Full Text Available Data published by the World Health Organization (WHO and the International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO suggests that the number of obese people in Europe has tripled in the last 20 years and resulted in a prevalence of 130 million obese and 400 million people overweight (Sassi et al., 2009.Body composition is the relative percentage of fat and fat-free mass (bones, muscles, organs, water, blood of total body weight. After Wilmore, Buskirk, DiGirolamo and Lohman (1986 the optimal level for health of body fat is 16-25% (18-30% for women.The objective of our study was to assess body composition of adult women, identifying the effect of intervention program on body fat and lean mass, and uncover cases of obesity and overweight.The study involved 95 adult women from Fit4U Fitness Center in Oradea. Period of the study: February 2015 -June 2016. Anthropometric measurements were made: height, weight, circumference, subcutaneous folds. It was calculated the body mass index (BMI, body composition and optimal body weight (estimation based on the five skinfolds measures. The physical activity program consisted of Step -aerobics, Pilates and strength training in the gym, 3 times a week for 60-90 minutes, for 12 months.Results:mean body mass, BMI, BF%, real BF decreased significantly. Mean body fat percentage from 25,63% (± 6,53 decreased to 22,95% (± 5,56. In the studied group overweight and obesity is more frequent in the age group between 35-44 years, but it can be seen the prevalence in all age groups.Conclusions:the physical activity program had a beneficial effect on body composition -by reducing body fat.We found cases of overweight and obesity (21% of the study group.
This study was designed to assess the physical activity (PA), body composition and physical fitness status of 1361 (boys: n=678; girls: n= 683) primary school children aged 9-12 years in Mpumalanga (MP) and Limpopo (LP) provinces of South Africa. Anthropometric and physical fitness measurements were taken using the ...
Full Text Available During the process of aging at female population, certain changes in body composition take place. Those changes are inevitable and mainly biologically conditioned (Nassis & Geladas (2003; Heymsfield, Lohman, Wang & Going, 2005. Previous researches confirmed positive effects of regular exercising and programmed exercising on body composition. Promotion of motor and functional abilities, and consequently morphological characteristics, application of appropriate recreational activities, greatly influences “delay” of aging and rules which this process is bringing (Mišigoj-Duraković, 2006. The aim of this research was to establish whether there are statistically significant variances in body composition between the groups of individuals that actively exercise, and in relation to the age. The sample of individuals was made of 49 women in total (30-49 years of age that actively exercise in the fitness club „World Class“, Novi Sad. The individuals were grouped in two sub-samples, in relation to the age. The first sub-sample was made of individuals of 30-39 years of age (N=21, and the second sub-sample of individuals of 40-49 years of age (N=28. Application of t test for independent samples established statistically significant variances between pairs of groups in variables Body weight, Fat mass and Body mass index (p<0,05.
Leppänen, Marja H; Henriksson, Pontus; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Hanna; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Löf, Marie
This study aimed to investigate longitudinal associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with body composition and physical fitness at a 12-month follow-up in healthy Swedish 4-yr-old children. The data from the population-based MINISTOP trial were collected between 2014 and 2016, and this study included the 138 children who were in the control group. PA and SB were assessed using the wrist-worn ActiGraph (wGT3x-BT) accelerometer during seven 24-h periods and, subsequently, defined as SB, light-intensity PA, moderate-intensity PA, vigorous-intensity PA (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Body composition was measured using air-displacement plethysmography and physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, lower and upper muscular strength as well as motor fitness) by the PREFIT fitness battery. Linear regression and isotemporal substitution models were applied. Greater VPA and MVPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher fat-free mass index (FFMI) at 5.5 yr (P fitness, lower body muscular strength, and motor fitness at 12-month follow-up (P = 0.001 to P = 0.031). Substituting 5 min·d of SB, light-intensity PA, or moderate-intensity PA for VPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher FFMI, and with greater upper and lower muscular strength at 12-month follow-up (P fitness at 12-month follow-up. Our results indicate that promoting high-intensity PA at young ages may have long-term beneficial effects on childhood body composition and physical fitness, in particular muscular strength.
van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D; Fogelholm, M; Ottenheijm, R; Westerterp, K R
The main purpose of the present study was to examine factors that affect bone mineral density (BMD) in female ballet dancers. Training history, Ca intake, body composition, total body BMD (TBMD) and site-specific BMD, and bone mineral content were described in twenty-four female ballet dancers (mean age 22.6 (SD 4.5) years). Training history was determined by questionnaires, Ca intake by 7 d dietary record, BMD and bone mineral content by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), total body water by 2H dilution, extracellular water by bromide dilution, body fat by underwater weighing (UWW; two-component model), DXA, and the four-component (4C) model. Dancers had a significantly lower body mass index (BMI 18.9 (SD 1.0) kg/m2) than controls (21.3 (SD 1.9) kg/m2), with significantly lower percentage body fat (17.4 (SD 3.9) v. 24.4 (SD 5.1)) but comparable fat-free mass. Mean TBMD (1.147 (SD 0.069) g/cm2) was significantly higher (6%) compared with that of a reference population. These high values could be attributed to the high BMD of legs and pelvis, the weight-bearing sites of the dancer's body. No relationship was found between age, start of ballet classes, period (years) of dancing, Ca intake, and BMD (total and site-specific). However, TBMD was positively related to BMI, and negatively related to the age of menarche. BMD of the legs was significantly related to BMI, and negatively related to the age of menarche. BMD of the legs was significantly related to daily period (h) of training. Depending on the method used the percentage body fat ranged from 16.4 (by DXA) to 18.3 by the 4C model. These differences were significantly related to the TBMD. Percentage body fat by the different methods was not significantly different, except for DXA and 4C model. The present study showed that, despite the factors that have a negative effect on BMD, such as low body mass and late menarche, BMD in female ballet dancers was relatively high. These high values were probably caused by
Salonen, Minna K; Wasenius, Niko; Kajantie, Eero; Lano, Aulikki; Lahti, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri; Eriksson, Johan G
Low physical activity (PA) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS), its components and body composition among young Finnish adults. The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband) five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET). The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours) or intensity (MET) were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS. MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS.
Minna K Salonen
Full Text Available Low physical activity (PA is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS, its components and body composition among young Finnish adults.The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET.The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours or intensity (MET were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS.MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS.
Cohn, S.H.; Sawitsky, A.; Vartsky, D.; Yasumura, S.; Zanzi, I.; Gartenhaus, W.; Ellis, K.J.
A large scale study is currently underway on the changes in body composition resulting from the cachexia of malignancy. The ultimate objective of the overall project is to assess the changes in body composition associated with hyperalimentation and other modes of nutritional support to cancer patients. The first phase of this study is now in progress. In this phase, a study is being made of a control group of normal patients to provide baseline data against which data from cancer patients can be evaluated. Total body nitrogen and potassium are measured in a group of normal men and women, and are analyzed as a function of age. Additionally, changes in skeletal mass (total body calcium) are also recorded, and body water is measured simultaneously with the use of tritiated water.
Héctor Antonio Herrera Mogollón
Full Text Available With the objective of analyzing the body composition of physical active seniors: 116 women enrolled on the Program of Integrated Care for the older Adult in the Municipality of Chacao, Venezuela, were studied. Anthropometric variables were measured. Comparisons between variables revealed no statistical differences, with the exception of suprailiac skinfolds (p <0,05. Results indicated that most of the mean values were lower in the oldest group, with the exception of height, which was greater. The waist/hip ratio remained constant. More than 50% of women exhibited good nutritional status with appropriate body mass index. Cases of energy malnutrition were observed (defi ciencies and excesses, with overweight prevailing at around 20%. Waist circumference and the waist/hip ratio indicated that around 55% of the sample exhibited a high risk of developing chronic non-infectious illnesses. Comparisons with other population samples indicated greater similarity with those in their environment (Venezuelan and Mexican samples and with Italian and Australian women, and distant from the American pattern, with minor values of the variables compared.
Genton, Laurence; Karsegard, Véronique L; Chevalley, Thierry; Kossovsky, Michel P; Darmon, Patrice; Pichard, Claude
Age-related changes of body composition affect health status. This study aims at clarifying body composition changes in healthy elderly subjects, and evaluating the impact of physical activity on these changes. In 1999, 213 subjects ≥ 65 years recruited through advertisements underwent assessment of health state, energy expenditure by physical activity, body composition by bioimpedance analysis and body cell mass by total body potassium. In 2008, 112 of them repeated these assessments with additional determination of Barthel index, Mini Mental State Examination and Geriatric Depression Score. Lean tissues decreased in both genders (p physical activity limited lean tissue loss in men but not in women. Loss of lean tissues occurs exponentially with aging. Further research should confirm these changes in subjects over 80 years. Increasing physical activity limits fat-free mass loss in men but not women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Mak, Kwok-Kei; Cerin, Ester; McManus, Alison M; Lai, Ching-Man; Day, Jeffrey R; Ho, Sai-Yin
This study investigated the mediating role of body mass index (BMI) in the relationship between physical activity and body esteem in adolescents. Nine hundred and five Hong Kong Chinese students aged 12-18 years participated in a cross-sectional study in 2007. Students' BMI was computed as an indicator of their body composition. Their physical activity level and body esteem were examined using the Physical Activity Rating for Children and Youth (PARCY) and Body Esteem Scale (BES), respectively. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the mediating effects of BMI and physical activity in predicting body esteem, with stratification by sex. The overall fit of the hypothesized models was satisfactory in boys (NFI = 0.94; NNFI = 0.88; CFI = 0.95; RMSEA = 0.07) and girls (NFI = 0.89; NNFI = 0.77; CFI = 0.91; RMSEA = 0.11). When BMI was considered as a mediator, higher physical activity had a significant negative total effect on body esteem in boys, but not in girls. The indirect effect of higher physical activity on body esteem via BMI was positive in boys, but negative in girls. Regular physical activity may help overweight adolescents, especially boys, improve their body esteem. Kinesiologists and health professionals could explore the use of physical activity prescriptions for weight management, aiming at body esteem improvement in community health programs for adolescents. Among Western adolescents, negative body esteem is more pervasive in girls than in boys. There are consistent findings of the association between higher body mass index and lower body esteem in adolescents, but the association between physical activity and body esteem are equivocal. A negative association between body mass index and body esteem was found in both Hong Kong adolescent boys and girls. The indirect effect of physical activity on body esteem via body mass index was positive in Hong Kong adolescent boys, but negative in girls.
Vahlkvist, S; Pedersen, S
Background: Information about how the asthma disease affects the life style and health in children is sparse. Aim: To measure fitness, daily physical activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and healthy controls, and to assess the association between...... the level of asthma control and these parameters. Methods: Daily physical activity measured using accelerometry, cardiovascular fitness and body composition (per cent fat, per cent lean tissue and bone mineral density) were measured in 57 children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and in 157 healthy...
Zanovec, Michael; Lakkakula, Anantha P; Johnson, Lisa G; Turri, Georgianna
The objective of this study was to examine the association of self-reported physical activity (PA) with body composition in 290 college students (49% male, 60% White) 18-25 years of age. Outcome measures included: self-reported PA levels calculated in MET-hrs·wk-1 from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ); body mass index (BMI; in kg·m-2); and body composition variables estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean activity levels of the sample were 39.8 ± 23.8 MET-hrs·wk-1. Participants were divided into quartiles of PA levels: ≥0 to fit body composition profile (e.g., lower %BF, lower FM, and higher LTM) which was not reflected in BMI and was independent of gender and race.
Edson dos Santos Farias
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess body composition modifications in post-pubertal schoolchildren after practice of a physical activity program during one school year. METHODS: The sample consisted of 386 students aged between 15 and 17 years and divided into two groups: the study group (SG comprised 195 students and the control group (CG, 191. The SG was submitted to a physical activity program and the CG attended conventional physical education classes. Body composition was assessed using body mass index (BMI, percentage of body fat (%BF, fat mass (FM, and lean mass (LM. RESULTS: A positive effect of the physical activity program on body composition in the SG (p < 0.001 was observed, as well as on the interaction time x group in all the variables analyzed in both genders. A reduction in %BF (mean of differences = -5.58% and waist circumference (-2.33 cm, as well as an increase in LM (+2.05 kg were observed in the SG for both genders, whereas the opposite was observed in the CG. CONCLUSION: The practice of programmed physical activity promotes significant reduction of body fat in post-pubertal schoolchildren.
I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinous forms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most...... groups body composition is size independent. Exceptions are protozoans, chaetognaths, and pteropods, where larger individuals become increasingly watery. I speculate about the dichotomy in body composition and argue that differences in feeding mechanisms and predator avoidance strategies favor either...
Holbrook, Elizabeth A.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Perry, Tara L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.
Relatively little is known about the health and fitness of adults with visual impairments. This article documents the physical activity levels and body-composition profiles of young and middle-aged adults with visual impairments and addresses the concomitant effects of these factors on perceived quality of life. (Contains 2 tables.)
Adamo, Kristi Bree; Wasenius, Niko Sebastian; Grattan, Kimberly Paige; Harvey, Alysha Leila Jean; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Barrowman, Nicolas James; Goldfield, Gary Scott
To investigate the effect of a preschool physical activity intervention program delivered in licensed childcare settings, with or without a parent-facilitated home component, on children's daily physical activity, sedentary time, and body composition. For this cluster randomized controlled trial, 18 childcare centers were randomly allocated in equal numbers to the typical curriculum comparison group, childcare intervention alone (CC), or childcare intervention with parental involvement. Accelerometers were used to asses physical activity and sedentary time, and body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Linear mixed model regression analyses showed no differences between the CC, the childcare intervention with parental involvement, and the comparison groups in changes from baseline to 6 months in total physical activity (P for time × group interaction = .665) or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (P for time × group interaction = .164) when adjusted for baseline physical activity levels. Furthermore, no group differences were found for changes in light physical activity, sedentary time, or anthropometric variables. An affordable and easily scalable preschool intervention program delivered in licensed childcare settings, with or without the addition of a parent-driven home physical activity promotion, seems to have no significant effect on physical activity, sedentary time, or body composition. ISRCTN: ISRCTN94022291. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n3p247 The influence of biological maturation and physical activity (PA on the differences of body composition in adolescents have been little studied. The purpose of this study was to examine if PA and maturity status were sex-specific determinant factors in the adolescents’ body composition. Ninety-four adolescents (50 boys and 44 girls were evaluated. All anthropometric measures were obtained according to ISAK procedures, bone age was estimated by the TW3 method, and PA was assessed with ActigraphR GT1M, over seven consecutive days. Maturity status explained 33% of the body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC and 31% of the sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD in boys. In girls, maturity status explained 27% of the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, moderate PA explained 17% of the BMI and 12% of the WC, and moderate to vigorous PA explained 11% of the SAD. These results seem to indicate that the determinant factors of the adolescents’ body composition are sex-specific. Maturity status was the main predictive factor in boys and interacted with PA in girls. Our findings support the evidence that researchers need to consider biological maturity when explaining body composition changes in adolescents.
Deheeger, M; Rolland-Cachera, M F; Fontvieille, A M
To investigate the relationships between physical activity, dietary intake and body composition in children. A cross-sectional study on physical activity, nutritional intakes and body composition conducted in 86 healthy 10 y old French children. In addition, growth parameters and nutritional intakes were available from the age of 10 months. Physical activity level (using a validated activity questionnaire over the past year), nutritional intake (dietary history method), anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, arm circumference, triceps and subscapular skinfolds, Body Mass Index (BMI), arm muscle and arm fat areas calculated from these measurements) at the age of 10 y. Anthropometric measurements and nutritional intakes were recorded in the same children at the age of 10 months and every 2 y from the age of 2 y. At the age of 10 y, active children ingested significantly more energy than less active children, mostly due to higher energy intake at breakfast and in the afternoon. This higher energy intake was accounted for by increased consumption of carbohydrates (281 g vs 246 g; 49.6% vs 47.4% of total energy). Even if the amounts of fat consumed were similar in both groups (90 g vs 84 g; P = 0.09), the percentage of fat intake was lower in active children (35.4% vs 37.4%; P = 0.04). The percentage of protein was not different (14.9% vs 15.3%; P = 0.33). In spite of a higher energy intake in the active group, active and less active children had similar BMI at the age of 10 y. However, their body composition differed significantly: active children had a higher proportion of fat-free mass, a lower proportion of fat-mass as measured in the arm and they had a later adiposity rebound. Fatness was significantly and positively associated with the time spent watching television and video games. Physical activity was associated with improved body composition and growth pattern. This association may be related to nutritional changes: active children consumed more
Sofia Silva; Filomena Vieira; Filomena Carnide; Ana Assunção; José Araújo; Ana Vasco
...) on the differences of body composition in adolescents have been little studied. The purpose of this study was to examine if PA and maturity status were sex-specific determinant factors in the adolescents’ body composition...
Colbert, Lisa H; Visser, Marjolein; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Tracy, Russell P; Newman, Anne B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Pahor, Marco; Taaffe, Dennis R; Brach, Jennifer S; Rubin, Susan; Harris, Tamara B
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between physical activity and inflammatory markers, with consideration for body fatness and antioxidant use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study, using baseline data from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. SETTING: Metropolitan areas surrounding
Guðmundsdóttir, Sigríður Lára; Oskarsdóttir, Díana; Franzson, Leifur; Indriðason, Olafur Skúli; Sigurðsson, Gunnar
To study physical activity among Icelandic adults and the relationship with anthropometric factors and grip strength. Randomly selected participants, 30-85 years of age, answered questions regarding exercise and diet. Body composition was measured with DXA, which detects the proportions of different body tissues. Height, weight and grip strength were measured and the body mass index (kg/m(2)) was calculated. The prevalence of regular physical activity was studied for men and women in the age groups of 30-45 years, 50-65 years and 70-85 years and the relationship to body mass index, body composition and grip strength examined. The possible preventive effect of exercise on overweight and obesity was also studied. Of 2310 invited, 1630 subjects (70.6%) participated. Mean participation in regular physical activity was 3-4 times a week but 19% of the women and 24% of the men did no exercise at all. In general, swimming, walking and calisthenics of various types and intensities were the most common forms of exercise and in the age group 30-45 year old 16% of the women and 8% of the men did strength training. 50.4% of women 30-45 years of age and 68.2% of 50-65 year old men were overweight or obese. Mean fat mass was highest in 70-85 year old women (38%) and men (27%). Occupational activity was not related to body mass index, body composition or grip strength. Significant negative relationship was found between frequency of exercise and fat mass. The relationship between grip strength and lean mass or exercise was non-significant. The odds ratio of being overweight or obesity was 0.5 (CI was 0.37-0.77 for women and 0.37-0.94 for men) for those who exercised five or more days per week compared to those who exercised less frequently. One of four Icelandic men and one of five women do not participate in regular physical activity despite of strong scientific indications of various positive health effects of exercise. More than half of adult Icelanders are overweight or obese
Full Text Available Background: Although parental obesity is a well-established predisposing factor for the development of obesity, associations between regional body compositions, resting metabolic rates (RMR, and physical activity (PA of parents and their pre-school children remain unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate parent-child correlations for total and regional body compositions, resting energy expenditures, and physical activity. Methods: Participants were 89 children aged 2-6 years and their parents, consisting of 61 families. Resting metabolic rate was assessed using indirect calorimetry. Total and regional body compositions were measured by both dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and deuterium dilution. Physical activity was assessed by an accelerometer. Results: There was a significant parent-offspring regression for total fat free mass (FFM between children and their mothers (P=0.02, fathers (P=0.02, and mid-parent (average of father and mother value (P=0.002 when measured by DXA. The same was true for fat mass (FM between children and mothers (P<0.01, fathers (P=0.02, and mid-parent (P=0.001. There was no significant association between children and parents for physical activity during the entire week, weekend, weekdays, and different parts of days, except for morning activity, which was positively related to the mothers’ morning activities (P<0.01 and mid-parent (P=0.009. No association was found between RMR of children and parents before and after correction for FFM and FM. Conclusion: These data suggest a familial resemblance for total body composition between children and their parents. Our data showed no familial resemblance for PA and RMR between children and their parents.
The impact of physical activity patterns and sleep duration on growth and body composition of preschool-aged children remains unresolved. Aims were (1) to delineate cross-sectional associations among physical activity components, sleep, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body size and composition; ...
Maddison, Ralph; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Jull, Andrew; Prapavessis, Harry; Foley, Louise S; Jiang, Yannan
Increased understanding of why and how physical activity impacts on health outcomes is needed to increase the effectiveness of physical activity interventions. A recent randomized controlled trial of an active video game (PlayStation EyeToy™) intervention showed a statistically significant treatment effect on the primary outcome, change from baseline in body mass index (BMI), which favored the intervention group at 24 weeks. In this short paper we evaluate the mediating effects of the secondary outcomes. To identify mediators of the effect of an active video games intervention on body composition. Data from a two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial of an active video game intervention (n = 322) were analyzed. The primary outcome was change from baseline in BMI. A priori secondary outcomes were considered as potential mediators of the intervention on BMI, including aerobic fitness (VO2Max), time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and food snacking at 24 weeks. Only aerobic fitness at 24 weeks met the conditions for mediation, and was a significant mediator of BMI. Playing active video games can have a positive effect on body composition in overweight or obese children and this effect is most likely mediated through improved aerobic fitness. Future trials should examine other potential mediators related to this type of intervention. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Website: http://www.anzctr.org.au. Study ID number: ACTRN12607000632493.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased understanding of why and how physical activity impacts on health outcomes is needed to increase the effectiveness of physical activity interventions. A recent randomized controlled trial of an active video game (PlayStation EyeToy™ intervention showed a statistically significant treatment effect on the primary outcome, change from baseline in body mass index (BMI, which favored the intervention group at 24 weeks. In this short paper we evaluate the mediating effects of the secondary outcomes. Objective To identify mediators of the effect of an active video games intervention on body composition. Methods Data from a two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial of an active video game intervention (n = 322 were analyzed. The primary outcome was change from baseline in BMI. A priori secondary outcomes were considered as potential mediators of the intervention on BMI, including aerobic fitness (VO2Max, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and food snacking at 24 weeks. Results Only aerobic fitness at 24 weeks met the conditions for mediation, and was a significant mediator of BMI. Conclusion Playing active video games can have a positive effect on body composition in overweight or obese children and this effect is most likely mediated through improved aerobic fitness. Future trials should examine other potential mediators related to this type of intervention. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Website: http://www.anzctr.org.au Study ID number: ACTRN12607000632493
Regular physical activity is important for children and adolescent’s healthy growth and for their physical, social and mental health. Therefore, comprehensive knowledge is needed on levels and patterns of physical activity, as well as factors influencing physical activity participation. PURPOSE: The overall purpose was to increase the knowledge regarding 9- and 15-year-olds physical activity level, aerobic fitness and their body composition. Further, to gain increased insight w...
Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Buenfil-Rello, Fátima Annai; Pacheco-Pantoja, Elda Leonor
Reports regarding the association between body composition and inflammatory activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have consistently yielded contradictory results. To perform a systematic review on the association between overweight/obesity and inflammatory activity in RA. FAST approach: Article search (Medline, EBSCO, Cochrane Library), followed by abstract retrieval, full text review and blinded assessment of methodological quality for final inclusion. Because of marked heterogeneity in statistical approach and RA activity assessment method, a meta-analysis could not be done. Results are presented as qualitative synthesis. One hundred and nineteen reports were found, 16 of them qualified for full text review. Eleven studies (8,147 patients; n range: 37-5,161) approved the methodological quality filter and were finally included. Interobserver agreement for methodological quality score (ICC: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.82-0.98; P.001) was excellent. In all reports body composition was assessed by BMI; however a marked heterogeneity was found in the method used for RA activity assessment. A significant association between BMI and RA activity was found in 6 reports having larger mean sample size: 1,274 (range: 140-5,161). On the other hand, this association was not found in 5 studies having lower mean sample size: 100 (range: 7-150). The modulation of RA clinical status by body fat mass is suggested because a significant association was found between BMI and inflammatory activity in those reports with a trend toward higher statistical power. The relationship between body composition and clinical activity in RA requires be approached with further studies with higher methodological quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.
Onofre Ricardo Contreras-Jordán
Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a six months' physical activity programme for overweight and obese adolescents, in order to improve the perception of their own body image and composition between two groups of adolescents, and to check possible gender differences. Aims The aim is to improve the body perception and composition in overweight adolescents with a physical activity programme. Methods It was a quasi-experimental design, with a control group and intervention group. Measures of pre-test and post-test were taken. A total of 38 adolescents that belong to the first cycle of Compulsory Secondary aged 12–15, with a body mass index (BMI higher than the 85th percentile according to the WHO (World Health Organization, participated in the intervention. The anthropometric variables, height, weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and the circumference of the waist, hip, arm and medial calf, were measured pre- and post-treatment. The body image perception was measured using the Gardner test. The experimental group participated in the physical activity programme for a six months period. The physical activity intervention consisted of three sessions of 90 minutes each week in a sports centre. The structure of the sessions consisted of a warm-up (5–10 minutes, a main activity (60–70 minutes, combineding strength and cardiovascular training and a cool-down (7–10 minutes. Results After physical activity intervention the results showed significant improvements in the experimental group compared to the control group in the circumference of the waist, the hip, the arm, the medial calf (p<0.01 and as well as the fat percentage, the percentage of muscle mass (p<0.05. The results showed how the body image distortion presented a significant and negative correlation with the circumference of the waist (p<0.001, of the hips (p<0.01, and of the arm (p<0.001, differences were observed between gender. Conclusion Our study
Fernando D. Saraví
Full Text Available Weight-bearing and resistance physical activities are recommended for osteoporosis prevention, but it is unclear whether an intensity level above current recommendations has a positive effect on adult premenopausal women. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD by DXA were compared in three groups of women as follows: Sedentary, Maintenance exercise, and federated Sport Team (n=16 for each group. Physical activity was estimated from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. The groups did not differ in age, height, weight, or body mass index. Bone mineral content and non-fat soft tissue mass were higher and fat mass was lower in the Sport Team group than in the other groups. The same was true for BMD of total skeleton, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. A test for linear trend of body composition and BMD showed significant results when including all three groups. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between physical activity level (or alternatively, years of participation in programmed physical activity and bone mass measures at all sites except for the middle third of radius. It is concluded that a level of physical activity higher than that usually recommended benefits bone health in adult premenopausal women.
Maddison, Ralph; Foley, Louise; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jiang, Yannan; Jull, Andrew; Prapavessis, Harry; Hohepa, Maea; Rodgers, Anthony
Sedentary activities such as video gaming are independently associated with obesity. Active video games, in which players physically interact with images on screen, may help increase physical activity and improve body composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of active video games over a 6-mo period on weight, body composition, physical activity, and physical fitness. We conducted a 2-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial in Auckland, New Zealand. A total of 322 overweight and obese children aged 10-14 y, who were current users of sedentary video games, were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to receive either an active video game upgrade package (intervention, n = 160) or to have no change (control group, n = 162). The primary outcome was the change from baseline in body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)). Secondary outcomes were changes in percentage body fat, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, video game play, and food snacking. At 24 wk, the treatment effect on BMI (-0.24; 95% CI: -0.44, -0.05; P = 0.02) favored the intervention group. The change (±SE) in BMI from baseline increased in the control group (0.34 ± 0.08) but remained the same in the intervention group (0.09 ± 0.08). There was also evidence of a reduction in body fat in the intervention group (-0.83%; 95% CI: -1.54%, -0.12%; P = 0.02). The change in daily time spent playing active video games at 24 wk increased (10.03 min; 95% CI: 6.26, 13.81 min; P time spent playing nonactive video games (-9.39 min; 95% CI: -19.38, 0.59 min; P = 0.06). An active video game intervention has a small but definite effect on BMI and body composition in overweight and obese children. This trial was registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry at http://www.anzctr.org.au/ as ACTRN12607000632493.
Full Text Available objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate functioning of the respiratory system and to estimate the correlation between the function parameters of the respiratory system and the level of physical activity and body composition in the adult rural population. The study involved a group of 116 people from rural population aged 35–60 years, staying on 3-week rehabilitation camps. They were divided into two groups: men (29 and women (87. The somatic features: body height, body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI and body copmposition were analysed, on the status of smoking and declared level of physical activity (PA was checked. For the evaluation of the functional parameters of the respiratory system the pattern of flow volume curve was used. The following parameters were determined: vital capacity (VC, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, peak expiratory flow (PEF, MEF50 (maximum expiratory flow at 50% of VC and Tiffenau index. Hand grip and maximum torque of the knee join flexor and extensor muscles was measured. As expected, men had significantly higher levels of respiratory parameters. In analyzing the status of smoking cigarettes, it can be stated that the majority of subjects are smokers. conclusions. The values of functional parameters of the respiratory system were suitable for the age they were within the norm and did not show lung ventilation disorder. Most subjects of the study declared low physical activity which may be due to manual work on the farm. Smoking cigarettes significantly lowered the value of such parameters as FEV1, PEF and MEF50 only in the male group but the values did not indicate ventilatory disorder. Parameters of the respiratory system show the highest correlations with the parameters of muscle strength. Significant correlations with body compositions parameters (FFM, water have been noticed too.
Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.
In vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation is an important tool in medical research. It has provided a direct quantitative measure of body composition of human beings in vivo. Basic physiological differences related to age, sex, race, and body size have been assessed by this noninvasive technique. The diagnosis and management of patients with various metabolic disorders and diseases has also been demonstrated. Two major facilities at Brookhaven are being utilized exclusively for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, and potassium. These elements serve as the basis for a four compartment model of body composition: protein, water, mineral ash, and fat. Variations in these compartments are demonstrated in clinical research programs investigating obesity, anorexia, cancer, renal failure, osteoporosis, and normal aging. IVNAA continues to provide a unique approach to the evaluation of clinical diagnosis, efficacy of therapeutic regimens, and monitoring of the aging process. Classical balance studies usually require the patient to be admitted to a hospital for extended periods of confinement. IVNAA, however, allows for clinical management of the patient on an out-patient basis, an important aspect for treatment of chronic diseases. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.
Madić, Dejan; Obradović, Borislav; Smajić, Miroslav; Obradović, Jelena; Marić, Dusan; Bosković, Ksenija
It is well known that physical activity has an anabolic effect on bone tissue. But there is a lack of information about the effect of intensive physical activity in childhood, particularly at the prepubertal stage. To examine the influence of training on body composition and bone mineral density we have studied a group of prepubertal soccer players as well as a group of inactive prepubertal boys at the starting phase of their peak bone mass acquisition. A total of 62 healthy prepubertal boys took part in this study. They were divided into two groups. The first one consisted of 32 soccer players (aged 10.7 +/- 0.5 years), who had been playing football for at least 1 year (10-15 h per week). The second group a control group 30 boys (aged 11.2 +/- 0.7 years) doing 1.5 h per week physical activity at school. Body composition was assessed by a Body Fat Analyzer "BES 200 Z". Bone mineral density measurements of the left and the right calcaneus were done by using ultrasound densitometer "Sahara" (Hologic, Inc., MA, USA). There were significant differences between soccer players and the control group in fat mass (p = 0.01). Besides, a significant difference was determined between the group of athletes and the control group in bone mineral density of both calcaneal bones (p = 0.01). The results of this study confirm the significant effects of physical activity on reducing body mass and increasing bone density. Considering that football training can be very easily implemented in the broader population of children and young people, which does not apply to many other sports, it should be used more in the prevention of obesity and osteoporosis.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. It is well known that physical activity has an anabolic effect on bone tissue. But there is a lack of information about the effect of intensive physical activity in childhood, particularly at the prepubertal stage. To examine the influence of training on body composition and bone mineral density we have studied a group of prepubertal soccer players as well as a group of inactive prepubertal boys at the starting phase of their peak bone mass acquisition. Methods. A total of 62 healthy prepubertal boys took part in this study. They were divided into two groups. The first one consisted of 32 soccer players (aged 10.7 ± 0.5 years, who had been playing football for at least 1 year (10-15 h per week. The second group a control group 30 boys (aged 11.2 ± 0.7 years doing 1.5 h per week physical activity at school. Body composition was assessed by a Body Fat Analyzer 'BES 200 Z'. Bone mineral density measurements of the left and the right calcaneus were done by using ultrasound densitometer 'Sahara' (Hologic, Inc., MA, USA. Results. There were significant differences between soccer players and the control group in fat mass (p = 0.01. Besides, a significant difference was determined between the group of athletes and the control group in bone mineral density of both calcaneal bones (p = 0.01. Conclusion. The results of this study confirm the significant effects of physical activity on reducing body mass and increasing bone density. Considering that football training can be very easily implemented in the broader population of children and young people, which does not apply to many other sports, it should be used more in the prevention of obesity and osteoporosis.
Hottenrott, Kuno; Ludyga, Sebastian; Schulze, Stephan
... (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training) on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period...
Laddu, Deepika R; Cawthon, Peggy M; Parimi, Neeta; Hoffman, Andrew R; Orwoll, Eric; Miljkovic, Iva; Stefanick, Marcia L
Excess adiposity gains and significant lean mass loss may be risk factors for chronic disease in old age. Long-term patterns of change in physical activity (PA) and their influence on body composition decline during aging has not been characterized. We evaluated the interrelationships of PA and body composition at the outset and over longitudinal follow-up to changes in older men. Self-reported PA by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE), clinic body weight, and whole-body lean mass (LM) and fat mass, by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), were assessed in 5964 community-dwelling men aged ≥65 years at baseline (2000-2002) and at two subsequent clinic visits up until March 2009 (an average 4.6 and 6.9 years later). Group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) identified patterns of change in PA and body composition variables. Relationships of PA and body composition changes were then assessed. GBTM identified three discrete trajectory patterns, all with declining PA, associated primarily with initial PA levelshigh-activity (7.2% of men), moderate-activity (50.0%), and low-activity (42.8%). In separate models, GBTM identified eight discrete total weight change groups, five fat mass change groups, and six LM change groups. Joint trajectory modeling by PA and body composition group illustrated significant declines in total weight and LM, whereas fat mass levels were relatively unchanged among high-activity and low-activity-declining groups, and significantly increased in the moderate-activity-declining group. Although patterns of change in PA and body composition were identified, groups were primarily differentiated by initial PA or body composition rather than by distinct trajectories of change in these variables.
Wada, Roy; Tekin, Erdal
This paper examines the relationship between body composition and wages in the United States. We develop measures of body composition--body fat (BF) and fat-free mass (FFM)--using data on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) that are available in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III and estimate wage models for respondents in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Previous research uses body size or BMI as measures of obesity despite a growing concern that they do not distinguish between body fat and fat-free body mass or adequately control for non-homogeneity inside the human body. Therefore, measures presented in this paper represent a useful alternative to BMI-based proxies of obesity. Our results indicate that BF is associated with decreased wages for both males and females among whites and blacks. We also present evidence suggesting that FFM is associated with increased wages. We show that these results are not the artifacts of unobserved heterogeneity. Finally, our findings are robust to numerous specification checks and to a large number of alternative BIA prediction equations from which the body composition measures are derived. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Graves, Lee E F; Ridgers, Nicola D; Atkinson, Greg; Stratton, Gareth
Active video game interventions typically provide children a single game that may become unappealing. A peripheral device (jOG) encourages step-powered gaming on multiple games. This trial evaluated the effect of jOG on children's objectively measured PA, body fat and self-reported behaviors. 42 of 58 eligible children (8-10 y) randomly assigned to an intervention (jOG) or control (CON) completed the trial. Intervention children received two jOG devices for home use. Analyses of covariance compared the intervention effect at 6 and 12 weeks from baseline. No differences were found between groups for counts per minute (CPM; primary outcome) at 6 and 12 weeks (p > .05). Active video gaming increased (adjusted change 0.95 (95% CI 0.25, 1.65) h·d⁻¹, p video gaming decreased (-0.34 (-1.24, 0.56) h·d⁻¹, p > .05) at 6 weeks relative to CON. No body fat changes were observed between groups. Targeted changes in video game use did not positively affect PA. Larger trials are needed to verify the impact of active video games on children's PA and health.
L. C. R. Pontes
Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has been associated with the development of a clinical group and metabolic disorders such as peripheral lipodystrophy syndrome in AIDS. The aim of this study was to analyze the lipid profile, the clinical aspects, and the body composition of HIV-1 infected individuals treated with or without protease inhibitor (PI during the highly active antiretroviral therapy. In total, 62 individuals were evaluated in this study; 15 healthy individuals (Control Group: CG, 11 HIV-1 infected individuals treated without antiretroviral therapy (Group 1: G1, 14 HIV-1 infected individuals treated with antiretroviral therapy plus protease inhibitor (Group 2: G2, and 22 HIV-1 infected individuals treated with antiretroviral therapy without protease inhibitor (Group 3: G3, mean age 35 years old. The time interval for G2 and G3 was greater than or equal to nine months. Patients receiving HAART with PI had significantly lower viral loads, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL levels (p<0.05. There were no differences between groups in relation to the lean body mass percentage obtained by mid-arm muscle circumference adequacy or by bioelectrical impedance. The lower percentage of body fat observed in all the HIV-1 infected patients by antropometric assessment and the decreased tricipital skinfold adequacy in the group treated with PI in relation to CG may suggest lipodystrophy in the upper limbs, especially on those treated with PI.
Beechy, Laura; Galpern, Jennie; Petrone, Andrew; Das, Sai Krupa
The global increase in the prevalence of obesity has led to an increased need for measurement tools for research, management and treatment of the obese person. The physical size limitations imposed by obesity, variations in body composition from that of normal weight, and a complex psychopathology all pose tremendous challenges to the assessment of an obese person. There is little published research regarding what tools can be used with confidence. This review is designed to provide researchers and clinicians with a guide to the current and emerging measurement tools specifically associated with obesity research and practice. Section 1 addresses psychological measures of well being. Sections 2, 3, and 4 focus on the assessment of food intake, activity, and body composition. All sections address basic challenges involved in the study and management of obesity, and highlight methodological issues associated with the use of common assessment tools. The best available methods for use in the obese both in research and clinical practice are recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Kajale, Neha A; Ekbote, Veena H; Parathasarathi, Lavanya; Padidela, Raja; Khadilkar, Vaman V
BackgroundTo investigate interrelationships of dietary composition and physical activity (PA) with growth and body composition (BC) in urban Indian school children.MethodsA cross-sectional study was performed in 4,747 Indian school children (2,623 boys) aged 3-18 years. Weight, height, BC by body impedance analyzer, PA and dietary food intakes by questionnaire method were recorded.ResultsMean daily energy and protein intakes as recommended dietary allowance were significantly lower in both boys and girls (Pchildren. When compared with World Health Organization references, lower heights in pubertal boys and girls were related to dietary energy and protein intake. Multiple regression analysis showed positive association of height for age z-scores (HAZ) with midparental height z-scores (β=0.45, P=0.0001) and protein density (β=0.103, P=0.014). HAZ was negatively associated with inactivity (β=-0.0001, P=0.049) in boys and girls (R2=0.104, Pchildren.Pediatric Research advance online publication, 17 January 2018; doi:10.1038/pr.2017.322.
Oftedal, Stina; Davies, Peter Sw; Boyd, Roslyn N; Stevenson, Richard D; Ware, Robert S; Keawutan, Piyapa; Benfer, Katherine A; Bell, Kristie L
Altered body composition in children with cerebral palsy (CP) could be due to differences in energy intake, habitual physical activity (HPA), and sedentary time. We investigated the longitudinal relation between the weight-for-age z score (WZ), fat-free mass (FFM), percentage of body fat (%BF), and modifiable lifestyle factors for all Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels (I-V). The study was a longitudinal population-based cohort study of children with CP who were aged 18-60 mo (364 assessments in 161 children; boys: 61%; mean ± SD recruitment age: 2.8 ± 0.9 y; GMFCS: I, 48%; II, 11%; III, 15%; IV, 11%; and V, 15%). A deuterium dilution technique or bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to estimate FFM, and the %BF was calculated. Energy intake, HPA, and sedentary time were measured with the use of a 3-d weighed food diary and accelerometer wear. Data were analyzed with the use of a mixed-model analysis. Children in GMFCS group I did not differ from age- and sex-specific reference children with typical development for weight. Children in GMFCS group IV were lighter-for-age, and children in GMFCS group V had a lower FFM-for-height than those in GMFCS group I. Children in GMFCS groups II-V had a higher %BF than that of children in GMFCS group I, with the exception of orally fed children in GMFCS group V. The mean %BF of children with CP classified them as overfat or obese. There was a positive association between energy intake and FFM and also between HPA level and FFM for children in GMFCS group I. Altered body composition was evident in preschool-age children with CP across functional capacities. Gross motor function, feeding method, energy intake, and HPA level in GMFCS I individuals are the strongest predictors of body composition in children with CP between the ages of 18 and 60 mo. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
López, Pilar Montero; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Zamarrón, María Dolores; López, Santiago Rodríguez
This study applied a gender perspective to establish some of the anthropometric, body composition, health and socio-cultural determinants of active ageing. The variable 'active ageing' (presence/absence) was created based on cognitive and disability/illness/physical functioning, subjective health, satisfaction with life and productive activity performed, and used in predictive models to establish its relationship with anthropometric variables, physical health indicators and educational level. The sample consisted of 456 home-living individuals (169 men and 287 women; age range 54-75 years) from Madrid and Toledo in Spain. The women had a higher prevalence of obesity than the men (37.6% vs 29.0%), significantly greater fat accumulation in the abdominal area and worst perceived health (p=0.003). The frequency of active agers is higher in men than in women (38.4% vs 21.9%; p<0.001). Men and women were found to have distinctive ageing patterns. Health factors condition the presence of active ageing in women, while education factors are also relevant in men.
LeCheminant, J D; Hinman, T; Pratt, K B; Earl, N; Bailey, B W; Thackeray, R; Tucker, L A
This study assessed the effect of resistance training (RT) in 60 healthy postpartum women. Participants were randomized to 18 weeks of RT or an active comparison group (flexibility training). RT and flexibility training (FT) exercises were completed twice-weekly based on the American College of Sports Medicine recommendations. Study outcomes included muscular strength, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), exercise self-efficacy, depressive symptoms [Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)], and physical activity (accelerometery). For completers (n = 44), the RT group showed greater strength gains than the FT group, respectively (bench press: +36% vs +8%, P self-efficacy (F = 5.33, P = 0.026). For CES-D score, the RT group decreased (F = 4.61, P = 0.016), while the FT group did not; however, the group × time interaction in CES-D score was not significant (F = 1.33, P = 0.255). Sedentary time decreased (F = 5.27, P = 0.027) and light-intensity activity time increased (F = 5.55, P = 0.023) more in the RT than FT group. Intent-to-treat analyses did not alter the results. Twice-weekly RT increases strength and may be associated with better exercise self-efficacy and improved physical activity outcomes compared with FT in postpartum women. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hojan, Katarzyna; Molińska-Glura, Marta; Milecki, Piotr
Endocrine therapy (ET) is a common method of treatment in breast cancer patients; however, its negative impact on body composition, body physique (physical body shape/measurements), and quality of life (QoL) remains controversial. Previous studies have shown physical exercise can have a positive effect on QoL in breast cancer patients, especially premenopausal subjects. In this feasibility study, we sought to assess the impact that physical exercise had on body composition and QoL in premenopausal breast cancer patients undergoing ET, and to determine the appropriateness of further testing of this intervention in this patient group. This study involved 41 premenopausal female breast cancer patients before and after six, 12, and 18 months of ET. Aerobic training began in the 6th month and resistance training was added in the 12th month. Body composition was evaluated using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, body physique was evaluated using anthropometric measurement techniques, and QoL was evaluated using questionnaires from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. The initial period of ET with no exercise resulted in a reduction in fat-free body mass (FFBM), an increase in fat body mass (FBM), and a decline in QoL scores. Adding aerobic training resulted in a reduction of FBM and percentage of android fat, and improved QoL scores. The introduction of resistance training further reduced percentage of android and gynoid fat, increased FFBM, and further improved QoL scores. ET negatively impacts body composition, body physique, and QoL of premenopausal breast cancer patients. This feasibility study shows that physical activity may improve QoL and reduce adverse effects of ET on body composition and body physique, indicating appropriateness for further investigation on the use of exercise programs in premenopausal breast cancer patients to improve the outcomes of therapy.
Pederse, agnes N; Ovesen, Lars; Schroll, M
OBJECTIVE: To measure body composition and analyse the relation to muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability in healthy, old subjects, and to relate the results to an optimal BMI level for the elderly. SETTING: Subjects aged 80 years living at home from the 1914-population...... in Glostrup, Denmark. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: 121 men and 113 women had their height and weight measured. Body fat mass and fat-free mass were assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Muscle strength was measured as handgrip, elbow flexion, knee extension, body flexion and body extension. Physical activity was self......, and physical activity and functional ability. BMI was related to body fat mass, and FFM was related to muscle strength. Muscle strength was related to mobility and PPT. Mobility and PPT were mutually related and were related to physical activity. CONCLUSION: Our cross sectional study did not support newly...
Juan José Manzano
Full Text Available Objective: Describe and analyze changes in body composition of middle-aged women after participating in a water aerobics physical activity program and a subsequent detraining period. Materials and Methods: The group analyzed consisted of 17 women from Arroyo de San Serván (Badajoz, who were physically active (had participated in fitness gymnastics programs one to three sessions per week for the past three months, with an average age of 53.6 ± 9.1 years. The program was comprised of sixty minute-sessions five days a week, for 6 weeks, with a 4-week detraining period. Three anthropometric evaluations were conducted: at the beginning and at the end of the program and after the detraining period. Size and weight were recorded during each measurement, including six skinfolds, four body circumferences and three bone diameters. Fat percentage was obtained from four skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, suprailiac and abdominal using the Yuhasz formula modified by Faulkner (1968. The muscle percentage was calculated from total mass percentage less bone percentage (Rocha, 1975, body fat percentage (Faulkner, 1968 and the residual percentage using the Wurch ́s equation (Esparza, 1993 of subjects measured, based on Matiegka ́s basic proposal (four components model. Results: after the program a significant increase was observed in muscle percentage: 32.69 ± 2.69% vs. 33.44 ± 2.89% (p <0.05, in muscle weight: 23.45 ± 3.53 kg vs. 24.02 ± 3.33 kg (p <0.05, as well as a significant decrease in the fat component reflected in the sum of skinfolds: 193.66 ± 25.54 mm vs. 188.38 ± 25.67 mm (p <0.05 and more specifically in the suprailiac skinfold, 30.47 ± 8.49 mm. vs 28.00 ± 8.78 mm (p <0.05. These trends were maintained during the detraining period, specifically in muscle percentage: 33.44 ± 2.89% vs. 34.25 ± 3.04% (p <0.01 compared to initial measurement, muscle weight: 24.02 ± 3.33 kg vs 24.74 ± 3.64 kg (p <0.01 compared to initial measurement, the sum
The global increase in the prevalence of obesity has led to an increased need for measurement tools for research, management and treatment of the obese person. The physical size limitations imposed by obesity, variations in body composition from that of normal weight, and a complex psychopathology a...
Leeuwen, van J.; Wichers, H.J.
During growth of Agaricus bisporus fruit bodies the amount of active tyrosinase increased. The amount of active tyrosinase can be related to the degree of browning, as opposed to the fully activated tyrosinase level. Isoelectric focusing revealed that active and latent tyrosinase isoforms having
Full Text Available Physical activity (PA is a key contributor in long-term weight management but there remains limited research on the association between weekly PA patterns and weight change. The purpose of the present study was to examine the prospective association between weekly PA patterns and weight change in generally healthy young adults. Anthropometric measurements, including dual X-ray absorptiometry, were obtained every 3 months over a period of one year in 338 adults (53% male. At each measurement time, participants wore a multisensor device for a minimum of 10 days to determine total daily energy expenditure and time spent sleeping, sedentary, in light PA (LPA, in moderate PA (MPA, and in vigorous PA (VPA. PA did not differ between weekdays and the weekend at baseline. Twenty-four-hour sleep time, however, was significantly longer during weekends compared to weekdays, which was associated with less time spent sedentary. Weight loss was associated with a significant increase in LPA at the expense of sedentary time during the weekend but not during weekdays. Regression analyses further revealed an inverse association between change in VPA during the weekend and body composition at 12-month follow-up. Taken together, these results suggest that weekend PA plays an important role in long-term weight management.
Crawford, Margaret A; Mendoza-Vasconez, Andrea S; Larsen, Britta A
The rates of diabetes in the USA are rapidly increasing, and vary widely across different racial/ethnic groups. This paper explores the potential contribution of body composition, diet and physical activity in explaining diabetes disparities across women of different racial and ethnic backgrounds. For body composition, racial/ethnic groups differ widely by BMI, distribution of body mass and quantity and type of adipose tissue. Dietary patterns that vary across race/ethnicity include consumption of meat, added sugars, high-glycemic carbohydrates and fast food. Additionally, physical activity patterns of interest include aerobic versus muscle-strengthening exercises, and the purpose of physical activity (leisure, occupation, or transportation). Overall, these variables provide a partial picture of the source of these widening disparities, and could help guide future research in addressing and reducing diabetes disparities.
Hopkins, N D; Stratton, G; Tinken, T M; McWhannell, N; Ridgers, N D; Graves, L E F; George, K; Cable, N T; Green, D J
The prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity in Western countries has increased rapidly. Both are modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis begins in childhood and endothelial dysfunction is its earliest detectable manifestation. We assessed flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in 129 children (75 female; 10.3+0.3 yrs; 54 male; 10.4; 0.3 yrs). FMD was normalised for differences in the eliciting shear rate stimulus between subjects (SR(AUC)). Fitness was assessed as peak oxygen uptake during an incremental treadmill exercise test (V O(2)peak). Body composition was measured using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. Physical activity (PA) was assessed using Actigraph accelerometers. The cohort was split into tertiles according to FMD% and also FMD% corrected for SR(AUC) to gain insight into the determinants of vascular function. Across the cohort, significant correlations were observed between FMD%/SR(AUC) and DEXA percentage fat (r=-0.23, p=0.009) and percentage lean mass (r=0.21, p=0.008), and also with PA performed at moderate-to-high intensity (r=0.363, p=0.001). For children in the lowest FMD%/SR(AUC) tertile, a stronger relationship with all PA measures was observed, particularly with high intensity PA (r=0.572, P=0.003). Regression analysis revealed that high intensity PA was the only predictor of impaired FMD%/SR(AUC). These data suggest that traditional risk factors for CHD in adult populations impact upon vascular function in young people. Furthermore, it appears that individuals with impaired FMD may benefit from performing high intensity PA, whereas no relationships exist between FMD and lower intensities of PA or between PA and FMD in those subjects who possess preserved vascular function a priori.
Vainshelboim, Baruch; Fox, Benjamin Daniel; Kramer, Mordechai Reuven; Izhakian, Shimon; Gershman, Evgeni; Oliveira, Jose
To examine the effect of participating in a 12-week supervised exercise training (ET) program on physical activity and body composition in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Randomized controlled trial assessing physical activity and body composition at baseline, after 12-week intervention, and at 11 months follow-up. Outpatient hospital. Patients with IPF (N=34; mean age, 68±8y) recruited for this study; 32 patients completed the 12-week intervention (ET group: n=15; control group: n=17) and 28 patients (14 in each group) reassessed at 11-month follow-up from baseline. Participation in a 12-week supervised ET program or regular medical treatment. Changes in physical activity levels as measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. After the 12-week intervention, physical activity levels were significantly increased in the ET group whereas the control group showed a trend toward deterioration (median difference between the groups, 2164MET-min/wk [interquartile range, 1576MET-min/wk]; MET = metabolic equivalent; Pgroup, whereas the control group showed an opposite trend. At 11-month follow-up, no significant differences were observed between the 2 groups in all variables. The ET group lost most of the achieved improvements in the outcomes and returned to near baseline levels, whereas the control group showed a trend toward worsened outcomes. Physical activity and body composition in patients with IPF were improved after a 12-week supervised ET program, although the benefits were not sustained at 11-month follow-up. These results may support the efficacy of participation in supervised ET to improve physical activity and body composition in patients with IPF; however, maintenance strategies are warranted to preserve the improved outcomes. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Munugoda, I P; Wills, K; Cicuttini, F; Graves, S E; Lorimer, M; Jones, G; Callisaya, M L; Aitken, D
To examine the association between ambulatory activity (AA), body composition measures and hip or knee joint replacement (JR) due to osteoarthritis. At baseline, 1082 community-dwelling older-adults aged 50 - 80 years were studied. AA was measured objectively using pedometer and body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The incidence of primary (first-time) JR was determined by data linkage to the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Log binomial regression with generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the risk of JR associated with baseline AA and body composition measures, adjusting for age, sex, x-ray disease severity, and pain. Over 13 years of follow-up, 74 (6.8%) participants had a knee replacement (KR) and 50 (4.7%) a hip replacement (HR). AA was associated with a higher risk of KR (RR 1.09/1000 steps/day, 95% CI 1.01, 1.16) and a lower risk of HR (RR 0.90/1000 steps/day, 95% CI 0.81, 0.99). BMI (RR 1.07/kg/m 2 , 95% CI 1.03, 1.12), total fat mass (RR 1.04/kg, 95% CI 1.02, 1.07), trunk fat mass (RR 1.04/kg, 95% CI 1.02, 1.07), and waist circumference (RR 1.03/cm, 95% CI 1.01, 1.05) were associated with a higher risk of KR. Body composition measures were not associated with HR. An objective measure of AA was associated with a small increased risk of KR and a small reduced risk of HR. Worse body composition profiles were associated with knee, but not hip replacement. Altogether this may suggest different causal pathways for each site with regard to habitual activity and obesity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
de Chaves, Raquel Nichele; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Santos, Daniel; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; de Souza, Michele Caroline; Diego, Vincent Paul; Maia, José
The purposes of this study were: (i) to identify familial resemblances in body fat, blood pressure (BP) and total physical activity (TPA); (ii) to estimate the magnitude of their genetic and environmental influences; and (iii) to investigate shared familial aggregation among these phenotypes. The sample comprised 260 nuclear families from Portugal. Body fat was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. BP was measured by an oscillometric device. TPA was estimated by the Baecke questionnaire. Familial correlation analyses were performed using Generalized Estimating Equations. Quantitative genetic modelling was used to estimate maximal heritability, genetic and environmental correlations. Familial intra-trait correlations ranged from 0.15-0.38. Genetic and common environmental factors explained from 30%--44% of fat mass depots and BP and 24% of TPA. Genetic correlations were significant between BP and the fat mass traits (p < 0.05). Environmental correlations were statistically significant between diastolic BP and total body fat, trunk fat and arm fat (p < 0.05) and TPA and other phenotypes. The results suggest familial resemblance in the variation of body fat, BP and TPA, showing partial pleiotropic effects in the variation in body fat phenotypes and BP. TPA only shares common environmental influences with BP and body fat traits.
Astorino, Todd A; Heath, Brendyn; Bandong, Jason; Ordille, Gina M; Contreras, Ramon; Montell, Matthew; Schubert, Matthew M
High intensity interval training (HIIT) increases maximal oxygen uptake similar to aerobic exercise. However, changes in body composition are equivocal in response to HIIT. We examined changes in body composition and dietary restraint in response to 20 sessions of HIIT varying in structure. Thirty nine active men and women (age and VO2max = 22.5 ± 4.4 yr and 40.1 ± 5.6 mL/kg/min) were randomized to one of three periodized HIIT regimes performed on a cycle ergometer. Before and after training, body composition was assessed using skinfolds (SKF), circumference measures, and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) following standardized procedures. Hunger, restraint, and disinhibition were also measured using the 3-Factor Eating Questionnaire and Power of Food Survey. Control participants (n = 32, age and VO2max = 25.6 ± 4.4 yr and 40.6 ± 4.9 mL/kg/min) matched for age and fitness level underwent all testing but did not complete HIIT. There was no change (p > 0.05) in body mass, circumferences, or BIA-derived body fat in response to HIIT. However, SKF-derived body fat declined (p = 0.04) with HIIT, and genderXtime (p = 0.03) and genderXtimeXregimen interactions (p = 0.04) were shown in that women but not men exhibited significant reductions in body fat. Hunger was reduced from baseline to post-training (p = 0.028), but this response was not different in response to HIIT compared to controls. Twenty sessions of low-volume HIIT reduce body fat in women but not men, but do not alter perceptions of hunger.
Mattsson, Soeren [Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Thomas, Brian J [School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4001 (Australia)
This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)
Silventoinen, Karri; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Lallukka, Tea
with the Mx statistical package (Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA). RESULTS: High physical activity was associated with lower mean values, and a high proportion of protein in the diet was associated with higher mean BMI, waist......BACKGROUND: The development of obesity is still a poorly understood process that is dependent on both genetic and environmental factors. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine how physical activity and the proportion of energy as protein in the diet modify the genetic variation of body mass index...... (BMI), waist circumference, and percentage body fat. DESIGN: Twins from Denmark (756 complete pairs) and Finland (278 complete pairs) aged 18-67 and 21-24 y, respectively, participated. The proportion of energy as protein in the diet was estimated by using food-frequency questionnaires...
Beavers, Kristen M; Beavers, Daniel P; Nesbit, Beverly A; Ambrosius, Walter T; Marsh, Anthony P; Nicklas, Barbara J; Rejeski, W Jack
Our primary objective was to determine the long-term effects of physical activity (PA) and weight loss (WL) on body composition in overweight/obese older adults. Secondarily, the association between change in body mass and composition on change in several cardiometabolic risk factors and mobility was evaluated. 288 older (X ± SD: 67.0 ± 4.8 years), overweight/obese (BMI 32.8 ± 3.8 kg/m² ) men and women participated in this 18-month randomized, controlled trial. Treatment groups included PA + WL (n = 98), PA-only (n = 97), and a successful aging (SA) health education control (n = 93). DXA-acquired body composition measures (total body fat and lean mass), conventional biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk, and 400-m walk time were obtained at baseline and 18 months. Fat mass was significantly reduced from (X ± SE) 36.5 ± 8.9 kg to 31.7 ± 9.0 kg in the PA + WL group (p losses were three times greater in the PA + WL groups compared to PA-only or SA groups (-2.5 ± 2.8 kg vs. -0.7 ± 2.2 kg or -0.8 ± 2.4 kg, respectively; p loss was primarily responsible for WL-associated improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors, while reduction in body weight, regardless of compartment, was significantly associated with improved mobility. This 18-month PA + WL program resulted in a significant reduction in percent body fat with a concomitant increase in percent body lean mass. Shifts in body weight and composition were associated with favorable changes in clinical parameters of cardiometabolic risk and mobility. Moderate PA without WL had no effect on body composition. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.
Ana Tereza do Nascimento Sales
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD. Neither the prevalence of PAD in type 2 (T2 DM nor its detrimental effects on quality of life (QoL or physical activity (PA have been well described in the Brazilian population. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of newly diagnosed PAD and its associations with QoL, PA and body composition in a sample of T2DM patients from a University Hospital. METHODS: Seventy-three (73 T2DM patients without previous diagnoses of major complications related to T2DM were enrolled. PAD was assessed using the ankle-brachial index (ABI; QoL was measured using a translated and validated SF-36 questionnaire; PA was measured using a modified Baecke questionnaire; and body composition was measured by segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance. RESULTS: PAD prevalence was 13.7%, predominantly of mild severity (ABI between 0.8-0.9. The ABI results correlated with age (ρ=-0.26, P=0.03, DM duration (ρ=-0.28, P=0.02 and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (ρ=-0.33, P=0.007 and ρ=-0.28, P=0.02; respectively. Scores for the SF-36 physical component summary (PCS were below the normal range, but no negative impact from PAD was identified by the PCS scores (normal-ABI 42.9±11.2 vs. PAD-ABI 38.12±11.07 or the Baecke PA results. Body composition analysis detected excessive body fat, especially in women, but there was no difference between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of previously undiagnosed PAD in this population of T2DM patients was 13.7%, predominantly mild and asymptomatic forms, and was not yet associated with worsened QoL, PA levels or body composition variables.
Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.; Del Rio, C.M.; Rule, D.C.
The physiological traits that allow fish to survive periods of limited food resources are poorly understood. We assessed changes in proximate body composition, relative organ mass, blood metabolites, and relative weight (Wr) of sedentary and actively swimming (15 cm/s) juvenile rainbow trout (154-182 mm total length) over 147 d of fasting. Fasting caused measurable responses that were augmented when fish were swimming. Lipids and plasma triacylglycerides declined over time. Proteins were catabolized simultaneously with lipid reserves, but ammonia concentrations in plasma did not increase. The liver somatic index (LSI) did not change substantially over 105 d, suggesting that gluconeogenesis maintained blood glucose concentrations and hepatic glycogen reserves for a substantial period of fasting. The gut somatic index (GSI) and Wr declined linearly during fasting, but the LSI did not decline until after 105 d of fasting. Consequently, the use of different body condition indices could lead to different conclusions about the condition of juvenile rainbow trout. Swimming activity caused fish to have lower lipid and protein reserves than those of sedentary fish. No mortalities were observed among sedentary fish, but mortalities occurred among actively swimming fish after 97 d of fasting when 3.2% or less lipid remained in their bodies. Body condition indices did not account for differences in proximate body composition between sedentary and actively swimming fish and were relatively poor predictors of lipid content and risk of mortality. The probability of mortality was most accurately predicted by percent lipid content. Therefore, we suggest that fisheries scientists consider using percent lipid content when evaluating the physiological status and risk of mortality due to starvation among juvenile rainbow trout.
Ara, I; Vicente-Rodriguez, G; Perez-Gomez, J; Jimenez-Ramirez, J; Serrano-Sanchez, J A; Dorado, C; Calbet, J A L
To analyse the effect of extracurricular physical activities on fat mass accumulation and physical fitness during growth in early pubertal males. Longitudinal study. A total of 42 male children (9.4+/-1.4 years, Tanner I-II and 12.7+/-1.5 years, Tanner III-IV, before and after the 3.3 years follow-up, respectively), randomly sampled from the population of Gran Canaria (Spain), 26 of them physically active (PA, at least 3 h per week during 3 years) and 16 non-physically active (non-PA). Body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), anthropometrics (body circumferences and skinfolds) and physical fitness variables (dynamic and isometric force, anaerobic capacity and maximal aerobic power) were determined in all subjects. Both groups had comparable body sizes at the start and the end of the study. Body mass index increased with growth more in the PA than in the non-PA group (Pactive children (r2=0.93). In contrast, there was an inverse relationship between the total lean mass growth and the accumulation of total and regional fat mass (r=-0.37 to -0.41, all Pactivities are more protected against total and regional fat mass accumulation. They also increase their total lean and bone mass to a greater extent than children who do not participate in extracurricular sport activities. In addition, PA children maintain their physical fitness during growth, while it deteriorates in the non-PA children.
Neves Miranda, Valter Paulo; Gouveia Peluzio, Maria do Carmo; Rodrigues de Faria, Eliana; Castro Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo; Eloiza Priore, Silvia
The evaluation of inflammatory markers during adolescence can monitor different stages and manifestation of chronic diseases in adulthood. The control of the subclinical inflammation process through changes in lifestyle, especially in the practice of physical activity and dietary education can mitigate the effects of risk factors that trigger the process of atherosclerosis. To do a critical review regarding inflammatory markers as a risk factor of cardiovascular disease in relation to body composition, physical activity and assessment of nutritional status of adolescents. A literature review was performed in the following electronic databases: PUBMED, SCIELO and CONCHRANE COLLECTION. The following associated terms were used "inflammation AND cardiovascular diseases AND nutritional status OR body composition OR physical activity". There were topics created for the discussion of subjects: obesity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease during adolescence; expression of inflammatory markers in adolescence; development of cardiovascular disease with inflammatory markers, and finally, inflammatory markers, physical activity and nutritional evaluation. It was observed that the inflammatory markers may manifest in adolescence and be related to risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Physical activity and nutritional evaluation featured as non-pharmacological measures to control the incidence of inflammatory markers and cardiovascular risk factor. Intervention studies may clarify how the adoption of a more proper lifestyle can influence the inflammatory process. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Chen, Dong; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo
An 8-week feeding experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary genistein on growth performance, body composition, and digestive enzymes activity of juvenile Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus). Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing four graded supplements of genistein: 0, 30, 300, and 3 000 μg/g. Each diet was randomly assigned in triplicate to tanks stocked with 15 juvenile tilapia (10.47±1.24 g). The results show that 30 and 300 μg/g dietary genistein had no significant effect on growth performance of Nile tilapia, but the higher level of genistein (3 000 μg/g) significantly depressed the final body weight and specific growth rate. There was no significant difference in survival rate, feed intake, feed efficiency ratio or whole body composition among all dietary treatments. An assay of digestive enzymes showed that the diet containing 3 000 μg/ggenistein decreased stomach and hepatopancreas protease activity, and amylase activity in the liver and intestine, while a dietary level of 300 μg/g genistein depressed stomach protease and intestine amylase activities. However, no significant difference in stomach amylase activity was found among dietary treatments. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that a high level of dietary genistein (3 000 μg/g, or above) would significantly reduce the growth of Nile tilapia, partly because of its inhibitory effect on the activity of major digestive enzymes. Accordingly, the detrimental effects of genistein, as found in soybean products, should not be ignored when applied as an alternative ingredient source in aquaculture.
Ramires, Virgílio Viana; Dumith, Samuel Carvalho; Wehrmeister, Fernando Cesar; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Gonçalves, Helen
Adolescence is a period of accelerated development and increases in body composition. Physical activity (PA) practice has been associated with the development of major components of body composition (bone, muscle and fat). However, the longitudinal effects of PA of different intensities during adolescence are still not well understood. Thus, the main goal this study has investigate the association between practice of moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity throughout adolescence and body composition, specifically lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM), at age 18. In this cohort study, physical activity was measured at 11, 15 and 18 years, using questionnaires. Thresholds of 300, 150 and 75 min per week, were used for MVPA, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity, respectively. Consistent physical activity was defined as reaching the thresholds at the three follow-ups. FM and LM at age 18 were assessed by DXA and expressed as fat mass (FMI) and lean mass (LMI) indexes. To verify the association between the trajectories of MVPA, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity in adolescence and FM and LM at 18, multivariate analyses were performed through multiple linear regressions adjusted for co-variables. A total of 3,176 adolescents were evaluated. The consistent practice of moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity according to thresholds during adolescence were directly related to the LMI in boys (moderate-intensity - β = 0.40 and CI95 % 0.13; 0.68 and vigorous-intensity - β = 0.95 and CI95 % 0.69; 1.21) and girls (Moderate-intensity - β = 0.23 and CI95 % 0.02; 0.45 and vigorous-intensity - β = 0.80 and CI95 % 0.29; 1.32). Practice of vigorous-intensity physical activity alone showed to be inversely associated with the FMI in boys (β = -0.53 and CI95 % -0.96;-0.10). Consistent physical activity practice during adolescence was associated with greater lean mass in both sexes. In boys, vigorous
Kuno Hottenrott; Sebastian Ludyga; Stephan Schulze
The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training) on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17) or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17) for a 12 week-intervention...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — pulmonary parameters, BALF biomarkers, body composition, motor activity data collected from rats exposed to ozone after high fructose or high fat diets. This dataset...
Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.; Martinez Del Rio, C.; Rule, D.C.
Abstract: We assessed changes in proximate body composition, wet mass, and the occurrence of mortality among sedentary and actively swimming (15 cm/s) juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (120-142 mm total length) that were held at 4.0, 7.5, or 15.0 ??C and fasted for 140 days. Warmer water temperatures and swimming activity accentuated declines in lipid mass, but they did not similarly affect lean mass and wet mass. Swimming fish conserved lean mass independent of water temperature. Because lean mass exceeded lipid mass, wet mass was not affected substantially by decreases in lipid mass. Consequently, wet mass did not accurately reflect the effects that water temperature and swimming activity had on mortality of fasted rainbow trout. Rather, lipid mass was more accurate in predicting death from starvation. Juvenile rainbow trout survived long periods without food, and fish that died of starvation appeared to have similar body composition. It appears that the ability of fish to endure periods without food depends on the degree to which lipid mass and lean mass can be utilized as energy sources.
Pagels, Peter; Raustorp, Anders; Archer, Trevor; Lidman, Ulf; Alricsson, Marie
Health organizations suggest that adults ought to engage in at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity daily physical activity. This study investigated the effects of a 30-minute single daily bout of brisk walking upon risk factors for coronary heart disease with blood lipid profile in particular. Thirty-three (25-45 y) adults, were randomly assigned into an exercise group (EG; n=16, 9w) and a control group (CG; n=17, 6w). The EG walked briskly 30 minutes daily during the 3-week test period. Compliance/adherence was maximal throughout the 3-week intervention due to stringent daily monitoring. The EG showed a significant decrease in concentrations of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) during the intervention period. A significant inverse correlation between Δ energy expenditure/day and ΔLDL-C (r=-0.39, Pbrisk walking bout was 3669 steps/bout generating a mean energy expenditure of 191 kcal/ bout. The most unique findings were that daily single bouts of moderate-intensity physical activity for 30 minutes, during 3 weeks, induced favorable effects upon body weight, BMI, and blood concentration of LDL-C and TC in healthy adults.
Nishiwaki, Masato; Nakashima, Nana; Ikegami, Yumi; Kawakami, Ryoko; Kurobe, Kazumichi; Matsumoto, Naoyuki
This pilot study aimed to examine the effects of a lifestyle intervention comprising an activity monitor and the concurrent use of Twitter, on physical activity (PA) and body composition. Seventeen healthy volunteers (36±3 years) were randomly assigned to normal (N, N.=8) or Twitter (T, N.=9) intervention groups for six weeks. Participants in both groups wore an activity monitor but those in the T group also tweeted daily about their PA. An observer read the tweets from each participant and provided feedback. Body composition was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis before and after the intervention. Significantly more daily steps and PA at an intensity of ≥3 metabolic equivalents (METs) were recorded by the T than the N during six weeks. The number of steps and PA did not significantly change over time in the N, but significantly increased in the T from weeks one to six (8170±1130 to 12,934±1400 steps/day and 2.6±0.5 to 5.0±0.8 METs·h/day). In addition, significantly more body fat was lost in the T, than in the N (-1.1±0.2 vs. -0.1±0.3 kg), and the changes in PA significantly correlated with the changes in body fat (r=-0.713). Lifestyle intervention can increase daily PA and reduce body fat more effectively when using an activity monitor and Twitter than an activity monitor alone.
Full Text Available Body composition assessment has an important role in many fields of medicine, in evaluation of health status of the individual, as well as in sports sciences as a part of physiological profile of athletes. There are several methods for body composition assessment, which provide indirect data on the body structure. For instance in anthropometry, simple techniques such as skinfold measurements provide simply, quick and nonexpensive assessment of body fat mass. Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA is described as a method with rising validity, especially for measurement in regional body composition. The value of BIA in routine clinical terms is still limited, while DXA has potential of becoming new golden standard for body composition assessment. More sophisiticated methods such is MRI have advantage over other techniques for estimation of regional body composition, since it provides the only accurate and viable approach for the estimation of intra-abdominal adipose tissue. This method is limited to experimental studies on smaller group of individuals, since it is expensive and not available to routine assessment. Combination of more methods may be the best approach for obtaining accurate results and informations about health status of individual.
1. ABSTRACT This diploma thesis refers to human body composition and its alterations by physiological and pathological processes that occur during different stages of life. Fat mass, fat free mass and total body water represent the major components of the human body which are modified during infancy, childhood, puberty, pregnancy and adulthood. Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA), Dual Energy Absorptiometry (DEXA), Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are some meth...
Carnero, Elvis Alvarez; Dubis, Gabriel S; Hames, Kazanna C; Jakicic, John M; Houmard, Joseph A; Coen, Paul M; Goodpaster, Bret H
This study investigated the associations of both physical activity time (PA) and energy expenditure (EE) with weight and fat mass (FM) loss in patients following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Ninety-six nondiabetic patients were included in this analysis. Post-RYGB patients were randomized in one of two treatments: A 6-month exercise training program (RYBG+EX) or lifestyle educational classes (RYGB). Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. Components of PA and EE were quantified by a multisensory device. Dose-response relationships of both PA and EE with weight loss and body composition were explored according to quartiles of change in steps per day. Patients in the highest quartiles of steps per day change lost more FM (3rd = -19.5 kg and 4th = -22.7 kg, P muscle mass (3rd = -3.1 cm2 and 4th = -4.5 cm2 , P weight and FM, while maintaining higher skeletal muscle mass. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; Esparza-Ros, Francisco; López-Plaza, Daniel; Muyor, José M; López-Miñarro, Pedro A
The aim of this quasi-experimental pilot study was to explore the effects of a reformer Pilates program on the anthropometry, body composition, and somatotype of active adult women after a short non-exercise period. Twenty-eight women (mean age: 40.21 ± standard deviation of 8.12 years old) with one to three years of reformer Pilates experience participated in the study. The women participated in a reformer Pilates program for 16 weeks (one hour, twice per week) after 4 weeks of detraining (summer holidays) in 2012. The International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry full profile was assessed before and after the intervention program. Significant decreases (p ≤ 0.05) from pre- to post-program were observed for triceps, iliac crest, supraspinale, abdominal, front thigh and medial calf skinfold thicknesses, six and eight skinfold thickness sums, forearm and ankle girths, waist/hip ratio, endomorphy, and fat mass. Significant increases (p ≤ .05) were observed for corrected arm, corrected calf girths, and muscle mass. Generally, women showed a mesomorphic endomorph (endomorphy predominant) and mesomorph-endomorph (endomorphy and mesomorphy predominant) in the pre- and posttests, respectively. In conclusion, the practice of reformer Pilates was associated with healthy changes in anthropometric parameters, body composition, and somatotype in Pilates-experienced women after 4 weeks of no physical exercise.
Hottenrott, Kuno; Ludyga, Sebastian; Schulze, Stephan
The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training) on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17) or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17) for a 12 week-intervention period. WE weekly completed 2 h 30 min of continuous endurance running composed of 2 sessions on the weekend. In contrast, AW performed 4 30 min sessions of high intensity training and an additional 30 min endurance run weekly, always after work. During an exhaustive treadmill test aerobic power was measured and heart rate was continuously recorded. Body composition was assessed using bio-impedance. Following the intervention period all subjects took part in a half-marathon. AW significantly improved peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) from 36.8 ± 4.5 to 43.6 ± 6.5 [mL.min(-1).kg(-1)], velocity at lactate threshold (VLT) from 9.7 ± 2.2 to 11.7 ± 1.8 [km.h(-1)] and visceral fat from 5.6 ± 2.2 to 4.7 ± 1.9 In WE VO2 peak signifi-cantly increased from 38.8 ± 5.0 to 41.5 ± 6.0 [mL.min(-1).kg(-1)], VLT from 9.9 ± 1.3 to 11.2 ± 1.7 [km.h(-1)] and visceral fat was reduced from 5.7 ± 2.1 to 5.4 ± 1.9 (p recreationally active runners. Key pointsContinuous endurance training and high intensity training lead to significant improvements of aerobic capacity and body compositionBoth training methods enable recreationally active runners to finish a half-marathonHigh intensity training is favorable to improve VO2 peak.
Lemos, Thaisa; Gallagher, Dympna
The current article reviews the most innovative and precise, available methods for quantification of in-vivo human body composition. Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected. Ongoing efforts involve multisegmental and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, quantitative magnetic resonance for total body water, fat, and lean tissue measurements, imaging to further define ectopic fat depots. Available techniques allow for the measurement of fat, fat-free mass, bone mineral content, total body water, extracellular water, total adipose tissue and its subdepots (visceral, subcutaneous, and intermuscular), skeletal muscle, select organs, and ectopic fat depots. There is an ongoing need for methods that yield information on metabolic and biological functions. Based on the wide range of measurable properties, analytical methods and known body composition models, clinicians, and scientists can quantify a number of body components and with longitudinal assessment, can track changes in health and disease with implications for understanding efficacy of nutritional and clinical interventions, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment in clinical settings. With the greater need to understand precursors of health risk beginning prior to conception, a gap exists in appropriate in-vivo measurement methods with application beginning during gestation, that is, fetal development.
Basterfield, Laura; Reilly, Jessica K; Mark S Pearce; Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Adamson, Ashley J.; Reilly, John J; Vella, Stewart A
Objectives Several important research questions have been addressed: (1) What are the cross-sectional associations between sports club participation, objectively measured physical activity, and adiposity? (2) Do measures of physical activity and adiposity predict subsequent sports club participation? (3) Does sports club participation predict subsequent measures of physical activity and adiposity? and (4) Do changes in sports club participation predict changes in objective measures of physica...
The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity poses a global health problem. Special concern is focused on overweight during youth since it may cause negative impact on health both during childhood, adolescence and later life. Physical activity is a key component in preventing overweight and associated with major health benefits and therefore crucial in youth health. An important personal factor for being physically active is the individual perceived physical self-este...
Basterfield, Laura; Reilly, Jessica K; Pearce, Mark S; Parkinson, Kathryn N; Adamson, Ashley J; Reilly, John J; Vella, Stewart A
Several important research questions have been addressed: (1) What are the cross-sectional associations between sports club participation, objectively measured physical activity, and adiposity? (2) Do measures of physical activity and adiposity predict subsequent sports club participation? (3) Does sports club participation predict subsequent measures of physical activity and adiposity? and (4) Do changes in sports club participation predict changes in objective measures of physical activity and adiposity? Longitudinal and cross-sectional. Data from the Gateshead Millennium Study birth cohort (n=609 at age 7 years) were analysed for associations between adiposity, sports club participation and accelerometer-measured physical activity from ages 7y to 9y to 12y. Seventy-two per cent of 9 year olds and 63% of 12 year olds took part in a sports club. Sports club participation was significantly associated with overall accelerometer-measured physical activity at 12y (coefficient=0.0.09; 95% CI: 0.01-0.16) but not 9y. An inverse relationship between fat mass (estimated from bioelectric impedance) and sport club participation, and between fat mass and accelerometer-measured physical activity was observed at 12y, but not 9y. Sports club participation at 9y was highly predictive of participation at 12y. Sports club participation was significantly associated with socioeconomic status; fewer children from poorer areas took part. Sports club participation in adolescence may be associated with decreased levels of adiposity. Furthermore, the potential benefits of sports club participation for adiposity are likely generated from continuous participation in sports, rather than any long-term protective effects. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alyssa S. Lee
Full Text Available Introduction. Physical activity is important for health and well-being; however, rates of postnatal physical activity can be low. This paper reports the secondary outcomes of a trial aimed at increasing physical activity among postnatal women. Methods. More Active MuMs in Stirling (MAMMiS was a randomised controlled trial testing the effect of physical activity consultation and pram walking group intervention among inactive postnatal women. Data were collected on postnatal weight, body composition, general well-being, and fatigue. Participants were also interviewed regarding motivations and perceived benefits of participating in the trial. Results. There was no significant effect of the intervention on any weight/body composition outcome or on general well-being at three or six months of follow-up. There was a significant but inconsistent difference in fatigue between groups. Qualitative data highlighted a number of perceived benefits to weight, body composition, and particularly well-being (including improved fatigue which were not borne out by objective data. Discussion. The MAMMiS study found no impact of the physical activity intervention on body composition and psychological well-being and indicates that further research is required to identify successful approaches to increase physical activity and improve health and well-being among postnatal women.
pulmonary parameters, BALF biomarkers, body composition, motor activity data collected from rats exposed to ozone after high fructose or high fat diets.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Gordon , C., P. Phillips , A. Johnstone , T. Beasley , A. Ledbetter , M. Schladweiler , S. Snow, and U. Kodavanti. Effect of High Fructose and High Fat Diets on Pulmonary Sensitivity, Motor Activity, and Body Composition of Brown Norway Rats Exposed to Ozone. INHALATION TOXICOLOGY. Taylor & Francis, Inc., Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28(5): 203-15, (2016).
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17 or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17 for a 12 week-intervention period. WE weekly completed 2 h 30 min of continuous endurance running composed of 2 sessions on the weekend. In contrast, AW performed 4 30 min sessions of high intensity training and an additional 30 min endurance run weekly, always after work. During an exhaustive treadmill test aerobic power was measured and heart rate was continuously recorded. Body composition was assessed using bio-impedance. Following the intervention period all subjects took part in a half-marathon. AW significantly improved peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak from 36.8 ± 4.5 to 43.6 ± 6.5 [mL.min-1.kg-1], velocity at lactate threshold (VLT from 9.7 ± 2.2 to 11.7 ± 1.8 [km.h-1] and visceral fat from 5.6 ± 2.2 to 4.7 ± 1.9 In WE VO2 peak signifi-cantly increased from 38.8 ± 5.0 to 41.5 ± 6.0 [mL.min-1.kg-1], VLT from 9.9 ± 1.3 to 11.2 ± 1.7 [km.h-1] and visceral fat was reduced from 5.7 ± 2.1 to 5.4 ± 1.9 (p < 0.01. Only the improvements of VO2 peak were significantly greater in AW compared with WE (pre/post group interaction: F=15.4, p = 0.01, η2 = 0.36. Both groups completed a half marathon with no significant differences in performance (p = 0.63. Short, intensive endurance training sessions of about 30 min are effective in improving aerobic fitness in recreationally active runners
Lin, Shaoling; Ching, Lai Tsz; Ke, Xinxin; Cheung, Peter Chi Keung
The composition profile and the antioxidant properties of phenolics in water extracts obtained from the fresh fruiting bodies of 4 common cultivated Asian edible mushrooms-Agrocybe aegerita, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii, and Pholiota nameko were compared. The water extract from A. aegerita (AaE) had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) at 54.18 ± 0.27 gallic acid equivalents (μmol/L)/mg extract (P mushrooms were evaluated against 2,2-diphenyl-l-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals, and hydrogen peroxide. Based on halfmaximal effective concentrations, AaE was more effective in scavenging hydrogen peroxide (mushroom water extracts. The differences in the half-maximal effective concentrations of individual mushroom water extracts were probably the result of the different numbers and amounts of individual phenolic acids in the extracts. The antioxidant activities of the mushroom water extracts were correlated with their TPC. The strongest antioxidant properties of AaE were consistent with its highest TPC and with the largest number and amount of phenolics identified in the extract. These results indicated that cultivated edible mushrooms could be a potential source of natural antioxidants with free radical scavenging properties for application as a functional food ingredient.
Heyward, V H
In the selection of body composition field methods and prediction equations, exercise and health practitioners must consider their clients' demographics. Factors, such as age, gender, level of adiposity, physical activity and ethnicity influence the choice of method and equation. Also, it is important to evaluate the relative worth of prediction equations in terms of the criterion method used to derive reference measures of body composition for equation development. Given that hydrodensitometry, hydrometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry are subject to measurement error and violation of basic assumptions underlying their use, none of these should be considered as a 'gold standard' method for in vivo body composition assessment. Reference methods, based on whole-body, 2-component body composition models, are limited, particularly for individuals whose fat-free body (FFB) density and hydration differ from values assumed for 2-component models. Use of field method prediction equations developed from 2-component model (Siri equation) reference measures of body composition will systematically underestimate relative body fatness of American Indian women, Black men and women, and Hispanic women because the average FFB density of these ethnic groups exceeds the assumed value (1.1 g/ml). Thus, some researchers have developed prediction equations based on multicomponent model estimates of body composition that take into account interindividual variability in the water, mineral, and protein content of the FFB. One multicomponent model approach adjusts body density (measured via hydrodensitometry) for total body water (measured by hydrometry) and/or total body mineral estimated from bone mineral (measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry). Skinfold (SKF), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and near-infrared interactance (NIR) are 3 body composition methods used in clinical settings. Unfortunately, the overwhelming majority of field method prediction equations
Mohammad Reza Salamat; Ahmad Shanei; Amir Hossein Salamat; Mehri Khoshhali; Mahdi Asgari
Background: Precise and accurate measurements of body composition are useful in achieving a greater understanding of human energy metabolism in physiology and in different clinical conditions, such as, cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can be used to measure body composition, but the easiest method to assess body composition is the use of anthropometric indices. This study has been designed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of body co...
Mitchell, Nicole M; Potteiger, Jeffery A; Bernardoni, Brittney; Claytor, Randal P
We examined the effects of consuming a 6% carbohydrate (CHO) beverage during exercise on substrate oxidation in active, young Caucasian women with higher body fat (HF) (>25%) and lower body fat (LF) (exercise at 55% of maximal oxygen consumption. Immediately prior to and at 15-min intervals during exercise, subjects consumed 25% of a total volume of a CHO beverage (1 g CHO·kg(-1)) or a placebo (PLC). During exercise and for 2 h after exercise, expired gases were analyzed to determine oxidation rates for CHO (CHO-OX) and fat (FAT-OX). During exercise, significant differences (p exercise in physically active women with low and high levels of body fat.
Fowke Jay H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Established risk factors for prostate cancer have not translated to effective prevention or adjuvant care strategies. Several epidemiologic studies suggest greater body adiposity may be a modifiable risk factor for high-grade (Gleason 7, Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality. However, BMI only approximates body adiposity, and may be confounded by centralized fat deposition or lean body mass in older men. Our objective was to use bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA to measure body composition and determine the association between prostate cancer and total body fat mass (FM fat-free mass (FFM, and percent body fat (%BF, and which body composition measure mediated the association between BMI or waist circumference (WC with prostate cancer. Methods The study used a multi-centered recruitment protocol targeting men scheduled for prostate biopsy. Men without prostate cancer at biopsy served as controls (n = 1057. Prostate cancer cases were classified as having Gleason 6 (n = 402, Gleason 7 (n = 272, or Gleason 8-10 (n = 135 cancer. BIA and body size measures were ascertained by trained staff prior to diagnosis, and clinical and comorbidity status were determined by chart review. Analyses utilized multivariable linear and logistic regression. Results Body size and composition measures were not significantly associated with low-grade (Gleason 6 prostate cancer. In contrast, BMI, WC, FM, and FFM were associated with an increased risk of Gleason 7 and Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer. Furthermore, BMI and WC were no longer associated with Gleason 8-10 (ORBMI = 1.039 (1.000, 1.081, ORWC = 1.016 (0.999, 1.033, continuous scales with control for total body FFM (ORBMI = 0.998 (0.946, 1.052, ORWC = 0.995 (0.974, 1.017. Furthermore, increasing FFM remained significantly associated with Gleason 7 (ORFFM = 1.030 (1.008, 1.052 and Gleason 8-10 (ORFFM = 1.044 (1.014, 1.074 after controlling for FM. Conclusions Our results
Fosbøl, Marie Ø; Zerahn, Bo
Reliable and valid body composition assessment is important in both clinical and research settings. A multitude of methods and techniques for body composition measurement exist, all with inherent problems, whether in measurement methodology or in the assumptions upon which they are based....... This review is focused on currently applied methods for in vivo measurement of body composition, including densitometry, bioimpedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance techniques and anthropometry. Multicompartment models including quantification of trace...
Smith, A. H.; Sanchez P., O.; Burton, R. R.
Gallinaceous birds, presenting a wide range of body size, were adapted physiologically to hyperdynamic environments, provided by chronic centrifugation. Chemical composition was measured directly on prepared carcasses, which were anatomically comparable, and more amenable to analysis than the intact body. Body mass and body fat decreased arithmetically with increasing field strength and also with increasing body mass. Water content of lean tissue increased in hyperdynamic environments, but irrespectively of body size.
Harness, Eric T.; Witzke, Kara A.
Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces dramatic changes in body composition including reductions in fat-free mass (FFM) and increases in fat mass (FM). Objective To examine changes in body composition in response to chronic activity-based therapy (ABT) in persons with SCI. Design Longitudinal exercise intervention. Methods Seventeen men and women with SCI (mean age = 36.1 ± 11.5 years) completed 6 months of supervised ABT consisting of load bearing, resistance training, locomotor training, and functional electrical stimulation. At baseline and after 3 and 6 months of ABT, body weight, body fat, and FFM were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting blood samples were obtained to assess changes in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), adiponectin, and myostatin. Results Across all subjects, there was no change (P > 0.05) in body weight, percent body fat, or FFM of the leg, arm, or trunk, whereas whole-body FFM declined (P = 0.02, 50.4 ± 8.4 to 49.2 ± 7.4 kg). No changes (P = 0.21–0.41) were demonstrated in IGF-I, adiponectin, or myostatin during the study. Conclusions Chronic ABT focusing on the lower extremity does not slow muscle atrophy or alter body fat, body mass, or regional depots of FFM in persons with SCI. Further, it does not induce beneficial changes in adiponectin, myostatin, or IGF-I. Alternative exercise-based therapies are needed in SCI to reverse muscle atrophy and minimize the onset of related health risks. PMID:25130192
Beddoe, A.H.; Streat, S.J.; Hill, G.L.
A programme of metabolic and nutritional research is being undertaken in critically ill patients requiring intensive care. Central to this research is the measurement of the three nutritionally important compartments of body composition, protein, fat, and water by a combination of tritium dilution and prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA). In this paper a calibration technique is presented that enables absolute estimates of total body nitrogen (TBN) to be made using prompt gamma IVNAA in critically ill patients with gross abnormalities in body composition, especially in their state of hydration. This technique, which is independent of skinfold anthropometry and does not make a priori assumptions about the ratios of major body compartments, has been applied to 41 normal volunteers and the derived values for nitrogen compared with values obtained by applying three currently used calibration methods to the same experimental data. The empirical equations relate TBN in normal people to age, height, weight and sex. The mean ratios of experimental to predicted TBN (with SEMs) are 1.013 +/- 0.017 and 1.002 +/- 0.014, respectively. Mean values of the ratio of TBN to fat-free mass (0.0340 +/- 0.0004) and of total body water to fat-free mass (0.716 +/- 0.002) agree closely with values reported elsewhere for normals by a variety of techniques including chemical analysis. Finally, TBN results based on the four different calibration methods are presented for five surgical patients, demonstrating the importance of the calibration method on estimates of TBN in patients with abnormal body composition. It is concluded that this technique will provide accurate estimates of the total body content of protein, water, and fat in intensive care patients.
Mattsson, Sören; Thomas, Brian J.
This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease.
Niyati N Khona
Full Text Available Background: Due to the hormonal changes in postmenopausal women they are prone for many complications like increased CVD risk factors, osteoporosis, obesity, mood swings and urinary incontinence. Physical inactivity in postmenopausal women leads to higher risk of developing CVD and osteoporosis. The objective was to find out the correlation of physical activity level with BMD, cardio-respiratory fitness and body composition in post-menopausal women Methods: 42 postmenopausal women were included. A detailed clinical evaluation with physical activity level (IPAQ-METS-mins/week, , BMD ( T-Scores, body composition (BMI, waist circumference, BIA & Skin fold calliper for fat %, cardio-respiratory fitness was measured by Balke protocol and VO2peak (ml/kg/min is estimated. Correlation of physical activity level with BMD, cardio-respiratory fitness and body composition were analysed using “Pearson’s product moment correlation co-efficient and Spearman’s rho.” Results: Spearman’s rank correlation rho for IPAQ with VO2 peak was 0.420,BMI was -0.388 and visceral fat was -0.384 indicating moderate positive correlation between IPAQ and cardio-respiratory fitness and weak negative correlation between IPAQ and BMI and visceral fat. Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient of IPAQ with BMD was 0.147, body fat was -0.234 and waist circumference was -0.256 indicating no correlation. P value was significant for correlation of IPAQ with CRF (0.006, BMI (0.011 and Visceral fat (0.012. Conclusion: There is moderate positive correlation between IPAQ and cardio-respiratory fitness, weak negative correlation between IPAQ and BMI and visceral fat and no correlation between IPAQ and BMD, body fat and waist circumference
Benito, Pedro J; Bermejo, Laura M; Peinado, Ana B; López-Plaza, Bricia; Cupeiro, Rocío; Szendrei, Barbara; Calderón, Francisco J; Castro, Eliane A; Gómez-Candela, Carmen
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different physical activity programs, in combination with a hypocaloric diet, on anthropometric variables and body composition in obese subjects. Ninety-six obese (men: n = 48; women: n = 48; age range: 18-50 yr) participated in a supervised 22-wk program. They were randomized into four groups: strength training (S; n = 24), endurance training (E; n = 26), combined strength + endurance training (SE; n = 24), and physical activity recommendations (C; n = 22). In addition, all groups followed the same hypocaloric diet. At baseline and at the end of the intervention, dietetic and physical activity variables were assessed using validated questionnaires. Anthropometric variables were recorded along with body composition variables measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry techniques. At the end of the intervention, significant improvements were seen within groups in terms of body weight (S: -9.21 ± 0.83 kg; E: -10.55 ± 0.80 kg; SE: -9.88 ± 0.85 kg; C: -8.69 ± 0.89 kg), and total fat mass (S: -5.24 ± 0.55%; E: -5.35 ± 0.55%; SE: -4.85 ± 0.56%; C: -4.89 ± 0.59%). No differences were seen between groups at this time in terms of any other anthropometric or body composition variables examined. All groups increased their total physical activity in metabolic equivalents (MET) per week during the intervention, but with no difference between groups (S: 976 ± 367 MET-min/wk; E: 954 ± 355 MET-min/wk; SE: 1 329 ± 345 MET-min/wk; C: 763 ± 410 MET-min/wk). This study shows that, when combined with a hypocaloric diet, exercise training and adherence to physical activity recommendations are equally effective at reducing body weight and modifying body composition in the treatment of obesity (Clinical Trials Gov. number: NCT01116856). Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Markus Vinicius Campos Souza
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of resistance training on body composition and matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity in skeletal muscles of rats fed a high-fat diet. METHODS: Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups (n = 8/each according to diet and exercise status: Control (standard diet, Obese Control (high-fat diet, Resistance Training (standard diet and Obese Resistance Training (high-fat diet groups. Animals were fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks to promote excessive weight gain. Resistance Training groups performed 12 weeks of training periods after this period in a vertical ladder three times/week. Fat percentage, fat-free mass and fat mass were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity in biceps and gastrocnemius muscles was analyzed using zymography. RESULTS: Resistance training significantly reduced body and fat masses and fat percentages in both trained groups (p<0.05. The maximal carrying load between trained groups was not different, but relative force was higher in the Resistance Training group (p<0.05. Of note, increased matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity was noted in the tested muscles of both trained groups (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, altered body composition and muscle matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity promoted by excessive weight gain were positively modified by resistance training.
Keywords: Carcass, Dormer, meat yield, muscle composition, SAMM, sex. # Corresponding ... The effects of breed, age and live weight on the carcass composition and retail cuts of meat-type lambs have ... This paper examines the effect of breed and sex on the body composition, carcass characteristics and retail cuts of the ...
Pallotto, Marissa R; de Godoy, Maria R C; Holscher, Hannah D; Buff, Preston R; Swanson, Kelly S
OBJECTIVE To determine effects of restriction feeding of a moderate-protein, high-fiber diet on loss of body weight (BW), voluntary physical activity, body composition, and fecal microbiota of overweight cats. ANIMALS 8 neutered male adult cats. PROCEDURES After BW maintenance for 4 weeks (week 0 = last week of baseline period), cats were fed to lose approximately 1.5% of BW/wk for 18 weeks. Food intake (daily), BW (twice per week), body condition score (weekly), body composition (every 4 weeks), serum biochemical analysis (weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16), physical activity (every 6 weeks), and fecal microbiota (weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16) were assessed. RESULTS BW, body condition score, serum triglyceride concentration, and body fat mass and percentage decreased significantly over time. Lean mass decreased significantly at weeks 12 and 16. Energy required to maintain BW was 14% less than National Research Council estimates for overweight cats and 16% more than resting energy requirement estimates. Energy required for weight loss was 11% more, 6% less, and 16% less than American Animal Hospital Association recommendations for weight loss (80% of resting energy requirement) at weeks 1 through 4, 5 through 8, and 9 through 18, respectively. Relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased and Bacteroidetes decreased with weight loss. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Restricted feeding of a moderate-protein, high-fiber diet appeared to be a safe and effective means for weight loss in cats. Energy requirements for neutered cats may be overestimated and should be reconsidered.
This is noteworthy as there was no significant difference in body mass index in this same population of patients. It is concluded that the use of weight or even BMI for estimating obesity may not be accurate. KEYWORDS: Body composition, body fat, bioimpedance analysis, Type 2 diabetes. Nig. Jnl Health & Biomed.
Asselt, van D.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.
As we grow older changes in body composition occur. These changes include a loss of lean body mass (LBM), bone mass, body water, and a relative increase of fat mass. In view of these changes and acknowledging demographic trends, elder people are facing a growing burden of health-compromising levels
JÚLIO C. MARTINS
Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of a physical activity-training program on bodycomposition and physical fitness in female obese and pre obese students. An experimental group of eightstudents (12.13±0.99 years-old and a control group of eight students (13.25±1.16 years-old were selected. Theexperimental group was involved in a three-day physical activity per week (aerobic and strength training, duringeight weeks. Fitnessgram protocol was used to evaluate both groups body composition and physical fitness,before and after the eight-week training program. Non-parametric tests were used to evaluate differencesbetween groups and assessment moments. The experimental group presented a trend to maintain bodycomposition values and to increase physical fitness. In contrast, the control group presented a trend to increasebody composition and to decrease fitness levels. These data seem to demonstrate that an eight-week physicalactivity-training program allows only the maintenance of body composition and physical fitness of overweightchildren. As such, apart from physical exercise, eating habits should also be checked as a mean to improve healthand physical fitness of obese children
Effects of 6-month soccer and traditional physical activity programmes on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory, oxidative stress markers and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese boys.
Seabra, André; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Carvalho, Maria José; Seabra, Ana; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel; Abreu, Sandra; Vale, Susana; Póvoas, Susana; Nascimento, Henrique; Belo, Luís; Torres, Sandra; Oliveira, José; Mota, Jorge; Santos-Silva, Alice; Rêgo, Carla; Malina, Robert M
Physical activity is important in obesity prevention, but the effectiveness of different physical activity modalities remains to be determined among children. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 6-month soccer programme and a traditional physical activity programme on changes in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status in obese boys. Eighty-eight boys (8-12 years; BMI > +2 standard deviations of WHO reference values) participated in one of three groups: soccer, traditional activity and control. Soccer and traditional activity programmes involved 3 sessions per week for 60-90 min at an average intensity of 70-80% of maximal heart rate. Control group participated in activities of normal daily living. All boys participated in school physical education, two sessions per week of 45-90-min. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 6 months, and included body size and composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status. Physical activity and dietary intake were assessed before and immediately following the intervention. The three groups had similar characteristics at baseline. After 6 months, both intervention groups had significantly lower relative fatness (% fat), waist circumference and total cholesterol, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness, self-esteem, perceived physical competence and attraction to physical activity compared with control group. In conclusion, physical activity interventions over 6 months positively influenced several indicators of health status among obese boys. The results also suggested that soccer has the potential as an effective tool for the prevention and reduction of childhood obesity and associated consequences.
Yu, Zhijie M; Parker, Louise; Dummer, Trevor J B
To investigate the association between depressive symptoms and diet quality, physical activity, and body composition among Nova Scotians. 4511 men and women aged 35-69 years were recruited to the Atlantic Partnership for Tomorrow's Health study from 2009 through 2010 in Nova Scotia, Canada. Depressive symptoms were assessed by using the Patient Health Questionnaire. Anthropometric indexes and body composition were measured. Current antidepressant use, habitual diet intake, physical activity, and potential confounders were collected through questionnaires. In multivariable regression analyses, depressive symptoms were positively associated with all obese indexes after controlling for potential confounders (all P for trendobesity and abdominal obesity (OR 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], (1.50, 2.25) and 1.56 (95% CI, 1.30, 1.87) for obesity and 1.46 (95% CI, 1.20, 1.77) and 1.88 (95% CI, 1.58, 2.24) for abdominal obesity, respectively). Depressed individuals were less likely to have a high quality diet or engage in high levels of physical activity compared with their non-depressed counterparts. Depressive symptoms are associated with higher levels of obesity, poor diet, and physical inactivity among Nova Scotians in Canada. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Resnick, Barbara; Hebel, J Richard; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Hicks, Gregory E; Hochberg, Marc C; Orwig, Denise; Eastlack, Marty; Magaziner, Jay
The purpose of this study was to test a model of the factors influencing physical activity, physical function and physical performance at 2 months post hip fracture and compare model fit between men and women. Age, cognitive status, comorbidities, pain, resilience, bone mineral density, total body lean mass, total body fat and grip strength were hypothesized to be directly and/or indirectly related to physical activity, physical function and physical performance. This analysis used data from the seventh Baltimore Hip Studies (BHS-7), a prospective cohort study that included 258 community-dwelling participants, 125 (48%) men and 133 (52%) women, hospitalized for treatment of a hip fracture; survey and objective data were obtained at 2 months post hip fracture. In addition to age, sex and comorbidities (modified Charlson scale), data collection included body composition from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, grip strength, and physical activity, function and performance based on the Yale Physical Activity Survey, the Short Physical Performance Battery and the Lower Extremity Gain Scale. Age, cognition, and comorbidities were not significantly associated with resilience; and, resilience was not associated with pain. In addition, bone mineral density was not associated with physical activity, physical performance or physical function. Total lean body mass, resilience and pain were associated with physical activity, physical function and physical performance in women, but were not consistently associated with physical and functional outcomes in men. Future research should consider evaluation of muscle quality and additional psychosocial factors (e.g., depression, social supports) in model testing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available K Binymin1,3, AL Herrick1, GL Carlson2, SJ Hopkins21University of Manchester, Rheumatic Diseases Centre, 2Infection Injury and Inflammation Group, and Brain Injury Research Group, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre and University of Manchester Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, Salford Royal Hospitals NHS Trust, Salford, UK; 3Southport District General Hospital, Southport, UKIntroduction: Cachexia is associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, but whether it is attributable primarily to reduced dietary intake or increased metabolism is unclear, as is the association with inflammation. To examine whether rheumatoid cachexia is related to increased energy expenditure, reduced food intake, or an inflammatory cytokine response we undertook a prospective, longitudinal study of patients with RA, during periods of relative relapse and remission of inflammation.Methods: Sixteen patients admitted to hospital with a flare of RA were assessed clinically to determine disease activity and were re-examined 6 weeks later. Their fat-free mass (FFM, dietary intake, resting energy expenditure (REE, and plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6 were also measured. Data were compared with those from 16 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls.Results: At baseline the body weight, body mass index, and FFM of patients with RA were significantly lower than those of controls. Disease activity scores of patients (6.39 ± 0.8 were reduced when the patients were re-examined 6 weeks later (5.23 ± 1.26 and FFM was no longer statistically different from that of controls (visit 1 = 25.8 ± 10.1 and visit 2 = 26.8 ± 9.5 versus controls = 32.3 ± 10.9. There were no differences in food intake between patients and controls or between patients studied at the 2 time points, but REE was greater in patients after correcting for FMM (visit 1 = 62.2 ± 24.7, visit 2 = 59.7 ± 26.3 versus controls = 46.0 ± 13.7. Plasma IL-6 concentrations were significantly higher in
Karla H. C. Vilaca
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes arising from the aging process, particularly changes in body composition, contribute to the functional decline of the elderly. OBJECTIVE: To compare the body composition and muscle strength, mobility and quality in active elderly women according to the distance walked during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT. METHOD: The study included 77 active elderly women aged 65 to 80 years, who were divided into tertiles (A, B and C according to the distance covered in the 6MWT. We performed anthropometric and clinical evaluations. Body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Handgrip strength (HGS was measured with a portable dynamometer (Saehan, and knee extension strength (KES was measured with the one repetition maximum test (1-RM. Functional mobility was assessed by the Timed Up and Go (TUG test, and body balance was assessed by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS. Muscle quality was defined by the ratio between muscle strength (kgf and muscle mass (kg. RESULTS: The group that walked the shortest distance in the 6MWT had a higher BMI (A=30.8±7.0, B=27.2±4.2 and C=25.9±3.5 kg/m2, greater amount of fat mass (A=31.3±10.7, B=25.9±6.7 and C=23.81±6.46 kg lower HGS (A=21.8±5.1, B=22.1±3.5 and C=25.5±5.1 kgf, lower knee extension strength (A=30.6±10.9, B=40.4±12.5 and C=47.2±10.1 kgf, lower arm muscle quality (A=10.1±3.7, B=11.6±2 and C=12.7±2.2 kg and lower leg muscle quality (A=1.78±1, B=2.84±0.98 and C=3.31±0.77 kg. There was no significant difference between muscle mass (p=0.25 and lean mass (p=0.26. CONCLUSION: Body fat has a negative influence on functional performance, even among active elderly women.
Savage J Maurice
Full Text Available Abstract Background The assumption that lifestyles formed early in life track into adulthood has been used to justify the targeting of health promotion programmes towards children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to use data from the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project to ascertain the extent of tracking, between adolescence and young adulthood, of physical activity, aerobic fitness, selected anthropometric variables, and diet. Methods Males (n 245 and females (n 231 were assessed at age 15 y, and again in young adulthood [mean (SD age 22 (1.6 y]. At both timepoints, height, weight and skinfold thicknesses were measured, and physical activity and diet were assessed by questionnaire and diet history method respectively. At 15y, fitness was assessed using the 20 metre shuttle run, while at young adulthood, the PWC170 cycle ergometer test was used. For each measurement made at 15y, subjects were ranked into 'low' (L1; lowest 25%, 'medium' (M1; middle 50% or 'high' (H1; highest 25% categories. At young adulthood, similar categories (L2, M2, H2 were created. The extent of tracking of each variable over time was calculated using 3 × 3 matrices constructed using these two sets of categories, and summarised using kappa (κ statistics. Results Tracking of diet and fitness was poor (κ ≤ 0.20 in both sexes, indicating substantial drift of subjects between the low, medium and high categories over time. The tracking of physical activity in males was fair (κ 0.202, but was poor in females (κ 0.021. In contrast, anthropometric variables such as weight, body mass index and sum of skinfolds tracked more strongly in females (κ 0.540, κ 0.307, κ 0.357 respectively than in males (κ 0.337, κ 0.199, κ 0.216 respectively. Conclusions The poor tracking of fitness and diet in both sexes, and physical activity in females, suggests that these aspects of adolescent lifestyle are unlikely to be predictive of behaviours in young adulthood. In
Oeffinger, Donna; Gorton, George; Hassani, Sahar; Sison-Williamson, Mitell; Johnson, Barbara; Whitmer, Megan; Romness, Mark; Kryscio, Dick; Tylkowski, Chester; Bagley, Anita
To determine the amount of variability in scores on activity and participation measures used to assess ambulatory individuals with cerebral palsy explained by strength, body composition, gait impairment and participant characteristics. Multicentre prospective cross-sectional study. Seven paediatric-orthopaedic specialty hospitals. Three hundred and seventy-seven ambulatory individuals (241 males, 136 females) with cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-III (I = 148, II = 153, III = 76), ages 8-18 years (mean 12 years 9 months, SD 2 years 8 months). Participants completed assessments of GMFCS level, patient history, lower extremity muscle strength, Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66), Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI), instrumented gait analysis, 1 minute walk test, Timed Up-and-Go and body composition. Multiple linear regression and bootstrap analyses were performed for each outcome measure, stratified by GMFCS level. The amount of variability in outcome measures explained by participant characteristics, strength, and gait impairment ranged from 11% to 50%. Gait impairment was the most common predictor variable and frequently explained the greatest variance across all outcome measures and GMFCS levels. As gait impairment increased, scores on outcome measures decreased. Strength findings were inconsistent and not a primary factor. Body composition contributed minimally (cerebral palsy type, gestational age and age at walking onset), were significant predictor variables in several models. Variability in outcome measure scores is multifaceted and only partially explained by strength and gait impairment illustrating the challenges of attempting to explain variation within this heterogeneous population. Clinicians treating individuals with cerebral palsy should consider this when developing treatment paradigms. © The Author(s) 2014.
Siani, V; Mohamed, E I; Maiolo, C; Di Daniele, N; Ratiu, A; Leonardi, A; De Lorenzo, A
The elementary nutritional needs of vegetarians are totally, or in great part, supplied by vegetarian food; thus the body composition of vegetarians could differ from that of omnivorous persons. The objective of the present study was to compare healthy Italian vegetarians to healthy omnivorous individuals in terms of body composition, determined using dual X-ray absorptiometry. The study population consisted of 20 vegetarians [mean age (+/-SD), 34.78+/-15.07 years; mean BMI, 22.41+/-2.15 kg/m(2)] and 10 omnivorous persons matched for age and BMI. We found no significant differences between the two groups in terms of fat mass, lean body mass, soft tissue, bone mineral content, or bone mineral density. These findings suggest that the vegetarian diet does not induce negative alterations in body composition.
Salamat, Mohammad Reza; Shanei, Ahmad; Salamat, Amir Hossein; Khoshhali, Mehri; Asgari, Mahdi
Background: Precise and accurate measurements of body composition are useful in achieving a greater understanding of human energy metabolism in physiology and in different clinical conditions, such as, cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can be used to measure body composition, but the easiest method to assess body composition is the use of anthropometric indices. This study has been designed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of body composition prediction equations by various anthropometric measures instead of a whole body DXA scan. Materials and Methods: We identified 143 adult patients underwent DXA evaluation of the whole body. The anthropometric indices were also measured. Datasets were split randomly into two parts. Multiple regression analysis with a backward stepwise elimination procedure was used as the derivation set and then the estimates were compared with the actual measurements from the whole-body scans for a validation set. The SPSS version 20 for Windows software was used in multiple regression and data analysis. Results: Using multiple linear regression analyses, the best equation for predicting the whole-body fat mass (R2 = 0.808) included the body mass index (BMI) and gender; the best equation for predicting whole-body lean mass (R2 = 0.780) included BMI, WC, gender, and age; and the best equation for predicting trunk fat mass (R2 = 0.759) included BMI, WC, and gender. Conclusions: Combinations of anthropometric measurements predict whole-body lean mass and trunk fat mass better than any of these single anthropometric indices. Therefore, the findings of the present study may be used to verify the results in patients with various diseases or diets. PMID:25709999
Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate walking economy and physiological responses at two walking speeds in males with similar absolute body mass but different body composition. Methods. The study involved 22 young men with similar absolute body mass, BMI, aerobic performance, calf and thigh circumference. The participants differed in body composition: body fat (HBF group and lean body mass (HLBM group. In the graded test, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and maximal heart rate were measured. Walking economy was evaluated during two walks performed at two different speeds (4.8 and 6.0 km ‧ h-1. Results. The VO2max was similar in both groups, as were the physiological responses during slow walking. The absolute oxygen uptake or oxygen uptake relative to body mass did not significantly differentiate the studied groups. The only indicator significantly differentiating the two groups was oxygen uptake relative to LBM. Conclusions. Body composition does not significantly affect walking economy at low speed, while during brisk walking, the economy is better in the HLBM vs. HBF group, provided that walking economy is presented as oxygen uptake relative to LBM. For this reason, we recommend this manner of oxygen uptake normalization in the evaluation of walking economy.
Suri, Lakshmi N M; McCaig, Lynda; Picardi, Maria V; Ospina, Olga L; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W; Staples, James F; Possmayer, Fred; Yao, Li-Juan; Perez-Gil, Jesus; Orgeig, Sandra
The interfacial surface tension of the lung is regulated by phospholipid-rich pulmonary surfactant films. Small changes in temperature affect surfactant structure and function in vitro. We compared the compositional, thermodynamic and functional properties of surfactant from hibernating and summer-active 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) with porcine surfactant to understand structure-function relationships in surfactant membranes and films. Hibernating squirrels had more surfactant large aggregates with more fluid monounsaturated molecular species than summer-active animals. The latter had more unsaturated species than porcine surfactant. Cold-adapted surfactant membranes displayed gel-to-fluid transitions at lower phase transition temperatures with reduced enthalpy. Both hibernating and summer-active squirrel surfactants exhibited lower enthalpy than porcine surfactant. LAURDAN fluorescence and DPH anisotropy revealed that surfactant bilayers from both groups of squirrels possessed similar ordered phase characteristics at low temperatures. While ground squirrel surfactants functioned well during dynamic cycling at 3, 25, and 37 degrees C, porcine surfactant demonstrated poorer activity at 3 degrees C but was superior at 37 degrees C. Consequently the surfactant composition of ground squirrels confers a greater thermal flexibility relative to homeothermic mammals, while retaining tight lipid packing at low body temperatures. This may represent the most critical feature contributing to sustained stability of the respiratory interface at low lung volumes. Thus, while less effective than porcine surfactant at 37 degrees C, summer-active surfactant functions adequately at both 37 degrees C and 3 degrees C allowing these animals to enter hibernation. Here further compositional alterations occur which improve function at low temperatures by maintaining adequate stability at low lung volumes and when temperature increases during arousal from
Hafla, A N; Carstens, G E; Forbes, T D A; Tedeschi, L O; Bailey, J C; Walter, J T; Johnson, J R
The objectives of this study were to determine if residual feed intake (RFI) classification of beef heifers affected efficiency of forage utilization, body composition, feeding behavior, heart rate, and physical activity of pregnant females. Residual feed intake was measured in growing Bonsmara heifers for 2 yr (n=62 and 53/yr), and heifers with the lowest (n=12/yr) and highest (n=12/yr) RFI were retained for breeding. Of the 48 heifers identified as having divergent RFI, 19 second-parity and 23 first-parity females were used in the subsequent pregnant-female trial. Pregnant females were fed a chopped hay diet (ME=2.11 Mcal kg(-1) DM) in separate pens equipped with GrowSafe bunks to measure individual intake and feeding behavior. Body weights were measured at 7-d intervals and BCS and ultrasound measurements of 12th-rib fat depth, rump fat depth, and LM area obtained on d 0 and 77. Heart rate and physical activity were measured for 7 consecutive d. First-parity females had lower (Pcalving date. An interaction (P=0.04) between heifer RFI classification and parity was found for calf birth weight. Calves from first-parity low-RFI females were lighter at birth (Pcalves from high-RFI females, but RFI classification did not affect BW of calves born to second-parity females. Residual feed intake classification did not affect bunk visit frequency, but low-RFI females spent 26% less time (Presidual gain were positively correlated with forage intake (r=0.38) and RFI (r=0.42) of pregnant females. Results indicate that heifers identified as having low postweaning RFI have greater efficiency of forage utilization as pregnant females, with minimal impacts on growth, body composition, calving date, and calf birth BW, compared to their high-RFI counterparts.
The purpose of this study was to assess differences in body composition, proportions and timing of puberty between stunted and non-stunted South African adolescents in the North West Province, South Africa. A total of 259 black adolescents (118 boys, 141 girls), aged 13-18 years were measured. The following data were ...
Salekzamani, Yagoub; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Rahbar, Mohammad; Shakouri, Seyed-Kazem; Nayebi, Farough
Obesity in humans might increase the risk of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between body composition of males and their periodontal status. AS total of 150 males (aged 30-60) were selected: 31 were periodontally healthy, 45 had gingivitis, 39 had initial periodontitis, and 35 suffered from established periodontitis. BMI (body mass index), WC (waist circumference), and body composition parameters (consisting of body water, body fat, and skeletal muscle and bone mass) were measured. After adjusting for age, history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity status, and socioeconomic status, statistically significant correlations were found between periodontitis and BMI, WC, and body composition. There was only a statistically significant difference between the periodontal health and established periodontitis; that is, periodontal disease in mild forms (gingivitis) and initial periodontitis do not influence these variables (BMI, WC, and body composition parameters) and only the severe form of the disease influences the variables. These data suggest that there is a considerable association between severe forms of periodontal disease in males and their body composition, but this preliminary finding needs to be confirmed in more extensive studies.
Souza, Markus Vinicius Campos; Leite, Richard Diego; Souza Lino, Anderson Diogo de; Marqueti, Rita de Cássia; Bernardes, Celene Fernandes; Araújo, Heloisa Sobreiro Selistre de; Bouskela, Eliete; Bouskella, Eliete; Shiguemoto, Gilberto Eiji; Andrade Perez, Sérgio Eduardo de; Kraemer-Aguiar, Luiz Guilherme
We investigated the influence of resistance training on body composition and matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity in skeletal muscles of rats fed a high-fat diet. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups (n = 8/each) according to diet and exercise status: Control (standard diet), Obese Control (high-fat diet), Resistance Training (standard diet) and Obese Resistance Training (high-fat diet) groups. Animals were fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks to promote excessive weight gain. Resistance Training groups performed 12 weeks of training periods after this period in a vertical ladder three times/week. Fat percentage, fat-free mass and fat mass were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity in biceps and gastrocnemius muscles was analyzed using zymography. Resistance training significantly reduced body and fat masses and fat percentages in both trained groups (pmuscles of both trained groups (pmuscle matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity promoted by excessive weight gain were positively modified by resistance training.
Nørregaard, Jesper; Gram, Martin; Vigelsø, Andreas
We studied the effect of physical inactivity and subsequent re-training on cardiovascular risk factors in seventeen young (Y; 23.4±0.5) and fifteen older adult (O; 68.1±1.1 yrs.) men who underwent 14 days of one leg immobilization followed by six weeks of training. Body weight remained unchanged....
Esin, Kübra; Köksal, Eda; Hızlı, Hilal; Garipağaoğlu, Muazzez
Aim: To evaluate the changes on body composition before and after menstruation by BIA and antropometric measurements. Methods: The study was execute in 31 healthy women who had natural menstruation cycle and didn't use oral contraceptive. Measurements were done by two times before and after 1-3 days of menstruation. Waist, hip, chest and mid-upper arm circumferences were measured. Body composition was determined by BIA. Data were analysed with SPSS 18.0 software and p<0.05 was reg...
Przednowek Karolina H.
Full Text Available Introduction. Physique and body composition are often explored in sport-related research. This is due to the fact that morphological features can be useful for determining a person’s predispositions for practising a given type of physical activity. Dance, as any other sports discipline, has an impact on the physique and motor skills of those who practise it. Most research concerning the physique and body composition of dancers conducted so far has focused on persons practising ballet or competitive ballroom dancing. Investigating these issues in contemporary dancers is a new field of study. The aim of the current study was to examine the physique and body composition of girls aged 14-17 years practising contemporary dance. Material and methods. The study involved 23 girls who trained contemporary dance twice a week for 2 hours. The participants of the study had been training since the age of six. Basic anthropometric measurements were performed. Body composition was analysed based on parameters measured using a Tanita body composition analyser. Conclusions. The analysis found that girls training contemporary dance were characterised by a leptosomatic physique. BMI values in both younger and older contemporary dancers indicated that their weight was normal. Compared to girls who did not practise any particular type of sport, contemporary dancers had a lower weight, a lower body water percentage, and a lower body fat percentage. The dancers were also characterised by a greater circumference of the waist, hips, arm, and chest compared to untrained peers.
Katz Patricia P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low body mass index has been associated with increased mortality in severe COPD. The impact of body composition earlier in the disease remains unclear. We studied the impact of body composition on the risk of functional limitation in COPD. Methods We used bioelectrical impedance to estimate body composition in a cohort of 355 younger adults with COPD who had a broad spectrum of severity. Results Among women, a higher lean-to-fat ratio was associated with a lower risk of self-reported functional limitation after controlling for age, height, pulmonary function impairment, race, education, and smoking history (OR 0.45 per 0.50 increment in lean-to-fat ratio; 95% CI 0.28 to 0.74. Among men, a higher lean-to-fat ratio was associated with a greater distance walked in 6 minutes (mean difference 40 meters per 0.50 ratio increment; 95% CI 9 to 71 meters. In women, the lean-to-fat ratio was associated with an even greater distance walked (mean difference 162 meters per 0.50 increment; 95% CI 97 to 228 meters. In women, higher lean-to-fat ratio was also associated with better Short Physical Performance Battery Scores. In further analysis, the accumulation of greater fat mass, and not the loss of lean mass, was most strongly associated with functional limitation among both sexes. Conclusion Body composition is an important non-pulmonary impairment that modulates the risk of functional limitation in COPD, even after taking pulmonary function into account. Body composition abnormalities may represent an important area for screening and preventive intervention in COPD.
Going, Scott; Lee, Vinson; Blew, Rob; Laddu, Deepika; Hetherington-Rauth, Megan
An understanding of body composition is crucial to understanding human health, disease, and function. Research in body composition has focused on the development of assessment methods, description of normal changes in body composition with growth and development and aging, and the changes that occur in body composition in response to challenges…
The aim of the study was to compare the bodyweight and body measurements, carcass composition, and characteristics of major visceral organs in male and female Pekin ducks. A total of 80 hybrid SM3 Heavy ducks were kept in a conventional building and fed complete commercial diets ad libitum. The male and female ...
technological advances, like nuclear medicine, radiology, and medical physics, have opened up new ways of measuring body composition. However, there are considerable limitations in the application of such measurements to clinical situations. Indeed, such methods are as yet confined to research c~ntres and hospitals ...
Lee, Seon Yeong; Gallagher, Dympna
Purpose of review The present study reviews the most recently developed and commonly used methods for the determination of human body composition in vivo with relevance for nutritional assessment. Recent findings Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected with the most commonly used methods being bioelectrical impedance analysis, dilution techniques, air displacement plethysmography, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and MRI or magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Recent developments include three-dimensional photonic scanning and quantitative magnetic resonance. Collectively, these techniques allow for the measurement of fat, fat-free mass, bone mineral content, total body water, extracellular water, total adipose tissue and its subdepots (visceral, subcutaneous, and intermuscular), skeletal muscle, select organs, and ectopic fat depots. Summary There is an ongoing need to perfect methods that provide information beyond mass and structure (static measures) to kinetic measures that yield information on metabolic and biological functions. On the basis of the wide range of measurable properties, analytical methods and known body composition models, clinicians and scientists can quantify a number of body components and with longitudinal assessment, can track changes in health and disease with implications for understanding efficacy of nutritional and clinical interventions, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment in clinical settings. With the greater need to understand precursors of health risk beginning in childhood, a gap exists in appropriate in-vivo measurement methods beginning at birth. PMID:18685451
Lee, Seon Yeong; Gallagher, Dympna
The present study reviews the most recently developed and commonly used methods for the determination of human body composition in vivo with relevance for nutritional assessment. Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected with the most commonly used methods being bioelectrical impedance analysis, dilution techniques, air displacement plethysmography, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and MRI or magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Recent developments include three-dimensional photonic scanning and quantitative magnetic resonance. Collectively, these techniques allow for the measurement of fat, fat-free mass, bone mineral content, total body water, extracellular water, total adipose tissue and its subdepots (visceral, subcutaneous, and intermuscular), skeletal muscle, select organs, and ectopic fat depots. There is an ongoing need to perfect methods that provide information beyond mass and structure (static measures) to kinetic measures that yield information on metabolic and biological functions. On the basis of the wide range of measurable properties, analytical methods and known body composition models, clinicians and scientists can quantify a number of body components and with longitudinal assessment, can track changes in health and disease with implications for understanding efficacy of nutritional and clinical interventions, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment in clinical settings. With the greater need to understand precursors of health risk beginning in childhood, a gap exists in appropriate in-vivo measurement methods beginning at birth.
Brookes, Denise S K; Briody, Julie N; Davies, Peter S W; Hill, Rebecca J
Young individuals with Crohn disease (CD) are at risk of poor bone mineral density (BMD) and reduced lean tissue mass (LTM). The importance of LTM for maintaining skeletal health, in both incident and established CD, is evidenced. We used dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry assessment to identify areal BMD and LTM in individuals with CD. In 57 patients with CD (15F; 12.99-14.16 years) anthropometric, disease activity, bone age assessment, and total body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements were acquired. A 4-step algorithm was used to assess simultaneous bone and body composition data: areal BMD and height z scores, and LTM for height and bone mineral content (BMC) for LTM z scores were calculated. Low z score cut-off values were defined as ≤1 standard deviations below the population means. The CD cohort showed: low areal BMD z scores (P = 0.00); and low LTM for height (P = 0.00) according to defined cut-off values. BMC appeared to be adapting for the lower amount of LTM. Correcting for bone age eliminated the low areal BMD z scores. As expected, LTM for height and BMC for LTM z scores remained unchanged. We present a useful clinical algorithm to show significant LTM for height deficits, regardless of chronological or bone age, in this CD cohort. BMC seemed to adapt to the reduced LTM, indicating clinically "normal" areal BMD for age when considered for height. The ongoing deficits in LTM may, however, create chronic long-term consequences for bone health. Improving LTM should be a focus of clinical treatment in individuals with CD.
Solomons, N W; Mazariegos, M
The fundamental paradigm for the region is short stature. Adult height is on the order of 160 cm for men and 140 cm for women. The timing of this delayed growth has been fixed to the first two years of life, when as much as 2 Z-scores of stature may be loss to the median of the NCHS reference. In the elderly of the region, we have the issue of being initially short and then suffering further loss of stature with age. The height/armspan ratio has proven instructive for exploring that change in height with age. It appears to be less than in Europeans. Demands of a rigorous agricultural lifestyle, the energy content and density of the diet, and the ravages of recurrent infection and parasitism comprise the environmental determinants of body composition in poor MesoAmerican population. They are conducive to a low storage of fat, with lean body mass being subject to response to infections. Because of the basic short stature but muscular maturity of children and adults, one questions whether the assumptions of proportionality of weight for height from the NCHS reference data apply, or whether MesoAmericans should be normally greater in weight for height than a comparably short North American. For some at the lower end of the stature scale, no international reference standards actually exist for adults. All than can be measured with microtoise, calliper, flexible tape and balance has long been recorded in MesoAmerican populations. Certain high-cost and facility- dependent technologies, such as nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and whole-body neutron activation analysis, are beyond the scientific economies of any part of the region. Dual energy x-ray absorbitometry instruments are available for clinical diagnosis in Mexico, Guatemala and Costa Rica, and could be turned to research ends. Underwater weighing has been practiced variously in MesoAmerica. Researchers in Guatemala have pioneered in the investigative use of bioelectrical impedance analysis to all ages from low
Background and objectives. An understanding of the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on various aspects of health, including nutritional status, is needed to ensure that population-specific guidelines can be developed for South Africa. This study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and ...
Dunton, Genevieve F; Liao, Yue; Dzubur, Eldin; Leventhal, Adam M; Huh, Jimi; Gruenewald, Tara; Margolin, Gayla; Koprowski, Carol; Tate, Eleanor; Intille, Stephen
Parental stress is an understudied factor that may compromise parenting practices related to children's dietary intake, physical activity, and obesity. However, studies examining these associations have been subject to methodological limitations, including cross-sectional designs, retrospective measures, a lack of stress biomarkers, and the tendency to overlook momentary etiologic processes occurring within each day. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the MATCH (Mothers And Their Children's Health) study, a longitudinal investigation using novel real-time data capture strategies to examine within-day associations of maternal stress with children's physical activity and dietary intake, and how these effects contribute to children's obesity risk. In the MATCH study, 200 mothers and their 8 to 12 year-old children are participating in 6 semi-annual assessment waves across 3 years. At each wave, measures for mother-child dyads include: (a) real-time Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) of self-reported daily psychosocial stressors (e.g., work at a job, family demands), feeling stressed, perceived stress, parenting practices, dietary intake, and physical activity with time and location stamps; (b) diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, accelerometer-monitored physical activity, and 24-hour dietary recalls; (c) retrospective questionnaires of sociodemographic, cultural, family, and neighborhood covariates; and (d) height, weight, and waist circumference. Putative within-day and longitudinal effects of maternal stress on children's dietary intake, physical activity, and body composition will be tested through multilevel modeling and latent growth curve models, respectively. The results will inform interventions that help mothers reduce the negative effects of stress on weight-related parenting practices and children's obesity risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between bone-specific physical activity (BPAQ scores, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD in healthy young college women.Seventy-three college women (21.7 ± 1.8 years; 162.1 ± 4.6 cm; 53.9 ± 5.8 kg between the ages of 19 and 26 years were recruited from the universities in Seoul and Gyeonggi province, South Korea. We used dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure the lumbar spine (L2-L4 and proximal femur BMD (left side; total hip, femoral neck. The BPAQ scores (past, pBPAQ; current, cBPAQ; total, tBPAQ were used to obtain a comprehensive account of lifetime physical activity related to bone health. We used X-scan plus II instrumentation to measure height (cm, weight (kg, fat free mass (FFM, kg, percent body fat (%, and body mass index (BMI. Participants were asked to record their 24-hour food intake in a questionnaire.There were positive correlations between BPAQ scores and total hip (pBPAQ r = 0.308, p = 0.008; tBPAQ, r = 0.286, p = 0.014 and FN BMD (pBPAQ r = 0.309, p = 0.008; tBPAQ, r = 0.311, p = 0.007, while no significant relationships were found in cBPAQ (p > 0.05. When FFM, Vitamin D intake, cBPAQ, pBPAQ, and tBPAQ were included in a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, FFM and pBPAQ were predictors of total hip, accounting for 16% (p = 0.024, while FFM and tBPAQ predicted 14% of the variance in FN (p = 0.015. Only FFM predicted 15% of the variance in L2-L4 (p = 0.004. There was a positive correlation between Vitamin D intake and L2-L4 (p = 0.025, but other dietary intakes variables were not significant (p > 0.05.BPAQ-derived physical activity scores and FFM were positively associated with total hip and FN BMD in healthy young college women. Our study suggests that osteoporosis awareness and effective bone healthy behaviors for college women are required to prevent serious bone diseases later in life.
Beyer, P L; Palarino, M Y; Michalek, D; Busenbark, K; Koller, W C
To compare reports of weight loss and actual measures of body composition to predict nutritional risk in patients with Parkinson's disease and matched control subjects. Patients and control subjects were asked to record prior changes in weight and activity. Body composition was then compared in both groups using percentage ideal body weight (IBW), body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold (TSF) thickness, midarm muscle circumference, and percentage body fat (BF) as determined by bioelectrical impedance. Fifty-one free-living patients with Parkinson's disease and 49 matched control subjects were recruited from the neurology clinic and the surrounding area. We anticipated that reported weight loss would be greater and actual measures of body composition would show greater nutritional risk in the patients with Parkinson's disease. chi 2 Analysis was used to determine differences in the ratio of patients and control subjects who lost weight. Paired t tests were used to compare amount of weight change and measures of body composition. Correlations were performed among measures of weight change, body composition, and associated disease factors. Patients with Parkinson's disease were four times more likely to report weight loss greater than 10 lb than the matched control subjects (odds ratio > 4.2). Patients reported a mean (+/- standard deviation) weight loss of 7.2 +/- 2.9 lb and control subjects reported a mean weight gain of 2.1 +/- 1.6 lb (P weight change and percentage IBW, BMI, TSF, percentage BF, and stage of the disease. CONCLUSIONS/APPLICATION: Patients with Parkinson's disease appear to be at greater nutritional risk than a matched population. Simple screening and assessment tools can be used to detect nutritional risk.
Tompuri, Tuomo T; Lakka, Timo A; Hakulinen, Mikko; Lindi, Virpi; Laaksonen, David E; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo; Lakka, Hanna-Maaria; Laitinen, Tomi
We compared InBody720 segmental multifrequency bioimpedance analysis (SMF-BIA) with Lunar Prodigy Advance dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in assessment of body composition among 178 predominantly prepubertal children. Segmental agreement analysis of body compartments was carried out, and inter-relationships of anthropometric and other measures of body composition were defined. Moreover, the relations of different reference criteria for excess body fat were evaluated. The prevalence of excess body fat varies greatly according to the used criteria. Intraclass and Pearson's correlations between SMF-BIA and DXA were >0·92 in total body and >0·74 in regional measures. SMF-BIA underestimated percentage body fat (%BF) and fat mass (FM), and overestimated lean mass (LM) and percentage LM with significant offset trend bias. Higher adiposity increased offsets, and overall agreement was poorer in girls. On average, %BF offsets (girls/boys) and limits of agreement (LA) were 3·9/1·6% [(-)1·4-9·2%/(-)3·4-6·7%]. Interestingly percentage offsets of fat content (%BF: 18·9/10·1%, FM: 18·8/11·1%) showed no significant bias trends indicating that the corresponding absolute methodological offset depends on the amount of fat content. The smallest percentage offset was found with LM: 4·3/0·1%, referring offset (LA) of 0·88/0·03 kg (±2·05/±1·71 kg). Correspondingly, segmental LM had poorer agreement than total body LM. All anthropometrics except for the waist-to-hip ratio showed strong correlations (r = 0·76-0·95) with abdominal and total body fat. Segmental multifrequency bioimpedance analysis is precise enough for total-LM analysis and had also sufficient trueness for total body composition analysis to be used in epidemiological purposes. There is need to generate scientifically and clinically relevant criteria and reference values for excess body fat. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley
Cundall, Amelia; Guo, Kun
Often with minimally clothed figures depicting extreme body sizes, previous studies have shown women tend to gaze at evolutionary determinants of attractiveness when viewing female bodies, possibly for self-evaluation purposes, and their gaze distribution is modulated by own body dissatisfaction level. To explore to what extent women's body-viewing gaze behaviour is affected by clothing type, dress size, subjective measurements of regional body satisfaction and objective measurements of own body composition (e.g., chest size, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio), in this self-paced body attractiveness and body size judgement experiment, we compared healthy, young women's gaze distributions when viewing female bodies in tight and loose clothing of different dress sizes. In contrast to tight clothing, loose clothing biased gaze away from the waist-hip to the leg region, and subsequently led to enhanced body attractiveness ratings and body size underestimation for larger female bodies, indicating the important role of clothing in mediating women's body perception. When viewing preferred female bodies, women's higher satisfaction of a specific body region was associated with an increased gaze towards neighbouring body areas, implying satisfaction might reduce the need for comparison of confident body parts; furthermore undesirable body composition measurements were correlated with a gaze avoidance process if the construct was less changeable (i.e. chest size) but a gaze comparison process if the region was more changeable (i.e. body mass index, dress size). Clearly, own body satisfaction and body composition measurements had an evident impact on women's body-viewing gaze allocation, possibly through different cognitive processes.
Full Text Available Objective: In this work the anthropometric features and the body composition of Italian hockey players, members of the Female National team, were analysed. The purpose of the research was to verify if morphological features could influence the performance of different positional groups. Materials and Methods: Each player was measured for her total and sitting height, weight, 9 skinfolds thickness and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Different equations were used to calculate the Fat% from skinfolds thickness. Results: Average height is not a crucial advantage for this sport. On the contrary the proportion trunk-limb seems to play an important role for the performance of the midfield players. Percentage of body fat of the hockey players was lower than the Fat% of the non-athletes women of the same age. Significant differences were found between Fat% determined by skinfolds thickness and Fat% obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that there are significant differences in anthropometric features and in body composition between positional groups, stressing the importance of a specific training program. Keywords: field hockey, bioelectrical impedance, skinfolds thickness, anthropometry.
Wirth, Michael D; Hébert, James R; Hand, Gregory A; Youngstedt, Shawn D; Hurley, Thomas G; Shook, Robin P; Paluch, Amanda E; Sui, Xuemei; James, Shelli L; Blair, Steven N
Determine if individuals with poor sleep characteristics (i.e., late sleep onset or wake times, short sleep duration, long sleep latency, low sleep efficiency, high wake after sleep onset) have greater body mass index (BMI = kg/m(2)) or body fat. Data for these cross-sectional analyses were from the Energy Balance Study (University of South Carolina). Participants were between 21 and 35 years of age and had a BMI of 20 to 35 kg/m(2). Body fat percent was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Sleep and physical activity were measured by actigraphy (BodyMedia's SenseWear physical activity armband). General linear models were used to estimate mean BMI and body fat percent by sleep metric categories. Greater BMI and body fat percent were associated with low sleep efficiency (BMI = 25.5 vs. 24.8 kg/m(2), P sleep onset (BMI = 25.6 vs. 25.0 kg/m(2), P = .02; body fat = 28.0% vs. 26.7%, P = .03). Elevated BMI or body fat percent also were observed for later wake times, shorter sleep duration, and longer sleep latency. Sex modified the association between wake times and body composition. Understanding the complex relationships between sleep and health outcomes could help reduce chronic disease burden by incorporating sleep components, measured through novel noninvasive techniques (SenseWear armband), into weight loss interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hung, Yun-Chi; Bauer, Judith; Horsley, Pamela; Waterhouse, Mary; Bashford, John; Isenring, Elisabeth
This pilot exploratory study aimed to describe the changes in nutritional status, body composition, quality of life (QoL), and physical activity levels (PAL) of cancer patients undergoing high-dose conditioning and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) at pre-admission, hospital discharge, and at 100 days post-transplantation, and to examine if changes in these parameters are interrelated. Twenty-four patients (56.2 ± 12.9 years; 7 females, 17 males) were recruited from an Australian transplant center. Assessment was prospectively conducted at pre-admission, hospital discharge, and 100 days post-transplantation using the scored patient-generated subjective global assessment, air displacement plethysmography, EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 3), and the international physical activity questionnaire. At discharge, nutritional status deteriorated (patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) median, +8.0; interquartile range, 6.0-13.0; p nutritional status (PG-SGA score) was associated with weight (r = -0.46; p = 0.039) and fat mass (r = -0.57; p = 0.013). Change in QoL was associated with nutritional reservoir (i.e., fat; r = 0.54; p = 0.024); QoL was consistently higher for patients with high PAL. High-dose conditioning and autologous PBSCT is associated with deterioration in nutritional status, QoL and PAL, with LBM remaining below baseline levels at 100 days post-transplantation. A nutrition and exercise intervention program post-hospital discharge may be beneficial for these patients.
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p127 This study aimed to characterize somatotype, analyze anthropometric indicators associated with body composition during the race and verify possible relationships with the performance of athletes in a 217-km ultramarathon. For this, ten male volunteers (42.8 ± 3.5 years; 171.4 ± 1.9 cm height, 70.7 ± 3.1 kg body mass; 15 ± 3 years of running exercise performed a critical velocity (CV test one week before the competition and were submitted to anthropometric measurements before, at 84 km of the race and at the end of the race. Volunteers finished the race in 46.8 ± 3.4 h (4.9 ± 0.4 km / h; 33.4 ± 1.8% CV. Mean values equivalent to somatotype components accounted for 3.4 ± 0.4 for endomorphy, 5.2 ± 0.4 for mesomorphy and 1.7 ± 0.3 for ectomorphy. Body mass, body mass index, fat-free mass and chest circumference decreased (P <0.05 after 84 and 217 km compared to baseline. Pre-race values of thigh skinfold thickness (R = 0.79 and waist circumference (R = 0.64 were significantly correlated (P <0.05 with final race time. Thus, we concluded that ultramarathoners had mean endo-mesomorph somatotype and reductions in both body mass and fat-free mass during and after the race. Furthermore, the results suggest that increased body fat deposits concentrated in the lower limbs and abdominal region may have a negative impact on the performance of the athletes in 217-km ultramarathon.
Brierley, Mary-Ellen; Brooks, Kevin R; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Stephen, Ian D
The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI) for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range), with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men's bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women.
Full Text Available The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range, with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men's bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women.
Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Jackson, Allen W; Morrow, James R
We examined the relations of meeting or not meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommendations for muscular strengthening activities with percentage of body fat, body mass index (BMI; defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters, squared), muscular strength, and obesity classification in women. We analyzed data on 918 women aged 20 to 83 years in the Women's Injury Study from 2007 to 2009. A baseline orthopedic examination included measurement of height, body weight, skinfolds, and muscle strength. Women who met muscle strengthening activity recommendations had significantly lower BMI and percentage of body fat and higher muscle strength. Women not meeting those recommendations were more likely to be obese (BMI ≥ 30) compared with women who met the recommendations after we adjusted for age, race, and aerobic physical activity (odds ratio = 2.28; 95% confidence interval = 1.61, 3.23). There was a small but significant positive association between meeting muscle strengthening activity recommendations and muscular strength, a moderate inverse association with body fat percentage, and a strong inverse association with obesity classification, providing preliminary support for the muscle strengthening activity recommendation for women.
Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; Esparza-Ros, Francisco; Muyor, José M; López-Miñarro, Pedro Ángel
previous studies have analysed the effect of mat Pilates practice on anthropometric variables and body composition in sedentaries. To date no researchs have investigated the benefits of Pilates on these variables after a short detraining period. to determine the effect of a 16-week mat Pilates program on anthropometric variables, body composition and somatotype of women with previous practice experience after three weeks of detraining period. twenty-one women underwent a complete anthropometric assessment according with ISAK guidelines before and after a 16 week mat Pilates program (two days, one hour). All women had one to three years of mat Pilates experience and came to three weeks of detraining period (Christmas holiday). women showed significant decreases for body mass, BMI, upper limb (biceps and triceps) and trunk (subscapular, iliac crest, supraspinale and abdominal) individual skinfolds, 6 and 8 skinfold sums, endomorphy and fat mass; and a significant increases for muscle mass. The mean somatotype was classified as mesomorphic endomorph in the pre- (4.91, 4.01, 1.47) and post-test (4.68, 4.16, 1.69). Eight women changed their somatotype clasification after the intervention program. the practice of mat Pilates for 16 weeks caused changes associated with health state improvements on anthropometric variables, especially on skinfolds which significantly decreased, body composition (fat and muscle masses decreased and increased, respectively) and somatotype (there was a significantly decreased on the endomorph component in experienced women after three week of detraning. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Tseytlin, G. Ja; Anisimova, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Khomyakova, I. A.; Konovalova, M. V.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Vashura, A. Yu
Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition - 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.
We previously reported that maternal obesity at conception programs obesity of offspring in a rodent model. To begin to translate these findings to humans, we assessed the relationship between maternal obesity and offspring body composition (%Fat) in human infants. %Fat was measured with air displa...
Geisler, Corinna; Schweitzer, Lisa; Müller, Manfred James
Methods of body composition analysis are now widely used to characterize health status, i.e., nutritional status, metabolic rates, and cardiometabolic risk factors. However, the functional correlates of individual body components have not been systematically analyzed. In this study, we have used a two-compartment model, which was assessed by air displacement plethysmography. Detailed body composition was measured by whole body magnetic resonance imaging in a healthy population of 40 Caucasians, aged 65-81 yr (20 men; body mass index range: 18.6-37.2 kg/m 2 ). Physical, metabolic, as well as endocrine functions included pulmonary function, handgrip strength, gait speed, sit-to-stand test, physical activity, blood pressure, body temperature, resting energy expenditure (REE), liver and kidney functions (glomerular filtration rate), insulin sensitivity [homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)], plasma lipids, plasma leptin, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, insulin-like growth factor I levels, thyroid status, vitamins, and inflammation. Individual body compartments were intercorrelated, e.g., skeletal muscle mass (SM) correlated with visceral adipose tissue ( r = 0.53) and kidneys ( r = 0.62). For the functional correlates, SM ( r = 0.58) and liver volume ( r = 0.63) were associated with REE, SM correlated with handgrip strength ( r = 0.57), and kidneys with glomerular filtration rate ( r = 0.57). While visceral adipose tissue correlated with HOMA ( r = 0.59), subcutaneous adipose tissue was related to plasma leptin levels ( r = 0.84). The subcutaneous adipose tissue-to-leptin relationship was moderated by inflammation increasing the explained variance of leptin levels by 4.0%. In linear regression analysis, detailed body composition explained variances in REE (75.0%), HOMA (41.0%), and leptin (78.0%) compared with a body mass index-based model (REE 16.0%, HOMA 31.0%, leptin 45.0%). In addition, detailed body composition explained 39
Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher
for 6 months eliminated the effect of birth weight on fat mass index. Of course parental choices of duration of full breastfeeding and introduction to solids can easily be influenced by early growth patterns as well as related to their health behavior in general. However, the interactions...... with IGF-I values but this was not the case in this study. The negative associations between IGF-I levels and current intake of fat and saturated fat expressed as energy percentages could be related to the modulating effect of human milk on IGF-I, as human milk also contains high amounts of fat...... were strongly related to body composition at 3 years. No measures of adiposity (BMI, fat mass, fat mass index and skinfold thickness) were significantly associated to weight gain after 5 months of age. Two interesting effects modifications by full breastfeeding on the effect of birth weight and early...
Guillén Rivas, Laura; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Norte-Navarro, Aurora; Cejuela, Roberto; Cabañas, María Dolores; Martínez-Sanz, José Miguel
the triathlon is an endurance sport and individual that consists of three different disciplines: swimming, cycling and running. The aim of the study was to describe and analyze the anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype in male college triathletes. observational and descriptive study of anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype of 39 male college athletes from 24 ± 4,5 years, participants in the championship of Spain university triathlon sprint mode (Alicante 2010), from different universities Spanish. According to anthropometric measurement techniques adopted by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) and the Spanish Group Cineantropometría (GREC) by an accredited assessor ISAK Level II. we find athletes of stunting, where you destacanvalores below normal in the subscapularis, supraspinatus, triceps and biceps skinfold, percentage of muscle mass (45.27 ± 3.29%) and fat mass (10.22 ± 2.92%) and bone (16.65 ± 1.34%) and where mesomorphy somatotipo predominates. the triathletes and runners have lower size that cyclists and swimmers. Triathletes and cyclists show a similar weight, less than swimmers line, and more than 10km runners. Iliac crest skinfold, abdominal and thigh front cyclists are less than triathletes. The percentage of fat mass of runners triathletes and swimmers are similar, however the muscle mass of athletes usually less than cyclists but similar to other forms. Somatotype resembles triathlete cyclist (mesomorph). The corridor is ectomorph and mesomorph-swimmer can range from a ectomorph mesomorph. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Nişancı Kılınç, Fatma; Çağdaş, Deniz N
To determine the effects of lifestyle intervention and diet on body composition, anthropometric measurements, and metabolic syndrome (MS) in obese and overweight adolescents and their mothers, a diet and lifestyle intervention program was administered for 16 weeks to 19 9-17-year-old (12.52 ± 2.85 years) adolescents (female/male, 8/11) with a body mass index (BMI) value over the 90th percentile; hemoglobin (Hb)A1C, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein levels of the adolescents and anthropometric measurements of the mothers were compared. In some of the anthropometric values (body weight (BW), BMI, waist circumference (WC), skinfold thicknesses, body fat tissue, and lean tissue mass), a statistically significant difference was observed in pre- and post-application measurements (p0.05). MS was observed in 52.6% of the participants at baseline, and this rate was found as 15.8% based on the measurements carried out at week 16, which is a statistically significant decrease (pmetabolic rate, WC, hip circumference, hip/waist, and skinfold thickness in mothers. A 16-week diet and lifestyle intervention program for overweight and obese adolescents involving their mothers resulted in significant improvement in obesity and MS treatment.
Wirth, Michael D.; Hébert, James R.; Hand, Gregory A.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Shook, Robin P.; Paluch, Amanda E.; Sui, Xuemei; James, Shelli L.; Blair, Steven N.
Purpose Determine if individuals with poor sleep characteristics (i.e., late sleep onset or wake times, short sleep duration, long sleep latency, low sleep efficiency, high wake-after-sleep-onset [WASO]) have greater body mass index (BMI=kg/m2) or body fat. Methods Data for these cross-sectional analyses were from the Energy Balance Study (University of South Carolina). Participants were between 21 and 35 years of age and had a BMI of 20–35 kg/m2. Body fat percent was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Sleep and physical activity were measured by actigraphy (BodyMedia’s SenseWear® physical activity armband). General linear models were used to estimate mean BMI and body fat percent by sleep metric categories. Results Greater BMI and body fat percent were associated with low sleep efficiency (BMI=25.5 vs. 24.8kg/m2, p<0.01; body fat=27.7 vs. 26.5%, p=0.04) and high WASO (BMI=25.6 vs. 25.0 kg/m2, p=0.02; body fat=28.0 vs. 26.7%, p=0.03). Elevated BMI or body fat percent also were observed for later wake times, shorter sleep duration, and longer sleep latency. Sex modified the association between wake times and body composition. Conclusions Understanding the complex relationships between sleep and health outcomes could help reduce chronic disease burden by incorporating sleep components, measured through novel non-invasive techniques (SenseWear® armband), into weight loss interventions. PMID:26071309
Full Text Available Background:The method of bioelectrical impedance (BIA is frequently used to estimate body composition in sports. The total body water (TBW is the basic variable that BIA measures. That implies the degree of sensitivity of BIA to the hydration of the organism, which is also demonstrated by the principles of measurement that primarily relate to the hydration of the organism. It is difficult to provide standard hydration of the organism of subjects prior to measurements when taking the measurements in the field. Objective:The objective of the study is to assess the changes in the final values of the selected body composition parameters in soccer players caused by intake of water, using two devices commonly used in the field. Methods:The research was performed in a group of 33 soccer players (mean age 20.30 ± 1.18 years. The measurements were taken using Tanita BC 418 MA (frequency 50 kHz and Nutriguard-M (frequency 100 kHz. To evaluate the effect of water intake, we took two measurements before and after the intake of 500 ml of water. The parameters measured by Tanita BC 418 MA were body weight (BW, total body water (TBW, body fat (BF, fat free mass (FFM. Nutriguard-M was used to measure total body water (TBW, intra and extracellular water (ICW and ECW, body fat (BF, fat free mass (FFM, intra and extracellular mass (BCM and ECM. The differences in the means (M1 and M2 of the monitored parameters were evaluated using the Paired Samples t-test. In statistically significant differences in the mean, the practical significance was also verified using the effect of size (Cohen's d. Results:The Tanita device showed statistically significant differences after the intake of 500 ml in parameters BW (+0.42 kg, BF (+0.39 kg, +0.53% and TBW (-0.38%. As for the Nutriguard device, statistically significant differences were found in parameters TBW (+0.77 kg, ICW (+0.83 kg, FFM (+1.05 kg, BCM (+0.79 kg and ECM/BCM (-0.01. Conclusion
Brusseau, Timothy A.; Burns, Ryan D.; Hannon, James C.
SHAPE America has highlighted the importance of developing physically literate children as part of quality physical education programming. Unfortunately, most children know little about physical activity and health-related fitness. The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity and fitness content knowledge of at-risk inner-city…
Comparison of the body compositions in obese and nonobese individuals: Can learning body compositions motivate losing weight? ... Having low educational level, female gender, not working, being married, and nonsmoker significantly increased more in obese than nonobese (P < 0.001). Total body water, visceral fat ...
大石, 康晴; オオイシ, ヤスハル; Oishi, Yasuharu
In my previous study (Oishi, 2010), I have reported the changes of body growth and physical fitness levels of the junior high school students in the Kumamoto University. In this paper, I analyzed the body growth and the effects of daily sports activity on the physical fitness levels of the upper grade students of elementary school in the Kumamoto city.A total of 5092 students were divided into daily sports or non-sport group, and their sports test data for 1) hand grip strength, 2) side step...
Sinning, Wayne E.; And Others
Anthropometric measurements (body composition and somatotype characteristics) for male and female Nordic skiers showed small values for measures of variance, suggesting that the subjects represented a select body type for the sport. (Author/MJB)
To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.
Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Lanzi, Stefano; Zysset, Annina E; Arhab, Amar; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Stuelb, Kerstin; Leeger-Aschmann, Claudia S; Schmutz, Einat A; Meyer, Andrea H; Kriemler, Susi; Munsch, Simone; Jenni, Oskar G; Puder, Jardena J
Being overweight makes physical movement more difficult. Our aim was to investigate the association between body composition and motor performance in preschool children. A total of 476 predominantly normal-weight preschool children (age 3.9 ± 0.7 years; m/f: 251/225; BMI 16.0 ± 1.4 kg/m2) participated in the Swiss Preschoolers' Health Study (SPLASHY). Body composition assessments included skinfold thickness, waist circumference (WC), and BMI. The Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA) was used to assess gross and fine motor tasks. After adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, sociocultural characteristics, and physical activity (assessed with accelerometers), skinfold thickness and WC were both inversely correlated with jumping sideward (gross motor task β-coefficient -1.92, p = 0.027; and -3.34, p = 0.014, respectively), while BMI was positively correlated with running performance (gross motor task β-coefficient 9.12, p = 0.001). No significant associations were found between body composition measures and fine motor tasks. The inverse associations between skinfold thickness or WC and jumping sideward indicates that children with high fat mass may be less proficient in certain gross motor tasks. The positive association between BMI and running suggests that BMI might be an indicator of fat-free (i.e., muscle) mass in predominately normal-weight preschool children. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Tanja H. Kakebeeke
Full Text Available Objective: Being overweight makes physical movement more difficult. Our aim was to investigate the association between body composition and motor performance in preschool children. Methods: A total of 476 predominantly normal-weight preschool children (age 3.9 ± 0.7 years; m/f: 251/225; BMI 16.0 ± 1.4 kg/m2 participated in the Swiss Preschoolers' Health Study (SPLASHY. Body composition assessments included skinfold thickness, waist circumference (WC, and BMI. The Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA was used to assess gross and fine motor tasks. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, sociocultural characteristics, and physical activity (assessed with accelerometers, skinfold thickness and WC were both inversely correlated with jumping sideward (gross motor task β-coefficient -1.92, p = 0.027; and -3.34, p = 0.014, respectively, while BMI was positively correlated with running performance (gross motor task β-coefficient 9.12, p = 0.001. No significant associations were found between body composition measures and fine motor tasks. Conclusion: The inverse associations between skinfold thickness or WC and jumping sideward indicates that children with high fat mass may be less proficient in certain gross motor tasks. The positive association between BMI and running suggests that BMI might be an indicator of fat-free (i.e., muscle mass in predominately normal-weight preschool children.
Mascherini, Gabriele; Petri, Cristian; Calà, Piergiuseppe; Bini, Vittorio; Galanti, Giorgio
Key aspects in a lifestyle analysis are physical activity level and eating habits. An unhealthy lifestyle results in fat mass increase and in a predisposition to non communicable chronic diseases even in young age. The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifestyle and body composition in young athletes. The subjects underwent to an assessment of body composition and they completed two questionnaires, one concerning the level of physical activity and the other regarding eating habits. 152 young athletes (63 females and 89 males) aged 8 to 18 years (13.4±2.5 years, height 159±14 cm) were enrolled in this study. 80.3% of subjects were normal weight (13.4±2.6 yrs) and 19.7% subjects (13.5±2.5 yrs) were overweight or obese. Greater sedentary behaviors were found in the overweight or obese participants compared to normal weight (618±125 vs 523±89 min; pcompetitive sports often increases physical activity levels in young people, this activity does not seem to reach the daily recommended amount of physical activity during youth. Therefore, it is necessary to have a comprehensive approach to create a primary prevention strategy from even a young age.
Streeter, Veronica M; Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C
Associations were examined between body image and body mass index (BMI) in comparison with body composition in healthy weight, overweight, and obese young adults. Weight and height were determined, and the percentage of fat mass (%FM) and percentage of fat-free mass (%FFM) were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 75 male and 87 female young adults (21.1 ± 1.9 years; 25.2 ± 4.4 kg/m² [mean ± standard deviation]). Body image was measured using the three subscales Weight Esteem, Appearance Esteem, and External Attribution of the Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA). Body mass index and %FM were highly correlated (r for males = 0.74, r for females = 0.82; both pFM (and %FFM, although in the opposite direction) were associated with each BESAA subscale: %FM, %FFM, and BMI explained 12% to 14% of the variance in Appearance Esteem for both sexes, 33% to 41% in Weight Esteem in women and 16% to 18% in men, and 8% to 10% in External Attribution in women (all pFM increase, body image decreases, particularly in women.
Growth and body composition in childhood are influenced by many factors. Some of these are modifiable e.g. dietary intake, while others may be less easy to influence. The hormonal regulation of growth and body composition during childhood is complex and the interrelationship between the numerous...... growth or remodeling. Seasonal variations in growth and changes in body composition, if present, are of interest when trying to understand the regulation of growth. They may also be important to be aware of when assessing growth and body composition during shorter periods of time. The overall aim...... of this thesis was to identify factors influencing or associated with growth and body composition of 8-11 year old children. Four specific research questions were specified: 1.) Does a school meal intervention based on the New Nordic Diet (NND) influence height, body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference...
Reinders, Ilse; Visser, Marjolein; Schaap, Laura
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aging is associated with various changes in body composition, including changes in weight, loss of muscle mass, and increase in fat mass. This article describes the role of body weight and body composition, and their changes, in the risk of frailty in old age. RECENT FINDINGS:
Franco, Débora; Fragoso,Isabel; Andrea, Mário; Teles, Júlia; Martins, Fernando
Voice quality provides information about the anatomical characteristics of the speaker. The patterns of somatotype and body composition can provide essential knowledge to characterize the individuality of voice quality. The aim of this study was to verify if there were significant differences in somatotype and body composition between normal and dysphonic speakers.
Little is known about ethnic differences in developing countries such as South Africa, particularly with regard to prevalence of postural deviations and body composition profiles. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence rate for postural deviations and body composition status among two racial groups in South Africa ...
Mar 1, 2016 ... Background: Obesity is one of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide. Objective: To compare body compositions in obese and nonobese individuals. Methods: This cross‑sectional study constituted of 428 individuals. Body compositions were determined using the Tanita. Results: Of all the ...
Fjeldstad, Cecilie; Palmer, Ian J; Bemben, Michael G; Bemben, Debra A
Age-related changes in body composition are well-documented with a decrease in lean body mass and a redistribution of body fat generally observed. Resistance training alone has been shown to have positive effects on body composition, however, these benefits may be enhanced by the addition of a vibration stimulus. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 8 months of resistance training with and without whole-body vibration (WBV) on body composition in sedentary postmenopausal women. Fifty-five women were assigned to resistance only (RG, n=22), vibration plus resistance (VR, n=21) or non-exercising control (CG, n=12) groups. Resistance training (3 sets 10 repetitions 80% strength) was performed using isotonic weight training equipment and whole-body vibration was done with the use of the power plate (Northbrooke, IL) vibration platform for three times per week for 8 months. Total and regional body composition was assessed from the total body DXA scans at baseline (pre) and after 8 months (post) of training. In the VR group, total % body fat decreased from pre- to post-time points (ptraining groups exhibited significant increases in bone free lean tissue mass for the total body, arm and trunk regions from pre to post (ptraining alone and with whole-body vibration resulted in positive body composition changes by increasing lean tissue. However, only the combination of resistance training and whole-body vibration was effective for decreasing percent body fat.
Leleu, C; Cotrel, C
Body composition is an essential factor in athletic performance of human sprinters and long distance runners. However, in horses, many questions remain concerning relationships between body composition and performance in the different equine activities. To determine relationships between body composition, body score, physiological and locomotor variables in a population of young Standardbreds in training. Twenty-four 2-year-old Standardbreds were studied, body condition on a scale 0-5 and bodyweight recorded, and height at withers measured. Percentage of fat (%F), fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) were estimated echographically. During a standardised exercise test on the track, velocity, heart rate, respiratory frequency and blood lactate concentrations were measured. V4 and V200 (velocity for a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol/l and velocity of 200 beats/min) calculated. Basic gait variables were measured at 3 different speeds with an accelerometric device. Body composition variables: %F and FM were significantly related to body condition score and physiological variables. Body score was highly correlated to %F (r = 0.64) and FM (r = 0.71). V4 was negatively correlated to %F (r = -0.59) and FM (r = -0.60), P<0.05. V200 was also negatively related to %F and FM, (r = -0.39 and r = -0.37, respectively, P<0.1). No relationships were found between body composition and gait characteristics. Body composition was closely related to indirect measurements of aerobic capacity, which is a major factor of athletic performance in middle distance running horses. As in human athletes, trainers should take special note to evaluate optimal bodyweight and body composition of race horses to optimise performance.
Haque, A S M Tanbirul; Moon, Jin Nam; Saravana, P S; Tilahun, Adane; Chun, Byung-Soo
In this study, oils from Asarum heterotropoides were extracted by traditional solvent extraction and supercritical CO 2 (SC-CO 2 ) extraction methods and their antioxidant activities along with antimicrobial and inhibitory activities against five human body odor-producing bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium jeikeium, and Corynebacterium xerosis) were evaluated. The oil was found to contain 15 components, among which the most abundant component was methyl eugenol (37.6%), which was identified at every condition studied in different extraction methods. The oil extracted with n-hexane and ethanol mixture exhibited a strong antioxidant activity (92% ± 2%) and the highest ABTS and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activities (89% ± 0.2%). The highest amounts of total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were 23.1±0.4 mg/g and 4.9±0.1 mg/g, respectively, in the traditional method. In the SC-CO 2 method performed at 200 bar/50°C using ethanol as an entrainer, the highest inhibition zone was recorded against all the aforementioned bacteria. In particular, strong antibacterial activity (38±2 mm) was found against M. luteus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the oil against bacteria ranged from 10.1±0.1 μg/mL to 46±2 μg/mL. The lowest MIC was found against M. luteus. Methyl eugenol was found to be one of the major compounds working against human body odor-producing bacteria. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
A.S.M. Tanbirul Haque
Full Text Available In this study, oils from Asarum heterotropoides were extracted by traditional solvent extraction and supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2 extraction methods and their antioxidant activities along with antimicrobial and inhibitory activities against five human body odor-producing bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium jeikeium, and Corynebacterium xerosis were evaluated. The oil was found to contain 15 components, among which the most abundant component was methyl eugenol (37.6%, which was identified at every condition studied in different extraction methods. The oil extracted with n-hexane and ethanol mixture exhibited a strong antioxidant activity (92% ± 2% and the highest ABTS and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activities (89% ± 0.2%. The highest amounts of total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were 23.1±0.4 mg/g and 4.9±0.1 mg/g, respectively, in the traditional method. In the SC-CO2 method performed at 200 bar/50°C using ethanol as an entrainer, the highest inhibition zone was recorded against all the aforementioned bacteria. In particular, strong antibacterial activity (38±2 mm was found against M. luteus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for the oil against bacteria ranged from 10.1±0.1 μg/mL to 46±2 μg/mL. The lowest MIC was found against M. luteus. Methyl eugenol was found to be one of the major compounds working against human body odor-producing bacteria.
Silva, A M; Fields, D A; Heymsfield, S B; Sardinha, L B
The purpose of this study was to analyse the association between body composition changes, from a weight stable period to prior competition, on upper-body power in judo athletes. 27 top-level male athletes were evaluated at baseline (weight stable period) and 1-3 days before competition, with a time difference of approximately 1 month. Total body and extracellular water were estimated by dilution techniques (deuterium and bromide, respectively) and intracellular water was calculated as the difference. Body composition was assessed by DXA. A power-load spectrum was used to assess upper-body power output in a bench-press position. Comparison of means, bivariate, and partial correlations were used. Results indicate that though no significant mean changes were found in body composition and upper-body power, individual variability was large. Among all body composition changes, only total-body water (r=0.672; pbody power variation. These associations remained significant after controlling for weight and arm lean-soft tissue changes (r=0.594, p=0.002 for total-body water; r=0.524, p=0.007 for intracellular water). These findings highlight the need for tracking total-body water, specifically the intracellular compartment in elite judo athletes in order to avoid reductions in upper-body power when a target body weight is desired prior to competition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Association of physical activity on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the Korean population (from the fifth Korea national health and nutrition examination survey, 2008–2011
Full Text Available Abstract Background Data regarding associations among physical activity (PA level, body composition, and prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian populations are rare. Methods The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was utilized to estimate PA levels and analyze the association of PA level with various body composition parameters and the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases by using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. Results Moderate and high PA levels were associated with lower prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and lower concentrations of serum ferritin, parathyroid hormone, and alkaline phosphatase. Sarcopenia (low vs. moderate vs. high PA group: 14.3% vs. 10.5% vs. 7.3%, p = 0.001, underweight (5.7% vs. 4.9% vs. 3.5%, p = 0.001, and central obesity (7.8% vs. 6.9% vs. 6.3%, p = 0.002 were more often observed in the low PA group. The prevalence rates of cardiovascular diseases were lower in the moderate (odds ratio [OR], 0.822; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.737–0.916; p = 0.001 and high activity groups (OR, 0.663; 95% CI, 0.589–0.748; p = 0.001 than in the low activity group, even after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, underlying disease, and general or abdominal obesity and muscle mass. Conclusion Regular physical activity was associated with a low prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (stroke, myocardial infarction, stable angina, and chronic renal disease, which was independent of body composition and conventional risk factors in the Korean population, with a positive dose-response relationship.
Association of physical activity on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the Korean population (from the fifth Korea national health and nutrition examination survey, 2008-2011).
Kim, Gwang-Sil; Im, Eui; Rhee, Ji-Hyuck
Data regarding associations among physical activity (PA) level, body composition, and prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian populations are rare. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was utilized to estimate PA levels and analyze the association of PA level with various body composition parameters and the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases by using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. Moderate and high PA levels were associated with lower prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and lower concentrations of serum ferritin, parathyroid hormone, and alkaline phosphatase. Sarcopenia (low vs. moderate vs. high PA group: 14.3% vs. 10.5% vs. 7.3%, p = 0.001), underweight (5.7% vs. 4.9% vs. 3.5%, p = 0.001), and central obesity (7.8% vs. 6.9% vs. 6.3%, p = 0.002) were more often observed in the low PA group. The prevalence rates of cardiovascular diseases were lower in the moderate (odds ratio [OR], 0.822; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.737-0.916; p = 0.001) and high activity groups (OR, 0.663; 95% CI, 0.589-0.748; p = 0.001) than in the low activity group, even after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, underlying disease, and general or abdominal obesity and muscle mass. Regular physical activity was associated with a low prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (stroke, myocardial infarction, stable angina, and chronic renal disease), which was independent of body composition and conventional risk factors in the Korean population, with a positive dose-response relationship.
Gadducci, Alexandre Vieira; Cleva,Roberto de; de Faria Santar?m, Gabriela Correia; Silva, Paulo Roberto Santos; Greve, Julia Maria D'Andr?a; Santo, Marco Aur?lio
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to evaluate associations between maximum voluntary contraction torques of the lower limbs and body composition for subjects with severe obesity. METHODS: Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and maximum voluntary contraction torques of the lower limbs were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. One hundred thirty-two patients were enrolled (100 females and 32 males). Eighty-seven patients had a body mass index between 40 a...
Galetta, F; Franzoni, F; D'alessandro, C; Piazza, M; Tocchini, L; Fallahi, P; Antonelli, A; Cupisti, F; Santoro, G
Rhythmic gymnasts are often believed to be a population at risk of malnutrition because of their tendency to keep a low weight and a lean appearance for better athletic performance, and because they start intensive training at a very young age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in adolescent elite gymnasts the effects of physical activity on body composition and cardiac morphology and function. Sixteen national level rhythmic gymnasts and 16 control adolescent female underwent anthropometric measurements, bioelectric impedance and echocardiography to assess body composition and cardiac morphology and function. As compared to controls, gymnasts had lower body mass index (16.9±1.1 vs. 18.7±1.0, Pgymnasts, together with a higher percentage of fat-free mass. Echocardiographic findings indicate that elite rhythmic gymnastics present left ventricular remodeling as training-induced cardiac adaptation. Intensive training, dietary attitude and evident leanness of rhythmic gymnasts are not associated with cardiac abnormalities, as it is the case of pathological leanness.
Kohrt, W M; Malley, M T; Dalsky, G P; Holloszy, J O
This study examined the effects of age and physical activity on body composition and fat distribution by comparing differences between young and older endurance trained men and women with differences...
Ana Paula Araújo Ferreira
Full Text Available Adolescence is accompanied by cognitive, emotional, social and biological changes; situations that increase the risk for development of psychosomatic disorders. This study measured and classified body composition and compared it to body self-perception in adolescents. Students from the seventh to ninth grade in public primary education in Distrito Federal, Brazil, answered socio-demographic and body self-perception questionnaires. Weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI was calculated for body composition classification. From the 977 adolescents, 79.1% presented eutrophic BMI. Of the 473 boys, 11.4% were overweight and 4.7% underweight, 23.8% perceived the body as smaller than it really is and 25.5% tried to gain body mass. Of the 504 girls, 11.9% were overweight and 13.4% underweight, 24.1% perceived the body as larger than it really is and 32.5% tried to lose body mass. Inadequate body composition, prevalent in 20.9% of adolescents, may harm growth, development and health. These problems may be aggravated by the high prevalence of distorted body self-perception and attitudes for bodily changes. It is recommended the implementation of educational interventions on body composition, perception and culture and health, with different approaches by gender.
Oden, Jon D; Franklin, Brian; Fernandez, Ernesto; Adhikari, Soumya; White, Perrin C
Body mass index (BMI) and fat mass may be higher in children with diabetes compared to healthy peers. It is not certain how diabetic children respond to exercise and diet interventions. To investigate the effect of summer camp on BMI and body composition in children with type 1 diabetes. Five hundred eighty-six children (5-19 years, 518 with type 1 diabetes, 68 without diabetes) were followed while attending camp. BMI z-scores (BMIz) and body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis) were measured at the beginning and end of each 19-day session. Diet and activity were directly supervised, blood glucose closely monitored. A nested diabetic/non-diabetic sib pair analysis was also conducted. Changes in BMIz and percent fat mass (%FM) were the primary outcomes. Findings were confirmed by analysis of data from 612 campers (549 with diabetes) the following summer. At entry, campers with diabetes had higher BMIz and %FM. They tended to gain BMIz (0.04 ± 0.01) whereas non-diabetic campers lost (-0.16 ± 0.11, P FM. Similar results were obtained the following summer. Children with diabetes may, therefore, accrue more lean body tissue with increased exercise and a healthy diet than those without diabetes. This effect is greatest in those with initially poor metabolic control. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lee, Kyoung Soon; Lee, Jae Koo; Yeun, Young Ran
BACKGROUND A lifestyle characterized by poor eating habits and physical inactivity is a risk factor for multiple lifestyle diseases in young adults. This study assessed the effects of implementing an intensive 10-day health promotion program combining diet and physical activities on body composition, physical fitness, and biochemical parameters of young adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this randomized pilot study, 30 female undergraduate students were randomly allocated to an intervention and a control group. The health promotion program consisted of unlimited amounts of vegetarian food; aerobic, flexibility, and strength exercises (3 hours/day); lectures on health (3 hours/day); massage practice (2 hours/day); and healthy cooking practice (1 hour/day). The effects of the intervention were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS The intensive 10-day health promotion program significantly reduced body weight, body mass index, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood glucose, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. At the same time, participants demonstrated increased back muscle, leg muscle, and grip strength; waist and shoulder flexibility; balance; and cardiorespiratory endurance. CONCLUSIONS The intensive 10-day health promotion program is a viable intervention for improving body composition, physical fitness, glycemic control, and blood lipid levels in young adults.
Heidemann, Malene; Holst, René; Schou, Anders J; Klakk, Heidi; Husby, Steffen; Wedderkopp, Niels; Mølgaard, Christian
Overweight, physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour have become increasing problems during the past decade. Increased sedentary behaviour may change the body composition (BC) by increasing the fat mass relative to the lean mass (LM). These changes may influence bone health to describe how anthropometry and BC predict the development of the bone accruement. The longitudinal study is a part of The CHAMPS study-DK. Children were DXA scanned at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. BC (LM, BF %) and BMC, BMD and BA were measured. The relationship between bone traits, anthropometry and BC was analysed by multilevel regression analyses. Of the invited children, 742/800 (93%) accepted to participate. Of these, 682/742 (92%) participated at follow-up. Mean (range) of age at baseline was 9.5 years (7.7-12.1). Height, BMI, LM and BF % predicted bone mineral accrual and bone size positively and independently. Height and BMI are both positive predictors of bone accruement. LM is a more precise predictor of bone traits than BF % in both genders. The effects of height and BMI and LM on bone accruement are nearly identical in the two genders, while changes in BF % have different but positive effects on bone accretion in both boys and girls.
Mulligan, W; Maclean, J M; Preston, T
Exercise-related changes in body protein 'turnover' and in the absolute amounts of body protein were studied in racing pigeons. Whole body radioactivity was followed in racing and control (limited exercise) birds after protein labelling by the injection of 75Seselenomethionine. Because of re-utilisation of the label this does not give a true picture of body protein turnover but the comparative data suggested an increased turnover in racing compared to control birds. Carcase analysis on a group of pigeons demonstrated a water content for lean body mass of 72.7 per cent +/- 3.54. Lean body mass and exchangeable body potassium were used as indices of total body protein in a group of pigeons participating in an endurance race (15 + hours of flying). The results indicated that no body protein had been used as an energy source. These findings are compatible with the presence in pigeons of a small labile pool or pools of protein. The presence and characteristics of such pools remains to be determined.
Gorenko, Zoya; Ocheretko, Boris; Kovelskaya, Antonina
Purpose: determine the features of the body component composition and the level of physical performance, as well as the structure of the correlation between these indicators in amateur athletes. Material & Methods: in conditions of the test with physical load with stepwise increasing power in the 71-st physically active person, the reaction of the cardio-respiratory system to physical activity. The body component composition was determined by the bioelectrical impedance method.Result: in ...
Santanasto, Adam J; Goodpaster, Bret H; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Miljkovic, Iva; Satterfield, Suzanne; Schwartz, Ann V; Cummings, Steven R; Boudreau, Robert M; Harris, Tamara B; Newman, Anne B
Age-related losses of lean mass and shifts to central adiposity are related to functional decline and may predict mortality and/or explain part of the risk of weight loss. To determine how mortality risk is related to shifts in body composition, changes should be considered in the context of overall weight change. Five-year changes in body composition were assessed with computed tomography (cm2) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (kg) in 869 men and 934 women initially aged 70-79 years. All-cause mortality was monitored for up to 12 years (2002-2003 to September 30, 2014), and risk was assessed using sex-specific Cox models. Both men and women lost weight, visceral fat area, thigh muscle area, lean mass, and fat mass (all p fat area (p weight change, demographics, and chronic disease, losing thigh muscle area was associated with higher mortality in both men (1.21, 1.08-1.35) and women (1.18, 1.01-1.37, per 9.0cm2) and was especially strong in normal weight (body mass index weight. Losing intermuscular thigh fat was protective against mortality only in normal weight (0.66, 0.51-0.86) and weight stable men (0.79, 0.66-0.95, per 3.2cm2). Changes in visceral fat area were not associated with mortality. Older adults with greater loss of thigh muscle than expected for overall weight change had a higher mortality risk compared to those with relative thigh muscle preservation, suggesting that conservation of muscle mass is important for survival in old age.
Full Text Available In this study, we assessed the suitable level of replacement of fishmeal with a blue green microalga, Arthrospira platensis in feed for the post larvae (PL of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii by evaluating the growth performance, prawn proximate composition, feed utilization parameters and the activity of digestive enzymes. The prawns were fed 5 different diets: a control diet and 4 different diets containing A. platensis at various levels such as 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%. These diets were fed to the PL for 90 days in triplicates. The growth performance in terms of weight gain, specific growth rate and feed efficiency ratio were found significantly (P 25 > 75 > 100% replacement of fishmeal with A. platensis. These results concluded that a partial replacement of the fishmeal with A. platensis at the level of 50% is beneficial for the growth of prawn M. rosenbergii.
Widen, EM; Gallagher, D
Prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen in the United States over the past few decades. Concurrent with this rise in obesity has been an increase in pregravid body mass index and gestational weight gain affecting maternal body composition changes in pregnancy. During pregnancy, many of the assumptions inherent in body composition estimation are violated, particularly the hydration of fat-free mass, and available methods are unable to disentangle maternal composition from fetus and supporting tissues; therefore, estimates of maternal body composition during pregnancy are prone to error. Here we review commonly used and available methods for assessing body composition changes in pregnancy, including: (1) anthropometry, (2) total body water, (3) densitometry, (4) imaging, (5) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, (6) bioelectrical impedance and (7) ultrasound. Several of these methods can measure regional changes in adipose tissue; however, most of these methods provide only whole-body estimates of fat and fat-free mass. Consideration is given to factors that may influence changes in maternal body composition, as well as long-term maternal and offspring outcomes. Finally, we provide recommendations for future research in this area. PMID:24667754
Malavolti, Marcella; Battistini, Nino C; Dugoni, Manfredo; Bagni, Bruno; Bagni, Ilaria; Pietrobelli, Angelo
Individuals in a structural physical training program can show beneficial changes in body composition, such as body fat reduction and muscle mass increase. This study measured body composition changes by using 3 different techniques-skinfold thickness (SF) measurements, air displacement plethysmography (BOD-POD), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-during 9 months of intense training in healthy young men engaged in military training. Twenty-seven young men were recruited from a special faction of the Italian Navy. The program previewed three phases: ground combat, sea combat, and amphibious combat. Body composition was estimated at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of the training. After the subjects performed the ground combat phase, body composition variables significantly decreased: body weight (P BOD-POD (P = 0.90) and DXA was significantly greater than measured by SF. A significant difference was found in body mass index (BMI) measured during the study. BOD-POD and SF, compared with DXA, provide valid and reliable measurement of changes in body composition in healthy young men engaged in military training. In conclusion, the findings suggest that for young men of normal weight, changes in body weight alone and in BMI are not a good measure to assess the effectiveness of intense physical training programs, because lean mass gain can masquerade fat weight loss.
McDougald Dawn M; Hatsu Irene E; Anderson Alex K
Abstract Background Women gain total body weight and accrue body fat during pregnancy. Breastfeeding has been suggested as an efficient means of promoting postpartum weight loss due to its high energy cost. We investigated the effect of infant feeding mode on maternal body composition. Methods This study evaluated maternal weight and percent body fat changes in exclusively breastfeeding versus mixed feeding mothers during the first 12 weeks postpartum using the BOD POD. Twenty four mothers ag...
Shapses Sue A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The body mass index (BMI is the standard parameter for predicting body fat fraction and for classifying degrees of obesity. Currently available regression equations between BMI and fat are based on 2 or 3 parameter empirical fits and have not been validated for highly obese subjects. We attempt to develop regression relations that are based on realistic models of body composition changes in obesity. These models, if valid, can then be extrapolated to the high fat fraction of the morbidly obese. Methods The analysis was applied to 3 compartment (density and total body water measurements of body fat. The data was collected at the New York Obesity Research Center, Body Composition Unit, as part of ongoing studies. A total of 1356 subjects were included, with a BMI range of 17 to 50 for males and 17 to 65 for females. The body composition model assumes that obese subjects can be represented by the sum of a standard lean reference subject plus an extra weight that has a constant adipose, bone and muscle fraction. Results There is marked age and sex dependence in the relationship between BMI and fat fraction. There was no significant difference among Caucasians, Blacks and Hispanics while Asians had significantly greater fat fraction for the same BMI. A linear relationship between BMI and fat fraction provides a good description for men but overestimates the fat fraction in morbidly obese women for whom a non-linear regression should be used. New regression relations for predicting body fat just from experimental measurements of body density are described that are more accurate then those currently used. From the fits to the experimental BMI and density data, a quantitative description of the bone, adipose and muscle body composition of lean and obese subjects is derived. Conclusion Physiologically realistic models of body composition provide both accurate regression relations and new insights about changes in body composition in
Liotto, Nadia; Roggero, Paola; Bracco, Beatrice; Menis, Camilla; Morniroli, Daniela; Perrone, Michela; Giannì, Maria L; Mosca, Fabio
Increasing evidence demonstrates that body composition in early life contributes to the programming of health later in life in both full-term and preterm infants. Given the important role of body composition, the increased availability of easy, noninvasive, and accurate techniques for its assessment has been recommended. The aim of the present study was to identify basic characteristics and anthropometric measurements that best correlate with body composition in infants. Anthropometric measurements and body composition assessed by air-displacement plethysmography were assessed either at birth or at term-corrected age in 1239 infants (654 full-term, 585 preterm). The associations of sex, GA (gestational age), and weight with FFM (fat-free mass) and FM (fat mass) adjusted by length (g/cm) were investigated by multiple linear regression models. Bland-Altman tests were performed, and an equation for calculating FFM was determined. Preterm infants exhibited increased FM and reduced FFM compared with full-term infants (477.6 ± 204 vs 259.7 ± 147 g and 2583 ± 494 vs 2770 ± 364 g, respectively). GA, male sex, and weight were positively associated with FFM (r = 0.806, P composition represents the criterion standard. When body composition assessment is not feasible, the equation based on sex, GA, and anthropometric measurements can be useful in predicting body composition in both full-term and preterm infants.
You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja
Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.
Hobold, Edilson; Flores,Lucinar Jupir Forner; Brandt,Ricardo; Mazzardo Junior, Oldemar; Arruda, Miguel de
Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the age of Peak Height Velocity (PHV), anthropometric variables and body composition of students from the western state of Paraná. he study included 1,011 male students aged 12-15 years from 11 municipalities located around the Itaipu lake. Anthropometric and body composition variables were obtained according to international criteria. Biological maturation was determined by age of PHV and for the purpose of analysis, it was categorized into devel...
Edson S. Farias
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da atividade física programada na escola sobre a composição corporal em escolares adolescentes durante 1 ano letivo. MÉTODOS: Amostra foi composta por 383 alunos, divididos em dois grupos: caso com 186 (96 meninos e 90 meninas e controle com 197 (108 meninos e 89 meninas, com idade entre 10 e 15 anos. Trata-se de estudo de intervenção com pré e pós-teste, no qual o grupo caso foi submetido a atividade física programada e o grupo-controle a aulas convencionais de educação física escolar. A composição corporal foi avaliada por medidas antropométricas e cálculos de índice de massa corporal, percentual de gordura e massas gorda e magra. RESULTADOS: O grupo caso apresentou estabilidade na prega cutânea subescapular, índice de massa corporal, percentual de gordura e na massa gorda; redução significativa na prega cutânea triciptal, perímetro do abdome nas meninas e aumento significativo dos perímetros do braço, cintura e panturrilha e da massa magra. No grupo-controle houve aumento do índice de massa corporal, prega cutânea triciptal, perímetro do abdome e da massa gorda nas meninas. O grupo caso apresentou diminuição significativa na proporção de sobrepesos e obesos no pós em relação ao pré-teste, o mesmo não ocorrendo no grupo-controle. CONCLUSÃO: A atividade física programada resultou em melhoria e manutenção nas variáveis da composição corporal e redução da frequência de sobrepeso e obesidade no grupo que sofreu intervenção.OBJECTIVE: To verify the influence of programmed physical activity on body composition among adolescent students during 1 school year. METHODS: The sample included 383 students (age range: 10 to 15years separated into two groups: 186 cases (96 male and 90 female and 197 controls (108 male and 89 female. This was an intervention study with pre- and post-test assessments in which interventions consisted of programmed physical activity; the control group
Evaluations of the Antimicrobial Activities and Chemical Compositions of Body Fat from the Amphibians Leptodactylus macrosternum Miranda-Ribeiro (1926) and Leptodactylus vastus Adolf Lutz (1930) in Northeastern Brazil
Cabral, Mario Eduardo Santos; Dias, Diógenes de Queiroz; Sales, Débora Lima; Oliveira, Olga Paiva; Teles, Diego Alves; Filho, João Antonio de Araujo; de Sousa, José Guilherme Gonçalves; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Kerntopf, Marta Regina; Alves, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega; Almeida, Waltécio de Oliveira
Leptodactylus macrosternum and L. vastus (family: Leptodactylidae) are commonly encountered in the “Caatinga” biome in northern Brazil. The body fat of L. vastus is used as a zootherapeutic for treating a number of human maladies. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of the body fats of L. macrosternum and L. vastus and to evaluate their antimicrobial activities as well as the ecological implications of their use in traditional folk medicine. Oils were extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of L. macrosternum (OLM) and L. vastus (OLV) using hexane as a solvent. The fatty acids were identified by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activities of the oils, either alone or in combination with antibiotics and antifungal drugs, were tested on standard strains of microorganisms as well as on multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus. OLM contained 40% saturated and 60% unsaturated fatty acids, while OLV contained 58.33% saturated and 41.67% unsaturated fatty acids. Our results indicated that both OLM and OLV demonstrated relevant antimicrobial activities (with MIC 256 μg/mL for both) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida krusei. However, no antimicrobial effects were observed when these oils were combined with antibiotics or antifungal drugs. PMID:23710241
Evaluations of the Antimicrobial Activities and Chemical Compositions of Body Fat from the Amphibians Leptodactylus macrosternum Miranda-Ribeiro (1926 and Leptodactylus vastus Adolf Lutz (1930 in Northeastern Brazil
Mario Eduardo Santos Cabral
Full Text Available Leptodactylus macrosternum and L. vastus (family: Leptodactylidae are commonly encountered in the “Caatinga” biome in northern Brazil. The body fat of L. vastus is used as a zootherapeutic for treating a number of human maladies. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of the body fats of L. macrosternum and L. vastus and to evaluate their antimicrobial activities as well as the ecological implications of their use in traditional folk medicine. Oils were extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of L. macrosternum (OLM and L. vastus (OLV using hexane as a solvent. The fatty acids were identified by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activities of the oils, either alone or in combination with antibiotics and antifungal drugs, were tested on standard strains of microorganisms as well as on multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus. OLM contained 40% saturated and 60% unsaturated fatty acids, while OLV contained 58.33% saturated and 41.67% unsaturated fatty acids. Our results indicated that both OLM and OLV demonstrated relevant antimicrobial activities (with MIC 256 μg/mL for both against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida krusei. However, no antimicrobial effects were observed when these oils were combined with antibiotics or antifungal drugs.
Mohammad Reza Salamat
Conclusions: Combinations of anthropometric measurements predict whole-body lean mass and trunk fat mass better than any of these single anthropometric indices. Therefore, the findings of the present study may be used to verify the results in patients with various diseases or diets.
The means and standard deviations for their ages, body weights and heights were 31.20±7.47, 68.59±6.19 and 1.72±0.05 respectively. All the participants gave informed consent to participate in the study. The horizontal bodyweights of the participantsweremeasured inlying positionsusing anadaptation of theGuthri Smith ...
Proximate composition of small catfish, Mystus bleekeri, from Nala Daik, Sialkot, Pakistan was investigated and fluctuation in relation to body size and condition factor was carried out. Mean percentages for water, fat, protein and ash contents in the whole wet body weight of wild M. bleekeri were 77.87, 3.26, 15.01 and ...
This article calls on composition instructors to reflect consciously on how we can use our bodies kinesthetically to perform multimodal writing processes through gestural, visual, and spatial modes. Teaching writing through kinesthetic performance can show students that our bodies are being constructed via interaction with audiences, akin to the…
The study of human body composition is a branch of human biology which focuses on the in vivo quantification of body components, the quantitative relationships between components, and the quantitative changes in these components related to various influencing factors.
Berg, van den Maaike M.G.A.
Because of the improved survival rate, both short term and long term adverse effects of breast cancer treatment have become increasingly important. Body weight and body composition before, during, and after chemotherapy may influence side effects during treatment and survival. The aims of this
Muscle mass, percentage body fat, basal metabolic rate, and metabolic age of Rivers women were signifi cantly higher than that of their Kaduna counterparts at a signifi cant level of P < 0.001, P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.01, respectively. Rivers state women presented higher anthropometric variables and body composition ...
Purcell, Sarah A; Elliott, Sarah A; Kroenke, Candyce H; Sawyer, Michael B; Prado, Carla M
Measures of body weight and anthropometrics such as body mass index (BMI) are commonly used to assess nutritional status in clinical conditions including cancer. Extensive research has evaluated associations between body weight and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients, yet little is known about the potential impact of body composition (fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)) in these patients. Thus, the purpose of this publication was to review the literature (using PubMed and EMBASE) evaluating the impact of body weight and particularly body composition on surgical complications, morbidity, chemotherapy dosing and toxicity (as predictors of prognosis), and survival in ovarian cancer patients. Body weight is rarely associated with intra-operative complications, but obesity predicts higher rates of venous thromboembolism and wound complications post-operatively in ovarian cancer patients. Low levels of FM and FFM are superior predictors of length of hospital stay compared to measures of body weight alone, but the role of body composition on other surgical morbidities is unknown. Obesity complicates chemotherapy dosing due to altered pharmacokinetics, imprecise dosing strategies, and wide variability in FM and FFM. Measurement of body composition has the potential to reduce toxicity if the results are incorporated into chemotherapy dosing calculations. Some findings suggest that excess body weight adversely affects survival, while others find no such association. Limited studies indicate that FM is a better predictor of survival than body weight in ovarian cancer patients, but the direction of this relationship has not been determined. In conclusion, body composition as an indicator of nutritional status is a better prognostic tool than body weight or BMI alone in ovarian cancer patients.
Lemos, Valdir De Aquino; Alves, Eduardo Da Silva; Schwingel, Paulo Adriano; Rosa, João Paulo Pereira; Silva, Andressa Da; Winckler, Ciro; Vital, Roberto; De Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Tufik, Sergio; De Mello, Marco Túlio
Body composition is a physiological variable associated with physical activity and, in some cases, is related to athletic performance. Our objectives were to describe the body composition of participants in three distinct Paralympic sports and to compare the values of body density and estimated body fat obtained from the Paralympic athletes on the National Team by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) and by the anthropometric method (skinfolds (SFs)). The sample consisted of 70 volunteers of both genders. The body composition of the volunteers was evaluated using the ADP in a Bod Pod(®) and seven SFs. There were no significant differences between the values obtained by ADP and SF for body fat percentage (p = .58) and body density (p = .49). Analysis by Bland-Altman plots showed mean differences of 0.56 ± 4.94 (-9.12-10.23) and -0.0017 ± 0.0113 (-0.024-0.020) for body fat percentage and body density, respectively. In conclusion, body composition analyses of Paralympic athletes by the ADP and SF methods show similar results, and ADP should be used as the first option when available. When the use of ADP is not possible, estimating body density and fat percentage by SF is a viable alternative for Paralympic athletes when future comparisons will use the same analysis method.
Cecilia Zanin Palchetti
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children using anthropometric parameters and body composition assessment. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 40 prepubertal HIV-infected children of both genders seen at the Care Center of the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases - Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo city, Brazil, was carried out from August to December 2008. Age, clinical and immunological status, prophylaxis, transmission and highly active antiretroviral therapy were recorded. Body mass index z-score and height-for-age z-score were calculated to characterize the nutritional status. Circumferences were measured with flexible tape and skinfolds were assessed by an adipometry. Fat mass and lean mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Presence of clinical signs of lipodystrophy was assessed by a trained clinician. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 software. RESULTS: The mean age and standard deviation were 9.8 (1.2 years, 50% were girls and 82.5% children from B and C categories. Clinical lipodystrophy and dislypidemia were present in 27.5% and 70%, respectively. The trunk to arm ratio and the limb to trunk ratio had positive association with lipodystrophy. Patients with lipodystrophy had short stature, higher triglycerides values and lower HDL-cholesterol. CONCLUSION: The ratios obtained by skinfolds and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements can be considered as indicators of preclinical lipodystrophy. The cutoff points have not been determined yet; however, continuous assessment may be useful to identify early body composition changes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. Methods We recruited patients (n = 204, aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD years old with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to psychiatric hospital using a cross-sectional design. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and medications were also collected. Body fat, percent (% body fat, fat- free mass, muscle mass, and body water were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Comparative analysis was performed with schizophrenic subjects and 204 healthy control individuals. Results In a multiple regression model with age, body mass index, and dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, schizophrenia was a significantly linked with more body fat, higher % body fat, lower fat- free mass, lower muscle mass, and lower body water among males. In females, schizophrenia had a significant association with lower % body fat, higher fat- free mass, higher muscle mass, and higher body water. Conclusions Our data demonstrate gender differences with regard to changes in body composition in association with schizophrenia. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to fight obesity among schizophrenic patients should be individualized according to gender.
Miller, I M; Rytgaard, Helene Charlotte; Mogensen, U B
BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested an association between Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) and obesity. Obesity is often expressed as Body Mass Index (BMI). However, BMI lacks information on body composition. General obesity is a predictor of health status and cardiovascular risk, but body.......70-105.56) (P Hidradenitis Suppurativa is associated with a high fat percentage, high visceral fat, and low muscle percentage adding to the morbidity of HS. The higher predicted estimate of basal metabolic rate (BMR) in HS patients may reflect...
Forman, Daniel E; Santanasto, Adam J; Boudreau, Robert; Harris, Tamara; Kanaya, Alka M; Satterfield, Suzanne; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Butler, Javed; Kizer, Jorge R; Newman, Anne B
Prevalence of heart failure (HF) increases significantly with age, coinciding with age-related changes in body composition that are common and consequential. Still, body composition is rarely factored in routine HF care. The Health, Aging, and Body Composition study is a prospective cohort study of nondisabled adults. Using yearly dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, body composition was assessed in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study over 6 years, comparing those who developed incident HF versus those who did not. Among 2815 Health, Aging, and Body Composition participants (48.5% men; 59.6% whites; mean age, 73.6±2.9 years), 111 developed incident HF over the 6-year study period. At entry into the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study, men and women who later developed HF had higher total body mass when compared with those versus those who did not develop HF (men, 80.9±10 versus 78.6±12.9 kg, P =0.05; women, 72.7±15.0 versus 68.2±14.2 kg, P =0.01, respectively). However, after developing HF, loss of total lean body mass was disproportionate; men with HF lost 654.6 versus 391.4 g/y in non-HF participants, P =0.02. Loss of appendicular lean mass was also greater with HF (-419.9 versus -318.2 g/y; P =0.02), even after accounting for total weight change. Among women with HF, loss of total and appendicular lean mass were also greater than in non-HF participants but not to the extent seen among men. Incident HF in older adults was associated with disproportionate loss of lean mass, particularly among men. Prognostic implications are significant, with key sex-specific inferences on physical function, frailty, disability, and pharmacodynamics that all merit further investigation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Sugawara Norio; Yasui-Furukori Norio; Tsuchimine Shoko; Fujii Akira; Sato Yasushi; Saito Manabu; Matsuzaka Masashi; Takahashi Ippei; Kaneko Sunao
Abstract Background Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. Methods We recruited patients (n = 204), aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD)...
Full Text Available Background: The physical exertion in the game of rugby is intense and depends on the playing position. This study hypothesized that peculiarities of body composition are important and should be properly interpreted in order to improve fitness and particularly in order to reduce the risk of injuries. Purpose: The aim of the present paper is to highlight the importance of body composition evaluation and to underline the usefulness of the data thus obtained for both training individualization and sports injuries risk reduction. Material and Methods: Thirty seven senior male rugby players from the former Romanian national team were assessed on body composition using a segmental multi-frequency bio-impedance analyzer InBody 720 (The Body Composition Analyzer – South Korea. We compared the results from both the preseason and the regular season 2012 with the international norms for elite players and we categorized the data by playing positions. Results: We have analyzed the amount of lean mass on each limb (kg, body water content (l, percentage of body fat, bone mineral and protein content (kg. We observed that the number of injuries is directly correlated to high levels of body fat percentage, low lean mass, and edema scores. Conclusions: The risk of injury can be identified among elite rugby players not only by using fitness tests, but also by using a simple and objective test of body composition. These results show how important it is to monitor the level of body fat, lean muscle mass and muscular development in order to modify nutrition and food habits, individualize trainings and thus reduce the number of injuries.
Sezen, Yusuf; Altiparmak, Ibrahim Halil; Erkus, Muslihittin Emre; Kocarslan, Aydemir; Kaya, Zekeriya; Gunebakmaz, Ozgur; Demirbag, Recep
To examine the effects of Ramadan fasting on body composition, arterial stiffness and resting heart rate. This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Cardiology, Harran University, Sanliurfa, Turkey, during Ramadan 2015, and comprised overweight and obese males. Body composition, arterial stiffness and echocardiography were assessed before and after Ramadan. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis using segmental body composition analyser. Arterial stiffness and haemodynamic parameters were also measured. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the 100 subjects enrolled, 70(70%) were included. The overall mean age was 37±7 years. No significant changes were observed in blood pressures, resting heart rate, aortic pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index-75, aortic pulse pressure, brachial pulse pressure, basal metabolic rate, total body water, fat-free mass, and echocardiographic parameters (p>0.05 each). Although aortic pulse wave velocity (m/s) and augmentation index-75 (%) decreased after fasting period compared to that of before Ramadan, these reductions did not reach statistically significant levels (8.6±1.8 vs. 8.9±1.9, and 13.6±6.6 vs. 14.7±9.3, respectively; p>0.05 each). Body mass index, waist-hip ratio, body water rate, percentage of body fat mass, body fat mass, and visceral fat mass percentage were significantly reduced (pRamadan. Ramadan fasting had beneficial effects on body composition, but did not have any significant effect on arterial stiffness and resting heart rate.
Singh, Mrityunjay (Inventor); Levine, Stanley R. (Inventor); Smialek, James A. (Inventor)
A near-net, complex shaped ceramic fiber reinforced silicon carbide based composite bodies with graded compositions and stress zones is disclosed. To provide the composite a fiber preform is first fabricated and an interphase is applied by chemical vapor infiltration, sol-gel or polymer processes. This first body is further infiltrated with a polymer mixture containing carbon, and/or silicon carbide, and additional oxide, carbide, or nitride phases forming a second body. One side of the second body is spray coated or infiltrated with slurries containing high thermal expansion and oxidation resistant. crack sealant phases and the other side of this second body is coated with low expansion phase materials to form a third body. This third body consisting of porous carbonaceous matrix surrounding the previously applied interphase materials, is then infiltrated with molten silicon or molten silicon-refractory metal alloys to form a fourth body. The resulting fourth body comprises dense composites consisting of fibers with the desired interphase which are surrounded by silicon carbide and other second phases materials at the outer and inner surfaces comprising material of silicon, germanium, refractory metal suicides, borides, carbides, oxides, and combinations thereof The resulting composite fourth body has different compositional patterns from one side to the other.
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of body weight and feeding level on the changeof body composition of indigenous ram. This research was expected to establish the efficient feeding levelto produce high growth rate and meat quality of ram in tropical environment. Sixteen rams with differentbody weight (BW were divided into 2 groups, i.e. light BW (10 + 1.47 kg and heavy BW (18 + 1.18 kg.The experimental design was Split Plot design with two factors. The main plot was body weight (light andheavy and the sub plot was level of feeding (FL, 1x maintenance and 1.5 x maintenance. The parametersmeasured in this experiment were live weight gain and body composition. The results of this study showedthat body water, body protein and body fat were significantly higher (P<0.01 in heavy body weight (HBWthan those in light body weight (LBW, and was higher in 1.5xM than those 1xM. Ram of HW and LW hadsimilar change rate of physical composition. Ram given 1.5xM had higher rate of change of body fat andbody water than those given feed at maintenance level. It can be concluded that there was no interactionbetween BW and FL on the change of body water, body protein and body fat. Ram of HBW and LBW hadsimilar rate of change of physical composition. Level of feeding affected body water content, the higherlevel of feeding resulted in fatter ram, leading to less body water content.
Lacoste Jeanson, Alizé; Dupej, Ján; Villa, Chiara
tissue areas measured in selected CT scan slices. Methods We present a new semi-automatic approach to defining the density cutoff between adipose tissue (AT) and lean tissue (LT) in such material. An intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to validate the method. The equations for estimating......Background Estimating volumes and masses of total body components is important for the study and treatment monitoring of nutrition and nutrition-related disorders, cancer, joint replacement, energy-expenditure and exercise physiology. While several equations have been offered for estimating total...
LaForgia, Joe; Gunn, Simon; Withers, Robert T
Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) measures the impedance associated with passage of an alternating current through the body which is proportional to total body water (TBW) and therefore can provide expedient estimates of body composition. However, little validity information is available for commercially available bathroom scale type devices which perform whole body estimates from segmental (lower limb) measurements. This study therefore compared body composition estimates between a commercially available segmental BIA device (Tanita BC-532) and four compartment criterion values. Body composition of nine males and nine females (mean +/- SD: 37.7 +/- 18.7 yr; 170.7 +/- 5.3 cm; 68.38 +/- 9.7 kg) was determined via BIA and a four compartment model incorporating measures of body density, TBW and bone mineral mass. While the mean %BF and fat free mass (FFM) values for both methods were not significantly different, considerable intra-individual differences were observed. BIA values varied from the four compartment values by -3.0 to 4.4 %BF and -3.3 to 1.9 kg FFM. The BIA estimates of TBW were significantly different from the criterion measures and intraindividual differences displayed a large range (-0.6 to 3.6 kg). Significant underestimations of TBW via BIA are concerning given that this is the parameter initially established by this method. Furthermore, the BIA data resulted in a FFM hydration value of 68.5% which was significantly (pbody composition compared with a four compartment criterion method.
Effects of 28 days of resistance exercise and consuming a commercially available pre-workout supplement, NO-Shotgun(R), on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers in males.
Shelmadine, Brian; Cooke, Matt; Buford, Thomas; Hudson, Geoffrey; Redd, Liz; Leutholtz, Brian; Willoughby, Darryn S
This study determined the effects of 28 days of heavy resistance exercise combined with the nutritional supplement, NO-Shotgun(R), on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers. Eighteen non-resistance-trained males participated in a resistance training program (3 x 10-RM) 4 times/wk for 28 days while also ingesting 27 g/day of placebo (PL) or NO-Shotgun(R) (NO) 30 min prior to exercise. Data were analyzed with separate 2 x 2 ANOVA and t-tests (p 0.05). When combined with heavy resistance training for 28 days, NO-Shotgun(R) is not associated with any negative side effects, nor does it abnormally impact any of the clinical chemistry markers. Rather, NO-Shotgun(R) effectively increases muscle strength and mass, myofibrillar protein content, and increases the content of markers indicative of satellite cell activation.
McDougald Dawn M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Women gain total body weight and accrue body fat during pregnancy. Breastfeeding has been suggested as an efficient means of promoting postpartum weight loss due to its high energy cost. We investigated the effect of infant feeding mode on maternal body composition. Methods This study evaluated maternal weight and percent body fat changes in exclusively breastfeeding versus mixed feeding mothers during the first 12 weeks postpartum using the BOD POD. Twenty four mothers aged 19 – 42 years were studied. Participants were recruited from Athens-Clarke County and surrounding areas of the State of Georgia, USA. The study was conducted between November 2005 and December 2006. Results Prepregnancy weight was higher in mixed feeding mothers than in exclusively breastfeeding mothers (68.4 kg vs. 61.4 kg but the difference was not statistically significant. At 12 weeks postpartum, exclusively breastfeeding mothers had lost more total body weight than mixed feeding mothers (4.41 ± 4.10 kg versus 2.79 ± 3.09 kg; p = 0.072. There was no significant difference in fat weight change between the two groups (4.38 ± 2.06 kg versus 4.17 ± 2.63 kg. However, mixed feeding mothers lost slightly more percent body fat than exclusively breastfeeding mothers (1.90 ± 4.18 kg versus 1.71 ± 3.48 kg, but the difference was not statistically significant. The trend in percent body fat loss was significant among exclusively breastfeeding mothers (p = 0.034 but not mixed feeding mothers (p = 0.081. Exclusively breastfeeding mothers consumed more calories than mixed feeding mothers (1980 ± 618 kcal versus 1541 ± 196 kcal p = 0.08. Physical activity levels were, however, higher in mixed feeding mothers than exclusively breastfeeding mothers. Conclusion Our results provide further evidence that exclusive breastfeeding promotes greater weight loss than mixed feeding among mothers even in the early postpartum period. This suggests that there is the need
Hatsu, Irene E; McDougald, Dawn M; Anderson, Alex K
Background Women gain total body weight and accrue body fat during pregnancy. Breastfeeding has been suggested as an efficient means of promoting postpartum weight loss due to its high energy cost. We investigated the effect of infant feeding mode on maternal body composition. Methods This study evaluated maternal weight and percent body fat changes in exclusively breastfeeding versus mixed feeding mothers during the first 12 weeks postpartum using the BOD POD. Twenty four mothers aged 19 – 42 years were studied. Participants were recruited from Athens-Clarke County and surrounding areas of the State of Georgia, USA. The study was conducted between November 2005 and December 2006. Results Prepregnancy weight was higher in mixed feeding mothers than in exclusively breastfeeding mothers (68.4 kg vs. 61.4 kg) but the difference was not statistically significant. At 12 weeks postpartum, exclusively breastfeeding mothers had lost more total body weight than mixed feeding mothers (4.41 ± 4.10 kg versus 2.79 ± 3.09 kg; p = 0.072). There was no significant difference in fat weight change between the two groups (4.38 ± 2.06 kg versus 4.17 ± 2.63 kg). However, mixed feeding mothers lost slightly more percent body fat than exclusively breastfeeding mothers (1.90 ± 4.18 kg versus 1.71 ± 3.48 kg), but the difference was not statistically significant. The trend in percent body fat loss was significant among exclusively breastfeeding mothers (p = 0.034) but not mixed feeding mothers (p = 0.081). Exclusively breastfeeding mothers consumed more calories than mixed feeding mothers (1980 ± 618 kcal versus 1541 ± 196 kcal p = 0.08). Physical activity levels were, however, higher in mixed feeding mothers than exclusively breastfeeding mothers. Conclusion Our results provide further evidence that exclusive breastfeeding promotes greater weight loss than mixed feeding among mothers even in the early postpartum period. This suggests that there is the need to encourage mothers to
Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Vassilios Karydis, Nikos
Purpose Although the contribution of physique and body composition in soccer performance was recognized, these parameters of physical fitness were not well-studied in adolescent players. Aim of this study was to investigate physique and body composition across adolescence. Methods Male adolescents (N=297 aged 12.01–20.98 y), classified into nine one-year age-groups, child (control group, N=16 aged 7.34–11.97 y) and adult players (control group, N=29 aged 21.01–31.59 y), all members of competitive soccer clubs, performed a series of anthropometric measures (body mass, height, skinfolds, circumferences and girths), from which body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (BF%), fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM) and somatotype (Heath-Carter method) were calculated. Results Age had a positive association with FM (r=0.2, PSomatotype components changed across adolescence as well; age was linked to endomorphy (r=−0.17, P=0.005), mesomorphy (r=0.14, P=0.019) and ectomorphy (r=−0.17, P=0.004). Compared with age-matched general population, participants exhibited equal body mass, higher stature, lower body mass index and lower BF. Conclusion During adolescence, soccer players presented significant differences in terms of body composition and physique. Thus, these findings could be employed by coaches and fitness trainers engaged in soccer training in the context of physical fitness assessment and talent identification. PMID:22375222
Crepaldi, Carlo; Soni, Sachin; Chionh, Chang Yin; Wabel, Peter; Cruz, Dinna N; Ronco, Claudio
Assessment of body fluids in peritoneal dialysis is an important issue in the treatment of renal failure. Overhydration is related with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy and dehydration leads to hypotension and reduction of residual renal function. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) provides objective information in assessment of hydration status of the patients. In the past BIA was not widely used in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Our aim was to estimate the status of hydration in our peritoneal dialysis population by body composition monitoring (BCM) device to modify our pharmacological and dialysis policy. We used a Fresenius Body Composition Monitor, a whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy (50 frequencies, 5-1,000 kHz ), to assess the body composition of 97 patients on peritoneal dialysis in our center. The patients were subjected to a physical examination every three months: We measured body weight, 24 h diuresis and performed a BIA session. BIA measurements were repeated according to different clinical situations. Every patient underwent BIA at least on two different occasions. Our preliminary results have found a strict correlation between weight increase or decrease and the results (total body water, extracellular water, lean mass index) shown by BCM. Modifications of therapy in patients dehydrated restored a satisfying amount of diuresis. Hypertensive overhydrated patients changed their scheduled treatment improving their blood pressure and achieving a lower body weight. Bio impedance analysis is the most reliable, repetitive, not invasive, simple, portable and relatively inexpensive technique to assess the fluid status of a dialysis patient is bioimpedance.
Petri, Cristian; Mascherini, Gabriele; Bini, Vittorio; Anania, Giuseppe; CALà, Piergiuseppe; Toncelli, Loira; Galanti, Giorgio
The aim of this study is to assess if the evaluation of Body Mass Index is sufficient to define an overweight index in young athletes, or if a more effective evaluation is preferable in order to examine body fat mass, free-fat mass and hydration status in young athletes. 299 young athletes between the ages of 8 to 18 have been analyzed in this study. Data from evaluation in body composition of young athletes were studied and subdivided by age, sex and method used. In order to measure body composition in young people, the participants who attend our Department for sport eligibility examination, were evaluated through anthropometric measurements as far as, fat mass, fat-free mass and hydration status are concerned. The statistical differences showed with Body Mass Index and body fat assessment reflect that more accurate evaluation is preferable: the normal-weight with Body Mass Index are 78.0 %, overweight 18.7% and obese 3.3 % respect to a 75.0%, 14.0% and 11.0% detected with a body fat evaluation (pathletes. The results obtained show clearly that the analysis of the Body Mass Index is not sufficient in young athletes. Therefore for young athletes a full assessment of body composition would be appropriate to reduce classification errors.
Seamus Hegarty / HR; Tel. 74128
For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows : Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) David O. Williams/it (Convener) Cristoforo Benvenuti/est David Plane/ep Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Sverre Jarp/it (Chairman) Flemming Pedersen/ps Robin Lauckner/sl Christian Roche/ett Lars Leistam/est Dietrich Schinzel/ep Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) LTCB 1 (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano Camporesi/ep [Convener] - Florence Ranjard/ep [Alternate] Jacques Gruber/ps - Peter Sievers/lhc [Alternate] Thomas Pettersson/est - Michel Mayoud/est [Alternate] Sue Foffano/as - Thierry Lagrange/spl [Alternate] Werner Zapf/hr (Secretary) LTCB 2 (Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique Paris/sl [Convener] - Fabien Perriollat/ps [Alternate] Mats Wilhelmsson/st - Véronique Fassnacht/tis [Alternate] Lucie Linssen/ep - Alfredo Placci/ep [Alternate] Patrick Geeraert/fi - John Cuthb...
Human Resources Division
For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows: Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) Cristoforo BENVENUTI/EST [Convener] David PLANE/EP Peter SCHMID/EP Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Robin LAUCKNER/SL [Chairman] Flemming PEDERSEN/PS Lucie LINSSEN/EP Dietrich SCHINZEL/EP Marcel MOTTIER/EST Louis WALCKIERS/LHC Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano CAMPORESI/EP [Convener] Florence RANJARD/EP [Alternate] Jacques GRUBER/PS [until 30.6.2002] Roger BAILEY/SL [from 1.7. 2002] Peter SIEVERS/LHC [Alternate] Doris FORKEL-WIRTH/TIS Pierre NININ/ST [Alternate] Sue FOFFANO/AS Maarten WILBERS/DSU [Alternate] Werner ZAPF/HR[Secretary] LTCB 2 Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique PARIS/SL [Convener] Fabien PERRIOLLAT/PS [Alternate] Mats WILHELMSSON/ST Charles NUTTALL/TIS [Alternate] Lucie LINSSEN/EP Alfredo PLACCI/EP [Alternate] Patrick GEERAER...
For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows : Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) David Plane/EP [Convener] Enrico Chiaveri/AB Peter Schmid/EP Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Robin Lauckner/AB [Chairman]Marcel Mottier/EST Michael Letheren/EP Louis Walckiers/AT Lucie Linssen/EP Mats Wilhelmsson/ST Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) LTCB 1 (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano Camporesi/EP [Convener]Florence Ranjard/EP [Alternate] Roger Bailey/ABPeter Sievers/AT " " Doris Forkel-Wirth/TISPierre Ninin/ST " " Rob Rayson/HRMaarten Wilbers/DSU " " Seamus Hegarty/HR [Secretary] LTCB 2 (Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique Paris/AB [Convener]Fabien Perriollat/AB [Alternate] Christian Lasseur/ESTRamon Folch/EST " " Lucie Linssen/EP Alfredo Placci/EP " " Mats Møller/ASLaszlo Abel/SPL " " Seamus Hegarty/HR [Secretary] Human Resources Division Tel. 74128
Hashimoto, Kazumasa; Wong, William W; Thomas, Alicia J; Uvena-Celebrezze, Jennifer; Huston-Pressley, Larriane; Amini, Saeid B; Catalano, Patrick M
The objective of the study is to evaluate neonatal body composition determined by the isotope dilution method compared with the total-body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) method. An oral dose of 18O- and 2H-labeled water was given to 40 healthy term newborns, and 26 infants successfully completed the protocol. The isotope concentrations in urine samples were measured by gas-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Fat and percent body fat (%F) estimated by isotope dilution were correlated with fat and %F estimated. Total body water measured by isotope dilution of 18O and 2H was 2.44 +/- 0.36 and 2.49 +/- 0.35 kg, respectively (p water content in individuals, the isotope dilution method may not be the optimal way of assessing body composition, and specifically body fat, in newborns. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
Franco, Débora; Fragoso, Isabel; Andrea, Mário; Teles, Júlia; Martins, Fernando
Voice quality provides information about the anatomical characteristics of the speaker. The patterns of somatotype and body composition can provide essential knowledge to characterize the individuality of voice quality. The aim of this study was to verify if there were significant differences in somatotype and body composition between normal and dysphonic speakers. Cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measurements were taken of a sample of 72 adult participants (40 normal speakers and 32 dysphonic speakers) according to International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry standards, which allowed the calculation of endomorphism, mesomorphism, ectomorphism components, body density, body mass index, fat mass, percentage fat, and fat-free mass. Perception and acoustic evaluations as well as nasoendoscopy were used to assign speakers into normal or dysphonic groups. There were no significant differences between normal and dysphonic speakers in the mean somatotype attitudinal distance and somatotype dispersion distance (in spite of marginally significant differences [P somatotype attitudinal distance and somatotype dispersion distance between groups) and in the mean vector of the somatotype components. Furthermore, no significant differences were found between groups concerning the mean of percentage fat, fat mass, fat-free mass, body density, and body mass index after controlling by sex. The findings suggested no significant differences in the somatotype and body composition variables, between normal and dysphonic speakers. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The article deals with importance and adaptation options of body composition and physical fitness. Measurement methodology of body composition and physical fitness was done. Skinfold caliper and bioelectrical impedance analysis techniques was used to obtain body composition parameters. Physical fitness was measured using veloergometry, sit-ups, sit-and-reach, flamingo balance, plate tapping and back muscle dynamometer tests. After research relationship was established between: muscle mass and maximum oxygen uptake (for female, r = −0,635, p 0,05, bone mass and maximum oxygen uptake (for female, r = −0,636, p < 0,05, body fat mass and maximum oxygen uptake (for male, 0,580 r = − , 0,05 p < , body fat mass and sit-and-reach results (for male, r = − 0,601, p < 0,05, total body water and maximum oxygen uptake (for male, r = 0,537 , p < 0,05 , total body water and sit-and-reach results (for male, r = 0,559 , p < 0,05.
Kosus, Aydin; Eser, Ayla; Kosus, Nermin; Usluogullari, Betul; Hizli, Deniz
The objective of this study was to determine if maternal body fat composition and body mass index were associated with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) in the first trimester of pregnancy. Healthy pregnant women (n = 30) without nausea and vomiting (control group) and women with HG (n = 54; study group), all with singleton pregnancy at 6-14 weeks gestational age, were included. Body mass index was measured before and during pregnancy. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous fat thickness were measured during pregnancy. Comparison of the groups revealed that VAT and pre-pregnancy body mass index but not subcutaneous fat thickness were significantly higher in the HG group versus controls. VAT and pre-pregnancy body mass index predicted 83.8% and 67.1% of HG cases, respectively. VAT and pre-pregnancy body mass index were correlated with the development of hyperemesis gravidrum and hence could be considered as predictive markers for HG.
Valter Paulo N. Miranda
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1, eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2, eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV. Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032. There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049. The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034 and percentage of central fat (p=0.039 compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (α=0.751. Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess.
Full Text Available Background: Bone mass loss and muscle atrophy are the frequent complications occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI. The potential risks involved with these changes in the body composition have implications for the health of the SCI individual. Thus, there is a need to quantitate and monitor body composition changes accurately in an individual with SCI. Very few longitudinal studies have been reported in the literature to assess body composition and most include relatively small number of patients. The present prospective study aimed to evaluate the body composition changes longitudinally by DEXA in patients with acute SCI. Materials and Methods: Ninety five patients with acute SCI with neurological deficits were evaluated for bone mineral content (BMC, body composition [lean body mass (LBM and fat mass] by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during the first year of SCI. Results: There was a significant decrease in BMC ( P < 0.05 and LBM ( P < 0.05 and increase in total body fat mass (TBFM and percentage fat at infra-lesional sites. The average decrease was 14.5% in BMC in lower extremities, 20.5% loss of LBM in legs and 15.1% loss of LBM in trunk, and increase of 0.2% in fat mass in legs and 17.3% increased fat in the lower limbs at 1 year. The tetraplegic patients had significant decrease in arm BMC ( P < 0.001, arm LBM ( P < 0.01 and fat percentage ( P < 0.01 compared to paraplegics. Patients with complete motor injury had higher values of TBFM and fat percentage, but comparable values of BMC and LBM to patients with incomplete motor injury. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there is a marked decrease in BMC and LBM with increase in adiposity during the first year of SCI. Although these changes depend on the level and initial severity of lesions, they are also influenced by the neurological recovery after SCI.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Medir los indicadores antropométricos de composición corporal por bioimpedancia eléctrica y la actividad física, así como la glucosa sanguínea y la presión arterial en personas mayores de 60 años de una región rural. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Por muestreo intencional no probabilístico se seleccionaron 54 sujetos mayores de 60 años, quienes se sometieron al protocolo estandarizado para las mediciones antropométricas y composición corporal por bioimpedancia eléctrica (BIE y actividad física mediante el cuestionario de actividades. Asimismo, se midió la presión arterial y se realizó la prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa. Los valores promedio se analizaron por sexo mediante la prueba t de Student, y la asociación de la actividad física y la composición corporal con otras variables, por regresión lineal simple y el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. RESULTADOS. La actividad física correlacionó negativamente con el porcentaje de grasa (r= -0.36; p= 0.007; la presión arterial diastólica (r= -0.36; p= 0.006 y sistólica (r= -0.32; p= 0.018 y el índice de masa corporal, con la glucosa posdosis (r= 0.31; p= 0.024. CONCLUSIONES. La actividad física en este grupo de personas puede tener un impacto favorable respecto a los indicadores de salud tan importantes que se mencionaron.OBJECTIVE. To measure anthropometric indicators of body composition by electric bioimpedence, as well as physical activity, blood glucose and arterial pressure in rural people over 60 years of age. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A total of 54 subjects over 60 years old were selected by intentional non-probabilistic sampling. They were subjected to a standardized protocol to measure anthropometric indicators, body composition by electric bioimpedance (EBI, and physical activity was determined by an activity questionnaire. Arterial pressure and glucose tolerance levels were also measured. Analysis included Student's t test to detect differences by sex and the
Full Text Available The mid-life period is a critical window for increases in body weight and changes in body composition. In this review, we summarize the clinical experience of the menopausal transition by obesity status, and examine the evidence regarding the menopausal transition and reproductive hormones effects on body weight, body composition, or fat distribution. Mid-life obesity is associated with a different menopausal experience including associations with menstrual cycle length prior to the final menstrual period (FMP, age at the FMP, and higher prevalence of vasomotor symptoms. The menopausal transition is associated with weight gain and increased central body fat distribution; the majority of evidence suggests that changes in weight are due to chronological aging whereas changes in body composition and fat distribution are primarily due to ovarian aging. Continuous and regular physical activity during mid-life may be an efficacious strategy to counteract the age-related and menopause-related changes in resting energy expenditure and to prevent weight gain and abdominal adiposity deposition.
Full Text Available Gláucia Regina Falsarella,1 Lívia Pimenta Renó Gasparotto,1 Caroline Coutinho Barcelos,2 Ibsen Bellini Coimbra,1,2 Maria Clara Moretto,1 Mauro Alexandre Pascoa,3 Talita C B Rezende Ferreira,1 Arlete Maria Valente Coimbra1,41Gerontology Program, Faculty of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Medical Clinics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, 3Department Biodynamics of Movement, Faculty of Physical Education, 4Family Health Program, Gerontology Program, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Body composition (BC in the elderly has been associated with diseases and mortality; however, there is a shortage of data on frailty in the elderly.Objective: To investigate the association between BC and frailty, and identify BC profiles in nonfrail, prefrail, and frail elderly people.Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 235 elderly (142 females and 93 males aged ≥65 years, from the city of Amparo, State of São Paulo, Brazil, was undertaken. Sociodemographic and cognitive features, comorbidities, medication, frailty, body mass index (BMI, muscle mass, fat mass, bone mass, and fat percent (% data were evaluated. Aiming to examine the relationship between BC and frailty, the Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis nonparametric tests were applied. The statistical significance level was P<0.05.Results: The nonfrail elderly showed greater muscle mass and greater bone mass compared with the prefrail and frail ones. The frail elderly had greater fat % than the nonfrail elderly. There was a positive association between grip strength and muscle mass with bone mass (P<0.001, and a negative association between grip strength and fat % (P<0.001. Gait speed was positively associated with fat mass (P=0.038 and fat % (P=0.002. The physical activity level was negatively associated with fat % (P=0.022. The weight loss criterion was positively related to muscle mass (P<0.001, bone mass (P=0.009, fat mass
Effects of advice on dietary intake and/or physical activity on body composition, blood lipids and insulin resistance following a low-fat, sucrose-containing, high-carbohydrate, energy-restricted diet.
Kirkwood, Lesley; Aldujaili, Emad; Drummond, Sandra
To determine the effect of dietary advice in conjunction with advice to increase physical activity on the body composition, blood lipid and insulin profiles in overweight women. A 12-week randomized controlled intervention study. subjects were assigned to one of four groups: (1) no advice, (2) low-fat, high-carbohydrate (including sucrose) energy-reduced diet, (3) 60 min/day brisk walking, and (4) diet and activity advice as previous. Sixty-nine overweight women (mean age 41 years). Dietary compliance was assessed by 4-day diet diaries. Activity levels were assessed by Caltractrade mark accelerator monitors. Anthropometric changes were recorded at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples measuring glucose, insulin, and blood lipids were recorded at baseline and 12 weeks. Group 4 achieved greatest weight loss of 4.2 kg and greatest reduction in waist circumference of 6.5 cm. Groups 2 and 4 decreased the percentage energy from fat by 5.2%. Group 3 increased the percentage energy from fat by 4.0%. Group 4 significantly reduced total cholesterol by 0.45 mmol/l and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol by 0.53 mmol/l. A low-fat, high-carbohydrate, sucrose-containing diet combined with increased physical exercise resulted in greater health benefits than diet or physical activity advice alone.
Diana A Santos
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of body composition in athletes, reference sex- and sport-specific body composition data are lacking. We aim to develop reference values for body composition and anthropometric measurements in athletes. METHODS: Body weight and height were measured in 898 athletes (264 female, 634 male, anthropometric variables were assessed in 798 athletes (240 female and 558 male, and in 481 athletes (142 female and 339 male with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. A total of 21 different sports were represented. Reference percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th were calculated for each measured value, stratified by sex and sport. Because sample sizes within a sport were often very low for some outcomes, the percentiles were estimated using a parametric, empirical Bayesian framework that allowed sharing information across sports. RESULTS: We derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following DXA outcomes: total (whole body scan and regional (subtotal, trunk, and appendicular bone mineral content, bone mineral density, absolute and percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, and lean soft tissue. Additionally, we derived reference percentiles for height-normalized indexes by dividing fat mass, fat-free mass, and appendicular lean soft tissue by height squared. We also derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following anthropometry outcomes: weight, height, body mass index, sum of skinfold thicknesses (7 skinfolds, appendicular skinfolds, trunk skinfolds, arm skinfolds, and leg skinfolds, circumferences (hip, arm, midthigh, calf, and abdominal circumferences, and muscle circumferences (arm, thigh, and calf muscle circumferences. CONCLUSIONS: These reference percentiles will be a helpful tool for sports professionals, in both clinical and field settings, for body composition assessment in athletes.
Full Text Available Many small mammals respond to seasonal changes in photoperiod by altering body mass and adiposity. These animals may provide valuable models for understanding the regulation of energy balance. In present study, we examined the effect on body mass, rest metabolic rate, food intake and body composition in cold-acclimated (5 °C in Eothenomys miletus by transferring them from a short (SD, 8h :16h L: D to long day photoperiod (LD, 16h: 8h L:D. During the first 4 weeks of exposure to SD, E. miletus decreased body mass. After the next 4 weeks of exposure to LD, which the average difference between body masses of LD and SD voles was 4.76 g. This 14.74% increase in body mass reflected significant increases in absolute amounts of body components, including wet carcass mass, dry carcass mass and body fat mass. After correcting body composition and organ morphology data for the differences in body mass, only livers, kidney, and small intestine were enlarged due to photoperiod treatment during cold exposure. E. miletus increased RMR and energy intake exposure to LD, but maintained a stable level to SD after 28 days. Serum leptin levels were positively correlated with body mass, body fat mass, RMR as well as energy intake. All of the results indicated that E. miletus may provide an attractive novel animal model for investigation of the regulation of body mass and energy balance at organism levels. Leptin is potentially involved in the photoperiod induced body mass regulation and thermogenesis in E. miletus during cold exposure.
Lee, Yujin; Krawinkel, Michael
We described the body composition and nutrient intake of Buddhist vegetarians and compared the data with that of omnivores in South Korea. Vegetarian subjects were 54 Buddhist nuns, who adhered to a vegetarian diet in accordance with Buddhist teachings. We compared these finding with a group of 31 omnivore Catholic nuns who shared a similar lifestyle but different dietary pattern than those of the Buddhist nuns. All subjects completed the estimated three-day dietary record. Body composition was determined by a segmental multi-frequency-bioelectrical impedance analysis method. No height difference between the dietary groups existed but the vegetarians had a significantly higher body weight, fat free mass, body fat and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) than the omnivores. The median BMI of both vegetarians and omnivores fell in the normal range (22.6 vs. 20.7 kg/m2). In vegetarians, body fat was inversely correlated with the duration of vegetarianism (p for trend=0.043). The long duration group of the vegetarians had lower body fat than the short duration group (12.l vs. 15.0 kg, p=0.032). The status of the nutrient intake of Korean Buddhist vegetarians was comparable to that of omnivores, and the intake of some nutrients in vegetarians was more favorable than in the omnivores.
Tiago Wally Hartwig
Full Text Available The most alarming cases are known as morbidly obese. An effective method to change the anthropometric characteristics of this population with excess body weight and high fat mass is bariatric surgery. The objective of this study was to analyze the body composition of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. In a prospective cohort study, a group of morbidly obese patients was followed up 30 days before and 30 days after surgery. The sample consisted of 123 patients who underwent vertical banded Roux-en-Y gastroplasty between April 2003 and May 2010. Body composition (fat percentage was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The mean age of the patients was 36.1 ± 8.8 years and mean body weight loss was 14.1 ± 6.0 kg (p<0.001. The mean reduction in body mass index (BMI was 5.2 ± 2.1 kg/m2 (p<0.001. Body fat percentage and fat mass were reduced by 2.8% (p<0.001 and 9.7 ± 4.9 kg (p<0.001, respectively. In addition, there was a reduction of 4.4 ± 3.4 kg (p<0.001 in lean mass. We concluded that the surgical procedure significantly reduced body weight, BMI, fat percentage and fat mass and is an alternative when conventional treatments appear ineffective.
Objective. The aim of this study was to determine body composition, dietary intake and supplement use among Olympic and Ironman distance triathletes residing in the Western Cape. Methods. A descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional study design was conducted in Western Cape Province. Twenty-six triathletes registered ...
Objective. The aim of this study was to describe the body composition, strength and speed characteristics of elite junior South African rugby players. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Field study. Subjects. Rugby players (16 and 18 years old, N = 174) selected for the South African Rugby Union National Green Squad.
Velthuis, M.J.; Schuit, A.J.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Monninkhof, E.M.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-month moderate-to-vigorous exercise program combining aerobic and muscle strength training on body composition among sedentary, postmenopausal women. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total of 189 sedentary
Body composition, disordered eating and menstrual regularity in a group of South African endurance athletes. ... behaviour. This places them at a high risk of developing two components of the female athlete triad namely funct ional hypotha lamic amenorrhea and low energy-availability with or without an eating disorder.
Beginners, Intermediate and Advanced). They completed self-administered questionnaires on menstrual history, eating attitude (EAT-26) and disordered eating behaviour (EDI). Body composition was measured by air displacement plethysmography. Results indicated that beginner athletes had a younger menarcheal age ...
coincided with a breaking-point in the log-linear relationship between live mass and cumulative metabolizable energy. (ME) intake at 23 kg live mass, thus separating the growth curve into two different growth phases as reflected by different patterns of energy intake, growth rate, feed conversion ratio, body composition and ...
This study presents a profile of the body composition and somatotype characteristics of male Zimbabwean league basketball players, which information is lacking. Twenty six players aged 22.0±5.3 years were purposively sampled from the top teams of the Bulawayo Basketball Association. Anthropometric variables were ...
goal of nutritional strategies is to target and eliminate factors that impair exercise performance; these factors include fatigue, thirst, muscle glycogen depletion and gastro-intestinal disturbances. 5. Nutrition is an important modifiable factor towards achieving the optimal body composition as well as providing fuel for increased.
Beck, Lisa A; Lamb, Jeffry L; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Wuermser, Lisa-Ann; Amin, Shreyasee
To examine body composition, including the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and total body fat, in women and men with complete motor paraplegia and to make comparisons with able-bodied controls. In 13 subjects with traumatic, complete motor paraplegia (six women, seven men) and 39 sex-, age-, and BMI-matched controls from the community (18 women, 21 men), we measured total and regional (upper extremities, trunk, and lower extremities) lean and fat mass using total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Both women and men with paraplegia had significantly lower lean mass in their lower extremities, as would be expected, and in their total body when compared with controls. However, they had significantly greater lean mass in their upper extremities than controls (4.4 kg vs. 3.6 kg, P = 0.004 and 8.6 kg vs. 6.7 kg, P paraplegia studied used manual wheelchairs. Although total body fat mass was significantly greater in women (P = 0.010) and men (P = paraplegia compared with controls, for the equivalent total body fat mass, BMI was actually lower in women and men with paraplegia than controls (e.g. 20.2 kg/m² vs. 25.0 kg/m², respectively). We report on body composition in persons with complete motor paraplegia, including women on whom limited information is currently available. Our results support the need to define better assessments of obesity in both women and men following spinal cord injury, particularly of central body fat distribution, as BMI underestimates adiposity in this population.
Verhoef, S.P; Camps, S.G; Gonnissen, H.K; Westerterp, K.R; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S
An inverse relation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) has been shown. We assessed the relation between changes in sleep duration and changes in body weight and body composition during weight loss...
Back, Ivi Ribeiro; Marcon, Sonia Silva; Gaino, Natalia Moreno; Vulcano, Daniela Salate Biagioni; Dorna, Mariana de Souza; Sassaki, Ligia Yukie
The nutritional status of individuals with inflammatory bowel diseases is directly related to the severity of the disease and is associated with poor prognosis and the deterioration of immune competence. To assess the nutritional status and the body composition of outpatients with inflammatory bowel diseases. A cross-sectional study was conducted with clinical and nutritional assessment of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Patients were classified according to the clinical activity through Crohn's Disease Activity Index and Mayo Score. Nutritional assessment consisted of anthropometric measurements of current weight, height, mid-arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness and thickness of adductor policis muscle, with subsequent calculation of BMI, arm muscle circumference and the mid-arm muscle area (MAMA). The phase angle (PhA) and lean and fat mass were obtained with the use of electrical bioimpedance. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test or Fisher exact test, ANOVA and t-test. We evaluated 141 patients of which 54 (38.29%) had Crohn's disease and 87 (61.70%) ulcerative colitis. The mean age was 43.98 (±15.68) years in Crohn's disease and 44.28 (±16.29) years for ulcerative colitis. Most of the patients were in clinical remission of the disease (Crohn's disease: 88.89%; ulcerative colitis: 87.36%). Regarding the nutritional classification using BMI, it was found that 48.15% of Crohn's disease patients were eutrophic and 40.74% were overweight or obese; among patients with ulcerative colitis, 52.87% were classified as overweight or obese. When considering the triceps skinfold, it was observed in both groups a high percentage of overweight and obesity (Crohn's disease: 75.93%; ulcerative colitis: 72.42%). Crohn's disease patients showed the most affected nutritional status according to the nutritional variables when compared to patients with ulcerative colitis (BMI: 24.88 kg/m² x BMI: 26.56 kg/m², P=0.054; MAMA: 35.11 mm x MAMA: 40
Morais, A A; Costa, R A; Grilo, M G; Bezerra, M E; Vieira, M M; Alves, R F; Carmo, S C; Faintuch, J
Monitoring of fluid exchanges during hemodialysis is essential for the safety and efficacy of the procedure. Bioimpedance analysis has been used for the measurement of body compartments in many settings, but experience during hemodialysis is relatively scare. In a prospective study of 28 cases of chronic renal failure treated by long-term hemodialysis on an outpatient basis, body composition studies were done immediately before and after the dialysis session. Methods included body weight, serum albumin, hematocrit, hemoglobin, sodium and osmolality. These variables were compared with impedance (BIA) findings, namely lean body mass, body fat, total water, extra and intra-cellular water, third space, and exchangeable sodium/potassium ratio. Patients lost weight and improved hematocrit, hemoglobin, osmolality and serum sodium during the therapy, and BIA measurements were consistent with these changes. Lean body mass and body fat markedly changed along the dialysis session (respectively -24.5% and + 7.5%), and these results were out of proportion regarding known gains and losses in that period. It is concluded that BIA was useful for monitoring water fluxes during hemodialysis, but provided unreliable information about body fat and lean body mass.
Moreno Martinez, Socorro; Tufiño Olivares, Edith; Chávez Loya, Vicente; Rodríguez Morán, Martha; Guerrero Romero, Fernando; Levario Carrillo, Margarita
Several techniques have been used to determine body composition during pregnancy. To determine the characteristics of body composition in women with gestational diabetes mellitus in comparison with women with normal glucose tolerance and pre-gestacional diabetes. Pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus, pre-gestacional diabetes, and normal glucose tolerance, between 24 to 32 weeks of single gestation, were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Screening of DMG was carried out using 50 g of glucose load; diagnosis was confirmed by oral glucose tolerance test. Evaluation of body composition was carried out by bioelectrical impedance. The Kruskal Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. A total of 79 women were included; of these, diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus, pre-gestacional diabetes, and normal glucose tolerance was established in 14, 9, and 56 women, respectively. Pre-gestational body mass index was greater in women with diabetes (p diabetes mellitus (range 21.0-29.4 kg) and patients with pre-gestacional diabetes (range 26.4-32.7 kg) than in the women with normal glucose tolerance (range 150.8-25.9 kg), p diabetes mellitus compared with women with normal glucose tolerance. Women with gestational diabetes mellitus show a significant increase in fat mass without significant changes in the fat free mass and total body water.
Pitts, G. C.; Bull, L. S.; Oyama, J.
Two groups of adult female rats were chronically centrifuged for 60 days (2.76 G, 4.15 G, controls at 1.00 G). Live weights of centrifugal rats decreased about 20 g (6%) per Delta 1 G above control. This weight loss comprised reductions in both body fat and fat-free body weight (FFBW) as determined by body-composition studies on eight rats per group killed at the end of centrifugation. Of nine components constituting the FFBW, only skeletal muscle, liver, and heart changed significantly in weight. Chemical composition showed reductions (compared with controls) in the fat fraction of most components and increases in the water fraction of liver and gut. Identical measurements were made on the remaining eight rats per group killed 43 days after return to 1 G. Neither centrifuged group had reached the control body-weight level at this time. No statistically significant effect of previous G level was found in any of the body-composition parameters. The possible involvment of physiological regulation was considered.
Leake, C N; Carter, J E
The body composition and somatotype of 16 trained female triathletes aged 18.8-32.8 years were measured. All of the subjects were engaged in a competitive training programme and participated in the same triathlon. Anthropometric variables included height, mass, selected diameters, girths and skinfolds, and a Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype. Body composition was determined by hydrostatic weighing procedures and skinfold patterns. Comparisons were made with Olympic swimmers and runners. The triathletes had a mean body mass of 55.2 kg and a mean height of 162.1 cm. When compared to swimmers, the triathletes were somewhat shorter and significantly (P less than 0.005) older. On most other measures, including a balanced mesomorph somatotype of 3.1-4.3-2.6, they were similar to swimmers. This group of triathletes were generally heavier, less lean, more mesomorphic and less ectomorphic than elite runners. Reported body densities from other studies indicated little difference between the triathletes and other groups. Skinfold patterns were similar in shape for all groups, but the runners had smaller values, at all sites, than either swimmers or triathletes. Because of lack of information on cyclists, adequate comparisons were not possible. Regression analysis indicated that training parameters were more important than anthropometric measures in the prediction of performance. It was concluded that this group of triathletes were closer, with respect to both body composition and somatotype, to swimmers than to runners.
De Lorenzo, A; Sorge, R P; Candeloro, N; Di Campli, C; Sesti, G; Lauro, R
During treatment of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, there may be marked body weight loss. Therefore, body composition should be monitored to check for a decrease in fat mass alone, without an excessive decrease of both fat-free mass and total body water. Accordingly, it is useful to monitor the hydration of these patients. One method that allows us to check the status of body hydration is the multifrequency bioelectric impedance analysis (MFBIA). It makes use of formulas that estimate total body water on the basis of the concept that the human body may be approximated to a cylinder of length equal to body height. In normal subjects body water estimates are sufficiently accurate, but in obese subjects the true hydration status may be overestimated. In this report, we describe the accuracy of mathematical models previously described in the literature, and correct for the overestimation of total body water in obese subjects by means of a new equation based on a new model. The coefficients for each model have been recalculated by the weighing of our sample in order to test the accuracy of estimates obtained with the equations. This new model includes both body volume and two impedances at appropriate frequencies useful for identifying two terms strictly related to extra- and intra-cellular water. The new formulas do not include body weight, but they include the body volume, a parameter more closely related to the biophysical reference model. Fifty-five overweight females, body mass index ranging from 26.8 to 50.2 kg/m2, were enrolled in the study. The proposed equations, taking advantage of two impedance values at appropriate frequencies, better predict total body water in obese women. This was particularly evident when the results obtained with the multifrequency bioelectric impedance analysis and deuterium isotopic oxide dilution method were compared. Although this last method is considered the "gold standard," it is not suitable for use in
Yi, Nengjun; Zinniel, Denise K; Kim, Kyoungmi; Eisen, Eugene J; Bartolucci, Alfred; Allison, David B; Pomp, Daniel
To comprehensively investigate the genetic architecture of growth and obesity, we performed Bayesian analyses of multiple epistatic quantitative trait locus (QTL) models for body weights at five ages (12 days, 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks) and body composition traits (weights of two fat pads and five organs) in mice produced from a cross of the F1 between M16i (selected for rapid growth rate) and CAST/Ei (wild-derived strain of small and lean mice) back to M16i. Bayesian model selection revealed a temporally regulated network of multiple QTL for body weight, involving both strong main effects and epistatic effects. No QTL had strong support for both early and late growth, although overlapping combinations of main and epistatic effects were observed at adjacent ages. Most main effects and epistatic interactions had an opposite effect on early and late growth. The contribution of epistasis was more pronounced for body weights at older ages. Body composition traits were also influenced by an interacting network of multiple QTLs. Several main and epistatic effects were shared by the body composition and body weight traits, suggesting that pleiotropy plays an important role in growth and obesity.
Reeves, S; Poh, B; Brown, M; Tizzard, N; Ismail, M
This comparative study was conducted to determine the anthropometric measurements and body composition of football teams in the UK and Malaysia. A total of 32 footballers from two teams were studied. The teams were the St Mary's University team (UK) and the Selangor Reserved League team. The height and body weight of the subjects were measured using SECA digital balance with height attachment. Skinfold thickness measurements were taken using Harpenden skinfold callipers at four sites (biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac) and the VO2max of the subjects was estimated by participation in a multi-stage 20m shuttle-run test. The UK team were significantly heavier (pbody fat content (pbody weights. More data on the body composition and nutritional status of Malaysian footballers would allow adjustments to be made to dietary intakes and training levels in order to obtain maximum performance throughout the football season.
Elliott, Sarah A; Davidson, Zoe E; Davies, Peter S W; Truby, Helen
In clinical practice, monitoring body composition is a critical component of nutritional assessment and weight management in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of a simple bedside measurement tool for body composition, namely bioelectrical impedance analysis, in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Measures of fat-free mass were determined using a bioelectrical impedance analysis machine and compared against estimations obtained from a reference body composition model. Additionally, the use of raw impedance values was analyzed using three existing predictive equations for the estimation of fat-free mass. Accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis was assessed by comparison against the reference model by calculation of biases and limits of agreement. Body composition was measured in 10 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, mean age 9.01 ± 2.34 years. The bioelectrical impedance analysis machine values of fat-free mass were on average 2.3 ± 14.1 kg higher than reference values. Limits of agreement (based on 95% confidence interval of the mean) were -7.4 to 2.9 kg. There was a significant correlation between the mean fat-free mass and difference in fat-free mass between the bioelectrical impedance analysis machine and the reference model (r = -0.86; P = 0.02) suggesting that the bias was not consistent across the range of measurements. The most accurate predictive equation for the estimation of fat-free mass using raw impedance values was the equation by Pietrobelli et al. (mean difference, -0.7 kg; 95% limits of agreement, -3.5 to 2.0 kg). In a clinical setting, where a rapid assessment of body composition is advantageous, the use of raw impedance values, combined with the equation by Pietrobelli et al., is recommended for the accurate estimation of fat-free mass, in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: There is little literature that showed the nutritional bases to optimize weightlifting performance. The objective was to perform a systematic review of the body composition and nutritional composition of diets in elite weightlifting athletes. Material and Methods: Articles published in Pubmed, Web of Science and Sport Discuss were reviewed following PRISMA Statement. The process for selecting studies was performed duplicated by two researchers in two stages (screening and application of eligibility criteria. A qualitative synthesis of the main characteristics and findings was made. The quality of studies was assessed. Results: Of the 610 articles found, 8 met the inclusion criteria, which were the studies performed in elite or high-level menopausal women, and information on dietary habits and/or body composition. Body composition identified that the percentage of fat mass was around 15%. A caloric intake of 4080.65±1602.69kcal, a protein intake of 17.29±3.2% of total daily energy (TDE, 42.48±5.6% TDE of carbohydrates and a 36.1±9.75% TDE of fats. A suboptimal dietary profile is suggested, showing an excess in fat intake, which could explain the excess body fat observed in some. Athletes’ protein intake and carbohydrates were within the recommended ranges except for 2 studies. Conclusions: An incorrect diet on the part of the elite weightlifting athletes was observed, which could condition their body composition negatively. The need for advice and intervention by a dietitian-nutritionist professionals was observed.
Calleja-Fernández, Alicia; Pintor-de-la-Maza, Begoña; Diez-Rodríguez, Rubén; Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Urioste-Fondo, Ana; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D
Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) has been shown to be one of the most effective techniques for losing weight, although the relationship between body composition and diet after the procedure is not well known. Our aim was to assess dietary changes and their effects on body composition. This longitudinal study included all patients eligible for BPD who had undergone body composition analysis. Two assessments were performed: 6 weeks before and 1 year after surgery. Nutritional education was given after surgery by a registered dietitian, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed and a 3-day food record was collected for further analysis at both of the visits. Forty-six patients were included. The percentage of excess of weight loss was 61.03 % (SD 14.01 %), which was statistically different by gender (p = 0.045). The percentage of subjects reporting a low daily protein consumption of less than 60 g and 1.2 g/kg of ideal body weight (IBW)/day was 15.2 % before surgery and 19.6 % at 12 months (p = 0.006). The weight loss was mainly of fat mass (FM). There were differences of body composition by gender before and after surgery. A simple correlation analysis showed a significant association between daily energy intake and FM (g) only before surgery (p = 0.030), and also between daily protein intake (expressed as total g) and lean body mass (LBM) 12 months after surgery (p = 0.018), but no association was found with achieved protein goal. BPD enhanced by nutritional education seems to improve its results by achieving an adequate weight loss, preserving LBM, decreasing FM, and guaranteeing an appropriate protein intake.
Jukka A. Salmi
Full Text Available Body composition assessment is an important factor in weight management, exercise science and clinical health care. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is widely used method for estimating body composition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate segmental multi-frequency bioimpedance method (SMFBIA in body composition assessment with underwater weighing (UWW and whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA in healthy obese middle-aged male subjects. The measurements were carried out at the UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research in Tampere, Finland according to standard procedures of BIA, UWW and DXA. Fifty-eight (n=58 male subjects, aged 36-53 years, body mass index (BMI 24.9-40.7, were studied. Of them forty (n=40 underwent also DXA measurement. Fat mass (FM, fat-percentage (F% and fat free mass (FFM were the primary outcome variables. The mean whole body FM (±SD from UWW was 31.5 kg (±7.3. By DXA it was 29.9 kg (±8.1 and by SMFBIA it was 25.5 kg (±7.6, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients (r were 0.91 between UWW and SMFBIA, 0.94 between DXA and SMFBIA and 0.91 between UWW and DXA, respectively. The mean segmental FFM (±SD from DXA was 7.7 kg (±1.0 for arms, 41.7 kg (±4.6 for trunk and 21.9 kg (±2.2 for legs. By SMFBIA, it was 8.5 kg (±0.9, 31.7 kg (±2.5 and 20.3 kg (±1.6, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.75 for arms, 0.72 for legs and 0.77 for trunk. This study demonstrates that SMFBIA is usefull method to evaluate fat mass (FM, fat free mass (FFM and fat percentage (F% from whole body. Moreover, SMFBIA is suitable method for assessing segmental distribution of fat free mass (FFM compared to whole body DXA. The results of this study indicate that the SMFBIA method may be particularly advantageous in large epidemiological studies as being a simple, rapid and inexpensive method for field use of whole body and segmental body composition assessment
In a multivariable GEE regression, adjusted for age, gender, race and DM, compared to the highest tertile of Scr/Wt, the lowest tertile was associated with lower 6 min walk distance (β -61, 95% CI -94 to -29 m. Results were similar when these models were further adjusted for wt. SCr/Wt is associated with direct measures of body composition and correlates with physical function. The specific functional form of SCr/ Wt which scales optimally with body composition needs to be determined.
Reinders, Ilse; Visser, Marjolein; Schaap, Laura
Aging is associated with various changes in body composition, including changes in weight, loss of muscle mass, and increase in fat mass. This article describes the role of body weight and body composition, and their changes, in the risk of frailty in old age. Based on current literature, observational studies on obesity and high waist circumference show most convincing results for an association with frailty. The independent role of muscle mass and muscle fat infiltration remains unclear, mainly due to a lack of studies and a lack of accurate measurement of body composition by computed tomography or MRI. Weight loss and exercise training intervention studies can be of benefit to frail older adults. Obesity and high waist circumference may be important determinants of frailty in old age, whereas the role of muscle mass and muscle fat infiltration is still unclear. More prospective studies that will specifically focus on frailty as an outcome measure are needed to identify specific body composition components as potential targets for the prevention of frailty in old age.
Smolarczyk, Marcin; Wiśniewski, Andrzej; Czajkowska, Anna; Kęska, Anna; Tkaczyk, Joanna; Milde, Katarzyna; Norkowski, Henryk; Gajewski, Jan; Trajdos, Adam; Majchrzak, Anna
Young people who study physical education are a priori regarded as having proper body structure and body composition. This assumption cannot be confirmed in the subject literature. To determine the basic auxological parameters in youth who study physical education. 235 first-year students studying physical education were examined: 32% women (n=74) and 68% men (n=161). The students' body height, weight, waist, and hip circumference were measured. Body composition (bioimpedance method), specifying the body fat percentage (FM%) and fat free mass (FFM%) was also assessed. The mean normalized height of the female body was 0.48±1.07 SDS, and for the male body 0.51±1.04 SDS. The mean normalized weight for women was 0.4±0.94 SDS, and for men it was 0.83±0.9 SDS. The mean fat percentage in the body composition of women and men was, respectively, 21.5±5.06, ranging from 10.16% to 35.06%, and 12.5±3.97, ranging from 4.36% to 22.28%. In one-third of the women, the percentage of fat in the body composition was higher than 25%. 1. Young people who choose to study physical education and physical culture are characterized by greater height and greater body weight than the general population, regardless of gender. 2. Short persons study physical education less often than tall individuals. 3. The greater body weight observed in the majority of students studying physical education, in comparison to that of the general population, was caused by a dominant percentage of lean body mass in body composition; unexpectedly, however, some women were observed to have relatively high fat content. 4. Use of the body mass index and waist-hip ratio was not a sufficiently sensitive screening examination to detect fatness in physically active young adults; therefore, it should not substitute for the determination of fat content in body composition.
Bläsing, Bettina; Schack, Thomas; Brugger, Peter
We investigated mental representations of body parts and body-related activities in two subjects with congenitally absent limbs (one with, the other without phantom sensations), a wheelchair sports group of paraplegic participants, and two groups of participants with intact limbs. To analyse mental representation structures, we applied Structure Dimensional Analysis. Verbal labels indicating body parts and related activities were presented in randomized lists that had to be sorted according to a hierarchical splitting paradigm. Participants were required to group the items according to whether or not they were considered related, based on their own body perception. Results of the groups of physically intact and paraplegic participants revealed separate clusters for the lower body, upper body, fingers and head. The participant with congenital phantom limbs also showed a clear separation between upper and lower body (but not between fingers and hands). In the participant without phantom sensations of the absent arms, no such modularity emerged, but the specific practice of his right foot in communication and daily routines was reflected. Sorting verbal labels of body parts and activities appears a useful method to assess body representation in individuals with special body anatomy or function and leads to conclusions largely compatible with other assessment procedures.
In 2011, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) and IOC introduced a 'hyperandrogenism' rule that excluded women with a serum testosterone >10 nmol/L from participating in elite sport. This rule was based on the false premise that the greater lean body mass in men was a consequence of their higher serum testosterone. This rule did not have scientific backing and the Court of Arbitration for Sport subsequently rescinded the rule following an appeal from an Indian athlete barred from the Commonwealth Games. This review covers the scientific knowledge about the development and regulation of body composition in humans but also considers the lessons learnt from evolution and breeding in animals. The importance of heredity has been documented in family and twin studies. The roles of growth hormone and sex steroids are reviewed. The Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) is considered as a model of the role of testosterone in development of body composition and also as evidence of the importance of other factors carried on the Y-chromosome that are of prime importance but have been systematically ignored. Finally the key factors determining body composition are considered and placed in a suggested order of importance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Quiterio, A L; Carnero, E A; Silva, A M; Baptista, F; Sardinha, L B
We aimed to explore associations between hours per week of sports training and molecular and cellular body composition components in adolescent athletes. A total of 33 female athletes (13.3+/-3.5 years; 47.8+/-12.6 kg; 154+/-14.0 cm) and 90 male athletes (14.1+/-2.7 years; 60.6+/-17.8 kg; 167+/-16.2 cm) were measured. Based on the total of hours per week of training, athletes were divided into tertiles: body fat (BF), percent body fat (%BF), bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD). Total body water (TBW), intracellular (ICW) and extracellular water (ECW) were assessed using bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS). Extracellular fluids (ECF), solids (ECS), body cell mass (BCM) and body fluid distribution (E/I) were calculated. Total hours per week of sports training (h/week), habitual physical activity (PA) and dietary were assessed by questionnaire. Statistics included analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and simple regression analyses. Athletes training 9 h/week presented greater levels of TBW, lean, bone mass, BCM, and ECF and a lower %BF, independently of confounders. No significant differences in body composition estimates were found between athletes training fat free components, only in the group exercising 9 h/week In this group of Portuguese athletes from different sports we observed that training 9 h/week significantly improved body composition, especially fat free components, which may be important for a healthy growth and sports performance.
Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Vassilios Karydis, Nikos
Although the contribution of physique and body composition in soccer performance was recognized, these parameters of physical fitness were not well-studied in adolescent players. Aim of this study was to investigate physique and body composition across adolescence. Male adolescents (N=297 aged 12.01-20.98 y), classified into nine one-year age-groups, child (control group, N=16 aged 7.34-11.97 y) and adult players (control group, N=29 aged 21.01-31.59 y), all members of competitive soccer clubs, performed a series of anthropometric measures (body mass, height, skinfolds, circumferences and girths), from which body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (BF%), fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM) and somatotype (Heath-Carter method) were calculated. Age had a positive association with FM (r=0.2, Pphysique. Thus, these findings could be employed by coaches and fitness trainers engaged in soccer training in the context of physical fitness assessment and talent identification.
Full Text Available Objective:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD which is strongly correlated with obesity; has been a common worldwide health problem with the improvements in social status. Body composition studies are accepted as a simple follow-up tool for treatment of obesity. Since the correlation of body mass index (BMI with the hepatosteatosis (HS is well known; the aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of body composition parameters (BCP to determine HS on NAFLD patients; using dual bioimpedance analyzer (BIA. Methods:A total of 253 patients with diagnosis of NAFLD were included into the study. The demographic parameters such as age, sex and BMI were collected; and the ultrasonographic (US evolution was performed to determine the HS stages. The BCP, such as amount and the percentage of total body fat, fat free mass, and total body water were assessed with the dual bioimpedance analyzer. Results:There were strong significant correlations between BMI and HS, between BCP and HS (p0.05. Conclusion: According to our results, it can be concluded that BCP values may have a diagnostic value on diagnosis of NAFLD.
Larsson, P; Henriksson-Larsén, K
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between body composition and performance in cross-country skiing. Ten male college-aged elite cross-country skiers (17.9 yrs; S 1.0 yrs) participated in a 5.6-km cross-country skiing time trial and in dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Lunar DPX-L, Madison, WI, USA) body composition measurements. A differential global positioning system (dGPS, GPS 12 CX, Garmin Int. Inc., Olathe, KS, USA; RXMAR 2, Aztec SA, Strasbourg, France) was used to compute speed in different sections of the course. Spearman correlation analyses were applied. Total body weight and absolute lean body mass were significantly related to final time (r = - 0.721; p < 0.05 and - 0.830; p < 0.01, respectively). Absolute lean arm mass (kg) was negatively correlated to final time (r = - 0.648; p < 0.05) and the relative lean arm mass was significantly related to speed mainly in uphill sections (r = 0.636 to 0.867; p < 0.05 to p < 0.01). We suggest that large amounts of lean body mass, especially in the arms, seem to be of great importance for cross-country skiing performance.
Dmitry S. Blinov
Full Text Available Introduction. Tissues of the human body can conduct electricity. Liquid medium (water, blood, the contents of hollow bodies, have a low impedance, i.e. good conductors, while denser tissue (muscle, nerves, etc. resistance is significantly higher. The biggest impedance have fat and bone tissues. The bioimpendancemetry – a method which allows to determine the composition of the human body by measuring electrical resistance (impedance of its tissues. Relevance. This technique is indispensable to dieticians and fitness trainers. In addition, the results of the study can provide invaluable assistance in the appointment of effective treatment physicians, gynecologists, orthopedists, and other specialists. The bioimpedance method helps to determine the risks of developing diabetes type 2, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diseases of the musculoskeletal system, disorders of the endocrine system, gall-stone disease and etc. Materials and Methods. In the list of parameters of body composition assessed by bioimpedance analysis method, included absolute and relative indicators. Depending on the method of measurement of the absolute rates were determined for the whole body. To absolute performance were: fat and skinny body mass index, active cell and skeletal muscle mass, total body water, cellular and extracellular fluid. Along with them were calculated relatively (normalized to body weight, lean mass, or other variables indicators of body composition. Results. In the result of the comparison of anthropometric and bioimpedance method found that growth performance, vital capacity, weight, waist circumference, circumfer¬ence of waist and hip, basal metabolism, body fat mass, normalized on growth, lean mass, percentage skeletal muscle mass in boys and girls with normal and excessive body weight had statistically significant differences. Discussion and Conclusions. In the present study physical development with consideration of body composition in students
Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Christensen, Tomas Møller; Bülow, Jens
BACKGROUND: Treatment of Charcot osteoarthropathy (COA) requires restricted walking and offloading for several months, which lead to fat re-distribution and increased sarcopenia. OBJECTIVES/AIM: To investigate whether subjects with COA have an altered body composition compared to controls. METHODS....../total body fat distribution ratios. RESULTS: Sarcopenia frequency was higher in the total population with diabetes overall (9-40%), compared to normal materials. Using two different models for correlating appendicular lean mass to sarcopenia, there were no differences in sarcopenia-rates between the groups...
Gotfredsen, A; Westergren Hendel, H; Andersen, T
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of the pancreas lipase inhibitor orlistat (OLS) on calcium metabolism, bone turnover, bone mass, bone density and body composition when given for obesity as adjuvant to an energy- and fat-restricted diet. DESIGN: Randomized controlled double-blinded trial...... of treatment with OLS 120 mg three times daily or placebo for 1 y. SUBJECTS: Thirty obese subjects with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 36.9+/-3.7 kg/m(2) and a mean age of 41+/-11 y. Sixteen patients were assigned to OLS and 14 to placebo. MEASUREMENTS: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements...
Jago, R; Jonker, ML; Missaghian, M; Baranowski, T
Background. There is a need to find ways to increase the physical activity levels and improve the body composition and blood pressure of girls. Methods. Thirty 11-year-old girls were recruited from two after school programs in Houston Texas in Spring 2005. Participants from one program (16) were
Kabiri, Laura S.; Mitchell, Katy; Brewer, Wayne; Ortiz, Alexis
Background: Public school children regularly participate in school-based physical activity, physical education, and fitness testing. However, almost 2 million American children are homeschooled. The purpose of this research was to assess the body composition of elementary school-aged homeschool children and their corresponding cardiovascular…
Chudecka, Monika; Lubkowska, Anna; Kempińska-Podhorodecka, Agnieszka
Adipose tissue levels and human obesity are known to be associated with increased heat production. At the same time, subcutaneous adipose tissue provides an insulating layer that impedes heat loss. The energy implications of obesity and body thermoregulatory mechanisms remain relatively poorly understood. This study attempted to examine the potential relationship between body composition (subcutaneous and visceral fat) determined by bioimpedance as well as BMI (body mass index), and skin surface temperature distribution recorded at rest. One specific aim of this study was to draw a thermal map of body areas in obese women and compare this with women of normal body mass, and thus to identify body regions within which heat transfer is particularly impeded. As high fat content is a good insulator, it could reduce the body's ability to respond effectively to changes in environmental temperature, which would be problematic for thermal homeostasis. Our results showed that core temperature did not differ between obese and normal body mass participants, while skin temperature of most body surfaces was lower in obese subjects. The results of regression analysis showed that the mean body surface temperature (Tmean) decreased with increasing percentage of body fat (PBF) of the abdominal area. The opposite relationship was observed for the front area of the hand (simultaneous increase in Tmean and PBF). We also found a negative correlation between BMI and Tmean of the thigh areas, both the front and the back. From this it could be concluded that the mean body surface temperature is dependent on body fat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Klaver, Maartje; de Mutsert, Renée; Wiepjes, Chantal M; Twisk, Jos W R; den Heijer, Martin; Rotteveel, Joost; Klink, Daniël T
Transgender adolescents aspiring to have the body characteristics of the affirmed sex can receive hormonal treatment. However, it is unknown how body shape and composition develop during treatment and whether transgender persons obtain the desired body phenotype. To examine the change in body shape and composition from the start of treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) until 22 years of age and to compare these measurements at 22 years with those of age-matched peers. 71 transwomen (birth-assigned boys) and 121 transmen (birth-assigned girls) who started treatment from 1998 through 2014 were included in this retrospective study. GnRHa treatment was started and cross-sex hormonal treatment was added at 16 years of age. Anthropometric and whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry data were retrieved from medical records. Linear mixed model regression was performed to examine changes over time. SD scores (SDS) were calculated to compare body shape and composition with those of age-matched peers. Change in waist-hip ratio (WHR), total body fat (TBF), and total lean body mass (LBM) during hormonal treatment. SDS of measures of body shape and composition compared with age-matched peers at 22 years of age. In transwomen, TBF increased (+10%, 95% CI = 7-11) while total LBM (-10%, 95% CI = -11 to -7) and WHR (-0.04, 95% CI = -0.05 to -0.02) decreased. Compared with ciswomen, SDS at 22 years of age were +0.3 (95% CI = 0.0-0.5) for WHR, and 0.0 (95% CI = -0.2 to 0.3) for TBF. Compared with cismen, SDS were -1.0 (95% CI = -1.3 to -0.7) for WHR, and +2.2 (95% CI = 2.2-2.4) for TBF. In transmen, TBF decreased (-3%, 95% CI = -4 to -1), while LBM (+3%, 95% CI = 1-4) and WHR (+0.03, 95% CI = 0.01-0.04) increased. Compared with ciswomen, SDS at 22 years of age were +0.6 (95% CI = 0.4-0.8) for WHR, and -1.1 (95% CI = -1.4 to -0.9) for TBF. Compared with cismen, SDS were -0.5 (95% CI = -0.8 to -0.3) for WHR, and +1.8 (95% CI = 1.6-1.9) for TBF. Knowing body
Shirley, Shelby; Davis, Leslie L; Carlson, Barbara Waag
The purpose of this review was to summarize the literature on the relationship between obesity and survival in persons with heart failure (HF). In particular, the article examines the ways in which studies define body size/composition (body mass index [BMI], body composition, weight, cachexia, fluid retention, or albumin) and the relationship of BMI and survival after controlling for factors such as HF severity, etiology of the HF, gender, race, age, and/or time since HF diagnosis. The keywords heart failure and body mass index, heart failure and obesity, and heart failure and body composition were indexed in PubMed. Articles published from 1999 to 2006 that used multivariate analyses to examine the relationship between obesity and survival in persons with HF were included in the review. BMI is the standard most often used for measuring body weight in patients with HF. Yet, BMI does not address other major components of body weight (fat, lean body mass, and fluid) that may factor into the mortality of patients with HF. Four of the six studies reviewed reported a positive relationship between obesity and improved survival. However, the studies are limited by design, with the majority being cross-sectional. Furthermore, most of the data were collected through secondary data analysis from patient records in the 1990s, before contemporary HF treatment was used. Until further research solidifies a clear association between higher BMIs and improved survival in patients with HF, nurse practitioners and others should continue to counsel their patients with HF who are overweight to lose weight. Assessing BMI alone as a predictor of survival for patients with HF may be misleading and should be performed in the context of other factors. Moreover, care should be taken in managing patients with HF who are cachexic because these patients have a worrisome prognosis.
Karakas, S; Karadag, F; Karul, A B; Gurgey, O; Gurel, S; Guney, E; Cildag, O
Nutritional depletion and weight loss are two features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the association between low body mass index (BMI) and poor prognosis in patients with COPD is a common clinical observation. Mechanisms of weight loss are still unclear in COPD. Excessive energy expenditure partly due to increased work of breathing was shown, but other mechanisms have been searched for. Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that plays an important role in energy homeostasis and regulates body weight through control of appetite and energy expenditure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of circulating leptin levels and measures of body composition in COPD patients. Thirty male COPD outpatients (mean age 66.3 +/- 8.4) and 20 controls (mean age 65.9 +/- 10.8) were included in the study. After standard spirometry and body composition measurements, serum leptin concentration was measured by ELISA assay. COPD patients were grouped according to BMI. Mean BMI was 19.01 +/- 2.26 kg/m2 in group 1 (COPD patients with low BMI), 26.85 +/- 4.51 in group 2 COPD (COPD patients with normal/high BMI) and 27.64 +/- 2.75 kg/m2 in healthy controls (group 3). Mean serum leptin concentration was 1.41 +/- 1.86 ng/ml in group 1, 2.60 +/- 1.38 ng/ml in group 2 and 2.82 +/- 1.46 ng/ml in group 3 (p = 0.002). Leptin correlated to not only BMI but also body weight, waist circumference, triceps and biceps skinfold thickness and body fat percent (p leptin in COPD. Instead, leptin remains regulated in COPD and further decreased in patients with low BMI, probably as a compensatory mechanism to preserve body fat content, which should be evaluated in further studies.
Ribeiro, Sandra M. L.; Kehayias, Joseph J.
Reduction of lean mass is a primary body composition change associated with aging. Because many factors contribute to lean mass reduction, the problem has been given various names depending on the proposed cause, such as “age-related sarcopenia,” “dynapenia,” “myopenia,” “sarcopenic obesity,” or simply “sarcopenia.” There is currently no consensus on how to best diagnose the reduction of lean mass and its consequences on health. We propose that simple body composition methods can be used to indirectly evaluate sarcopenia, provided that those techniques are validated against the “quality of lean” criterion that associates muscle mass and metabolic function with the components of fat-free mass. Promising field methods include the use of stable isotopes for the evaluation of water compartments and new approaches to bioelectrical impedance analysis, which is also associated with the monitoring of water homeostasis. PMID:24829472
Luis David Maldonado-Bonilla
Full Text Available mRNA accumulation is tightly regulated by diverse molecular pathways. The identification and characterization of enzymes and regulatory proteins involved in controlling the fate of mRNA offers the possibility to broaden our understanding of posttranscriptional gene regulation. Processing bodies (P bodies, PB are cytoplasmic protein complexes involved in degradation and translational arrest of mRNA. Composition and dynamics of these subcellular structures have been studied in animal systems, yeasts and in the model plant Arabidopsis. Their assembly implies the aggregation of specific factors related to decapping, deadenylation and exoribonucleases that operate synchronously to regulate certain mRNA targets during development and adaptation to stress. Although the general function of PB along with the flow of genetic information is understood, several questions still remain open. This review summarizes data on the composition, potential molecular roles, and biological significance of PB and potentially related proteins in Arabidopsis.
Loenneke, Jeremy P; Hirt, Kathryn M; Wilson, Jacob M; Barnes, Jeremy T; Pujol, Thomas J
When assessing fitness levels, body composition is usually measured. The purpose of this study was to determine the overall efficacy of a body mass index (BMI) equation for predicting body composition with respect to college aged participants. Body composition was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and was estimated using the Womersley and Durnin BMI prediction equation. There was no significant (P=0.8) percent body fat (%BF) difference between the BMI prediction equation and DXA (BMI Predicted=25 (10) [min=6; max=52] %BF vs DXA=25 (6) [min=10; max=45] %BF). In addition, a significant correlation was found between the two approaches (r=0.791, P=0.001). However, both the standard error of estimate (6.32 %BF) and total error (6.63 %BF) were outside acceptable ranges for prediction equations. The Womersley and Durnin equation for estimating %BF was not found to be a good estimate. Therefore, although the BMI predicted %BF has been previously found to predict skinfold estimated %BF, it does not appear valid in estimating %BF from DXA.
Márcio Augusto Nogueira Costa; Patrícia Novita Garcia; Letícia Fernandes Barroso; Marco Antonio Ferreira; Érika Araki Okuda; Norma Allemann
PURPOSE: To investigate the reliability of ultrasound in determining the size and identify the sonographic features and artifacts generated by intraocular foreign bodies of different materials. METHODS: Experimental study using 36 enucleated porcine eyes. Fragments of nine different compositions (wood, glass, plastic, cardboard, iron, aluminum, lead, powder and concrete) and similar dimensions (4 mm) were implanted via scleral incision into the vitreous cavity of 36 porcine eyes, four eyes we...
Ezzat, Allison M.; Schneeberg, Amy; Koehoorn, Mieke; Emery, Carolyn A.
Purpose: To examine the association between overweight or obesity and sport injury in a population-based sample of Canadian adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were performed using the Canadian Community Health Survey (2009?2010), a nationally representative sample (n=12,407) of adolescents aged 12?19 years. Body composition was quantified using BMI, grouping participants into healthy weight, overweight, or obese. The outcome of interest was acute or repetitive strain injury sustai...
Full Text Available Purpose: determine the features of the body component composition and the level of physical performance, as well as the structure of the correlation between these indicators in amateur athletes. Material & Methods: in conditions of the test with physical load with stepwise increasing power in the 71-st physically active person, the reaction of the cardio-respiratory system to physical activity. The body component composition was determined by the bioelectrical impedance method. Result: in amateur athletes, the relative VO2max and power ratings are positively correlated with the relative body water content and have a negative relationship with age, body weight, body mass index, fat content. Oxygen pulse with a high degree of probability positively correlated with body weight, body mass index, metabolic rate, fat-free mass, water content and predictable muscle mass in all body segments. Conclusion: Conducted studies indicate a sufficient level of aerobic capacity, overall performance, the efficiency of the cardiac cycle, the functioning of the О2-transport system and skeletal muscles ability to absorb oxygen from the amateur athletes, and excess fat tissue negatively affects physical performance, overall endurance and achieving high sports results in sports on the endurance.
Stachoń, Aleksandra Jadwiga
The aim of the study was to determine whether the tendencies and scope of changes in body mass, body composition and body girths across the menstrual cycle were similar or different in women of different body build. Anthropometric examinations were carried out in a group of 40 naturally regularly menstruated females practicing team sports (aged 19-21, B-v 169.3+/-6.4 cm, body mass 59.6+/-7.0 kg), in the follicular, periovulatory and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. The phases were determined on the basis of data from two consecutive menstrual cycles taking into account the cycle’s length. To establish the type of body build, Body Mass Index, hydration status and skinfold thickness were measured. For a statistical analysis, a multiple comparisons with multiple confidence intervals were applied. The increase in body mass between the follicular and the luteal phases was observed in all groups of women, the biggest gain was recorded in slim women, who in the luteal phase weighted 0.8 kg more. The amount of fat mass increased significantly across the menstrual cycle only in more hydrated (by about 0.66 kg) and slim women (by about 0.54 kg). Significant changes between consecutive phases of the menstrual cycle in waist and hip girths, and suprailiac skinfold thickness in some groups of women also indicate influence of fatness and hydration status and slenderness. In view of the presented results, the body build seems important for an analysis of the pattern of each component’s changes across the menstrual cycle, especially for female athletes. Certain changes can be seen only in some groups of women, therefore somatic features can be considered as a predictor of the intensity of changes.
Costa, Márcio Augusto Nogueira; Garcia, Patrícia Novita; Barroso, Letícia Fernandes; Ferreira, Marco Antonio; Okuda, Érika Araki; Allemann, Norma
To investigate the reliability of ultrasound in determining the size and identify the sonographic features and artifacts generated by intraocular foreign bodies of different materials. Experimental study using 36 enucleated porcine eyes. Fragments of nine different compositions (wood, glass, plastic, cardboard, iron, aluminum, lead, powder and concrete) and similar dimensions (4 mm) were implanted via scleral incision into the vitreous cavity of 36 porcine eyes, four eyes were used for each material. Ultrasound examination was performed in all eyes using the contact technique, conductive gel and 10-MHz transducer (EZScan, Sonomed). Considering the material fragments of gunpowder, lead, concrete, aluminum, wood and glass, the size determined by ultrasound was considered statistically similar to the actual size. The material iron presented ultrasound-determined dimension statistically smaller than its actual size. Cardboard and plastic materials showed ultrasound-determined measurements far greater than the actual. All fragments of intraocular foreign bodies demonstrated hyper-reflective interfaces, irrespective of their composition. Whereas the artifacts generated by different materials, it was found that the materials iron, aluminum and lead showed reverberation of great extent. The material wood showed no reverberation. The length of the reverberation artifact for the materials iron, glass, aluminum and cardboard was lower when compared to other materials. All materials presented posterior shadowing artifact, with the exception of aluminum. Ultrasonography was considered a reliable technique to determine the size of intraocular foreign bodies in pigs, with little influence caused by its composition. Ultrasound artifacts generated were considered material-dependent and can assist the examiner to identify the nature of a foreign body of unknown etiology. Ultrasonography aided the surgeon to identify, locate and measure the intraocular foreign body, directing
Márcio Augusto Nogueira Costa
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the reliability of ultrasound in determining the size and identify the sonographic features and artifacts generated by intraocular foreign bodies of different materials. METHODS: Experimental study using 36 enucleated porcine eyes. Fragments of nine different compositions (wood, glass, plastic, cardboard, iron, aluminum, lead, powder and concrete and similar dimensions (4 mm were implanted via scleral incision into the vitreous cavity of 36 porcine eyes, four eyes were used for each material. Ultrasound examination was performed in all eyes using the contact technique, conductive gel and 10-MHz transducer (EZScan, Sonomed. RESULTS: Considering the material fragments of gunpowder, lead, concrete, aluminum, wood and glass, the size determined by ultrasound was considered statistically similar to the actual size. The material iron presented ultrasound-determined dimension statistically smaller than its actual size. Cardboard and plastic materials showed ultrasound-determined measurements far greater than the actual. All fragments of intraocular foreign bodies demonstrated hyper-reflective interfaces, irrespective of their composition. Whereas the artifacts generated by different materials, it was found that the materials iron, aluminum and lead showed reverberation of great extent. The material wood showed no reverberation. The length of the reverberation artifact for the materials iron, glass, aluminum and cardboard was lower when compared to other materials. All materials presented posterior shadowing artifact, with the exception of aluminum. CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography was considered a reliable technique to determine the size of intraocular foreign bodies in pigs, with little influence caused by its composition. Ultrasound artifacts generated were considered material-dependent and can assist the examiner to identify the nature of a foreign body of unknown etiology. Ultrasonography aided the surgeon to identify, locate and
Tian, Ye; Huang, Chuanye; He, Zihong; Hong, Ping; Zhao, Jiexiu
The causal relation between autonomic function and adiposity is an unresolved issue. Thus, we studied whether resting heart rate variability (HRV) changes could be used to predict changes in body composition after 16 weeks of individualized exercise training. A total of 117 sedentary overweight/obese adults volunteered to join an intervention group (IN, n=82) or a control group (CON, n=35). The intervention group trained for 30-40 min three times a week with an intensity of 85-100% of individual ventilatory threshold (Thvent). At baseline and after a 16-week training period, resting HRV variables, body composition and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) were assessed. Compared with CON, exercise training significantly improved HRV and body composition and increased VO2peak (Ptraining were observed for those with greater total and central fat loss. Individual aerobic-based exercise training was for improving autonomic function and resting HRV responses to aerobic training is a potential indicator for adaptations to exercise training. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Mattar, Lama; Godart, Nathalie; Melchior, Jean Claude; Pichard, Claude
The psychiatric condition of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN) is affected by their nutritional status. An optimal assessment of the nutritional status of patients is fundamental in understanding the relationship between malnutrition and the psychological symptoms. The present review evaluates some of the available methods for measuring body composition in patients with AN. We searched literature in Medline using several key terms relevant to the present review in order to identify papers. Only articles in English or French were reviewed. A brief description is provided for each body composition technique, with its applicability in AN as well as its limitation. All methods of measuring body composition are not yet validated and/or feasible in patients with AN. The present review article proposes a practical approach for selecting the most appropriate methods depending on the setting, (i.e. clinical v. research) and the goal of the assessment (initial v. follow-up) in order to have a more personalised treatment for patients suffering from AN.
Schuna, John M; Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong; Heymsfield, Steven B
Adult body mass (MB) empirically scales as height (Ht) squared (MB ∝ Ht(2) ), but does regional body mass and body composition as a whole also scale as Ht(2) ? This question is relevant to a wide range of biological topics, including interpretation of body mass index (BMI). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify regional body mass [head (MH), trunk, arms, and legs] and whole-body composition [fat, lean soft tissue (LST), and bone mineral content (BMC)] in non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, Mexican American, and Korean adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 17,126) and Korean NHANES (n = 8,942). Regression models were developed to establish Ht scaling powers for each measured component with adjustments for age and adiposity. Exploratory analyses revealed a consistent scaling pattern across men and women of the four population groups: regional mass powers, head (∼0.8-1) body composition, LST (∼2.0-2.3) body mass scaled uniformly across the eight sex and population groups as Ht(∼2) , tall and short subjects differed in body shape (e.g., MH/MB ∝ Ht(-∼1) ) and composition. Adult human body shape and relative composition are a function of body size as represented by stature, a finding that reveals a previously unrecognized phenotypic heterogeneity as defined by BMI. These observations provide new pathways for exploring mechanisms governing the interrelations between adult stature, body morphology, biomechanics, and metabolism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Chul-Young Bae,1 Young Gon Kang,2 Young-Sung Suh,3 Jee Hye Han,4 Sung-Soo Kim,5 Kyung Won Shim61MediAge Research Center, Seoul, Korea; 2Chaum Power Aging Center, College of Medicine, CHA University, Seoul, Korea; 3Health Promotion Center, Keimyung University Dongsam Medical Center, Daegu, Korea; 4Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, Eulji University, Seoul, Korea; 5Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea; 6Department of Family Medicine, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, KoreaBackground: To date, no studies have attempted to estimate body shape biological age using clinical parameters associated with body composition for the purposes of examining a person's body shape based on their age.Objective: We examined the relations between clinical parameters associated with body composition and chronological age, and proposed a model for estimating the body shape biological age.Methods: The study was conducted in 243,778 subjects aged between 20 and 90 years who received a general medical checkup at health promotion centers at university and community hospitals in Korea from 2004 to 2011.Results: In men, the clinical parameters with the highest correlation to age included the waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.786, P < 0.001, hip circumference (r = −0.448, P < 0.001, and height (r = −0.377, P < 0.001. In women, the clinical parameters with the highest correlation to age include the waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.859, P < 0.001, waist circumference (r = 0.580, P < 0.001, and hip circumference (r = 0.520, P < 0.001. To estimate the optimal body shape biological age based on clinical parameters associated with body composition, we performed a multiple regression analysis. In a model estimating the body shape biological age, the coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.71 in men and 0.76 in women.Conclusion: Our model for estimating body shape biological age
Effects of 28 days of resistance exercise and consuming a commercially available pre-workout supplement, NO-Shotgun®, on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers in males
Full Text Available Abstract Purpose This study determined the effects of 28 days of heavy resistance exercise combined with the nutritional supplement, NO-Shotgun®, on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers. Methods Eighteen non-resistance-trained males participated in a resistance training program (3 × 10-RM 4 times/wk for 28 days while also ingesting 27 g/day of placebo (PL or NO-Shotgun® (NO 30 min prior to exercise. Data were analyzed with separate 2 × 2 ANOVA and t-tests (p Results Total body mass was increased in both groups (p = 0.001, but without any significant increases in total body water (p = 0.77. No significant changes occurred with fat mass (p = 0.62; however fat-free mass did increase with training (p = 0.001, and NO was significantly greater than PL (p = 0.001. Bench press strength for NO was significantly greater than PL (p = 0.003. Myofibrillar protein increased with training (p = 0.001, with NO being significantly greater than PL (p = 0.019. Serum IGF-1 (p = 0.046 and HGF (p = 0.06 were significantly increased with training and for NO HGF was greater than PL (p = 0.002. Muscle phosphorylated c-met was increased with training for both groups (p = 0.019. Total DNA was increased in both groups (p = 0.006, while NO was significantly greater than PL (p = 0.038. For DNA/protein, PL was decreased and NO was not changed (p = 0.014. All of the myogenic regulatory factors were increased with training; however, NO was shown to be significantly greater than PL for Myo-D (p = 0.008 and MRF-4 (p = 0.022. No significant differences were located for any of the whole blood and serum clinical chemistry markers (p > 0.05. Conclusion When combined with heavy resistance training for 28 days, NO-Shotgun® is not associated with any negative side effects, nor does it abnormally impact any of the clinical chemistry markers. Rather, NO-Shotgun® effectively increases muscle strength and mass
Barbieri, Davide; Zaccagni, Luciana; Cogo, Annalisa; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela
In order to evaluate body composition and somatotype, 10 Italian experienced mountain climbers were assessed from an anthropometric point of view, before a high altitude ascent. Body mass, height, girths, skinfolds, and bone breadths were gathered and used to calculate body composition and somatotype of each subject. Means and standard deviations of the subjects' anthropometric characteristics were calculated. Mesomorphism (5.28±1.10) is the dominant somatotype component in all but one the participants, endomorphism (1.55±0.49) is low, and body fat percentage (11.76%±2.93) is low. Comparisons with athletes involved in other climbing subdisciplines highlight the specificity of elite mountain climbers anthropometry. The elite mountain climbers in our sample were predominantly mesomorphic with somatotype attitudinal mean values lower than reported for male athletes participating in free-climbing, volleyball, gymnastics, and soccer. Anthropometric characteristics may therefore play a role in mountain climbing, even though the trainable components may be more relevant than the nontrainable ones.
Josilda Ferreira Cruz
Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the association of the components of body composition (body mass index – BMI, waist circumference, basal metabolism, body fat percentage, fat weight, fat free percentage and lean weight with gender, age, income and schooling in patients with hepatic steatosis. Descriptive and survey study, with quantitative analytical approach. Data were collected through ultrasound and bioimpedance tests. The significance was p < 0.05 and software used was SPSS 22.0. A sample of 114 patients with hepatic steatosis, 70.1% were women. The mean age was 46.2, only 11.4% had normal BMI. The mean BMI was 30.4, waist circumference 100.2 cm, fat percentage 37.97%, basal metabolism 1451.9 kcal, fat weight 31.0 kg. Statistical differences in several variables in relation to gender and age were found. However, no statistically significant differences were found regarding schooling and income. Changes in body composition were obvious in patients with hepatic steatosis.
Nam Ho Kim
Full Text Available Bioimpedance analysis is a reliable technique for determining post dialysis target weight. Using this technique, we can understand body fluid status easier and conveniently. Moreover this technique can be used for check nutrition status and nutritional status of dialysis patients. We compared the body fluid status and nutrition status between hemodialysis (HD patients and peritoneal dialysis (PD patients by BCM (Body composition monitor technique. We studied 48 (30 males and 18 females PD patients, 21 (10 males and 11 females HD patients. Body composition monitoring (BCM, Fesenitus Medical Care, Germany was used as a tool for the analysis of bioimpedance. Extracellular water, Total body water, Intracellular water, Overhydration, E/I, Lean tissue mass, Fat Tissue mass was measured and those results were compared between two groups. HD patients were more hydrated than PD patients (61.9% vs. 35.4% and nutritional status such as LTI was poorer than peritoneal dialysis patients (11.7±1.7 vs. 15.3±2.6. Although total body water is more abundant in peritoneal patients (29.4±5.5L vs. 35.9±6.2L, Extracellular water and intracellular water ratio was relatively higher in Hemodialysis patients (E/I 0.98±0.13 vs. 0.87±0.12. The nutrition status was better in PD patients by comparing the percent of lean tissue mass (LTM% between two groups (LTM% 52.1±10.6% vs. 66.8±11.3. In conclusions, Hemodialysis patients were more hydrated with poorer nutrition status than peritoneal dialysis patients, but, due to the significant difference of age between two groups, further study should be required.
The impact of strenuous group physical activity on mood states, personal views, body composition, and markers of myocardial damage in overweight/obese adults: the "Step-by-step Italy's coast to coast" trek.
Mazzeschi, Claudia; Piana, Natalia; Capezzali, Daniela; Mommi, Antonella; Aiello, Cristina; Gatti, Michela; Romani, Giannermete; Buratta, Livia; Battistini, Dalila; Nasini, Giovanni; Reginato, Elisa; Urbani, Lorena; Pazzagli, Chiara; Ferri, Carla; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; De Feo, Pierpaolo
It is clinically relevant to understand whether it is safe to recommend to trained overweight/obese people long-distance treks and whether these experiences could have a negative psychological impact or become even dangerous exposing the trekkers to the risk of clinically silent myocardial damage. To answer these questions we have performed a quantitative/qualitative study comparing the changes in mood profiles, personal views, body composition, and plasma troponin levels of 40 overweight/obese subjects with those of 36 healthy normal weight subjects after the participation in a trek of 388 km from the Adriatic to the Tyrrhenian seas trek: the "Step by step…Italy's coast to coast". The results of this study demonstrate that long-distance treks are a safe activity for trained overweight/obese people which should be recommended because they improve mood, health status, and the relationship of participants with themselves and with the regular practice of exercise with effects similar to those obtained by healthy normal weight subjects.
The Impact of Strenuous Group Physical Activity on Mood States, Personal Views, Body Composition, and Markers of Myocardial Damage in Overweight/Obese Adults: The “Step-by-Step Italy’s Coast to Coast” Trek
Full Text Available It is clinically relevant to understand whether it is safe to recommend to trained overweight/obese people long-distance treks and whether these experiences could have a negative psychological impact or become even dangerous exposing the trekkers to the risk of clinically silent myocardial damage. To answer these questions we have performed a quantitative/qualitative study comparing the changes in mood profiles, personal views, body composition, and plasma troponin levels of 40 overweight/obese subjects with those of 36 healthy normal weight subjects after the participation in a trek of 388 km from the Adriatic to the Tyrrhenian seas trek: the “Step by step…Italy’s coast to coast”. The results of this study demonstrate that long-distance treks are a safe activity for trained overweight/obese people which should be recommended because they improve mood, health status, and the relationship of participants with themselves and with the regular practice of exercise with effects similar to those obtained by healthy normal weight subjects.
Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Rowicka, Grazna; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Ołtarzewski, Mariusz; Gajewska, Joanna
One of the important factors affecting bone health is body weight. Underweight children are predisposed to disturbances in bone metabolism, which may result in osteopenia and osteoporosis in later life. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between adipokines, bone metabolism, and anthropometric parameters in underweight prepubertal children. The study included 60 children aged 5-10 years. Among them, there were: 30 underweight children (BMI z-score ≤-1) and 30 normal-weight children (BMI z-score ). Body composition (fat mass, lean body mass, bone mass) and bone mineral density examination were performed by densitometry. Serum concentrations of bone metabolism markers and adipokines were determined by immunoenzymatic methods. In underweight children we observed significantly lower fat mass (pbone mineral content (pbone mineral density both the total body (pbone resorption marker (CTX) was significantly higher than in normal-weight children (2.006±0.649 vs. 1.624±0.492 ng/ml, pbone turnover markers (OC, CTX) and between adiponectin and CTX. However, there was no correlation between fat mass and leptin concentration in this group of children. Low body weight in prepubertal period is related with an alteration in the adipokines profile and bone metabolism markers, resulting in a decrease in bone mineral density. © 2015 MEDPRESS.
Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Penner, Ronald K. (Inventor); Turner, Travis L. (Inventor)
Provided is an electrically activated shape memory polymer composite capable of thermal shape reformation using electric power to heat the composite through its matrix glass transition temperature. The composite includes an adaptable polymer matrix component using a diglycidyl ether resin, at least one substantially well-dispersed conductive or magnetic nano-filler component, and at least one elastic, laminated layer. Also provided are methods of preparing the composite and methods of activating the composite. A shape reformation of the composite is triggered by applying an electric field at DC and/or at a frequency above about 1.mu.Hz for a sufficient time.
Lebed, A. G.
We define passive and active gravitational mass operators of the simplest composite quantum body - a hydrogen atom. Although they do not commute with its energy operator, the equivalence between the expectation values of passive and active gravitational masses and energy is shown to survive for stationary quantum states. In our calculations of passive gravitational mass operator, we take into account not only kinetic and Coulomb potential energies but also the so-called relativistic correctio...
Yi, Nengjun; Zinniel, Denise K.; Kim, Kyoungmi; Eisen, Eugene J.; Bartolucci, Alfred; Allison, David B.; Pomp, Daniel
To comprehensively investigate the genetic architecture of growth and obesity, we performed Bayesian analyses of multiple epistatic quantitative trait locus (QTL) models for body weights at five ages (12 days, 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks) and body composition traits (weights of two fat pads and five organs) in mice produced from a cross of the F1 between M16i (selected for rapid growth rate) and CAST/Ei (wild-derived strain of small and lean mice) back to M16i. Bayesian model selection revealed a te...
Katch, Frank I.; Katch, Victor L.
Sources of error in body composition assessment by laboratory and field methods can be found in hydrostatic weighing, residual air volume, skinfolds, and circumferences. Statistical analysis can and should be used in the measurement of body composition. (CJ)
Rieken, Rob; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Schierbeek, Henk; Willemsen, Sten P.; Calis, Elsbeth A. C.; Tibboel, Dick; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Penning, Corine
Accurate prediction equations for estimating body composition and total energy expenditure (TEE) in children with severe neurologic impairment and intellectual disability are currently lacking. The objective was to develop group-specific equations to predict body composition by using
Low cardiorespiratory fitness and inactivity are strong health predictors associated with excessive fatness. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness and body fatness in South African adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed with a ...
Iankovskaia, P A; Khoroshilov, I E; Korableva, N P; Ivanov, S V; Drogimiretskaia, E I; Kruglov, A N
The article is devoted to problems of diagnostic and correction of malnutrition at patients with gastric cancer, undergoing the gastroectomy. to study losses of body mass and dynamics of boby composition in organism of patients with gastric cancer, undergoing surgery, to estimate the efficiency of nutritional support. open prospective cohort case-control study. Inspected 64 patients with cancer of stomach in II-IV phases, undergoing surgery. The duration of observation amounted to 12 months. 34 of these patients were obtained nutritional support (additional enteral nutrition) during 8 weeks. The efficiency of nutritional support estimated on dynamics of body mass, body composition, the content of total protein, albumin, hemoglobin, lymphocytes counts in the blood. When statistical processing of research results the non-parametric criterion of Wilcoxon for dependent samples, as well as the dispersion rank analysis of Kraskel-Walles was used. oncological process is followed by the progression of undernutrition, independently of disease stage. The nutritional support (the additional enteral nutrition) allows to substantially to improve the nutritional status of oncological patients.
Schorr, Melanie; Dichtel, Laura E; Gerweck, Anu V; Torriani, Martin; Miller, Karen K; Bredella, Miriam A
To determine body composition predictors of skeletal integrity in overweight/obese subjects using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We hypothesized that visceral adiposity would be negatively, and lean mass positively, associated with DXA measures of skeletal integrity in obesity. Our study was institutional review board (IRB)-approved and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant and written informed consent was obtained. We studied 82 overweight or obese, but otherwise healthy premenopausal women and men of similar age who were part of a clinical trial (mean age: 37 ± 10 years, mean BMI: 34 ± 7 kg/m(2)). All subjects underwent DXA of the spine and hip for assessment of bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular bone score (TBS), and hip structural analysis (HSA), and of the whole body for the assessment of body composition, including estimated visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Sixty-three subjects (77 %) had normal BMD and 19 subjects (23 %) had osteopenia. There were strong age-, sex-, and BMD-independent positive associations between lean mass and HSA parameters (r = 0.50 to r = 0.81, p BMD-independent inverse associations between total fat and VAT mass and TBS (r = -0.60 and r = -0.72, p obese subjects.
Chu, P-L; Lin, L-Y; Chen, P-C; Su, T-C; Lin, C-Y
Acrylamide is present in mainstream cigarette smoke and in some food prepared at high temperature. Animal studies have shown that acrylamide exposure reduces body weight. Prenatal exposure to acrylamide also has been linked to reduced birth weight in human. Whether acrylamide exposure is associated with altered body compositions in adults is not clear. We selected 3623 subjects (aged ⩾20 years) from a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 2003-2004 to determine the relationship among hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA), hemoglobin adducts of glycidamide (HbGA) and body composition (body measures, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)). Data were adjusted for potential confounding variables. The geometric means and 95% CI concentrations of HbAA and HbGA were 60.48 (59.32-61.65) pmol/g Hb and 55.64 (54.40-56.92) pmol/g Hb, respectively. After weighting for sampling strategy, we identified that one-unit increase in natural log-HbAA, but not HbGA, was associated with reduction in body measures (body weight, body mass index (BMI), subscapular/triceps skinfold), parameters of BIA (fat-free mass, fat mass, percent body fat, total body water) and parameters of DXA (android fat mass, android percent fat, gynoid fat/lean mass, gynoid percent mass, android to gynoid ratio). Subgroup analysis showed that these associations were more evident in subjects at younger age, male gender, whites, lower education level, active smokers and those with lower BMI. Higher concentrations of HbAA are associated with a decrease in body composition in the US general population. Further studies are warranted to clarify this association.
Relationship of bronchodilator response with oxygen pulse and ventilatory threshold in children with asthma: the effect of body composition and progressive aerobic activity in an environment with low humidity
Samera Puyan majd
Full Text Available Background: Asthma is a leading cause of chronic illness in children, impacting heavily on their daily complications. The purpose of the present study was to relationship bronchodilator response (BDR with oxygen pulse (OP and ventilatory threshold (VT in asthma children with various body compositions during progressive aerobic activities. Material and Methods: 25 obese children (BMI>25 and %fat>30with asthma(10 subjects, and healthy children (15 subjects and 25 lean children(BMI<20 and %fat<20 with asthma(13 subjects, and healthy children (7 subjects performed an exercise protocol in a constant temperature environment 2 ± 22 ° C and humidity (5 ± 35%. During exercise, the steady-state levels of cardio-respiratory parameters were measured using gas analyzer (K4B2. Results: The results showed that after a progressive aerobic activity, values peak oxygen consumption(vo2peak , bronchodilator(BDR, oxygen pulse(OP and ventilatory threshold(VT in lean and obese asthmatic children were lower than in healthy lean and obese children. In addition, lean children with asthma had lower VT and higher VO2peak , OP and BDR values, as compared obese asthmatic children. Between BDR and VT in lean and obese asthmatic children an inverse relationship between BDR and OP and a direct link to asthma in obese children and obese asthmatic children, there was a negative relationship non-significant. Conclusion: Compared with lean children, asthma, obesity as an additional load will affect lung function and increase the pressure on childhood asthma. Therefore, we can accept that obesity may limit performance of exercise in childhood asthma.
Nguyen, Mary M N; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Melhorn, Susan J; Ma, Li Y; Gardner, Stacy R; Sakai, Randall R
The visible burrow system (VBS) is a model used to study chronic social stress in colony-housed rats. A hierarchy develops among the males resulting in dominant (DOM) and subordinate (SUB) animals. Hierarchy-associated changes in body weight, body composition, behavior, and neuroendocrine measures have been observed. After 14 d of VBS housing, SUB animals have decreased body weight, elevated corticosterone, and decreased testosterone (T), compared with DOM animals and controls, placing SUB animals in an ideal endocrine state to regain lost body weight as adipose tissue. It is hypothesized that maintaining constant androgen concentrations in SUB males during stress will prevent body weight loss by maintaining more lean body mass. To test this, animals were gonadectomized and implanted with SILASTIC implants containing T, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or cholesterol. Implants maintained constant physiological levels of T. Standard intact, T, and DHT implant colonies formed hierarchies, whereas cholesterol colonies did not. Androgen manipulations significantly altered offensive and defensive behaviors only on the first day of VBS housing. After VBS stress, intact, T, and DHT SUB animals weighed less and lost more adipose and lean tissue than DOM and control males, whereas DOM animals primarily lost adipose tissue. However, on recovery, DHT SUB animals maintained more lean tissue than intact SUB animals. Oral glucose tolerance tests revealed that glucose clears faster in stressed T-implanted males that have increased adipose tissue. Overall, these data suggest that constant androgen concentrations in SUB animals do not prevent weight loss and changes in body composition during stress but do so during recovery.
Ceccato, Filippo; Boccato, Michela; Zilio, Marialuisa; Barbot, Mattia; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Luisetto, Giovanni; Boscaro, Marco; Scaroni, Carla; Camozzi, Valentina
Patients with active Cushing's syndrome (CS) exhibit an increase of the visceral adipose tissue, increasing the risk of cardiovascular events. Until now, it is not yet clear whether remission of CS leads to a normalization of body composition, or if different strategies to control hypercortisolism could result in a different clinical outcome concerning adipose tissue distribution. Therefore, we analyzed body composition changes using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in patients with CS in a prospective and controlled study. We considered 23 patients with CS, whose remission was achieved after surgery in 14 or gained with pharmacological treatment in 9 subjects. Clinical and DXA data (lean and fat mass in total body, trunk, and R1 box) were collected during active hypercortisolism and after sustained remission, defined as the normalization of both late night salivary and 24-h urinary cortisol levels, at least for 6 consecutive months. Healthy subjects, matched with CS for gender, age, and BMI, were considered as controls (n=25). After remission of hypercortisolism, body compositions of patients were similar to matched controls; fat mass in total body (-7.53%), trunk (-3.24%), and R1- box (-12.82%, all p<0.01) were decreased from baseline levels. Dividing patients by type of treatment, fat mass reduction was higher in those that achieved surgical remission of CS (total body -17.26%, trunk -22.73%, and R1 box -21.21%, all p<0.05). Surgical remission of hypercortisolism is characterized by improvement of body composition, particularly fat reduction, easily detectable with DXA during routine clinical practice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Jiyoung Jung; Han Wool Kim; Tae Hyun Kim; Young Mi Hong
Purpose : Body composition is important to define and manage obesity and undernutrition. Obesity is a significant health problem with medical and psychological consequences for children and adolescents. Body composition analysis (BIA) is a simple, rapid, noninvasive, and reproducible technique. However, comparative analysis of body composition has not been done in young children below 7 years old. The aim of this study is to estimate antropometric data and body composition by BIA, and to inve...
Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the influence of 6 weeks’ MonaVie juice supplementation on body composition and hydration status in young elderly physically active women. Sixteen women, students of University of Third Age, were recruited for this study. All women were physically active (daily energy expenditure 1681.8 ± 297.6 kcal/d. Women were divided into 2 groups: 8 of them applied a supplement MonaVie juice (100 ml/d (S for 6 weeks, while the eight other women were allocated to the control group (C. There were measured: BW, Fat%, TBW, Hb, HCT and erythrocyte indices: RBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC. Based on Hb and HCT were calculated changes: blood (del BV%, plasma (del PV% and cell (del CV% volumes in C and S group. Before experiment all body components and hematologic indices were similar in C and S group. After 6 weeks of MonaVie supplementation no significant changes in body composition but significant decrease: (MCH, (MCHC and an increase cell volume CV% + 2.89 ± 1.24% were found. In control group after 6 weeks period there were no significant changes in body components and hematological indices. These observations suggest that MonaVie supplementation does not induce significant changes in body composition and hydration status in young elderly women, however causes an increase of cells volume and a decrease of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration.
Abstract. This study describes changes occurring in the live weight and body composition of male and female. South African Black ostriches over a growing period of 285 days. Forty-five birds were given four diets with different protein (ca. 180 and ca. 120 g/kg feed) and energy (ca. 8.5 and ca. 13.5 MJ ME/kg feed) levels on ...
The purpose of this study was to determine body composition and somatotype of the male fencers who were grouped by different fencing weapons. Analysis of body composition, with untrained men as background, will update the data necessary for the somatic profiles of fencers. Thirty contestants were examined during the Polish Fencing Championships in 2004. They took part in epée (n = 10), foil (n = 10) and sabre (n = 10). They were aged 23.3 +/- 2.9; their length of training was 12.6 +/- 2.5 years, with the frequency of training 15.9 +/- 3.1 hours per week. In each weapon style there were champions and vice-champions of Poland from the year 2004. Twelve of them were classified among the first fifty contestants according to the D'Escrime International Federation (FIE) ranking. An experienced evaluator performed 10 measurements necessary to designate somatotypes by means of Heath-Carter method and to estimate the percentage of body fat and composition. Sabre fencers (weight = 84.4 kg, somatotype = 3.4-5.4-1.8) were heavier than both epée fencers (77.9 kg, 3.6-4.9-2.5) and foil fencers (74.9 kg, 2.9-4.2-2.8). Sabre specialists had higher mesomorphy than foil fencers (ANOVA and Bonferroni's multi comparison test). Sabre fencers were characterized by higher fat free mass and a higher BMI and fat free mass index than fencers of the other two weapons. Discriminant analysis result was significant (p somatotypes differed from the somatotypes of the untrained (3.3-4.8-2.3 vs. 3.7-4.3-3.1). They were characterized by their higher mesomorphy (t = 2.10, p < 0.05) and lower ectomorphy (t = 3.48, p < 0.01), as well as greater adiposity (16.8 vs. 15.7%, t = 2.03, p < 0.05).
Arroyo, Marta; Gonzalez-de-Suso, Jose Manuel; Sanchez, Celia; Ansotegui, Laura; Rocandio, Ana M
The purpose of this study was to evaluate body composition and body image (perception and satisfaction) in a group of young elite soccer players and to compare the data with those of a control group (age and BMI matched). Participants were 56 volunteer males whose mean age and BMI were 19.6 (SD 1.3) years and 23.3 (SD 1.1) kg/m2, respectively. Results showed that soccer players have a higher lean mass and lower fat mass than controls. Moreover, body perception (difference between current and actual image) was more accurate in controls than in soccer players, and the results suggest a tendency for soccer players to aspire to have more muscle mass and body fat. Soccer players perceived an ideal image with significantly higher body-fat percentage than their current and actual images. There were no body-dissatisfaction differences between groups, however. Although the results are necessarily limited by the small sample size, the findings should be of interest to coaches of young elite soccer teams.
Medina-Inojosa, Jose; Somers, Virend; Jenkins, Sarah; Zundel, Jennifer; Johnson, Lynne; Grimes, Chassidy; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco
Estimating body fat content has shown to be a better predictor of adiposity-related cardiovascular risk than the commonly used body mass index (BMI). The white-light 3D body volume index (BVI) scanner is a non-invasive device normally used in the clothing industry to assess body shapes and sizes. We assessed the hypothesis that volume obtained by BVI is comparable to the volume obtained by air displacement plethysmography (Bod-Pod) and thus capable of assessing body fat mass using the bi-compartmental principles of body composition. We compared BVI to Bod-pod, a validated bicompartmental method to assess body fat percent that uses pressure/volume relationships in isothermal conditions to estimate body volume. Volume is then used to calculate body density (BD) applying the formula density=Body Mass/Volume. Body fat mass percentage is then calculated using the Siri formula (4.95/BD - 4.50) × 100. Subjects were undergoing a wellness evaluation. Measurements from both devices were obtained the same day. A prediction model for total Bod-pod volume was developed using linear regression based on 80% of the observations (N=971), as follows: Predicted Bod-pod Volume (L)=9.498+0.805*(BVI volume, L)-0.0411*(Age, years)-3.295*(Male=0, Female=1)+0.0554*(BVI volume, L)*(Male=0, Female=1)+0.0282*(Age, years)*(Male=0, Female=1). Predictions for Bod-pod volume based on the estimated model were then calculated for the remaining 20% (N=243) and compared to the volume measured by the Bod-pod. Mean age among the 971 individuals was 41.5 ± 12.9 years, 39.4% were men, weight 81.6 ± 20.9 kg, BMI was 27.8 ± 6.3kg/m2. Average difference between volume measured by Bod-pod- predicted volume by BVI was 0.0 L, median: -0.4 L, IQR: -1.8 L to 1.5 L, R2=0.9845. Average difference between body fat measured-predicted was-1%, median: -2.7%, IQR: -13.2 to 9.9, R2=0.9236. Volume and BFM can be estimated by using volume measurements obtained by a white- light 3D body scanner and the prediction model
Full Text Available Objective. To assess body composition in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and to compare the findings with a group of healthy age-matched controls. Methods. Our study group included sixty-two patients (27 males, mean age 36 years, and 35 females, mean age 36.4 years and fifteen age-matched healthy controls. All patients had an established diagnosis of thalassemia major and followed a regular blood transfusion scheme since childhood and chelation treatment. Fat, lean, and bone mineral density (BMD were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Ferritin levels and body mass index of all patients and controls were also recorded. Student t-test and Wilcoxon test were performed and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results. BMD and whole body lean mass are lower in both male and female adult patients compared with controls (p<0.01 in both groups, whereas whole body fat mass was found to have no statistically significant difference compared to controls. Regional trunk fat around the abdomen was found to be lower in male patients compared to controls (p=0.02. Conclusion. Severe bone loss and diminished lean mass are expected in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major. Fat changes seem to affect mainly male patients.
Soares Costa de Mendonça Rosa Maria
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of 16 weeks of practicing different exercise programmes on body composition. This is an exploratory and descriptive study of 89 women aged 25 to 55 years (41.42 ± 9.23 years. The subjects were randomly divided into three experimental groups (EG: practitioners of strength training (SG, dance (DG, hydrogymnastics (HG, and a control group (CG with sedentary women. Measurements of body mass and height, circumferences of the chest, waist, abdomen, hips, thighs, calves, and skinfolds of the triceps, suprailiac and thigh were registered in three different moments: prior to the commencement of the training program, again after 8 weeks of training, and finally after 16 weeks of training. Body density was estimated by using the trifold protocol by Jackson, Pollock and Ward. The ANOVA and deltas of change (Δ% were used for data analysis. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. The effects of greater statistical significance on body composition related the variables "time", "group" and the interaction between the two (time x group were observed for the percentage of fat - F% (F (1.79, 152.52 = 24.59, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.22, fat mass - FM (F (1.75, 149.01 = 12.65, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.13 and lean mass - LM (F (1.77, 150.66 = 47.38, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.36. The HG and SG were more beneficial in reducing F%. It was observed that the EG indicated healthier anthropometric aspects compared to the CG, regardless of the type of exercise programmes practiced. The time factor was more representative over the effects of exercise on anthropometric dimensions.
Soric, Maroje; Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta; Pedisic, Zeljko
The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake and body composition of prepubescent girls competing in 3 aesthetic sports (artistic and rhythmic gymnastics and ballet). Because physiological demands of ballet training are similar to those in other aesthetic sports, ballet dancers were, for the purpose of this study, regarded as athletes. The sample consisted of 39 athletes (median age, 11 years, range 9-13) and 15 controls (median age, 11 years, range 10-12). Dietary intake was assessed using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and body composition, by means of anthropometry. There was no significant difference in total energy intake between groups, but there was a significant difference in energy substrate distribution. Artistic gymnasts reported significantly higher carbohydrate and lower fat contribution to total energy (57% +/- 6% and 29% +/- 5%, respectively) than rhythmic gymnasts (48% +/- 6% and 36% +/- 5%), ballet dancers (51% +/- 4% and 34% +/- 3%), or controls (51% +/- 5% and 34% +/- 4%). Relative to body weight, artistic gymnasts reported higher intake of carbohydrates (9.1 +/- 4.2 g/kg) than rhythmic gymnasts (5.6 +/- 3.1 g/kg), ballet dancers (6.6 +/- 2.5 g/kg), or controls (5.4 +/- 1.9 g/kg). Artistic gymnasts also had the lowest body-fat percentage among the groups. In all the groups mean reported daily intakes of most nutrients were higher than the current daily recommended intakes. The exceptions were dietary fiber and calcium. The proportion of athletes with an inadequate reported intake was highest for phosphorus (33%), followed by vitamin A and niacin (18%) and zinc (13%).
Alexandre Vieira Gadducci
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to evaluate associations between maximum voluntary contraction torques of the lower limbs and body composition for subjects with severe obesity. METHODS: Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and maximum voluntary contraction torques of the lower limbs were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. One hundred thirty-two patients were enrolled (100 females and 32 males. Eighty-seven patients had a body mass index between 40 and 49.9 kg/m2 (the A group, and 45 patients had a body mass index between 50 and 59.9 kg/m2 (the B group. RESULTS: Absolute extension and flexion torques had weak associations with fat-free mass but a moderate association with absolute extension torque and fat-free mass of the lower limbs. There were no significant differences between the A and B groups with respect to absolute extension and flexion torques. For the A group, absolute extension and flexion torques were moderately associated with fat-free mass and with fat-free mass of the lower limbs. For the B group, there were only moderate associations between absolute extension and flexion torques with fat-free mass of the lower limbs. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that both groups exhibited similar absolute torque values. There were weak to moderate associations between absolute extension and flexion torques and fat-free mass but a moderate association with fat-free mass of the lower limbs. Individuals with severe obesity should strive for greater absolute torques, fat-free mass and especially fat-free mass of the lower limbs to prevent functional limitations and physical incapacity.
Gadducci, Alexandre Vieira; de Cleva, Roberto; de Faria Santarém, Gabriela Correia; Silva, Paulo Roberto Santos; Greve, Julia Maria D'Andréa; Santo, Marco Aurélio
The aim of our study was to evaluate associations between maximum voluntary contraction torques of the lower limbs and body composition for subjects with severe obesity. Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and maximum voluntary contraction torques of the lower limbs were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. One hundred thirty-two patients were enrolled (100 females and 32 males). Eighty-seven patients had a body mass index between 40 and 49.9 kg/m2 (the A group), and 45 patients had a body mass index between 50 and 59.9 kg/m2 (the B group). Absolute extension and flexion torques had weak associations with fat-free mass but a moderate association with absolute extension torque and fat-free mass of the lower limbs. There were no significant differences between the A and B groups with respect to absolute extension and flexion torques. For the A group, absolute extension and flexion torques were moderately associated with fat-free mass and with fat-free mass of the lower limbs. For the B group, there were only moderate associations between absolute extension and flexion torques with fat-free mass of the lower limbs. Our findings demonstrate that both groups exhibited similar absolute torque values. There were weak to moderate associations between absolute extension and flexion torques and fat-free mass but a moderate association with fat-free mass of the lower limbs. Individuals with severe obesity should strive for greater absolute torques, fat-free mass and especially fat-free mass of the lower limbs to prevent functional limitations and physical incapacity.
Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S
An inverse relation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) has been shown. We assessed the relation between changes in sleep duration and changes in body weight and body composition during weight loss. A total of 98 healthy subjects (25 men), aged 20-50 y and with BMI (in kg/m(2)) from 28 to 35, followed a 2-mo very-low-energy diet that was followed by a 10-mo period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (measured by using deuterium dilution and air-displacement plethysmography), eating behavior (measured by using a 3-factor eating questionnaire), physical activity (measured by using the validated Baecke's questionnaire), and sleep (estimated by using a questionnaire with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were assessed before and immediately after weight loss and 3- and 10-mo follow-ups. The average weight loss was 10% after 2 mo of dieting and 9% and 6% after 3- and 10-mo follow-ups, respectively. Daytime sleepiness and time to fall asleep decreased during weight loss. Short (≤7 h) and average (>7 to sleep duration, whereas sleep duration in long sleepers (≥9 h) did not change significantly during weight loss. This change in sleep duration was concomitantly negatively correlated with the change in BMI during weight loss and after the 3-mo follow-up and with the change in fat mass after the 3-mo follow-up. Sleep duration benefits from weight loss or vice versa. Successful weight loss, loss of body fat, and 3-mo weight maintenance in short and average sleepers are underscored by an increase in sleep duration or vice versa. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.
Müller, Manfred J; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Lagerpusch, Merit; Heymsfield, Steven B
Balance methods reveal changes in body energy, nitrogen, macro- and micronutrients as well as fluid in response to different feeding regimens. Under metabolic ward conditions, where physical activity is restricted and activity and food intake are controlled, the errors of estimates of energy intake, energy expenditure, and energy losses are about 2, 4, and 2%, respectively. Balance techniques can be used to validate techniques of in vivo body composition analysis (BCA). This is necessary since immediate and transient changes in body composition in response to a change in diet adversely affect the validity of techniques by violating the assumptions underlying standard methods (i.e., a constant composition or hydration of lean mass). Using two compartment reference methods, like densitometry, dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or deuterium dilution, changes in fat mass with caloric restriction and overfeeding can be measured with a minimal detectable change (MDC) of 1.0-2.0 kg. However, when compared against balance data, the validity of these techniques to measure short-term changes in body composition is poor. The noninvasive and rapid new quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) technique has a high precision with a MDC of 0.18 kg of fat mass. The validity of QMR to assess short-term changes in fat mass is challenged by comparison to balance data. Today, techniques used for in vivo BCA should be related to steady state conditions only, while in the nonsteady state, the use of balance methods is recommended to assess short-term changes in body composition.
Sontam, D. M.; Vickers, M. H.; O’Sullivan, J M; Watson, M.; Firth, E.C.
Physical activity has a vital role in regulating and improving bone strength. Responsiveness of bone mass to exercise is age dependent with the prepubertal period suggested to be the most effective stage for interventions. There is a paucity of data on the effects of exercise on bone architecture and body composition when studied within the prepubertal period. We examined the effect of two forms of low-impact exercise on prepubertal changes in body composition and bone architecture. Weanling ...
De Schutter, Alban; Lavie, Carl J; Gonzalez, Jose; Milani, Richard V
Despite its many known shortcomings, body mass index (BMI) is the most widely used measure of obesity, in part because of its practicality. Other more physiologic measurements of obesity have been proposed, including percent body fat (BF). Few studies have compared BMI and BF, especially in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). We studied 581 patients with CHD following major CHD events. We divided patients into low (≤ 25% in men and ≤ 35% in women) and high BF (> 25% in men and > 35% in women) as determined by the sum of the skin-fold method and compared these findings with standard BMI determinations. BMI and BF were highly correlated (r = 0.60; P obese vs nonobese) in 68% of cases. The agreement was optimal in the underweight (BMI obese class II category (BMI 35-39.9 kg/m(2)), in which 100% of patients were classified as nonobese and obese, respectively, by both BMI and BF categories. The performance was worst in patients with BMIs in the overweight or preobese range (25-29.9 kg/m(2)), in which 58% of patients would be classified as obese according to BF criteria. Although some CHD patients are classified differently by BMI and BF, especially within the overweight BMI group, in general BMI and BF are highly correlated, especially in the underweight and obese BMI groups. Prospective studies are needed to determine which index of obesity best predicts risk in primary and secondary prevention.
Kim, C; Shvarev, Y; Takeda, S; Sakamoto, A; Lindahl, S G E; Eriksson, L I
Although the contribution of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor system in peripheral chemosensation is unclear, immunohistochemistry has demonstrated the presence of GABA-ergic receptors in mammalian carotid bodies. We hypothesized that an activation of the carotid body GABA receptors would counteract the depolarizing effect of hypoxia. The carotid body with arterial supply and the carotid sinus nerve was removed en bloc from New Zealand White rabbits and placed in a perfusion chamber. The carotid body preparation was perfused via the cut common carotid artery with a modified Tyrode's solution at a rate of 3.5-4.5 ml/min with a constant pressure of 45 cmH2O. The carotid sinus nerve firing frequency (Hz) was recorded at two different oxygen tension levels during perfusion with midazolam of 1, 10 and 100 microg/l. The frequency was decreased by midazolam in a dose-dependent manner (n = 8). Firing frequencies (mean +/- SEM) at the low oxygen tension level decreased from 643.13 +/- 67.2 Hz in the control to 554.5 +/- 67.7 Hz (P = 0.054 vs. control), 509.01 +/- 100.5 Hz (P chemoreceptor activity in a dose-dependent manner.
Seabra, A C; Seabra, A F; Brito, J
. Indicators of perceived psychological status included body image, self-esteem, attraction to participation in physical activity, and perceived physical competence measured with standardized questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. From baseline through 5 months...
Cetin, Ihsan; Nalbantcilar, Mahmut Tahir; Tosun, Kezban; Nazik, Aydan
Since waterborne minerals appear in ionic form and are readily absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, drinking water could be a crucial source of mineral intake. However, no comprehensive research has yet determined how trace elements in drinking water relate to body composition. We aimed to assess the relationship between clinically important trace elements in public drinking water and body composition in average, overweight and obese individuals in Turkey. The study's population consisted of 423 participants: 143 overweight, 138 obese and 142 healthy control individuals, grouped according to clinical cutoff points of body mass index (BMI). We measured levels of lithium (Li), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), silicon (Si), tin (Sn), strontium (Sr), boron (B), aluminium (Al), barium (Ba) and rubidium (Rb) in samples from wells of municipal water by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We gauged all the participants' body composition measurements with a BC-418 body composition analyser. In all the participants, body weight values showed significant positive correlations with Ni levels in drinking water, as did BMI values with Al levels and percentage of obesity with Ni, Si and B levels. In particular, Ni levels showed significant positive correlations with the basal metabolic rate, activity calories, and total activity of participants. Giving findings showing correlations between obesity-related parameters and Al, Si, B and Ni content in drinking water, we hope that these associations will be clarified with further studies including cellular, experimental and clinical studies. Hence, medical practitioners must be aware of trace element levels in drinking water for overweight and obese patients.
Changes in Body Composition, Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors, and Eating Behavior after an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention with High Volume of Physical Activity in Severely Obese Subjects: A Prospective Clinical Controlled Trial
Kjersti Karoline Danielsen
Full Text Available We examined the effects of a 10–14-weeks inpatient lifestyle modification program, including minimum 90 min of physical activity (PA five days/week, on body composition, CVD risk factors, and eating behavior in 139 obese subjects (BMI 42.6±5.2 kg/m2. Completion rate was 71% (n=71 in the intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI group and 85% (n=33 among waiting list controls. Compared to controls body weight (-17.0 (95% CI: -18.7, -15.3 kg, P<0.0001, fat mass (-15.2 (95% CI: -17.4, -13.1 kg, P<0.0001, fat free mass (-1.2 (95% CI: -2.2, -0.2 kg, P=0.016 and visceral fat (-86.6(95% CI: -97.4, -75.7 cm2, P<0.0001 were reduced in the ILI-group after 10–14 weeks. Within the ILI-group weight loss was -23.8 (95% CI: -25.9, -21.7 kg, P<0.0001 and -20.3 (95% CI: -23.3, -17.3 kg, P<0.0001, after six and 12 months, respectively. Systolic BP, glucose, triglycerides, and LDL-C were reduced, and HDL-C was increased (all P≤0.006 after 10–14 weeks within the ILI group. The reduction in glucose and increase in HDL-C were sustained after 12 months (all P<0.0001. After one year, weight loss was related to increased cognitive restraint and decreased uncontrolled eating (all P<0.05. Thus, ILI including high volume of PA resulted in weight loss with almost maintenance of fat-free mass, favorable changes in CVD risk factors, and eating behavior in subjects with severe obesity.
Mazzola, Priscila Nicolao; Nalin, Tatiele; Castro, Kamila; van Rijn, Margreet; Derks, Terry G J; Perry, Ingrid D S; Mainieri, Alberto Scofano; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa D
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is characterized by phenylalanine (Phe) accumulation to toxic levels due to the low activity of phenylalanine-hydroxylase. PKU patients must follow a Phe-restricted diet, which may put them in risk of nutritional disturbances. Therefore, we aimed to characterize body composition parameters and nutritional status in Brazilian PKU patients also considering their metabolic control. Twenty-seven treated PKU patients older than 5 years, and 27 age- and gender-matched controls, were analyzed for anthropometric features and body composition by bioelectrical impedance (BIA). Patients' metabolic control was assessed by historical Phe levels. There was no effect of PKU type, time of diagnosis, or metabolic control for any analyzed parameter. About 75% of patients and controls were eutrophic, according to their BMI values. There were no difference between groups regarding body composition and other BIA-derived parameters. Brazilian PKU patients do not show differences in body composition and nutritional status in comparison with controls, regardless metabolic control. Although similar to controls, PKU patients may be in risk of disturbed nutritional and metabolic markers as seen for the general population.
Nayera E. Hassan
Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate body composition changes after use of three different types of obesity management protocols: dietary measures and physical activity; acupuncture or laser acupuncture with healthy diet; aiming at achieving stable weight loss among obese Egyptian females. METHODS: A randomized longitudinal prospective study included 76 obese adult females; aged 26 up to 55 years. Anthropometric, body composition, ultrasonographic and biochemical assessments were done. RESULTS: The three types of obesity management protocols showed significant improvement in body composition (decrease in fat% and increases in FFM and TBW and visceral fat by US. However, nutritional intervention showed highly significant improvement in the skin fold thickness at triceps and biceps sites and peripheral adiposity index. Acupuncture intervention showed highly significant improvement in fasting blood glucose (decreased and lipid profile (decreased triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and increased HDL. Laser intervention showed highly significant improvement in all the skin fold thickness and some parameters of lipid profile (decreased total cholesterol and LDL. CONCLUSIONS: The three obesity management protocols have significant effect on body composition, but acupuncture has the best effect in improving the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. In addition, Laser intervention was recommended to improve skin fold thickness and subcutaneous fat.
Pourhassan, M; Schautz, B; Braun, W; Gluer, C-C; Bosy-Westphal, A; Müller, M J
We intended to (i) to compare the composition of weight loss and weight gain using densitometry, deuterium dilution (D₂O), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the four-compartment (4C) model and (ii) to compare regional changes in fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and skeletal muscle as assessed by DXA and MRI. Eighty-three study participants aged between 21 and 58 years with a body mass index range of 20.2-46.8 kg/m(2) had been assessed at two different occasions with a mean follow-up between 23.5 and 43.5 months. Body-weight changes within weight stable, a gain or a loss of >3% of initial weight was considered as a significant weight change. There was a considerable bias between the body-composition data obtained by the individual methods. When compared with the 4C model, mean bias of D₂O and densitometry was explained by the erroneous assumption of a constant hydration of FFM, thus, changes in FM were underestimated by D₂O but overestimated by densitometry. Because hydration does not normalize after weight loss, all two-component models have a systematic error in weight-reduced subjects. The bias between 4C model and DXA was mainly explained by FM% at baseline, whereas FFM hydration contributed to additional 5%. As to the regional changes in body composition, DXA data had a considerable bias and, thus, cannot replace MRI. To assess changes in body composition associated with weight changes, only the 4C model and MRI can be used with confidence.
Full Text Available Objective: We examined whether dietary energy intake (EI and dietary energy density (ED were cross-sectionally associated with body composition of children living in Southwest China. Design and Methods: Multivariate regression analyses were performed on three day, 24 h dietary recall data and information on potential confounders from 1207 participants aged 8–14 years. EI was calculated from all foods and drinks and ED was classified into five categories. Body mass index (BMI z-scores, percentage of body fat (%BF, fat mass index (FMI, fat-free mass index (FFMI and ratio of waist to hip circumference (WHR were used to describe body composition. Results: Boys with higher total EI had higher BMI z-scores, %BF, and FMI than boys with lower total EI both before and after measurements were adjusted for confounders (age, fiber intake, physical activity, the timing of adding complementary foods, paternal education level and maternal BMI (p ≤ 0.04. However, EI was not associated with body composition in girls. Dietary ED, in any category, was not associated with body composition in either gender. Conclusions: Dietary ED was not associated with body composition of children in Southwest China, while dietary EI in boys, not girls, was positively associated with body composition. Reducing dietary energy intake may help to prevent obesity and related diseases in later life among boys living in Southwest China.
Malczyk, E; Dzięgielewska-Gęsiak, S; Fatyga, E; Ziółko, E; Kokot, T; Muc-Wierzgon, M
The aim of this study was to identify the best prognostic parameters for quickly assessing fluid volume status in the context of nutritional status and water balance in older persons and to facilitate decision-making of the general practitioner (GP). This pilot study was conducted with 142 volunteers aged 60 years or older who were Polish students of the University of the Third Age. Inclusion and exclusion criteria for the study were defined. Assessment tools included: the Mini Nutritional Assessment questionnaire (MNA®) and the anthropometric measurements. Weight and body composition analysis were determined by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) using the Tanita MC-780 multi frequency segmental Body Composition Analyzer. According to the MNA scale, 89.2% of the sample was wellnourished and 10.8% were at risk of malnutrition. A total of 47.1% participants had normal body mass index, 20.6% were overweight, and 32.3% were obese. The BIA showed that females had more fat mass (FM) compared to males (35.84% vs 23.90%), while men had more free fat mass (FFM) and total body water (TBW; 61.16% vs 45.22% and 53.31% vs 45.22%respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in FM, FFM, and TBW by age. The ratio of Extracellular to Total Body Water (ECW/TBW) was higher in women than in men (46.76% vs 43.66%). Of all measures, only ECW/TBW increased significantly with age and sex, especially after 65 years. We propose that ECW/TBW may be used as the first, simple, and fast indicator of water volume status in the context of nutritional status and water balance in older subjects. Systematic control of the ECW/TBW by GP or nurse may increase senior independence, resulting in longer self-maintenance at home and reduced hospital admissions.
G Correia de Faria Santarém
Full Text Available Obesity is associated with mobility reduction due to mechanical factors and excessive body fat. The six-minute walk test (6MWT has been used to assess functional capacity in severe obesity.To determine the association of BMI, total and segmental body composition with distance walked (6MWD during the six-minute walk test (6MWT according to gender and obesity grade.University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil; Public Practice.Functional capacity was assessed by 6MWD and body composition (% by bioelectrical impedance analysis in 90 patients.The mean 6MWD was 514.9 ± 50.3 m for both genders. The male group (M: 545.2 ± 46.9 m showed a 6MWD higher (p = 0.002 than the female group (F: 505.6 ± 47.9 m. The morbid obese group (MO: 524.7 ± 44.0 m also showed a 6MWD higher (p = 0.014 than the super obese group (SO: 494.2 ± 57.0 m. There was a positive relationship between 6MWD and fat free mass (FFM, FFM of upper limps (FFM_UL, trunk (FFM_TR and lower limbs (FFM_LL. Female group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD and FFM, FFM_UL and FFM_LL and male group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD and FFM_TR. In morbid obese group there was a positive relationship between 6MWD with FFM, FFM_UL, FFM_TR and FFM_LL. The super obese group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD with FFM, FFM_TR and FFM_LL.Total and segmental FFM is associated with a better walking capacity than BMI.
OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.
Camargo, Cristiane Teixeira Amaral; Gomez-Campos, Rossana Anelice; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio; Barbeta, Vinicius Justino De Oliveira; Arruda, Miguel; Guerra-Junior, Gil
The aim was to analyse the physical growth and body composition of rhythmic gymnastics athletes relative to their level of somatic maturation. This was a cross-sectional study of 136 athletes on 23 teams from Brazil. Mass, standing height and sitting height were measured. Fat-free and fat masses, body fat percentages and ages of the predicted peak height velocity (PHV) were calculated. The z scores for mass were negative during all ages according to both WHO and Brazilian references, and that for standing height were also negative for all ages according to WHO reference but only until 12 years old according to Brazilian reference. The mean age of the predicted PHV was 12.1 years. The mean mass, standing and sitting heights, body fat percentage, fat-free mass and fat mass increased significantly until 4 to 5 years after the age of the PHV. Menarche was reached in only 26% of these athletes and mean age was 13.2 years. The mass was below the national reference standards, and the standing height was below only for the international reference, but they also had late recovery of mass and standing height during puberty. In conclusion, these athletes had a potential to gain mass and standing height several years after PHV, indicating late maturation.
José Miguel Martínez-Sanz
Full Text Available Introduction: The swimmer is a high level athlete, with long limbs, and whose musculoskeletal components are important in sporting success. However, the fat component is paradoxical because of its relationship with the buoyancy and displacement of the body in the water. The aim of this study is to describe the anthropometric profile of adolescent competition swimmers.Material and methods: A total of 17 adolescent swimmers were evaluated, 10 boys (13.2 ±1.32 years and 7 girls (15±1.83 years. A qualified anthropometrist took anthropometric measures according to the protocol of the Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK, with approved materials according to the methodology of Marfell-Jones et al, 2003. Body composition was calculated according to the consensus of Kinanthropometry and somatotype with Heath-Carter´s method.Results: Of all the variables studied (weight, height, folds, circumferences, diameters and lengths, significant differences were found (P<.05 between the sexes in height, arm span, skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, crestailiaca, ileo-spinal, abdominal, thigh, leg, sum of skinfolds, biacromial-bi-iliac index, bone body mass, muscle and fat, ectomorphy, and endomorphy.Conclusions: There are significant anthropometric differences between genders in adolescent swimmers (P<.05. Such differences, resulting in the development of both sexes, might be highly related to athletic performance of young athletes.
Yasumura, S; Stamatelatos, I E; Boozer, C N; Moore, R; Ma, R
The precision and accuracy of a prompt-gamma neutron activation facility developed to assess total body protein in rats is estimated. The coefficient of variation of nitrogen measurement, as estimated by repeated measurements on 15 rats, was 5.5% for an equivalent dose of 60 mSv (Q = 20). Good agreement was observed in comparing the results of in vivo neutron activation analysis and chemical carcass analysis performed by the Kjeldahl method. The application of the technique in comparing the effect of a low-fat and a high-fat diet on body protein in rats is demonstrated.
Kearney, M; Perron, J; Marc, I; Weisnagel, S J; Tchernof, A; Robitaille, J
The aim of this cohort study was to compare body composition and regional body fat distribution between children exposed (GDM+) or unexposed (GDM-) in utero to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to investigate the association with the glycaemic and the insulin profile. Data from 56 GDM+ and 30 GDM- were analysed. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured. Total and regional body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Insulin, glucose and HbA1c were obtained from a fasting plasma sample, and the HOMA-IR index was calculated. anova was performed to compare adiposity measures between GDM+ and GDM-. Associations between the glycaemic and insulin profile and adiposity measures were studied using partial Pearson correlations. Mean age was 6.6 ± 2.3 years. Waist circumference, fat mass percentage, android fat mass, android fat mass percentage and android-to-gynoid fat mass ratio were higher among GDM+, and lean mass percentage was lower (P fat mass percentage, android fat mass percentage and android-to-gynoid fat mass ratio were all positively correlated with HbA1C (r = 0.32-0.43, P < 0.05). Prenatal exposure to GDM is associated with increased total and abdominal adiposity. This increased adiposity observed among GDM+ children is associated with an altered glycaemic profile. This study is registered in the Clinical Trials.gov registry (NCT01340924). © 2017 World Obesity Federation.
Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 36; Issue 4. Composite supercapacitor electrodes made of activated carbon/PEDOT:PSS and activated carbon/doped PEDOT. T S Sonia P A ... Carbon materials; composite materials; electrodeposition; energy storage and conversion; thin films; conducting polymers.
Rahimi, Nor Atiqah; Sedek, Razalee; Teh, Arnida Hani
Obesity is a major public health problem in general population and there is no exception for firefighters. This disorder is definitely a burden for firefighters as they needed to be physically fit in order to work in dangerous situation and extinguishing fires. The purposes of this study were to determine physical characteristics and body composition among Malaysian Firefighters (MF) and to explore their association. This cross-sectional study involved 330 rescue firefighters aged between 20-50 years old from nine different districts in Selangor conducted between August and November 2015. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance. The mean height, weight, body mass index (BMI), WC and body fat percentage were 169.4±5.3 cm, 74.5±12.2 kg, 25.9±3.82 kg/m2, 90.7±48.3 cm and 25.8±6.2 % respectively. The results also showed that 0.6% of them were underweight, 41.5% were normal, 44.8% were overweight and 13% were obese. The percentage of 34.8% firefighters with WC values of more than 90 cm means that they were at greater risk to have cardiovascular and diabetes disease. Body composition analysis showed that 75.5% of the subjects have high body fat level, 19.7% subjects were in healthy range but only 4.8% were considered as lean subjects. BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.917, pobesity were found to be more prevalent among firefighters personnel of older age, married, less educated and have longer duration of services. It can be concluded that more than half of the firefighter personnel were either overweight or obese and 35% of them were at greater risk of having non-communicable diseases. This study provides useful information and serves as a source of reference for planning health related program for MF personnel to prevent non-communicable disease among firefighters population.
Active children and quiet bodies wanted! A new school law was implemented in the Danish primary and secondary school system from August 2014. The main purpose of the law is to: – challenge all pupils to become as skilled as possible, – lower the consequences of social background in order to achieve...... better results and – strengthen the confidence to and the wellbeing in the school. These objectives should among other initiatives be achieved by a longer and more diversified school day. Physical activities and movements have been seen as an important tool to create more varied forms of teaching....... Research indicates that there is a correlation between physical activity and cognitive learning. In order to improve the pupils’ health, cognitive learning and wellbeing all pupils from grade 0-9 must have at least 45 minutes of physical activity and movements in average every day. Next to physical...
Silva, Analiza Mónica Lopes de Almeida
Doutoramento em Motricidade Humana na especialidade de Saúde e Condição Física This thesis presents five investigations related to the body composition rules and methodology research areas. In the rules, newly developed methods such as in vivo neutron activation analysis are used as the reference to evaluate the assumption of the stable mineral-to-protein density in Siri's three-compartment model for estimating total-body-fat mass. In the methodology area, the assessment of extracellular w...
Elzânia S. Pereira
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance (NEm and growth of 48 Brazilian Somali ram lambs with an average initial body weight of 13.47±1.76 kg. Eight animals were slaughtered at the trials beginning as a reference group to estimate the initial empty body weight (EBW and body composition. The remaining animals were assigned to a randomised block design with eight replications per block and five diets with increasing metabolisable energy content (4.93, 8.65, 9.41, 10.12 and 11.24 MJ/kg dry matter. The logarithm of heat production was regressed against metabolisable energy intake (MEI, and the NEm (kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day were estimated by extrapolation, when MEI was set at zero. The NEm was 239.77 kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day. The animal’s energy and EBW fat contents increased from 11.20 MJ/kg and 208.54 g/kg to 13.54 MJ/kg and 274.95 g/kg of EBW, respectively, as the BW increased from 13 to 28.70 kg. The net energy requirements for EBW gain increased from 13.79 to 16.72 MJ/kg EBW gain for body weights of 13 and 28.70 kg. Our study indicated the net energy requirements for maintenance in Brazilian Somali lambs were similar to the values commonly recommended by the United States’ nutritional system, but lower than the values recommended by Agricultural Research Council and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Net requirements for weight gain were less compared to the values commonly recommended by nutritional system of the United States.
Plowman, S A; Liu, N Y; Wells, C L
The purpose of this study was to compare premenarcheal athletes (A) and nonathletes (NA) in terms of body composition and sexual maturation and to discern the relationship between these variables. Percent body fat (%BF) was determined by the three-component system of Siri utilizing body density from hydrostatic weighing and total body water measured by deuterium oxide dilution. Sexual maturation was self-assessed using the system described by Marshall and Tanner. ANOVAs and polynomial regression analysis revealed that both the A (N = 73) and NA (N = 53) showed similar values and linear increases (P less than 0.001) in height (HT), weight (WT), breast (B) and pubic hair (PH) development from 7 to 15 yr but not in %BF (XA = 15.7 +/- 4.6; XNA = 20.5 +/- 6.4 (P less than 0.001]. The NA exhibited a quadratic curve (P less than 0.01) in %BF over age, while the A showed a negative linear relationship (P less than 0.001) with age. Scheffe post hoc tests revealed significant differences (P less than 0.03, A less than NA) at 11 and 12-15 yr. When %BF was compared to maturation, the A were found to have less fat (P less than 0.01) at stages 1 and 4 of PH and at stages 2, 3, and 4 of B. There were no significant differences between A and NA in the age at which B2, 3, or 4 or PH2, 3, or 4 occurred. Both groups exhibited similar and significant correlations between age, HT, WT, B, and PH development but not %BF.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Gerusa Eisfeld Milano
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of aquatic exercise and nutritionalguidance on the body composition of obese children and adolescents. Thirty obese childrenaged 10 to 16 years, with a body mass index (BMI above the 95th percentile according to theclassification proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2000, weredivided into two groups: the first group started learning to swim (GSwim, n = 10 and the secondgroup underwent a deep water running program (GDeep, n = 20. Weight, height, BMI, BMIZ-scores, relative and absolute fat, and relative and absolute lean body mass were evaluated atbaseline and after 12 weeks. The program consisted of 12 meetings for nutritional guidance (oncea week and 36 sessions of exercise (three times per week. MANOVA and Fisher’s exact testwere used for statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. After 12 weeks,GDeep showed a significant reduction in BMI, BMI Z-scores and relative and absolute fat,and an increase in relative and absolute lean body mass. Significant differences were observedbetween GDeep and GSwim in terms of the reduction in body fat (p = 0.014 and the increasein lean mass (p = 0.006. A program of deep water running together with nutritional guidancemay promote significant changes in the body composition of obese children and adolescents dueto the cyclic characteristic of this physical activity.
Nissen, Mary Jo; Shapiro, Alice; Swenson, Karen K
This study aimed to identify predictors of changes in weight and body composition among women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer. Data were from 49 women age 40-54 receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer. Weight, height, and body composition measurements from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning were completed at baseline (within 1 month of beginning chemotherapy) and 12 months. Caloric intake was assessed from food diaries at baseline, 6 and 12 months, and physical activity was measured by questionnaire at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Baseline body mass index (BMI) was inversely associated with gains in weight (P = .01) and fat mass in torso (P = .006). Women of normal weight gained an average of 4.3 pounds and increased fat mass in torso and arms. Overweight women lost 3.0 pounds, and obese women lost 4.1 pounds, and neither group increased body fat. Decreased physical activity was associated with weight gain (P = .047). Additional predictors of increased fat mass in torso were younger age (P = .023) and treatment with tamoxifen (P = .015). Predictors of loss of bone mineral content included older age (P = .004) and treatment with aromatase inhibitor (P = .024), whereas treatment with bisphosphonate prevented bone loss (P Women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer who are of normal weight at the time of breast cancer diagnosis are more likely to gain weight and body fat during the following year than overweight or obese women.
Gorla, José I; Costa e Silva, Anselmo de A; Borges, Mariane; Tanhoffer, Ricardo A; Godoy, Priscila S; Calegari, Décio R; Santos, Allan de O; Ramos, Celso D; Nadruz Junior, Wilson; Cliquet Junior, Alberto
To investigate the longitudinal effects of wheelchair rugby (WR) training on body composition of subjects with tetraplegia. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and after WR training. Faculty of physical education settings. Individuals with tetraplegia (N=13; age, 26.6±6.0y). Four sessions per week of WR training composed by aerobic and anaerobic activities and technical and tactical aspects of WR. The average time of intervention was 8.1±2.5 months. Body composition assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. After training, fat mass was significantly reduced in the whole body (15,191±4603 vs 13,212±3318 g, P=.016), trunk (7058±2639 vs 5693±1498 g, P=.012), and legs (2847±817 vs 2534±742 g, P=.003). Conversely, increased bone mineral content (183±35 vs 195±32 g, P=.01) and fat-free mass (2991±549 vs 3332±602 g, P=.016) in the arms and reduced bone mineral content in the trunk (553±82 vs 521±86 g, P=.034) were observed after training. Furthermore, no significant correlation between the duration of training and changes in body composition was detected. Regular WR training increased lean mass and bone mineral content in the arms and decreased total body fat mass. Conversely, WR training was associated with decreased bone mineral content in the trunk. These results suggest that regular WR training improves body composition in subjects with tetraplegia. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Beetsch, Joel; Pietrobelli, Angelo
Background Although Quetelet first reported in 1835 that adult weight scales to the square of stature, limited or no information is available on how anatomical body compartments, including adipose tissue (AT), scale to height. Objective We examined the critical underlying assumptions of adiposity–body mass index (BMI) relations and extended these analyses to major anatomical compartments: skeletal muscle (SM), bone, residual mass, weight (AT+SM+bone), AT-free mass, and organs (liver, brain). Design This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2 body-composition databases: one including magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of evaluated components in adults (total n = 411; organs = 76) and the other a larger DXA database (n = 1346) that included related estimates of fat, fat-free mass, and bone mineral mass. Results Weight, primary lean components (SM, residual mass, AT-free mass, and fat-free mass), and liver scaled to height with powers of ≈2 (all P 2 (2.31–2.48), and the fraction of weight as bone mineral mass was significantly (P < 0.001) correlated with height in women. AT scaled weakly to height with powers of ≈2, and adiposity was independent of height. Brain mass scaled to height with a power of 0.83 (P = 0.04) in men and nonsignificantly in women; the fraction of weight as brain was inversely related to height in women (P = 0.002). Conclusions These observations suggest that short and tall subjects with equivalent BMIs have similar but not identical body composition, provide new insights into earlier BMI-related observations and thus establish a foundation for height-normalized indexes, and create an analytic framework for future studies. PMID:17616766
Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Beetsch, Joel; Pietrobelli, Angelo
Although Quetelet first reported in 1835 that adult weight scales to the square of stature, limited or no information is available on how anatomical body compartments, including adipose tissue (AT), scale to height. We examined the critical underlying assumptions of adiposity-body mass index (BMI) relations and extended these analyses to major anatomical compartments: skeletal muscle (SM), bone, residual mass, weight (AT+SM+bone), AT-free mass, and organs (liver, brain). This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2 body-composition databases: one including magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of evaluated components in adults (total n=411; organs=76) and the other a larger DXA database (n=1346) that included related estimates of fat, fat-free mass, and bone mineral mass. Weight, primary lean components (SM, residual mass, AT-free mass, and fat-free mass), and liver scaled to height with powers of approximately 2 (all P2 (2.31-2.48), and the fraction of weight as bone mineral mass was significantly (P<0.001) correlated with height in women. AT scaled weakly to height with powers of approximately 2, and adiposity was independent of height. Brain mass scaled to height with a power of 0.83 (P=0.04) in men and nonsignificantly in women; the fraction of weight as brain was inversely related to height in women (P=0.002). These observations suggest that short and tall subjects with equivalent BMIs have similar but not identical body composition, provide new insights into earlier BMI-related observations and thus establish a foundation for height-normalized indexes, and create an analytic framework for future studies.
Minematsu, Kazuo; Noguchi, Masanori; Muraki, Satoshi; Fukuda, Rika; Goto, Kensuke; Tagami, Kazumi; Yuasa, Motoyuki; Marui, Eiji; Tsunawake, Noriaki
We evaluated the effect of exercise on stiffness and fat-free mass (FFM), which consists of bone and muscle, in Japanese students. It is uncertain whether exercise or sports activities will help to accumulate overall peak bone mass in Japanese adolescents. A total of 710 Japanese students (age = 15-20 yr) were enrolled. Students who regularly engage in physical exercise were assigned to an exercise group; other students were assigned to a nonexercise group. Body composition, including height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio, were measured and calculated. Lung volume, body volume, and body fat percentage were evaluated by air displacement plethysmography. Fat mass and FFM were derived from body fat percentage and body weight. Bone status, such as speed of sounds, broadband ultrasound attenuation, and stiffness, which is defined as bone density, was assessed by quantitative ultrasound. In both sexes, height, weight, body mass index, circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio, lung volume, and body volume between the exercise and nonexercise groups did not show any significant differences. FFM, speed of sounds, broadband ultrasound attenuation, and stiffness in the exercise group were statistically higher than those in the nonexercise group (P effect of exercise in Japanese students. For Japanese pubertal females who did not have a history of regular exercise, stiffness slowly decreased with age. Exercise habits in early childhood are important in the relationship between stiffness and FFM.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to (1 find differences in body build and aerobic and anaerobic capacity between young judoists and untrained peers; (2 compare correlations for indicators of body build with indicators of aerobic and anaerobic capacity among the group of trained and untrained subjects. The study group comprised 18 subjects selected during a competitive period, who had taken at least fifth place in national judo tournaments. Their training experience ranged from 6 to 11 years, 8 to 10 hours a week. The control group was composed of 18 untrained students from one of the schools included in the study. Their body height and mass (BM did not differ compared to judoists. A body composition chart was employed for analysis of body build and body composition. Physiological investigations encompassed measurements of anaerobic (Wingate test and aerobic (graded exercise test on cycle ergometer capacity. Judo contestants are typically characterized by higher BMI, fat-free mass and fat-free mass index compared to the untrained. Compared to the group of untrained peers, young athletes in this sport are distinguished by the time needed to generate peak power. This difference is not observed in the indices characterising aerobic capacity. The level of the indices of body build and composition in young judo contestants shows a moderate and strong correlation with indices of anaerobic and aerobic capacity. The amount of total work in the Wingate test was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.65, p<0.01, fat-free mass index (r=0.63, p<0.01, body mass (r=0.49, p<0.05, fat mass index (r=0.49, p<0.05 and percentage of fat (r=0.48, p<0.05. Maximal peak anaerobic power was positively correlated with fat-free mass index (r=0.48, p<0.05 and percentage of fat (r=0.50, p<0.05. A strong negative correlation between ·VO2max with body mass (r=-0.75, p<0.001, BMI (r=-0.72, p<0.001, moderate correlation with PF%(r=-0.64, p<0.01, fat-free mass index (r=-0.52, p<0
-school to 6th grade) on health related outcomes in children. The objectives are: 1.To describe the Svendborg Project and the CHAMPS study-DK (paper I). 2.To evaluate the effect of four extra PE lessons per week in primary schools on body composition and weight status in children aged 8 to 13 (paper II). 3.To...... continued as usual (two PE lessons per week). A total of 1507 children (intervention n=773, control n=734) attending pre-school to the 4th grade in 2008 were invited to participate in the CHAMPS study-DK and 1218 (81%) children and their parents accepted. Height, weight, waist circumference, DXA scans...... and youth and plays an important role in the prevention of overweight and obesity and related morbidities. Schools are recognized as potentially effective settings for public health initiatives, as they access a large population of children and youth across a variety of ethnic and socioeconomic groups...
Admassu, Bitiya; Wells, Jonathan C; Girma, Tsinuel
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is associated with childhood stunting, but equivalent associations for birth body composition (BC) remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess associations of BC with height-for-age Z score (HAZ) at 2 years of age. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, fat mass (FM) and fat...... at 2 years of age was -1.2±1.2, with 25.8% classified as stunted (HAZindependent of length at birth. When adjusted for potential confounders, HAZ at 2 years was 0.73 higher for each additional kg FFM at birth (β=0.73, 95%CI (0.08, 1.......38). FM was not associated with HAZ at 2 years in any model. CONCLUSION: The FFM component of birth weight, independent of length, explains variability in HAZ at 2 years. Further studies are required to explore how changes in early infant BC are associated with linear growth.Pediatric Research accepted...
Full Text Available Obesity is rising at an alarming rate globally. Different fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to reduce obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate if two different fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and β-glucan exert similar effects on body composition and central appetite regulation in high fat fed mice.Thirty six C57BL/6 male mice were randomized and maintained for 8 weeks on a high fat diet containing 0% (w/w fermentable carbohydrate, 10% (w/w inulin or 10% (w/w β-glucan individually. Fecal and cecal microbial changes were measured using fluorescent in situ hybridization, fecal metabolic profiling was obtained by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1H NMR, colonic short chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography, body composition and hypothalamic neuronal activation were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI, respectively, PYY (peptide YY concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, adipocyte cell size and number were also measured. Both inulin and β-glucan fed groups revealed significantly lower cumulative body weight gain compared with high fat controls. Energy intake was significantly lower in β-glucan than inulin fed mice, with the latter having the greatest effect on total adipose tissue content. Both groups also showed an increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus in cecal contents as well as feces. β-Glucan appeared to have marked effects on suppressing MEMRI associated neuronal signals in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, periventricular nucleus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius, suggesting a satiated state.Although both fermentable carbohydrates are protective against increased body weight gain, the lower body fat content induced by inulin may be metabolically advantageous. β-Glucan appears to suppress neuronal activity in the hypothalamic appetite centers. Differential
Gibson, Glenn R.; Tuohy, Kieran M.; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Swann, Jonathan R.; Deaville, Eddie R.; Sleeth, Michele L.; Thomas, E. Louise; Holmes, Elaine; Bell, Jimmy D.; Frost, Gary
Background Obesity is rising at an alarming rate globally. Different fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to reduce obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate if two different fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and β-glucan) exert similar effects on body composition and central appetite regulation in high fat fed mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty six C57BL/6 male mice were randomized and maintained for 8 weeks on a high fat diet containing 0% (w/w) fermentable carbohydrate, 10% (w/w) inulin or 10% (w/w) β-glucan individually. Fecal and cecal microbial changes were measured using fluorescent in situ hybridization, fecal metabolic profiling was obtained by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), colonic short chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography, body composition and hypothalamic neuronal activation were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI), respectively, PYY (peptide YY) concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, adipocyte cell size and number were also measured. Both inulin and β-glucan fed groups revealed significantly lower cumulative body weight gain compared with high fat controls. Energy intake was significantly lower in β-glucan than inulin fed mice, with the latter having the greatest effect on total adipose tissue content. Both groups also showed an increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus in cecal contents as well as feces. β- glucan appeared to have marked effects on suppressing MEMRI associated neuronal signals in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, periventricular nucleus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius, suggesting a satiated state. Conclusions/Significance Although both fermentable carbohydrates are protective against increased body weight gain, the lower body fat content induced by inulin may be metabolically advantageous. β-glucan appears to suppress neuronal
Kerr, D A; Ackland, T R; Schreiner, A B
In the quest to optimize performance of the elite athlete the sport scientist has sought to determine the ideal physique for a given sport or event. For some sports, specific structural characteristics offer definite performance advantages; for example in rowing, in addition to height, a large arm span has been identified as important. In other sports. such as long distance running, low levels of adiposity or 'fatness' appear to be linked with faster running times. There are four areas where appraisal of the athlete's physique can provide useful information: (1) identification of talented athletes; (2) to assess and monitor the growing athlete; (3) to monitor training and performance; and (4) to determine 'race weight' in weight-category sports. As a research tool a particular method must be reliable and valid. Other considerations include how expensive the method is, if it is suitable for a field situation and if large amounts of data on a number of subjects can be collected quickly. The method should be safe for both the athlete and the tester and provide useful feedback for the athlete or coach. Anthropometry, with training is able to fulfil most of these criteria and is the most widely used method of physique assessment in sports science. Large anthropometric data bases have been collected on elite athletes at Olympic games and world championships according to a standard protocol. Kinanthropometry, which has developed from anthropometry, is concerned with measurement and evaluation of different aspects of human movement and individual variation in body shape, size, proportion and composition. For the assessment of adiposity a sum of skinfolds, usually over six sites, is most commonly used rather than percentage body fat formulae. Muscle mass can be assessed indirectly through girth and corrected girth measurements. Limb lengths and breadths are used to assess skeletal structure and proportional differences in limb size. The anthropometric methods most commonly
Wagner, D R; Heyward, V H; Gibson, A L
The purpose of this study was to verify the validity of an air displacement plethysmography device (Bod Pod) for estimating body density (Db). The Db from the Bod Pod (DbBP) was compared with the Db from hydrostatic weighing (DbHW) at residual lung volume in a heterogeneous sample of 30 black men who varied in age (32.0 +/- 7.7 yr), height (180.3 +/- 7.5 cm), body mass (84.2 +/- 15.0 kg), body fatness (16.1 +/- 7.5%), and self-reported physical activity level and socioeconomic status. The Db for each method was converted to relative body fat (%BF) using race-specific conversion formulas and subsequently compared with %BF obtained from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (%BFDXA). Linear regression, using DbHW as the dependent variable and DbBP as the predictor, produced an R2 = 0.84 and SEE = 0.00721 g x cc(-1). However, the mean difference between the two methods (0.00450 +/- 0.00718 g x cc(-1) was significant (P Bod Pod underestimated the Db of 73% of the sample. The %BF estimates from the Bod Pod, HW, and DXA differed significantly (P Bod Pod significantly and systematically underestimated Db, resulting in an overestimation of %BF. More cross-validation research is needed before recommending the Bod Pod as a reference method.
Although the relationships among body composition, training, and physical characteristics and 17 B-estradiol (estradiol) have been described in active amenorrheic women, little is known about these relationships in eumenorrheic women. This study examined the relationship between selected body composition and training variables, physical characteristics, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol in eumenorrheic runners. Fifteen women (25.8 +/- 0.8 years) running 19.8 +/- 1.8 miles per week were studied during the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Estradiol and LH were determined by radioimmunoassay. Body composition was measured by hydrostatic weighing. Age, Ponderal Index, and menstrual cycle length (days) were inversely related to estradiol (r = -0.56, r = -0.55, r = -0.52, respectively, p less than 0.05). A significant relationship (R2 = 0.91; p less than 0.05) was found among age, menstrual cycle length, LH (mIU/ml), VO2max (ml/kg/min), weight training (hr/wk), miles run per week, height (cm), additional aerobic training (hr/wk), relative body fat (%), and Ponderal Index and estradiol (pg/ml). These data suggest the midluteal concentration of estradiol in moderately trained eumenorrheic runners is the result of a complex interaction of many factors.
Thais Costa Machado
Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.
Machado, Thais Costa; Nascimento, Viviane G; Silva, Janaína P C da; Bertoli, Ciro João; Leone, Claudio
to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW). probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59) composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI) ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity). The arm muscle area (AMA) and the arm fat area (AFA) were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110) and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44). The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa) (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107). The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047). among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.
Pires, Liliane Viana; Siviero-Miachon, Adriana Aparecida; Spinola-Castro, Angela Maria; Pimentel, José Alexandre Coelho; Nishimura, Luciana Sigueta; Maia, Carla Soraya Costa; Cozzolino, Silvia Maria Franciscato
Studies about selenium status in patients with Turner syndrome (TS) are non-existent in the literature. The aim of this study was to evaluate selenium status in patients with TS, while considering the different ages of the studied population and the relation with body composition. In total, 33 patients with TS were evaluated and grouped according to their developmental stages (children, adolescents, and adults). Selenium concentrations in their plasma, erythrocytes, urine, and nails were determined by using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity were measured by using Randox commercial kits. Additionally, height, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and waist-height ratio were measured to characterize the patients. No differences in the selenium concentrations in the plasma, erythrocyte, urine, and nails or in the glutathione peroxidase activity were observed among the age groups (p > 0.05). The evaluated selenium levels were less than the established normal ones. The patients with larger waist circumference, body fat percentage, body mass index, and waist-height ratio showed lower glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity (p = 0.023). The present study shows that most patients with TS are deficient in selenium and that those with a greater accumulation of body fat have a lower GPx activity.
Piasecki, Wojciech; Koteja, Pawel; Weiner, January; Froncisz, Wojciech
Traditional methods of measuring total body water and fat content of animals that require sacrificing specimens are generally unacceptable when endangered species, or large animal sizes, or humans are involved. These methods are also unsuitable for following changes of fat and water content in individuals. An alternative method, based on the nonresonant absorption of a rf electromagnetic field has been used for constructing a new body composition analyzer. As the electrical conductivity of lipids is approximately 20 times lower than that of lean tissues, the rf power absorbed by the animal provides information which enables one to calculate the lean body mass and total body water. The new instrument measures rf power absorbed by an animal by measuring the quality factor (Q) of the resonant circuit with an animal placed inside the coil. Numerical calculations of the rf power absorbed by a cylindrical object containing 0.9% NaCl aqueous solution have also been performed. Experimental values confirmed the calculated dependence of the absorbed power on the cylinder radius. The device built has been calibrated on 9 males and 11 females of laboratory mice. The amount of lipids was then measured by ether extraction. The relation between instrument reading, which is proportional to the power absorption, and lean body mass (LBM) or water mass (WM) was linear and highly significant: the simple regression coefficients of determination were 0.983 for LBM, and 0.990 for WM (pbody mass ranging from 15.9 to 40.7 g, the accuracy of measurement was ±1.6 g for LBM and ±1 g for WM.
Madsen, Kristine A.; Linchey, Jennifer
Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) or body composition screening is increasing, but little is known about the process of parent notification. Since 2001, California has required annual screening of body composition via the FITNESSGRAM, with optional notification. This study sought to identify the prevalence of parental notification…
Background. Rugby is a physically demanding body contact sport. Optimising dietary intake and body composition can positively affect the performance of rugby players. Objectives. To determine the body composition, habitual and game-specific nutritional practices of FNB Maties Varsity Cup (MVC) rugby players. Methods.
Müller, M J; Baracos, V; Bosy-Westphal, A
The 12th Stock Conference addressed body composition and related functions in two extreme situations, obesity and cancer cachexia. The concept of 'functional body composition' integrates body components into regulatory systems relating the mass of organs and tissues to corresponding in vivo funct...
Full Text Available Introduction: In modern civilization, there was a marked decrease in physical activity of people. It is well known that the use of dosed and regular physical activity act preventively to prevent the risk of diseases of modern civilization (Medved, 1980; Mišigoj Durakovic et al., 1999, Oman and Oman, 2003. The aim of the research is to analyze the changes of body composition of women affected by age. Methods: In a sample of 99 women, aged 20 to 49 years, the city of Novi Sad, undertook an assessment of body composition. The patients were divided into three subsamples with respect to age, for each decade separately. Distribution of respondents by age categories was made on the basis of some previous studies (NASIS and Geldas 2003, Flagg et al., 2005; Hayward, 2006. Univariate (ANOVA and multivariate (MANOVA analysis of variance fortified that there are statistically significant differences between all age groups, both in the common system variables and in most individual . For further determine the difference in the individual system variables was made t - test which confirms the findings of univariate analysis of variance. Results: Were found statistically significant differences between the analyzed groups. For most indicators of body composition are present in high and statistically significant differences. Discussion: Under the body composition we understand composition of the human body, represented by the size and grouping of existing measurable segments that constitute (Ugarković, 2001. According to some authors lean body mass is muscle, skeleton and internal organs, and body fat mass seems so. "important" and "unimportant" fat (Mišigoj Durakovic, 2006. References Bjorkelund, C., Lissner, L., Andresson, S., Lapidus, L., Bengtsson, C. (1996. Reproductive history in relation to relative weight and fat distribution. U International Journal of Obesity, 20, 213 - 219. Čokorilo, N., Mikalački, M., Korovljev, D. Cvetkovic, M. and Škrkar, S
Claudat, Kim; Warren, Cortney S; Durette, Robert T
This study investigated the relationships between body surveillance, body shame, and contextual body image during sexual activity in American female college students of European, African, Asian, and Hispanic/Latina descent (N=1174). Responses to self-report questionnaires indicated that body surveillance and body shame were significantly positively correlated with contextual body concern during sexual activities for women of all ethnic groups. Examination of direct and indirect effects using structural equation modeling indicated that body shame partially mediated the relationship between body surveillance and contextual body image during sexual activity for the sample as a whole. However, multiple-group analyses (i.e., path invariance tests) showed that some of these relationships differed by ethnic group, with European American women reporting the strongest relationships. Study results generally support the mediational role of body shame, but highlight that the strength of these relationships and means may differ across ethnic groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Four varieties of the red pepper fruits (Capsicum species) were evaluated for chemical composition, antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents using standard analytical technique, ferric-ion reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay and Folin-Colcalteau method respectively. The proximate composition values ...
Sharma, Vivek Kumar; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Arunachalam, Vinayathan
Anthropometry is generally considered as the single most easily obtainable, inexpensive, and noninvasive method that reflects body composition and VO2(max) is an indication of the physical fitness of the subject. There is a paucity of data on t3he age related changes in the body composition parameters and VO2(max), and the association between them in the Indian adolescent population. Hence, the present study was conceived to assess and find the association between these parameters in the students in the age group of 12-17 years. Body composition was assessed using anthropometric measures (Height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and skin fold thickness) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was assessed using estimated VO2(max) from Rockport Walk Fitness Test. We observed that the anthropometric measures were normal for the respective age groups and VO2(max) (mL/kg/min) in all the age groups in both the genders were in superior category according to Heywood classification. We observed higher body fat percentage (BF%) in girls of all the age groups compared to the boys and higher fat free mass (FFM) and VO2(max) in the boys of all age groups when compared to girls. VO2(max) showed a strong correlation with FFM (r = 0.891, P < 0.001) and a weak correlation with BF% (r = -0.322, P < 0.0001). Optimal body composition and CRF can be attributed to the regular structured physical activity of one hour duration daily and the provision of adequate nutrition. FFM can be put forth as a stronger determinant of CRF than BF% in the adolescents.
In the past 20 years, in vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation has become an important tool in medical research. In particular, it provides a much needed means to make quantitative assessments of body composition of human beings in vivo. The data are useful both for basic physiological understanding and for diagnosis and management of a variety of diseases and disorders. This paper traces the development of the in vivo neutron activation technique from basic systems to the present state of the art facilities. A scan of some of the numerous clinical applications that have been made with this technique, reveals the broad potentialities of in vivo neutron activation. The paper also considers alternative routes of future development and raises some of the questions now faced in making the techniques more widely available to both medical practitioners and medical investigators. In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into the modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. 18 refs., 7 figs.
Prado, Wagner Luiz do; Siegfried, Alena; Dâmaso, Ana R; Carnier, June; Piano, Aline de; Siegfried, Wolfgang
To describe the effects of long-term multidisciplinary inpatient therapy on body composition of severely obese adolescents. A total of 728 extremely obese adolescents, including 249 boys (aged 15.25+/-1.56 years) and 479 girls (aged 15.34+/-1.59 years) received multidisciplinary therapy during a period of 3 to 9 months. The therapy consisted of reduced energy intake, dietetic education, physical exercises and psychological therapy. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and physical capacity was assessed by the multistage cycle ergometer test. Type and duration of each activity were recorded using a daily controlled activity diary. There was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in body mass (27.84+/-12.49 kg for boys and 21.60+/-9.87 kg for girls), body mass index (9.19+/-3.88 kg/m(2) for boys and 7.72+/-3.98 kg/m(2) for girls) and fat mass. In addition, the percentage of fat free mass increased significantly (p < 0.05) in boys (from 58.8+/-6.41 to 69.98+/-7.43%) and in girls (from 51.86+/-4.96 to 60.04+/-5.65%). Long-term multidisciplinary approach allows significant reduction in severe obesity, preserving growth and percentage of fat free mass.
Almeida, V P; Guimarães, F S; Moço, V J R; Menezes, S L S; Mafort, T T; Lopes, A J
Asthma may result in postural disorders due to increased activity of accessory respiratory muscles and hyperinflation. Our primary objective was to assess the correlation between pulmonary function and posture in adult patients with asthma. Secondarily, we aimed to study the correlation between body composition and body posture in this group of patients. This was a cross-sectional study including 34 patients with asthma who were subjected to postural assessment (photogrammetry), pulmonary function testing (spirometry, whole-body plethysmography, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and respiratory muscle strength), and body composition estimation by means of bioelectrical impedance. Most patients were female (70.6%) with a median age of 32.5 years (range: 23-42 years old). We found a significant correlation between horizontal alignment of head (anterior view) and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC; ρ=-0,37; P=.03), total lung capacity (TLC; ρ=0,42; P=.01), and residual volume (RV; ρ=0,45; P<.001). Bronchial obstruction and respiratory muscle strength variables also correlated with postural assessment measures on the right and left lateral views. Both body mass index and the percentage of fat mass correlated with horizontal alignment of head, horizontal alignment of the pelvis, and the frontal angle of the lower limbs. Adult patients with asthma exhibit specific postural disorders that correlate with pulmonary function and body composition. The assessment of postural variables may provide a better pulmonary rehabilitation approach for these patients. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Zapolska, Joanna; Witczak, Katarzyna; Mańczuk, Angelika; Ostrowska, Lucyna
Volleyball is a team game belonging to a group of sports disciplines that involve indirect fighting. Adequate energy coverage in athletes is a crucial issue. It depends primarily on the type, intensity and duration of physical activity related to the sports discipline practiced and to the training cycle duration. The average energy requirement in sportsmen is 50% higher than that of adults. The aim of the study was to characterize the mode of nutrition, including dietary supplements and to assess somatic indices in female volleyball players of the AZS Bialystok team. The study involved 17 women. Research tools included a questionnaire consisting of 24-hour recall, a questionnaire survey concerning supplement intake and body composition analysis performed using a bioimpedance analyzer InBody 220. Data analysis indicates that the anthropometric characteristics and body composition of the AZS Bialystok players meet the recommendations associated with the somatic features in volleyball. Daily diet of the volleyball players were of low-energy with regard to the recommendations for physically active people, with very low supply of carbohydrates and dietary fiber, excessive proportion of saturated fatty acids and dietary cholesterol, and too low content of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Supply of vitamins and minerals was found to be alarmingly low, especially of iron and calcium; diet supplementation was insufficient. No significant abnormalities were noted in body composition of the study athletes. However, they are recommended to increase muscle mass and slightly reduce body fat. Results of diet evaluation show the need for education in the field of nutrition and the necessity of further research into dietary habits among sportsmen.
Backonja, Uba; Hediger, Mary L; Chen, Zhen; Lauver, Diane R; Sun, Liping; Peterson, C Matthew; Buck Louis, Germaine M
Body mass index (BMI) and endometriosis have been inversely associated. To address gaps in this research, we examined associations among body composition, endometriosis, and physical activity. Women from 14 clinical sites in the Salt Lake City, Utah and San Francisco, California areas and scheduled for laparoscopy/laparotomy were recruited during 2007-2009. Participants (N = 473) underwent standardized anthropometric assessments to estimate body composition before surgery. Using a cross-sectional design, odds of an endometriosis diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]) were calculated for anthropometric and body composition measures (weight in kg; height in cm; mid upper arm, waist, hip, and chest circumferences in cm; subscapular, suprailiac, and triceps skinfold thicknesses in mm; arm muscle and fat areas in cm(2); centripetal fat, chest-to-waist, chest-to-hip, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios; arm fat index; and BMI in kg/m(2)). Physical activity (metabolic equivalent of task-minutes/week) and sedentariness (average minutes sitting on a weekday) were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form. Measures were modeled continuously and in quartiles based on sample estimates. Adjusted models were controlled for age (years, continuous), site (Utah/California), smoking history (never, former, or current smoker), and income (below, within 180%, and above of the poverty line). Findings were standardized by dividing variables by their respective standard deviations. We used adjusted models to examine whether odds of an endometriosis diagnosis were moderated by physical activity or sedentariness. Inverse relationships were observed between endometriosis and standardized: weight (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.88); subscapular skinfold thickness (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.98); waist and hip circumferences (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.98 and aOR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.61-0.94, respectively); total
Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Geniosporum rotundifolium Briq and Haumaniastrum villosum (Bene) AJ Paton (Lamiaceae) Essential Oils from Tanzania. ... The oil of G. rotundifolium exhibited weak to moderate activity against the bacterial species but showed no activity against the test fungi. However ...
Full Text Available Since 2 years all 265 incident patients in self-dialysis units were included in a prospective study. Every 6-months, clinical and biological nutritional evaluation was associated to a BCM measure. 205 pts have a complete set of data at start (age 60±16 years, BMI 25±5 kg/m2, albumin 37±4 g/L, prealbumin 0.32±0.1 g/L, CRP median 5 mg/L, 135 pts at 6 mo and 56 pts at 2 years. Measures were performed before HD session to ensure stability and reproducibility of body fluid compartments by the same examiner. Lean and fat masses (lean tissue index: LTI, fat tissue index: FTI were normalized by square body height and compared with a reference range derived from 2000 healthy controls, according to gender and age. 28% of pts had values of LTI below the 10th percentile. A linear correlation exists (p<0.001 between pre-dialysis creatinine level and LTI. Albumin or prealbumin were not predictive of sarcopenia. Prescribed post dialysis BW was underestimated in 25% of pts and 16% remain overhydrated. In stable patients repeated measures analysis reveal no significant variation of LTI even in case of reevaluation of BW and gain of BW is associated with fat mass increase. BCM is a simple tool in clinical practice to evaluate body composition and hydratation status and help to guide nutritional support.
Jacquelin-Ravel, Nathalie; Pichard, Claude
Review the oncology and clinical nutrition literature to highlight the synergies between those two subjects. This review focuses on diagnostic of lean body wasting and the recent improvements in measuring body composition to monitor the response to nutrition during optimal oncology treatment. Nutrition support in cancer patients has made major progresses. A variety of advanced tools allow monitoring and explaining weight loss, body composition changes and metabolic alterations. Body composition is more accurate than body surface area to determine chemotherapeutic drug dosing. As with any therapeutic approach, clinical nutrition has a better risk-benefit ratio if implemented when indicated rather than used routinely. Body composition measurements are helpful for a better understanding of the host-tumor interactions during cancer treatment and nutrition support. Nutrition support based on body composition analysis may significantly contribute to optimize current oncology treatment and clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shakibaee; Faghihzadeh; Alishiri; Ebrahimpour; Faradjzadeh; Sobhani; Asgari
Background The body composition varies according to different life styles (i.e. intake calories and caloric expenditure). Therefore, it is wise to record military personnel’s body composition periodically and encourage those who abide to the regulations. Different methods have been introduced for body composition assessment: invasive and non-invasive. Amongst them, the Jackson and Pollock equation is most popular. Objectives The r...
Clarion, A.; Ribbe, E.; Rebeyrol, J.; Rousseaux-Blanchi, M.-P.; Dechavanne, C.; Moreno, M.-V.
Body composition is a useful means for athletes' body composition assessment, relying on reference population data. This study aims at comparing body composition multifrequency impedance data of athletes and healthy adult populations. Differences were found in tissular, hydration and metabolic indices. They were significant, in the expected direction, but quite weak and additional data from reference technologies would set if specific equations are needed. The current ones are nevertheless suitable for reliable follow-up studies.
Prokop, Neal W; Reid, Ryan E R; Andersen, Ross E
The monitoring of a collegiate hockey player's body composition can reflect fitness characteristics and may help players, coaches, or strength and conditioning specialists optimize physiologic gains during an off-season, whereas simultaneously preventing performance decrements in-season. The purpose of the study was to investigate changes in whole-body and regional-body composition of fat and lean tissue. The body composition profiles of 19 elite Canadian collegiate hockey players were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Players completed end-of-season, preseason, and midseason assessments with questionnaires relating to their off-season and in-season training. Statistically significant changes in body composition profiles were observed between the different time points because players showed various tissue gains and losses depending on the region assessed. Overall, players gained (1.38 kg, p ≤ 0.01) and lost (0.79 kg, p ≤ 0.01) fat tissue during the off-season and in-season, respectively. Players also showed a significant gain of leg lean tissue (0.29 kg, p = 0.02) and loss of arm tissue mass (-0.25 kg, p = 0.02) during the first-half of the competitive season. Several correlations emerged that may provide insight into potential trends that could be more pronounced during longer and more demanding schedules. Collegiate hockey players show changes in body composition during the off-season and in-season. The understanding of body composition profiles, body composition fluctuations, and potential variables that may influence the composition of collegiate hockey players can help coaches and athletic programs tailor their team's training, nutrition, lifestyle, and informative resources to further support their athletes.
S. G. Rudnev
Full Text Available Cross screening study of the body composition in 240 adult tuberculosis patients found out significantly lower rates of weight and height, lean and fat mass indices and the value of phase diwerence compared to the population of clinically healthy people examined in health centers. 46 (19.2% patients out of all examined had cachexia defined basing on the criteria of World Health Organisation (WHO. In addition, 75 (31.7% of tuberculosis patients had protein debilitation and 39 (16.3% had lipid debilitation. Diagnostic sensitivity of WHO criteria of cachexia by body mass index when defining protein debilitation made 56%, and when defining lipid debilitation it made 61.5%. Among women the rates of protein and lipid debilitation were similar (29.1% and 26.6%, and among men protein debilitation prevailed (32.9% against 11.2%. Protein debilitation were most often detected in case of multiple drug resistance (in 54.7% of cases, in those receiving repeated treatment after chemotherapy failure (45.9% and in disseminated forms of pulmonary tuberculosis (44.3%. Examination results of 55 workers of anti-tuberculosis medical units in general corresponded to the reference data of the health centers.
You, Tongjian; Ryan, Alice S; Nicklas, Barbara J
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether aerobic fitness, body composition, body fat distribution, and inflammation are different in obese postmenopausal women with and without the metabolic syndrome (MS...
Neha A Kajale
Full Text Available Introduction: Dietary and life style practices differ in postpartum (PP and nonpregnant Indian women. Effect of these practices on postpartum weight retention (PPWR and development of cardio-metabolic risk (CMR has been scarcely studied in urban women. Aims of this study were to (i compare anthropometry, biochemical parameters and body composition up to 3 years PP (ii effect of PPWR, dietary fat intake and physical activity on CMR factors. Methods: Design: Cross-sectional, 300-fullterm, apparently healthy primi-parous women (28.6 ± 3.4 years randomly selected. 128 women within 7-day of delivery (Group-A, 88 with 1-2 years (Group-B and 84 with 3-4-year-old-children (Group-C were studied. Anthropometry, sociodemographic status, physical activity, diet, clinical examination, biochemical tests, body composition, at total body (TB, by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE-Lunar DPX were collected. Results: Women at 3-year PP showed higher weight retention (6.5 kg than at 1-year (3.0 kg (median [IQR]. Android fat % (central obesity increased (P 0.1. Conclusion: Postdelivery, low physical activity and higher PPWR may increase CMR in Indian women.
Vu, John P; Larauche, Muriel; Flores, Martin; Luong, Leon; Norris, Joshua; Oh, Suwan; Liang, Li-Jung; Waschek, James; Pisegna, Joseph R; Germano, Patrizia M
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a 28-amino acid neuropeptide that belongs to the secretin-glucagon superfamily of peptides and has 68 % homology with PACAP. VIP is abundantly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system and in the gastrointestinal tract, where it exercises several physiological functions. Previously, it has been reported that VIP regulates feeding behavior centrally in different species of vertebrates such as goldfishes, chicken and rodents. Additional studies are necessary to analyze the role of endogenous VIP on the regulation of appetite/satiety, feeding behavior, metabolic hormones, body mass composition and energy balance. The aim of the study was to elucidate the physiological pathways by which VIP regulates appetite/satiety, feeding behavior, metabolic hormones, and body mass composition. VIP deficient (VIP -/-) and age-matched wild-type (WT) littermates were weekly monitored from 5 to 22 weeks of age using a whole body composition EchoMRI analyzer. Food intake and feeding behavior were analyzed using the BioDAQ automated monitoring system. Plasma levels of metabolic hormones including active-ghrelin, GLP-1, leptin, PYY, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), adiponectin, and insulin were measured in fasting as well as in postprandial conditions. The genetic lack of VIP led to a significant reduction of body weight and fat mass and to an increase of lean mass as the mice aged. Additionally, VIP-/- mice had a disrupted pattern of circadian feeding behavior resulting in an abolished regular nocturnal/diurnal feeding. These changes were associated with an altered secretion of adiponectin, GLP-1, leptin, PYY and insulin in VIP-/- mice. Our data demonstrates that endogenous VIP is involved in the control of appetite/satiety, feeding behavior, body mass composition and in the secretion of six different key regulatory metabolic hormones. VIP plays a key role in the regulation of body phenotype by significantly enhancing body weight and fat
Castillo-Laura, Helen; Santos, Iná S.; Quadros, Lenice C. M.; Matijasevich, Alicia
Abstract This study reviewed the evidence that assessed the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and/or gestational weight gain and offspring body composition in childhood. A systematic review was conducted. Cohort studies, case-control studies and randomized controlled trials measuring offspring body composition by indirect methods were included. Meta-analyses of the effect of pre-pregnancy BMI on offspring fat-free mass, body fat percent, and fat mass were conduc...
Grossman, Michael; Tekin, Erdal; Wada, Roy
We examine the effects of fast-food restaurant advertising on television on the body composition of adolescents as measured by percentage body fat (PBF) and to assess the sensitivity of these effects to using conventional measures of youth obesity based on body-mass index (BMI). We merge measures of body composition from bioelectrical-impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with individual level data from th...
Panahi, Shirin; Doyon, Caroline Y; Després, Jean-Pierre; Pérusse, Louis; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Drapeau, Vicky; Tremblay, Angelo
The aim was to compare the anthropometric and metabolic profiles and lifestyle behaviours of yogurt consumers and non-consumers and to determine if the observed differences persisted after adjustment for diet quality and related variables. Using cross-sectional and follow-up data from the Québec Family Study, men and women were classified into yogurt consumers (n = 269; 96 men and 173 women) and non-consumers (n = 570; 279 men and 291 women), and their anthropometric measurements, metabolic profiles, and lifestyle factors were compared. Men yogurt consumers had a lower body weight, BMI, % body fat, waist circumference and lower plasma insulin, and C-peptide concentrations in response to oral glucose, while women yogurt consumers had lower waist circumference, BMI, % body fat, plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide compared with non-consumers (P < 0.05). After adjustment for the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF) index, a marker of diet quality, these differences persisted in men and only for glycemic variables in women. Additional adjustment for physical activity participation and % body fat did not abolish the significant differences observed between yogurt consumers and non-consumers for plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide responses to oral glucose in women only (P < 0.05). Analyses of data after a 6-year follow-up reinforced these observations, since both men and women yogurt consumers maintained a better metabolic profile compared with non-consumers after adjustments for age and NRF (P < 0.05). In addition, an interaction between group and time for % body fat in men suggests a benefit of yogurt consumption over time on body composition. Yogurt consumption is associated with body composition and metabolic health benefits that are not entirely explained by a global effect of diet quality.
Eklund, Daniela; Häkkinen, Arja; Laukkanen, Jari Antero; Balandzic, Milica; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo
This study investigated changes in physical fitness, body composition, and blood lipid profile following 24 weeks of 3 volume-equated concurrent strength and endurance training protocols. Physically active, healthy male and female participants (aged 18-40 years) performed strength and endurance sessions on different days (DD; men, n = 21; women, n = 18) or in the same session with endurance preceding strength (ES; men, n = 16; women, n = 15) or vice versa (SE; men, n = 18; women, n = 14). The training volume was matched in all groups. Maximal leg press strength (1-repetition maximum (1RM)) and endurance performance (maximal oxygen consumption during cycling), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and blood lipids were measured. 1RM and maximal oxygen consumption increased in all groups in men (12%-17%, p training is effective in improving physical fitness while volume-equated, but more frequent DD training may be more suitable for optimizing body composition and may be possibly useful in early prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.
Elsila, Jamie E; Aponte, José C; Blackmond, Donna G; Burton, Aaron S; Dworkin, Jason P; Glavin, Daniel P
The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplified by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large l-enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to ∼60%) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work.
Andreu, Alba; Moizé, Violeta; Rodríguez, Lucía; Flores, Lilliam; Vidal, Josep
Daily protein intake recommendations have recently been proposed for the bariatric patient. We aimed to evaluate the accomplishment of these recommendations, and the influence of protein intake (PI) on fat free mass (FFM) and protein status changes following bariatric surgery. We examined 101 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic Roux-in-Y gastric gypass (LGBP) or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Based on 3-day food records, PI from food and supplements were quantified at 4, 8, and 12 months after surgery. The association between PI and body composition (bioelectrical impedance), plasma albumin and pre-albumin was evaluated at all study time points. A PI protein supplementation, supplements were taken only by 63.4, 50.5, and 33.7% of the participants at 4, 8, and 12 months. However, protein supplementation was effective in helping patients to achieve the daily protein intake goal. In linear regression analysis, male gender and weight loss, but not PI, were significantly associated with loss of FFM (p protein supplementation for the achievement of the recommended daily protein intake in the bariatric patient. However, our data does not help to define a PI goal as critical in determining the FFM and protein status changes following LGBP or LSG.
Elsila, Jamie E.; Aponte, Jose C.; Blackmond, Donna G.; Burton, Aaron S.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.
The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplied by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large -enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to 60) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work.
Tzotzas, Themistoklis; Krassas, Gerasimos E; Doumas, Argirios
Body composition (BC) assessment provides important information regarding the absolute or relative amount of bone, lean and fat tissue. Different somatometric techniques have been applied in numerous epidemiological and experimental studies, as well as in every day clinical practice. Traditional techniques for BC analysis include skin fold thickness measurements, radioisotope dilution methods, hydrodensitometry and underwater weighing, while newer techniques include bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), dual energy X-rays absorptiometry (DEXA), computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, positron emission tomography helped to the functional investigation of adipose tissue, in particular of brown tissue. All these techniques have contributed a lot to the understanding of physiological conditions such as exercise training, menopause and ageing, adolescence health parameters, as well as pathological conditions such as disorders of nutrition, cancer, obesity and diabetes mellitus. In obesity, BC contributed to diagnosis and the pathological impact of visceral adipose tissue. In addition, conditions such as pseudo- or hypermuscular obesity and sarcopenia, which are often observed in various endocrine diseases, were investigated in detail by using such methods. During weight loss, some of these methods were quite accurate in measuring changes in fat and lean mass. Apart from anthropometric measurements, a BC measurement if possible should be included in obesity assessment. Measurements of skin fold thickness combined with BIA are quite sufficient for routine clinical practice. However, in specialized clinics and in research, more sophisticated methods like ADP or DEXA are used.
Katić, Katarina; Li, Rongling; Kingma, Boris; Zeiler, Wim
Skin temperature is a challenging parameter to predict due to the complex interaction of physical and physiological variations. Previous studies concerning the correlation of regional physiological characteristics and body composition showed that obese people have higher hand skin temperature compared to the normal weight people. To predict hand skin temperature in a different environment, a two-node hand thermophysiological model was developed and validated with published experimental data. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was performed which showed that the variations in skin blood flow and blood temperature are most influential on hand skin temperature. The hand model was applied to simulate the hand skin temperature of the obese and normal weight subgroup in different ambient conditions. Higher skin blood flow and blood temperature were used in the simulation of obese people. The results showed a good agreement with experimental data from the literature, with the maximum difference of 0.31°C. If the difference between blood flow and blood temperature of obese and normal weight people was not taken into account, the hand skin temperature of obese people was predicted with an average deviation of 1.42°C. In conclusion, when modelling hand skin temperatures, it should be considered that regional skin temperature distribution differs in obese and normal weight people. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boschi, V; Siervo, M; D'Orsi, P; Margiotta, N; Trapanese, E; Basile, F; Nasti, G; Papa, A; Bellini, O; Falconi, C
Dieting is a behavioral phenomenon which is becoming more frequent among adolescents and the search for weight loss, through dieting, may result in an unbalanced nutrition both quantitatively and qualitatively. Our study intended to look at the eating habits and behavior on a cohort of adolescent girls to verify the presence of unbalanced diets and the prevalence of eating disorders with particular attention to the partial syndromes (EDNOS). A cross-sectional double-stage study was carried out on a group of schoolgirls in the suburbs of Naples. We assessed anthropometrical measures, body composition (skinfolds and bioimpedance analysis), dietary intake by means of 3-day food records and we administered the Eating Disorder Inventory 2 and Psychosocial Factor Risk Questionnaire. A multidisciplinary and double-stage approach had been used to get a better diagnosis of eating disorders in our sample. 156 adolescent girls, 14-18 years old, took part in our study. Height, weight, and BMI were 160.38 cm, 58 kg and 22.6, respectively. Analysis of food intake showed that all the values reported, with the exception of lipids and sodium, were below the recommendations by LARN. We observed a prevalence of 1.28% of bulimia nervosa, 1.28% of binge eating, and 10.25% of eating disorders not otherwise specified. EDI 2 and PRFQ confirmed how important drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction dimensions are when we deal with adolescent girls and with the phenomenon of dieting. The study confirmed the validity of the PRFQ questionnaire to evaluate mass media influence on body perception and eating behavior of adolescents. Multidisciplinary and well-designed studies are needed to systematically and accurately study eating habits and behavior of adolescents to tackle more efficiently the increasing spread of eating disorders and obesity. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
Galvin, James E
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a challenge to diagnose, particularly outside of expert centers with long delays in diagnosis leading to significant burden to patients and caregivers. While consensus criteria have excellent specificity, there is no standardized way to assess symptoms reducing sensitivity. We developed the Lewy Body Composite Risk Score (LBCRS) from autopsy-verified cases to improve the ability to detect DLB in clinic and research populations. The LBCRS was tested in a consecutive series of 256 patients compared with the Clinical Dementia Rating and gold standard measures of cognition, motor symptoms, function, and behavior. Psychometric properties including floor and ceiling effects; concurrent, construct, and known-groups validity, and internal consistency of the LBCRS were determined. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves assessed the ability of LBCRS to differentiate: (a) DLB from Alzheimer's disease (AD); (b) DLB from all dementia, and (c) Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to DLB from MCI due to AD. The LBCRS was completed independent of the clinical evaluation. Mean LBCRS scores were significantly different between DLB and AD (6.1±2.0 vs. 2.4±1.3, pdementia. Using a cut-off score of 3, areas under ROC for DLB vs. AD = 0.93 (0.89-0.98), and for MCI-DLB vs. MCI-AD = 0.96 (0.91-1.0). The LBCRS increases diagnostic probability that Lewy body pathology is contributing to the dementia syndrome and should improve clinical detection and enrollment for clinical trials.
Spence, Lisa A; Cifelli, Christopher J; Miller, Gregory D
Overweight and obesity are major public health concerns with approximately 32% and 17% of U.S. children aged 2 – 19 being classified as overweight or obese, respectively. While the cause of overweight and obesity is multi-factorial, changes in eating habits and physical activity patterns have been proposed as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic. For example, the displacement of nutrient rich foods and beverages with non-nutrient dense items may be influencing childhood obesity. Many children do not consume the recommended servings of the Food Groups to Encourage, i.e. low-fat and fat-free dairy foods, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains identified by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans which results in low intakes of calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E. While attention has focused primarily on reducing energy intake and/or increasing energy expenditure for weight maintenance, a promising beneficial role for dairy products in weight management has emerged. Most research has focused on adults, but there is evidence in children and adolescents indicating either a beneficial or neutral effect of dairy food consumption on body weight or body composition. The current review provides and assessment of the scientific evidence on the effects of dairy food consumption on body weight and body composition in children and adolescents. PMID:22299005
Full Text Available Sleep duration has been inversely associated with body mass index (BMI. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat in Black and White individuals from the CARDIA study. Box-Tidwell regression models were adjusted for age and race (Model 1, additional lifestyle and demographic variables (Model 2, and physical activity (Model 3. There were significant interactions between sleep and gender for the main outcome variables. In men, there was a trend for an inverse relationship between reported sleep duration and BMI in Model 2 (β=−0.20,P=.053 but not model 3 (β=−0.139,P=.191. In women, inverse relationships were observed between sleep duration and BMI (β=−0.294,P=.005 and waist circumference (β=−0.442,P=.059, in Model 2. These associations became nonsignificant in model 3 (BMI: β=−0.172,P=.084; waist circumference: β=−0.161,P=.474. Our results are consistent with previous findings that sleep is associated with BMI and other body composition variables. However, the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and body composition may be stronger in women than in men.
Lin, Ching-I; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Kan, Nai-Wen; Wei, Li; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Huang, Chi-Chang
Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential benefits of WBV on aging-associated changes in body composition, exercise performance, and fatigue are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the beneficial effects of WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related and biochemical responses in middle-aged mice. In total, 24 male C57BL/6 mice aged 15 months old were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=8 per group): sedentary control (SC), relatively low-frequency WBV (5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g) (LV), and relatively high-frequency WBV (13 Hz, 2 mm, 0.68 g) (HV). Mice in the LV and HV groups were placed inside a vibration platform and vibrated at different frequencies and fixed amplitude (2 mm) for 15 min, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Exercise performance, core temperature and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise, as were changes in body composition and biochemical variables at the end of the experiment. Relative muscle and brown adipose tissue weight (%) was significantly higher for the HV than SC mice, but relative liver weight (%) was lower. On trend analysis, WBV increased grip strength, aerobic endurance and core temperature in mice. As well, serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels were dose-dependently decreased with vibration frequency after the swimming test. Fasting serum levels of albumin and total protein were increased and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and creatinine decreased dose-dependently with vibration frequency. Moreover, WBV training improved the age-related abnormal morphology of skeletal muscle, liver and kidney tissues. Therefore, it could improve exercise performance and
D. M. Sontam
Full Text Available Physical activity has a vital role in regulating and improving bone strength. Responsiveness of bone mass to exercise is age dependent with the prepubertal period suggested to be the most effective stage for interventions. There is a paucity of data on the effects of exercise on bone architecture and body composition when studied within the prepubertal period. We examined the effect of two forms of low-impact exercise on prepubertal changes in body composition and bone architecture. Weanling male rats were assigned to control (CON, bipedal stance (BPS, or wheel exercise (WEX groups for 15 days until the onset of puberty. Distance travelled via WEX was recorded, food intake measured, and body composition quantified. Trabecular and cortical microarchitecture of the femur were determined by microcomputed tomography. WEX led to a higher lean mass and reduced fat mass compared to CON. WEX animals had greater femoral cortical cross-sectional thickness and closed porosity compared to CON. The different exercise modalities had no effect on body weight or food intake, but WEX significantly altered body composition and femoral microarchitecture. These data suggest that short-term mild voluntary exercise in normal prepubertal rats can alter body composition dependent upon the exercise modality.
Sontam, D M; Vickers, M H; O'Sullivan, J M; Watson, M; Firth, E C
Physical activity has a vital role in regulating and improving bone strength. Responsiveness of bone mass to exercise is age dependent with the prepubertal period suggested to be the most effective stage for interventions. There is a paucity of data on the effects of exercise on bone architecture and body composition when studied within the prepubertal period. We examined the effect of two forms of low-impact exercise on prepubertal changes in body composition and bone architecture. Weanling male rats were assigned to control (CON), bipedal stance (BPS), or wheel exercise (WEX) groups for 15 days until the onset of puberty. Distance travelled via WEX was recorded, food intake measured, and body composition quantified. Trabecular and cortical microarchitecture of the femur were determined by microcomputed tomography. WEX led to a higher lean mass and reduced fat mass compared to CON. WEX animals had greater femoral cortical cross-sectional thickness and closed porosity compared to CON. The different exercise modalities had no effect on body weight or food intake, but WEX significantly altered body composition and femoral microarchitecture. These data suggest that short-term mild voluntary exercise in normal prepubertal rats can alter body composition dependent upon the exercise modality.
Sofková, Tereza; Pridalová, Miroslava; Mitás, Josef; Pelclová, Jana
A neighborhood environment allows defining typical features for physically active or inactive lifestyle. An accelerated pace of life and higher availability of an unhealthy lifestyle increase obesity rates. An analysis of body composition can be used as a predictor for assessment of current somatic conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the dependence of selected body composition parameters on neighborhood walkability in 167 women aged 20-60 years attending weight-loss programme called STOB-courses. A multifrequency bioimpedance analysis InBody 720 was used to determine the body composition of respondents. Further, ANEWS questionnaire was used to determine the level of neighborhood walkability. We divided the sample into two age groups (40 years) and into partial subgroups according to the neighborhood "level of walkability" (lower and higher level). Based on the assessment of body composition, it can be assumed more walkable neighborhood opportunities positively affect body composition. Body composition in older women is positively influenced if they lived in high walkable areas. In younger women we found only one indicator of body composition (body fat mass) influenced by neighborhood walkability. The relationship between health indicators of body composition and residential infrastructure might be useful in strategies aimed at maintaining and developing a healthy lifestyle within the community.
Ćopić, Nemanja; Dopsaj, Milivoj; Ivanović, Jelena; Nešić, Goran; Jarić, Slobodan
Studies of the role of various anthropometric, physiological, and biomechanical variables in performance of rapid movements have generally revealed inconsistent findings. Within this study, we tested the hypotheses that (a) both body composition and leg extensor strength variables would reveal significant relationship with jumping performance, whereas (b) the same relationships would be stronger in physically active nonathletes than in the elite athletes proficient in vertical jumping. Top-level female volleyball players (VP; N = 35) and physically active female nonathletes (PA; N = 21) were tested on maximum vertical jumps performed with and without arm swing, as well as on body composition (percent fat and muscle) and leg press strength (maximum force and the rate of force development). The results revealed significant relationships between the jumping performance and body composition variables that appeared to be higher in PA (r = 0.65-0.76; all p strength variables were mainly significant (r = 0.23-0.68) and similar in 2 groups. We conclude that not only the leg extensor strength but also the body composition variables could be valid predictors of jumping performance and, possibly, other rapid movements. Moreover, the body composition variables that have been mainly neglected in the literature could be particularly strong predictors of performance of jumping in nonathletes, as compared with relatively homogeneous populations of elite athletes.
Full Text Available Introduction: When talking about the disease in the first place are heart disease-coronary artery disease, wherein there is a narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis. Active lifestyle can slow, stop and even reverse the process of atherosclerosis. In this regard, it is known that increasing the inactivity of a 35 % risk of developing hypertension, and subjects who are in poor physical condition are 52% greater risk of the disease than those who are in good shape (Sharkey & Gaskill, 2008. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference in body composition of women dealing with the combined group fitness programs compared to women who engaged in practicing the Pilates method. Methods: The sample consisted of females aged 30 to 50 years. The total sample in the study consisted of 130 subjects from the territory of Novi Sad. Physically active group consisted of 84 respondents, who were divided into two groups . The first group includes 34 women who exercised twice weekly Pilates for a period of one hour , for a period of one year. The second group consisted of 50 subjects who actively exercised at a fitness club "World Class," at least a year, combining a variety of group programs, at least three times a week. The range of training duration was from 30 to 60 minutes. The third group consisted of a sample of 46 subjects who did not engage in any physical activity. Results: The results it was concluded that the subjects who were involved in the combined training group have lower values of body mass index, fat mass and percentage fat mass in total body composition of women who exercised only one group program, or Pilates, and women who not engage in any recreational activity. Discussion: In current practice were determined effects of aerobics on morphological characteristics and functional abilities of trainees have, where they are statistically significant differences in body mass index and fat mass in
Full Text Available A recent hierarchical model of numerical processing, initiated by Fischer and Brugger (2011 and Fisher (2012, suggested that situated factors, such as different body postures and body movements, can influence the magnitude representation and bias numerical processing. Indeed, Loetscher and colleagues (2008 found that participants’ behavior in a random number generation (RNG task was biased by head rotations. More small numbers were reported after leftward than rightward head turns, i.e. a motion–numerical compatibility effect. Here, by carrying out two experiments, we explored whether similar motion–numerical compatibility effects exist for movements of other important body components, e.g. arms, and for composite body movements as well, which are basis for complex human activities in many ecologically meaningful situations. In Experiment 1, a motion-numerical compatibility effect was observed for lateral rotations of two body components, i.e., the head and arms. Relatively large numbers were reported after making rightward compared to leftward movements for both lateral head and arm turns. The motion-numerical compatibility effect was observed again in Experiment 2 when participants were asked to perform composite body movements of congruent movement directions, e.g., simultaneous head left turns and arm left turns. However, it disappeared when the movement directions were incongruent, e.g., simultaneous head left turns and arm right turns. Taken together, our results extended Loetscher et al.'s (2008 finding by demonstrating that their effect is effector-general and exists for arm movements. Moreover, our study reveals for the first time that the impact of spatial information on numerical processing induced by each of the two sensorimotor-based situated factors, e.g., a lateral head turn and a lateral arm turn, can cancel each other out.
Kelly, Mackenzie C; Latner, Janet D
The prevalence of obesity increases as women move from adolescence to young adulthood, and college women have been identified as a population at risk for unhealthy weight gain. Studies of weight gain in college populations have revealed that significant, variable weight change occurs in as few as eight weeks, but few have included participants beyond their freshman year of college or assessed body composition. The aims of the study were to use a repeated measures design to identify patterns of weight change among college women at all grade levels and to evaluate factors that may predict weight change over a one-year period. Undergraduate college women (N=131) completed measures of physical activity, dietary restraint, living conditions, and body dissatisfaction at baseline, 6-months, and 12-months. Height, weight, and body composition were collected at all assessment periods. Forty-four percent of participants gained at least 3lb, 23% lost at least 3lb, and 33% maintained weight over one year. Weight change was associated with changes in body fat and was not related to baseline BMI or age. There were no significant differences between grade levels, suggesting that future studies should include women at all grade levels. Baseline physical activity, dietary restraint, living conditions, and body dissatisfaction did not predict weight change at one year, nor did they differentiate between individuals in the three weight change categories. Further research is needed to identify the factors associated with weight gain in young adult women, and such studies should not be limited to college freshmen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate body composition and body image of women doing CrossFit, Pilates and Zumba exercises. Material and Methods: This study was carried out to investigate body composition and body areas satisfaction of women doing CrossFit, Pilates and Zumba exercises, 80 women voluntarily being in an average age of 42.74±8.47 voluntarily participated in the research. The women were grouped into two such as experimental (n=45 and control (n=35. The women in experimental group were applied 30-70min mixed exercises (CrossFit, Plates, Zumba for 4 days in a week throughout 12 weeks to have target heart rate of 50-60%. Results: A significant difference was found between body weight and BMI pre-test and post-test values of women who were applied mixed exercise program (CrossFit, Pilates, Zumba. There was a decrease in both body weight and average means of BMI of women. A significant difference was found between body areas satisfaction pre-test and post-test values of women who were applied CrossFit, Pilates, Zumba exercise program. While pre-test value of body areas satisfaction of women who were applied mixed exercise program was determined as 31.68±6.11, its post-test value was 35.68±5.02. It is remarkable that while body weight and BMI of women doing exercises decreased, their body areas satisfaction values increased. It was indicated that the body areas satisfaction of women having weight loss increased. A significant difference was not found between body weight, BMI and body areas satisfaction pre-test and post-test values of women in control group. Conclusion: It was concluded that there were positive effects on body weight, BMI and body image.
Marín, Verónica B; Velandia, Sylvia; Hunter, Bessie; Gattas, Vivien; Fielbaum, Oscar; Herrera, Oscar; Díaz, Erik
Undernutrition is a frequent complication in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Elevated energy requirements have been found to be 4% to 33% higher than in controls in some studies. Whether or not this is caused by a primary defect or energy metabolism is still a matter of controversy. To this end, we assessed energy expenditure, nutrition status, and body composition of clinically stable CF outpatients. Fifteen clinically stable CF patients, ages 2 to 15 y, were paired with 15 healthy control children. Measurements consisted of anthropometry and body composition. Plasma tocopherol, retinol, and hair zinc content were measured. Resting energy expenditure was determined by indirect calorimetry. Physical activity and dietary intake were recorded by recall methods. Two children were nutritionally at risk according to the weight/height index, eight were normal, three were overweight, and two were obese. Body composition was similar in both groups. Zinc, tocopherol, and retinol levels were low in three, two, and three patients, respectively. Resting energy expenditures were 4.7 MJ/d (1127 +/- 220 kcal/d) in CF children and 4.63 MJ/d (1108 +/- 191 kcal/d) in control children (P = not significant). Physical activity level was sedentary in 86.6% of CF patients; the rest had a light physical activity pattern. Energy intake represented 141% of the estimated daily energy expenditure. Non-oxygen-dependent CF children, without acute respiratory infection, had resting energy expenditures comparable to those of matched controls. Total energy expenditure was similar to or slightly lower than that in healthy children. Dietary recommendations for CF patients need to be reassessed.
Wilson, Joseph P; Mulligan, Kathleen; Fan, Bo; Sherman, Jennifer L; Murphy, Elizabeth J; Tai, Viva W; Powers, Cassidy L; Marquez, Lorena; Ruiz-Barros, Viviana; Shepherd, John A
Total body volume (TBV), with the exclusion of internal air voids, is necessary to quantify body composition in Lohman's 4-compartment (4C) model. This investigation sought to derive a novel, TBV measure with the use of only dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) attenuation values for use in Lohman's 4C body composition model. Pixel-specific masses and volumes were calculated from low- and high-energy attenuation values with the use of first principle conversions of mass attenuation coefficients. Pixel masses and volumes were summed to derive body mass and total body volume. As proof of concept, 11 participants were recruited to have 4C measures taken: DXA, air-displacement plethysmography (ADP), and total body water (TBW). TBV measures with the use of only DXA (DXA-volume) and ADP-volume measures were compared for each participant. To see how body composition estimates were affected by these 2 methods, we used Lohman's 4C model to quantify percentage fat measures for each participant and compared them with conventional DXA measures. DXA-volume and ADP-volume measures were highly correlated (R(2) = 0.99) and showed no statistically significant bias. Percentage fat by DXA volume was highly correlated with ADP-volume percentage fat measures and DXA software-reported percentage fat measures (R(2) = 0.96 and R(2) = 0.98, respectively) but were slightly biased. A novel method to calculate TBV with the use of a clinical DXA system was developed, compared against ADP as proof of principle, and used in Lohman's 4C body composition model. The DXA-volume approach eliminates many of the inherent inaccuracies associated with displacement measures for volume and, if validated in larger groups of participants, would simplify the acquisition of 4C body composition to a single DXA scan and TBW measure.
Wilson, Joseph P; Mulligan, Kathleen; Fan, Bo; Sherman, Jennifer L; Murphy, Elizabeth J; Tai, Viva W; Powers, Cassidy L; Marquez, Lorena; Ruiz-Barros, Viviana
Background: Total body volume (TBV), with the exclusion of internal air voids, is necessary to quantify body composition in Lohman's 4-compartment (4C) model. Objective: This investigation sought to derive a novel, TBV measure with the use of only dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) attenuation values for use in Lohman's 4C body composition model. Design: Pixel-specific masses and volumes were calculated from low- and high-energy attenuation values with the use of first principle conversions of mass attenuation coefficients. Pixel masses and volumes were summed to derive body mass and total body volume. As proof of concept, 11 participants were recruited to have 4C measures taken: DXA, air-displacement plethysmography (ADP), and total body water (TBW). TBV measures with the use of only DXA (DXA-volume) and ADP-volume measures were compared for each participant. To see how body composition estimates were affected by these 2 methods, we used Lohman's 4C model to quantify percentage fat measures for each participant and compared them with conventional DXA measures. Results: DXA-volume and ADP-volume measures were highly correlated (R2 = 0.99) and showed no statistically significant bias. Percentage fat by DXA volume was highly correlated with ADP-volume percentage fat measures and DXA software-reported percentage fat measures (R2 = 0.96 and R2 = 0.98, respectively) but were slightly biased. Conclusions: A novel method to calculate TBV with the use of a clinical DXA system was developed, compared against ADP as proof of principle, and used in Lohman's 4C body composition model. The DXA-volume approach eliminates many of the inherent inaccuracies associated with displacement measures for volume and, if validated in larger groups of participants, would simplify the acquisition of 4C body composition to a single DXA scan and TBW measure. PMID:22134952
Andersen, Gregers Stig; Girma, Tsinuel; Wells, Jonathan C
Data on body composition in infancy may improve the understanding of the relation between variability in fetal and infant growth and disease risk through the life course. Although new assessment techniques have recently become available, body composition is rarely described in infants from low-in...
Genetic evaluation for carcass quality traits has evolved over time, in large part due to introduction of new technology such as ultrasound measures of body composition. Ultrasound measured body composition traits emulate important carcass traits, are very informative for selection purposes, are ac...
Prado, Carla M M; Maia, Yara L M; Ormsbee, Michael; Sawyer, Michael B; Baracos, Vickie E
Several nutritional assessment tools have been used in oncology settings to monitor nutritional status and its associated prognostic significance. Body composition is fundamental for the assessment of nutritional status. Recently, the use of accurate and precise body composition tools has significantly added to the value of nutritional assessment in this clinical setting. Computerized tomography (CT) is an example of a technique which provides state-of-the-art assessment of body composition. With use of CT images, a great variability in body composition of cancer patients has been identified even in people with identical body weight or body mass index. Severe muscle depletion (sarcopenia) has emerged as a prevalent body composition phenotype which is predictive of poor functional status, shorter time to tumor progression, shorter survival, and higher incidence of dose-limiting toxicity. Variability in body composition of cancer patients may be a source of disparities in the metabolism of cytotoxic agents. Future clinical trials investigating dose reductions in patients with sarcopenia and dose-escalating studies based on pre-treatment body composition assessment have the potential to alter cancer treatment paradigms.
Crossfit training changes brain-derived neurotrophic factor and irisin levels at rest, after wingate and progressive tests, and improves aerobic capacity and body composition of young physically active men and women.
Murawska-Cialowicz, E; Wojna, J; Zuwala-Jagiello, J
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein that stimulates processes of neurogenesis, the survival of neurons and microglia, stimulates neuroplasticity, and takes part in the differentiation of cells developed in the hippocampus. BDNF is also released from skeletal muscles during exercise and can facilitate cross-talk between the nervous and muscular system. Irisin, the exercise hormone, is also released from skeletal muscles and is involved in oxidation processes in the organism. It is a vital issue from the point of view of prophylaxis and treatment through exercise of age-related diseases (e.g. senile dementia), obesity, type-2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to assess the changes in BDNF and irisin levels in young people after a 3-month CrossFit training program. At baseline and after the training, levels of BDNF and irisin were assayed before and after Wingate and progressive tests. Physical performance, body mass and composition, and muscle circumferences were also measured. There were noted: an improvement in aerobic capacity, an increase in VO2max, a reduction in adipose tissue percentage in women and an increase in LBM in all subjects. After CrossFit training the resting BDNF level increased significantly in all subjects while the resting level of irisin decreased in women, without changes in men. The resting level of BDNF at baseline was higher in men than in women. At baseline we observed an increased level of BDNF in women after Wingate and progressive tests, but in men only after the progressive test. After 3 months of CrossFit training the level of BDNF increased in all subjects, and also was higher in men than in women. In women we did not observe significant differences after both tests in comparison to rest. After the training BDNF was lower in men after Wingate and progressive tests than at rest. At baseline irisin level decreased in women after the Wingate and progressive tests. Changes in men were not observed after both tests
Rosenfalck, A M; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Gotfredsen, A
OBJECTIVE: To describe sex- and age-dependent values of total and regional body composition as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in normal subjects, and furthermore to relate body composition measurements to blood lipids, glucose and insulin concentrations. DESIGN: A cross...... subjects. In 87 of the subjects fasting blood glucose, S-insulin and lipid profile were measured. RESULTS: The study population was for each sex divided into five decades for which results on body composition and blood lipids are presented. Body weight increased 2 kg per age decade, representing...
Obradović, Borislav; Madić, Dejan; Milosević, Zoran; Maksimović, Nebojsa; Mikalacki, Milena; Kovacev-Zavisić, Branka
It is well known that physical activity has an anabolic effect on the bone tissue. But there is a lack of information about the effect of intensive physical activity in childhood, particularly at the prepubertal stage. The type, frequency, intensity, and duration of activity that best produce the desired increases in mass and strength of human bones have not yet been well determined. To examine the influence of different kinesiological treatments on body composition and bone mineral density we studied a group of prepubertal boys at the starting phase of their peak bone mass acquisition. 90 healthy prepubertal boys took part in this study. The sport group consisted of 28 swimmers (aged 10.80.8) and 32 soccer players (aged 10.70.5), who had been training their chosen high-level sport activity for at least 1 year (8-12 h per week for swimmers, 10-15 h per week for soccer players). 30 boys (aged 11.2 +/- 0.7) doing 1.5 h per week of physical activity in school served as a control group. Bone mineral density measurements of the left and right calcaneus were done by ultrasound densitometer "Sahara". The body composition was assessed by Body Fat Analyser "BES 200 Z". There were significant differences between soccer players and control group as regards fat mass and bone mineral density (p<.01). Besides, significant differences were determined between a group of swimmers and control group as regads fat mass (p<.03), while the differences in bone mineral density were not very obvious (p<.67).
Kendig, Eric L. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Ying [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Krishan, Mansi; Johansson, Elisabet; Schneider, Scott N. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Genter, Mary Beth; Nebert, Daniel W. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Shertzer, Howard G., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)
In humans and experimental animals, high fat diets (HFD) are associated with risk factors for metabolic diseases, such as excessive weight gain and adiposity, insulin resistance and fatty liver. Mice lacking the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene (Gclm(-/-)) and deficient in glutathione (GSH), are resistant to HFD-mediated weight gain. Herein, we evaluated Gclm-associated regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. C57BL/6J Gclm(-/-) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) controls received a normal diet or an HFD for 11 weeks. HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not display a decreased respiratory quotient, suggesting that they are unable to process lipid for metabolism. Although dietary energy consumption and intestinal lipid absorption were unchanged in Gclm(-/-) mice, feeding these mice an HFD did not produce excess body weight nor fat storage. Gclm(-/-) mice displayed higher basal metabolic rates resulting from higher activities of liver mitochondrial NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, thus elevating respiration. Although Gclm(-/-) mice exhibited strong systemic and hepatic oxidative stress responses, HFD did not promote glucose intolerance or insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not develop fatty liver, likely resulting from very low expression levels of genes encoding lipid metabolizing enzymes. We conclude that Gclm is involved in the regulation of basal metabolic rate and the metabolism of dietary lipid. Although Gclm(-/-) mice display a strong oxidative stress response, they are protected from HFD-induced excessive weight gain and adipose deposition, insulin resistance and steatosis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not produce body weight and fat gain in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not induce steatosis or insulin resistance in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gclm(-/-) mice have high basal metabolism and mitochondrial
Nielsen, Claus M.; Ørntoft, Christina Ø.; Randers, Morten B.; Manniche, Vibeke; Hansen, Lone; Hansen, Peter R.; Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter
Abstract Larsen, MN, Nielsen, CM, Ørntoft, CØ, Randers, M, Manniche, V, Hansen, L, Hansen, PR, Bangsbo, J, and Krustrup, P. Physical fitness and body composition in 8–10-year-old Danish children are associated with sports club participation. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3425–3434, 2017—We investigated whether physical fitness and body composition in 8–10-year-old Danish children are associated with sports club participation. The study included 423 schoolchildren, comprising 209 girls and 214 boys, of whom 67 and 74%, respectively, were active in sports clubs. Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 for children (YYIR1C), balance, jump and coordination tests, together with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, were used to determine exercise capacity and body composition. Children active in sports clubs had better (p sports clubs. Ball game players had better (p sports. The study showed that 8‒10-year-old Danish children engaged in sports-club activity, especially ball game players, have better exercise capacity and superior body composition compared with children not active in sports clubs. PMID:28445225
Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Meyer, Alexa L
Age has an important impact on body composition. The decreases of lean body mass and total body water accompanied by an increase of body fat are the most relevant changes leading to a reduction of the basal metabolic rate. Due to this and the fact that elderly people are generally less physically active, energy needs are lower. However, the requirements for most micronutrients are not reduced. Indeed, impaired absorption of some vitamins and minerals like cobalamin and calcium can cause deficiencies. An adequate calcium supply is particularly important as with ongoing age, bone mass decreases as well, making elderly prone to osteoporosis. The reduced ability to synthesize vitamin D and the lower sunlight exposure of many elderly further aggravate this issue. There is evidence to consider the supply of some important dietary antioxidants as critical in some elderly, namely vitamin C and beta-carotene as well as zinc. In light of age-related decreases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, a sufficient supply of dietary antioxidants is important, especially as oxidative damage is thought to contribute to the deteriorating processes associated with aging and promote cardiovascular disease, cognitive disorders, cancer and diabetes mellitus that occur more frequently in older people. The first three are also associated with an insufficiency of folate, another critical nutrient in the elderly. Therefore, dietary guidelines should strive to optimize the immune function and reduce disease risk of the elderly. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Total Body Nitrogen (TBN) can be used to estimate Total Body Protein (TBP), an important body composition component at the molecular level. A system using the associated particle technique in conjunction with prompt gamma neutron activation analysis has been developed for the measurement of TBN in ...
Bogdanov, A R; Derbeneva, S A; Bogdanova, A A; Feofanova, T B; Panfilova, N V; Nesierova, V E
In open prospective monocentric study in 3 parallel groups we studied the effectiveness of correction of body composition using low calorie diet therapy with inclusion of specialized food products (SFP)--sources of polyphenols and iridoids made on the basis of the juice of Morinda citrifolia L. fruits. We studied 90 patients aged from 30 to 50 years old with grade III obesity and clinically expressed secondary diastolic heart failure. The duration of diet therapy was 42 days. It was shown that low-calorie diet has non-optimal effect on the body composition in morbidly obese patients with secondary diastolic heart failure, namely leading to the expressed loss of body fatless (7.2%, p=0.00008) and muscle mass (by 16.6%, p=0.00004); at the same time the reduction of total body weight is noted only by 2.3% (p=0.053), reduction of waist measurement by 1.3% (p=0.028) and reduction of hips measurement by 1.3% (p=0.09), accompanied by the reduction of body fat by 8.5% (p=0.000017) and of liquid by 7.3% (p=0.0018). The introduction of the SFP into the diet optimizes the effect of low calorie diet therapy on the anthropometric parameters and body composition. The most important effect of the SFP is the ability to prevent the excess loss of muscle mass in patients, and this effect is being dose-dependent. The loss of muscle mass in two groups of patients was 3.1-4.1% after 6 weeks of diet therapy, while in the control group it was 8.5% (p=0.0051). We have concluded that the inclusion of the SFP, manufactured on the basis Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) juice to the low calorie diet allows to initiate mainly the loss of the body fat with the simultaneous protection of active cellular mass, which is without doubt can be considered as the advantage compared to the standard low calorie diet.
Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek
Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.
Shin, Ka-Young; Choi, Eun-Hi; Lim, Jong-Youb; Cho, Ah-Ra; Lim, Young-Ho
To evaluate the effects of rowing exercise on body composition, laboratory data, fitness and scoliosis in visually impaired people. The majority of visually impaired people do not participate in active sports due to efficiency and safety issues. Rowing is a safe whole-body exercise with aerobic and anaerobic components. Twenty subjects were recruited from among those admitted to a facility for visually impaired people (16 men and 4 women). Laboratory data, body composition, physical fitness, Cobb's angle, and fall index were checked before and after 6 weeks (5 days a week) of indoor rowing using Concept2 Model E. After the training, fat mass and total body fat percent decreased significantly. In the fitness test, back strength and trunk flexion score increased significantly. Laboratory data showed significant increases in serum protein and albumin and decreases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. There were 9 subjects with scoliosis and after the training Cobb's angle decreased by 1.11°±1.55°, though this was not statistically significant. Visually impaired people frequently have abnormal body composition, low physical fitness, and scoliosis. A rowing exercise program can be helpful, with a positive effect on body composition and physical fitness; however, with respect to scoliosis, we need an earlier intervention program in visually impaired people.
Prins, M.; Hawkesworth, S.; Wright, A.; Fulford, A.J.C.; Jarjou, L.M.A.; Prentice, A.M.; Moore, S.E.
Objective: To validate the Tanita BC-418MA Segmental Body Composition Analyser and four-site skinfold measurements for the prediction of total body water (TBW), percentage fat-free mass (% FFM) and percentage body fat (%BF) in a population of rural Gambian children. Subjects/Methods: One hundred and
Maria Carolina Borges
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of early weaning on body composition and on parameters related to nutritional status in mice. The experimental group consisted of male Swiss Webster mice that were weaned early (at postnatal day fourteen and fed an appropriate diet for growing rodents until postnatal day twenty-one (EW group. The control group consisted of male mice breastfed until postnatal day twenty-one (CON group. All animals were sacrificed on the twenty-first day of life. The EW group showed a decrease in liver and muscle protein content and concentration, brain protein concentration, brain DNA content and concentration, as well as liver and muscle protein/RNA ratio (pO presente estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito do desmame precoce sobre a composição corporal e sobre parâmetros indicativos do estado nutricional de camundongos. O grupo experimental consistiu de camundongos Swiss Webster, machos, desmamados precocemente (14º dia de vida e alimentados com ração apropriada para roedores em crescimento até o 21º dia pós-natal (grupo DESM. O grupo controle consistiu de camundongos amamentados até o 21º dia pós-natal (grupo CON. Todos os animais foram sacrificados no 21º dia de vida. O grupo DESM apresentou redução da concentração e conteúdo hepático e muscular de proteínas, da concentração cerebral de proteínas, da concentração e conteúdo cerebral de DNA e da razão proteína/RNA hepática e muscular (p<0,05. Quanto à composição corporal, o grupo DESM apresentou maior conteúdo de umidade, maior percentual de umidade e lipídios e menor conteúdo e percentual de cinzas e proteína na carcaça (p<0,05. Os resultados indicam que o desmame precoce acarreta em prejuízo à composição corporal e a parâmetros indicativos do estado nutricional, o que pode estar relacionado ao retardo do processo de maturação química. Os dados do presente estudo podem contribuir para o entendimento da influência da alimenta
Jasmina Pluncevikj Gligoroska
Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between active and passive body mass components and maximal aerobic consumption (VO2max in adult male soccer players.Methods: The study involved seven hundred (700 male soccer players, mean age 25.06 ± 4.41 years (range 18 to 35, divided in six age groups. Body composition was assessed according the anthropometric protocol by Matiegka, and relative muscle mass (MM%, bone (BM% and fat (BF% and absolute muscle mass (MMkg, bone (BMkg and fat (BFkg components were calculated. The Bruce protocol (incremental multistage treadmill test was used for the estimation of maximal oxygen consumption.Results: Mean values of body mass components for total sample were as follows: muscle mass (MM%= 52.75 ± 2.63%, bone mass (BM%=16.63 ± 1.29% and body fat (BF%=14.12 ± 1.54%. Mean VO2max was 48.89±5.17 ml/kg/minute. Relative muscle mass (MM% showed similar values across age different groups (ANOVA: F=2.174; p=0.06 while absolute muscle mass (MMkg showed tendency of increment with age (ANOVA: F=2.136; p=0.01. Body fat (BFkg and BF% was statistically higher in the older groups (ANOVA F=3.737; p<0.01; ANOVA F=4.117; p<0.01. Weak positive correlation between VO2 max and muscle component (r=0.243; p<0.001 and a weak negative correlation between VO2max and body fat (r=-0.08;p<0.05 were found.Conclusions: Our results confirm the assumption that subjects with larger muscle mass have greater endurance and higher maximal oxygen consumption compared to subjects with larger body fat component.
Michels, Nathalie; Sioen, Isabelle; Boone, Liesbet; Clays, Els; Vanaelst, Barbara; Huybrechts, Inge; De Henauw, Stefaan
The public health threats stress and adiposity have previously been associated with each other. Longitudinal studies are needed to reveal whether this association is bidirectional and the moderating factors. In the longitudinal Children's Body Composition and Stress study, 316 children (aged 5-12 years) had measures of stress (questionnaires concerning negative life events, problem behavior, and emotions) and adiposity (body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, and fat percentage) in three waves at 1-year intervals. The bidirectionality of the association between stress and adiposity was examined using cross-lagged analyses. We tested moderation by cortisol and life-style (physical activity, screen time, food consumption, eating behavior and sleep duration). Adiposity (body mass index: β = 0.48 and fat percentage: β = 0.18; p stress levels, but stress was not directly related to subsequent increases in adiposity indices. Cortisol and life-style factors displayed a moderating effect on the association between stress and adiposity. Stress was positively associated with adiposity in children with high cortisol awakening patterns (β = 0.204; p = .020) and high sweet food consumption (β = 0.190; p = .031), whereas stress was associated with lower adiposity in the most active children (β = -0.163; p = .022). Stress is associated with the development of children's adiposity, but the effects depend on cortisol levels and life-style factors. This creates new perspectives for multifactorial obesity prevention programs. Our results also highlight the adverse effect of an unhealthy body composition on children's psychological well-being.
Kelly, Scott A; Nehrenberg, Derrick L; Hua, Kunjie; Gordon, Ryan R; Garland, Theodore; Pomp, Daniel
Despite the health-related benefits of exercise, many people do not engage in enough activity to realize the rewards, and little is known regarding the genetic or environmental components that account for this individual variation. We created and phenotyped a large G(4) advanced intercross line originating from reciprocal crosses between mice with genetic propensity for increased voluntary exercise (HR line) and the inbred strain C57BL/6J. G(4) females (compared to males) ran significantly more when provided access to a running wheel and were smaller with a greater percentage of body fat pre- and postwheel access. Change in body composition resulting from a 6-day exposure to wheels varied between the sexes with females generally regulating energy balance more precisely in the presence of exercise. We observed parent-of-origin effects on most voluntary wheel running and body composition traits, which accounted for 3-13% of the total phenotypic variance pooled across sexes. G(4) individuals descended from progenitor (F(0)) crosses of HRfemale symbol and C57BL/6Jmale symbol ran greater distances, spent more time running, ran at higher maximum speeds/day, and had lower percent body fat and higher percent lean mass than mice descended from reciprocal progenitor crosses (C57BL/6Jfemale symbol x HRmale symbol). For some traits, significant interactions between parent of origin and sex were observed. We discuss these results in the context of sex dependent activity and weight loss patterns, the contribution of parent-of-origin effects to predisposition for voluntary exercise, and the genetic (i.e., X-linked or mtDNA variations), epigenetic (i.e., genomic imprinting), and environmental (i.e., in utero environment or maternal care) phenomena potentially modulating these effects.
Nov 23, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Chemical Composition, antioxidant activity, ... 1Biochemistry Department, National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. 2Department of Biochemistry, Michael ... alkaloid and 0.98 ± 0.00% flavonoid. The unripe plantain flour was found to have ...
Sep 13, 2010 ... 5Universidade Paulista, Av. Alberto Benassi, 200, 14804-300, Araraquara-SP, Brazil. Accepted 12 May, 2010. This study investigated the composition and antifungal activity against Cladosporium sphaero- spermum and Cladosporium cladosporioides of essential oils of leaves of Piper cernuum, Piper.
Chemical Composition, antioxidant activity, functional properties and inhibitory action of unripe plantain ( M. Paradisiacae ) flour. ... Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and the gravimetric method of Harbone showed that it contained 1.58 ± 0.04% tannin, 1.82 ± 0.05% saponin, 1.37 ± 0.05% alkaloid and 0.98 ± 0.00% flavonoid.
Phytochemical composition and antitrypanosomal activities Of aqueous leaf extracts of Loranthus micranthus Linn. ... It was observed that tannins and flavonoids were highly present, alkaloids, resins, steroids and saponins were moderately present in the plant extract, while terpenes and glycosides were present in trace ...
Sep 12, 2011 ... percentages for water, fat, protein and ash contents in the whole wet body weight of wild M. bleekeri were 77.87, 3.26 ... however, condition factor remains constant with observed body constituents (% water, fat, protein, ash and organic ..... Javaid MY, Salam A, Khan MN, Naeem M (1992). Weight-length and.
fat-free mass, as well as some loss of body water and protein. Other biochemical changes included the loss of electrolytes and marked ketosis (2,3). In...losses were still observed, ketosis was not evident but body protein was still being catabolized at almost the same rate as reported in the first study
Toro-Ramos, T; Paley, C; Pi-Sunyer, FX; Gallagher, D
Fetal body composition is an important determinant of body composition at birth, and it is likely to be an important determinant at later stages in life. The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive overview by presenting data from previously published studies that report on body composition during fetal development in newborns and the infant/child through 5 years of age. Understanding the changes in body composition that occur both in utero and during infancy and childhood, and how they may be related, may help inform evidence-based practice during pregnancy and childhood. We describe body composition measurement techniques from the in utero period to 5 years of age, and identify gaps in knowledge to direct future research efforts. Available literature on chemical and cadaver analyses of fetal studies during gestation is presented to show the timing and accretion rates of adipose and lean tissues. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of fetal lean and fat mass accretion could be especially useful in the clinical setting for diagnostic purposes. The practicality of different pediatric body composition measurement methods in the clinical setting is discussed by presenting the assumptions and limitations associated with each method that may assist the clinician in characterizing the health and nutritional status of the fetus, infant and child. It is our hope that this review will help guide future research efforts directed at increasing the understanding of how body composition in early development may be associated with chronic diseases in later life. PMID:26242725
Yin, Jun; Xue, Hong-Mei; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Xiao; Quan, Li-Ming; Gong, Yun-Hui; Cheng, Guo
Dietary energy density (ED) might have influences on body composition. We therefore examined whether ED is associated with body composition among Chinese adults. We collected dietary data through validated two-day 24 h recalls. ED, defined as the amount of energy per unit weight of food consumed, was calculated based on five methods. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to explore the associations between ED and body composition parameters, including BMI, fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). Southwest China. Chinese adults (n 1933) in 2013. After adjusting the covariates, all ED definitions were positively associated with BMI, FMI, FFMI, %BF and WC among women (Pcomposition among men. Additionally, ED contributed to higher increases of body composition in women than in men (Pcomposition among adults in Southwest China, in which beverages may play an important role.
Silva Dos Santos, Priscilla de Nazaré; Madden, Tessa; Omvig, Karen; Peipert, Jeffrey F
Users of hormonal long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) report weight gain as a side effect, but few studies have assessed body composition change among LARC users. We evaluated weight and body composition of healthy women using the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), copper intrauterine device (copper IUD) or etonogestrel implant (ENG implant). We hypothesized that weight gain and body composition over 12 months would not differ between copper IUD, LNG-IUS and ENG implant users. We performed a prospective cohort study of a subgroup of women enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project who initiated the LNG-IUS, copper IUD or ENG implant. Inclusion criteria included lack of metabolic and eating disorders or change in body weight of more than 5% in the 6 months before enrollment. We measured changes in weight and body composition (body fat percentage, total body fat mass, total lean mass and total body mass) in women who continued their method for 12 months. We analyzed data from 149 participants: 85 LNG-IUS users, 31 copper IUD users and 33 ENG implant users. The mean age was 25.9 years, 56.4% were White, 82.5% had some college education and 67.6% were nulliparous. Although lean body mass increased over 12 months in LNG-IUS and copper IUD users but not in ENG implant users, changes in body weight and body composition did not differ between the groups. In the adjusted model, Black race was associated with change in total body mass (pcomposition did not differ between copper IUD, LNG-IUS and ENG implant users. Changes in body weight and composition over 12 months did not differ between copper IUD users and LNG-IUS and ENG implant users among those with 12 months of continuous use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Janković, Ana; Eraković, Sanja [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Mitrić, Miodrag [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Mike Petrovića Alasa 12-14, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Matić, Ivana Z.; Juranić, Zorica D. [Institute of Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, Pasterova 14, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Tsui, Gary C.P.; Tang, Chak-yin [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Mišković-Stanković, Vesna [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Rhee, Kyong Yop, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 449-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo Jin [Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)
Highlights: • Bioactive HAP/Gr coating on Ti was successfully obtained by EPD. • Increased fracture toughness of the HAP/Gr coating compared to pure HAP coating. • HAP/Gr coating exhibited superior biomimetic mineralization vs. pure HAP coating. • Gr improved the mechanical properties and thermal stability of HAP/Gr coating. • HAP/Gr coating was classified as non-cytotoxic against the targeted PBMC. - Abstract: The hydroxyapatite/graphene (HAP/Gr) composite was electrodeposited on Ti using the electrophoretic deposition process to obtain uniform bioactive coating with improved mechanical strength and favorable corrosion stability in simulated body fluid (SBF). Incorporation of Gr was verified by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron analysis. The HAP/Gr composite coating exhibited reduced surface cracks, nearly double the hardness, and elastic modulus increased by almost 50% compared to pure HAP coating, as estimated by a nanoindentation test. The bioactive HAP/Gr composite coating provided a newly formed apatite layer in SBF with enhanced corrosion stability, as evidenced by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the HAP/Gr coating was improved in comparison to the pure HAP coating, and the Ca/P ratio was closer to the stoichiometric value. No antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli could be verified. The HAP/Gr composite coating was classified as non-cytotoxic when tested against healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)
Scheurer, Johannah M; Zhang, Lei; Gray, Heather L; Weir, Katherine; Demerath, Ellen W; Ramel, Sara E
The aim of the study was to longitudinally characterize infancy to preschool body composition trajectories and the association of early fat and fat-free mass gains with preschool age body composition in children born premature versus full-term. A cohort of appropriate-for-gestational age preterm (n = 20) and term (n = 51) infants were followed at 3 visits: "neonatal" visit 1 at 2 weeks of age for term and near term corrected age for preterm; "infancy" visit 2 at 3 to 4 months (preterm corrected age); "preschool" visit 3 at 4 years. Body composition via air displacement plethysmography and anthropometrics were measured at all visits. Tracking of infancy weight and body composition with preschool measurements was tested using Pearson partial correlation coefficients. Associations between serial body composition measurements were assessed using multiple linear regression. Early differences in body composition between premature (mean gestational age 31.9 weeks, mean birth weight 1843 g) and full-term (mean gestational age 39.8 weeks) infants were not present at preschool age. Visit 1 body composition was not correlated with preschool measurements in the preterm infants. Visit 2 measurements were correlated with preschool measures. Fat-free mass accretion from visit 1 to visit 2 was positively associated with preschool lean mass (β = 0.038, P = 0.049) in preterm children, whereas fat accretion was not associated with preschool body composition. Children born prematurely and full-term have similar body composition at preschool age. For preterms infancy fat-free mass gains, and not adiposity gains, are positively associated with preschool fat-free mass; this may be associated with lower risk of later obesity and adverse metabolic outcomes.
Kunicka‐Styczyńska, A; Śmigielski, K; Prusinowska, R; Rajkowska, K; Kuśmider, B; Sikora, M
Significance and Impact of the Study: The presented research proved antimicrobial activity of hydrosols obtained from fresh or dried Lavandula angustifolia herbs or flowers in moisturizing body gel...
José Cazuza de Farias Junior
Full Text Available Lifestyle changes are an important factor in the management and prevention of childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of an exercise program (based on recreational activities and nutritional counseling on body composition and physical fitness test performance in obese children. Forty-four children aged 8 to 11 years were divided into two gender- and age-matched groups, intervention (n = 22 and control (n = 22. Several parameters were measured before and after 12 weeks of participation in the program: weight, height, skinfold thickness (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, abdominal and medial calf, circumferences (abdominal, arm, hip and calf and the abdominal flexion and handgrip flexibility tests. The control group did not take part in the intervention. Thirty-two patients completed the study (16 in each group. The intervention group showed significant reductions in body mass index, triceps, subscapular and abdominal skinfold thickness, arm girth and sum of trunk skinfolds. There was a significant increase in right grip strength and abdominal strength. The control group showed a significant increase in body mass, waist circumference, subscapular and calf skinfold thickness, sum of trunk skinfolds, sum of limb skinfolds and arm and calf perimeters, as well as reduction in right hand grip strength. We conclude that the program was effective in reducing body fat and increasing physical fitness in children.
Full Text Available Daily food requirements scale with body mass and activity in animals. While small species of birds have higher mass-specific field metabolic rates than larger species, larger species have higher absolute energy costs. Under energy balance, we thus expect the small species to have a higher energy value diet. Also the weight and time constraints for flighted and diurnal foragers should set a maximum to the amount of prey items taken in one meal and to the daily number of meals, respectively. Further, avoidance of competition causes the species to reduce the amount of shared prey in their diet. Some diet segregation is therefore to be expected between species. We tested these hypotheses and investigated the role of body mass in the diet composition of 12 sea duck species (Somateria mollissima, Somateria spectabilis, Somateria fischeri, Polysticta stelleri, Bucephala clangula, Bucephala islandica, Bucephala albeola, Melanitta nigra, Melanitta perspicillata, Melanitta deglandi, Histrionicus histrionicus and Clangula hyemalis wintering in North America. This study was based on a literature survey with special emphasis given to the diet data from the former US Bureau of Biological Survey. The data supported our hypothesis that the energy value of winter diet of sea ducks scales negatively with body mass. Diet diversity also scaled negatively with body mass. Our results suggest the existence of a minimum for the energy value of avian diets.
Rotella, Carlo Maria; Dicembrini, Ilaria
In clinical practice obesity is primarily diagnosed through the body mass index. In order to characterize patients affected by obesity the use of traditional anthropometric measures appears misleading. Beyond the body mass index, there are overwhelming evidences towards the relevance of a more detailed description of the individual phenotype by characterizing the main body components as free-fat mass, muscle mass, and fat mass. Among the numerous techniques actually available, bioelectrical impedance analysis seems to be the most suitable in a clinical setting because it is simple, inexpensive, noninvasive, and highly reproducible. To date, there is no consensus concerning the use of one preferred equation for the resting energy expenditure in overweight and/or obese population. Energy restriction alone is an effective strategy to achieve an early and significant weight loss, however it results in a reduction of both fat and lean mass therefore promoting or aggravating an unfavourable body composition (as sarcobesity) in terms of mortality and comorbidities. Therefore the implementation of daily levels of physical activity should be simultaneously promoted. The major role of muscle mass in the energy balance has been recently established by the rising prevalence of the combination of two condition as sarcopenia and obesity. Physical exercise stimulates energy expenditure, thereby directly improving energy balance, and also promotes adaptations such as fiber type, mitochondrial biogenesis, improvement of insulin resistance, and release of myokines, which may influence different tissues, including muscle.
?zkan, Ali; Kay?han, G?rhan; K?kl?, Yusuf; ERGUN, Nevin; Koz, Mitat; Ers?z, G?lfem; Dellal, Alexandre
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between body composition, anaerobic performance and sprint performance of amputee soccer players. Fifteen amputee soccer players participated in this study voluntarily. Subjects? height, body weight, body mass index, body fat percentage (Jackson and Pollock formula) and somatotype characteristics (Heath-Carter system) were determined. The sprint performance at 10m, 20m and 30m was evaluated, whereas the counter movement jump...
Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Claus M; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen
We investigated whether physical fitness and body composition in 8-10-year-old Danish children are associated with sports club participation. The study included 423 schoolchildren, comprising 209 girls and 214 boys, of whom 67 and 74%, respectively, were active in sports clubs. Yo-Yo Intermittent......), coordination (6%, 68±1 vs. 72±1 s) and balance test performances (9%, 19.3±0.5 vs. 21.2±0.7 falls/min) and lower fat mass index (16%, 3.8±0.1 vs. 4.5±0.2 kg(fat)·m) than children not active in sports clubs. Ball game players had better (P... engaged in sports club activity, especially ball game players, have better exercise capacity and superior body composition compared to children not active in sports clubs....
Jain, Rajesh K; Vokes, Tamara
Body composition, the makeup of the body's fat and lean tissue, is associated with important health outcomes and provides useful clinical information. Although body composition can be measured with total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), this is rarely performed. As an alternative to total body DXA measurement, methods for estimation of body composition have been developed. These methods use soft tissue measures from spine and hip DXA to predict body composition and include prediction equations previously published by Leslie and proprietary equations within General Electric densitometry software. However, these estimates have not been tested in African Americans (AA), an ethnicity with a different distribution of fat than Caucasians (CA). Therefore, we examined the performance of the existing models in 99 CA and 162 AA subjects over the age of 40 who had total body, spine, and hip DXA measurements. We observed that existing models estimated body composition well in CA but underestimated fat mass and overestimated lean mass in AA. AA subjects were then randomly divided into 2 equal-sized subgroups-the first to develop new prediction equations and the second to independently validate them. We found that body composition can be more accurately estimated using either a new model that we derived in AA subjects using backward stepwise elimination or by adding a fixed offset for AA to the previously published model. Our results demonstrate that body composition estimates from spine and hip DXA require consideration of race/ethnicity. Copyright © 2017 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG have been associated with higher occurrence of large for gestational age (LGA babies, and several interventions have been proposed to limit GWG, which, however, does not reflect adequately the subtle changes in body composition that happens during pregnancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate if the variations of body composition, induced by a lifestyle program intended to limit GWG and measured through bioelectrical impedence analysis (BIA, could affect the newborns’ weight in overweight/obese women.Methods: One hundred and thirty-nine women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 were enrolled between 9th-12th week and a lifestyle program, consisting of low glycemic diet with caloric restriction and physical activity, was prescribed to them. BIA was performed at enrolment and at 35th-36th week. Data regarding the newborns’ weight were collected from clinical charts after delivery.Results: Women who exceeded recommended range of GWG had an higher occurrence of LGA babies. Analysing the body composition, fat free mass (FFM showed a direct correlation with the birthweight centile, even after correcting for BMI at enrolment, age and gestational diabetes mellitus. Interestingly, women who had an increase in fat mass (FM and visceral FM throughout pregnancy had an higher occurrence of small for gestational age (SGA babies.Conclusion: The increase in FM and visceral FM during pregnancy in overweight/obese women is linked to a higher occurrence of SGA babies. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA
Fields, David A; Higgins, Paul B; Hunter, Gary R
BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of body temperature and moisture on body fat (%fat), volume and density by air-displacement plethysmography (BOD POD). METHODS: %fat, body volume and density by the BOD POD before (BOD PODBH) and immediately following hydrostatic weighing (BOD PODFH) were performed in 32 healthy females (age (yr) 33 +/- 11, weight (kg) 64 +/- 14, height (cm) 167 +/- 7). Body temperature and moisture were measured prior to BOD PODBH and prior to BOD PODFH with body moisture defined as the difference in body weight (kg) between the BOD PODBH and BOD PODFH measurements. RESULTS: BOD PODFH %fat (27.1%) and body volume (61.5 L) were significantly lower (P BOD PODBH %fat (28.9%), body volume (61.7 L), and body density (1.0341 g/cm3). A significant increase in body temperature (~0.6 degrees C; P BOD PODBH and BOD PODFH. Body surface area was positively associated with the difference in %fat independent of changes in body temperature and moisture, r = 0.30, P BOD POD, however, the precise mechanism remains unidentified.
Szendrei, Barbara; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Amigo, Teresa; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Benito, Pedro J; Gomez-Candela, Carmen; Calderón, Francisco J; Cupeiro, Rocío
The β-2 and β-3 adrenergic receptors (ADRB2 and ADRB3) are thought to play a role in energy expenditure and lipolysis. However, the effects of the ADRB2 glutamine (Gln) 27 glutamic acid (glutamate) (Glu) and ADRB3 tryptophan (Trp) 64 arginine (Arg) polymorphisms on weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on changes in weight and body composition during a controlled weight-loss program. One hundred seventy-three healthy overweight and obese participants (91 women, 82 men) aged 18-50 years participated in a 22-week-long intervention based on a hypocaloric diet and exercise. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: strength, endurance, strength and endurance combined, and physical activity recommendations only. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body composition variables were assessed before and after the intervention. Genetic analysis was carried out according to standard protocols. No effect of the ADRB2 gene was shown on final weight, BMI, or body composition, although in the supervised male group, Glu27 carriers tended to have greater weight (p = 0.019, 2.5 kg) and BMI (p = 0.019, 0.88 kg/m(2)) reductions than did noncarriers. There seems to be an individual effect of the ADRB3 polymorphism on fat mass (p = 0.004) and fat percentage (p = 0.036), in addition to an interaction with exercise for fat mass (p = 0.038). After the intervention, carriers of the Arg64 allele had a greater fat mass and fat percentage than did noncarriers (p = 0.004, 2.8 kg). In conclusion, the ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms may influence weight loss and body composition, although the current evidence is weak; however, further studies are necessary to clarify their roles.
Eduardo Figueiredo Martins Bonilha
Full Text Available Empty body and carcass chemical composition were determined in 67 Nellore bulls from Selection Nellore (NeS and Control Nellore (NeC herds of an animal breeding program for growth, slaughtered at 570 days of average age, after 100 days of feedlot. Selection Nellore animals had, respectively, 360 and 430 kg of initial and slaughter body weight, and NeC animals had 318 and 373 kg for the same traits. Animals were slaughtered and empty body composition was determined by chemical analysis of the components blood, hide, head and feet, viscera and carcass. Tissue deposition rates and gain chemical composition were also determined based on gains estimated by comparative slaughter technique. Significant differences were detected between NeS and NeC animals for slaughter body weight, empty body weight, empty body gain rate, and contents of water, protein, ash and retained energy in empty body, showing that selected animals had greater body sizes and growth rates. There were no significant differences in fat contents in empty body and carcass, suggesting that selected animals had higher growth rates as compared with the control, and were slaughtered with good body and carcass fat contents in the same feedlot time. Control Nellore animals showed a 10% higher gain in fat percentage than NeS in the period. This shows that the growth of bone and muscle ceased earlier and NeC group accumulated more fat. Animals selected for growth have heavier carcasses and greater tissue deposition rates with proportional composition similar to unselected animals.
Simmen, Bruno; Bayart, Françoise; Rasamimanana, Hanta; Zahariev, Alexandre; Blanc, Stéphane; Pasquet, Patrick
Background Evolutionary theories that account for the unusual socio-ecological traits and life history features of group-living prosimians, compared with other primates, predict behavioral and physiological mechanisms to conserve energy. Low energy output and possible fattening mechanisms are expected, as either an adaptive response to drastic seasonal fluctuations of food supplies in Madagascar, or persisting traits from previously nocturnal hypometabolic ancestors. Free ranging ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and brown lemurs (Eulemur sp.) of southern Madagascar have different socio-ecological characteristics which allow a test of these theories: Both gregarious primates have a phytophagous diet but different circadian activity rhythms, degree of arboreality, social systems, and slightly different body size. Methodology and Results Daily total energy expenditure and body composition were measured in the field with the doubly labeled water procedure. High body fat content was observed at the end of the rainy season, which supports the notion that individuals need to attain a sufficient physical condition prior to the long dry season. However, ring-tailed lemurs exhibited lower water flux rates and energy expenditure than brown lemurs after controlling for body mass differences. The difference was interpreted to reflect higher efficiency for coping with seasonally low quality foods and water scarcity. Daily energy expenditure of both species was much less than the field metabolic rates predicted by various scaling relationships found across mammals. Discussion We argue that low energy output in these species is mainly accounted for by low basal metabolic rate and reflects adaptation to harsh, unpredictable environments. The absence of observed sex differences in body weight, fat content, and daily energy expenditure converge with earlier investigations of physical activity levels in ring-tailed lemurs to suggest the absence of a relationship between energy
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evolutionary theories that account for the unusual socio-ecological traits and life history features of group-living prosimians, compared with other primates, predict behavioral and physiological mechanisms to conserve energy. Low energy output and possible fattening mechanisms are expected, as either an adaptive response to drastic seasonal fluctuations of food supplies in Madagascar, or persisting traits from previously nocturnal hypometabolic ancestors. Free ranging ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta and brown lemurs (Eulemur sp. of southern Madagascar have different socio-ecological characteristics which allow a test of these theories: Both gregarious primates have a phytophagous diet but different circadian activity rhythms, degree of arboreality, social systems, and slightly different body size. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: Daily total energy expenditure and body composition were measured in the field with the doubly labeled water procedure. High body fat content was observed at the end of the rainy season, which supports the notion that individuals need to attain a sufficient physical condition prior to the long dry season. However, ring-tailed lemurs exhibited lower water flux rates and energy expenditure than brown lemurs after controlling for body mass differences. The difference was interpreted to reflect higher efficiency for coping with seasonally low quality foods and water scarcity. Daily energy expenditure of both species was much less than the field metabolic rates predicted by various scaling relationships found across mammals. DISCUSSION: We argue that low energy output in these species is mainly accounted for by low basal metabolic rate and reflects adaptation to harsh, unpredictable environments. The absence of observed sex differences in body weight, fat content, and daily energy expenditure converge with earlier investigations of physical activity levels in ring-tailed lemurs to suggest the absence of a relationship
Bordoni, Laura; Napolioni, Valerio; Marchegiani, Francesca; Amadio, Emilio; Gabbianelli, Rosita
The well-known insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs4646994) of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been previously associated with obesity, blood flow, muscular strength, and ACE enzyme activity. Despite the relevant role of ACE in homeostasis, few data are currently available on the relationship between rs4646994 and hydration status. Thus, we tested the association between the ACE Ins/Del polymorphism, body composition, and hydration status in a young Italian population. A total of 306 healthy children and adolescents who regularly practice sports were recruited. Anthropometric, bioimpedentiometric parameters, and urine samples were collected, while ACE rs4646994 genotyping was performed on DNA from buccal swabs. General linear models were used for association testing. The ACE Ins/Del polymorphism was associated with body composition. Ins/Ins individuals had higher phase angle (PhA) and body cellular mass index (BCMI) values. A significant influence of the ACE rs4646994 according to hydration status on body composition was also identified. In particular, Ins/Ins individuals displayed higher PhA and BCMI values only if norm-hydrated, while they showed values similar to Del carriers if dehydrated. Our results confirm the relationship between the ACE Ins/Del polymorphism and body composition and suggest a role for hydration status in modulating this relationship. These interesting preliminary results warrant further investigation to disentangle the genetic role of ACE on hydration homeostasis. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Fields, David A; Higgins, Paul B.; Hunter, Gary R.
Background To investigate the effect of body temperature and moisture on body fat (%fat), volume and density by air-displacement plethysmography (BOD POD). Methods %fat, body volume and density by the BOD POD before (BOD PODBH) and immediately following hydrostatic weighing (BOD PODFH) were performed in 32 healthy females (age (yr) 33 ± 11, weight (kg) 64 ± 14, height (cm) 167 ± 7). Body temperature and moisture were measured prior to BOD PODBH and prior to BOD PODFH with body moisture define...
Alemán-Mateo, H; Huerta, R H; Esparza-Romero, J; Méndez, R O; Urquidez, R; Valencia, M E
The aims of this study were to validate BOD POD in a wide sample of healthy and independent Mexican elderly men and women subjects using the 4 compartment (4C) model as the reference method, and to evaluate the assumptions of the densitometric two-compartment (2C) model. Cross-sectional study designed to assess body composition and validation of a method based on 2C model (BOD POD). Urban and rural regions of Sonora, Mexico. Two hundred and two free-living subjects >or=60 years old were completed in this study. Body density and body fat were measured by the BOD POD, total body water by deuterium dilution and total body bone ash by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition was determined using Baumgartner's equation. Percent body fat by the 4C model was 31.2 and 42.5% in men and women, respectively (PBOD POD against that of the 4C model showed an effect of sex (PBOD POD technique is a valid and reliable method compared to the 4C model and it could be applied in subjects with similar physical and anthropometric characteristics to subjects of this study.
Full Text Available Background: Flavonoids consider as a large group of plant metabolites that 6,000 types of them have been identified till now. In some studies, it has been shown that they can increase aerobic performance and maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of anthocyanin (as one of the most important kind of flavonoids supplementation on body composition, exercise performance and muscle damage indices in athletes. Methods: This double-blinded clinical trial involved 54 female and male athletes at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences with athletic history of at least 3 years. Body composition, exercise performance, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase were assessed. Individuals were selected by simple sampling method, they divided into two groups using permuted block randomization method. First group received 100 mg anthocyanin pills, and the second group received 100 mg placebo pills, daily for 6 weeks. Participants asked to continue their routine diet and physical activity during the study period, and they were followed through phone calls or text messages. Results: Soft lean mass, total body water and percent body fat were not changed significantly in the anthocyanin group after intervention but VO 2 max increased significantly in the anthocyanin group (48.65 ± 4.73 vs. 52.62 ± 5.04 (P ≤ 0.0001, also a significant difference was observed between two studied groups (52.62 ± 5.04 for intervention group vs. 49.61 ± 5.33 for placebo (P = 0.003. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that the supplementation with anthocyanin in athletes may improve some indices of performance such as VO 2 max.
Trikudanathan, Subbulaxmi; Pedley, Alison; Massaro, Joseph M; Hoffmann, Udo; Seely, Ellen W; Murabito, Joanne M; Fox, Caroline S
Identifying reproductive risk factors in women offers a life course approach to obesity and cardiovascular disease prevention. The association of female reproductive factors with measures of regional body fat distribution has not been comprehensively studied. We examined the association of female reproductive factors (age at menarche, parity, age at natural menopause, menopausal status) in association with body composition data from women who participated in the Offspring and the Third Generation Framingham Heart Study cohorts. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and sc adipose tissue (SAT) were measured volumetrically by multidetector computerized tomography. We modeled the relationship between each fat depot and female reproductive factors after adjusting for various factors such as age, smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity index, hormone replacement therapy, and menopausal status. Earlier age at menarche was associated with increased body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), VAT, and SAT (P association of earlier menarche with adiposity measures was attenuated after adjusting for BMI (all P > 0.70). We observed no association between parity and all parameters of adiposity measurements (all P > 0.24). Similarly, age at natural menopause was not associated with measures of body composition. Despite higher mean BMI among the post- (BMI 27.3 kg/m(2)) compared with the premenopausal women (BMI 25.9 kg/m(2)) in an age-matched analysis, mean VAT was not different between the two groups (P = 0.30). Earlier menarche is associated with overall obesity but not with VAT or SAT after accounting for measures of generalized adiposity. Parity and menopausal age were not associated with adiposity measures. Although postmenopausal women had increased BMI, VAT, and SAT, the association was predominantly due to age.
Conclusions: This study identified positive associations between all evaluated body composition indices and metabolic parameters in Chinese adults. Among the body composition indices, BMI predicted four of the five evaluated metabolic disorders in both gender groups.