate isolation device, (2) an adequate dynamic (i.e., mathematical) model of that isolator, and (3) a suitable, corresponding controller. ARIS provides the ISS response to the first requirement. This paper presents one response to the second, in a state-space framework intended to facilitate an optimal-controls approach to the third. The authors use "Kane's Dynamics" to develop an state-space, analytical (algebraic) set of linearized equations of motion for ARIS.

  19. Combining universal beauty and cultural context in a unifying model of visual aesthetic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redies, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    In this work, I propose a model of visual aesthetic experience that combines formalist and contextual aspects of aesthetics. The model distinguishes between two modes of processing. First, perceptual processing is based on the intrinsic form of an artwork, which may or may not be beautiful. If it is beautiful, a beauty-responsive mechanism is activated in the brain. This bottom-up mechanism is universal amongst humans; it is widespread in the visual brain and responsive across visual modalities. Second, cognitive processing is based on contextual information, such as the depicted content, the intentions of the artist or the circumstances of the presentation of the artwork. Cognitive processing is partially top-down and varies between individuals according to their cultural experience. Processing in the two channels is parallel and largely independent. In the general case, an aesthetic experience is induced if processing in both channels is favorable, i.e., if there is resonance in the perceptual processing channel ("aesthetics of perception"), and successful mastering in the cognitive processing channel ("aesthetics of cognition"). I speculate that this combinatorial mechanism has evolved to mediate social bonding between members of a (cultural) group of people. Primary emotions can be elicited via both channels and modulate the degree of the aesthetic experience. Two special cases are discussed. First, in a subset of (post-)modern art, beauty no longer plays a prominent role. Second, in some forms of abstract art, beautiful form can be enjoyed with minimal cognitive processing. The model is applied to examples of Western art. Finally, implications of the model are discussed. In summary, the proposed model resolves the seeming contradiction between formalist perceptual approaches to aesthetic experience, which are based on the intrinsic beauty of artworks, and contextual approaches, which account for highly individual and culturally dependent aspects of aesthetics.

  20. Combining scales in habitat models to improve conservation planning in an endangered vulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Olea, Pedro P.

    2009-07-01

    Predictive modelling of species' distributions has been successfully applied in conservation ecology, but effective conservation requires predictive and accurate models. The combination of different scales to build habitat models might improve their predictive ability and hence their usefulness for conservation, but this approach has rarely been evaluated. We developed habitat-occupancy models combining scales from nest-site to landscape for a key population at the northwestern edge of the distribution of the globally endangered Egyptian vulture ( Neophron percnopterus). We used generalised linear models (GLM) and an information-theoretic approach to identify the best combination of scales and resolutions for explaining occurrence. Those models that combined nest-site and landscape scales improved the predictive ability compared with the scale-specific ones. The best combined model had a very high predictive ability when used against an independent dataset (92% correct classifications). Egyptian vultures preferred to nest in caves with vegetation at the entrance that were situated at the base of long cliffs, provided that these cliffs are embedded within low-lying, heterogeneous areas with little topographic irregularity and with little human disturbance. The density of sheep around the nest positively influenced Egyptian vulture presence. Conservation of the studied population should focus on minimising human disturbance and on promoting sustainable development through conservation of traditional pastoralism. Our findings highlight the importance of developing region-specific multiscale models in order to design effective conservation strategies. The approach described here may be applied similarly in other populations and species.

  1. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of combined therapy of silver nanoparticles and visible blue light against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Nour El Din S

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Suzanne Nour El Din,1 Tarek A El-Tayeb,2 Khaled Abou-Aisha,1 Mohamed El-Azizi1 1Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, German University in Cairo, 2National Institute for Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have been used as potential antimicrobial agents against resistant pathogens. We investigated the possible therapeutic use of AgNPs in combination with visible blue light against a multidrug resistant clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro and in vivo. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs against P. aeruginosa (1×105 colony forming unit/mL was investigated at its minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and sub-MIC, alone and in combination with blue light at 460 nm and 250 mW for 2 hours. The effect of this combined therapy on the treated bacteria was then visualized using transmission electron microscope. The therapy was also assessed in the prevention of biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa on AgNP-impregnated gelatin biopolymer discs. Further, in vivo investigations were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the combined therapy to prevent burn-wound colonization and sepsis in mice and, finally, to treat a real infected horse with antibiotic-unresponsive chronic wound. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs and visible blue light was significantly enhanced (P<0.001 when both agents were combined compared to each agent alone when AgNPs were tested at MIC, 1/2, or 1/4 MIC. Transmission electron microscope showed significant damage to the cells that were treated with the combined therapy compared to other cells that received either the AgNPs or blue light. In addition, the combined treatment significantly (P<0.001 inhibited biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa on gelatin discs compared to each agent individually. Finally, the combined therapy effectively treated a horse suffering from a chronic wound caused by mixed

  2. Anti-malarial activities of Andrographis paniculata and Hedyotis corymbosa extracts and their combination with curcumin

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    Swain Bijay K

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herbal extracts of Andrographis paniculata (AP and Hedyotis corymbosa (HC are known as hepato-protective and fever-reducing drugs since ancient time and they have been used regularly by the people in the south Asian sub-continent. Methanolic extracts of these two plants were tested in vitro on choloroquine sensitive (MRC-pf-20 and resistant (MRC-pf-303 strains of Plasmodium falciparum for their anti-malarial activity. Methods Growth inhibition was determined using different concentrations of these plant extracts on synchronized P. falciparum cultures at the ring stage. The interactions between these two plant extracts and individually with curcumin were studied in vitro. The performance of these two herbal extracts in isolation and combination were further evaluated in vivo on Balb/c mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA and their efficacy was compared with that of curcumin. The in vivo toxicity of the plant derived compounds as well as their parasite stage-specificity was studied. Results The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 of AP (7.2 μg/ml was found better than HC (10.8 μg/ml. Combination of these two herbal drugs showed substantial enhancement in their anti-malarial activity. Combinatorial effect of each of these with curcumin also revealed anti-malarial effect. Additive interaction between the plant extracts (AP + HC and their individual synergism with curcumin (AP+CUR, HC+CUR were evident from this study. Increased in vivo potency was also observed with the combination of plant extracts over the individual extracts and curcumin. Both the plant extracts were found to inhibit the ring stage of the parasite and did not show any in vivo toxicity, whether used in isolation or in combination. Conclusion Both these two plant extracts in combination with curcumin could be an effective, alternative source of herbal anti-malarial drugs.

  3. Structural dynamics modeling and testing of the Department of Energy tractor/trailer combination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, R.V. Jr.; Hurtado, J.E.; Carne, T.G.; Dohrmann, C.R.

    1996-12-31

    This study presents a combined analytical and experimental effort to characterize and improve the ride quality of the Department of Energy tractor/trailer combination. The focus is to augment the experimental test results with the use of a high quality computer model. The discussion includes an overview of the finite element model of the vehicle and experimental modal test results. System identification techniques are employed to update the mathematical model. The validated model is then used to illustrate the benefits of incorporating two major design changes, namely the switch from a separate cab/sleeper configuration to an integrated cab, and the use of a cab suspension system.

  4. Bivalirudin in combination with heparin to control mesenchymal cell procoagulant activity.

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    Xavier Stephenne

    Full Text Available Islet and hepatocyte transplantation are associated with tissue factor-dependent activation of coagulation which elicits instant blood mediated inflammatory reaction, thereby contributing to a low rate of engraftment. The aim of this study was i to evaluate the procoagulant activity of human adult liver-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (hALPCs, ii to compare it to other mesenchymal cells of extra-hepatic (bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and skin fibroblasts or liver origin (liver myofibroblasts, and iii to determine the ways this activity could be modulated. Using a whole blood coagulation test (thromboelastometry, we demonstrated that all analyzed cell types exhibit procoagulant activity. The hALPCs pronounced procoagulant activity was associated with an increased tissue factor and a decreased tissue factor pathway inhibitor expression as compared with hepatocytes. At therapeutic doses, the procoagulant effect of hALPCs was inhibited by neither antithrombin activators nor direct factor Xa inhibitor or direct thrombin inhibitors individually. However, concomitant administration of an antithrombin activator or direct factor Xa inhibitor and direct thrombin inhibitor proved to be a particularly effective combination for controlling the procoagulant effects of hALPCs both in vitro and in vivo. The results suggest that this dual antithrombotic therapy should also improve the efficacy of cell transplantation in humans.

  5. Evaluation of efficacy of combination of methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine with leflunomide in active rheumatoid arthritis

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    Shashikumar N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several new drugs for rheumatoid arthritis are available including leflunomide. Comparative studies of treatment with leflunomide (against methotrexate report a better quality of life. Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of combination of methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine with leflunomide, a new disease modifying antirheumatoid drug. Analysis was of intent to treat group. Materials and Methods: This was an open labeled, randomized, comparative clinical trial in the department of rheumatology and immunology, at a tertiary care center in Bangalore. Patients who have diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis as per American College of Rheumatology aged between 18 and 60 years were recruited and randomized to receive leflunomide (10 mg/day p.o. or a combination of methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine (7.5 mg/week p.o. and 200 mg/day p.o., respectively along with folate supplementation for 12 weeks. The European League Against Rheumatism criteria of improvement according to disease activity score 28 was considered as the primary efficacy variable. Baseline and end of study values were evaluated. The duration of the study period was 1 year. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Wilcoxon Signed rank test were used for statistical analysis. Results: After 12 weeks, improvement noted in patients treated with leflunomide was similar to those treated with a combination of methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine. There was no statistical significance in improvement in disease activity between the two groups (P = 0.377. Conclusion: Combination of methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine is equivalent to leflunomide in terms of efficacy in reducing disease activity in the initial treatment of severe rheumatoid arthritis.

  6. Effects of combining biological treatment and activated carbon on hexavalent chromium reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, A M Ferro; Contreras, E M; Zaritzky, N E

    2011-02-01

    The objectives of the present work were: (a) to analyze the Cr(VI) removal by combining activated sludge (AS) with powdered activated carbon (PAC), (b) to analyze the effect of PAC and Cr(VI) on the growth kinetics of activated sludge, and (c) to determine if the combined method (AS-PAC) for Cr(VI) removal can be considered additive or synergistic with respect to the individual processes. Chromate removal was improved by increasing PAC concentrations in both PAC and AS-PAC systems. Cr(VI) removal using the AS-PAC system was higher than using AS or PAC. The increase of Cr(VI) caused longer lag phase and lower observed specific growth rate (μ(obs)), biomass yield (Y(X/S)), and specific growth substrate consumption rate (q(S)) of activated sludge; additionally, PAC did not enhance the growth kinetic parameters (μ(obs), Y(X/S), q(S)). Cr(VI) reduction in AS-PAC system was the result of the additive effect of each individual Cr(VI) removal process. PMID:21123053

  7. Research on Short-Term Wind Power Prediction Based on Combined Forecasting Models

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    Zhang Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-Term wind power forecasting is crucial for power grid since the generated energy of wind farm fluctuates frequently. In this paper, a physical forecasting model based on NWP and a statistical forecasting model with optimized initial value in the method of BP neural network are presented. In order to make full use of the advantages of the models presented and overcome the limitation of the disadvantage, the equal weight model and the minimum variance model are established for wind power prediction. Simulation results show that the combination forecasting model is more precise than single forecasting model and the minimum variance combination model can dynamically adjust weight of each single method, restraining the forecasting error further.

  8. BAYESIAN FORECASTS COMBINATION TO IMPROVE THE ROMANIAN INFLATION PREDICTIONS BASED ON ECONOMETRIC MODELS

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    Mihaela Simionescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many types of econometric models used in predicting the inflation rate, but in this study we used a Bayesian shrinkage combination approach. This methodology is used in order to improve the predictions accuracy by including information that is not captured by the econometric models. Therefore, experts’ forecasts are utilized as prior information, for Romania these predictions being provided by Institute for Economic Forecasting (Dobrescu macromodel, National Commission for Prognosis and European Commission. The empirical results for Romanian inflation show the superiority of a fixed effects model compared to other types of econometric models like VAR, Bayesian VAR, simultaneous equations model, dynamic model, log-linear model. The Bayesian combinations that used experts’ predictions as priors, when the shrinkage parameter tends to infinite, improved the accuracy of all forecasts based on individual models, outperforming also zero and equal weights predictions and naïve forecasts.

  9. Evaluation of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for treatment of ovarian cancer

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    R J Hunter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The objective was to define the mechanism of the growth inhibition of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC alone and evaluate its activity in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD. Scientific Methods: In vitro growth inhibition assays were completed with AHCC alone and in combination with PLD in panel of human cancer cell lines  and findings confirmed in vivo in an ovarian cancer xenograft mouse model.  AHCC mechanism of action was evaluated with immunoblotting and flow cytometry studies. Major Findings: The in vitro growth inhibition assays demonstrated additive activity when AHCC is co-administered with PLD.  The combination of AHCC with PLD demonstrated a 64.1% reduction in tumor growth compared to the untreated group (p value = 0.03 and a 31.2% improvement in tumor response with combination regimen compared to PLD alone. No difference in toxicity was observed in the control or treatment groups.  An increased expression of Bcl-2 was observed and induction of apoptosis confirmed in presence of AHCC. Conclusions: There is potential improvement in PLD activity when co-administered with AHCC and decrease side effects of PLD.  A clinical study to evaluate of the combination of AHCC plus PLD in the treatment of ovarian cancer is being pursued. Industrial Relevance: This study presents an example of the successful integration of a well- known herbal supplement, AHCC, with traditional western medicine cytotoxic agent, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, for the treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer.    In addition to providing evidence of the efficacy of AHCC, the mechanism of improved activity was also investigated.   Using a traditional approach this study provides pre-clinical data to support the benefits previously observed and reported in the clinical setting and supports future endeavors to integrate AHCC into standard of care to be given with chemotherapy. .  These finding are particularly beneficial in the

  10. Measurement and modeling of depth cue combination: in defense of weak fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, M S; Maloney, L T; Johnston, E B; Young, M

    1995-02-01

    Various visual cues provide information about depth and shape in a scene. When several of these cues are simultaneously available in a single location in the scene, the visual system attempts to combine them. In this paper, we discuss three key issues relevant to the experimental analysis of depth cue combination in human vision: cue promotion, dynamic weighting of cues, and robustness of cue combination. We review recent psychophysical studies of human depth cue combination in light of these issues. We organize the discussion and review as the development of a model of the depth cue combination process termed modified weak fusion (MWF). We relate the MWF framework to Bayesian theories of cue combination. We argue that the MWF model is consistent with previous experimental results and is a parsimonious summary of these results. While the MWF model is motivated by normative considerations, it is primarily intended to guide experimental analysis of depth cue combination in human vision. We describe experimental methods, analogous to perturbation analysis, that permit us to analyze depth cue combination in novel ways. In particular these methods allow us to investigate the key issues we have raised. We summarize recent experimental tests of the MWF framework that use these methods.

  11. Combination strategies for pandemic influenza response - a systematic review of mathematical modeling studies

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    Lee Vernon J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual strategies in pandemic preparedness plans may not reduce the impact of an influenza pandemic. Methods We searched modeling publications through PubMed and associated references from 1990 to 30 September 2009. Inclusion criteria were modeling papers quantifying the effectiveness of combination strategies, both pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical. Results Nineteen modeling papers on combination strategies were selected. Four studies examined combination strategies on a global scale, 14 on single countries, and one on a small community. Stochastic individual-based modeling was used in nine studies, stochastic meta-population modeling in five, and deterministic compartmental modeling in another five. As part of combination strategies, vaccination was explored in eight studies, antiviral prophylaxis and/or treatment in 16, area or household quarantine in eight, case isolation in six, social distancing measures in 10 and air travel restriction in six studies. Two studies suggested a high probability of successful influenza epicenter containment with combination strategies under favorable conditions. During a pandemic, combination strategies delayed spread, reduced overall number of cases, and delayed and reduced peak attack rate more than individual strategies. Combination strategies remained effective at high reproductive numbers compared with single strategy. Global cooperative strategies, including redistribution of antiviral drugs, were effective in reducing the global impact and attack rates of pandemic influenza. Conclusion Combination strategies increase the effectiveness of individual strategies. They include pharmaceutical (antiviral agents, antibiotics and vaccines and non-pharmaceutical interventions (case isolation, quarantine, personal hygiene measures, social distancing and travel restriction. Local epidemiological and modeling studies are needed to validate efficacy and feasibility.

  12. Combining Metabolite-Based Pharmacophores with Bayesian Machine Learning Models for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Malabika; Li, Shao-Gang; Mittal, Nisha; Kumar, Pradeep; Wang, Xin; Stratton, Thomas P.; Zimmerman, Matthew; Talcott, Carolyn; Bourbon, Pauline; Travers, Mike; Yadav, Maneesh

    2015-01-01

    Integrated computational approaches for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are useful to identify new molecules that could lead to future tuberculosis (TB) drugs. Our approach uses information derived from the TBCyc pathway and genome database, the Collaborative Drug Discovery TB database combined with 3D pharmacophores and dual event Bayesian models of whole-cell activity and lack of cytotoxicity. We have prioritized a large number of molecules that may act as mimics of substrates and metabolites in the TB metabolome. We computationally searched over 200,000 commercial molecules using 66 pharmacophores based on substrates and metabolites from Mtb and further filtering with Bayesian models. We ultimately tested 110 compounds in vitro that resulted in two compounds of interest, BAS 04912643 and BAS 00623753 (MIC of 2.5 and 5 μg/mL, respectively). These molecules were used as a starting point for hit-to-lead optimization. The most promising class proved to be the quinoxaline di-N-oxides, evidenced by transcriptional profiling to induce mRNA level perturbations most closely resembling known protonophores. One of these, SRI58 exhibited an MIC = 1.25 μg/mL versus Mtb and a CC50 in Vero cells of >40 μg/mL, while featuring fair Caco-2 A-B permeability (2.3 x 10−6 cm/s), kinetic solubility (125 μM at pH 7.4 in PBS) and mouse metabolic stability (63.6% remaining after 1 h incubation with mouse liver microsomes). Despite demonstration of how a combined bioinformatics/cheminformatics approach afforded a small molecule with promising in vitro profiles, we found that SRI58 did not exhibit quantifiable blood levels in mice. PMID:26517557

  13. Combining Metabolite-Based Pharmacophores with Bayesian Machine Learning Models for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Discovery.

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    Sean Ekins

    Full Text Available Integrated computational approaches for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb are useful to identify new molecules that could lead to future tuberculosis (TB drugs. Our approach uses information derived from the TBCyc pathway and genome database, the Collaborative Drug Discovery TB database combined with 3D pharmacophores and dual event Bayesian models of whole-cell activity and lack of cytotoxicity. We have prioritized a large number of molecules that may act as mimics of substrates and metabolites in the TB metabolome. We computationally searched over 200,000 commercial molecules using 66 pharmacophores based on substrates and metabolites from Mtb and further filtering with Bayesian models. We ultimately tested 110 compounds in vitro that resulted in two compounds of interest, BAS 04912643 and BAS 00623753 (MIC of 2.5 and 5 μg/mL, respectively. These molecules were used as a starting point for hit-to-lead optimization. The most promising class proved to be the quinoxaline di-N-oxides, evidenced by transcriptional profiling to induce mRNA level perturbations most closely resembling known protonophores. One of these, SRI58 exhibited an MIC = 1.25 μg/mL versus Mtb and a CC50 in Vero cells of >40 μg/mL, while featuring fair Caco-2 A-B permeability (2.3 x 10-6 cm/s, kinetic solubility (125 μM at pH 7.4 in PBS and mouse metabolic stability (63.6% remaining after 1 h incubation with mouse liver microsomes. Despite demonstration of how a combined bioinformatics/cheminformatics approach afforded a small molecule with promising in vitro profiles, we found that SRI58 did not exhibit quantifiable blood levels in mice.

  14. A Combined Cooperative Braking Model with a Predictive Control Strategy in an Electric Vehicle

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    Hongqiang Guo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative braking with regenerative braking and mechanical braking plays an important role in electric vehicles for energy-saving control. Based on the parallel and the series cooperative braking models, a combined model with a predictive control strategy to get a better cooperative braking performance is presented. The balance problem between the maximum regenerative energy recovery efficiency and the optimum braking stability is solved through an off-line process optimization stream with the collaborative optimization algorithm (CO. To carry out the process optimization stream, the optimal Latin hypercube design (Opt LHD is presented to discrete the continuous design space. To solve the poor real-time problem of the optimization, a high-precision predictive model based on the off-line optimization data of the combined model is built, and a predictive control strategy is proposed and verified through simulation. The simulation results demonstrate that the predictive control strategy and the combined model are reasonable and effective.

  15. Profile-QSAR: a novel meta-QSAR method that combines activities across the kinase family to accurately predict affinity, selectivity, and cellular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Eric; Mukherjee, Prasenjit; Sullivan, David; Jansen, Johanna

    2011-08-22

    Profile-QSAR is a novel 2D predictive model building method for kinases. This "meta-QSAR" method models the activity of each compound against a new kinase target as a linear combination of its predicted activities against a large panel of 92 previously studied kinases comprised from 115 assays. Profile-QSAR starts with a sparse incomplete kinase by compound (KxC) activity matrix, used to generate Bayesian QSAR models for the 92 "basis-set" kinases. These Bayesian QSARs generate a complete "synthetic" KxC activity matrix of predictions. These synthetic activities are used as "chemical descriptors" to train partial-least squares (PLS) models, from modest amounts of medium-throughput screening data, for predicting activity against new kinases. The Profile-QSAR predictions for the 92 kinases (115 assays) gave a median external R²(ext) = 0.59 on 25% held-out test sets. The method has proven accurate enough to predict pairwise kinase selectivities with a median correlation of R²(ext) = 0.61 for 958 kinase pairs with at least 600 common compounds. It has been further expanded by adding a "C(k)XC" cellular activity matrix to the KxC matrix to predict cellular activity for 42 kinase driven cellular assays with median R²(ext) = 0.58 for 24 target modulation assays and R²(ext) = 0.41 for 18 cell proliferation assays. The 2D Profile-QSAR, along with the 3D Surrogate AutoShim, are the foundations of an internally developed iterative medium-throughput screening (IMTS) methodology for virtual screening (VS) of compound archives as an alternative to experimental high-throughput screening (HTS). The method has been applied to 20 actual prospective kinase projects. Biological results have so far been obtained in eight of them. Q² values ranged from 0.3 to 0.7. Hit-rates at 10 uM for experimentally tested compounds varied from 25% to 80%, except in K5, which was a special case aimed specifically at finding "type II" binders, where none of the compounds were predicted to be

  16. Adjoint Variable Method for the Study of Combined Active and Passive Magnetic Shielding

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    Peter Sergeant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For shielding applications that cannot sufficiently be shielded by only a passive shield, it is useful to combine a passive and an active shield. Indeed, the latter does the “finetuning” of the field reduction that is mainly caused by the passive shield. The design requires the optimization of the geometry of the passive shield, the position of all coils of the active shield, and the real and imaginary components of the currents (when working in the frequency domain. As there are many variables, the computational effort for the optimization becomes huge. An optimization using genetic algorithms is compared with a classical gradient optimization and with a design sensitivity approach that uses an adjoint system. Several types of active and/or passive shields with constraints are designed. For each type, the optimization was carried out by all three techniques in order to compare them concerning CPU time and accuracy.

  17. Active Pedicle Epithelial Flap Transposition Combined with Amniotic Membrane Transplantation for Treatment of Nonhealing Corneal Ulcers

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    Ting Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of active pedicle epithelial flap transposition combined with amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT in treating nonhealing corneal ulcers. Material and Methods. Eleven patients (11 eyes with nonhealing corneal ulcer who underwent the combined surgery were included. Postoperatively, ulcer healing time was detected by corneal fluorescein staining. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, surgical complications, and recurrence were recorded. Corneal status was inspected by the laser scanning confocal microscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT. Results. The primary diseases were herpes simplex keratitis (8 eyes, corneal graft ulcer (2 eyes, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (1 eye. All epithelial flaps were intact following surgery, without shedding or displacement. Mean ulcer healing time was 10.8±3.1 days, with a healing rate of 91%. Vision significantly improved from 1.70 to 0.82 log MAR (P=0.001. A significant decrease in inflammatory cell infiltration and corneal stromal edema was revealed 2 months postoperatively by confocal microscopy and AS-OCT. Corneal ulcer recurred in 1 eye. None of the patients developed major complications. Conclusion. Active pedicle epithelial flap transposition combined with AMT is a simple and effective treatment for nonhealing corneal ulcers.

  18. Macrofilaricidal Activity in Wuchereria bancrofti after 2 Weeks Treatment with a Combination of Rifampicin plus Doxycycline

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    Alexander Yaw Debrah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with the filarial nematode Wuchereria bancrofti can lead to lymphedema, hydrocele, and elephantiasis. Since adult worms cause pathology in lymphatic filariasis (LF, it is imperative to discover macrofilaricidal drugs for the treatment of the infection. Endosymbiotic Wolbachia in filariae have emerged as a new target for antibiotics which can lead to macrofilaricidal effects. In Ghana, a pilot study was carried out with 39 LF-infected men; 12 were treated with 200 mg doxycycline/day for 4 weeks, 16 were treated with a combination of 200 mg doxycycline/day + 10 mg/kg/day rifampicin for 2 weeks, and 11 patients received placebo. Patients were monitored for Wolbachia and microfilaria loads, antigenaemia, and filarial dance sign (FDS. Both 4-week doxycycline and the 2-week combination treatment reduced Wolbachia load significantly. At 18 months posttreatment, four-week doxycycline resulted in 100% adult worm loss, and the 2-week combination treatment resulted in a 50% adult worm loss. In conclusion, this pilot study with a combination of 2-week doxycycline and rifampicin demonstrates moderate macrofilaricidal activity against W. bancrofti.

  19. Urban Saturated Power Load Analysis Based on a Novel Combined Forecasting Model

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    Huiru Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of urban saturated power loads is helpful to coordinate urban power grid construction and economic social development. There are two different kinds of forecasting models: the logistic curve model focuses on the growth law of the data itself, while the multi-dimensional forecasting model considers several influencing factors as the input variables. To improve forecasting performance, a novel combined forecasting model for saturated power load analysis was proposed in this paper, which combined the above two models. Meanwhile, the weights of these two models in the combined forecasting model were optimized by employing a fruit fly optimization algorithm. Using Hubei Province as the example, the effectiveness of the proposed combined forecasting model was verified, demonstrating a higher forecasting accuracy. The analysis result shows that the power load of Hubei Province will reach saturation in 2039, and the annual maximum power load will reach about 78,630 MW. The results obtained from this proposed hybrid urban saturated power load analysis model can serve as a reference for sustainable development for urban power grids, regional economies, and society at large.

  20. 寒、热方剂对水浸应激型胃溃疡寒、热证模型大鼠胃组织SOD活性、MDA含量的影响%The Influence of Cold or Heat Prescription on SOD Activity,MDA Contents in Gastric Tissue on Gastric Ulcer Induced by Bondage Water Immersion Stress Combined with Cold or Heat Syndrome Model Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冀; 毕珺辉; 柴剑波; 李胜志; 高彦宇; 肖洪彬; 赵雪莹

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨水浸应激型胃溃疡寒、热证模型的自由基代谢机制及寒、热方剂对该模型的自由基代谢的影响,阐明其方证相应的客观规律.方法:采用寒因素(冰水,0.3 mol/LNaOH液)、热因素(8%干辣椒粉的60%乙醇混悬液)分别结合水浸应激法,建立实验性大鼠胃溃疡寒、热证模型.采用黄嘌呤氧化酶法(羟氨法)、硫代巴比妥酸法检测胃组织中SOD活力及MDA含量.结果:SOD方面,水应激胃溃疡组、水应激胃溃疡寒证组、水应激胃溃疡热证组与空白比较活力下降,有显著性差异(P<0.01),但寒证与热证间比较无明显差异.MDA方面,水应激胃溃疡组、水应激胃溃疡热证组、单纯热证组与与空白比较含量明显升高,有显著性差异(P<0.01),且以水应激胃溃疡热证组升高最为显著.大黄黄连泻心汤、理中丸可选择性针对相应的寒性、热性模型体现出对自由基代谢的调节作用.结论:通过“方证相应”理论验证了“病证结合”胃溃疡寒、热证模型的可行性.水浸应激型胃溃疡寒、热证模型存在自由基代谢异常.MDA可作为水浸应激型胃溃疡热证的微观指征.%Objective: To explore the free radical metabolize mechanism of gastric ulcer model induced by bondage water immersion stress combined with cold or heat syndrome, and the influence of cold or heat prescription on free radical me-tabolizable mechanism. And to observe the basic mechanism of action and objective regularity of "formula - syndrome corresponding" of cold or heat formula on gastric ulcer model combined with cold or heat syndrome. Methods; Adopting cold or heat factors combined with bondage water immersion stress methods to establish gastric ulcer model combined with cold and heat syndrome. Using xanthine oxidase method to detect the activity of SOD and thibabituric acid(TBA) method to detect the contents of MDA in gastric tissue. Results:Compared with the blank group, the

  1. A combined Preisach–Hyperbolic Tangent model for magnetic hysteresis of Terfenol-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a new model using the combination of Preisach and Hyperbolic Tangent models, to predict the magnetic hysteresis of Terfenol-D at different frequencies. Initially, a proper experimental setup was fabricated and used to obtain different magnetic hysteresis curves of Terfenol-D; such as major, minor and reversal loops. Then, it was shown that the Hyperbolic Tangent model is precisely capable of modeling the magnetic hysteresis of the Terfenol-D for both rate-independent and rate-dependent cases. Empirical equations were proposed with respect to magnetic field frequency which can calculate the non-dimensional coefficients needed by the model. These empirical equations were validated at new frequencies of 100 Hz and 300 Hz. Finally, the new model was developed through the combination of Preisach and Hyperbolic Tangent models. In the combined model, analytical relations of the Hyperbolic Tangent model for the first order reversal loops determined the weighting function of the Preisach model. This model reduces the required experiments and errors due to numerical differentiations generally needed for characterization of the Preisach function. In addition, it can predict the rate-dependent hysteresis as well as rate-independent hysteresis. - Highlights: • Different hysteresis curves of Terfenol-D are experimentally obtained at 0–200 Hz. • A new model is presented using combination of Preisach and Hyperbolic Tangent models. • The model predicts both rate-independent and rate-dependent hystereses of Terfenol-D. • The analytical model reduces the numerical errors and number of required experiments

  2. A combined Preisach–Hyperbolic Tangent model for magnetic hysteresis of Terfenol-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talebian, Soheil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hojjat, Yousef, E-mail: yhojjat@modares.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghodsi, Mojtaba [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat (Oman); Karafi, Mohammad Reza [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzamohammadi, Shahed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    This study presents a new model using the combination of Preisach and Hyperbolic Tangent models, to predict the magnetic hysteresis of Terfenol-D at different frequencies. Initially, a proper experimental setup was fabricated and used to obtain different magnetic hysteresis curves of Terfenol-D; such as major, minor and reversal loops. Then, it was shown that the Hyperbolic Tangent model is precisely capable of modeling the magnetic hysteresis of the Terfenol-D for both rate-independent and rate-dependent cases. Empirical equations were proposed with respect to magnetic field frequency which can calculate the non-dimensional coefficients needed by the model. These empirical equations were validated at new frequencies of 100 Hz and 300 Hz. Finally, the new model was developed through the combination of Preisach and Hyperbolic Tangent models. In the combined model, analytical relations of the Hyperbolic Tangent model for the first order reversal loops determined the weighting function of the Preisach model. This model reduces the required experiments and errors due to numerical differentiations generally needed for characterization of the Preisach function. In addition, it can predict the rate-dependent hysteresis as well as rate-independent hysteresis. - Highlights: • Different hysteresis curves of Terfenol-D are experimentally obtained at 0–200 Hz. • A new model is presented using combination of Preisach and Hyperbolic Tangent models. • The model predicts both rate-independent and rate-dependent hystereses of Terfenol-D. • The analytical model reduces the numerical errors and number of required experiments.

  3. Hormonal crosstalk for root development: a combined experimental and modelling perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith eLindsey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile organisms and therefore they must adapt their growth and architecture to a changing environment. Understanding how hormones and genes interact to coordinate plant growth in a changing environment is a major challenge in developmental biology. Although a localized auxin concentration maximum in the root tip is important for root development, auxin concentration cannot change independently of multiple interacting hormones and genes. In this review, we discuss the experimental evidence showing that the POLARIS peptide of Arabidopsis plays an important role in hormonal crosstalk and root growth, and review the crosstalk between auxin and other hormones for root growth with and without osmotic stress. Moreover, we discuss that experimental evidence showing that, in root development, hormones and the associated regulatory and target genes form a network, in which relevant genes regulate hormone activities and hormones regulate gene expression. We further discuss how it is increasingly evident that mathematical modelling is a valuable tool for studying hormonal crosstalk. Therefore, a combined experimental and modelling study on hormonal crosstalk is important for elucidating the complexity of root development.

  4. Active Appearance Model Based Hand Gesture Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the application of hand gesture recognition in monocular image sequences using Active Appearance Model (AAM). For this work, the proposed algorithm is conposed of constructing AAMs and fitting the models to the interest region. In training stage, according to the manual labeled feature points, the relative AAM is constructed and the corresponding average feature is obtained. In recognition stage, the interesting hand gesture region is firstly segmented by skin and movement cues.Secondly, the models are fitted to the image that includes the hand gesture, and the relative features are extracted.Thirdly, the classification is done by comparing the extracted features and average features. 30 different gestures of Chinese sign language are applied for testing the effectiveness of the method. The Experimental results are given indicating good performance of the algorithm.

  5. On a Quantum Model of Brain Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, K.-H.; Fichtner, L.; Freudenberg, W.; Ohya, M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main activities of the brain is the recognition of signals. A first attempt to explain the process of recognition in terms of quantum statistics was given in [6]. Subsequently, details of the mathematical model were presented in a (still incomplete) series of papers (cf. [7, 2, 5, 10]). In the present note we want to give a general view of the principal ideas of this approach. We will introduce the basic spaces and justify the choice of spaces and operations. Further, we bring the model face to face with basic postulates any statistical model of the recognition process should fulfill. These postulates are in accordance with the opinion widely accepted in psychology and neurology.

  6. Patterns of Activity in a Global Model of a Solar Active Region

    CERN Document Server

    Bradshaw, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    In this work we investigate the global activity patterns predicted from a model active region heated by distributions of nanoflares that have a range of frequencies. What differs is the average frequency of the distributions. The activity patterns are manifested in time lag maps of narrow-band instrument channel pairs. We combine hydrodynamic and forward modeling codes with a magnetic field extrapolation to create a model active region and apply the time lag method to synthetic observations. Our aim is not to reproduce a particular set of observations in detail, but to recover some typical properties and patterns observed in active regions. Our key findings are the following. 1. cooling dominates the time lag signature and the time lags between the channel pairs are generally consistent with observed values. 2. shorter coronal loops in the core cool more quickly than longer loops at the periphery. 3. all channel pairs show zero time lag when the line-of-sight passes through coronal loop foot-points. 4. there ...

  7. Voice Activity Detection in Noisy Environments Based on Double-Combined Fourier Transform and Line Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsoo Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new voice activity detector for noisy environments is proposed. In conventional algorithms, the endpoint of speech is found by applying an edge detection filter that finds the abrupt changing point in a feature domain. However, since the frame energy feature is unstable in noisy environments, it is difficult to accurately find the endpoint of speech. Therefore, a novel feature extraction algorithm based on the double-combined Fourier transform and envelope line fitting is proposed. It is combined with an edge detection filter for effective detection of endpoints. Effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is evaluated and compared to other VAD algorithms using two different databases, which are AURORA 2.0 database and SITEC database. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs well under a variety of noisy conditions.

  8. Combined effects of weight loss and physical activity on all-cause mortality of overweight men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, J N; Grønbaek, M; Schnohr, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the excess deaths associated with weight loss in combination with leisure time physical activity among overweight or obese people.......To estimate the excess deaths associated with weight loss in combination with leisure time physical activity among overweight or obese people....

  9. MODEL OF ACTIVITY OF THE ENTERPRISE AS MODEL OF ACTIVITY OF THE HUMAN: SEARCH ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Flerovich Vildanov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Actualized demand of manufactury company's efficiency from the point of quality charachteristics. Reveal unbreakable connection of man and organisation, on example of the comparative analysis of man's and manufacture company's activities. Studing models of company's and men's activities in order to reveal similarity. In order of their implementation to the economics assumes opportunity of using scientific methods, which use for studying functions, vital activities and behavior of the men.

  10. Combination therapy of orally administered glycyrrhizin and UVB improved active-stage generalized vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, K H; Han, D; Liu, W L; Li, P

    2016-07-25

    Glycyrrhizin has been used clinically for several years due to its beneficial effect on immunoglobulin E (IgE)-induced allergic diseases, alopecia areata and psoriasis. In this study, glycyrrhizin, ultraviolet B light (UVB) or a combination of both were used to treat active-stage generalized vitiligo. One hundred and forty-four patients between the ages of 3 and 48 years were divided into three groups: group A received oral compound glycyrrhizin (OCG); group B received UVB applications twice weekly, and group C received OCG+UVB. Follow-ups were performed at 2, 4, and 6 months after the treatment was initiated. The Vitiligo Area Scoring Index (VASI) and the Vitiligo Disease Activity (VIDA) instrument were used to assess the affected body surface, at each follow-up. Results showed that 77.1, 75.0 and 87.5% in groups A, B and C, respectively, presented repigmentation of lesions. Responsiveness to therapy seemed to be associated with lesion location and patient compliance. Adverse events were limited and transient. This study showed that, although the three treatment protocols had positive results, OCG and UVB combination therapy was the most effective and led to improvement in disease stage from active to stable. PMID:27464024

  11. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewater using a combined wet air oxidation/activated sludge process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, C.J.; Petty, S.E.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1983-02-01

    A lab-scale treatability study for using thermal and biological oxidation to treat a biomass gasification wastewater (BGW) having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 46,000 mg/l is described. Wet air oxidation (WA0) at 300/sup 0/C and 13.8 MPa (2000 psi) was used to initially treat the BGW and resulted in a COD reduction of 74%. This was followed by conventional activated sludge treatment using operating conditions typical of municipal sewage treatment plants. This resulted in an additional 95% COD removal. Overall COD reduction for the combined process was 99%. A detailed chemical analysis of the raw BGW and thermal and biological effluents was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These results showed a 97% decrease in total extractable organics with WA0 and a 99.6% decrease for combined WA0 and activated sludge treatment. Components of the treated waters tended to be fewer in number and more highly oxidized. An experiment was conducted to determine the amount of COD reduction caused by volatilization during biological treatment. Unfortunately, this did not yield conclusive results. Treatment of BGW using WA0 followed by activated sludge appears to be very effective and investigations at a larger scale are recommended.

  12. Combination therapy of orally administered glycyrrhizin and UVB improved active-stage generalized vitiligo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, K.H.; Han, D.; Liu, W.L.; Li, P.

    2016-01-01

    Glycyrrhizin has been used clinically for several years due to its beneficial effect on immunoglobulin E (IgE)-induced allergic diseases, alopecia areata and psoriasis. In this study, glycyrrhizin, ultraviolet B light (UVB) or a combination of both were used to treat active-stage generalized vitiligo. One hundred and forty-four patients between the ages of 3 and 48 years were divided into three groups: group A received oral compound glycyrrhizin (OCG); group B received UVB applications twice weekly, and group C received OCG+UVB. Follow-ups were performed at 2, 4, and 6 months after the treatment was initiated. The Vitiligo Area Scoring Index (VASI) and the Vitiligo Disease Activity (VIDA) instrument were used to assess the affected body surface, at each follow-up. Results showed that 77.1, 75.0 and 87.5% in groups A, B and C, respectively, presented repigmentation of lesions. Responsiveness to therapy seemed to be associated with lesion location and patient compliance. Adverse events were limited and transient. This study showed that, although the three treatment protocols had positive results, OCG and UVB combination therapy was the most effective and led to improvement in disease stage from active to stable. PMID:27464024

  13. Development of a generic activities model of command and control

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, NA; Baber, C; Walker, GH; Houghton, RJ; McMaster, R.; Stewart, R; Harris, D.; Jenkins, DP; Young, MS; Salmon, PM

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on five different models of command and control. Four different models are reviewed: a process model, a contextual control model, a decision ladder model and a functional model. Further to this, command and control activities are analysed in three distinct domains: armed forces, emergency services and civilian services. From this analysis, taxonomies of command and control activities are developed that give rise to an activities model of command and control. This model w...

  14. Comparison of Simple Models of Periodic Protocols for Combined Anticancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Dołbniak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several simple ordinary differential equation (ODE models of tumor growth taking into account the development of its vascular network are discussed. Different biological aspects are considered from the simplest model of Hahnfeldt et al. proposed in 1999 to a model which includes drug resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy. Some of these models can be used in clinical oncology to optimize antiangiogenic and cytostatic drugs delivery so as to ensure maximum efficacy. Simple models of continuous and periodic protocols of combined therapy are implemented. Discussion on the dynamics of the models and their complexity is presented.

  15. Activities of colistin- and minocycline-based combinations against extensive drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from intensive care unit patients

    OpenAIRE

    Li Jian; Zhu De-mei; Huang Jun; Liu Xiao-fang; Liang Wang; Zhang Jing

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Extensive drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii is a serious problem in the clinical setting. It is therefore important to find active antibiotic combinations that could be effective in the treatment of infections caused by this problematic 'superbug'. In this study, we analyzed the in vitro activities of three colistin-based combinations and a minocycline-based combination against clinically isolated extensive drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB) strains. ...

  16. A Manager's Perspective on Combining Expert and Model-based Forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Legerstee (Rianne)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe study the performance of sales forecasts which linearly combine model-based forecasts and expert forecasts. Using a unique and very large database containing monthly model-based forecasts for many pharmaceutical products and forecasts given by thirty-seven different experts, we docume

  17. Modelling Combined Heat Exchange in the Leading Edge of Perspective Aircraft Wing

    OpenAIRE

    Kandinsky Roman O.; Prosuntsov Pavel V.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper gas dynamic numerical modelling of leading edge flow is presented and thermal loading parameters are determined. Numerical modelling of combined radiative and conductive heat transfer of the wing edge is carried out, thermal state of structure is given and the results are analyzed.

  18. A finite-element model for healing of cutaneous wounds combining contraction, angiogenesis and closure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermolen, F.J.; Javierre, E.

    2011-01-01

    A simplified finite-element model for wound healing is proposed. The model takes into account the sequential steps of dermal regeneration, wound contraction, angiogenesis and wound closure. An innovation in the present study is the combination of the aforementioned partially overlapping processes, w

  19. [Combined hopping-superexchange mechanism of charge transfer in DNA; a model with nearest interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhno, V D; Sultanov, V B

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the earlier developed combined hopping-superexchange mechanism of charge transfer in DNA, a model with all nearest interactions between nucleobases is proposed. It is shown that the transfer rates for various types of nucleotide sequences calculated within this model are in a good agreement with experimental data.

  20. Modelling Combined Heat Exchange in the Leading Edge of Perspective Aircraft Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandinsky Roman O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper gas dynamic numerical modelling of leading edge flow is presented and thermal loading parameters are determined. Numerical modelling of combined radiative and conductive heat transfer of the wing edge is carried out, thermal state of structure is given and the results are analyzed.

  1. Enhanced activation of motor execution networks using action observation combined with imagination of lower limb movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Villiger

    Full Text Available The combination of first-person observation and motor imagery, i.e. first-person observation of limbs with online motor imagination, is commonly used in interactive 3D computer gaming and in some movie scenes. These scenarios are designed to induce a cognitive process in which a subject imagines himself/herself acting as the agent in the displayed movement situation. Despite the ubiquity of this type of interaction and its therapeutic potential, its relationship to passive observation and imitation during observation has not been directly studied using an interactive paradigm. In the present study we show activation resulting from observation, coupled with online imagination and with online imitation of a goal-directed lower limb movement using functional MRI (fMRI in a mixed block/event-related design. Healthy volunteers viewed a video (first-person perspective of a foot kicking a ball. They were instructed to observe-only the action (O, observe and simultaneously imagine performing the action (O-MI, or imitate the action (O-IMIT. We found that when O-MI was compared to O, activation was enhanced in the ventralpremotor cortex bilaterally, left inferior parietal lobule and left insula. The O-MI and O-IMIT conditions shared many activation foci in motor relevant areas as confirmed by conjunction analysis. These results show that (i combining observation with motor imagery (O-MI enhances activation compared to observation-only (O in the relevant foot motor network and in regions responsible for attention, for control of goal-directed movements and for the awareness of causing an action, and (ii it is possible to extensively activate the motor execution network using O-MI, even in the absence of overt movement. Our results may have implications for the development of novel virtual reality interactions for neurorehabilitation interventions and other applications involving training of motor tasks.

  2. Enhanced activation of motor execution networks using action observation combined with imagination of lower limb movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villiger, Michael; Estévez, Natalia; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kiper, Daniel; Kollias, Spyros S; Eng, Kynan; Hotz-Boendermaker, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    The combination of first-person observation and motor imagery, i.e. first-person observation of limbs with online motor imagination, is commonly used in interactive 3D computer gaming and in some movie scenes. These scenarios are designed to induce a cognitive process in which a subject imagines himself/herself acting as the agent in the displayed movement situation. Despite the ubiquity of this type of interaction and its therapeutic potential, its relationship to passive observation and imitation during observation has not been directly studied using an interactive paradigm. In the present study we show activation resulting from observation, coupled with online imagination and with online imitation of a goal-directed lower limb movement using functional MRI (fMRI) in a mixed block/event-related design. Healthy volunteers viewed a video (first-person perspective) of a foot kicking a ball. They were instructed to observe-only the action (O), observe and simultaneously imagine performing the action (O-MI), or imitate the action (O-IMIT). We found that when O-MI was compared to O, activation was enhanced in the ventralpremotor cortex bilaterally, left inferior parietal lobule and left insula. The O-MI and O-IMIT conditions shared many activation foci in motor relevant areas as confirmed by conjunction analysis. These results show that (i) combining observation with motor imagery (O-MI) enhances activation compared to observation-only (O) in the relevant foot motor network and in regions responsible for attention, for control of goal-directed movements and for the awareness of causing an action, and (ii) it is possible to extensively activate the motor execution network using O-MI, even in the absence of overt movement. Our results may have implications for the development of novel virtual reality interactions for neurorehabilitation interventions and other applications involving training of motor tasks. PMID:24015241

  3. In vitro activity of antibiotics alone and in combination against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev, R; Shulman, D; Shulman, S T; Glogowski, W G

    1986-01-01

    The MICs for 90% of the organisms tested (MIC90S) of 11 antibiotics against 24 clinical isolates of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans were determined by the MIC 2000 system. The lowest MIC90S (16 micrograms/ml) were observed with ceftriaxone and rifampin. The next lowest MIC90S were found with cephapirin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol (3.12 micrograms/ml). The MIC90S of penicillin, ampicillin, ticarcillin, piperacillin, and amikacin were each greater than or equal to 12.5 micrograms/ml. Antibiotic synergy was studied by the killing curve method and was defined as a greater than or equal to 2 log10 reduction in CFU when two antibiotics were used in combination at one-fourth the MBC for each compared with the effect of each antibiotic alone at one-half the MBC. Synergism between rifampin and penicillin, cephapirin, or ceftriaxone was tested for with 12 A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. In 7 of 37 instances, synergism was demonstrated for the combinations rifampin plus ceftriaxone (n = 3) or rifampin plus penicillin (n = 4); in 9 instances, an additive effect was noted, and impaired killing with drug combinations compared with the effect of a single antibiotic was suggested in 4 strains. The majority of strains were indifferent to the combinations. Similarly, variable results were observed when the combination of trimethoprim and cephapirin was tested against eight A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. Our data suggest that rifampin and cephapirin are the most active of the 11 antibiotics studied against A. actinomycetemcomitans. In addition, in vitro synergism between rifampin and other antibiotics or between trimethoprim and cephapirin was not consistently demonstrable.

  4. A Model Based Control methodology combining Blade Pitch and Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps in a common framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This work investigates how adaptive trailing edge flaps and classical blade pitch can work in concert using a model-based state space control formulation. The trade-off between load reduction and actuator activity is decided by setting different weights in the objective function used by the model......-based controller. The combined control approach allow to achieve higher load alleviations, furthermore, in the presence of e.g. deterioration of an actuator, it enables an online re-tuning of the workload distribution of blade pitch and trailing edge flaps, thus potentially increasing the smart rotor reliability....

  5. A Model Based Control methodology combining Blade Pitch and Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps in a common framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian; Bergami, Leonardo; Andersen, Peter Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates how adaptive trailing edge flaps and classical blade pitch can work in concert using a model-based state space control formulation. The trade-off between load reduction and actuator activity is decided by setting different weights in the objective function used by the model......-based controller. The combined control approach allow to achieve higher load alleviations, furthermore, in the presence of e.g. deterioration of an actuator, it enables an online re-tuning of the workload distribution of blade pitch and trailing edge flaps, thus potentially increasing the smart rotor reliability....

  6. Why combine diet and physical activity in the same international research society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranowski Tom

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research in diet and physical activity in the U.S. started in very different traditions, with behavioral science input being uneven in their development. Investigators and policy makers in Europe have recognized the complementarity of diet and physical activity and incorporated them both under the label Public Health Nutrition. Joining these disciplines internationally offers the opportunity to benefit all, since the problems addressed are human, not specific to any one country. In regard to why combine diet and physical activity, at the biological level, there is reason to believe that diet and physical activity working in concert can remodel physiological structures and processes toward healthful ends. The diet and physical activity behaviors themselves vary in characteristics and are similar in others. The behavioral science components of these two disciplines face similar problems, and can learn from the advances made by the other, in the areas of measurement, correlates and intervention. By working together, knowledge will be enhanced from uncovering complementary and interactive relationships between diet and physical activity, and in relation to disease risks, that may result in designing more effective and efficient interventions and policies. Since the behavioral sciences are at a disadvantage in comparison to the biological sciences in terms of scientific advances and thereby capturing the popular imagination for solutions to health problems, we must redouble our efforts to enhance funding for behavioral research in regard to diet and physical activity and to make the research advances necessary to prevent the medicalizing of essentially social and behavioral problems. Nutrition and physical activity should most effectively do this together.

  7. Combination therapy targeting the tumor microenvironment is effective in a model of human ocular melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schafer Peter H

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ocular melanoma is the leading intraocular malignancy. There is no effective treatment for metastatic ocular melanoma. We sought a treatment targeting the tumor microenvironment as well as the tumor cells. Methods Migration of HUVEC cells, the ability of HUVEC cells to form tubes, and proliferative capacity of a human ocular melanoma cell line were tested in the presence of lenalidomide and sorafenib alone and in combination. The compounds were also tested in a rat aortic ring assay and were tested in a highly aggressive human ocular melanoma xenograft model. Results Lenalidomide and Sorafenib inhibit HUVEC ability to migrate and form tubes and when used in combination the inhibition is increased. The agents alone and in combination inhibit outgrowth in the rat aortic ring model. The combination of the agents improved the inhibition over either single agent. In a xenograft model, combination therapy inhibited tumor growth over inhibition by single agent alone in a significant fashion (p Conclusion Lenalidomide and sorafenib are effective at targeting endothelial cells, inhibiting growth of ocular melanoma cells and can inhibit growth of tumors in a xenograft model as well as inhibit development of metastases. Combining these agents works in an additive to synergistic way to inhibit the growth of tumors and development of metastases.

  8. Establishment of rat model of combined kidney-adrenal gland allotransplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanjun Shi; Ruipeng Jia; Jiageng Zhu; Guangcheng Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To establish a rat model of combined kidney-adrenal gland and allotransplantation, and to explore the immunoprotecive effect of the transplanted adrenal gland on the transplanted kidney in the combined transplantation.Methods: SD rats 160 served as donors and recipients. The combined kidney-adrenal gland allotransplantation was performed.Infusion was conducted and prepared at prime position ,and the kidney and adrenal gland were at the left side. Direct vascular anastomosis and operation of connecting ureter attached part of bladder with the bladder were conducted. The kidney pedicle of the right side was ligated. Results: A stable and mature rat model of combined transplantation was established. The warm ischemia time was 30 seconds, and the cold ischemia time was 90-120min. The average time was 100 min. The operation time was 150 min.The survival time of the recipients was 21 days. The successful rate of the operation was 75%. Conclusion: The model of the combined kidney-adrenal gland allotransplantation can be established with higher successful rate. The model can be used to explore that transplanted adrenal gland may have immunoprotecive effect on the transplanted kidney in the combined transplantation.

  9. The Combination of Antidepressant Duloxetine with Piracetam in Mice does not Produce Enhancement of Nootropic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kale, Pravin Popatrao; Addepalli, Veeranjaneyulu; Sarkar, Amrita; Patel, Sonam; Savai, Jay

    2014-01-01

    There is a strong association between depression and memory impairment. The present study aims to assess the nootropic activity of duloxetine and piracetam combination. Male Swiss Albino mice were divided randomly into 4 groups. Treatment of normal saline (10 ml/kg), duloxetine (10 mg/kg), piracetam (100 mg/kg), and duloxetine (5 mg/kg) plus piracetam (50 mg/kg) were given through intra-peritoneal route to group I-IV, respectively. Transfer latency in elevated plus maze (EPM) and time spent i...

  10. Activity and safety of combined rituximab with chlorambucil in patients with mantle cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauwens, Deborah; Maerevoet, Marie; Michaux, Lucienne; Théate, Ivan; Hagemeijer, Anne; Stul, Michel; Danse, Etienne; Costantini, Sabrina; Vannuffel, Pascal; Straetmans, Nicole; Vekemans, Marie-Christiane; Deneys, Véronique; Ferrant, Augustin; Van Den Neste, Eric

    2005-11-01

    We evaluated the combination of rituximab with chlorambucil in patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) not eligible for aggressive therapy. Fourteen patients (male/female: 9/5) were included (two newly diagnosed, 12 relapsed/refractory). The toxicities were neutropenia, thrombopenia and infection. Nine (64%) patients responded; five (36%) achieved complete remission and four (29%) achieved partial remission. The median progression-free survival for responders was 26 months (95% CI, 4-48). Marrow polymerase chain reaction negativity was attained in seven responders. These results suggest that this schedule may have notable antitumour activity in patients with MCL, including patients in relapse after autologous stem cell transplantation. PMID:16225653

  11. ENSO and annual cycle interaction: the combination mode representation in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-Li; Zuo, Jinqing; Jin, Fei-Fei; Stuecker, Malte F.

    2016-06-01

    Recent research demonstrated the existence of a combination mode (C-mode) originating from the atmospheric nonlinear interaction between the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific warm pool annual cycle. In this paper, we show that the majority of coupled climate models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) are able to reproduce the observed spatial pattern of the C-mode in terms of surface wind anomalies reasonably well, and about half of the coupled models are able to reproduce spectral power at the combination tone periodicities of about 10 and/or 15 months. Compared to the CMIP5 historical simulations, the CMIP5 Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) simulations can generally exhibit a more realistic simulation of the C-mode due to prescribed lower boundary forcing. Overall, the multi-model ensemble average of the CMIP5 models tends to capture the C-mode better than the individual models. Furthermore, the models with better performance in simulating the ENSO mode tend to also exhibit a more realistic C-mode with respect to its spatial pattern and amplitude, in both the CMIP5 historical and AMIP simulations. This study shows that the CMIP5 models are able to simulate the proposed combination mode mechanism to some degree, resulting from their reasonable performance in representing the ENSO mode. It is suggested that the main ENSO periods in the current climate models needs to be further improved for making the C-mode better.

  12. Autonomous 3D Modeling of Unknown Objects for Active Scene Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Kriegel, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The thesis Autonomous 3D Modeling of Unknown Objects for Active Scene Exploration presents an approach for efficient model generation of small-scale objects applying a robot-sensor system. Active scene exploration incorporates object recognition methods for analyzing a scene of partially known objects as well as exploration approaches for autonomous modeling of unknown parts. Here, recognition, exploration, and planning methods are extended and combined in a single scene exploration system, e...

  13. Linking activity-based travel demand models and traffic assignment: A Flemish case study

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaekers, Katrien; Kochan, Bruno; BELLEMANS, Tom; JANSSENS, Davy; Wets, Geert

    2008-01-01

    A custom agent-based simulation framework is developed that combines the fields of traffic demand modeling and traffic assignment, applied to the region of Flanders (Belgium). The framework uses an activity-based approach to model traffic demand and an assignment module that is linked to the traffic demand module. Activity data for the framework is provided by a large scale survey, conducted on 2500 households in the study area. The agent-based simulation model consists of over six million ag...

  14. Combination of Model Checking and Theorem Proving to Verify Embedded Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jian-yu; ZHANG De-yun; DONG Hao; CHEN Hai-quan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a scheme of combining model checking and theorem proving techniques to verify high trustworthy embedded software is proposed. The software model described in state machine of unified model language is transformed into the input modeling language of a model checker in which the model is analyzed with associated property specifications expressed in temporal logic. The software model which has been verified by model checker is then transformed into abstract specifications of a theorem prover , in which the model will be refined, verified and translated into source C code. The transformation rules from state machine to input language of model checker and abstract specifications of theorem prover are given. The experiment shows that the proposed scheme can effectively improve the development and verification of high trustworthy embedded software.

  15. A combined spectroscopic and photometric stellar activity study of Epsilon Eridani

    CERN Document Server

    Giguere, Matthew J; Zhang, Cyril X Y; Matthews, Jaymie M; Cameron, Chris; Henry, Gregory W

    2016-01-01

    We present simultaneous ground-based radial velocity (RV) measurements and space-based photometric measurements of the young and active K dwarf Epsilon Eridani. These measurements provide a data set for exploring methods of identifying and ultimately distinguishing stellar photospheric velocities from Keplerian motion. We compare three methods we have used in exploring this data set: Dalmatian, an MCMC spot modeling code that fits photometric and RV measurements simultaneously; the FF$'$ method, which uses photometric measurements to predict the stellar activity signal in simultaneous RV measurements; and H$\\alpha$ analysis. We show that our H$\\alpha$ measurements are strongly correlated with photometry from the Microvariability and Oscillations of STars (MOST) instrument, which led to a promising new method based solely on the spectroscopic observations. This new method, which we refer to as the HH$'$ method, uses H$\\alpha$ measurements as input into the FF$'$ model. While the Dalmatian spot modeling analysi...

  16. Modeling Aspects Of Activated Sludge Processes Part I: Process Modeling Of Activated Sludge Facilitation And Sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process modeling of activated sludge flocculation and sedimentation reviews consider the activated sludge floc characteristics such as: morphology viable and non-viable cell ratio density and water content, bio flocculation and its kinetics were studied considering the characteristics of bio flocculation and explaining theory of Divalent Cation Bridging which describes the major role of cations in bio flocculation. Activated sludge flocculation process modeling was studied considering mass transfer limitations from Clifft and Andrew, 1981, Benefild and Molz 1983 passing Henze 1987, until Tyagi 1996 and G. Ibrahim et aI. 2002. Models of aggregation and breakage of flocs were studied by Spicer and Pratsinis 1996,and Biggs 2002 Size distribution of floes influences mass transfer and biomass separation in the activated sludge process. Therefore, it is of primary importance to establish the role of specific process operation factors, such as sludge loading dynamic sludge age and dissolved oxygen, on this distribution with special emphasis on the formation of primary particles

  17. An Application of Combined Model for Tehran Metropolitan Area Incorporating Captive Travel Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar A. Zargari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome deficiencies of the sequential transportation planning approach, this research applies a Combined Trip Distribution and Assignment Model (CTDAM for the simultaneous prediction. The proposed combined model can itself be reformulated as an Equivalent Minimization Problem (EMP. When applying the Evans algorithm to the EMP, the CTDAM is expected to be usable in a realistic application. The objective of this research is to compare the conventional sequential procedure and CTDAM by applying both models to a large urban transportation network for captive trip purposes. Several evaluation measures were utilized to compare the results and confirm that the proposed model can efficiently satisfy several convergence criterions. It became clear that the User Equilibrium (UE assignment in the proposed model can be obtained relatively swifter than the Sequential Model (SM and can be efficiently used in large transportation networks. Furthermore, the comparing results point out the performance of the CTDAM is significantly better than SM.

  18. Combined Acoustic and Pronunciation Modelling for Non-Native Speech Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Bouselmi, Ghazi; Illina, Irina

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present several adaptation methods for non-native speech recognition. We have tested pronunciation modelling, MLLR and MAP non-native pronunciation adaptation and HMM models retraining on the HIWIRE foreign accented English speech database. The ``phonetic confusion'' scheme we have developed consists in associating to each spoken phone several sequences of confused phones. In our experiments, we have used different combinations of acoustic models representing the canonical and the foreign pronunciations: spoken and native models, models adapted to the non-native accent with MAP and MLLR. The joint use of pronunciation modelling and acoustic adaptation led to further improvements in recognition accuracy. The best combination of the above mentioned techniques resulted in a relative word error reduction ranging from 46% to 71%.

  19. Fault detection and identification based on combining logic and model in a wall-climbing robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong JIANG; Hongguang WANG; Lijin FANG; Mingyang ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    A combined logic- and model-based approach to fault detection and identification (FDI) in a suction foot control system of a wall-climbing robot is presented in this paper. For the control system, some fault models are derived by kinematics analysis. Moreover, the logic relations of the system states are known in advance. First, a fault tree is used to analyze the system by evaluating the basic events (elementary causes), which can lead to a root event (a particular fault). Then, a multiple-model adaptive estimation algorithm is used to detect and identify the model-known faults. Finally, based on the system states of the robot and the results of the estimation, the model-unknown faults are also identified using logical reasoning. Experiments show that the proposed approach based on the combination of logical reasoning and model estimating is efficient in the FDI of the robot.

  20. Experimental and Pathalogical study of Pistacia atlantica, butyrate, Lactobacillus casei and their combination on rat ulcerative colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Mahdi; Ghasemi-Niri, Seyedeh Farnaz; Maqbool, Faheem; Baeeri, Maryam; Memariani, Zahra; Pousti, Iraj; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Pistacia atlantica (P. atlantica), butyrate, Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) and especially their combination therapy on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat colitis model. Rats were divided into seven groups. Four groups received oral P. atlantica, butyrate, L. casei and the combination of three agents for 10 consecutive days. The remaining groups were negative and positive controls and a sham group. Macroscopic and histopathological examinations were carried out along with determination of the specific biomarker of colonic oxidative stress, the myeloperoxidase (MPO). Compared with controls, the combination therapy exhibited a significant alleviation of colitis in terms of pathological scores and reduction of MPO activity (55%, p=0.0009). Meanwhile, the macroscopic appearance such as stool consistency, tissue and histopathological scores (edema, necrosis and neutrophil infiltration) were improved. Although single therapy by each P. atlantica, butyrate, and L. casei was partially beneficial in reduction of colon oxidative stress markers, the combination therapy was much more effective. In conclusion, the combination therapy was able to reduce the severity of colitis that is clear from biochemical markers. Future studies have to focus on clinical effects of this combination in management of human ulcerative colitis. Further molecular and signaling pathway studies will help to understand the mechanisms involved in the treatment of colitis and inflammatory diseases. PMID:26972417

  1. Gene × physical activity interactions in obesity: combined analysis of 111,421 individuals of European ancestry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafqat Ahmad

    Full Text Available Numerous obesity loci have been identified using genome-wide association studies. A UK study indicated that physical activity may attenuate the cumulative effect of 12 of these loci, but replication studies are lacking. Therefore, we tested whether the aggregate effect of these loci is diminished in adults of European ancestry reporting high levels of physical activity. Twelve obesity-susceptibility loci were genotyped or imputed in 111,421 participants. A genetic risk score (GRS was calculated by summing the BMI-associated alleles of each genetic variant. Physical activity was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Multiplicative interactions between the GRS and physical activity on BMI were tested in linear and logistic regression models in each cohort, with adjustment for age, age(2, sex, study center (for multicenter studies, and the marginal terms for physical activity and the GRS. These results were combined using meta-analysis weighted by cohort sample size. The meta-analysis yielded a statistically significant GRS × physical activity interaction effect estimate (Pinteraction  = 0.015. However, a statistically significant interaction effect was only apparent in North American cohorts (n = 39,810, Pinteraction  = 0.014 vs. n = 71,611, Pinteraction  = 0.275 for Europeans. In secondary analyses, both the FTO rs1121980 (Pinteraction  = 0.003 and the SEC16B rs10913469 (Pinteraction  = 0.025 variants showed evidence of SNP × physical activity interactions. This meta-analysis of 111,421 individuals provides further support for an interaction between physical activity and a GRS in obesity disposition, although these findings hinge on the inclusion of cohorts from North America, indicating that these results are either population-specific or non-causal.

  2. Assessing the influence of biofilm surface roughness on mass transfer by combining optical coherence tomography and two-dimensional modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Wagner, Michael; Lackner, Susanne; Horn, Harald

    2016-05-01

    Imaging and modeling are two major approaches in biofilm research to understand the physical and biochemical processes involved in biofilm development. However, they are often used separately. In this study we combined these two approaches to investigate substrate mass transfer and mass flux. Cross-sectional biofilm images were acquired by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for biofilms grown on carriers. A 2D biofilm model was developed incorporating OCT images as well as a simplified biofilm geometry serving as structural templates. The model incorporated fluid flow, substrate transfer and biochemical conversion of substrates and simulated the hydrodynamics surrounding the biofilm structure as well as the substrate distribution. The method allowed detailed analysis of the hydrodynamics and mass transfer characteristics at the micro-scale. Biofilm activity with respect to substrate fluxes was compared among different combinations of flow, substrate availability and biomass density. The combined approach revealed that higher substrate fluxes at heterogeneous biofilm surface under two conditions: pure diffusion and when high flow velocity along the biofilms surface renders the whole liquid-biofilm interface to be highly active. In-between the two conditions the substrate fluxes across the surface of smooth biofilm geometry were higher than that of the heterogeneous biofilms.

  3. A Simplified Nonlinear Model For A Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System

    OpenAIRE

    Karrari, M.; Nicholson, H

    1990-01-01

    Steady state errors, hunting and high interactions have been reported in the operation of combined heat and power (CHP) systems working with steam turbines. The design of currently employed regulators in industry is usually absed on a linear model of the system. An improved system regulation can only be achieved if a more accurate mathematical model is available. In this paper, a simplified nonlinear model is derived which can be used to investigate the present problems and evaluate new contr...

  4. Dynamic operational risk: modeling dependence and combining different sources of information

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Gareth W.; Shevchenko, Pavel V.; Mario V. W\\"uthrich

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we model dependence between operational risks by allowing risk profiles to evolve stochastically in time and to be dependent. This allows for a flexible correlation structure where the dependence between frequencies of different risk categories and between severities of different risk categories as well as within risk categories can be modeled. The model is estimated using Bayesian inference methodology, allowing for combination of internal data, external data and expert opinio...

  5. Combination of activity and lying/standing data for detection of oestrus in cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad;

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an algorithm for detecting oestrus in dairy cows from measurements of activity and duration of lying/standing periods. Each cows activity is measured by a sensor attached to the neck that returns an activity index for each hour. Duration of lying...... is measured by a sensor attached to the hind leg of the cow. Activity and lying/standing behaviour are modelled as a discrete event system, constructed using automata theory. In an attempt to estimate a biologically relevant lying balance, a lying balance indicator is constructed and is influencing transition...... probabilities in the stochastic automata. The cows lying-balance indicates how much the cow has been resting during the immediately past period, and the balance express to the automata, the tendency of the cow to continue resting or not. Automata for describing the two scenarios; normal and oestrus are designed...

  6. Solar resources estimation combining digital terrain models and satellite images techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, J.L.; Batlles, F.J. [Universidad de Almeria, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Ctra. Sacramento s/n, 04120-Almeria (Spain); Zarzalejo, L.F. [CIEMAT, Departamento de Energia, Madrid (Spain); Lopez, G. [EPS-Universidad de Huelva, Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica y Termica, Huelva (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    One of the most important steps to make use of any renewable energy is to perform an accurate estimation of the resource that has to be exploited. In the designing process of both active and passive solar energy systems, radiation data is required for the site, with proper spatial resolution. Generally, a radiometric stations network is used in this evaluation, but when they are too dispersed or not available for the study area, satellite images can be utilized as indirect solar radiation measurements. Although satellite images cover wide areas with a good acquisition frequency they usually have a poor spatial resolution limited by the size of the image pixel, and irradiation must be interpolated to evaluate solar irradiation at a sub-pixel scale. When pixels are located in flat and homogeneous areas, correlation of solar irradiation is relatively high, and classic interpolation can provide a good estimation. However, in complex topography zones, data interpolation is not adequate and the use of Digital Terrain Model (DTM) information can be helpful. In this work, daily solar irradiation is estimated for a wide mountainous area using a combination of Meteosat satellite images and a DTM, with the advantage of avoiding the necessity of ground measurements. This methodology utilizes a modified Heliosat-2 model, and applies for all sky conditions; it also introduces a horizon calculation of the DTM points and accounts for the effect of snow covers. Model performance has been evaluated against data measured in 12 radiometric stations, with results in terms of the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 10%, and a Mean Bias Error (MBE) of +2%, both expressed as a percentage of the mean value measured. (author)

  7. A new spatial coherence model and analytical coefficients for multi-support response spectrum combination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Junjie; Chen Hu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a new spatial coherence model of seismic ground motions is proposed by a fitting procedure. The analytical expressions of modal combination (correlation) coefficients of structural response are developed for multi-support seismic excitations. The coefficients from both the numerical integration and analytical solutions are compared to verify the accuracy of the solutions. It is shown that the analytical expressions of numerical modal combination coefficients are of high accuracy. The results of random responses of an example bridge show that the analytical modal combination coefficients developed in this paper are accurate enough to meet the requirements needed in practice. In addition, the computational efficiency of the analytical solutions of the modal combination coefficients is demonstrated by the response computation of the example bridge. It is found that the time required for the structural response analysis by using the analytical modal combination coefficients is less than 1/20 of that using numerical integral methods.

  8. Antimicrobial Activity of Individual and Combined Essential Oils against Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Jurado, Fatima; López-Malo, Aurelio; Palou, Enrique

    2016-02-01

    The antimicrobial activities of essential oils from Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer), mustard (Brassica nigra), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) were evaluated alone and in binary combinations against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, or Salmonella Enteritidis. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The MICs of the evaluated essential oils ranged from 0.05 to 0.50% (vol/vol). Mustard essential oil was the most effective, likely due to the presence of allyl isothiocyanate, identified as its major component. Furthermore, mustard essential oil exhibited synergistic effects when combined with either Mexican oregano or thyme essential oils (fractional inhibitory concentration indices of 0.75); an additive effect was obtained by combining thyme and Mexican oregano essential oils (fractional inhibitory concentration index = 1.00). These results suggest the potential of studied essential oil mixtures to inhibit microbial growth and preserve foods; however, their effect on sensory quality in selected foods compatible with their flavor needs to be assessed.

  9. Combination of CuO nanoparticles and fluconazole: preparation, characterization, and antifungal activity against Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitz, Iris S., E-mail: irisweitz@braude.ac.il; Maoz, Michal; Panitz, Daniel [ORT Braude College, Department of Biotechnology Engineering (Israel); Eichler, Sigal; Segal, Ester [Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Biotechnology and Food Engineering (Israel)

    2015-08-15

    Combination therapy becomes an important strategy in the management of invasive fungal infections and emergence of resistant fungi mutants. In this work, we examine the combination of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) with fluconazole as potential treatment against the pathogenic fungi, Candidaalbicans. CuO NPs (∼7 nm in size) were synthesized with acetate ligands assembled on their surface, as shown by both thermal gravimetric analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Unlike the commercial CuO (both bulk and 50 nm particles), that are poorly dispersed in water, the interaction with water allows the fine dispersion of the coated CuO NPs and their excellent colloidal stability. The addition of fluconazole to the aqueous CuO dispersion induced spontaneous self-assembly of the NPs into linear pearl-like chains network, shown by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The antifungal activity of the CuO NPs and their combination with fluconazole (fluconazole–CuO NPs) was studied against C. albicans. The best MIC values were obtained at concentrations as low as 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mL, respectively. The results suggest that fluconazole–CuO NPs can provide a potential alternative treatment for C. albicans infections.

  10. Diclofenac and 2-anilinophenylacetate degradation by combined activity of biogenic manganese oxides and silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerburg, Francis; Hennebel, Tom; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2012-05-01

    The occurrence of a range of recalcitrant organic micropollutants in our aquatic environment has led to the development of various tertiary wastewater treatment methods. In this study, biogenic manganese oxides (Bio-MnOx), biogenic silver nanoparticles (Bio-Ag(0)) and ionic silver were used for the oxidative removal of the frequently encountered drug diclofenac and its dechlorinated form, 2-anilinophenylacetate (APA). Diclofenac was rapidly degraded during ongoing manganese oxidation by Pseudomonas putida MnB6. Furthermore, whereas preoxidized Bio-MnOx, Bio-Ag(0) and Ag(+) separately did not show any removal capacity for diclofenac, an enhanced removal occurred when Bio-MnOx and silver species were combined. Similar results were obtained for APA. Finally, a slow removal of diclofenac but more rapid APA degradation was observed when silver was added to manganese-free P. putida biomass. Combining these results, three mechanisms of diclofenac and APA removal could be distinguished: (i) a co-metabolic removal during active Mn(2+) oxidation by P. putida; (ii) a synergistic interaction between preoxidized Bio-MnOx and silver species; and (iii) a (bio)chemical process by biomass enriched with silver catalysts. This paper demonstrates the use of P. putida for water treatment purposes and is the first report of the application of silver combined with biogenic manganese for the removal of organic water contaminants. PMID:22221449

  11. Diclofenac and 2‐anilinophenylacetate degradation by combined activity of biogenic manganese oxides and silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerburg, Francis; Hennebel, Tom; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2012-01-01

    Summary The occurrence of a range of recalcitrant organic micropollutants in our aquatic environment has led to the development of various tertiary wastewater treatment methods. In this study, biogenic manganese oxides (Bio‐MnOx), biogenic silver nanoparticles (Bio‐Ag0) and ionic silver were used for the oxidative removal of the frequently encountered drug diclofenac and its dechlorinated form, 2‐anilinophenylacetate (APA). Diclofenac was rapidly degraded during ongoing manganese oxidation by Pseudomonas putida MnB6. Furthermore, whereas preoxidized Bio‐MnOx, Bio‐Ag0 and Ag+ separately did not show any removal capacity for diclofenac, an enhanced removal occurred when Bio‐MnOx and silver species were combined. Similar results were obtained for APA. Finally, a slow removal of diclofenac but more rapid APA degradation was observed when silver was added to manganese‐free P. putida biomass. Combining these results, three mechanisms of diclofenac and APA removal could be distinguished: (i) a co‐metabolic removal during active Mn2+ oxidation by P. putida; (ii) a synergistic interaction between preoxidized Bio‐MnOx and silver species; and (iii) a (bio)chemical process by biomass enriched with silver catalysts. This paper demonstrates the use of P. putida for water treatment purposes and is the first report of the application of silver combined with biogenic manganese for the removal of organic water contaminants. PMID:22221449

  12. Mechanistic Study of the Synergistic Antibacterial Activity of Combined Silver Nanoparticles and Common Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hua; McShan, Danielle; Zhang, Ying; Sinha, Sudarson S; Arslan, Zikri; Ray, Paresh C; Yu, Hongtao

    2016-08-16

    A combination of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and an antibiotic can synergistically inhibit bacterial growth, especially against the drug-resistant bacteria Salmonella typhimurium. However, the mechanism for the synergistic activity is not known. This study chooses four classes of antibiotics, β-lactam (ampicillin and penicillin), quinolone (enoxacin), aminoglycoside (kanamycin and neomycin), and polykeptide (tetracycline) to explore their synergistic mechanism when combined with AgNPs against the multidrug-resistant bacterium Salmonella typhimurium DT 104. Enoxacin, kanamycin, neomycin, and tetracycline show synergistic growth inhibition against the Salmonella bacteria when combined with AgNPs, while ampicillin and penicillin do not. UV-vis and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal that all these four synergistic antibiotics can form complexes with AgNPs, while ampicillin and penicillin do not. The presence of tetracycline enhances the binding of Ag to Salmonella by 21% and Ag(+) release by 26% in comparison to that without tetracycline, while the presence of penicillin does not enhance the binding of Ag or Ag(+) release. This means that AgNPs first form a complex with tetracycline. The tetracycline-AgNPs complex interacts more strongly with the Salmonella cells and causes more Ag(+) release, thus creating a temporal high concentration of Ag(+) near the bacteria cell wall that leads to growth inhibition of the bacteria. These findings agree with the recent findings that Ag(+) release from AgNPs is the agent causing toxicity. PMID:27390928

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of Individual and Combined Essential Oils against Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Jurado, Fatima; López-Malo, Aurelio; Palou, Enrique

    2016-02-01

    The antimicrobial activities of essential oils from Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer), mustard (Brassica nigra), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) were evaluated alone and in binary combinations against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, or Salmonella Enteritidis. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The MICs of the evaluated essential oils ranged from 0.05 to 0.50% (vol/vol). Mustard essential oil was the most effective, likely due to the presence of allyl isothiocyanate, identified as its major component. Furthermore, mustard essential oil exhibited synergistic effects when combined with either Mexican oregano or thyme essential oils (fractional inhibitory concentration indices of 0.75); an additive effect was obtained by combining thyme and Mexican oregano essential oils (fractional inhibitory concentration index = 1.00). These results suggest the potential of studied essential oil mixtures to inhibit microbial growth and preserve foods; however, their effect on sensory quality in selected foods compatible with their flavor needs to be assessed. PMID:26818994

  14. Antimicrobial Activities of Nisin, Tea Polyphenols, and Chitosan and their Combinations in Chilled Mutton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li; Zou, Likou; Yang, Qianru; Xia, Jinghua; Zhou, Kang; Zhu, Yuanting; Han, Xinfeng; Pu, Biao; Hu, Bin; Deng, Wenwen; Liu, Shuliang

    2016-06-01

    Antimicrobial activities of nisin, tea polyphenols (TPs), and chitosan, and their combinations were evaluated against both Gram-positive bacteria (GPB) and Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) by the agar dilution method. Results showed that the MIC of nisin was 2.44 to 1250 mg/L for GPB and reached 5000 mg/L for GNB. The MICs of TPs and chitosan were 313 to 625 mg/L and 469 mg/L for GNB, and 156 to 5000 mg/L and 234 to 938 mg/L for GPB, respectively. These results indicated that TPs and chitosan exhibited inhibitory effects against both GPB and GNB, whereas nisin inhibited the growth of GPB only. Based on the orthogonal test of their MICs, and evaluation of preservative effect and sensory attributes in chilled mutton, the optimum combination was chosen as 0.625, 0.313, and 3.752 g/L for nisin, TPs, and chitosan, respectively. By using the optimum treatment, the shelf life of chilled mutton was extended from 6 to 18 d at 4 °C in the preservative film packages. These results indicate that the combination of nisin, TPs, and chitosan could be used as preservatives to efficiently inhibit the growth of spoilage microorganisms and pathogens in meat, thus improving the safety and shelf life of chilled mutton. PMID:27096939

  15. The Best Combination Methods and Applied Research of Seismic Prospecting for Active Faults in Urban Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces briefly the basic principles of various seismic prospecting techniques and working methods according to nationwide practices of seismic prospecting of active faults beneath big cities in recent years. Furthermore, it analyzes the application range of different seismic prospecting methods, main achievements and solved problems, and discusses the best combination of seismic exploration methods for detecting crustal structures and locating the faults used in the present stage, that is, to trace faults which are at depths of hundred of meters underground using shallow seismic investigation, to detect the faults which are above basement (at a depth of kilometers) using high resolution refraction sounding, and the deep crustal faults using combined seismic prospecting methods of reflection seismic sounding and wide-angle reflection/refraction sounding, and furthermore, to use the 3-D deep seismic sounding method to obtain 3-D velocity structures beneath urban areas. Thus, we can get information about fault attitude and distribution at different depths and a complete image of faults from their shallow part to deep part using the combined seismic exploration method. Some application examples are presented in the article.

  16. Combination of CuO nanoparticles and fluconazole: preparation, characterization, and antifungal activity against Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combination therapy becomes an important strategy in the management of invasive fungal infections and emergence of resistant fungi mutants. In this work, we examine the combination of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) with fluconazole as potential treatment against the pathogenic fungi, Candidaalbicans. CuO NPs (∼7 nm in size) were synthesized with acetate ligands assembled on their surface, as shown by both thermal gravimetric analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Unlike the commercial CuO (both bulk and 50 nm particles), that are poorly dispersed in water, the interaction with water allows the fine dispersion of the coated CuO NPs and their excellent colloidal stability. The addition of fluconazole to the aqueous CuO dispersion induced spontaneous self-assembly of the NPs into linear pearl-like chains network, shown by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The antifungal activity of the CuO NPs and their combination with fluconazole (fluconazole–CuO NPs) was studied against C. albicans. The best MIC values were obtained at concentrations as low as 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mL, respectively. The results suggest that fluconazole–CuO NPs can provide a potential alternative treatment for C. albicans infections

  17. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brînduşa-Antonela SBÎRCEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

  18. Dispersion modeling of selected PAHs in urban air: A new approach combining dispersion model with GIS and passive air sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáňka, Ondřej; Melymuk, Lisa; Čupr, Pavel; Dvorská, Alice; Klánová, Jana

    2014-10-01

    This study introduces a new combined air concentration measurement and modeling approach that we propose can be useful in medium and long term air quality assessment. A dispersion study was carried out for four high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an urban area with industrial, traffic and domestic heating sources. A geographic information system (GIS) was used both for processing of input data as well as visualization of the modeling results. The outcomes of the dispersion model were compared to the results of passive air sampling (PAS). Despite discrepancies between measured and modeled concentrations, an approach combining the two techniques is promising for future air quality assessment. Differences between measured and modeled concentrations, in particular when measured values exceed the modeled concentrations, are indicative of undocumented, sporadic pollutant sources. Thus, these differences can also be useful for assessing and refining emission inventories.

  19. Effect of proteolytic activities in combination with the pectolytic activities on extractability of the fat and phenolic compounds from olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakime, Youssef; Hazzoumi, Zakaria; Amrani Joutei, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    During the extraction, a portion of oil remains trapped inside the cells and its release requires the degradation of the walls and cell membranes, especially when the fruits have not reached a maximum maturity which is likely to cause an optimal embrittlement of the parietal structures and cell membrane. This can be done by specific enzymes necessary for the degradation of various cellular barriers. Three different enzyme treatments proteolytic, pectolytic or both are applied on the Moroccan Picholine olives from veraison to maturity of the fruit. The effect of these treatments is evaluated by olive oil diffusion, its phenolic content (PC) and cellular embrittlement determination of olives during ripening. The pectolytic activities lead to a significant increase in both the oil extractability (76 % at veraison and 14 % at maturity) and the PC (up to 50 % of gain compared to the control at veraison and 27 % at maturity). The proteolytic activities applied alone have no significant effect on the extractability and the polyphenols levels of oils. Furthermore, when these proteolytic activities are added in combination with the pectolytic activities, the oil extractability is doubled at veraison and its flowing up to 99 % at maturity that barely 84 % in the control in addition to a richness of polyphenols which can reach 84 % more compared to the control. This increase in polyphenols wealth is probably due to the degradation of cell walls, cellular and vacuolar membranes by enzyme activities releasing PCs that were previously associated with these structures in the drupe. PMID:27376007

  20. Three-dimensional modeling of CPA to the multimillijoule level in tapered Yb-doped fibers for coherent combining systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianov, Alexey; Anashkina, Elena; Kim, Arkady; Meyerov, Iosif; Lebedev, Sergey; Sergeev, Alexander; Mourou, Gerard

    2014-11-17

    We developed a three-dimensional numerical model of Large-Mode-Area chirped pulse fiber amplifiers which includes nonlinear beam propagation in nonuniform multimode waveguides as well as gain spectrum dynamics in quasi-three-level active ions. We used our model in tapered Yb-doped fiber amplifiers and showed that single-mode propagation is maintained along the taper even in the presence of strong Kerr nonlinearity and saturated gain, allowing extraction of up to 3 mJ of output energy in 1 ns pulse. Energy scaling and its limitation as well as the influence of fiber taper bending and core irregularities on the amplifier performance were studied. We also investigated numerically the capabilities for compression and coherent combining of up to 36 perturbed amplifying channels and showed more than 70% combining efficiency, even with up to 11% of high-order modes in individual channels. PMID:25402067

  1. Semi-active control of piezoelectric coating's underwater sound absorption by combining design of the shunt impedances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yang; Li, Zhaohui; Huang, Aigen; Li, Qihu

    2015-10-01

    Piezoelectric shunt damping technology has been applied in the field of underwater sound absorption in recent years. In order to achieve broadband echo reduction, semi-active control of sound absorption of multi-layered piezoelectric coating by shunt damping is significant. In this paper, a practical method is proposed to control the underwater sound absorption coefficients of piezoelectric coating layers by combining design of the shunt impedance that allows certain sound absorption coefficients at setting frequencies. A one-dimensional electro-acoustic model of the piezoelectric coating and the backing is established based on the Mason equivalent circuit theory. First, the shunt impedance of the coating is derived under the constraint of sound absorption coefficient at one frequency. Then, taking the 1-3 piezoelectric composite coating as an example, the sound absorption properties of the coating shunted to the designed shunt impedance are investigated. Next, on the basis of that, an iterative method for two constrained frequencies and an optimizing algorithm for multiple constrained frequencies are provided for combining design of the shunt impedances. At last, an experimental sample with four piezoelectric material layers is manufactured, of which the sound absorption coefficients are measured in an impedance tube. The experimental results show good agreement with the finite element simulation results. It is proved that a serial R-L circuit can control the peak frequency, maximum and bandwidth of the sound absorption coefficient and the combining R-L circuits shunted to multiple layers can control the sound absorption coefficients at multiple frequencies.

  2. The Optimal Linear Combination of Multiple Predictors Under the Generalized Linear Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hua; Lu, Ying

    2009-11-15

    Multiple alternative diagnostic tests for one disease are commonly available to clinicians. It's important to use all the good diagnostic predictors simultaneously to establish a new predictor with higher statistical utility. Under the generalized linear model for binary outcomes, the linear combination of multiple predictors in the link function is proved optimal in the sense that the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of this combination is the largest among all possible linear combination. The result was applied to analysis of the data from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) with comparison to Su and Liu's approach.

  3. Removal of atrazine in water by combination of activated carbon and dielectric barrier discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanraes, Patrick; Willems, Gert; Nikiforov, Anton; Surmont, Pieter; Lynen, Frederic; Vandamme, Jeroen; Van Durme, Jim; Verheust, Yannick P; Van Hulle, Stijn W H; Dumoulin, Ann; Leys, Christophe

    2015-12-15

    Efficiency of modern wastewater treatment plants to remove or decompose persistent contaminants in low concentration is often insufficient to meet the demands imposed by governmental laws. Novel, efficient and cheap methods are required to address this global issue. We developed a new type of plasma reactor, in which atrazine decomposition by atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in dry air is combined with micropollutant adsorption on activated carbon textile and with extra bubbling of generated ozone. Investigation of reaction kinetics and by-product analysis shows that increasing input power with a factor 3.5 leads to deeper atrazine oxidation without significantly changing energy yield of atrazine removal. By-products of first and later generations are detected with HPLC-MS analysis in water and adsorbed on the activated carbon textile. Our reactor is compared in energy efficiency with reactors described in literature, showing that combination of plasma discharge with pollutant adsorption and ozone recycling is attractive for future applications of water treatment. PMID:26282086

  4. Recognition and prediction of individual and combined muscular activation modes via surface EMG analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Graupe

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses how recognition of individual and combined muscular activation modes (functions and the prediction of intended such modes can be accomplished by identifying parameters of noninvasive surface EMG signals. It outlines the mathematical analysis of surface EMG signal to facilitate such recognition and related prediction, including recognition of intention (in terms of attempts to activate motor functions from the EMG, without accessing the CNS itself, in cases where a patient, say, a high-level amputee does not have the final-activation muscles and joints. The EMG activity thus allows to interpret and recognize CNS commands from minute variations in the parameters of surface EMG signals that record changes in the firing of motor neurons triggering contractions in related muscle fibers. We note that although in popular media this is sometimes referred to as detection of “thoughts”, no thoughts are detected, but only motor-outcomes of thoughts as found in the EMG signal. Examples of concrete cases where such recognition or prediction were accomplished in the author’s lab and in devices that came out of that lab, are given as are references to these in the literature over the last 35 years.

  5. In vivo activity of albendazole in combination with thymol against Echinococcus multilocularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, Clara María; Pensel, Patricia Eugenia; Elissondo, Natalia; Gambino, Guillermo; Elissondo, María Celina

    2015-09-15

    predominantly showed presence of cell debris. On the other hand, no differences were found in alkaline phosphatase (AP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities between control and treated mice, indicating the lack of toxicity of the different drug treatments during the experiment. Because combined ABZ+thymol treatment exhibited higher treatment efficiency compared with the drugs applied separately against murine experimental alveolar echinococcosis, we propose it would be a useful option for the treatment of human AE. PMID:26190130

  6. Maximization of seasonal forecasts performance combining Grand Multi-Model Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Andrea; De Felice, Matteo; Catalano, Franco; Lee, Doo Young; Yoo, Jin Ho; Lee, June-Yi; Wang, Bin

    2014-05-01

    Multi-Model Ensembles (MMEs) are powerful tools in dynamical climate prediction as they account for the overconfidence and the uncertainties related to single-model errors. Previous works suggested that the potential benefit that can be expected by using a MME amplify with the increase of the independence of the contributing Seasonal Prediction Systems. In this work we combine the two Multi Model Ensemble (MME) Seasonal Prediction Systems (SPSs) independently developed by the European (ENSEMBLES) and by the Asian-Pacific (CliPAS/APCC) communities. To this aim, all the possible multi-model combinations obtained by putting together the 5 models from ENSEMBLES and the 11 models from CliPAS/APCC have been evaluated. The grand ENSEMBLES-CliPAS/APCC Multi-Model enhances significantly the skill compared to previous estimates from the contributing MMEs. The combinations of SPSs maximizing the skill that is currently attainable for specific predictands/phenomena is evaluated. Our results show that, in general, the better combinations of SPSs are obtained by mixing ENSEMBLES and CliPAS/APCC models and that only a limited number of SPSs is required to obtain the maximum performance. The number and selection of models that perform better is usually different depending on the region/phenomenon under consideration. As an example for the tropical Pacific, the maximum performance is obtained with only the combination of 5-to-6 SPSs from the grand ENSEMBLES-CliPAS/APCC MME. With particular focus over Tropical Pacific, the relationship between performance and bias of the grand-MME combinations is evaluated. The skill of the grand-MME combinations over Euro-Mediterranean and East-Asia regions is further evaluated as a function of the capability of the selected contributing SPSs to forecast anomalies of the Polar/Siberian highs during winter and of the Asian summer monsoon precipitation during summer. Our results indicate that, combining SPSs from independent MME sources is a good

  7. A linear combination of pharmacophore hypotheses as a new tool in search of new active compounds--an application for 5-HT1A receptor ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Warszycki

    Full Text Available This study explores a new approach to pharmacophore screening involving the use of an optimized linear combination of models instead of a single hypothesis. The implementation and evaluation of the developed methodology are performed for a complete known chemical space of 5-HT1AR ligands (3616 active compounds with K i < 100 nM acquired from the ChEMBL database. Clusters generated from three different methods were the basis for the individual pharmacophore hypotheses, which were assembled into optimal combinations to maximize the different coefficients, namely, MCC, accuracy and recall, to measure the screening performance. Various factors that influence filtering efficiency, including clustering methods, the composition of test sets (random, the most diverse and cluster population-dependent and hit mode (the compound must fit at least one or two models from a final combination were investigated. This method outmatched both single hypothesis and random linear combination approaches.

  8. Improved computational model (AQUIFAS) for activated sludge, integrated fixed-film activated sludge, and moving-bed biofilm reactor systems, Part I: Semi-empirical model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Dipankar; Randall, Clifford W

    2008-05-01

    Research was undertaken to develop a model for activated sludge, integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS), and moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) systems. The model can operate with up to 12 cells (reactors) in series, with biofilm media incorporated to one or more cells, except the anaerobic cells. The process configuration can be any combination of anaerobic, anoxic, aerobic, post-anoxic with or without supplemental carbon, and reaeration; it can also include any combination of step feed and recycles, including recycles for mixed liquor, return activated sludge, nitrates, and membrane bioreactors. This paper presents the structure of the model. The model embeds a biofilm model into a multicell activated sludge model. The biofilm flux rates for organics, nutrients, and biomass can be computed by two methods--a semi-empirical model of the biofilm that is relatively simpler, or a diffusional model that is computationally intensive. The values of the kinetic parameters for the model were measured using pilot-scale activated sludge, IFAS, and MBBR systems. For the semiempirical version, a series of Monod equations were developed for chemical oxygen demand, ammonium-nitrogen, and oxidized-nitrogen fluxes to the biofilm. Within the equations, a second Monod expression is used to simulate the effect of changes in biofilm thickness and fraction nitrifiers in the biofilm. The biofilm flux model is then linked to the activated sludge model. The diffusional model and the verification of the models are presented in subsequent papers (Sen and Randall, 2008a, 2008b). The model can be used to quantify the amount of media and surface area required to achieve nitrification, identify the best locations for the media, and optimize the dissolved oxygen levels and nitrate recycle rates. Some of the advanced features include the ability to apply different media types and fill fractions in cells; quantify nitrification, denitrification, and biomass production in the biofilm and

  9. Defining the optimal murine models to investigate immune checkpoint blockers and their combination with other immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmamed, M F; Chester, C; Melero, I; Kohrt, H

    2016-07-01

    The recent success of checkpoint blockers to treat cancer has demonstrated that the immune system is a critical player in the war against cancer. Historically, anticancer therapeutics have been tested in syngeneic mouse models (with a fully murine immune system) or in immunodeficient mice that allow the engraftment of human xenografts. Animal models with functioning human immune systems are critically needed to more accurately recapitulate the complexity of the human tumor microenvironment. Such models are integral to better predict tumor responses to both immunomodulatory agents and directly antineoplastic therapies. In this regard, the development of humanized models is a promising, novel strategy that offers the possibility of testing checkpoint blockers' capacity and their combination with other antitumor drugs. In this review, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the available animal models regarding their capacity to evaluate checkpoint blockers and checkpoint blocker-based combination immunotherapy. PMID:26912558

  10. A hybrid model combining first-principles and data-driven models for on-line condition monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an online anomaly detection technique using a hybrid method which combines first-principles (physical) models with data-driven (empirical) models. We use an error propagation scheme for computing the output variance of the proposed hybrid model, which utilizes the input and output measurement errors along with modeling uncertainty. This on-line model output variance estimation technique is used in a statistical test to determine whether observed output measurements are statistically too distant from expected output values (for given inputs) as to declare that an anomaly has occurred. The performance of the proposed error-propagation approach for anomaly detection was successfully tested in a simulated experiment. (authors)

  11. A dynamic process model of a natural gas combined cycle -- Model development with startup and shutdown simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liese, Eric [U.S. DOE; Zitney, Stephen E. [U.S. DOE

    2013-01-01

    Research in dynamic process simulation for integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCC) with carbon capture has been ongoing at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), culminating in a full operator training simulator (OTS) and immersive training simulator (ITS) for use in both operator training and research. A derivative work of the IGCC dynamic simulator has been a modification of the combined cycle section to more closely represent a typical natural gas fired combined cycle (NGCC). This paper describes the NGCC dynamic process model and highlights some of the simulator’s current capabilities through a particular startup and shutdown scenario.

  12. An approach for activity-based DEVS model specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alshareef, Abdurrahman; Sarjoughian, Hessam S.; Zarrin, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    activity-based behavior modeling of parallel DEVS atomic models. We consider UML activities and actions as fundamental units of behavior modeling, especially in the presence of recent advances in the UML 2.5 specifications. We describe in detail how to approach activity modeling with a set of elemental...

  13. The combination of ANT2 shRNA and hNIS radioiodine gene therapy increases CTL cytotoxic activity through the phenotypic modulation of cancer cells: combination treatment with ANT2 shRNA and I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to simultaneously induce strong cell death and antitumor immunity in cancer patients for successful cancer treatment. Here, we investigated the cytotoxic and phenotypic modulation effects of the combination of ANT2 shRNA and human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) radioiodine gene therapy in vitro and in vivo and visualized the antitumor effects in an immunocompromised mouse colon cancer model. A mouse colon cancer cell line co-expressing hNIS and the luciferase gene (CT26/hNIS-Fluc, named CT26/NF) was established. CT26/NF cells and tumor-bearing mice were treated with HBSS, scramble, ANT2 shRNA, I-131, and ANT2 shRNA + I-131. The apoptotic rates (%) and MHC class I and Fas gene expression levels were determined in treated CT26/NF cells using flow cytometry. Concurrently, the level of caspase-3 activation was determined in treated cells in vitro. For in vivo therapy, tumor-bearing mice were treated with scramble, ANT2 shRNA, I-131, and the combination therapy, and the anti-tumor effects were monitored using bioluminescence. The killing activity of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) was measured with a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. For the in vitro experiments, the combination of ANT2 shRNA and I-131 resulted in a higher apoptotic cell death rate compared with ANT2 shRNA or I-131 alone, and the levels of MHC class I and Fas-expressing cancer cells were highest in the cells receiving combination treatment, while single treatment modestly increased the level of MHC class I and Fas gene expression. The combination of ANT2 shRNA and I-131 resulted in a higher caspase-3 activation than single treatments. Interestingly, in vivo combination treatment led to increased gene expression of MHC class I and Fas than the respective mono-therapies; furthermore, bioluminescence showed increased antitumor effects after combination treatment than monotherapies. The LDH assay revealed that the CTL killing activity against CT26/NF cells was most effective after combination

  14. A meme propagation model to combine social affirmation with meme attractiveness and persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Aiguo; Luo, Shuangling; Xia, Haoxiang

    2016-06-01

    The propagation of memes on online social networks often depends on the mechanism of social affirmation. Centola termed such social-affirmation-driven diffusion as complex contagion and partly validated it through an online experiment. However, for actual online meme propagation, the mechanism of social affirmation often takes effect in combination with various other factors and mechanisms. In this paper, we examine the combinatorial effects of social affirmation and the attractiveness and persistence of the meme by proposing and analyzing a UACI model, where an agent’s activities to receive and transfer a meme is associated with the transition between its four possible states of “Uninformed”, “Attended”,“Convinced” and “Immune”. The numerical simulations illustrate nontrivial patterns of propagation. Especially, it is revealed that the effects of simple and complex contagions co-exist and equilibrate in accordance with the joint functions of meme attractiveness and social affirmation. Furthermore, the low-persistence of the meme hinders the propagation-scale more remarkably on the regular network than on the random one, indicating that the persistence may be critical for retaining complex contagion.

  15. Combining a Spatial Model and Demand Forecasts to Map Future Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Strager

    Full Text Available Predicting the locations of future surface coal mining in Appalachia is challenging for a number of reasons. Economic and regulatory factors impact the coal mining industry and forecasts of future coal production do not specifically predict changes in location of future coal production. With the potential environmental impacts from surface coal mining, prediction of the location of future activity would be valuable to decision makers. The goal of this study was to provide a method for predicting future surface coal mining extents under changing economic and regulatory forecasts through the year 2035. This was accomplished by integrating a spatial model with production demand forecasts to predict (1 km2 gridded cell size land cover change. Combining these two inputs was possible with a ratio which linked coal extraction quantities to a unit area extent. The result was a spatial distribution of probabilities allocated over forecasted demand for the Appalachian region including northern, central, southern, and eastern Illinois coal regions. The results can be used to better plan for land use alterations and potential cumulative impacts.

  16. Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-05-15

    The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined

  17. Theory and modeling of active brazing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Swol, Frank B.; Miller, James Edward; Lechman, Jeremy B.; Givler, Richard C.

    2013-09-01

    Active brazes have been used for many years to produce bonds between metal and ceramic objects. By including a relatively small of a reactive additive to the braze one seeks to improve the wetting and spreading behavior of the braze. The additive modifies the substrate, either by a chemical surface reaction or possibly by alloying. By its nature, the joining process with active brazes is a complex nonequilibrium non-steady state process that couples chemical reaction, reactant and product diffusion to the rheology and wetting behavior of the braze. Most of the these subprocesses are taking place in the interfacial region, most are difficult to access by experiment. To improve the control over the brazing process, one requires a better understanding of the melting of the active braze, rate of the chemical reaction, reactant and product diffusion rates, nonequilibrium composition-dependent surface tension as well as the viscosity. This report identifies ways in which modeling and theory can assist in improving our understanding.

  18. Models of the stochastic activity of neurones

    CERN Document Server

    Holden, Arun Vivian

    1976-01-01

    These notes have grown from a series of seminars given at Leeds between 1972 and 1975. They represent an attempt to gather together the different kinds of model which have been proposed to account for the stochastic activity of neurones, and to provide an introduction to this area of mathematical biology. A striking feature of the electrical activity of the nervous system is that it appears stochastic: this is apparent at all levels of recording, ranging from intracellular recordings to the electroencephalogram. The chapters start with fluctuations in membrane potential, proceed through single unit and synaptic activity and end with the behaviour of large aggregates of neurones: L have chgaen this seque~~e\\/~~';uggest that the interesting behaviourr~f :the nervous system - its individuality, variability and dynamic forms - may in part result from the stochastic behaviour of its components. I would like to thank Dr. Julio Rubio for reading and commenting on the drafts, Mrs. Doris Beighton for producing the fin...

  19. A generalized combination equation derived from a multi-layer micrometeorological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Jean-Paul

    1988-10-01

    The discrete multi-layer model originally devised by Waggoner and Reifsnyder (1968) is used as a theoretical basis to describe the vegetation-atmosphere interaction. Mathematical development of the basic equations yields Ohm's law-type formulae for sensible and latent heat fluxes from which it is possible to derive a combination equation very close in form to Penman-Monteith's equation. A bulk aerodynamic resistance and a bulk stomatal resistance can be defined and expressed in terms of the elementary resistances of the multi-layer model. This new combination equation offers an alternative to the attempts undertaken by Shuttleworth (1976) to unify multi-layer and single-layer approaches.

  20. Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during 8 months experiment (COD concentrations of 48,552-62,150 mg/L). It was found that the system could reduce the COD of the leachate by 94% at a loading rate of 2.25 g COD/L/d and 93% at loading rate of 3.37 g COD/L/d. The anaerobic digester treatment was quite effective in removing Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni. However, in the case of Zn, removal efficiency was about 50%. For the rest of the HMs the removal efficiencies were in the range 88.8-99.9%. Ammonia reduction did not occur in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic reactors increased alkalinity about 3.2-4.8% in the 1st digester and 1.8-7.9% in the 2nd digester. In activated sludge unit, alkalinity and ammonia removal efficiency were 49-60% and 48.6-64.7%, respectively. Methane production rate was in the range of 0.02-0.04, 0.04-0.07, and 0.02-0.04 L/g CODrem for the 1st digester, the 2nd digester, and combination of both digesters, respectively; the methane content of the biogas varied between 60% and 63%.

  1. Active State Model for Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han; Chien, Steve; Zak, Michail; James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Fisher, Forest

    2003-01-01

    The concept of the active state model (ASM) is an architecture for the development of advanced integrated fault-detection-and-isolation (FDI) systems for robotic land vehicles, pilotless aircraft, exploratory spacecraft, or other complex engineering systems that will be capable of autonomous operation. An FDI system based on the ASM concept would not only provide traditional diagnostic capabilities, but also integrate the FDI system under a unified framework and provide mechanism for sharing of information between FDI subsystems to fully assess the overall health of the system. The ASM concept begins with definitions borrowed from psychology, wherein a system is regarded as active when it possesses self-image, self-awareness, and an ability to make decisions itself, such that it is able to perform purposeful motions and other transitions with some degree of autonomy from the environment. For an engineering system, self-image would manifest itself as the ability to determine nominal values of sensor data by use of a mathematical model of itself, and selfawareness would manifest itself as the ability to relate sensor data to their nominal values. The ASM for such a system may start with the closed-loop control dynamics that describe the evolution of state variables. As soon as this model was supplemented with nominal values of sensor data, it would possess self-image. The ability to process the current sensor data and compare them with the nominal values would represent self-awareness. On the basis of self-image and self-awareness, the ASM provides the capability for self-identification, detection of abnormalities, and self-diagnosis.

  2. Financial Time Series Modelling with Hybrid Model Based on Customized RBF Neural Network Combined With Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Falat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, authors apply feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN of RBF type into the process of modelling and forecasting the future value of USD/CAD time series. Authors test the customized version of the RBF and add the evolutionary approach into it. They also combine the standard algorithm for adapting weights in neural network with an unsupervised clustering algorithm called K-means. Finally, authors suggest the new hybrid model as a combination of a standard ANN and a moving average for error modeling that is used to enhance the outputs of the network using the error part of the original RBF. Using high-frequency data, they examine the ability to forecast exchange rate values for the horizon of one day. To determine the forecasting efficiency, authors perform the comparative out-of-sample analysis of the suggested hybrid model with statistical models and the standard neural network.

  3. A Combined Spectroscopic and Photometric Stellar Activity Study of Epsilon Eridani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguere, Matthew J.; Fischer, Debra A.; Zhang, Cyril X. Y.; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Cameron, Chris; Henry, Gregory W.

    2016-06-01

    We present simultaneous ground-based radial velocity (RV) measurements and space-based photometric measurements of the young and active K dwarf Epsilon Eridani. These measurements provide a data set for exploring methods of identifying and ultimately distinguishing stellar photospheric velocities from Keplerian motion. We compare three methods we have used in exploring this data set: Dalmatian, an MCMC spot modeling code that fits photometric and RV measurements simultaneously; the FF‧ method, which uses photometric measurements to predict the stellar activity signal in simultaneous RV measurements; and Hα analysis. We show that our Hα measurements are strongly correlated with the Microvariability and Oscillations of STars telescope (MOST) photometry, which led to a promising new method based solely on the spectroscopic observations. This new method, which we refer to as the HH‧ method, uses Hα measurements as input into the FF‧ model. While the Dalmatian spot modeling analysis and the FF‧ method with MOST space-based photometry are currently more robust, the HH‧ method only makes use of one of the thousands of stellar lines in the visible spectrum. By leveraging additional spectral activity indicators, we believe the HH‧ method may prove quite useful in disentangling stellar signals.

  4. A Bayesian Combined Model for Time-Dependent Turning Movement Proportions Estimation at Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Jiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-dependent turning movement flows are very important input data for intelligent transportation systems but are impossible to be detected directly through current traffic surveillance systems. Existing estimation models have proved to be not accurate and reliable enough during all intervals. An improved way to address this problem is to develop a combined model framework that can integrate multiple submodels running simultaneously. This paper first presents a back propagation neural network model to estimate dynamic turning movements, as well as the self-adaptive learning rate approach and the gradient descent with momentum method for solving. Second, this paper develops an efficient Kalman filtering model and designs a revised sequential Kalman filtering algorithm. Based on the Bayesian method using both historical data and currently estimated results for error calibration, this paper further integrates above two submodels into a Bayesian combined model framework and proposes a corresponding algorithm. A field survey is implemented at an intersection in Beijing city to collect both time series of link counts and actual time-dependent turning movement flows, including historical and present data. The reported estimation results show that the Bayesian combined model is much more accurate and stable than other models.

  5. Evaluation of activity and combination strategies with the microtubule-targeting drug sagopilone in breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eEschenbrenner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecular heterogeneity of cancer calls for individualized therapies to become the standard of care. The development of new therapeutic agents needs to include integrative translational research as early as possible. Target-specific compounds require specific diagnostic biomarker support. Tailored treatment approaches, such as specific schedules or combinations, can improve the therapeutic outcome of drugs with more general mode of action, i.e. the classical chemotherapy. Results from translational research will allow to define the optimal patient population, to tailor individual treatment and to choose treatment combinations on a rational basis.Sagopilone, a fully synthetic epothilone, is a microtubule-stabilizing agent optimized for high in vitro and in vivo activity against a broad range of tumor models, including those resistant to paclitaxel and other systemic treatments. Sagopilone development was accompanied by translational research studies to evaluate the molecular mode of action, to recognize mechanisms leading to resistance, to identify predictive response biomarkers and to establish a rationale for combination with different therapies.Here, we present an RNAi drug modifier screen interrogating 300 genes in four cancer cell lines. Defects of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC were identified to cause resistance against sagopilone-induced mitotic arrest and apoptosis. Potential biomarkers for resistance are SAC-defects like mutations in the SAC-kinase BUB1B and chromosomal heterogeneity and polyploidy since they imply an increased tolerance for aberrant mitosis. The RNAi drug modifier screen identified the enhancement of sagopilone-induced mitotic arrest by inhibition of the mitotic kinesin KIF2C (MCAK as potential combination strategy.These new findings are correlated with results from previous studies. We discuss successes and failures of our integrative preclinical development program and provide recommendations for future

  6. Comparison of the effects of EPA and DHA alone or in combination in a murine model of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madingou, Ness; Gilbert, Kim; Tomaro, Leandro; Prud'homme Touchette, Charles; Trudeau, François; Fortin, Samuel; Rousseau, Guy

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this project was to investigate the impact of two dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), alone or in combination, on infarct size. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 14 days with different omega-3 diets. The animals were subjected to ischemia for 40min followed by reperfusion. Infarct size, Akt (protein kinase B) activation level, caspase-3 activity and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening were measured. The results indicate that EPA or DHA alone significantly reduced infarct size compared to the other diets. Akt activity was increased in the group fed EPA or DHA alone, whereas no significant activation was observed in the other groups compared to no omega-3 PUFA. DHA alone reduced caspase-3 activity and conferred resistance to mPTP opening. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that EPA and DHA are individually effective in diminishing infarct size in our experimental model while their combination is not. PMID:27499449

  7. Modeling active memory: Experiment, theory and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Daniel J.

    2001-06-01

    Neuro-physiological experiments on cognitively performing primates are described to argue that strong evidence exists for localized, non-ergodic (stimulus specific) attractor dynamics in the cortex. The specific phenomena are delay activity distributions-enhanced spike-rate distributions resulting from training, which we associate with working memory. The anatomy of the relevant cortex region and the physiological characteristics of the participating elements (neural cells) are reviewed to provide a substrate for modeling the observed phenomena. Modeling is based on the properties of the integrate-and-fire neural element in presence of an input current of Gaussian distribution. Theory of stochastic processes provides an expression for the spike emission rate as a function of the mean and the variance of the current distribution. Mean-field theory is then based on the assumption that spike emission processes in different neurons in the network are independent, and hence the input current to a neuron is Gaussian. Consequently, the dynamics of the interacting network is reduced to the computation of the mean and the variance of the current received by a cell of a given population in terms of the constitutive parameters of the network and the emission rates of the neurons in the different populations. Within this logic we analyze the stationary states of an unstructured network, corresponding to spontaneous activity, and show that it can be stable only if locally the net input current of a neuron is inhibitory. This is then tested against simulations and it is found that agreement is excellent down to great detail. A confirmation of the independence hypothesis. On top of stable spontaneous activity, keeping all parameters fixed, training is described by (Hebbian) modification of synapses between neurons responsive to a stimulus and other neurons in the module-synapses are potentiated between two excited neurons and depressed between an excited and a quiescent neuron

  8. Combination of PKCε Activation and PTP1B Inhibition Effectively Suppresses Aβ-Induced GSK-3β Activation and Tau Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Takeshi; Tsuchiya, Ayako; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2016-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is a key element to phosphorylate tau and form neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) found in tauopathies including Alzheimer's disease (AD). A current topic for AD therapy is focused upon how to prevent tau phosphorylation. In the present study, PKCε activated Akt and inactivated GSK-3β by directly interacting with each protein. Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), alternatively, caused an enhancement in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), allowing activation of Akt through a pathway along an IRS-1/phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1)/Akt axis, to phosphorylate and inactivate GSK-3β. Combination of PKCε activation and PTP1B inhibition more sufficiently activated Akt and inactivated GSK-3β than each independent treatment, to suppress amyloid β (Aβ)-induced tau phosphorylation and ameliorate spatial learning and memory impairment in 5xFAD transgenic mice, an animal model of AD. This may represent an innovative strategy for AD therapy. PMID:26328540

  9. Generic Energy Matching Model and Figure of Matching Algorithm for Combined Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Brezet

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Energy Matching Model and Figure of Matching Algorithm which originally was dedicated only to photovoltaic (PV systems [1] are extended towards a Model and Algorithm suitable for combined systems which are a result of integration of two or more renewable energy sources into one. The systems under investigation will range from mobile portable devices up to the large renewable energy system conceivably to be applied at the Afsluitdijk (Closure- dike in the north of the Netherlands. This Afsluitdijk is the major dam in the Netherlands, damming off the Zuiderzee, a salt water inlet of the North Sea and turning it into the fresh water lake of the IJsselmeer. The energy chain of power supplies based on a combination of renewable energy sources can be modeled by using one generic Energy Matching Model as starting point.

  10. Combined Active and Passive Seismology to Study Continental Collision; Central South Island of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, T.; Okaya, D.; Baldock, G.; Scherwath, M.

    2005-12-01

    Central South Island of New Zealand is a continental region that has undergone both collision and strike-slip shear in the late Tertiary. From a tectonics, or rock-mechanics, view-point there is an interest in how the crust and mantle have been both thickened and sheared. The South Island Geophysical Transect (SIGHT) and the Southern Alps Passive Seismic Experiment (SAPSE) - both jointly funded US-NZ programs - studied these processes. Some of the most important findings came about by merging data from passive and active seismology. Three specific examples will be discussed: 1. Teleseismic P-wave delays from earthquakes in the Western Pacific are used to map a ~ 0.8-1 s speed-up in the mantle right beneath the region of thickest crust and highest topography of the collision zone. Forward modeling of this velocity anomaly shows that the amplitude of the anomaly can be explained by a 100 km-thick body that has a 7% in increase in P-wave speed. From the spatial pattern of the P-wave residuals we can also show that the high-speed body is about 80-100 km wide and roughly vertically disposed beneath the crustal root. The shape and position of the high-speed body beneath the seismically determined crustal root is consistent with it being thickened, and therefore cold, mantle lithosphere that has uniformly strained into a roughly symmetric root beneath the collision zone. 2. Pn anisotropy measurements from our onshore-offshore seismic shooting program allowed us to make mutually perpendicular determinations of Pn wave speeds at three localities. P-wave anisotropies of up to 11 ± 3%, 6.5 ± 2.5% and 0 ± 3%, were measured, depending on the distance of the measurement from the surface trace of the plate boundary (the Alpine Fault). These are necessarily minimum anisotropy values because it assumes that the two axes of measurement are those of minimum and maximum wave speed. Combining these results with SKS splitting values of ~ 2 s from passive seismology allowed us to make

  11. Adeno-associated virus mediated endostatin gene therapy in combination with topoisomerase inhibitor effectively controls liver tumor in mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sung Yi Hong; Myun Hee Lee; Kyung Sup Kim; Hyun Cheol Jung; Jae Kyung Roh; Woo Jin Hyung; Sung Hoon Noh; Seung Ho Choi

    2004-01-01

    AIM: rAAV mediated endostatin gene therapy has been examined as a new method for treating cancer. However,a sustained and high protein delivery is required to achieve the desired therapeutic effects. We evaluated the impact of topoisomerase inhibitors in rAAV delivered endostatin gene therapy in a liver tumor model.METHODS: rAAV containing endostatin expression cassettes were transduced into hepatoma cell lines. To test whether the topoisomerase inhibitor pretreatment increased the expression of endostatin, Western blotting and ELISA were performed. The biologic activity of endostatin was confirmed by endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation assays.The anti-tumor effects of the rAAV-endostatin vector combined with a topoisomerase inhibitor, etoposide, were evaluated in a mouse liver tumor model.RESULTS: Topoisomerase inhibitors, including camptothecin and etoposide, were found to increase the endostatin expression level in vitro. The over-expressed endostatin,as a result of pretreatment with a topoisomerase inhibitor,was also biologically active. In animal experiments, the combined therapy of topoisomerase inhibitor, etoposide with the rAAV-endostatin vector had the best tumorsuppressive effect and tumor foci were barely observed in livers of the treated mice. Pretreatment with an etoposide increased the level of endostatin in the liver and serum of rAAV-endostatin treated mice. Finally, the mice treated with rAAV-endostatin in combination with etoposide showed the longest survival among the experimental models.CONCLUSION: rAAV delivered endostatin gene therapy in combination with a topoisomerase inhibitor pretreatment is an effective modality for anticancer gene therapy.

  12. A Decision Support Systems Using A Combined Dynamic Model For Integrated Watershed Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, E.; Ostrowski, M.

    In this context A Decision Support System (DSS) is presented using a combined dy- namic model for Integrated Watershed Management (IWM) in a small urbanized basin in Japan. In order to improve today's often unsustainable watershed management, the causes of water problems, which interact with each other, must be identified and adequate actions must be chosen to solve the problems. To achieve the ultimate goal of sustain- able development (SD) for water it is essential to develop and apply generic DSSs. A DSS is frequently defined as a combination of a management information system, a model base and an evaluation / assessment module. The EU Water Framework Di- rectives recently established have a narrow time schedule requiring fast action into this direction, which does hardly allow to develop completely new tolls. Thus we are trying to combine different existing dynamic models that incorporate an urban man- agement model, a water quality analysis model, a groundwater analysis model and a water supply model including geographical information system data. With this com- bined model, the most appropriate and sustainable water management plan in an urban area will be developed while considering land use, ground water level, allocation of drainage system, sewerage, water supply works, water quality, and quantity. Because of sharing input data, using this combined model requires less data than using sev- eral separate models. The DSS can also be used to determine the optimum location of gages and monitoring sites. As a case study, the research will deal with the Taguri-river basin in Japan. This basin is located near Tokyo. Although the area in this basin has about 8 km2 only, there are densely build-up areas, paddy fields, and non-developed areas. The river is polluted due to wastewater from point resources: households, and non-point resources: roads and fields, etc. Overpumping of aquifers results in sinking groundwater tables and land subsidence. Moreover, a decrease

  13. Model Updating of Complex Structures Using the Combination of Component Mode Synthesis and Kriging Predictor

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Liu; Yan Li; Dejun Wang; Shaoyi Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Updating the structural model of complex structures is time-consuming due to the large size of the finite element model (FEM). Using conventional methods for these cases is computationally expensive or even impossible. A two-level method, which combined the Kriging predictor and the component mode synthesis (CMS) technique, was proposed to ensure the successful implementing of FEM updating of large-scale structures. In the first level, the CMS was applied to build a reasonable condensed FEM o...

  14. Modelling and Stability of a Single-Shaft Combined Cycle Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Vournas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the development of a dynamic model for a single-shaft combined cycle plant and the analysis of its response to electrical load and frequency transients. In particular the stability of the frequency control, as well as the implications of overheat control are investigated. The model is developed in the Simulink environment of Matlab as part of an educational and research simulation package for autonomous and interconnected systems.

  15. COMBINATION OF MORPHINE AND GABAPENTIN LEADS TO SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS IN A RAT MODEL OF POSTOPERATIVE PAIN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papathanasiou, Theodoros; Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Heegaard, Anne-Marie;

    nervous system might lead to synergistic effects, thus minimizing the necessary morphine dose and correspondingly its side effects. In a blinded, randomized, 16 arms study, the pharmacodynamic interactions of morphine and gabapentin were evaluated. In the plantar incision model in the rat, a series...... of hindpaw withdrawal thresholds, after subcutaneous administration of morphine (0, 1, 3 and 7 mg/kg), gabapentin (0, 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) or their combination (9 combinations of the above doses) were obtained using an electronic von Frey device. Surface of synergistic interaction (SSI) analysis was used...... doses. Combination of morphine and gabapentin resulted in synergistic antihyperalgesic effects in a preclinical model of postoperative pain. This might indicate that there is a high potential for gabapentin and morphine to be used in the clinic, in order to optimize postoperative pain management...

  16. The Olefin Metathesis Reactions Combined with Organo-Iron Arene Activation Towards Dendrimers, and Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astruc, Didier; Martinez, Victor

    The subjects treated in the two lectures of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) summer course are (1) the combination of arene activation and perfunctionalization using organo-iron chemistry with olefin metathesis incuding metathesis of dendritic polyolefin molecules; (2) the synthesis of metallodendritic benzylidene complexes that catalyse ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) under ambient conditions and the formation of dendritic stars; (3) the use of stoichiometric and catalytic electron-transfer processes with standard reservoirs of electrons (reductants) or electron holes (oxidants) iron complexes to achieve noteworthy metathesis reactions or synthesize compounds that are useful in metathesis. Only the two first topics are treated in this chapter, and interested readers can find references concerning the third aspect called in the introduction and subsequently cited in the reference list.

  17. Combined action of magnetic activated water and some cosmic flight factors (acceleration, radiation) of animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were carried out on albino mice, line ''H'', half of them being exposed to the action of water running through a constant magnetic field. The animals were divided in the following subgroups: 1. Twenty experimental (receiving magnetic activated water - MAW) and 20 control mice were exposed to the action of positive acceleration of 20 G in the course of 5 minutes. 2. Twenty experimental mice (MAW) and 20 control mice were exposed to a positive transverse acceleration 24 hours before gamma irradiation with 600 R. The parameters studied were: survival, main duration of life, protection coefficient (α), changes in body weight and in erythrocytes and leucocytes counts in the peripheral blood. The results of these experiments show that after irradiation the observed parameters undergo milder changes in the experimental (MAW) than in the control groups, i.e. MAW exerts a distinct antiradiation effect, which is not reduced after exposure to the combined action of acceleration and radiation. (author)

  18. Detection of telomerase activity by combination of telomeric repeat amplification protocol and electrochemiluminescence assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Ming Zhou; Li Jia

    2008-01-01

    A highly sensitive telomerase detection method that combines telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) and magnetic beads based electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay has been developed. Briefly, telomerase recognizes biotinylated telomerase synthesis primer (B-TS) and synthesizes extension products, which then serve as the templates for PCR amplification using B-TS as the forward primer and Iris-(2'2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (TBR) labeled ACX (TBR-ACX) as the reversed primer. The amplified product is captured on streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads and detected by ECL. Telomerase positive HeLa cells were used to validate the feasibility of the method. The experimental results showed down to 10 cancer cells can be detected easily. The method is a useful tool for telomerase activity analysis due to its sensitivity, rapidity, safety, high throughput, and low cost. It can be used for screening a large amount of clinical samples.

  19. Comparative study of wastewater treatment and nutrient recycle via activated sludge, microalgae and combination systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Jinli; Zhao, Quanyu; Wei, Wei; Sun, Yuhan

    2016-07-01

    Algal-bacterial synergistic cultivation could be an optional wastewater treatment technology in temperate areas. In this study, a locally screened vigorous Chlorella strain was characterized and then it was used in a comparative study of wastewater treatment and nutrient recycle assessment via activated sludge (AS), microalgae and their combination systems. Chlorella sp. cultured with AS in light showed the best performance, in which case the removal efficiencies of COD, NH3-N and TP were 87.3%, 99.2% and 83.9%, respectively, within a short period of 1day. Algal-bacterial combination in light had the best settleability. Chlorella sp. contained biomass, could be processed to feed, fertilizer or fuel due to the improved quality (higher C/H/N) compared with sludge. PCR-DGGE analysis shows that two types of rhizobacteria, namely, Pseudomonas putida and Flavobacterium hauense were enriched in sludge when cultured with algae in light, serving as the basics for artificial consortium construction for improved wastewater treatment. PMID:26995615

  20. Effect of simvastatin combined amlodipine besylate on blood rheology and platelet activation in elderly patients with hypertension complicated with hyperlipemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Zheng Jiang; Li Qiong; Hui Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of simvastatin combined amlodipine besylate on blood rheology and platelet activation in elderly patients with hypertension complicated with hyperlipemia.Methods: A total of 200 elderly patients with hypertension complicated with hyperlipemia were divided into hypertension group (n=64), hyperlipemia group (n=71) and combined (hypertension complicated with hyperlipemia) group (n=65). And alternate period health check-up 100 cases were selected as control group. The hypertension group was treated with amlodipine besylate monotherapy, hyperlipidemia group with simvastatin monotherapy, combined group received simvastatin combined with amlodipine besylate treatment, patients of three groups were treated for 12 weeks. Blood rheology and platelet activation before and after treatment were compared.Results: After treatment, blood pressure was significantly lower than that before treatment in hypertension and combined group (P<0.05), and the combined group reduced more significantly (P<0.05), blood fat was significantly lower than that before treatment in hyperlipemia and combined group (P<0.05), and combined group reduced more significantly (P<0.05); Before treatment, indexes of blood rheology (high shear whole blood viscosity, low shear whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen and platelet activation index (CD62p and CD63) of three groups were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05), and the combined group was increased more significantly than hypertension and hyperlipidemia group (P<0.05); After treatment, blood rheology (high shear whole blood viscosity, low shear whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen) and platelet activation index (CD62p and CD63) of hyperlipidemia group and combined group were significantly lower than before treatment (P<0.05), and the reduction combined group were more significant in amplitude (P<0.05).Conclusions: Simvastatin combined amlodipine besylate therapy can

  1. In vitro activity effects of combinations of cephalothin, dicloxacillin, imipenem, vancomycin and amikacin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. strains

    OpenAIRE

    Solórzano-Santos Fortino; Vilchis-Pérez Mariano; Leaños-Miranda Blanca E; Miranda-Novales Guadalupe

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background combinations of drugs has been proposed as an alternative for oxacillin-resistant staphylococci infections, however, limited information about in vitro combinations are available for multi-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to describe the interaction of beta-lactams in combination with vancomycin or amikacin against 26 oxacillin and amikacin-resistant nosocomial Staphylococcus spp. isolates. Methods activity of dicloxacillin plus amikacin, cephalothin plus...

  2. Building Customers` Credit Scoring Models with Combination of Feature Selection and Decision Tree Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Davoodabadi

    Full Text Available Today`s financial transactions have been increased through banks and financial institutions. Therefore, credit scoring is a critical task to forecast the customers’ credit. We have created 9 different models for the credit scoring by combining three metho ...

  3. Modeling and Assessment of GPS/BDS Combined Precise Point Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junping; Wang, Jungang; Zhang, Yize; Yang, Sainan; Chen, Qian; Gong, Xiuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique enables stand-alone receivers to obtain cm-level positioning accuracy. Observations from multi-GNSS systems can augment users with improved positioning accuracy, reliability and availability. In this paper, we present and evaluate the GPS/BDS combined PPP models, including the traditional model and a simplified model, where the inter-system bias (ISB) is treated in different way. To evaluate the performance of combined GPS/BDS PPP, kinematic and static PPP positions are compared to the IGS daily estimates, where 1 month GPS/BDS data of 11 IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations are used. The results indicate apparent improvement of GPS/BDS combined PPP solutions in both static and kinematic cases, where much smaller standard deviations are presented in the magnitude distribution of coordinates RMS statistics. Comparisons between the traditional and simplified combined PPP models show no difference in coordinate estimations, and the inter system biases between the GPS/BDS system are assimilated into receiver clock, ambiguities and pseudo-range residuals accordingly. PMID:27455278

  4. Combined experimental and computational modelling studies of the solubility of nickel in strontium titanate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beale, A.M.; Paul, M.; Sankar, G.; Oldman, R.J.; Catlow, R.A.; French, S.; Fowles, M.

    2009-01-01

    A combination of X-ray techniques and atomistic computational modelling has been used to study the solubility of Ni in SrTiO3 in relation to the application of this material for the catalytic partial oxidation of methane. The experiments have demonstrated that low temperature, hydrothermal synthesis

  5. Modeling and Assessment of GPS/BDS Combined Precise Point Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junping; Wang, Jungang; Zhang, Yize; Yang, Sainan; Chen, Qian; Gong, Xiuqiang

    2016-07-22

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique enables stand-alone receivers to obtain cm-level positioning accuracy. Observations from multi-GNSS systems can augment users with improved positioning accuracy, reliability and availability. In this paper, we present and evaluate the GPS/BDS combined PPP models, including the traditional model and a simplified model, where the inter-system bias (ISB) is treated in different way. To evaluate the performance of combined GPS/BDS PPP, kinematic and static PPP positions are compared to the IGS daily estimates, where 1 month GPS/BDS data of 11 IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations are used. The results indicate apparent improvement of GPS/BDS combined PPP solutions in both static and kinematic cases, where much smaller standard deviations are presented in the magnitude distribution of coordinates RMS statistics. Comparisons between the traditional and simplified combined PPP models show no difference in coordinate estimations, and the inter system biases between the GPS/BDS system are assimilated into receiver clock, ambiguities and pseudo-range residuals accordingly.

  6. Robustness Analysis of Road Networks: a Framework with Combined DTA Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, M.

    2008-01-01

    Network robustness is the ability of a road network functioning properly facing unpredictable and exceptional incidents. A systematical framework with combined dynamic traffic assignment (DTA) models is designed for the analysis of road network robustness. With this framework, network performance co

  7. Revisiting Dosing Regimen Using Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Mathematical Modeling: Densification and Intensification of Combination Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meille, Christophe; Barbolosi, Dominique; Ciccolini, Joseph; Freyer, Gilles; Iliadis, Athanassios

    2016-08-01

    Controlling effects of drugs administered in combination is particularly challenging with a densified regimen because of life-threatening hematological toxicities. We have developed a mathematical model to optimize drug dosing regimens and to redesign the dose intensification-dose escalation process, using densified cycles of combined anticancer drugs. A generic mathematical model was developed to describe the main components of the real process, including pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy pharmacodynamics, and non-hematological toxicity risk. This model allowed for computing the distribution of the total drug amount of each drug in combination, for each escalation dose level, in order to minimize the average tumor mass for each cycle. This was achieved while complying with absolute neutrophil count clinical constraints and without exceeding a fixed risk of non-hematological dose-limiting toxicity. The innovative part of this work was the development of densifying and intensifying designs in a unified procedure. This model enabled us to determine the appropriate regimen in a pilot phase I/II study in metastatic breast patients for a 2-week-cycle treatment of docetaxel plus epirubicin doublet, and to propose a new dose-ranging process. In addition to the present application, this method can be further used to achieve optimization of any combination therapy, thus improving the efficacy versus toxicity balance of such a regimen.

  8. Combined rock-physical modelling and seismic inversion techniques for characterisation of stacked sandstone reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Justiniano, A.; Jaya, Y.; Diephuis, G.; Veenhof, R.; Pringle, T.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to characterise the Triassic massive stacked sandstone deposits of the Main Buntsandstein Subgroup at Block Q16 located in the West Netherlands Basin. The characterisation was carried out through combining rock-physics modelling and seismic inversion techniques. The app

  9. Combined Rock-physical Modelling and Seismic Inversion Techniques for Characterisation of the Posidonia Shale Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Justiniano, A.; Jaya, M.; Diephuis, G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to characterise the Jurassic Posidonia Shale Formation at Block Q16 located in the West Netherlands Basin. The characterisation was carried out through combining rock-physics modelling and seismic inversion techniques. The results show that the Posidonia Shale Formatio

  10. Measurement error in earnings data : Using a mixture model approach to combine survey and register data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Rohwedder, S.; Wansbeek, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    Survey data on earnings tend to contain measurement error. Administrative data are superior in principle, but are worthless in case of a mismatch. We develop methods for prediction in mixture factor analysis models that combine both data sources to arrive at a single earnings figure. We apply the me

  11. Modeling and Assessment of GPS/BDS Combined Precise Point Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junping; Wang, Jungang; Zhang, Yize; Yang, Sainan; Chen, Qian; Gong, Xiuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique enables stand-alone receivers to obtain cm-level positioning accuracy. Observations from multi-GNSS systems can augment users with improved positioning accuracy, reliability and availability. In this paper, we present and evaluate the GPS/BDS combined PPP models, including the traditional model and a simplified model, where the inter-system bias (ISB) is treated in different way. To evaluate the performance of combined GPS/BDS PPP, kinematic and static PPP positions are compared to the IGS daily estimates, where 1 month GPS/BDS data of 11 IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations are used. The results indicate apparent improvement of GPS/BDS combined PPP solutions in both static and kinematic cases, where much smaller standard deviations are presented in the magnitude distribution of coordinates RMS statistics. Comparisons between the traditional and simplified combined PPP models show no difference in coordinate estimations, and the inter system biases between the GPS/BDS system are assimilated into receiver clock, ambiguities and pseudo-range residuals accordingly. PMID:27455278

  12. Estimating Net Primary Production of Swedish Forest Landscapes by Combining Mechanistic Modeling and Remote Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagesson, Håkan Torbern; Smith, Benjamin; Løfgren, Anders;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a combination of satellite images of leaf area index (LAI) with processbased vegetation modeling for the accurate assessment of the carbon balances of Swedish forest ecosystems at the scale of a landscape. Monthly climatologic data were used as inputs in a...

  13. A COMBINED PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOENERGETICS-BASED MODEL FOR METHYLMERCURY IN FEMALE AMERICAN KESTRELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of this combined dose-response and modeling effort will be used to improve effects characterizations for methylmercury in avian wildlife. This information will reduce uncertainty in risk assessments for methylmercury in the environment and contribute to the developme...

  14. Combined heat transfer and kinetic models to predict cooking loss during heat treatment of beef meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondjoyan, Alain; Oillic, Samuel; Portanguen, Stéphane; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    2013-10-01

    A heat transfer model was used to simulate the temperature in 3 dimensions inside the meat. This model was combined with a first-order kinetic models to predict cooking losses. Identification of the parameters of the kinetic models and first validations were performed in a water bath. Afterwards, the performance of the combined model was determined in a fan-assisted oven under different air/steam conditions. Accurate knowledge of the heat transfer coefficient values and consideration of the retraction of the meat pieces are needed for the prediction of meat temperature. This is important since the temperature at the center of the product is often used to determine the cooking time. The combined model was also able to predict cooking losses from meat pieces of different sizes and subjected to different air/steam conditions. It was found that under the studied conditions, most of the water loss comes from the juice expelled by protein denaturation and contraction and not from evaporation.

  15. A combined crustal depth model for Iran based on the gravity and seismological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiamehr, Ramin

    2010-05-01

    The inversion of the Bouguer gravity data based on the Parker-Oldenburg method is the well-known method for estimation of the Moho depth model between geoscientist. The advantage of this method is that it gives a continuous surface model in the study area. However, in order to have a precise result in this method, we need to have a well distributed and dense gravity data which does not have large systematic errors. Estimation of the crust depth based on the seismological data is another independent method which is basically point-wised but more precise than the inversion approach. In order to reduce the effect of datum and systematic errors in inversion and taking advantage of the precise seismological model, we developed a combined crustal model for Iran based on the corrective surface idea. The four, five and seven parameters models were used in the least-squares sense to get the best combination. The combined model evaluated based on the independent seismological data. The results indicate clearly very good improvements versus the gravity inversion method.

  16. Pharmacokinetic modeling of an induction regimen for in vivo combined testing of novel drugs against pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Szymanska

    Full Text Available Current regimens for induction therapy of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, or for re-induction post relapse, use a combination of vincristine (VCR, a glucocorticoid, and L-asparaginase (ASP with or without an anthracycline. With cure rates now approximately 80%, robust pre-clinical models are necessary to prioritize active new drugs for clinical trials in relapsed/refractory patients, and the ability of these models to predict synergy/antagonism with established therapy is an essential attribute. In this study, we report optimization of an induction-type regimen by combining VCR, dexamethasone (DEX and ASP (VXL against ALL xenograft models established from patient biopsies in immune-deficient mice. We demonstrate that the VXL combination was synergistic in vitro against leukemia cell lines as well as in vivo against ALL xenografts. In vivo, VXL treatment caused delays in progression of individual xenografts ranging from 22 to >146 days. The median progression delay of xenografts derived from long-term surviving patients was 2-fold greater than that of xenografts derived from patients who died of their disease. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that systemic DEX exposure in mice increased 2-fold when administered in combination with VCR and ASP, consistent with clinical findings, which may contribute to the observed synergy between the 3 drugs. Finally, as proof-of-principle we tested the in vivo efficacy of combining VXL with either the Bcl-2/Bcl-xL/Bcl-w inhibitor, ABT-737, or arsenic trioxide to provide evidence of a robust in vivo platform to prioritize new drugs for clinical trials in children with relapsed/refractory ALL.

  17. Theoretical Study on Stochastic Modeling of Combined Gravity-Magnetic-Electric-Seismic Inversion and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Hanjie; Yan Hong; Li Yunping; Zhang Xiaofeng

    2003-01-01

    As gravity field, magnetic field, electric field and reismic wave field are all physical fields, their object function, reverse function and compound function are certainly infinite continuously differentiable functions which can be expanded into Taylor (Fourier) series within domain of definition and be further reduced into solving stochastic distribution function of series and statistic inference of optimal approximation. This is thebasis of combined gravity-magnetic-electric-seismic inversion of stochastic modeling. It is an uncertainty modeling technology of combining gravity-magnetic-electric-seismic inversion built on the basis of separation of field and source gravity-magnetic difference-value (D-value) trend surface, taking distribution-independent fault system as its unit, depths of seismic and electric interfaces of interests as its corresponding bivariate compound reverse function of gravity-magnetic anomalies and using high order polynomial (high order trigonometric function) approximating to its series distribution. The difference from current dominant inversion techniques is that, first, it does not respectively create gravity-seismic, magnetic-seismic deterministic inversion model from theoretical model, but combines gravity-magnetic-electric-seismic stochastic inversion model from stochastic model; second, after the concept of equivalent geological body being introduced, using feature of independent variable of gravity-magnetic field functions, taking density and susceptibility related to gravity-magnetic function as default parameters of model, the deterministic model is established owing to better solution to the contradiction of difficulty in identifying strata and less test analytical data for density and susceptibility in newly explored area; third, under assumption of independent parent distribution, a real modeling by strata, the problem of difficult plane closure arising in profile modeling is avoided. This technology has richer and more

  18. Reconstitution of anti-allergic activities of PG102 derived from Actinidia arguta by combining synthetic chemical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Jinyong; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Seon Hee; Cho, Sang Heon; Kim, Sunyoung

    2013-06-01

    PG102, a water-soluble extract from an edible fruit, Actinidia arguta, has previously been shown to control various factors involved in allergy pathogenesis. It was investigated whether the original activities of PG102 could be reconstituted by mixing chemical compounds present in PG102. Six compounds present in PG102 were, individually or in the form of mixtures, tested for their effects on the expression of various Th2 cytokines and inflammatory mediators in the cell-based assay. Each chemical inhibited IL-4 expression to varying degrees. The chemical compounds were combined at a ratio present in PG102, resulting in two formulations, CQMIIH and CQM, consisting of all or the first three of the following chemicals, citric, quinic, and malic acids, myo-inositol, isoquercitrin, and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde. The mixtures reconstituted original activities of PG102 to a significant level. In the murine asthma model, CQM ameliorated asthmatic symptoms and significantly decreased the level of IgE and IL-5. The decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was observed in cells and mice treated with PG102 and the mixtures. Our data indicated that the substantial portion of PG102's anti-allergic activities could be reconstituted, in vitro and in vivo, by mixing six chemical compounds, suggesting the possibility of developing a new type of anti-allergic agent. This approach may be useful for developing chemically defined functional products from complex botanical extracts. PMID:23918875

  19. On progress of nuclear activation model calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress of work on improved methods of nuclear model calculations for nuclear activation data carried out at IFIN-HH in 2003-2004 is reported. In order to provide accurate predictions of further interest for the European Activation File (EAF-2005), no use of normalization or free parameters are involved. Model calculations carried out by using the computer codes EMPIRE-II and STAPRE-H have been validated by analysis of activation cross sections of all W and Ta stable isotopes and compared with the corresponding predictions obtained with the code TALYS. The accurate description of these reaction cross sections is obtained by using a consistent local parameter set, being fully due to the start of proton pre-equilibrium contribution due to the partial wave l = 7ℎ at incident energies of ∼ 14 MeV. This feature makes possible a faster increase of the STAPRE-H results for the (n,p) reaction cross sections just around this energy, while at 20 MeV they are in between the EMPIRE-II and TALYS predictions. It is thus pointed out the need for additional experimental data in the energy range above 15 MeV, similar to previous measurements at, e.g., JRC/IRMM. It is also shown that enlargement actions already in due course may have lower effectiveness concerning the preservation and development of knowledge and capabilities at Romanian R and D institutes as well as their integration into existing EC/JRC programmes and EU networks. While from the beginning EC asked CEEC to improve their R and D infrastructure to better benefit from the enlargement process, no real step forward has been done in this respect in Romania. The present conditions at IFIN-HH well below the limits making possible a real work have made thus not possible a further co-operation with JRC/IRMM, where we found previously the best opportunities for a sound common work, simply because no study completion may be done now in Bucharest. (author)

  20. A sequential Monte Carlo model of the combined GB gas and electricity network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Monte Carlo model of the combined GB gas and electricity network was developed to determine the reliability of the energy infrastructure. The model integrates the gas and electricity network into a single sequential Monte Carlo simulation. The model minimises the combined costs of the gas and electricity network, these include gas supplies, gas storage operation and electricity generation. The Monte Carlo model calculates reliability indices such as loss of load probability and expected energy unserved for the combined gas and electricity network. The intention of this tool is to facilitate reliability analysis of integrated energy systems. Applications of this tool are demonstrated through a case study that quantifies the impact on the reliability of the GB gas and electricity network given uncertainties such as wind variability, gas supply availability and outages to energy infrastructure assets. Analysis is performed over a typical midwinter week on a hypothesised GB gas and electricity network in 2020 that meets European renewable energy targets. The efficacy of doubling GB gas storage capacity on the reliability of the energy system is assessed. The results highlight the value of greater gas storage facilities in enhancing the reliability of the GB energy system given various energy uncertainties. -- Highlights: •A Monte Carlo model of the combined GB gas and electricity network was developed. •Reliability indices are calculated for the combined GB gas and electricity system. •The efficacy of doubling GB gas storage capacity on reliability of the energy system is assessed. •Integrated reliability indices could be used to assess the impact of investment in energy assets

  1. Bumblebees minimize control challenges by combining active and passive modes in unsteady winds

    CERN Document Server

    Ravi, Sridhar; Engels, Thomas; Schneider, Kai; Wang, Chun; Sesterhenn, Joern; Liu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The natural wind environment that volant insects encounter is unsteady and highly complex, posing significant flight control and stability challenges. Unsteady airflows can range from structured chains of discrete vortices shed in the wake of an object to fully developed chaotic turbulence. It is critical to understand the flight control strategies insect employ to safely navigate in natural environments. We combined experiments on free flying bumblebees with high fidelity numerical simulations and lower order modeling to identify the salient mechanics that mediate insect flight in unsteady winds. We trained bumblebees to fly upwind towards an artificial flower in a wind tunnel under steady wind and in a von Karman street (23Hz) formed in the wake of a cylinder. The bees displayed significantly higher movement in the unsteady vortex street compared to steady winds. Correlation analysis revealed that at lower frequencies, less than 10 Hz, in both steady and unsteady winds the bees mediated lateral movement wit...

  2. Multi-day activity scheduling reactions to planned activities and future events in a dynamic model of activity-travel behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijland, Linda; Arentze, Theo; Timmermans, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Modeling multi-day planning has received scarce attention in activity-based transport demand modeling so far. However, new dynamic activity-based approaches are being developed at the current moment. The frequency and inflexibility of planned activities and events in activity schedules of individuals indicate the importance of incorporating those pre-planned activities in the new generation of dynamic travel demand models. Elaborating and combining previous work on event-driven activity generation, the aim of this paper is to develop and illustrate an extension of a need-based model of activity generation that takes into account possible influences of pre-planned activities and events. This paper describes the theory and shows the results of simulations of the extension. The simulation was conducted for six different activities, and the parameter values used were consistent with an earlier estimation study. The results show that the model works well and that the influences of the parameters are consistent, logical, and have clear interpretations. These findings offer further evidence of face and construct validity to the suggested modeling approach.

  3. MEG inversion using spherical head model combined with brain-shaped head model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun

    2001-01-01

    The spherical head model has been widely used in magnetoen cephalography (MEG) as a simple forward model for calculating the external mag netic field producing by neural currents in a human brain. But this model may lead to an inaccurate result, even if the computation speed is fast. For more precise computation, realistic brain-shaped head model is used with the boundary element method (BME), but at greatly increased computational cost. When solving MEG inverse problem by using optimization methods, the forward problem must often be solved for thousands of possible source configurations. So if the brain-shaped head model is used in all iterative steps of optimization, it may be computationally infeasible for practical application. In this paper, we present a method about using compound head model in MEG inverse solution. In this method, first spherical head model is used for a rough estimation, then brain-shaped head model is adopted for more precise solution. Numerical simulation indicates that under the condition of same accuracy, the computation speed for the present method is about three times faster than a method using the brain-shaped head model at all iterations.

  4. A deterministic combination of numerical and physical models for coastal waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Haiwen

    2006-01-01

    Numerical and physical modelling are the two main tools available for predicting the influence of water waves on coastlines and structures placed in the near-shore environment. Numerical models can cover large areas at the correct scale, but are limited in their ability to capture strong...... nonlinearities, wave breaking, splash, mixing, and other such complicated physics. Physical models naturally include the real physics (at the model scale), but are limited by the physical size of the facility and must contend with the fact that different physical effects scale differently. An integrated use...... of numerical and physical modelling hence provides an attractive alternative to the use of either tool on it's own. The goal of this project has been to develop a deterministically combined numerical/physical model where the physical wave tank is enclosed in a much larger computational domain, and the two...

  5. Active liquid treatment by a combination of precipitation and membrane processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrafiltration-based processes have been developed for the treatment of low and medium-active radioactive wastes. Actinides such as U, Pu and Am were found to be present as insoluble species in many effluents and were separated with high efficiency, by direct ultrafiltration. Soluble nuclides, including complexed actinides, Sr and Cs, were removed at > 99 % efficiency by combined processes, in which very low concentrations (3) of ultrafine activity absorbing precipitates were added. The new ultrafiltration processes were applied successfully to a variety of simulated and real wastes, including magnesium alloy clad spent storage fuel pond waters, reprocessing plant solvent wash liquors, plutonium production effluents and mixed site effluents. After initial laboratory scale feasibility experiments, the process was scaled up, using a variety of different ultrafiltration modules. An inorganic, tubular ultrafiltration module was selected for more detailed investigation and an automated mini-unit was constructed for longterm evaluation. The information thus accumulated on membrane performance, membrane fouling and flux restoration techniques, and ancillary equipment performance was used to design a much larger demonstration pilot plant. This plant is now processing continuously each day over 1 m3 of a real radioactive effluent

  6. Removal of humic and tannic acids by adsorption-coagulation combined systems with activated biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chanil; Phal, Narong; Oh, Jeill; Chu, Kyoung Hoon; Jang, Min; Yoon, Yeomin

    2015-12-30

    Despite recent interest in transforming biomass into bio-oil and syngas, there is inadequate information on the compatibility of byproducts (e.g., biochar) with agriculture and water purification infrastructures. A pyrolysis at 300°C yields efficient production of biochar, and its physicochemical properties can be improved by chemical activation, resulting in a suitable adsorbent for the removal of natural organic matter (NOM), including hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances, such as humic acids (HA) and tannic acids (TA), respectively. In this study, the adsorption affinities of different HA and TA combinations in NOM solutions were evaluated, and higher adsorption affinity of TA onto activated biochar (AB) produced in the laboratory was observed due to its superior chemisorption tendencies and size-exclusion effects compared with that of HA, whereas hydrophobic interactions between adsorbent and adsorbate were deficient. Assessment of the AB role in an adsorption-coagulation hybrid system as nuclei for coagulation in the presence of aluminum sulfate (alum) showed a synergistic effect in a HA-dominated NOM solution. An AB-alum hybrid system with a high proportion of HA in the NOM solution may be applicable as an end-of-pipe solution. PMID:26340547

  7. Combining partially ranked data in plant breeding and biology: II. Analysis with Rasch model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Simko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many years of breeding experiments, germplasm screening, and molecular biologic experimentation have generated volumes of sequence, genotype, and phenotype information that have been stored in public data repositories. These resources afford genetic and genomic researchers the opportunity to handle and analyze raw data from multiple laboratories and study groups whose research interests revolve around a common or closely related trait. However, although such data sets are widely available for secondary analysis, their heterogeneous nature often precludes their direct combination and joint exploration. Integration of phenotype information across multiple studies and databases is challenging due to variations in the measurement instruments, endpoint classifications, and biological material employed by each investigator. In the present work, we demonstrate how Rasch measurement model can surmount these problems. The model allows incorporating data sets with partially overlapping variables, large numbers of missing data points and dissimilar ratings of phenotypic endpoints. The model also enables quantifying the extent of heterogeneity between data sets. Biologists can use the model in a data-mining process to obtain combined ratings from various databases and other sources. Subsequently, these ratings can be used for selecting desirable material or (in combination with genotypic information for mapping genes involved in the particular trait. The model is not limited to genetics and breeding and can be applied in many other areas of biology and agriculture.

  8. Soft combination of local models in a multi-objective framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fenicia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual hydrologic models are useful tools as they provide an interpretable representation of the hydrologic behaviour of a catchment. Their representation of catchment's hydrological processes and physical characteristics, however, implies simplification of the complexity and heterogeneity of reality. As a result, those models often show a lack of flexibility in reproducing the vast spectrum of catchment responses. Hence, the accuracy in reproducing certain aspects of the system behaviour is often paid in terms of a lack of accuracy in the representation of other aspects.

    By acknowledging the structural limitations of those models, a modular approach to hydrological simulation is proposed. Instead of using a single model to reproduce the full range of catchment responses, multiple models are used, each of them assigned to a specific task.

    The approach is here demonstrated in the case where the different models are associated with different parameter realizations within a fixed model structure. We show that using a composite "global" model, obtained by a combination of individual "local" models, the accuracy of the simulation is improved. We argue that this approach can be useful because it partially overcomes the structural limitations that a conceptual model might exhibit. The approach is shown in application to the discharge simulation of the experimental Alzette River basin in Luxembourg, with a conceptual model that follows the structure of the HBV model.

  9. Fitting complex population models by combining particle filters with Markov chain Monte Carlo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knape, Jonas; de Valpine, Perry

    2012-02-01

    We show how a recent framework combining Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) with particle filters (PFMCMC) may be used to estimate population state-space models. With the purpose of utilizing the strengths of each method, PFMCMC explores hidden states by particle filters, while process and observation parameters are estimated using an MCMC algorithm. PFMCMC is exemplified by analyzing time series data on a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) population in New South Wales, Australia, using MCMC over model parameters based on an adaptive Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. We fit three population models to these data; a density-dependent logistic diffusion model with environmental variance, an unregulated stochastic exponential growth model, and a random-walk model. Bayes factors and posterior model probabilities show that there is little support for density dependence and that the random-walk model is the most parsimonious model. The particle filter Metropolis-Hastings algorithm is a brute-force method that may be used to fit a range of complex population models. Implementation is straightforward and less involved than standard MCMC for many models, and marginal densities for model selection can be obtained with little additional effort. The cost is mainly computational, resulting in long running times that may be improved by parallelizing the algorithm. PMID:22624307

  10. Anticonvulsant Effects of Combined Treatment with Citicoline and Valproate on the Model of Acute Generalized Convulsions Induced by Pentylenetetrazole in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpova, M N; Kuznetsova, L V; Zin'kovskii, K A; Klishina, N V

    2016-02-01

    We studied anticonvulsant effects of combined treatment with citicoline, a nootropic substance with neuroregenerative and neuroprotective activities, and valproate, an antiepileptic agent widely used in the treatment of epilepsy, on the model of pentylenetetrazole-induced (75 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) acute generalized convulsions in male Wistar rats. Combined treatment with citicoline and valproate in minimum effective doses (70 and 300 mg/kg, respectively) potentiated the anticonvulsant properties of both agents. PMID:26902360

  11. Aircraft Combat Survivability Calculation Based on Combination Weighting and Multiattribute Intelligent Grey Target Decision Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lintong Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft combat survivability is defined as the capability of an aircraft to avoid or withstand a man-made hostile environment, which has been increasingly important. In order to give a rational calculation of aircraft combat survivability, an integrated method based on combination weighting and multiattribute intelligent grey target decision model is proposed. Firstly, an evaluation index system containing susceptibility index and vulnerability index as well as their subindexes is established. Then a multiattribute intelligent grey target decision model is introduced. A combination weighting method is brought up based on a modified AHP (analytic hierarchy process method and the entropy method, offering a rational weight for various indexes. Finally, utilize the multiattribute intelligent grey target decision model to assess the aircraft combat survivability of aircraft, verified by a practical case of five aircraft. The results show that the proposed method is effective and has a great value in engineering application, which will provide useful references for other projects’ evaluation.

  12. Balanced pan-PPAR activator bezafibrate in combination with statin: comprehensive lipids control and diabetes prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenenbaum Alexander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract All fibrates are peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARs-alpha agonists with ability to decrease triglyceride and increase high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C. However, bezafibrate has a unique characteristic profile of action since it activates all three PPAR subtypes (alpha, gamma and delta at comparable doses. Therefore, bezafibrate operates as a pan-agonist for all three PPAR isoforms. Selective PPAR gamma agonists (thiazolidinediones are used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. They improve insulin sensitivity by up-regulating adipogenesis, decreasing free fatty acid levels, and reversing insulin resistance. However, selective PPAR gamma agonists also cause water retention, weight gain, peripheral edema, and congestive heart failure. The expression of PPAR beta/ delta in essentially all cell types and tissues (ubiquitous presence suggests its potential fundamental role in cellular biology. PPAR beta/ delta effects correlated with enhancement of fatty acid oxidation, energy consumption and adaptive thermogenesis. Together, these data implicate PPAR beta/delta in fuel combustion and suggest that pan-PPAR agonists that include a component of PPAR beta/delta activation might offset some of the weight gain issues seen with selective PPAR gamma agonists, as was demonstrated by bezafibrate studies. Suggestively, on the whole body level all PPARs acting as one orchestra and balanced pan-PPAR activation seems as an especially attractive pharmacological goal. Conceptually, combined PPAR gamma and alpha action can target simultaneously insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipidemia, whereas PPAR beta/delta properties may prevent the development of overweight. Bezafibrate, as all fibrates, significantly reduced plasma triglycerides and increased HDL-C level (but considerably stronger than other major fibrates. Bezafibrate significantly decreased prevalence of small, dense low density lipoproteins particles, remnants

  13. Colorimetry and SERS dual-mode detection of telomerase activity: combining rapid screening with high sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Shenfei; Wang, Zhuyuan; Chen, Hui; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Min; Chen, Peng; Cui, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    As an important biomarker and therapeutic target, telomerase has attracted considerable attention concerning its detection and monitoring. Here, we present a colorimetry and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dual-mode telomerase activity detection method, which has several distinctive advantages. First, colorimetric functionality allows rapid preliminary discrimination of telomerase activity by the naked eye. Second, the employment of SERS technique results in greatly improved detection sensitivity. Third, the combination of colorimetry and SERS into one detection system can ensure highly efficacious and sensitive screening of numerous samples. Besides, the avoidance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures further guarantees fine reliability and simplicity. Generally, the presented method is realized by an ``elongate and capture'' procedure. To be specific, gold nanoparticles modified with Raman molecules and telomeric repeat complementary oligonucleotide are employed as the colorimetric-SERS bifunctional reporting nanotag, while magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with telomerase substrate oligonucleotide are used as the capturing substrate. Telomerase can synthesize and elongate telomeric repeats onto the capturing substrate. The elongated telomeric repeats subsequently facilitate capturing of the reporting nanotag via hybridization between telomeric repeat and its complementary strand. The captured nanotags can cause a significant difference in the color and SERS intensity of the magnetically separated sediments. Thus both the color and SERS can be used as indicators of the telomerase activity. With fast screening ability and outstanding sensitivity, we anticipate that this method would greatly promote practical application of telomerase-based early-stage cancer diagnosis.As an important biomarker and therapeutic target, telomerase has attracted considerable attention concerning its detection and monitoring. Here, we present a colorimetry and

  14. Effect of Endostar Combined with Gemcitabine on the Mouse Model of Human Pancreatic Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林清风

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of recombinant human endostatin,that is,endostar combined with gemcitabine on the mouse model of human pancreatic cancer.Methods We use the cell line PANC-1 and the severe combined immune deficient mice to set up the mouse model of human pancreatic cancer,then devide them into three groups,treat them with gemcitabine,gemcitabine combined with endostar,and 0.9% saline water respectively.We observe the change of the tumor volumn,use ELISA method to detect the serum VEGF level,stain the micro vessel in the tumor tissue with immunohistochemistry method,and compare the data among the different groups respectively.Results On the twenty-eighth day,the tumor volume of the control group,the monotherapy group and the combination group,averaged 1 700 mm3,19.2 mm3,10.4 mm3,serum VEGF level 88.6 L,35.5,26.3 pg/mL and MVD 43.9,30.3,19.2 respectively,which had significant difference.Conclusion Endostar can strengthen the lethal effect of gemcitabine on the mouse model of human pancreatic cancer.

  15. Combining multi-objective optimization and bayesian model averaging to calibrate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrugt, Jasper A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wohling, Thomas [NON LANL

    2008-01-01

    Most studies in vadose zone hydrology use a single conceptual model for predictive inference and analysis. Focusing on the outcome of a single model is prone to statistical bias and underestimation of uncertainty. In this study, we combine multi-objective optimization and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) to generate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models. To illustrate our method, we use observed tensiometric pressure head data at three different depths in a layered vadose zone of volcanic origin in New Zealand. A set of seven different soil hydraulic models is calibrated using a multi-objective formulation with three different objective functions that each measure the mismatch between observed and predicted soil water pressure head at one specific depth. The Pareto solution space corresponding to these three objectives is estimated with AMALGAM, and used to generate four different model ensembles. These ensembles are post-processed with BMA and used for predictive analysis and uncertainty estimation. Our most important conclusions for the vadose zone under consideration are: (1) the mean BMA forecast exhibits similar predictive capabilities as the best individual performing soil hydraulic model, (2) the size of the BMA uncertainty ranges increase with increasing depth and dryness in the soil profile, (3) the best performing ensemble corresponds to the compromise (or balanced) solution of the three-objective Pareto surface, and (4) the combined multi-objective optimization and BMA framework proposed in this paper is very useful to generate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models.

  16. Establishment of a Model of Combined Pancreas-Kidney Transplantation in Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To establish a model of combined pancreas-kidney transplantation in pig. Methods A renoportal end-to-end anastomoses between the left renal vein and the distal end of portal vein were performed. Only two vascular end-to-side anastomoses between the donor portal vein and recipient inferior vena cava, and between the donor aortic segment including the celiac, superior mesenteric, and left renal arteries and recipient abdominal aorta were constructed. Pancreas exocrine drainage was established with duodenocystostomy. The ureterostomosis of the graft was performed. Results Satisfactory results were obtained in 11 pigs. Conclusion The method for combined pancreas-kidney transplantation was reliable.

  17. Face Alignment Using Active Shape Model And Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Hoang Thai; Vo Nhat Truong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Active Shape Model (ASM is one of the most popular local texture modelsfor face alignment. It applies in many fields such as locating facial features in theimage, face synthesis, etc. However, the experimental results show that theaccuracy of the classical ASM for some applications is not high. This papersuggests some improvements on the classical ASM to increase the performanceof the model in the application: face alignment. Four of our major improvementsinclude: i building a model combining Sobel filter and the 2-D profile in searchingface in image; ii applying Canny algorithm for the enhancement edge on image;iii Support Vector Machine (SVM is used to classify landmarks on face, in orderto determine exactly location of these landmarks support for ASM; ivautomatically adjust 2-D profile in the multi-level model based on the size of theinput image. The experimental results on Caltech face database and TechnicalUniversity of Denmark database (imm_face show that our proposedimprovement leads to far better performance.

  18. Holocene canyon activity under a combination of tidal and tectonic forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountjoy, Joshu; Micallef, Aaron; Stevens, Craig; Stirling, Mark

    2013-04-01

    heads, and transported sediment is accumulating in upper canyon depocentres. Based on pseudo-static stability modelling, and supported by sediment core records, we estimate that earthquake triggered failure occurs approximately every 100 years. Lower canyon geomorphology indicates that failed material is being conveyed down the length of the canyon system to the deep ocean. Thus, while flushing rates may be low, the Cook Strait Canyon system can be considered to be an active sedimentary system during the current sea level high stand. The processes identified here are likely to be analogous to those occurring in many non-coupled shelf indenting canyons on tectonically active margins globally, and provide a framework within which the biological response to intermediate disturbance geomorphic processes in submarine canyons can be assessed.

  19. Analysis of combined HERA data in the Impact-Parameter dependent Saturation model

    CERN Document Server

    Rezaeian, Amir H; Van de Klundert, Merijn; Venugopalan, Raju

    2012-01-01

    The Impact-Parameter dependent Saturation Model (IP-Sat) is a simple dipole model that incorporates key features of the physics of gluon saturation and matches smoothly to the perturbative QCD dipole expression at large Q^2 for a given x. It was previously shown that the model gives a good description of HERA data suggesting evidence for gluon saturation effects at small x. The model has also been applied to proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions and provides the basis for the IP-Glasma model of initial conditions in heavy ion collisions. Here we present a reanalysis of available data in electron-proton collisions at small Bjorken-x, including the recently released combined data from the ZEUS and H1 collaborations. We first confront the model to the high precision combined data for the reduced cross-section and obtain its parameters. With these parameters fixed, we compare model results to data for the structure function F_2, the longitudinal structure function F_L, the charm structure function F_2^{c\\ba...

  20. A Combined Tissue Kinetics and Dosimetric Model of Respiratory Tissue Exposed to Radiation. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing dosimetric models of the radiation response of tissues are essentially static. Consideration of changes in the cell populations over time has not been addressed realistically. For a single acute dose this is not a concern, but for modeling chronic exposures or fractionated acute exposures, the natural turnover and progression of cells could have a significant impact on a variety of endpoints. This proposal addresses the shortcomings of current methods by combining current dose-based calculation techniques with information on the cell turnover for a model tissue. The proposed model will examine effects at the single-cell level for an exposure of a section of human bronchiole. The cell model will be combined with Monte Carlo calculations of doses to cells and cell nuclei due to varying dose-rates of different radiation qualities. Predictions from the model of effects on survival, apoptosis rates, and changes in the number of cycling and differentiating cells will be tested experimentally. The availability of dynamic dosimetric models of tissues at the single-cell level will be useful for analysis of low-level radiation exposures and in the development of new radiotherapy protocols

  1. A Combined Tissue Kinetics and Dosimetric Model of Respiratory Tissue Exposed to Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Ford

    2005-11-01

    Existing dosimetric models of the radiation response of tissues are essentially static. Consideration of changes in the cell populations over time has not been addressed realistically. For a single acute dose this is not a concern, but for modeling chronic exposures or fractionated acute exposures, the natural turnover and progression of cells could have a significant impact on a variety of endpoints. This proposal addresses the shortcomings of current methods by combining current dose-based calculation techniques with information on the cell turnover for a model tissue. The proposed model will examine effects at the single-cell level for an exposure of a section of human bronchiole. The cell model will be combined with Monte Carlo calculations of doses to cells and cell nuclei due to varying dose-rates of different radiation qualities. Predictions from the model of effects on survival, apoptosis rates, and changes in the number of cycling and differentiating cells will be tested experimentally. The availability of dynamic dosimetric models of tissues at the single-cell level will be useful for analysis of low-level radiation exposures and in the development of new radiotherapy protocols.

  2. The Combination of Cobinamide and Sulfanegen Is Highly Effective in Mouse Models of Cyanide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Adriano; Crankshaw, Daune L.; Monteil, Alexandre; Patterson, Steven E.; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Briggs, Jackie E.; Kozocas, Joseph A.; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B.; Bigby, Timothy D.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Context Cyanide poisoning is a major contributor to death in smoke inhalation victims and accidental exposure to cyanide occurs in a variety of industries. Moreover, cyanide has the potential to be used by terrorists, particularly in a closed space such as an airport or train station. Current therapies for cyanide poisoning must be given by intravenous administration, limiting their use in treating mass casualties. Objective We are developing two new cyanide antidotes—cobinamide, a vitamin B12 analog, and sulfanegen, a 3-mercaptopyruvate prodrug. Both drugs can be given by intramuscular administration, and therefore could be used to treat a large number of people quickly. We now asked if the two drugs would have an augmented effect when combined. Materials and Methods We used a non-lethal and two different lethal models of cyanide poisoning in mice. The non-lethal model assesses neurologic recovery by quantitatively evaluating the innate righting reflex time of a mouse. The two lethal models are a cyanide injection and a cyanide inhalation model. Results We found that the two drugs are at least additive when used together in both the non-lethal and lethal models: at doses where all animals died with either drug alone, the combination yielded 80 and 40% survival in the injection and inhalation models, respectively. Similarly, drug doses that yielded 40% survival with either drug alone yielded 80 and 100% survival in the injection and inhalatiion models, respectively. As part of the inhalation model, we developed a new paradigm in which animals are exposed to cyanide gas, injected intramuscularly with antidote, and then re-exposed to cyanide gas. This simulates cyanide exposure of a large number of people in a closed space, because people would remain exposed to cyanide, even after receiving an antidote. Conclusion The combination of cobinamide and sulfanegen shows great promise as a new approach to treating cyanide poisoning. PMID:21740135

  3. Large Animal Stroke Models vs. Rodent Stroke Models, Pros and Cons, and Combination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bin; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of serious long-term disability worldwide and the second leading cause of death in many countries. Long-time attempts to salvage dying neurons via various neuroprotective agents have failed in stroke translational research, owing in part to the huge gap between animal stroke models and stroke patients, which also suggests that rodent models have limited predictive value and that alternate large animal models are likely to become important in future translational research. The genetic background, physiological characteristics, behavioral characteristics, and brain structure of large animals, especially nonhuman primates, are analogous to humans, and resemble humans in stroke. Moreover, relatively new regional imaging techniques, measurements of regional cerebral blood flow, and sophisticated physiological monitoring can be more easily performed on the same animal at multiple time points. As a result, we can use large animal stroke models to decrease the gap and promote translation of basic science stroke research. At the same time, we should not neglect the disadvantages of the large animal stroke model such as the significant expense and ethical considerations, which can be overcome by rodent models. Rodents should be selected as stroke models for initial testing and primates or cats are desirable as a second species, which was recommended by the Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) group in 2009. PMID:26463926

  4. Enhancement of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of thickened waste activated sludge by combined microwave and alkaline pretreatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongzhi Chi; Yuyou Li; Xuening Fei; Shaopo Wang; Hongying Yun

    2011-01-01

    Pretreatment of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) by combined microwave and alkaline pretreatment (MAP) was studied to improve thermophilic anaerobic digestion efficiency.Uniform design was applied to determine the combination of target temperature (110-210℃),microwave holding time (1-51 min),and NaOH dose (0-2.5 g NaOH/g suspended solids (SS)) in terms of their effect on volatile suspended solids (VSS) solubilization.Maximum solubilization ratio (85.1%) of VSS was observed at 210℃ with 0.2 g-NaOH/g-SS and 35 min holding time.The effects of 12 different pretreatment methods were investigated in 28 thermophilic batch reactors by monitoring cumulative methane production (CMP).Improvements in methane production in the TWAS were directly related to the microwave and alkaline pretreatment of the sludge.The highest CMP was a 27% improvement over the control.In spite of the increase in soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration and the decrease in dewaterability of digested sludge,a semi-continuous thennophilic reactor fed with pretreated TWAS without neutralization (at 170℃ with 1 rain holding time and 0.05 g NaOH/g SS) was stable and functioned well,with volatile solid (VS) and total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) reductions of 28% and 18%,respectively,which were higher than those of the control system.Additionally,methane yields (L@STP/g-CODadded,at standard temperature and pressure (STP) conditions of 0℃ and 101.325 kPa) and (L@STP/g VSadded) increased by 17% and 13%,respectively,compared to the control reactor.

  5. Cardiac modeling using active appearance models and morphological operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Bernhard; Hanser, Friedrich; Seger, Michael; Hintermueller, Christoph; Modre-Osprian, Robert; Fischer, Gerald; Muehlthaler, Hannes; Trieb, Thomas; Tilg, Bernhard

    2005-04-01

    We present an approach for fast reconstructing of cardiac myocardium and blood masses of a patient's heart from morphological image data, acquired either MRI or CT, in order to estimate numerically the spread of electrical excitation in the patient's atria and ventricles. The approach can be divided into two main steps. During the first step the ventricular and atrial blood masses are extracted employing Active Appearance Models (AAM). The left and right ventricular blood masses are segmented automatically after providing the positions of the apex cordis and the base of the heart. Because of the complex geometry of the atria the segmentation process of the atrial blood masses requires more information as the ventricular blood mass segmentation process of the ventricles. We divided, for this reason, the left and right atrium into three divisions of appearance. This proved sufficient for the 2D AAM model to extract the target blood masses. The base of the heart, the left upper and left lower pulmonary vein from its first up to its last appearance in the image stack, and the right upper and lower pulmonary vein have to be marked. After separating the volume data into these divisions the 2D AAM search procedure extracts the blood masses which are the main input for the second and last step in the myocardium extraction pipeline. This step uses morphologically-based operations in order to extract the ventricular and atrial myocardium either directly by detecting the myocardium in the volume block or by reconstructing the myocardium using mean model information, in case the algorithm fails to detect the myocardium.

  6. Analytical Solution of Interface Effect on the Strength of Combined Model Composed of Different Geologic Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-hui Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the special combined structure of surrounding rock in western mining area of China, a micromechanical model with variable parameters containing contact interface was proposed firstly. Then, the derived stresses in coal and rock near the interface were analyzed on the basis of the harmonized strain relation, and the analytical solutions with respect to stress states near the interface were drawn up. The triaxial compressive strength of coal and rock was further determined in case the contact interface was in the horizontal position. Moreover, effects of stiffness ratio, interface angle, and stress level on the strength of two bodies near the contact area were expounded in detail. Results indicate that additional stresses which have significant effect on the strength of combined model are derived due to the adhesive effect of contact interface and lithological differences between geologic bodies located on both sides. The interface effect on the strength of combined body is most associated with the stiffness, interface angle, and the stress level. These conclusions are also basically valid for three-body model and even for the multibody model and lay important theory foundation to guide the stability study of soft strata composed of different geologic bodies.

  7. Hybrid predictions of railway induced ground vibration using a combination of experimental measurements and numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, K. A.; Verbraken, H.; Degrande, G.; Lombaert, G.

    2016-07-01

    Along with the rapid expansion of urban rail networks comes the need for accurate predictions of railway induced vibration levels at grade and in buildings. Current computational methods for making predictions of railway induced ground vibration rely on simplifying modelling assumptions and require detailed parameter inputs, which lead to high levels of uncertainty. It is possible to mitigate against these issues using a combination of field measurements and state-of-the-art numerical methods, known as a hybrid model. In this paper, two hybrid models are developed, based on the use of separate source and propagation terms that are quantified using in situ measurements or modelling results. These models are implemented using term definitions proposed by the Federal Railroad Administration and assessed using the specific illustration of a surface railway. It is shown that the limitations of numerical and empirical methods can be addressed in a hybrid procedure without compromising prediction accuracy.

  8. Damage evaluation of reinforced concrete frame based on a combined fiber beam model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Bing; Liu, ZhanLi; Zhuang, Zhuo

    2014-04-01

    In order to analyze and simulate the impact collapse or seismic response of the reinforced concrete (RC) structures, a combined fiber beam model is proposed by dividing the cross section of RC beam into concrete fiber and steel fiber. The stress-strain relationship of concrete fiber is based on a model proposed by concrete codes for concrete structures. The stress-strain behavior of steel fiber is based on a model suggested by others. These constitutive models are implemented into a general finite element program ABAQUS through the user defined subroutines to provide effective computational tools for the inelastic analysis of RC frame structures. The fiber model proposed in this paper is validated by comparing with experiment data of the RC column under cyclical lateral loading. The damage evolution of a three-dimension frame subjected to impact loading is also investigated.

  9. Combining engineering and data-driven approaches: Development of a generic fire risk model facilitating calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Sanctis, G.; Fischer, K.; Kohler, J.;

    2014-01-01

    Fire risk models support decision making for engineering problems under the consistent consideration of the associated uncertainties. Empirical approaches can be used for cost-benefit studies when enough data about the decision problem are available. But often the empirical approaches are not...... detailed enough. Engineering risk models, on the other hand, may be detailed but typically involve assumptions that may result in a biased risk assessment and make a cost-benefit study problematic. In two related papers it is shown how engineering and data-driven modeling can be combined by developing a...... generic risk model that is calibrated to observed fire loss data. Generic risk models assess the risk of buildings based on specific risk indicators and support risk assessment at a portfolio level. After an introduction to the principles of generic risk assessment, the focus of the present paper is on...

  10. Efficient pan-European flood hazard modelling through a combination of statistical and physical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprotny, Dominik; Morales Nápoles, Oswaldo

    2016-04-01

    Low-resolution hydrological models are often applied to calculate extreme river discharges and delimitate flood zones on continental and global scale. Still, the computational expense is very large and often limits the extent and depth of such studies. Here, we present a quick yet similarly accurate procedure for flood hazard assessment in Europe. Firstly, a statistical model based on Bayesian Networks is used. It describes the joint distribution of annual maxima of daily discharges of European rivers with variables describing the geographical characteristics of their catchments. It was quantified with 75,000 station-years of river discharge, as well as climate, terrain and land use data. The model's predictions of average annual maxima or discharges with certain return periods are of similar performance to physical rainfall-runoff models applied at continental scale. A database of discharge scenarios - return periods under present and future climate - was prepared for the majority of European rivers. Secondly, those scenarios were used as boundary conditions for one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic model SOBEK. Utilizing 1D instead of 2D modelling conserved computational time, yet gave satisfactory results. The resulting pan-European flood map was contrasted with some local high-resolution studies. Indeed, the comparison shows that, in overall, the methods presented here gave similar or better alignment with local studies than previously released pan-European flood map.

  11. Multiplicity fluctuation and correlation of identified baryons in quark combination model

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Jun; Wang, Rui-qin; Shao, Feng-lan

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical fluctuation and correlation of multiplicity distributions of identified baryons and antibaryons produced by the hadronization of the bulk quark system are systematically studied in quark combination model. Starting from the most basic dynamics of quark combination which are necessary for multiplicity study, we analyze moments (variance, skewness and kurtosis) of inclusive multiplicity distribution of identified baryons, two-baryon multiplicity correlations, and baryon-antibaryon multiplicity correlations after the hadronization of quark system with given quark number and antiquark number. We obtain a series of interesting findings, e.g., binomial behavior of multiplicity moments, coincide flavor dependent two-baryon correlation and universal baryon-antibaryon correlation, which can be regarded as general features of quark combination. We further take into account correlations and fluctuations of quark numbers before hadronization to study their influence on multiple production of baryons and ant...

  12. Combined trust model based on evidence theory in iterated prisoner's dilemma game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Zhang, Bin; Zhu, Weidong

    2011-01-01

    In the iterated prisoner's dilemma game, agents often play defection based on mutual distrust for the sake of their own benefits. However, most game strategies and mechanisms are limited for strengthening cooperative behaviour in the current literature, especially in noisy environments. In this article, we construct a combined trust model by combining the locally owned information and the recommending information from other agents and develop a combined trust strategy in the iterated prisoner's dilemma game. The proposed game strategy can provide not only a higher payoff for agents, but also a trust mechanism for the system. Furthermore, agents can form their own reputation evaluations upon their opponents and make more rational and precise decisions under our framework. Simulations of application are performed to show the performance of the proposed strategy in noise-free and noisy environments.

  13. Modeling of a Planar Nine-Way Metamaterial Power Divider/Combiner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Chiang Lee; Tah-Hsiung Chu

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of the scattering parameters (S-parameters) of planarN-way metamaterial power dividers/combiners mostly uses commercial microwave circuit simulators due to the large circuit size involved. This paper presents an efficient circuit modeling approach, which is based on the multi-input and multi-output transmission matrix (T-matrix) method, to analyze theS-parameter of a planar nine-way metamaterial power-divider/combiner structure. S-parameter computation results are shown in good agreement with the simulation results by using the Agilent advanced design system (ADS) and measurement results. The computation time of an N-way metamaterial power divider/combiner withN=5, 9, 13, and 17 usingT-matrix method is also compared with those of ADS and AWR Microwave Office (MWO) to demonstrate its computational efficiency.

  14. Toward a model of neuropsychological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, A; Galeano, L M; Rosselli, M

    1998-12-01

    The main purpose of this research was to establish the intercorrelations existing among different psychological and neuropsychological test scores in a normal and homogeneous population. A second purpose was to attempt further step in the component analysis of cognitive activity measured by means of neuropsychological tests. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was assembled and individually administered to a 300-subject sample, aged 17-25 year-old. All of them were right-handed male university students. The battery included some basic neuropsychological tests directed to assess language, calculation abilities, spatial cognition, praxic abilities, memory, perceptual abilities, and executive functions. In addition, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was administered. Forty-one different scores were calculated. Correlations among the different test scores were analyzed. It was found that some of the tests presented a quite complex intecorrelation system, whereas other tests presented few or no significant correlations. Mathematical ability tests and orthography knowledge represented the best predictors of Full Scale IQ. A factor analysis with varimax rotation disclosed five factors (verbal, visuoperceptual, executive function, fine movements, and memory) accounting for 63.6% of the total variance. Implications of these results for a neuropsychological model about brain organization of cognition were analyzed. PMID:9951709

  15. RECONSTRUCTION OF 3D VECTOR MODELS OF BUILDINGS BY COMBINATION OF ALS, TLS AND VLS DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Boulaassal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS and Vehicle based Laser Scanning (VLS are widely used as data acquisition methods for 3D building modelling. ALS data is often used to generate, among others, roof models. TLS data has proven its effectiveness in the geometric reconstruction of building façades. Although the operating algorithms used in the processing chain of these two kinds of data are quite similar, their combination should be more investigated. This study explores the possibility of combining ALS and TLS data for simultaneously producing 3D building models from bird point of view and pedestrian point of view. The geometric accuracy of roofs and façades models is different due to the acquisition techniques. In order to take these differences into account, the surfaces composing roofs and façades are extracted with the same algorithm of segmentation. Nevertheless the segmentation algorithm must be adapted to the properties of the different point clouds. It is based on the RANSAC algorithm, but has been applied in a sequential way in order to extract all potential planar clusters from airborne and terrestrial datasets. Surfaces are fitted to planar clusters, allowing edge detection and reconstruction of vector polygons. Models resulting from TLS data are obviously more accurate than those generated from ALS data. Therefore, the geometry of the roofs is corrected and adapted according to the geometry of the corresponding façades. Finally, the effects of the differences between raw ALS and TLS data on the results of the modeling process are analyzed. It is shown that such combination could be used to produce reliable 3D building models.

  16. Finite element modeling of reinforced concrete beams with a hybrid combination of steel and aramid reinforcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Modeling of concrete beams reinforced steel and FRP bars. • Developed finite element models achieved good results. • The models are validated via comparison with experimental results. • Parametric studies are performed. - Abstract: Corrosion of steel bars has an adverse effect on the life-span of reinforced concrete (RC) members and is usually associated with crack development in RC beams. Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars have been recently used to reinforce concrete members in flexure due to their high tensile strength and superior corrosion resistance properties. However, FRP materials are brittle in nature, thus RC beams reinforced with such materials would exhibit a less ductile behavior when compared to similar members reinforced with conventional steel reinforcement. Recently, researchers investigated the performance of concrete beams reinforced with a hybrid combination of steel and Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polymer (AFRP) reinforcement to maintain a reasonable level of ductility in such members. The function of the AFRP bars is to increase the load-carrying capacity, while the function of the steel bars is to ensure ductility of the flexural member upon yielding in tension. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model that predicted the load versus mid-span deflection response of tested RC beams conducted by other researchers with a hybrid combination of steel and AFRP bars. The developed FE models account for the constituent material nonlinearities and bond–slip behavior between the reinforcing bars and adjacent concrete surfaces. It was concluded that the developed models can accurately capture the behavior and predicts the load-carrying capacity of such RC members. In addition, a parametric study is conducted using the validated models to investigate the effect of AFRP bar size, FRP material type, bond–slip action, and concrete compressive strength on the performance of concrete beams when reinforced

  17. Flood Hazard Mapping Combining Hydrodynamic Modeling and Multi Annual Remote Sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Giustarini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a method to combine the time and space continuity of a large-scale inundation model with discontinuous satellite microwave observations, for high-resolution flood hazard mapping. The assumption behind this approach is that hydraulic variables computed from continuous spatially-distributed hydrodynamic modeling and observed as discrete satellite-derived flood extents are correlated in time, so that probabilities can be transferred from the model series to the observations. A prerequisite is, therefore, the existence of a significant correlation between a modeled variable (i.e., flood extent or volume and the synchronously-observed flood extent. If this is the case, the availability of model simulations over a long time period allows for a robust estimate of non-exceedance probabilities that can be attributed to corresponding synchronously-available satellite observations. The generated flood hazard map has a spatial resolution equal to that of the satellite images, which is higher than that of currently available large scale inundation models. The method was applied on the Severn River (UK, using the outputs of a global inundation model provided by the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts and a large collection of ENVISAT ASAR imagery. A comparison between the hazard map obtained with the proposed method and with a more traditional numerical modeling approach supports the hypothesis that combining model results and satellite observations could provide advantages for high-resolution flood hazard mapping, provided that a sufficient number of remote sensing images is available and that a time correlation is present between variables derived from a global model and obtained from satellite observations.

  18. Merging Alternate Remotely-Sensed Soil Moisture Retrievals Using a Non-Static Model Combination Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokhyeon Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture is an important variable in the coupled hydrologic and climate system. In recent years, microwave-based soil moisture products have been shown to be a viable alternative to in situ measurements. A popular way to measure the performance of soil moisture products is to calculate the temporal correlation coefficient (R against in situ measurements or other appropriate reference datasets. In this study, an existing linear combination method improving R was modified to allow for a non-static or nonstationary model combination as the basis for improving remotely-sensed surface soil moisture. Previous research had noted that two soil moisture products retrieved using the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA and Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM algorithms from the same Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2 sensor are spatially complementary in terms of R against a suitable reference over a fixed period. Accordingly, a linear combination was proposed to maximize R using a set of spatially-varying, but temporally-fixed weights. Even though this approach showed promising results, there was room for further improvements, in particular using non-static or dynamic weights that take account of the time-varying nature of the combination algorithm being approximated. The dynamic weighting was achieved by using a moving window. A number of different window sizes was investigated. The optimal weighting factors were determined for the data lying within the moving window and then used to dynamically combine the two parent products. We show improved performance for the dynamically-combined product over the static linear combination. Generally, shorter time windows outperform the static approach, and a 60-day time window is suggested to be the optimum. Results were validated against in situ measurements collected from 124 stations over different continents. The mean R of the dynamically-combined products was found to be 0.57 and 0

  19. Short communication: Inhibitory activities of the lantibiotic nisin combined with phenolic compounds against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Fernanda C B; Barbosa, Lidiane N; Andrade, Bruna F M T; Albano, Mariana; Furtado, Fabiana Barcelos; Marques Pereira, Ana Flávia; Rall, Vera L M; Fernandes Júnior, Ary

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the antibacterial activities of carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, cinnamaldehyde, and lantibiotic nisin against standard bacterial strains of the milk pathogens Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313 in cow milk. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of these substances were recorded. The synergistic effects were also assessed in culture medium (time kill curve) and in a food model (cow milk) during the storage period (4 °C for 6 d) after inoculation with S. aureus and L. monocytogenes individually by combining nisin and the phenolic compounds at proportions of 1/4 + 1/4 the MIC (determined in a previous in vitro assay) in the culture medium and 1/4 + 1/4 of MIC in the food model. Inhibitory activities of nisin and the tested compounds, as well as synergism in the combinations, were found against both bacteria assayed. Bacteriostatic effects were found with all combinations and a significant difference in L. monocytogenes reduction was found compared with the control assays. Thus, the antibacterial activity of nisin combined with phenolic compounds was confirmed against these pathogenic bacteria that are important in the milk industry, or more broadly in food science, with potential applications for milk preservation. PMID:26774728

  20. Combination angiostatin and endostatin gene transfer induces synergistic antiangiogenic activity in vitro and antitumor efficacy in leukemia and solid tumors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scappaticci, F A; Smith, R; Pathak, A; Schloss, D; Lum, B; Cao, Y; Johnson, F; Engleman, E G; Nolan, G P

    2001-02-01

    Angiostatin and endostatin are potent endothelial cell growth inhibitors that have been shown to inhibit angiogenesis in vivo and tumor growth in mice. However, tumor shrinkage requires chronic delivery of large doses of these proteins. Here we report synergistic antitumor activity and survival of animals when these factors are delivered in combination to tumors by retroviral gene transfer. We have demonstrated this efficacy in both murine leukemia and melanoma models. Complete loss of tumorigenicity was seen in 40% of the animals receiving tumors transduced by the combination of angiostatin and endostatin in the leukemia model. The synergy was also demonstrated in vitro on human umbilical vein endothelial cell differentiation and this antiangiogenic activity may suggest a mechanism for the antitumor activity in vivo. These findings imply separate pathways by which angiostatin and endostatin mediate their antiangiogenic effects. Together, these data suggest that a combination of antiangiogenic factors delivered by retroviral gene transfer may produce synergistic antitumor effects in both leukemia and solid tumors, thus avoiding long-term administration of recombinant proteins. The data also suggest that novel combinations of antiangiogenic factors delivered into tumors require further investigation as therapeutic modalities. PMID:11237675

  1. 40 CFR 35.6260 - Combining Cooperative Agreement sites and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Combining Cooperative Agreements § 35.6260 Combining Cooperative... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combining Cooperative Agreement...

  2. Combined use of point rain gauges, radar, microwave link and level measurements in urban hydrological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grum, Morten; Kraemer, Stefan; Verworn, Hans-Reinhard; Redder, Axel

    2005-09-01

    A methodology has been developed for the combined exploitation of the information content in several different types of rainfall and hydrological measurements. The methodology is based on simple rain plane and runoff models that are incorporated into a stochastic state-space model approach. State estimation is done using the extended Kalman filter in combination with a maximum likelihood estimation criterion and an off-line optimisation routine. This paper presents the preliminary results of the application of the methodology for the combined use of multiple rainfall and runoff data on a 4800 ha urban catchment within the Emscher river basin in Germany. The time series used come from 12 rain gauges, a C-band and an X-band radar covering the same area and a microwave link. The preliminary results support the methodology's potential as a technique for the combined use of different types of rainfall and runoff data. The results are discussed in terms of applicability, the methodology's limitations and future improvements.

  3. Models of intracellular mechanisms of plant bioelectrical potentials caused by combined stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Chernetchenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with bioelectrical potentials of the plants recorded during different types of stimuli and combined stimulus as well. All registrations were observed on the leaves of the corn. We used different stimuli, such as cold, heat, photo- and electrical stimulation, and certain combination of this stimuli. Hardware and software system for automated recording of bioelectrical potentials has been successfully used in this work. We proposed the universal pattern of bioelectrical potentials’ recording which allowed to detect the response of the biological object to different stimuli and various combinations of these stimuli. This pattern can be used for the deeper understanding of biological mechanisms of electrical potentials’ generation in cells and discovering of processes of accommodation of whole organisms to these stimuli. Integrated system of recording and biometrical processing was used for analysis of corn leaves electrical responses to the thermal stimuli. The dynamics of these potentials was studied, with the quantitative analysis of the potential level stabilization.We calculated the ratio of amplitude of response potentials to the first response amplitude. Mathematical models of the plant cell were used for studying of intracellular mechanisms of biopotentials gereration. As a result of modeling, we revealed that electrical response of the cells was based on selectiveconductivity of cell membrane for Н+ and Ca2+ ions. Therefore, we showed the biophysical relation of plant potentials to underlying intracellular biophysical mechanisms during thermal and combined stimulation.

  4. Can the Heterosexual HIV Epidemic be Eliminated in South Africa Using Combination Prevention? A Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelezam, Nadia N; McCormick, Alethea W; Fussell, Thomas; Afriyie, Abena N; Wood, Robin; DeGruttola, Victor; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Lipsitch, Marc; Seage, George R

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about how combining efficacious interventions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention could lead to HIV elimination. We used an agent-based simulation model, the HIV calibrated dynamic model, to assess the potential for HIV elimination in South Africa. We examined several scenarios (from continuation of the current status quo to perfect achievement of targets) with differing combinations of male condom use, adult male circumcision, HIV testing, and early antiretroviral therapy (ART). We varied numerous parameters, including the proportion of adult males circumcised, the frequency of condom use during sex acts, acceptance of HIV testing, linkage to health care, criteria for ART initiation, ART viral suppression rates, and loss to follow-up. Maintaining current levels of combination prevention would lead to increasing HIV incidence and prevalence in South Africa, while the perfect combination scenario was projected to eliminate HIV on a 50-year time scale from 2013 to 2063. Perfecting testing and treatment, without changing condom use or circumcision rates, resulted in an 89% reduction in HIV incidence but not elimination. Universal adult male circumcision alone resulted in a 21% incidence reduction within 20 years. Substantial decreases in HIV incidence are possible from sufficient uptake of both primary prevention and ART, but with continuation of the status quo, HIV elimination in South Africa is unlikely within a 50-year time scale. PMID:27416841

  5. Composite PLGA/AgNpPGA/AscH nanospheres with combined osteoinductive, antioxidative, and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanović, Magdalena; Uskoković, Vuk; Filipović, Miloš; Škapin, Srečo D; Uskoković, Dragan

    2013-09-25

    The global rise in the resistance of pathogens to conventional antibiotics has created an intensive search for alternative materials with antimicrobial properties. This study is performed with an intention to investigate the combined effects of poly(l-glutamic acid)-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNpPGA) and ascorbic acid (AscH) encapsulated within freeze-dried poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanospheres to obtain a nanomaterial with simultaneous osteoinductive, antioxidative, and prolonged antimicrobial properties. The influence of PLGA/AgNpPGA/AscH particles on (i) viability and superoxide production of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro, (ii) morphology and expression of osteogenic markers in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro, and (iii) antimicrobial activity against a Gram-positive bacterium, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and a Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli, was investigated. PLGA/AgNpPGA/AscH nanoparticles showed a superior and extended antibacterial activity against both types of bacteria. The nanoparticles appeared to be capable of delivering ascorbate to the cells, which was evidenced by the significant decrease in the level of superoxides in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and which could have a therapeutic potential in preventing oxidative stress. PLGA/AgNpPGA/AscH nanoparticles had a positive effect on MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells in vitro, promoting: (i) an intimate contact with the cells and preservation of their healthy morphologies; (ii) unreduced cell viability; and (iii) multiple-fold upregulation of two osteogenic markers: osteocalcin and type I procollagen. It is concluded that PLGA/AgNpPGA/AscH nanospheres present a promising new material for the treatment of infections and use in wound dressings and other prophylactic applications.

  6. The Development of a New Way of a Combined Burning Injury Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peretyagin S.P.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to develop a new way of a combined burning injury modeling enabling to consider all pathogenic mechanisms of injury occurrence. Materials and Methods. There has been designed an original inhalation chamber: a disiccator with a ground stopper and a tray. Two groups of white Wistar rats (n=50 have taken part in the experiment. Results. There has been suggested a new way of a combined burning injury modeling consisting of applying a contact burn to an animal (damage area is 20% of body surface with an additional thermoinhalation exposure of hot air and combustion products within 20—30 sec in the conditions of an inhalation chamber.

  7. New Combined Weighting Model Based on Maximizing the Difference in Evaluation Results and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Meng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach for weighting indices in the comprehensive evaluation. In accordance with the principle that the entire difference of various evaluation objects is to be maximally differentiated, an adjusted weighting coefficient is introduced. Based on the idea of maximizing the difference between the adjusted evaluation scores of each evaluation object and their mean, an objective programming model is established with more obvious differentiation between evaluation scores and the combined weight coefficient determined, thereby avoiding contradictory and less distinguishable evaluation results of single weighting methods. The proposed model is demonstrated using 2,044 observations. The empirical results show that the combined weighting method has the least misjudgment probability, as well as the least error probability, when compared with four single weighting methods, namely, G1, G2, variation coefficient, and deviation methods.

  8. Combining Coarse-Grained Protein Models with Replica-Exchange All-Atom Molecular Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wabik, Jacek; Gront, Dominik; Kouza, Maksim; Kolinski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    We describe a combination of all-atom simulations with CABS, a well-established coarse-grained protein modeling tool, into a single multiscale protocol. The simulation method has been tested on the C-terminal beta hairpin of protein G, a model system of protein folding. After reconstructing atomistic details, conformations derived from the CABS simulation were subjected to replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations with OPLS-AA and AMBER99sb force fields in explicit solvent. Such a combination accelerates system convergence several times in comparison with all-atom simulations starting from the extended chain conformation, demonstrated by the analysis of melting curves, the number of native-like conformations as a function of time and secondary structure propagation. The results strongly suggest that the proposed multiscale method could be an efficient and accurate tool for high-resolution studies of protein folding dynamics in larger systems.

  9. Population pharmacokinetic modelling of morphine, gabapentin and their combination in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papathanasiou, Theodoros; Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The combination of morphine and gabapentin seems promising for the treatment of postoperative and neuropathic pain. Despite the well characterised pharmacodynamic interaction, little is known about possible pharmacokinetic interactions. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether co......-administration of the two drugs leads to modifications of their pharmacokinetic profiles. Methods: The pharmacokinetics of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide and gabapentin were characterised in rats following subcutaneous injections of morphine, gabapentin or their combination. Non-linear mixed effects modelling was applied...... to describe the pharmacokinetics of the compounds and possible interactions. Results: The plasma-concentration-time profiles of morphine and gabapentin were best described using a three- and a one-compartment disposition model respectively. Dose dependencies were found for morphine absorption rate...

  10. Modified Bean Model and FEM Method Combined for Persistent Current Calculation in Superconducting Coils

    CERN Document Server

    Völlinger, Christine; Russenschuck, Stephan

    2001-01-01

    Field variations in the LHC superconducting magnets, e. g. during the ramping of the magnets, induce magnetization currents in the superconducting material, the so-called persistent currents that do not decay but persist due to the lack of resistivity. This paper describes a semi-analytical hysteresis model for hard superconductors, which has been developed for the computation of the total field errors arising from persistent currents. Since the superconducting coil is surrounded by a ferromagnetic yoke structure, the persistent current model is combined with the finite element method (FEM), as the non-linear yoke can only be calculated numerically. The used finite element method is based on a reduced vector potential formulation that avoids the meshing of the coil while calculating the part of the field arising from the source currents by means of the Biot-Savart Law. The combination allows to determine persistent current induced field errors as function of the excitation and for arbitrarily shaped iron yoke...

  11. Activities of rifampin, Rifapentine and clarithromycin alone and in combination against mycobacterium ulcerans disease in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Almeida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: treatment of Mycobacterium ulcerans disease, or Buruli ulcer (BU, has shifted from surgery to treatment with streptomycin(STR+rifampin(RIF since 2004 based on studies in a mouse model and clinical trials. We tested two entirely oral regimens for BU treatment, rifampin(RIF+clarithromycin(CLR and rifapentine(RPT+clarithromycin(CLR in the mouse model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BALB/c mice were infected in the right hind footpad with M. ulcerans strain 1059 and treated daily (5 days/week for 4 weeks, beginning 11 days after infection. Treatment groups included an untreated control, STR+RIF as a positive control, and test regimens of RIF, RPT, STR and CLR given alone and the RIF+CLR and RPT+CLR combinations. The relative efficacy of the drug treatments was compared on the basis of footpad CFU counts and median time to footpad swelling. Except for CLR, which was bacteriostatic, treatment with all other drugs reduced CFU counts by approximately 2 or 3 log(10. Median time to footpad swelling after infection was 5.5, 16, 17, 23.5 and 36.5 weeks in mice receiving no treatment, CLR alone, RIF+CLR, RIF alone, and STR alone, respectively. At the end of follow-up, 39 weeks after infection, only 48%, 26.4% and 16.3% of mice treated with RPT+CLR, RPT alone and STR+RIF had developed swollen footpads. An in vitro checkerboard assay showed the interaction of CLR and RIF to be indifferent. However, in mice, co-administration with CLR resulted in a roughly 25% decrease in the maximal serum concentration (Cmax and area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC of each rifamycin. Delaying the administration of CLR by one hour restored Cmax and AUC values of RIF to levels obtained with RIF alone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: these results suggest that an entirely oral daily regimen of RPT+CLR may be at least as effective as the currently recommended combination of injected STR+oral RIF.

  12. Verhulst Model of Interval Grey Number Based on Information Decomposing and Model Combination

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Zeng; Chuan Li; Guo Chen; Wang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Grey Verhulst models are often employed to simulate the development tendency with the characteristic of saturated process of S curve. However, the uncertainty of interval grey numbers will be increased since the boundaries of interval grey number are extended by the Axiom of nondecreasing grey degree in the existing Verhulst modeling method. In this paper, the interval grey number is divided into two real number parts, that is, “white” and “grey” parts. Then the “white” and “grey” parts are s...

  13. Combined effects of climate models, hydrological model structures and land use scenarios on hydrological impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Ida B.; Sonnenborg, Torben O.; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Trolle, Dennis; Børgesen, Christen Duus; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Jeppesen, Erik; Jensen, Karsten H.

    2016-04-01

    Impact studies of the hydrological response of future climate change are important for the water authorities when risk assessment, management and adaptation to a changing climate are carried out. The objective of this study was to model the combined effect of land use and climate changes on hydrology for a 486 km2 catchment in Denmark and to evaluate the sensitivity of the results to the choice of hydrological model. Three hydrological models, NAM, SWAT and MIKE SHE, were constructed and calibrated using similar methods. Each model was forced with results from four climate models and four land use scenarios. The results revealed that even though the hydrological models all showed similar performance during calibration, the mean discharge response to climate change varied up to 30%, and the variations were even higher for extreme events (1th and 99th percentile). Land use changes appeared to cause little change in mean hydrological responses and little variation between hydrological models. Differences in hydrological model responses to land use were, however, significant for extremes due to dissimilarities in hydrological model structure and process equations. The climate model choice remained the dominant factor for mean discharge, low and high flows as well as hydraulic head at the end of the century.

  14. A combined modeling approach for wind power feed-in and electricity spot prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind power generation and its impacts on electricity prices has strongly increased in the EU. Therefore, appropriate mark-to-market evaluation of new investments in wind power and energy storage plants should consider the fluctuant generation of wind power and uncertain electricity prices, which are affected by wind power feed-in (WPF). To gain the input data for WPF and electricity prices, simulation models, such as econometric models, can serve as a data basis. This paper describes a combined modeling approach for the simulation of WPF series and electricity prices considering the impacts of WPF on prices based on an autoregressive approach. Thereby WPF series are firstly simulated for each hour of the year and integrated in the electricity price model to generate an hourly resolved price series for a year. The model results demonstrate that the WPF model delivers satisfying WPF series and that the extended electricity price model considering WPF leads to a significant improvement of the electricity price simulation compared to a model version without WPF effects. As the simulated series of WPF and electricity prices also contain the correlation between both series, market evaluation of wind power technologies can be accurately done based on these series. - Highlights: • Wind power feed-in can be directly simulated with stochastic processes. • Non-linear relationship between wind power feed-in and electricity prices. • Price reduction effect of wind power feed-in depends on the actual load. • Considering wind power feed-in effects improves the electricity price simulation. • Combined modeling of both parameters delivers a data basis for evaluation tools

  15. Degradation of triclosan in aqueous solution by dielectric barrier discharge plasma combined with activated carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Lu; Sun, Yabing; Feng, Jingwei; Wang, Jian; He, Dong

    2016-02-01

    The degradation of triclosan (TCS) in aqueous solution by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma with activated carbon fibers (ACFs) was investigated. In this study, ACFs and DBD plasma coexisted in a planar DBD plasma reactor, which could synchronously achieve degradation of TCS, modification and in situ regeneration of ACFs, enhancing the effect of recycling of ACFs. The properties of ACFs before and after modification by DBD plasma were characterized by BET and XPS. Various processing parameters affecting the synergetic degradation of TCS were also investigated. The results exhibited excellent synergetic effects in DBD plasma-ACFs system on TCS degradation. The degradation efficiency of 120 mL TCS with initial concentration of 10 mg L(-1) could reach 93% with 1 mm thick ACFs in 18 min at input power of 80 W, compared with 85% by single DBD plasma. Meanwhile, the removal rate of total organic carbon increased from 12% at pH 6.26-24% at pH 3.50. ACFs could ameliorate the degradation efficiency for planar DBD plasma when treating TCS solution at high flow rates or at low initial concentrations. A possible degradation pathway of TCS was investigated according to the detected intermediates, which were identified by liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) combined with theoretical calculation of Gaussian 09 program.

  16. Combining Droop Curve Concepts with Control Systems for Wind Turbine Active Power Control: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckspan, A.; Aho, J.; Pao, L.; Fleming, P.; Jeong, Y.

    2012-06-01

    Wind energy is becoming a larger portion of the global energy portfolio and wind penetration has increased dramatically in certain regions of the world. This increasing wind penetration has driven the need for wind turbines to provide active power control (APC) services to the local utility grid, as wind turbines do not intrinsically provide frequency regulation services that are common with traditional generators. It is common for large scale wind turbines to be decoupled from the utility grid via power electronics, which allows the turbine to synthesize APC commands via control of the generator torque and blade pitch commands. Consequently, the APC services provided by a wind turbine can be more flexible than those provided by conventional generators. This paper focuses on the development and implementation of both static and dynamic droop curves to measure grid frequency and output delta power reference signals to a novel power set point tracking control system. The combined droop curve and power tracking controller is simulated and comparisons are made between simulations using various droop curve parameters and stochastic wind conditions. The tradeoffs involved with aggressive response to frequency events are analyzed. At the turbine level, simulations are performed to analyze induced structural loads. At the grid level, simulations test a wind plant's response to a dip in grid frequency.

  17. Serum bactericidal activity from intravenous ciprofloxacin and azlocillin given alone and in combination to healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, P L; Barriere, S L; Hindler, J A; Frost, R W

    1990-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin plus azlocillin have been shown to exhibit in vitro synergy versus a variety of organisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study examined this interaction in vivo, testing serum bactericidal activity (SBA) in six healthy male subjects after intravenous administration of ciprofloxacin 4 mg/kg (C), azlocillin 60 mg/kg (A), and the two simultaneously (C/A). Eight different organisms were tested: four isolates of P. aeruginosa with varying susceptibilities to C and A, and one isolate each of Escherichia coli (EC), Staphylococcus aureus (SA) Serratia marcescens (SM), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP), all of which were susceptible to both drugs. Blood samples were collected at the end of 30-min infusions and at 4 and 8 hr. Reciprocal titers were plotted versus time and area under the bactericidal titer curve (AUBC) calculated to assess antibacterial interactions. Results indicated that P. aeruginosa-1 (PA-1), EC, and KP were synergistically killed by C/A. AUBC for PA-1 were C = 36, A = 11, C/A = 144, p less than 0.05. AUBC for EC were C = 1059, A = 180, C/A = 1504, p = 0.05. AUBC for KP were C = 327, A = 97, C/A = 584, p = 005. Additive effects were demonstrated versus all of the other organisms except Serratia marcescens, where an indifferent effect was observed. Ciprofloxacin plus azlocillin may be a useful combination of the treatment of selected Gram-negative bacillary infections.

  18. Combining Hexanoic Acid Plant Priming with Bacillus thuringiensis Insecticidal Activity against Colorado Potato Beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rausell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between insect herbivores and host plants can be modulated by endogenous and exogenous compounds present in the source of food and might be successfully exploited in Colorado potato beetle (CPB pest management. Feeding tests with CPB larvae reared on three solanaceous plants (potato, eggplant and tomato resulted in variable larval growth rates and differential susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin as a function of the host plant. An inverse correlation with toxicity was observed in Cry3Aa proteolytic patterns generated by CPB midgut brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV from Solanaceae-fed larvae, being the toxin most extensively proteolyzed on potato, followed by eggplant and tomato. We found that CPB cysteine proteases intestains may interact with Cry3Aa toxin and, in CPB BBMV from larvae fed all three Solanaceae, the toxin was able to compete for the hydrolysis of a papain substrate. In response to treatment with the JA-dependent plant inducer Hexanoic acid (Hx, we showed that eggplant reduced OPDA basal levels and both, potato and eggplant induced JA-Ile. CPB larvae feeding on Hx-induced plants exhibited enhanced Cry3Aa toxicity, which correlated with altered papain activity. Results indicated host-mediated effects on B. thuringiensis efficacy against CPB that can be enhanced in combination with Hx plant induction.

  19. Analytical Solution of Interface Effect on the Strength of Combined Model Composed of Different Geologic Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng-hui Zhao; Wei-ming Wang; Li-hua Wang; Ji-xing Yan

    2014-01-01

    According to the special combined structure of surrounding rock in western mining area of China, a micromechanical model with variable parameters containing contact interface was proposed firstly. Then, the derived stresses in coal and rock near the interface were analyzed on the basis of the harmonized strain relation, and the analytical solutions with respect to stress states near the interface were drawn up. The triaxial compressive strength of coal and rock was further determined in case ...

  20. Quantitative Modeling of Microbial Population Responses to Chronic Irradiation Combined with Other Stressors

    OpenAIRE

    Shuryak, Igor; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Microbial population responses to combined effects of chronic irradiation and other stressors (chemical contaminants, other sub-optimal conditions) are important for ecosystem functioning and bioremediation in radionuclide-contaminated areas. Quantitative mathematical modeling can improve our understanding of these phenomena. To identify general patterns of microbial responses to multiple stressors in radioactive environments, we analyzed three data sets on: (1) bacteria isolated from soil co...