WorldWideScience

Sample records for activity behaviour change

  1. Changing physical activity and sedentary behaviour in people with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheri, Vinicius; Straker, Leon; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Gardiner, Paul A; Hill, Kylie

    2016-04-01

    People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) engage in low levels of physical activity (PA). Given the evidence for the health benefits associated with participating in 150 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA each week, there is considerable interest in methods to increase PA in people with COPD. Studies to date have focused largely on exercise training and behavioural approaches, and many have demonstrated minimal, if any effect. An intermediate goal that focuses on reducing time spent in sedentary behaviour (SB) and increasing participation in light intensity PA is a more realistic goal in this population and offers a gateway to higher intensity PA. Although strategies that are capable of reducing time spent in SB in COPD are unknown, studies that have shown some increase in PA in this population often provide individualized goal setting, motivational interviewing and frequent contact with health-care professionals to provide advice regarding strategies to overcome barriers. Therefore, these approaches should be considered in interventions to reduce time in SB. There are a range of devices available to monitor time in SB for use in both clinical and research settings. To move this area forward, a theoretically informed and systematic approach to behaviour change is needed. The theoretical model, the 'behaviour change wheel', is described and an example is provided of how it can be applied to a person with COPD. PMID:26560834

  2. Reducing the decline in physical activity during pregnancy: a systematic review of behaviour change interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinead Currie

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Physical activity (PA typically declines throughout pregnancy. Low levels of PA are associated with excessive weight gain and subsequently increase risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertension disorders, delivery by caesarean section and stillbirth. Systematic reviews on PA during pregnancy have not explored the efficacy of behaviour change techniques or related theory in altering PA behaviour. This systematic review evaluated the content of PA interventions to reduce the decline of PA in pregnant women with a specific emphasis on the behaviour change techniques employed to elicit this change. SEARCH AND REVIEW METHODOLOGY: Literature searches were conducted in eight databases. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were employed. Two reviewers independently evaluated each intervention using the behaviour change techniques (BCT taxonomy to identify the specific behaviour change techniques employed. Two reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias using the guidelines from the Cochrane Collaboration. Overall quality was determined using the GRADE approach. FINDINGS: A total of 1140 potentially eligible papers were identified from which 14 studies were selected for inclusion. Interventions included counselling (n = 6, structured exercise (n = 6 and education (n = 2. Common behaviour change techniques employed in these studies were goal setting and planning, feedback, repetition and substitution, shaping knowledge and comparison of behaviours. Regular face-to-face meetings were also commonly employed. PA change over time in intervention groups ranged from increases of 28% to decreases of 25%. In 8 out of 10 studies, which provided adequate data, participants in the intervention group were more physically active post intervention than controls. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Physical activity interventions incorporating behaviour change techniques help reduce the decline in PA throughout pregnancy

  3. Development of Virtual Traveller: A behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity during primary school lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Norris

    2015-09-01

    Three sources of data were used to inform the intervention development process: the existing research literature on school-based physical activity interventions, teacher interviews (N=12 and pupil focus groups (N=18 and an experimental feasibility study (N=85; Norris, Shelton, Dunsmuir, Duke-Williams, & Stamatakis, 2015b. The Behaviour Change Wheel was used as a framework to guide synthesis of evidence into the resulting intervention. Potential appropriate Behaviour Change Techniques were reviewed and embedded within the intervention. Conclusions The resulting 6-week Virtual Traveller programme with a 3-month follow-up period is currently in its final stages of evaluation in ten Greater London primary schools. Using the Behaviour Change Wheel and Behaviour Change Techniques allows development of replicable health interventions in applied settings such as schools.

  4. Changing physician prescribing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J

    2006-01-01

    Didactic approaches to educating physicians and/or other health professionals do not produce changes in learner behaviour. Similarly, printed materials and practice guidelines have not been shown to change prescribing behaviour. Evidence-based educational approaches that do have an impact on provider behaviour include: teaching aimed at identified learning needs; interactive educational activities; sequenced and multifaceted interventions; enabling tools such as patient education programs, flow charts, and reminders; educational outreach or academic detailing; and audit and feedback to prescribers. Dr. Jean Gray reflects over the past 25 years on how there has been a transformation in the types of activities employed to improve prescribing practices in Nova Scotia. The evolution of Continuing Medical Education (CME) has resulted in the creation of the Drug Evaluation Alliance of Nova Scotia (DEANS) program, which is one exemplar of an evidence-based educational approach to improving physician prescribing in that province. Key words: Evidence-based, education, prescribing.

  5. Do physical activity and dietary smartphone applications incorporate evidence-based behaviour change techniques?

    OpenAIRE

    Direito, Artur; Pfaeffli Dale, Leila; Shields, Emma; Dobson, Rosie; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a recent proliferation in the development of smartphone applications (apps) aimed at modifying various health behaviours. While interventions that incorporate behaviour change techniques (BCTs) have been associated with greater effectiveness, it is not clear to what extent smartphone apps incorporate such techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of BCTs in physical activity and dietary apps and determine how reliably the taxonomy checklis...

  6. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  7. Economic instruments for population diet and physical activity behaviour change: a systematic scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Shemilt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unhealthy diet and low levels of physical activity are common behavioural factors in the aetiology of many non-communicable diseases. Recent years have witnessed an upsurge of policy and research interest in the use of taxes and other economic instruments to improve population health. OBJECTIVE: To assemble, configure and analyse empirical research studies available to inform the public health case for using economic instruments to promote dietary and physical activity behaviour change. METHODS: We conducted a systematic scoping review of evidence for the effects of specific interventions to change, or general exposure to variations in, prices or income on dietary and physical activity behaviours and corollary outcomes. Systematic electronic searches and parallel snowball searches retrieved >1 million study records. Text mining technologies were used to prioritise title-abstract records for screening. Eligible studies were selected, classified and analysed in terms of key characteristics and principal findings, using a narrative, configuring synthesis focused on implications for policy and further research. RESULTS: We identified 880 eligible studies, including 192 intervention studies and 768 studies that incorporated evidence for prices or income as correlates or determinants of target outcomes. Current evidence for the effects of economic instruments and exposures on diet and physical activity is limited in quality and equivocal in terms of its policy implications. Direct evidence for the effects of economic instruments is heavily skewed towards impacts on diet, with a relative lack of evidence for impacts on physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence-based case for using economic instruments to promote dietary and physical activity behaviour change may be less compelling than some proponents have claimed. Future research should include measurement of people's actual behavioural responses using study designs capable of

  8. Mediators of physical activity behaviour change among adult non-clinical populations: a review update

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    Pfaeffli Leila A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the determinants of physical activity through mediators of behaviour change is important in order to evaluate the efficacy of interventions. Prior reviews on this topic noted that few studies employed mediator analyses in experimental physical activity trials; the purpose of this review is to update these prior reviews in order to evaluate the state of our present understanding of interventions that include proposed mediators of behaviour change. Methods Literature was identified through electronic database (e.g., MEDLINE, psychINFO searching. Studies were eligible if they described a published experimental or quasi-experimental trial examining the effect of an intervention on physical activity behaviour and mediator change in non-clinical adult populations. Quality of included studies was assessed and the analyses examined the symmetry between mediators and behaviour change. Results Twenty seven unique trials passed the eligibility criteria and 22 were included in the analysis with scores of moderate or higher quality. Half of the studies reviewed failed to show an intervention effect on PA. The remaining studies showed evidence that the intervention affected changes in the proposed mediators, but tests of mediated effect were performed in only six of these 11 cases and demonstrated mixed outcomes. Differences by theory were not discernable at this time, but self-regulation constructs had the most evidence for mediation. Conclusion Published literature employing mediators of change analyses in experimental designs is still relatively elusive since the time of prior reviews; however, the general null findings of changes in mediating constructs from these interventions are a more timely concern. Changes in self-regulation constructs may have the most effect on changes in PA while self-efficacy and outcome expectation type constructs have negligible but limited findings. Innovation and increased fidelity of

  9. Changing doctor prescribing behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.;

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane Collabora......The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...

  10. The cost of changing physical activity behaviour: evidence from a "physical activity pathway" in the primary care setting

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    Bull Fiona C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 'Physical Activity Care Pathway' (a Pilot for the 'Let's Get Moving' policy is a systematic approach to integrating physical activity promotion into the primary care setting. It combines several methods reported to support behavioural change, including brief interventions, motivational interviewing, goal setting, providing written resources, and follow-up support. This paper compares costs falling on the UK National Health Service (NHS of implementing the care pathway using two different recruitment strategies and provides initial insights into the cost of changing physical activity behaviour. Methods A combination of a time driven variant of activity based costing, audit data through EMIS and a survey of practice managers provided patient-level cost data for 411 screened individuals. Self reported physical activity data of 70 people completing the care pathway at three month was compared with baseline using a regression based 'difference in differences' approach. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses in combination with hypothesis testing were used to judge how robust findings are to key assumptions and to assess the uncertainty around estimates of the cost of changing physical activity behaviour. Results It cost £53 (SD 7.8 per patient completing the PACP in opportunistic centres and £191 (SD 39 at disease register sites. The completer rate was higher in disease register centres (27.3% vs. 16.2% and the difference in differences in time spent on physical activity was 81.32 (SE 17.16 minutes/week in patients completing the PACP; so that the incremental cost of converting one sedentary adult to an 'active state' of 150 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week amounts to £ 886.50 in disease register practices, compared to opportunistic screening. Conclusions Disease register screening is more costly than opportunistic patient recruitment. However, additional costs come with a higher

  11. Processes of identity development and behaviour change in later life : exploring self-talk during physical activity uptake.

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, E.J.; Hudson, J.; Thomas, L.

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of exercise are well documented, nevertheless, physical activity decreases progressively with age, a trend exacerbated in those who have fallen. An important predictor of exercise behaviour is the extent to which motivation for exercise has been internalised into one's identity, however, we know little about changing health behaviours in older people, with calls for longitudinal studies to aid understanding. Grounded in self-determination theory, the present study explored the ro...

  12. Preschoolers’ Physical Activity Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Jennifer D.; He, Meizi; Bouck, L. Michelle Sangster; Tucker, Patricia; Pollett, Graham L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand parents’ perspectives of their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents explored their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours through 10 semi-structured focus group discussions. Results Parents perceived Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Children as inadequate; that their preschoolers get and need more than 30–90 minutes of activity daily; and that physical activity habits must be established during the preschool years. Nine barriers against and facilitators toward adequate physical activity were proposed: child’s age, weather, daycare, siblings, finances, time, society and safety, parents’ impact, and child’s activity preferences. Discussion The need for education and interventions that address current barriers are essential for establishing physical activity as a lifestyle behaviour during early childhood and, consequently, helping to prevent both childhood and adulthood obesity. PMID:16625802

  13. Brief fruit and vegetable messages integrated within a community physical activity program successfully change behaviour

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    Doerksen Shawna E

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of the recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables is associated with several health benefits. Currently less than 25% of the American population meets the minimum recommendation of five servings a day. In order to change this health behaviour, interventions should be based on theory and include community-wide social support. Methods A low intensity intervention was developed in which participants (n = 86 were randomly assigned to either the fruit and vegetable intervention (FVI or standard control condition. The intervention was integrated into an ongoing community physical activity program and study participants were drawn from the sample of community members enrolled in the program. The FVI consisted of brief social cognitive theory-based messages delivered in nine weekly newsletters designed to improve participant outcome and self-efficacy expectations related to fruit and vegetable consumption. Results Participants in the FVI condition increased in their fruit and vegetable consumption by approximately one to one and one-third servings per day. The control condition showed no change in consumption. The effect of the intervention was enhanced when examined by the extent to which it was adopted by participants (i.e., the number of newsletters read. Those participants who read seven or more newsletters showed an increase of two servings per day. Conclusion This intervention was effective at improving fruit and vegetable consumption among adults. Minimal interventions, such as newsletters, have the ability to reach large audiences and can be integrated into ongoing health promotion programs. As such, they have potential for a strong public health impact.

  14. Cortical activation changes underlying stimulation-induced behavioural gains in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Charlotte Jane; Bachtiar, Velicia; O'Shea, Jacinta; Allman, Claire; Bosnell, Rosemary Ann; Kischka, Udo; Matthews, Paul McMahan; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation, a form of non-invasive brain stimulation, is showing increasing promise as an adjunct therapy in rehabilitation following stroke. However, although significant behavioural improvements have been reported in proof-of-principle studies, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The rationale for transcranial direct current stimulation as therapy for stroke is that therapeutic stimulation paradigms increase activity in ipsilesional motor cortical areas, but this has not previously been directly tested for conventional electrode placements. This study was performed to test directly whether increases in ipsilesional cortical activation with transcranial direct current stimulation are associated with behavioural improvements in chronic stroke patients. Patients at least 6 months post-first stroke participated in a behavioural experiment (n = 13) or a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment (n = 11), each investigating the effects of three stimulation conditions in separate sessions: anodal stimulation to the ipsilesional hemisphere; cathodal stimulation to the contralesional hemisphere; and sham stimulation. Anodal (facilitatory) stimulation to the ipsilesional hemisphere led to significant improvements (5-10%) in response times with the affected hand in both experiments. This improvement was associated with an increase in movement-related cortical activity in the stimulated primary motor cortex and functionally interconnected regions. Cathodal (inhibitory) stimulation to the contralesional hemisphere led to a functional improvement only when compared with sham stimulation. We show for the first time that the significant behavioural improvements produced by anodal stimulation to the ipsilesional hemisphere are associated with a functionally relevant increase in activity within the ipsilesional primary motor cortex in patients with a wide range of disabilities following stroke.

  15. Past behaviour change success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Discussions of behavior change involve values, cultural norms, power, ideology, manipulation, oppression, and human rights. Coercion and force can induce behavior change. Authority figures all inject their values when one debates what is right and wrong for the individual, community, or nation. We tend to agree on what should be good values in human rights (e.g., liberty, health and speech). Global standards are acceptable for some areas of health (e.g., smallpox, water safety, and drug purity). Yet, setting guidance and control measures that are reasonable accepted by all people, groups, and cultures is more difficult in health matters involving personal choice and liberty. Marketing and advertising professionals are quite familiar with the science of behavior change. It is difficult to measure whether a health promotion campaign is a success. For example, the statistics show that the number of people who smoke and smoking-related illnesses and deaths is falling. This behavior change may be a result of health warnings on cigarette packets and bill boards and the activities of antismoking groups. Yet, many people have died during the 25 years of the antismoking campaign and many more still smoke even though they know the consequences of smoking. In 1991, participants at an African conference on AIDS drafted a belief statement that examines the complexities of behavior change and the great need to understand behavior change to stop the spread of HIV. The statement contends that people have an inherent capacity to change but the power to do so is often denied or not exercised. A supportive response to people living with HIV in the community is an important part of the process helping people begin to change and maintain health promoting behaviors. PMID:12159251

  16. Population physical activity behaviour change : A review for the European College of Sport Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biddle, S.J.H.; Brehm, W.; Verheijden, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    The academic study of sport and exercise science has expanded greatly into the arena of public health over the past 20 years or more and Europe has played a significant role in this. It is opportune to review evidence concerning ways to change population levels of physical activity for health. This

  17. Changing micronutrient intake through (voluntary) behaviour change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G;

    2012-01-01

    the complexity of mechanisms influencing possible behavioural changes, even though this only targets the intake of a single micronutrient. When considering possible options to promote folate intake, the feasibility of producing the desired outcome should be related to the mechanisms of required changes...

  18. Time-related feedback messages for changing activity behaviour of patients with COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabak, Monique; Akker, op den Harm; Hermens, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The promotion of physical activity in daily life is an important aspect in the treatment of COPD patients [1]. We developed a telemedicine application – the Activity Coach – that aims to increase activity levels and to balance activities over the day. Activity levels are measured using a

  19. CHANGING TRENDS IN LIFESTYLE BEHAVIOUR AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON BODY MASS INDEX AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS

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    Viji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Early sleep, early waking up, regular breakfast and light-to-moderate exercise all constitute healthy habits. Balanced diet, regular sleep and adequate physical activity are major factors in the promotion and maintenance of good health in human life. Regrettably these habits are not very frequent among medical students, because of exceptionally tiring schedule, protracted studies and burden of performing well in medical colleges. The study aims to correlate the trends in breakfast habits, mid-day snacking, sleeping habits and physical activity in relation to body mass index among medical students. METHOD This was a single centre cross-sectional questionnaire based study conducted at Jubilee Mission Medical College & Research Institute, Thrissur, Kerala. The target population was 1 st year MBBS students. We collected data from 234 students. The study duration was from August 2014 till September 2015. Convenient sampling was implied for the collection of data. RESULTS Mean age of participants was 20.85 ± 0.9 years, while mean BMI of participants was 24.7 ± 6.31 kg/m2. Average sleep duration was 7.1 hours ± 3.9 hours while average physical activity was 208 min/week ± 92 min/week. We observed that females (63.4% tend to skip breakfast twice more than males (27.9%. Students who had regular breakfast were found to have a lower BMI than those who did not. Moreover, those who took breakfast were found to be more physically active than those who skipped breakfast. CONCLUSION Since it was found that a regular consumption of breakfast, adequate sleep and exercise not only lowers BMI but also makes a person more physically fit. Therefore, it is recommended to start the day with a healthy breakfast having all the essential nutrients.

  20. The challenges of co-developing a behaviour change app that aimed to make physical activity a habit

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    Alice S Forster

    2016-01-01

    Developers of behaviour change apps must balance the demands of users that will make using the app a habit, while retaining the ingredients necessary for the app to achieve its purpose. Mixed methods provide a rich data set with which to base app development and greater confidence that the app will meet the needs of users in terms of social networking and privacy.

  1. Designing interventions to change eating behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Lou; Michie, Susan

    2015-05-01

    Understanding and changing eating behaviours are central to the work of Nutrition Society members working in both research and applied settings. The present paper describes a recently published resource to guide the design of interventions to change behaviour, The Behaviour Change Wheel: A Guide to Designing Interventions (BCW Guide). This is a practical guide to intervention design that brings together recently-developed theory-based tools in behavioural science into a coherent step-by-step design process. It is based on the BCW, a synthesis of nineteen frameworks of behaviour change found in the research literature. The BCW has at its core a model of behaviour known as 'capability', 'opportunity', 'motivation' and 'behaviour'. The model recognises that behaviour is part of an interacting system involving all these components. The BCW identifies different intervention options that can be applied to changing each of the components and policies that can be adopted to deliver those intervention options. The book shows how the BCW links to theory-based frameworks to understand behaviour such as the Theoretical Domains Framework and the recently developed Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy v1 for specifying intervention content. In essence, it shows how to link what is understood about a given behaviour to types of intervention likely to be effective and then translate this into a locally relevant intervention. In addition, the present paper sets out some principles of intervention design. PMID:25998679

  2. Changes in leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behaviour at retirement: a prospective study in middle-aged French subjects

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    Hercberg Serge

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal studies on physical activity patterns around retirement age are scarce and provide divergent findings. Little is known about changes in sedentary behaviour in this context. Our aim was to investigate relationships between retirement and 3-year changes in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA patterns and sedentary behaviour in middle-aged French adults. Methods Past-year LTPA and sedentary behaviour (watching television were assessed in 1998 and 2001 using the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire on participants in the SU.VI.MAX (Supplementation with Antioxidants and Minerals study. A total of 698 men and 691 women aged 45-64 were included in this analysis. Comparisons were made between subjects who had retired between 1998 and 2001 and those who continued to work, using the Chi-square test, Student t-test, Wilcoxon rank test or covariance analysis where appropriate. Results 20.1% of men and 15.6% of women retired during follow-up. The baseline LTPA level was similar between subjects who retired during follow-up and those who continued to work. Mean LTPA increased by about 2 h/week in men and women who had retired, whereas no change was observed in employed persons. The positive change in LTPA following retirement was mainly related to an increase in activities of moderate intensity, such as walking. Retirement did not modify the ranking of the most frequently performed LTPAs, but the number of participants and the duration increased through retirement. In men, the increase in time spent watching TV was more than twice as high in retirees as in workers (+40.5 vs. +15.0 min/day, P Conclusions Retirement was associated with both an increase in LTPAs and in time spent watching TV, suggesting that retirement is an important period not only for promoting physical activity, but also for limiting sedentary behaviour.

  3. Sudden gains in behavioural activation for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Ciara; Ekers, David; Gilbody, Simon; Richards, David; Toner-Clewes, Benjamin; McMillan, Dean

    2014-09-01

    Sudden gains have been linked to improved outcomes in cognitive behaviour therapy for depression. The relationship between sudden gains and outcome is less clear in other treatment modalities, including interpersonal psychotherapy and supportive expressive therapy, which may indicate different mechanisms of change between treatment modalities. The current study examined sudden gains in adults meeting diagnostic criteria for depression (N = 40) offered up to 12 sessions of behavioural activation treatment. Sudden gains were found in 42.5% of the sample. Sudden gains occurred early (median pre-gain session 2) and were related to outcome: those who experienced a sudden gain had significantly lower post-treatment scores on the PHQ-9. Furthermore, the proportion meeting the reliable and clinically significant change criteria at end of treatment was higher in the sudden gain group. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the mechanisms by which sudden gains relate to therapy outcome in behavioural activation.

  4. Mapping barriers and intervention activities to behaviour change theory for Mobilization of Vulnerable Elders in Ontario (MOVE ON), a multi-site implementation intervention in acute care hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Julia E.; Mascarenhas, Alekhya; Marquez, Christine; Almaawiy, Ummukulthum; Chan, Wai-Hin; D’Souza, Jennifer; Liu, Barbara; Straus, Sharon E; ,

    2014-01-01

    Background As evidence-informed implementation interventions spread, they need to be tailored to address the unique needs of each setting, and this process should be well documented to facilitate replication. To facilitate the spread of the Mobilization of Vulnerable Elders in Ontario (MOVE ON) intervention, the aim of the current study is to develop a mapping guide that links identified barriers and intervention activities to behaviour change theory. Methods Focus groups were conducted with ...

  5. Are incremental changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviours associated with improved employee health?: A 12-month prospective study in five organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Cath; Lewis, Kiara; Conner, Mark; Lawton, Rebecca; McEachan, Rosemary R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The workplace offers an ideal setting for facilitating physical activity and reducing sedentary behaviours. Understanding employees’ current health behaviours is required to inform appropriate, tailored, health promotion interventions. The purpose of this paper is to compare the physical activity and sedentary behaviours over 12 months of employees within and across five UK organisations. The paper also explores the association of these health behaviours with objective and self-repo...

  6. The effectiveness of multi-component goal setting interventions for changing physical activity behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Desmond; Harden, Samantha M; Zumbo, Bruno D; Sylvester, Benjamin D; Kaulius, Megan; Ruissen, Geralyn R; Dowd, A Justine; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from goal setting theory (Latham & Locke, 1991; Locke & Latham, 2002; Locke et al., 1981), the purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of multi-component goal setting interventions for changing physical activity (PA) behaviour. A literature search returned 41,038 potential articles. Included studies consisted of controlled experimental trials wherein participants in the intervention conditions set PA goals and their PA behaviour was compared to participants in a control group who did not set goals. A meta-analysis was ultimately carried out across 45 articles (comprising 52 interventions, 126 effect sizes, n = 5912) that met eligibility criteria using a random-effects model. Overall, a medium, positive effect (Cohen's d(SE) = .552(.06), 95% CI = .43-.67, Z = 9.03, p goal setting interventions in relation to PA behaviour was found. Moderator analyses across 20 variables revealed several noteworthy results with regard to features of the study, sample characteristics, PA goal content, and additional goal-related behaviour change techniques. In conclusion, multi-component goal setting interventions represent an effective method of fostering PA across a diverse range of populations and settings. Implications for effective goal setting interventions are discussed.

  7. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Fratu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents ho...

  8. Behavioural and neural plasticity of ocular motor control: changes in performance and fMRI activity following antisaccade training

    OpenAIRE

    Sharna Jamadar; Beth P Johnson; Joanne Fielding

    2015-01-01

    The antisaccade task provides a model paradigm that sets the inhibition of a reflexively driven behaviour against the volitional control of a goal-directed behaviour. The stability and adaptability of antisaccade performance was investigated in 23 neurologically healthy individuals. Behaviour and brain function were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) prior to and immediately following two weeks of daily antisaccade training. Participants performed antisaccade trials f...

  9. Virus-Induced Behavioural Changes in Insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Y.; Oers, van M.M.; Houte, van C.G.J.; Ros, V.I.D.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that host behaviour often changes following infection by a variety of parasites, including viruses. The altered behaviour is either induced by the parasites to enhance parasite survival and transmission, or is a response of the host to avoid spread of infection in the host

  10. A test of cognitive mediation in a 12-month physical activity workplace intervention: does it explain behaviour change in women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering Michael A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attempts to demonstrate the efficacy of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity (PA have been mixed. Further, studies are seldom designed in a manner that facilitates the understanding of how or why a treatment is effective or ineffective and PA intervention designs should be guided by a heavier reliance upon behavioral theory. The use of a mediating variable framework offers a systematic methodological approach to testing the role of theory, and could also identify the effectiveness of specific intervention components. The primary purpose of this paper was to test the mediating role that cognitive constructs may have played in regards to the positive effect that a workplace behavioral intervention had on leisure-time PA for women. A subsidiary purpose was to examine the cross-sectional relationships of these cognitive constructs with PA behavior. Methods The Physical Activity Workplace Study was a randomized controlled trial which compared the effects of stage-matched and standard print materials upon self-reported leisure-time PA, within a workplace sample at 6 and 12-months. In this secondary analysis we examined the mediation effects of 14 psychosocial constructs across 3 major social-cognitive theories which were operationalized for the intervention materials and measured at baseline, 6 and 12-months. We examined change in PA and change in the psychological constructs employing a mediation strategy proposed by Baron and Kenny for: (1 the first 6-months (i.e., initial change, (2 the second 6-months (i.e., delayed change, and (3 the entire 12-months (overall change of the study on 323 women (n = 213 control/standard materials group; n = 110 stage-matched materials group. Results Of the 14 constructs and 42 tests (including initial, delayed and overall change two positive results were identified (i.e., overall change in pros, initial change in experiential powerful intervention approaches processes, with very

  11. Risk compensation behaviours in construction workers' activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yingbin; Wu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether the construction workers have the tendency of engaging in risk compensation behaviours, and identify the demographic variables, which may influence the extent to which the construction workers may show risk compensation behaviours. Both quantitative (survey) and qualitative (interviews) approaches were used in this study. A questionnaire survey was conducted with all the construction workers on three building construction sites of a leading construction company in Australia. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted to validate the findings of the quantitative research. The findings indicate that workers tend to show risk compensation behaviours in the construction environment. The workers with more working experience, higher education, or having never been injured at work before have a higher tendency to show risk compensation in their activities than the others. The implication is that contractors need to assess the potential influence of workers' risk compensation behaviours when evaluating the effect of risk control measures. It is recommended that supervisors pay more attention to the behavioural changes of those workers who have more experience, higher education, and have never been injured before after the implementation of new safety control measures on construction site. PMID:24134314

  12. Mechanisms of change in human behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Marchal, Paul; Bartelings, Heleen; Bastardie, François; Batsleer, Jurgen; Delaney, Alyne; Girardin, Raphael; Gloaguen, Pierre; Hamon, Katell; Hoefnagel, Ellen; Jouanneau, Charlène; Mahevas, Stephanie; Nielsen, Rasmus; Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Poos, Jan-Jaap; SCHULZE Torsten

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this report is to present the science developed within the VECTORS project to improve the understanding of the key processes driving the behaviour of human agents utilising a variety of EU maritime domains. While particular attention has been paid to the spatial interactions between fishing activities and other human uses (e.g., maritime traffic, offshore wind parks, aggregate extractions), the behaviour of non-fishing sectors of activity has also been considered. Various quantit...

  13. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.

  14. Protocol for the ‘Virtual Traveller’ cluster-randomised controlled trial: a behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity in primary-school Maths and English lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, E; Dunsmuir, S; Duke-Williams, O; Stamatakis, E; Shelton, N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) has been shown to be an important factor for health and educational outcomes in children. However, a large proportion of children's school day is spent in sedentary lesson-time. There is emerging evidence about the effectiveness of physically active lessons: integrating physical movements and educational content in the classroom. ‘Virtual Traveller’ is a novel 6-week intervention of 10-min sessions performed 3 days per week, using classroom interactive whiteboards to integrate movement into primary-school Maths and English teaching. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the effect of the Virtual Traveller intervention on children's PA, on-task behaviour and student engagement. Methods and analysis This study will be a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a waiting-list control group. Ten year 4 (aged 8–9 years) classes across 10 primary schools will be randomised by class to either the 6-week Virtual Traveller intervention or the waiting-list control group. Data will be collected 5 times: at baseline, at weeks 2 and 4 of the intervention, and 1 week and 3 months postintervention. At baseline, anthropometric measures, 4-day objective PA monitoring (including 2 weekend days; Actigraph accelerometer), PA and on-task behaviour observations and student engagement questionnaires will be performed. All but anthropometric measures will be repeated at all other data collection points. Changes in overall PA levels and levels during different time-periods (eg, lesson-time) will be examined. Changes in on-task behaviour and student engagement between intervention groups will also be examined. Multilevel regression modelling will be used to analyse the data. Process evaluation will be carried out during the intervention period. Ethics and dissemination The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-review publications and conference presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University

  15. Oral hygiene behaviour change using motivational interviewing

    OpenAIRE

    Wynne, Leanna

    2014-01-01

    Understanding a person's readiness to change could improve the way in which oral hygiene interventions and advice are given in the clinical setting. The aim of this article, therefore, is to provide a brief guide to behaviour change using motivational interviewing when discussing interdental cleaning.

  16. The Psychology Behind Road Pricing: Identification of Socio-Cognitive Factors Inducing Changes in Activity-Travel Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    COOLS, Mario; Brijs, Kris; MOONS, Elke; JANSSENS, Davy; Wets, Geert

    2010-01-01

    The overall final objective of this study is to investigate the effect of road pricing on people’s tendency to adapt their current travel behaviour. In order to reach this goal, a two-stage hierarchical model is estimated, concentrated around the concept of public acceptability. The research was conducted in Flanders, the Dutch-speaking region of Belgium, by means of an interactive stated adaptation survey, administered on the internet, involving 300 respondents. It is found th...

  17. Positive Impact on Physical Activity and Health Behaviour Changes of a 15-Week Family Focused Intervention Program: “Juniors for Seniors”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Bronikowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The promotion of physical activity (PA in children and their parents requires effective planning and sometimes even interventions. This study shows the effect of PA during a 15-week intervention program “Junior for Seniors” by applying a socioecological model to the interpretation of the data. This comprehensive approach emphasizes the fact that health promotion should focus not only on intrapersonal factors but also on the multilevel factors that might be determinants and modulators of increased PA. In 2015, 24 children (“juniors,” 14 girls and 10 boys, aged M=7.96±0.69 and 22 parents (“seniors,” 14 mothers aged M=38.86±2.96 and 8 fathers aged M=37.38±2.97 were voluntarily enrolled in a study spread across three primary schools in the city of Poznań, Poland. The effectiveness of the intervention was determined according to postintervention behavioural changes in PA in comparison to preintervention levels, as reported by the parents and children. Overall, the study found increases in PA levels and reductions in sedentary time. Although the changes are modest, there are some unrecognized benefits of the intervention which may have occurred, such as improved sport and motor skills, more frequent family social behaviours (walks, meals, and visiting relatives, or simply improved quality of “do-together” leisure time PA.

  18. Positive Impact on Physical Activity and Health Behaviour Changes of a 15-Week Family Focused Intervention Program: “Juniors for Seniors”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronikowska, Małgorzata; Pluta, Beata; Maciaszek, Janusz; Tomczak, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    The promotion of physical activity (PA) in children and their parents requires effective planning and sometimes even interventions. This study shows the effect of PA during a 15-week intervention program “Junior for Seniors” by applying a socioecological model to the interpretation of the data. This comprehensive approach emphasizes the fact that health promotion should focus not only on intrapersonal factors but also on the multilevel factors that might be determinants and modulators of increased PA. In 2015, 24 children (“juniors,” 14 girls and 10 boys, aged M = 7.96 ± 0.69) and 22 parents (“seniors,” 14 mothers aged M = 38.86 ± 2.96 and 8 fathers aged M = 37.38 ± 2.97) were voluntarily enrolled in a study spread across three primary schools in the city of Poznań, Poland. The effectiveness of the intervention was determined according to postintervention behavioural changes in PA in comparison to preintervention levels, as reported by the parents and children. Overall, the study found increases in PA levels and reductions in sedentary time. Although the changes are modest, there are some unrecognized benefits of the intervention which may have occurred, such as improved sport and motor skills, more frequent family social behaviours (walks, meals, and visiting relatives), or simply improved quality of “do-together” leisure time PA. PMID:27766262

  19. Behaviour change for better health: nutrition, hygiene and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, Rachel S; Lion, Rene; Crawford, Robert J; Curtis, Valerie; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Feunekes, Gerda I J; Hicks, Cheryl; van Liere, Marti; Lowe, C Fergus; Meijer, Gert W; Pradeep, B V; Reddy, K Srinath; Sidibe, Myriam; Uauy, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    As the global population grows there is a clear challenge to address the needs of consumers, without depleting natural resources and whilst helping to improve nutrition and hygiene to reduce the growth of noncommunicable diseases. For fast-moving consumer goods companies, like Unilever, this challenge provides a clear opportunity to reshape its business to a model that decouples growth from a negative impact on natural resources and health. However, this change in the business model also requires a change in consumer behaviour. In acknowledgement of this challenge Unilever organised a symposium entitled 'Behaviour Change for Better Health: Nutrition, Hygiene and Sustainability'. The intention was to discuss how consumers can be motivated to live a more healthy and sustainable lifestlye in today's environment. This article summarises the main conclusions of the presentations given at the symposium. Three main topics were discussed. In the first session, key experts discussed how demographic changes - particularly in developing and emerging countries - imply the need for consumer behaviour change. The second session focused on the use of behaviour change theory to design, implement and evaluate interventions, and the potential role of (new or reformulated) products as agents of change. In the final session, key issues were discussed regarding the use of collaborations to increase the impact and reach, and to decrease the costs, of interventions. The symposium highlighted a number of key scientific challenges for Unilever and other parties that have set nutrition, hygiene and sustainability as key priorities. The key challenges include: adapting behaviour change approaches to cultures in developing and emerging economies; designing evidence-based behaviour change interventions, in which products can play a key role as agents of change; and scaling up behaviour change activities in cost-effective ways, which requires a new mindset involving public-private partnerships.

  20. Variability in baseline travel behaviour as a predictor of changes in commuting by active travel, car and public transport: a natural experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Heinen, Eva; Ogilvie, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To strengthen our understanding of the impact of baseline variability in mode choice on the likelihood of travel behaviour change. Methods: Quasi-experimental analyses in a cohort study of 450 commuters exposed to a new guided busway with a path for walking and cycling in Cambridge, UK. Exposure to the intervention was defined using the shortest network distance from each participant?s home to the busway. Variability in commuter travel behaviour at baseline was defined using the ...

  1. Promoting Entrepreneurship - Changing Attitudes or Behaviour?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisler, Poul; Blenker, Per; Nielsen, Kent T.

    2003-01-01

    social change, examining whether they are trying to create a change in attitudes or in behaviour or in both? This analysis has implications beyond the Danish case, as general reflections on entrepreneurship policy are induced from the analysis. It is argued that policy makers should reflect whether the...... target groups towards which policy initiatives are directed: 1) have a positive or negative attitude towards entrepreneurship, and 2) are engaged or not engaged in entrepreneurial action....

  2. Behavioural activation: history, evidence and promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Jonathan W; Puspitasari, Ajeng J; Santos, Maria M; Nagy, Gabriela A

    2012-05-01

    Behavioural activation holds promise to reduce the global burden of depression as a treatment approach that is effective, easy to teach, scalable and acceptable to providers and patients across settings and cultures. This editorial reviews the history of behavioural activation, what it is, current evidence for its use and future directions.

  3. Understanding and changing human behaviour--antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J

    2014-05-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factors like knowledge, attitudes, social norms, socio-economic conditions, peer pressure, experiences, and bio-physical and socio-behavioural environment. Further, key concepts are often perceived in different ways by different individuals. While designing and implementing projects or programmes for behavioural change with respect to antibiotics for professionals or consumers it is helpful to consider theories or models of behaviour change, e.g. the 'stages of change model', including pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. People in different stages of change are susceptible to different behaviour modification strategies. Application of marketing principles to 'global good', so-called 'social marketing', to improve 'welfare of the individual and society' is gaining increased attention in public health. In conclusion, just providing correct knowledge is not sufficient although it is a pre-requisite for behaviour modification in the desired direction. We can never change the behaviour of any other human, but we can facilitate for others to change their own behaviour. One possibility is to implement 'antibiotic mainstreaming' as a potentially effective way for behaviour modification, i.e. to address consequences for maintaining effective antibiotics in all activities and decisions in society. PMID:24735112

  4. Understanding and changing human behaviour--antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J

    2014-05-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factors like knowledge, attitudes, social norms, socio-economic conditions, peer pressure, experiences, and bio-physical and socio-behavioural environment. Further, key concepts are often perceived in different ways by different individuals. While designing and implementing projects or programmes for behavioural change with respect to antibiotics for professionals or consumers it is helpful to consider theories or models of behaviour change, e.g. the 'stages of change model', including pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. People in different stages of change are susceptible to different behaviour modification strategies. Application of marketing principles to 'global good', so-called 'social marketing', to improve 'welfare of the individual and society' is gaining increased attention in public health. In conclusion, just providing correct knowledge is not sufficient although it is a pre-requisite for behaviour modification in the desired direction. We can never change the behaviour of any other human, but we can facilitate for others to change their own behaviour. One possibility is to implement 'antibiotic mainstreaming' as a potentially effective way for behaviour modification, i.e. to address consequences for maintaining effective antibiotics in all activities and decisions in society.

  5. What Are the Most Effective Intervention Techniques for Changing Physical Activity Self-Efficacy and Physical Activity Behaviour--and Are They the Same?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. L.; French, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    There is convincing evidence that targeting self-efficacy is an effective means of increasing physical activity. However, evidence concerning which are the most effective techniques for changing self-efficacy and thereby physical activity is lacking. The present review aims to estimate the association between specific intervention techniques used…

  6. Using health psychology to help patients: theories of behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria

    2016-09-01

    Behaviour change theories and related research evidence highlight the complexity of making and sticking to health-related behaviour changes. These theories make explicit factors that influence behaviour change, such as health beliefs, past behaviour, intention, social influences, perceived control and the context of the behaviour. Nurses can use this information to understand why a particular patient may find making recommended health behaviour changes difficult and to determine factors that may help them. This article outlines five well-established theories of behaviour change: the health belief model, the theory of planned behaviour, the stages of change model, self-determination theory, and temporal self-regulation theory. The evidence for interventions that are informed by these theories is then explored and appraised. The extent and quality of evidence varies depending on the type of behaviour and patients targeted, but evidence from randomised controlled trials indicates that interventions informed by theory can result in behaviour change. PMID:27615529

  7. Using health psychology to help patients: theories of behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria

    2016-09-01

    Behaviour change theories and related research evidence highlight the complexity of making and sticking to health-related behaviour changes. These theories make explicit factors that influence behaviour change, such as health beliefs, past behaviour, intention, social influences, perceived control and the context of the behaviour. Nurses can use this information to understand why a particular patient may find making recommended health behaviour changes difficult and to determine factors that may help them. This article outlines five well-established theories of behaviour change: the health belief model, the theory of planned behaviour, the stages of change model, self-determination theory, and temporal self-regulation theory. The evidence for interventions that are informed by these theories is then explored and appraised. The extent and quality of evidence varies depending on the type of behaviour and patients targeted, but evidence from randomised controlled trials indicates that interventions informed by theory can result in behaviour change.

  8. Simulating behaviour change interventions based on the theory of planned behaviour: Impacts on intention and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife-Schaw, Chris; Sheeran, Paschal; Norman, Paul

    2007-03-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) has been used extensively to predict social and health behaviours. However, a critical test of the TPB is whether interventions that increased scores on the theory's predictors would engender behaviour change. The present research deployed a novel technique in order to provide this test. Statistical simulations were conducted on data for 30 behaviours (N=211) that estimated the impact of interventions that generated maximum positive changes in attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC) on subsequent intentions and behaviour. Findings indicated that interventions that maximized TPB variables had a substantial impact on behavioural intentions. Although TPB maximization increased the proportion of the sample that performed respective behaviours by 28% compared with baseline, the behaviour of a substantial minority of the sample (26%) did not change. The research also identified several interactions among TPB variables in predicting simulated intention and behaviour scores and investigated the mediating role of intentions in predicting behaviour. PMID:17355718

  9. Humpback Dolphin (Genus Sousa) Behavioural Responses to Human Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwetz, Sarah; Lundquist, David; Würsig, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) use shallow, near-shore waters throughout their range. This coastal distribution makes them vulnerable to recreational and commercial disturbances, especially near heavily populated and industrialized areas. Most research focusing on Sousa and human activities has emphasized direct impacts and threats, involving injury and death, with relatively little focus on indirect effects on dolphins, such as changes in behaviour that may lead to deleterious effects. Understanding behaviour is important in resolving human-wildlife conflict and is an important component of conservation. This chapter gives an overview of animal behavioural responses to human activity with examples from diverse taxa; reviews the scientific literature on behavioural responses of humpback dolphins to human activity throughout their range, including marine vessel traffic, dolphin tourism, cetacean-fishery interactions, noise pollution, and habitat alteration; and highlights information and data gaps for future humpback dolphin research to better inform behaviour-based management decisions that contribute to conservation efforts.

  10. Humpback Dolphin (Genus Sousa) Behavioural Responses to Human Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwetz, Sarah; Lundquist, David; Würsig, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) use shallow, near-shore waters throughout their range. This coastal distribution makes them vulnerable to recreational and commercial disturbances, especially near heavily populated and industrialized areas. Most research focusing on Sousa and human activities has emphasized direct impacts and threats, involving injury and death, with relatively little focus on indirect effects on dolphins, such as changes in behaviour that may lead to deleterious effects. Understanding behaviour is important in resolving human-wildlife conflict and is an important component of conservation. This chapter gives an overview of animal behavioural responses to human activity with examples from diverse taxa; reviews the scientific literature on behavioural responses of humpback dolphins to human activity throughout their range, including marine vessel traffic, dolphin tourism, cetacean-fishery interactions, noise pollution, and habitat alteration; and highlights information and data gaps for future humpback dolphin research to better inform behaviour-based management decisions that contribute to conservation efforts. PMID:26555621

  11. Theories of behaviour and behaviour change across the social and behavioural sciences: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel; Campbell, Rona; Hildon, Zoe; Hobbs, Lorna; Michie, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Interventions to change health-related behaviours typically have modest effects and may be more effective if grounded in appropriate theory. Most theories applied to public health interventions tend to emphasise individual capabilities and motivation, with limited reference to context and social factors. Intervention effectiveness may be increased by drawing on a wider range of theories incorporating social, cultural and economic factors that influence behaviour. The primary aim of this paper is to identify theories of behaviour and behaviour change of potential relevance to public health interventions across four scientific disciplines: psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics. We report in detail the methodology of our scoping review used to identify these theories including which involved a systematic search of electronic databases, consultation with a multidisciplinary advisory group, web searching, searching of reference lists and hand searching of key behavioural science journals. Of secondary interest we developed a list of agreed criteria for judging the quality of the theories. We identified 82 theories and 9 criteria for assessing theory quality. The potential relevance of this wide-ranging number of theories to public health interventions and the ease and usefulness of evaluating the theories in terms of the quality criteria are however yet to be determined. PMID:25104107

  12. Theories of behaviour and behaviour change across the social and behavioural sciences: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel; Campbell, Rona; Hildon, Zoe; Hobbs, Lorna; Michie, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Interventions to change health-related behaviours typically have modest effects and may be more effective if grounded in appropriate theory. Most theories applied to public health interventions tend to emphasise individual capabilities and motivation, with limited reference to context and social factors. Intervention effectiveness may be increased by drawing on a wider range of theories incorporating social, cultural and economic factors that influence behaviour. The primary aim of this paper is to identify theories of behaviour and behaviour change of potential relevance to public health interventions across four scientific disciplines: psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics. We report in detail the methodology of our scoping review used to identify these theories including which involved a systematic search of electronic databases, consultation with a multidisciplinary advisory group, web searching, searching of reference lists and hand searching of key behavioural science journals. Of secondary interest we developed a list of agreed criteria for judging the quality of the theories. We identified 82 theories and 9 criteria for assessing theory quality. The potential relevance of this wide-ranging number of theories to public health interventions and the ease and usefulness of evaluating the theories in terms of the quality criteria are however yet to be determined.

  13. Training Programs That Facilitate Lasting Change in Student Academic Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Brad

    2014-01-01

    A range of evidence suggests that changing a person's pattern of behaviour is extremely difficult, with past behaviour being one of the strongest predictors of future behaviour. This is particularly evident in the university setting where students tend to use the same academic processes they have used throughout their schooling despite any…

  14. Moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Godin Gaston; Amireault Steve; Vohl Marie-Claude; Pérusse Louis

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Intention is a key determinant of action. However, there is a gap between intention and behavioural performance that remains to be explained. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control (PBC)- behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity. Method This was tested in reference to Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour. A sample of 300 volunteers, 192 women and 108 men, aged 18 to 55, parti...

  15. Patterns of adolescent physical activity and dietary behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorely Trish

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential synergistic effects of multiple dietary and physical activity behaviours on the risk of chronic conditions and health outcomes is a key issue for public health. This study examined the prevalence and clustering patterns of multiple health behaviours among a sample of adolescents in the UK. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 176 adolescents aged 12–16 years (49% boys. Adolescents wore accelerometers for seven days and completed a questionnaire assessing fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption. The prevalence of adolescents meeting the physical activity (≥ 60 minutes moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/day, fruit and vegetable (≥ 5 portions of FV per day and breakfast recommendations (eating breakfast on ≥ 5 days per week, and clustering patterns of these health behaviours are described. Results Boys were more active than girls (p Conclusion Many adolescents fail to meet multiple diet and physical activity recommendations, highlighting that physical activity and dietary behaviours do not occur in isolation. Future research should investigate how best to achieve multiple health behaviour change in adolescent boys and girls.

  16. Using behavioural activation in the treatment of depression: a control theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, P; Law, A; Bates, R; Hylton, K; Mansell, W

    2013-12-01

    Behavioural activation is an intervention that can be used to counteract the typical patterns of withdrawal, avoidance and inactivity that characterize depression. This paper examines the processes of change that may occur during behavioural activation from the perspective of control theory. Some of the key concepts that are associated with control theory are introduced and the process of change that may occur during behavioural activation is illustrated using two case studies. The case studies provide anecdotal evidence which supports the hypothesis that the effective implementation of behavioural activation may depend upon clients being able to retain or regain the sense of control that they value. The differences between a control-theory-based approach and more orthodox behavioural and cognitive approaches are highlighted and the implications of these differences are discussed. Flexible approaches that are informed by control theory, may offer a useful alternative to the more established behavioural and cognitive approaches towards behavioural activation.

  17. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours in youth: issues and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Stuart J; Gorely, Trish; Marshall, Simon J; Murdey, Ian; Cameron, Noel

    2004-01-01

    There is growing concern over the effects of sedentary lifestyles on the health of young people. Recent rapid increases in juvenile obesity have received a great deal of attention in the scientific and popular press and have been attributed partly to television viewing, computer games and other sedentary behaviours. These are thought to compete with physical activity. There is a 'moral panic' concerning the 'couch kids' culture in modern western society. Project STIL (Sedentary Teenagers and Inactive Lifestyles) at Loughborough University is investigating 'what young people do' and focuses on active and inactive pursuits chosen in their leisure time. The following issues are addressed in this paper with specific reference to young people: how do we define 'sedentary behaviour' and do key sedentary behaviours displace physical activity? Are key sedentary behaviours obesogenic? What are the secular trends for children and youth for TV viewing? Our results for young people suggest that: 1. TV viewing and video-game playing are largely uncorrelated with physical activity, suggesting that there is time for both 2. meta-analytic findings show that body fatness is not related in any clinically meaningful way with key sedentary behaviours 3. although more children and youth have greater access to TVs than in previous generations, the amount of TV watched per head has not changed for 40 years. Preliminary findings from Project STIL suggest that inactivity is more complex that we sometimes think. Indeed, measures of 'couch potato-ism', such as TV viewing, may be inappropriate markers of inactivity.

  18. Achieving energy efficiency through behaviour change: what does it take?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbu, A.-D. [European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark); Griffiths, N.; Morton, G. [Ricardo-AEA (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    On October 2012, the European Union adopted the Energy Efficiency Directive in reaction to the fact that EU Member States were not on track to reduce primary energy consumption by 20 % by 2020. The implementation of this directive, and other policies that have been adopted in recent years, will require a change in consumer behaviour and energy consumption practices. Within this context, and related to on-going debates on the same subject, a new European Environment Agency (EEA) report argues that correctly navigating the interface between policymaking and human behaviour is key to achieving sustained reductions in energy consumption. As such, the report provides timely and reliable information and analysis to those involved in designing policy measures to reduce energy consumption which target the end consumer. A growing body of evidence in academic literature demonstrates that there is potential for energy savings due to measures targeting behaviour. There is, however, one issue that has not been covered by previous studies, and which the EEA report directly addresses, namely the distinction between consumer behaviour and consumption practices. Most recent academic literature argues that it is the consumption practices themselves that need careful scrutiny as they tend to lock consumers into patterns that are more and more energy intensive and they involve a wide range of actors. From the energy efficiency policy design perspective, this is relevant because these actors need to be involved from the outset of the policy process. The report also argues that a whole range of changes need to take place in the way energy markets function and are regulated in order to enable the consumer to actively engage with these markets. The report however does not include a discussion on the socio-economic implications of these structural changes. During 2013, the EEA will launch a survey via social media and its own website to follow up on conclusions of the report. The aim will

  19. Moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godin Gaston

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intention is a key determinant of action. However, there is a gap between intention and behavioural performance that remains to be explained. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control (PBC- behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity. Method This was tested in reference to Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour. A sample of 300 volunteers, 192 women and 108 men, aged 18 to 55, participated in the study. At baseline, the participants completed a self-administrated psychosocial questionnaire assessing Ajzen's theory variables (i.e., intention and perceived behavioural control. The behavioural measure was obtained by mail three months later. Results Multiple hierarchical regression analyses indicated that age and annual income moderated the intention-behaviour and PBC-behaviour relationships. However, in the final model predicting behaviour (R2 = .46, only the interaction term of PBC by annual income (β = .24, p = 0.0003 significantly contributed to the prediction of behaviour along with intention (β = .49, p = 0.0009 and past behaviour (β = .44, p Conclusion Physical activity promotion programs would benefit not only from focusing on increasing the intention of low intenders, but also from targeting factors that moderate the perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships.

  20. Energy, the Environment and Behaviour Change: A survey of insights from behavioural economics

    OpenAIRE

    Baddeley, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Evidence of climate change is largely undisputed but moderating the impacts not only of climate change but also of resource depletion is a complex, multi-faceted problem. Technical solutions will have a large role to play but engineering behaviour change within households and firms is essential to harnessing the potential for energy efficient consumption, production and investment. To inform debates about behavior change, this paper explores some insights from behavioural economics including ...

  1. Modelling the influence of automaticity of behaviour on physical activity motivation, intention and actual behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Rietdijk, Yara

    2014-01-01

    In research and in practise social-cognitive models, such as the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), are used to predict physical activity behaviour. These models mainly focus on reflective cognitive processes. As a reflective process, intention is thought to be the most proximal predictor to behaviour. Nevertheless, research suggests that the relation between intention and actual behaviour, the so called intention-behaviour gap, is moderate. Many health-related actions in d...

  2. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB;

    2009-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  3. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.;

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  4. The Healthy Ageing Model: health behaviour change for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potempa, Kathleen M; Butterworth, Susan W; Flaherty-Robb, Marna K; Gaynor, William L

    2010-01-01

    Proposed is a model of primary care for older adults with chronic health conditions that focuses on active engagement in health care. The Healthy Ageing Model is anchored in established theory on motivation and health behaviour change. The model draws on empirical and applied clinical underpinnings in such diverse areas as health promotion and education, treatment of addictions or obesity, management of chronic diseases, goal-setting, and coaching techniques. The conceptual foundation for the Healthy Ageing Model is described first, followed by a brief description of the key characteristics of the model. In conclusion, suggestions are offered for the clinical application and for further developing the model.

  5. Incentivizing behaviour change to improve diabetes care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, N M; Cengiz, E; Wagner, J A; Hood, K K; Carria, L; Tamborlane, W V

    2013-12-01

    Behavioural economics refers to the study of psychological and cognitive factors that relate to decision-making processes. This field is being applied increasingly to health care settings, in which patients receive tangible reinforcers or incentives for meeting objective behavioural criteria consistent with healthy lifestyles. This article reviews the background and efficacy of reinforcement interventions in general, and then as applied to behaviours related to diabetes prevention and management. Specifically, reinforcement interventions have been applied with some notable success towards promoting greater attendance at medical appointments, enhancing weight loss efforts, augmenting exercising regimes, improving medication adherence and increasing blood glucose monitoring. Suggestions for promising areas of future research are provided, keeping in mind the controversial nature of these interventions.

  6. Challenging behaviour: a challenge to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berckelaer-Onnes, I A; van Loon, J; Peelen, A

    2002-09-01

    People with intellectual disability often exhibit severe behavioural problems. Treatment of these problems is frequently very difficult. In The Netherlands, parents, institutes, schools and others can request the services of an independent advisory team with a pool of professionals who have experience with individuals who exhibit challenging behaviour. In this article the methods of the team will be described using a 24-year-old man as an example. The process took almost 7 years. Finally, this man, who had been living full time in one room in total isolation from the rest of the world, fulfilled his heart's desire--visiting the UK by Hovercraft. PMID:12212917

  7. Altered behaviour in spotted hyenas associated with increased human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydston, E.E.; Kapheim, K.M.; Watts, H.E.; Szykman, M.; Holekamp, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate how anthropogenic activity might affect large carnivores, we studied the behaviour of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) during two time periods. From 1996 to 1998, we documented the ecological correlates of space utilization patterns exhibited by adult female hyenas defending a territory at the edge of a wildlife reserve in Kenya. Hyenas preferred areas near dense vegetation but appeared to avoid areas containing the greatest abundance of prey, perhaps because these were also the areas of most intensive livestock grazing. We then compared hyena behaviour observed in 1996-98 with that observed several years earlier and found many differences. Female hyenas in 1996-98 were found farther from dens, but closer to dense vegetation and to the edges of their territory, than in 1988-90. Recent females also had larger home ranges, travelled farther between consecutive sightings, and were more nocturnal than in 1988-90. Finally, hyenas occurred in smaller groups in 1996-98 than in 1988-90. We also found several changes in hyena demography between periods. We next attempted to explain differences observed between time periods by testing predictions of hypotheses invoking prey abundance, climate, interactions with lions, tourism and livestock grazing. Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that increased reliance on the reserve for livestock grazing was responsible for observed changes. That behavioural changes were not associated with decreased hyena population density suggests the behavioural plasticity typical of this species may protect it from extinction. ?? 2003 The Zoological Society of London.

  8. ‘Gamification’ for Health Behaviour Change in Smartphone Apps

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Ann Edwards; Jim Lumsden; Carol Rivas; Lindsey Edwards; Hope Caton

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gamification techniques are showing promise in promoting healthy behaviours and delivering health promotion advice, however, their use in Mobile-Health is relatively new. Gamification involves using ‘gaming’ elements such as badges, leader boards, health-related challenges, rewards, ability to ‘level up’ and use of avatars to motivate and engage people to change health behavior. Gamification techniques may also overlap with validated health behaviour change techniques (BCTs),...

  9. Behaviour and climate change : consumer perceptions of responsibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, V.K.; Ponting, C.; Peattie, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the under-researched notion of consumer responsibility, a potentially significant influence on consumer behaviour that marketers and policymakers may be able to harness as they attempt to respond to environmental challenges such as climate change. The paper uses data derived from a commercially motivated survey (n = 1513) to explore domestic consumption behaviours most closely associated with the issue of disruptive climate change. A measure of 'General Environmental Respo...

  10. Can tail damage outbreaks in the pig be predicted by behavioural change?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2016-01-01

    damage outbreak. Behaviours found to change prior to an outbreak include increased activity level, increased performance of enrichment object manipulation, and a changed proportion of tail posture with more tails between the legs. Monitoring these types of behaviours is also discussed for the purpose...... preventive methods. One strategy is the surveillance of the pigs' behaviour for known preceding indicators of tail damage, which makes it possible to predict a tail damage outbreak and prevent it in proper time. This review discusses the existing literature on behavioural changes observed prior to a tail...... of developing an automatic warning system for tail damage outbreaks, with activity level showing promising results for being monitored automatically. Encouraging results have been found so far for the development of an automatic warning system; however, there is a need for further investigation and development...

  11. Driving behavioural change towards ecodesign integration: Nudging experiment in industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brones, Fabien; Gyldendal Melberg, Morten; Monteiro de Carvalho, Marly;

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a research study conducted at Natura, a large Brazilian cosmetic company, in order to stimulate more systematic sustainable innovation practices by means of behavioural change. Within the “soft side” of ecodesign implementation, “nudging” is a novel approach brought from social...... sciences and policy making. An empirical experiment identified and tested employee motivations in combination with behavioural influences, in order to positively affect employees’ intention to practice ecodesign. This original experience of green nudging in a private company context supported the diffusion...... systemically consider individuals’ engagement, including behavioural aspects, interaction with project teams and higher level business organisations....

  12. Children: a critical link for changing driving behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, C. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2001-08-01

    Sustainable transportation is a pressing issue, according to Transport Canada, the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, the Centre for Sustainable Transportation and several others. To meet Canada's commitment to reducing the carbon dioxide emissions by 20 per cent by 2005, reducing the number of kilometres driven seems to be the only viable solution. Improving air quality by reducing the use of cars will lessen the negative impact in children. Some of the strategies proposed include compact, mixed-use communities, user fees, increased use of public transit are combined with a requirement for greater public education and awareness. Several studies have demonstrated that increased knowledge of an issue alone does not lead to changes in behaviour. One strategy recommended is called social marketing, by fostering changes in norms, providing prompts, obtaining public commitments and the removal of barriers. Raising the profile of children in sustainable transportation makes parents more receptive to information about child-friendly transportation. Some of the impacts of cars on children are: traffic fatalities, less than 50 per cent of children now walk to school, the average physical activity guidelines for children are not met in two thirds of children, obesity, reduced independent mobility of children, emotional distress following an involvement in a traffic accident and more. Some programs such as Way to Go, Walking School Bus, and Active and Safe Routes to School have been implemented in many communities and were found to be successful and additional funding to these programs might be more efficient than conventional education programs to alter behaviour toward sustainable transportation. Get the children to influence their parents. 25 refs., 4 figs.

  13. A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an Intervention Mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Parcel, Guy S; Ruiter, Robert A C; Fernández, María E; Markham, Christine; Bartholomew, L Kay

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Intervention Mapping (IM) taxonomy of behaviour change methods and its potential to be developed into a coding taxonomy. That is, although IM and its taxonomy of behaviour change methods are not in fact new, because IM was originally developed as a tool for intervention development, this potential was not immediately apparent. Second, in explaining the IM taxonomy and defining the relevant constructs, we call attention to the existence of parameters for effectiveness of methods, and explicate the related distinction between theory-based methods and practical applications and the probability that poor translation of methods may lead to erroneous conclusions as to method-effectiveness. Third, we recommend a minimal set of intervention characteristics that may be reported when intervention descriptions and evaluations are published. Specifying these characteristics can greatly enhance the quality of our meta-analyses and other literature syntheses. In conclusion, the dynamics of behaviour change are such that any taxonomy of methods of behaviour change needs to acknowledge the importance of, and provide instruments for dealing with, three conditions for effectiveness for behaviour change methods. For a behaviour change method to be effective: (1) it must target a determinant that predicts behaviour; (2) it must be able to change that determinant; (3) it must be translated into a practical application in a way that preserves the parameters for effectiveness and fits with the target population, culture, and context. Thus, taxonomies of methods of behaviour change must distinguish the specific determinants that are targeted, practical, specific applications, and the theory-based methods they embody. In addition, taxonomies should acknowledge that the lists of behaviour change methods will be used by, and should be used by, intervention developers. Ideally, the taxonomy should be readily usable for this goal; but alternatively, it should be

  14. A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an Intervention Mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Parcel, Guy S; Ruiter, Robert A C; Fernández, María E; Markham, Christine; Bartholomew, L Kay

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Intervention Mapping (IM) taxonomy of behaviour change methods and its potential to be developed into a coding taxonomy. That is, although IM and its taxonomy of behaviour change methods are not in fact new, because IM was originally developed as a tool for intervention development, this potential was not immediately apparent. Second, in explaining the IM taxonomy and defining the relevant constructs, we call attention to the existence of parameters for effectiveness of methods, and explicate the related distinction between theory-based methods and practical applications and the probability that poor translation of methods may lead to erroneous conclusions as to method-effectiveness. Third, we recommend a minimal set of intervention characteristics that may be reported when intervention descriptions and evaluations are published. Specifying these characteristics can greatly enhance the quality of our meta-analyses and other literature syntheses. In conclusion, the dynamics of behaviour change are such that any taxonomy of methods of behaviour change needs to acknowledge the importance of, and provide instruments for dealing with, three conditions for effectiveness for behaviour change methods. For a behaviour change method to be effective: (1) it must target a determinant that predicts behaviour; (2) it must be able to change that determinant; (3) it must be translated into a practical application in a way that preserves the parameters for effectiveness and fits with the target population, culture, and context. Thus, taxonomies of methods of behaviour change must distinguish the specific determinants that are targeted, practical, specific applications, and the theory-based methods they embody. In addition, taxonomies should acknowledge that the lists of behaviour change methods will be used by, and should be used by, intervention developers. Ideally, the taxonomy should be readily usable for this goal; but alternatively, it should be

  15. Changes in mobility behaviours, a comparison between 3 big cities

    OpenAIRE

    ROCCI, A.

    2006-01-01

    This document presents some results of a PhD research which is on changes in mobility behaviours. At the present time, while the policies try to manage and reduce automobile, motorization and car use are still very high. The objective is to analyse the reluctance to and the acceptance of a change of behaviours toward more sustainable mobility. Briefly, we try to understand why most people are not prepared to refrain from using cars in urban areas and what would make them change.

  16. Policies to Accelerate Fuel, Technology andBehavioural Change in Transport - Results and Success of the Austrian Climate: Active Mobile Programme after the First Seven Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is plenty of concepts and strategies on almost all administrative levels to reduce carbon emissions and boost energy efficiency in transport. But it usually takes a long time to adapt national and regional legislation to these strategies with considerable loss of valuable time. Furthermore some of the defined measures will never find the necessary ''political will'' for implementation. To bridge this gap Austria's Environmental ministry supported by the Austrian Energy Agency, got into action 2005 and set up an action programme, condensing all so called ''soft'' and ''voluntary'' measures in transport (''mobility management''), that do not necessarily need to wait for legislation or specific administrative framework conditions. In its comprehensive approach - not only transport is targeted, but also buildings, renewables and energy saving - and also in its effects regarding the reduction of GHG emissions, Climate:active and especially climate:active mobile seems to be one-of-a-kind in Europe. Climate-active mobile set-up: free-of-charge consulting programmes addressing specific target groups (companies, cites andmunicipalities, real estate developers, schools andyouth, tourism); a financial support programme with 51 Mio Euro since 2007 for mobility management measures, fleet conversions to low-carbon technologies, work travel plans etc.; an EcoDriving training programme with up to now 20,000 trainees and educating all novice drivers in Austria in a smart driving style; a broad awareness raising campaign; about 2,900 klima:aktiv mobil partners among the target groups implementing sustainable transport measures and therewith reduces more than 530,000 tons of CO2 emissions every year, created or saved 4300 ''green jobs'' in transport and induced ''green'' investments by companies and administrations 7 to 8 times higher as the funding. Climate-active mobile is one of the main drivers in Austria to accelerate fuel, technology andbehavioural change in transport and

  17. Informing school sex education using the stages of change construct: sexual behaviour and attitudes towards sexual activity and condom use of children aged 13-16 in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Louise M; Evers, Kerry E; Wareing, Hilary; Dunn, Orla M; Newby, Kate; Paiva, Andrea; Johnson, Janet L

    2007-01-01

    A survey of 3820 school children in England aged 13-16 years examined sexual activity using the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) Stages of Change. A quarter (26%) of teens were sexually experienced, 44.8 per cent did not use contraception and 48.9 per cent did not use condoms, every time. Past history of condom and contraceptive use, and partner willingness to use condoms were the best predictors of being in Action or Maintenance stage for condom use. Of virgins, 19.82 per cent were in Contemplation or Preparation stages for intercourse, and 85.4 per cent would use condoms every time. Sex education should be tailored to Stage, and signposting to sexual health and contraception services.

  18. Web-assisted tobacco intervention in Portuguese : intentions to make behavioural changes and behavioural changes

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT - The problem of how to support “intentions to make behavioural changes” (IBC) and “behaviour changes” (BC) in smoking cessation when there is a scarcity of resources is a pressing issue in public health terms. The present research focuses on the use of information and communications technologies and their role in smoking cessation. It is developed in Portugal after the ratification of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (on 8 November 2005). The prevalence of smokers over fi...

  19. Active Inference, homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control

    OpenAIRE

    Pezzulo, G; Rigoli, F.; Friston, K.

    2015-01-01

    We review a theory of homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control within the Active Inference framework. Our aim is to connect two research streams that are usually considered independently; namely, Active Inference and associative learning theories of animal behaviour. The former uses a probabilistic (Bayesian) formulation of perception and action, while the latter calls on multiple (Pavlovian, habitual, goal-directed) processes for homeostatic and behavioural control. We offer a...

  20. Perceived stress as a risk factor for changes in health behaviour and cardiac risk profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Grønbaek, M; Schnohr, P;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of stress on changes in health behaviour and cardiac risk profile in men and women. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: The analyses were based on 7066 women and men...... health behaviour (smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, overweight) and cardiac risk profile (cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, diabetes). RESULTS: Individuals with high levels of stress compared to those with low levels of stress were less likely to quit smoking (OR = 0.58; 95% CI...... in health behaviour and cardiac risk profile....

  1. Periodic activations of behaviours and emotional adaptation in behaviour-based robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burattini, Ernesto; Rossi, Silvia

    2010-09-01

    The possible modulatory influence of motivations and emotions is of great interest in designing robotic adaptive systems. In this paper, an attempt is made to connect the concept of periodic behaviour activations to emotional modulation, in order to link the variability of behaviours to the circumstances in which they are activated. The impact of emotion is studied, described as timed controlled structures, on simple but conflicting reactive behaviours. Through this approach it is shown that the introduction of such asynchronies in the robot control system may lead to an adaptation in the emergent behaviour without having an explicit action selection mechanism. The emergent behaviours of a simple robot designed with both a parallel and a hierarchical architecture are evaluated and compared.

  2. Can the theory of planned behaviour predict the physical activity behaviour of individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Nicola; Dixon, Diane; Johnston, Marie; Howie, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) can identify cognitions that predict differences in behaviour between individuals. However, it is not clear whether the TPB can predict the behaviour of an individual person. This study employs a series of n-of-1 studies and time series analyses to examine the ability of the TPB to predict physical activity (PA) behaviours of six individuals. Six n-of-1 studies were conducted, in which TPB cognitions and up to three PA behaviours (walking, gym workout and a personally defined PA) were measured twice daily for six weeks. Walking was measured by pedometer step count, gym attendance by self-report with objective validation of gym entry and the personally defined PA behaviour by self-report. Intra-individual variability in TPB cognitions and PA behaviour was observed in all participants. The TPB showed variable predictive utility within individuals and across behaviours. The TPB predicted at least one PA behaviour for five participants but had no predictive utility for one participant. Thus, n-of-1 designs and time series analyses can be used to test theory in an individual. PMID:22943555

  3. Can the theory of planned behaviour predict the physical activity behaviour of individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Nicola; Dixon, Diane; Johnston, Marie; Howie, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) can identify cognitions that predict differences in behaviour between individuals. However, it is not clear whether the TPB can predict the behaviour of an individual person. This study employs a series of n-of-1 studies and time series analyses to examine the ability of the TPB to predict physical activity (PA) behaviours of six individuals. Six n-of-1 studies were conducted, in which TPB cognitions and up to three PA behaviours (walking, gym workout and a personally defined PA) were measured twice daily for six weeks. Walking was measured by pedometer step count, gym attendance by self-report with objective validation of gym entry and the personally defined PA behaviour by self-report. Intra-individual variability in TPB cognitions and PA behaviour was observed in all participants. The TPB showed variable predictive utility within individuals and across behaviours. The TPB predicted at least one PA behaviour for five participants but had no predictive utility for one participant. Thus, n-of-1 designs and time series analyses can be used to test theory in an individual.

  4. Have the educated changed HIV risk behaviours more in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummerson, Elizabeth

    2013-09-01

    Theory predicts that when new health information becomes available, more educated individuals may adopt healthy behaviours sooner, resulting in lower morbidity and mortality among the highly educated. This may be the case for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: Recent empirical work shows that incidence is falling and the reduction is concentrated in more educated populations. However, it is unclear whether the educated have indeed adopted HIV risk-reducing behaviours to a greater extent than the less educated. I used two rounds of demographic and health surveys (DHS) in eight African countries to examine whether HIV-related behavioural change over time is greater among the more highly educated. I examined changes in condom use, age of marriage, number of partners, extramarital partnerships, and HIV testing. Results showed that education has a robust positive association with condom use and HIV testing, but also with having more sexual partners. I found that the probability of HIV testing increased more between rounds among the more educated, relative to the less educated. More educated men also appeared to have larger reductions in the number of sexual partners and there was evidence that younger, more educated women may be marrying earlier than their predecessors did. The education gradient did not change significantly over time for condom use. These changes in behaviour may signal a shift in the future burden of the epidemic towards more marginalised and less educated populations. PMID:25860322

  5. Technical energy savings versus changes in human behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    Energy savings seems to be the most environmentally benign element in an energy policy. The paper is a reflection on the work on saving energy both by improving technology and by adapting human daily behaviour. A simple model is suggested for the energy chain which converts the primary energy all...... the way into human satisfaction via energy services. Results of various analyses and field experiments show saving potentials for electricity of 50 - 80 per cents. Barriers for implementing these technical saving options are discussed. Also the necessity and potentials for changing behavioural or life...

  6. The role of game design in addressing behavioural change

    OpenAIRE

    Coulton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing promotion of design for behavioural change as a means of addressing the complex societal and environmental challenges the world currently faces, comes the associated challenge of developing appropriate design techniques to achieve such change. Whilst many designers have sought inspiration from game design they have often drawn from the techniques associated with ‘gamification’ which has been heavily criticised as manipulative and only capable of addressing simplistic extri...

  7. Protocol for the ‘Virtual Traveller’ cluster-randomised controlled trial: a behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity in primary-school Maths and English lessons

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, E.; Dunsmuir, S., Atkinson, C. & Wright, S.; Duke-Williams, O.; Stamatakis, E.; Shelton, N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) has been shown to be an important factor for health and educational outcomes in children. However, a large proportion of children's school day is spent in sedentary lesson-time. There is emerging evidence about the effectiveness of physically active lessons: integrating physical movements and educational content in the classroom. ‘Virtual Traveller’ is a novel 6-week intervention of 10-min sessions performed 3 days per week, using classroom interactive whit...

  8. Urine marking in male common voles: does behavioural activity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantová, Petra; Brixová, Lenka; Lanta, Vojtěch

    2012-06-01

    Rodent urine provides animals with a large amount of information, from the identity of the animal through its physical condition to social status. Many studies therefore focus on rodent urine-marking behaviour and use marking frequency as an indicator of social status or competitive ability. However, marking, like many other aspects of rodent behaviour, may be affected by individual behavioural activity, a factor that has not been examined so far. We therefore studied a relationship between male urine-marking in reaction to another male's marks (standard opponent) and individual personality profile, characterised by behavioural activity in an open field test (OFT). The marking appeared to be consistent and specific for particular individuals as there was a significant positive relationship between individual markings in two different phases of the experiment. The linkage between behavioural activity in the OFT and urine-marking frequency was non-linear (quadratic), which suggested that males with intermediate activity marked more intensively than males from the extremes of the behavioural spectra. The relationship between the opponent's and the tested males' markings was positive, however, we found no statistically significant evidence that the voles would attempt to overmark the opponent. Marking thus seems to have more of a self-advertising than a competitive function in the common vole. Further, as high marking activity is under strong intra- or intersexual selection, the result might suggest a stabilising selection of the personality trait described as behavioural activity in our study. PMID:22285890

  9. Patient Preferences for Receiving Remote Communication Support for Lifestyle Physical Activity Behaviour Change: The Perspective of Patients with Musculoskeletal Disorders from Three Hospital Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. McPhail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined patients’ preference ratings for receiving support via remote communication to increase their lifestyle physical activity. Methods. People with musculoskeletal disorders (n=221 of 296 eligible accessing one of three clinics provided preference ratings for “how much” they wanted to receive physical activity support via five potential communication modalities. The five ratings were generated on a horizontal analogue rating scale (0 represented “not at all”; 10 represented “very much”. Results. Most (n=155, 70% desired referral to a physical activity promoting intervention. “Print and post” communications had the highest median preference rating (7/10, followed by email and telephone (both 5/10, text messaging (1/10, and private Internet-based social network messages (0/10. Desire to be referred was associated with higher preference for printed materials (coefficient = 2.739, p<0.001, telephone calls (coefficient = 3.000, p<0.001, and email (coefficient = 2.059, p=0.02. Older age was associated with lower preference for email (coefficient = −0.100, p<0.001, texting (coefficient = −0.096, p<0.001, and social network messages (coefficient = −0.065, p<0.001. Conclusion. Patients desiring support to be physically active indicated preferences for interventions with communication via print, email, or telephone calls.

  10. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M

    2011-01-12

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

  11. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M

    2011-01-12

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change. PMID:21673826

  12. Participants' perspective on maintaining behaviour change: a qualitative study within the European Diabetes Prevention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Martin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European Diabetes Prevention Study (EDIPS is an RCT of diet and exercise interventions in people with impaired glucose tolerance. We undertook a qualitative study, nested within the EDIPS in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK, aiming to understand the experience of participants who maintained behaviour change, in order to inform future interventions. Methods Participants were purposively sampled, according to success criteria for diet and physical activity change maintenance, and invited to attend individual semi-structured interviews. Fifteen participants completed an interview and reflected on their experience over three to five years. We used the Framework method to analyse the transcribed data. Results Main themes were identified as factors that help (props and those that hinder (burdens behaviour change maintenance at different organisational levels: individual (both physical and psychological, social and environmental. Pre-existing physical conditions (such as arthritis and social demands (such as caring for an ageing relative hindered, whereas the benefits of becoming fitter and of having social and professional support helped, participants in maintaining behaviour change. Participants' long term experiences highlighted the salience of the continuous change in their physical, social and environmental conditions over time. Conclusion The construct of props and burdens facilitates a holistic view of participants' behaviour. Efforts to encourage behaviour change maintenance should take account of context and the way this changes over time, and should include strategies to address these issues. The experience of participants who maintain behaviour change highlights the challenges for the wider implementation of diabetes prevention strategies. Trial Registration (ISRCTN 15670600

  13. Can tail damage outbreaks in the pig be predicted by behavioural change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2016-03-01

    Tail biting, resulting in outbreaks of tail damage in pigs, is a multifactorial welfare and economic problem which is usually partly prevented through tail docking. According to European Union legislation, tail docking is not allowed on a routine basis; thus there is a need for alternative preventive methods. One strategy is the surveillance of the pigs' behaviour for known preceding indicators of tail damage, which makes it possible to predict a tail damage outbreak and prevent it in proper time. This review discusses the existing literature on behavioural changes observed prior to a tail damage outbreak. Behaviours found to change prior to an outbreak include increased activity level, increased performance of enrichment object manipulation, and a changed proportion of tail posture with more tails between the legs. Monitoring these types of behaviours is also discussed for the purpose of developing an automatic warning system for tail damage outbreaks, with activity level showing promising results for being monitored automatically. Encouraging results have been found so far for the development of an automatic warning system; however, there is a need for further investigation and development, starting with the description of the temporal development of the predictive behaviour in relation to tail damage outbreaks. PMID:26831153

  14. Engaging communities for sustainable behaviour change in Limerick City

    OpenAIRE

    Cullinane, Kay; Cosgrove, Tom

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed As 'Ireland's Smarter Travel Demonstration City' Limerick is charged with piloting ways to convince its citizens to move around their city in a more sustainable way, in particular to walk, cycle and use public transport more. The project is funded by the Department of Transport with EU support and implemented by a multi-disciplinary team of University of Limerick (UL) researchers and Limerick Local Authority staff. Behaviour change programs tend to focus on a few behavioura...

  15. "Behaviour changes in Permethrin-resistant strain of Anopheles Stephensi "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatandoost H

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Behaviour studies indicated that the permethrin resistant strin of An. Stephensi was 3-fold resistant to knock-down compared with the susceptible strain. The resistant strain was however 3-fold less irritable to permethrin and less responsive than the susceptible strain to the movement of an aspirator. If reduced irritability and reduced responsiveness to catch are consequences of the changes in the nervous system, then such a form of resistance may be disadvantageous to mosquitoes in natural populations.

  16. Trading between Healthy Food, Alcohol and Physical Activity Behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, E; Brennan, Mary

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundWhile recent lifestyle studies have explored the role that food, alcohol or physical activity have on health and wellbeing, few have explored the interplay between these behaviours and the impact this has on a healthy lifestyle. Given the long term health advantages associated with leading healthier lifestyles, this study seeks to: 1) explore the interplay between the food, alcohol and physical activity behaviours of young adults (aged 19-26 years) in the North East of England; 2) e...

  17. Controlling Interneuron Activity in Caenorhabditis Elegans to Evoke Chemotactic Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Kocabas, Askin; Shen, Ching-Han; Guo, Zengcai V.; Ramanathan, Sharad

    2012-01-01

    Animals locate and track chemoattractive gradients in the environment to find food. With its small nervous system, Caenorhabditis elegans is a good model system in which to understand how the dynamics of neural activity control this search behaviour. Extensive work on the nematode has identified the neurons that are necessary for the different locomotory behaviours underlying chemotaxis through the use of laser ablation, activity recording in immobilized animals and the study of mutants. Howe...

  18. Health-enhancing physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Stuart J H; Gorely, Trish; Stensel, David J

    2004-08-01

    We provide a wide-ranging review of health-related physical activity in children and adolescents using a behavioural epidemiology framework. In contrast to many other reviews, we highlight issues associated with true sedentary behaviours alongside physically active behaviours. Specifically, we review the evidence concerning the links between physical activity and cardiovascular disease, overweight and obesity, psychosocial measures, type II diabetes, and skeletal health. Although the evidence is unconvincing at times, several factors lead to the conclusion that promoting physical activity in youth is desirable. A review of the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behaviours shows that many young people are active, but this declines with age. A substantial number are not adequately active for health benefits and current trends in juvenile obesity are a cause for concern. Prevalence data on sedentary behaviours are less extensive but suggest that total media use by young people has not changed greatly in recent years. Most children and adolescents do not exceed recommended daily hours of TV viewing. Physical activity is unrelated to TV viewing. We also identified the key determinants of physical activity in this age group, highlighting demographic, biological, psychological, behavioural, social and environmental determinants. Interventions were considered for school, family and community environments. Finally, policy recommendations are offered for the education, governmental, sport and recreation, health, and mass media sectors. PMID:15370482

  19. Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation ameliorates scopolamine-induced behavioural changes in a modified continuous Y-maze task in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redrobe, John P; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Christensen, Jeppe K; Peters, Dan; Timmermann, Daniel B; Olsen, Gunnar M

    2009-01-01

    The alpha7 (alpha7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor may represent a drug target for the treatment of disorders associated with working memory/attentional dysfunction. We investigated the effects of three distinct alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists: 2-methyl-5-(6-phenyl-pyridazin-3-yl)-octahydro-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (A-582941; 0.01-0.1 mg/kg), 4-bromophenyl 1,4-diazabicyclo(3.2.2) nonane-4-carboxylate (SSR180711; 0.3-3 mg/kg) and N-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl]-4-chlorobenzamide (PNU-282987; 1-10 mg/kg), on scopolamine-induced deficits in a modified Y-maze procedure. Mice were forced to choose one of two visually distinct arms, and were confined there for a 5 min exploration period before being allowed to explore both arms for a 2 min test session, immediately thereafter. The time spent in each arm, entries and total distance travelled were recorded using an automated system. Characterisation experiments showed that scopolamine-treated (1 mg/kg) mice spent less time exploring the unfamiliar arm, when compared with vehicle-treated animals. Combination experiments showed that all three alpha7 agonists ameliorated scopolamine-induced changes in unfamiliar arm exploration. In conclusion, the present data support the idea that alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors may represent an interesting target for the treatment of conditions associated with attentional/working memory dysfunction.

  20. Inspiring Sustainable Behaviour 19 Ways to Ask for Change

    CERN Document Server

    Payne, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    What is the answer to inspiring sustainable behaviour? It starts with a question - or nineteen. With this simple and inspiring guide you'll learn how to ask for persistent, pervasive, and near-costless change by uncovering our hidden quirks, judgmental biases, and apparent irrationalities.  The only change you'll need to make is how you ask.Businesses, larger or small, will soon have to cut costs and cut carbon, irrespective of the products they sell, or the services they perform. National government has structural policy and legislative needs, and local government has implementation and docum

  1. Stress in owned cats: behavioural changes and welfare implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, Marta; Camps, Tomàs; Manteca, Xavier

    2016-08-01

    Domestic cats are exposed to a variety of stressful stimuli, which may have a negative effect on the cats' welfare and trigger a number of behavioural changes. Some of the stressors most commonly encountered by cats include changes in environment, inter-cat conflict, a poor human-cat relationship and the cat's inability to perform highly motivated behaviour patterns. Stress is very likely to reduce feed intake, and stress-related anorexia may contribute to the development of potentially serious medical conditions. Stress also increases the risk of cats showing urine marking and some forms of aggression, including redirected aggression. A number of compulsive disorders such as over-grooming may also develop as a consequence of stressful environments. Some of the main strategies to prevent or reduce stress-related behavioural problems in cats are environmental enrichment, appropriate management techniques to introduce unfamiliar cats to each other and the use of the synthetic analogue of the feline facial pheromone. As the stress response in cats depends, to a large extent, on the temperament of the animal, breeding and husbandry strategies that contribute to the cat developing a well-balanced temperament are also very useful. PMID:26101238

  2. Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands.......Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands....

  3. Identifying effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies underpinning preschool- and school-based obesity prevention interventions aimed at 4-6-year-olds: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C A; Moore, H J; Douthwaite, W; Gibson, E L; Vogele, C; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Manios, Y; Summerbell, C D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this comprehensive systematic review was to identify the most effective behavioural models and behaviour change strategies, underpinning preschool- and school-based interventions aimed at preventing obesity in 4-6-year-olds. Searching was conducted from April 1995 to April 2010 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library. Epidemiological studies relevant to the research question with controlled assignment of participants were included in the review, if they had follow-up periods of 6 months or longer. Outcomes included markers of weight gain; markers of body composition; physical activity behaviour changes and dietary behaviour changes. Twelve studies were included in the review. The most commonly used model was social cognitive theory (SCT)/social learning theory (SLT) either as a single model or in combination with other behavioural models. Studies that used SCT/SLT in the development of the intervention had significant favourable changes in one, or more, outcome measures. In addition, interventions that (i) combined high levels of parental involvement and interactive school-based learning; (ii) targeted physical activity and dietary change; and (iii) included long-term follow-up, appeared most effective. It is suggested that interventions should also be focused on developing children's (and parents') perceived competence at making dietary and physical changes.

  4. Active and passive smoking behaviour and cessation plans of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Frans; Dijkstra, Arie; Albersnagel, Frans A.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Dijkstra, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Background: Smoking is a remarkable risk factor in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), with negative effects on Crohn's disease (CD) and positive effects on ulcerative colitis (UC). This makes different changes in smoking behaviour after diagnosis between CD and UC likely. Changes in active smoking, c

  5. The effectiveness of interventions to change six health behaviours: a review of reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jepson Ruth G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several World Health Organisation reports over recent years have highlighted the high incidence of chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and cancer. Contributory factors include unhealthy diets, alcohol and tobacco use and sedentary lifestyles. This paper reports the findings of a review of reviews of behavioural change interventions to reduce unhealthy behaviours or promote healthy behaviours. We included six different health-related behaviours in the review: healthy eating, physical exercise, smoking, alcohol misuse, sexual risk taking (in young people and illicit drug use. We excluded reviews which focussed on pharmacological treatments or those which required intensive treatments (e.g. for drug or alcohol dependency. Methods The Cochrane Library, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE and several Ovid databases were searched for systematic reviews of interventions for the six behaviours (updated search 2008. Two reviewers applied the inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed the quality of the reviews. The results were discussed in a narrative synthesis. Results We included 103 reviews published between 1995 and 2008. The focus of interventions varied, but those targeting specific individuals were generally designed to change an existing behaviour (e.g. cigarette smoking, alcohol misuse, whilst those aimed at the general population or groups such as school children were designed to promote positive behaviours (e.g. healthy eating. Almost 50% (n = 48 of the reviews focussed on smoking (either prevention or cessation. Interventions that were most effective across a range of health behaviours included physician advice or individual counselling, and workplace- and school-based activities. Mass media campaigns and legislative interventions also showed small to moderate effects in changing health behaviours. Generally, the evidence related to short-term effects rather than sustained

  6. ‘Gamification’ for Health Behaviour Change in Smartphone Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Edwards

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gamification techniques are showing promise in promoting healthy behaviours and delivering health promotion advice, however, their use in Mobile-Health is relatively new. Gamification involves using ‘gaming’ elements such as badges, leader boards, health-related challenges, rewards, ability to ‘level up’ and use of avatars to motivate and engage people to change health behavior. Gamification techniques may also overlap with validated health behaviour change techniques (BCTs, however, few apps appear to apply the techniques systematically or to define the BCTs they include. Aim: We aimed a to assess the number apps that incorporate gamification to modify health behaviors, b to examine the BCT repertoire and combinations used in these apps c to consider associations with user satisfaction. Methods: English-language health apps that contain gamification techniques were identified through a systematic search of the official Apple and Google Play store and the NHS health apps library. Top rated free and paid Medical, Health & Wellness, Health & Fitness apps as defined by Apple and Google Play stores were searched. Apps were coded for BCTs according to the Michie et al. taxonomy. The taxonomy comprises 16 categories and 93 individual BCTs. BCT coding was conducted by two trained researchers (EE, JL who scored independently and then cross-checked for discrepancies. BCT numbers, user ratings and app pricing were compared. We explored the association between number of BCTs per app, user and NHS libraries’ ratings and price. We also investigated, which of the 16 BCT categories and the individual 93 BCTs and their combinations were most commonly used. Results: 1,680 Medical, Health & Wellness or Health & Fitness Apps were reviewed and seventy containing gamification techniques were identified. The mean number of BCTs used was 12.5 (range 1-24. There was no correlation between number of BCTs, customer ratings, NHS library app rating or

  7. Health behaviour changes after diagnosis of chronic illness among Canadians aged 50 or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, Jason T; Huguet, Nathalie; Ramage-Morin, Pamela L; McCarthy, Michael J; Bernier, Julie; Kaplan, Mark S; McFarland, Bentson H

    2012-12-01

    Changes in health behaviours (smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and fruit and vegetable consumption) after diagnosis of chronic health conditions (heart disease, cancer, stroke, respiratory disease, and diabetes) were examined among Canadians aged 50 or older. Results from 12 years of longitudinal data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey indicated relatively modest changes in behaviour. Although significant decreases in smoking were observed among all groups except those with respiratory disease, at least 75% of smokers did not quit. No significant changes emerged in the percentage meeting physical activity recommendations, except those with diabetes, or in excessive alcohol consumption, except those with diabetes and respiratory disease. The percentage reporting the recommended minimum fruit and vegetable intake did not increase significantly among any group.

  8. Prevention and lifestyle behaviour change : a competence framework

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, K; De Normanville, Clare; Stansfield, Karen; Barnett, Nicholas; Machaczek, Katarzyna; Qutishat, Dania; Okasheh, Rasha; Ion, V.; Wicks, H; Smewing, Ch

    2010-01-01

    Prevention, Health and Wellbeing and Health Inequalities are key national and regional priorities for the future of our nation and for the NHS. This was highlighted in recent ‘Fair Society, Healthy Lives’ Marmot review. The ‘Prevention and Lifestyle Behaviour Change: A Competence Framework’, has been developed to support NHS Yorkshire and the Humber’s key Public Health strategy ‘Making Every Contact Count’, to which there has already been an excellent response. Delivery on this subject has al...

  9. Behavioural Changes of Students By Peer Pressure in the Higher Educational Institution in context to Popularity in North East, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ekta Chakravarty

    2013-01-01

    Human behaviour, the potential and expressed capacity for physical, mental, and social activity during the phases of human life. Change in human behaviour is the only static trait characterised by physical, mental and physiological features. It occurs in different phases of life from play age to old age. The outcome of these changes is due to education, advising, commanding, and appealing to values and peer pressure. Out of all the possible mentioned factors peer pressure is one of the most ...

  10. Developing a theory-driven method to design: for behaviour change: 2 case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hermsen, Sander; Renes, Reint-Jan; Essen, Anita van

    2016-01-01

    Behaviour change design has much to gain with the integration of insights from the behavioural sciences in the design process. However, this integration needs to be done without hampering the creative process. In two rich design cases aimed at health and safety behaviour change, we describe our efforts to develop a method for theory driven design based on the Double Diamond. Our method attempts to integrate insights from the Persuasive by Design-model (PbD) for behaviour change into the entir...

  11. Beyond Individual Behaviour Change: The Role of Power, Knowledge and Strategy in Tackling Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenis, Anneleen; Mathijs, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Individual behaviour change is fast becoming a kind of "holy grail" to tackle climate change, in environmental policy, the environmental movement and academic literature. This is contested by those who claim that social structures are the main problem and who advocate collective social action. The objective of the research presented in this paper…

  12. Can fMRI help optimise lifestyle behaviour change feedback from wearable technologies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine Whelan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs place severe financial strain on global health resources. Diabetes mellitus, the second most prevalent NCD, has been attributed to 8.4% of deaths worldwide for adults aged 20-79 years (International Diabetes Federation, 2013 with physical inactivity attributable to 7% of cases (Lee et al., 2012. The recent surge in commercially available wearable technology has begun to allow individuals to self-monitor their physical activity and sedentary behaviour as well as the physiological response to these behaviours (e.g., health markers such as glucose levels. Equipped with feedback obtained from such wearables, individuals are better able to understand the relationship between the lifestyle behaviours they take (e.g. going for a walk after dinner and health consequences (e.g. less glucose excursions (area under the curve. However, in order to achieve true behaviour change, the feedback must be optimised. Innovative communications research suggest that health messages (and in our case feedback that activates brain regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex (Falk, Berkman, Mann, Harrison & Lieberman, 2010 can predict and are associated with successful behaviour change. Fortunately, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI can map this neural activity whilst individuals receive various forms of personalised feedback. Such insight into the optimisation of feedback can improve the design and delivery of future behaviour change interventions. Aim Examine neural activity in response to personalised feedback in order to identify health messages most potent for behaviour change. Methods A mixed gender sample of 30 adults (aged 30-65 years will be recruited through campus advertisements at Loughborough University, UK. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour will be assessed using waist-worn ActiGraph GT3x-BT accelerometer (100Hz and LUMO posture sensor (30Hz, respectively. Both devices will be removed for sleep

  13. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba Ma; Mouratidou, Theodora; Verbestel, Vera;

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behaviours in European children, and to evaluate the relationship between media availability in personal space and physical activity in relation to total screen time. Design: Data from the baseline IDEFICS (Identification an...

  14. Towards a differentiated understanding of active travel behaviour: Using social theory to explore everyday commuting

    OpenAIRE

    Guell, C.; Panter, J.; Jones, N R; Ogilvie, D

    2012-01-01

    Fostering physical activity is an established public health priority for the primary prevention of a variety of chronic diseases. One promising population approach is to seek to embed physical activity in everyday lives by promoting walking and cycling to and from work (‘active commuting’) as an alternative to driving. Predominantly quantitative epidemiological studies have investigated travel behaviours, their determinants and how they may be changed towards more active choices. This study a...

  15. Developing a theory-driven method to design : for behaviour change: 2 case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermsen, Sander; Renes, Reint-Jan; Essen, Anita van

    2016-01-01

    Behaviour change design has much to gain with the integration of insights from the behavioural sciences in the design process. However, this integration needs to be done without hampering the creative process. In two rich design cases aimed at health and safety behaviour change, we describe our effo

  16. Sodium reduction in New Zealand requires major behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofthouse, Catherine; Te Morenga, Lisa; McLean, Rachael

    2016-10-01

    This pilot study examined the feasibility of adherence to a low sodium diet in a sample of healthy New Zealand adults. It also addressed whether following a low sodium diet was accompanied by changes in intakes of other nutrients that influence cardiovascular risk. Eleven healthy adults provided dietary intake data and a 24-hour urine collection at baseline and follow-up. They then received nutritional counselling based on the World Health Organization recommendation for sodium intake (consuming nature of interpreting nutrition information labels, and difficulty identifying suitable snacks were barriers to adherence. Detailed meal planning and cooking from scratch, using flavour replacements, reading food labels to identify low sodium foods, receiving support from other people and receiving tailored nutrition advice were facilitators. Mean sodium intake reduced over the period, accompanied by a decrease in mean intake of total fat. These factors suggest that sodium reduction in New Zealand adults was feasible. However, considerable changes to eating behaviours were required. PMID:27395412

  17. FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF ACTIVATED FLY ASH CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNILAA GEORGE

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cement concrete is the most widely used construction material in many infrastructure projects. The development and use of mineral admixture for cement replacement is growing in construction industry mainly due to the consideration of cost saving, energy saving, environmental production and conservation of resources. Present study is aimed at replacing cement in concrete with activated fly ash. The paper highlights the chemical activation of low calcium fly ash using CaO and Na2SiO3 in the ratio 1:8 for improving the pozzolanic properties of fly ash .The investigation deals with the flexural behavior of beams using chemically activated fly ash at various cement replacement levels of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% with water cement ratio 0.45.The results are compared with OPC and Activated Fly ash at the same replacement levels.

  18. Analysis of behavioural changes induced by prenatal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments were carried out to detect an impairment of central nervous system functions after prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation. Groups of rats (Wistar) were either irradiated in-utero on the 13th day of gestation with doses of 0.15, 0.30, 0.60 or 0,90 Gy or on days 11, 13 or 16 p.c. with a dose of 0.60 Gy (Cs 137, 1.0 Gy/min). When adult all animals were confronted with a series of standardized tests of operant, instrumental behaviour in which they were required to press a lever for food reward. The contingencies of reinforcement and the data collection from 10 simultaneously operating test chambers were controlled by a microcomputer. The behavioural performance of each exposure group (n=10) and its course during the tests were expressed as percentages of reinforced lever presses/session and compared to other biological, especially weight changes. The analysis of the experimental data obtained so far indicate that the observed performance deficits depended more on the exposure date than on the exposure dose. (orig.)

  19. Weather forecasting by insects: modified sexual behaviour in response to atmospheric pressure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Ana Cristina; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda Gomes Villalba; Nardi, Cristiane; Bezner-Kerr, Wayne; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Bento, José Maurício Simões; McNeil, Jeremy N

    2013-01-01

    Prevailing abiotic conditions may positively or negatively impact insects at both the individual and population levels. For example while moderate rainfall and wind velocity may provide conditions that favour development, as well as movement within and between habitats, high winds and heavy rains can significantly decrease life expectancy. There is some evidence that insects adjust their behaviours associated with flight, mating and foraging in response to changes in barometric pressure. We studied changes in different mating behaviours of three taxonomically unrelated insects, the curcurbit beetle, Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera), the true armyworm moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera) and the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera), when subjected to natural or experimentally manipulated changes in atmospheric pressure. In response to decreasing barometric pressure, male beetles exhibited decreased locomotory activity in a Y-tube olfactometer with female pheromone extracts. However, when placed in close proximity to females, they exhibited reduced courtship sequences and the precopulatory period. Under the same situations, females of the true armyworm and the potato aphid exhibited significantly reduced calling behaviour. Neither the movement of male beetles nor the calling of armyworm females differed between stable and increasing atmospheric pressure conditions. However, in the case of the armyworm there was a significant decrease in the incidence of mating under rising atmospheric conditions, suggesting an effect on male behaviour. When atmospheric pressure rose, very few M. euphorbiae oviparae called. This was similar to the situation observed under decreasing conditions, and consequently very little mating was observed in this species except under stable conditions. All species exhibited behavioural modifications, but there were interspecific differences related to size-related flight ability and the diel periodicity of mating activity. We

  20. Behaviour of telocytes during physiopathological activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Flores, Lucio; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Díaz-Flores, Lucio; Goméz, Miriam González; Sáez, Francisco J; Madrid, Juan F

    2016-07-01

    We consider CD34+ stromal cells/telocytes (CD34+ SC/TCs) in normal and pathological conditions. These cells are involved in organisation and control of the extracellular matrix, structural support, creation of microenvironments, intercellular communication, neurotransmission, immunomodulation and immunosurveillance, inhibition of apoptosis, and control, regulation and source of other cell types. CD34+ SC/TCs are widely reported in the origin of interstitial cells of Cajal and in regeneration in the heart, skeletal muscle, skin, respiratory tree, liver, urinary system and the eye. In addition, we contribute CD34+ SC/TC hyperplasia associated with several processes, including neurogenous hyperplasia (neuroma of the appendix), hyperplasia of Leydig cells in undescended testes (Cryptorchidism), peripheral areas of inflammatory/repair processes (pericicatricial tissue and transitional zones between diseased segments in Crohn's disease and normal bowel), benign tumours (neurofibromas, Antoni-B zones of neurilemmomas, granular cell tumours, and melanocytic nevi) and in some lesions with myxoid, oedematous and degenerative changes (Reinke's oedema, myxomatous mitral valve degeneration, thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy and basophilic degenerative changes of the collagen in the dermis). We pay particular attention to the role of CD34+ SC/TCs during repair through granulation tissue, including morphologic changes, loss of CD34 expression and gain of αSMA expression with myofibroblast transformation, and interactions with pericytes, endothelial and inflammatory cells. Finally, we consider CD34 or αSMA expression in stromal cells of malignant epithelial tumours, and the role of CD34+ SC/TCs in the origin of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and myofibroblasts. In conclusion, CD34+ SC/TCs play an important role in the maintenance and modulation of tissue homeostasis and in morphogenesis/renewal/repair. PMID:26826526

  1. Behavioural activation therapy for adolescents 'at risk' for psychosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Patrick; Kitchen, Charlotte E W; Ekers, David; Webster, Lisa; Tiffin, Paul A

    2016-04-01

    The following hypothesis explores the possibility of using behavioural activation therapy for adolescents with an at-risk mental state for psychosis. Support is drawn from psychosis-related survey and pilot data as well as a robust evidence base for adult depression. However, we acknowledge that extensive feasibility work is required before exploring this hypothesis further.

  2. Road user behaviour changes following a self-explaining roads intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Hamish W; Charlton, Samuel G; Baas, Peter H; Villasenor, Pablo C

    2013-01-01

    The self-explaining roads (SER) approach uses road designs that evoke correct expectations and driving behaviours from road users to create a safe and user-friendly road network. Following the implementation of an SER process and retrofitting of local and collector roads in a suburb within Auckland City, lower speeds on local roads and less variation in speed on both local and collector roads were achieved, along with a closer match between actual and perceived safe speeds. Preliminary analyses of crash data shows that the project has resulted in a 30% reduction crash numbers and an 86% reduction in crash costs per annum, since the road changes were completed. In order to further understand the outcomes from this project, a study was carried out to measure the effects of the SER intervention on the activity and behaviour of all road users. Video was collected over nine separate days, at nine different locations, both before and after SER construction. Road user behaviour categories were developed for all potential road users at different location types and then used to code the video data. Following SER construction, on local roads there was a relatively higher proportion of pedestrians, less uniformity in vehicle lane keeping and less indicating by motorists along with less through traffic, reflecting a more informal/low speed local road environment. Pedestrians were less constrained on local roads following SER construction, possibly reflecting a perceptually safer and more user-friendly environment. These behaviours were not generally evident on collector roads, a trend also shown by the previous study of speed changes. Given that one of the objectives of SER is to match road user behaviour with functionally different road categories, the road user behaviour differences demonstrated on different road types within the SER trial area provides further reinforcement of a successful SER trial.

  3. Bridging the physical activity intention-behaviour gap: contemporary strategies for the clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of regular moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (PA) are numerous, yet most Canadians are inactive. Behavioural researchers have amassed considerable literature on theories-models of PA and many postulate that intention is the proximal antecedent. While intentions are clearly necessary, they are often not sufficient. In this brief overview, I summarize some of the contemporary areas of research aimed at overcoming the intention-behaviour gap in the behavioural science of PA. These are followed by suggestions for how PA practitioners may wish to employ strategies to help their clients translate good intentions into actual behaviour. The topics include the promotion of affect, organization, automaticity, and social responsibility. These areas of research are not meant to be exhaustive in breadth, but they highlight complementary additions to the typical approaches of changing PA through increases in self-efficacy-capability and personal outcome expectations and attitudes. PMID:24383514

  4. Autonomous motivation is associated with the maintenance stage of behaviour change in people with affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Moens, Herman; Madou, Tomas; De Backer, Tanja; Vallons, Veerle; Bruyninx, Peter; Vanheuverzwijn, Sarah; Mota, Cindy Teixeira; Soundy, Andy; Probst, Michel

    2016-06-30

    The present study examined whether in people with affective disorders motives for adopting and maintaining physical activity recommendations (as formulated by the self-determination theory) differed across the stages of behaviour change (identified by the transtheoretical model). A total of 165 (105♀) persons (45.6±14.2years) with affective disorders [major depressive disorder (n=96) or bipolar disorder (n=69)] completed the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 and the Patient-centred Assessment and Counselling for Exercise questionnaire. Discriminant and multivariate analyses demonstrated that persons with affective disorders at the early stages of change have less autonomous and more controlled physical activity motives than those at the later stages. Our results suggest that autonomous motivation may have an important role to play in the maintenance of health recommendations in persons with affective disorders. Longitudinal and intervention studies should be designed in people with affective disorders to identify the causal pathways between motives for maintaining health recommendations, effective changes in health behaviour and physical and mental health outcomes. PMID:27131627

  5. Variation in depth of whitetip reef sharks: does provisioning ecotourism change their behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Richard; Abrantes, Kátya G.; Seymour, Jamie; Barnett, Adam

    2011-09-01

    In the dive tourism industry, shark provisioning has become increasingly popular in many places around the world. It is therefore important to determine the impacts that provisioning may have on shark behaviour. In this study, eight adult whitetip reef sharks Triaenodon obesus were tagged with time-depth recorders at Osprey Reef in the Coral Sea, Australia. Tags collected time and depth data every 30 s. The absolute change in depth over 5-min blocks was considered as a proxy for vertical activity level. Daily variations in vertical activity levels were analysed to determine the effects of time of day on whitetip reef shark behaviour. This was done for days when dive boats were absent from the area, and for days when dive boats were present, conducting shark provisioning. Vertical activity levels varied between day and night, and with the presence of boats. In natural conditions (no boats present), sharks remained at more constant depths during the day, while at night animals continuously moved up and down the water column, showing that whitetip reef sharks are nocturnally active. When boats were present, however, there were also long periods of vertical activity during the day. If resting periods during the day are important for energy budgets, then shark provisioning may affect their health. So, if this behaviour alteration occurs frequently, e.g., daily, this has the potential to have significant negative effects on the animals' metabolic rates, net energy gain and overall health, reproduction and fitness.

  6. Why does asking questions change health behaviours? The mediating role of attitude accessibility

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Chantelle; Conner, Mark; Sandberg, Tracy; Godin, Gaston; Sheeran, Paschal

    2013-01-01

    Objective The question-behaviour effect (QBE) refers to the finding that measuring behavioural intentions increases performance of the relevant behaviour. This effect has been used to change health behaviours. The present research asks why the QBE occurs and evaluates one possible mediator – attitude accessibility. Design University staff and students (N = 151) were randomly assigned to an intention measurement condition where they reported their intentions to eat healthy foods, or to one of ...

  7. Psychosocial correlates of dietary behaviour in type 2 diabetic women, using a behaviour change theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didarloo, A; Shojaeizadeh, D; Gharaaghaji Asl, R; Niknami, S; Khorami, A

    2014-06-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), along with self-efficacy to predict dietary behaviour in a group of Iranian women with type 2 diabetes. A sample of 352 diabetic women referred to Khoy Diabetes Clinic, Iran, were selected and given a self-administered survey to assess eating behaviour, using the extended TRA constructs. Bivariate correlations and Enter regression analyses of the extended TRA model were performed with SPSS software. Overall, the proposed model explained 31.6% of variance of behavioural intention and 21.5% of variance of dietary behaviour. Among the model constructs, self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions and dietary practice. In addition to the model variables, visit intervals of patients and source of obtaining information about diabetes from sociodemographic factors were also associated with dietary behaviours of the diabetics. This research has highlighted the relative importance of the extended TRA constructs upon behavioural intention and subsequent behaviour. Therefore, use of the present research model in designing educational interventions to increase adherence to dietary behaviours among diabetic patients was recommended and emphasized. PMID:25076670

  8. Psychosocial correlates of dietary behaviour in type 2 diabetic women, using a behaviour change theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didarloo, A; Shojaeizadeh, D; Gharaaghaji Asl, R; Niknami, S; Khorami, A

    2014-06-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), along with self-efficacy to predict dietary behaviour in a group of Iranian women with type 2 diabetes. A sample of 352 diabetic women referred to Khoy Diabetes Clinic, Iran, were selected and given a self-administered survey to assess eating behaviour, using the extended TRA constructs. Bivariate correlations and Enter regression analyses of the extended TRA model were performed with SPSS software. Overall, the proposed model explained 31.6% of variance of behavioural intention and 21.5% of variance of dietary behaviour. Among the model constructs, self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions and dietary practice. In addition to the model variables, visit intervals of patients and source of obtaining information about diabetes from sociodemographic factors were also associated with dietary behaviours of the diabetics. This research has highlighted the relative importance of the extended TRA constructs upon behavioural intention and subsequent behaviour. Therefore, use of the present research model in designing educational interventions to increase adherence to dietary behaviours among diabetic patients was recommended and emphasized.

  9. Behavioural Change, Indoor Air Pollution and Child Respiratory Health in Developing Countries: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Brendon R.

    2014-01-01

    Indoor air pollution caused by the indoor burning of solid biomass fuels has been associated with Acute Respiratory Infections such as pneumonia amongst children of less than five years of age. Behavioural change interventions have been identified as a potential strategy to reduce child indoor air pollution exposure, yet very little is known about the impact of behavioural change interventions to reduce indoor air pollution. Even less is known about how behaviour change theory has been incorp...

  10. BetterPoints: Motivating behaviour change using technology-driven incentivisation

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Lancaster

    2015-01-01

    Background Conference theme: Using behaviour change theory to create high-quality interventions and products. BetterPoints is a localised behaviour change system that uses incentivisation, recognition and social interaction – all driven by an innovative technology. Our main method of engagement is a proprietary smartphone app. The app is part of a powerful behaviour change technology platform that allows rapid customisation, massive reward flexibility and sophisticated reporting. This...

  11. BetterPoints: Motivating behaviour change using technology-driven incentivisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lancaster

    2015-10-01

    The BetterPoints system is unique in it’s flexibility and ability to draw on multiple behaviour change models to create high quality interventions. Early findings from existing programmes being implemented for Local Authorities in the UK suggest that BetterPoints can demonstrate real-world behaviour change. We would like to work with academic partners to further investigate these real-world changes in behaviour and establish a robust evidence base.

  12. Beyond good intentions: The role of proactive coping in achieving sustained behavioural change in the context of diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoolen, Bart Johan; de Ridder, Denise; Bensing, Jozien; Gorter, Kees; Rutten, Guy

    2009-03-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a brief self-management intervention to support patients recently diagnosed with type-2 diabetes to achieve sustained improvements in their self-care behaviours. Based on proactive coping, the intervention emphasizes the crucial role of anticipation and planning in maintaining self-care behaviours. In a randomised controlled trial among recent screen-detected patients, participants who received the intervention were compared with usual-care controls, examining changes in proximal outcomes (intentions, self-efficacy and proactive coping), self-care behaviour (diet, physical activity and medication) and weight over time (0, 3 and 12 months). Subsequently, the contribution of proactive coping in predicting maintenance of behavioural change was analysed using stepwise hierarchical regression analyses, controlling for baseline self-care behaviour, patient characteristics, and intentions and self-efficacy as measured after the course. The intervention was effective in improving proximal outcomes and behaviour with regard to diet and physical activity, resulting in significant weight loss at 12 months. Furthermore, proactive coping was a better predictor of long-term self-management than either intentions or self-efficacy. Proactive coping thus offers new insights into behavioural maintenance theory and can be used to develop effective self-management interventions. PMID:20204991

  13. Transitioning to low carbon communities-from behaviour change to systemic change: Lessons from Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transitioning to low carbon communities requires an understanding of community practices and resultant emissions, as well as the technologies, infrastructures and institutions associated with and accessed by communities. Moreover, it requires an understanding of the connections between these integrated system components, its dynamics, a defined transition and potential 'levers' involved in 'transitioning'. This paper accepts the notion that 'levers' include programmes designed to achieve practice or behaviour change in households which result in less carbon intensive lifestyles, and focuses on the factors that shape human behaviour and influence householder energy consumption. Research to date by the authors and others indicates that a comprehensive socio-technical framework that considers both individual psychological factors as well as the systems, standards and norms under which individuals operate is fundamental to the development of successful strategies to shift towards low carbon communities. A database has been compiled of over one hundred local programmes aimed at realising carbon neutral communities across Australia largely through approaches to behaviour change. This paper presents the findings of an analysis of these programmes, particularly with regard to the extent to which they take account of a socio-technical framework or understanding of domestic consumption behaviours and whether they are aware of or aim to influence changing standards and expectations around consumption practices within the home. While a number of exemplary community-based programmes adopt an integrated approach to addressing both technical and behavioural dimensions in the shift to low carbon communities, it was found that most fail to take sufficient account of the systems, standards and norms shaping consumption. Conclusions include directions for policy and programme design based on the study findings.

  14. Health behaviour changes and onset of chronic health problems in later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke Veenstra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess five-year changes in health behaviours in later life and associations with onset of chronic health problems. The results may inform policy and interventions to promote healthy life years in ageing populations.Methods: Data are derived from the Norwegian study on Life-course, Ageing and Generation (NorLAG, a five-year (2002-2007 panel survey comprising a nation wide community sample. The present analyses include a sample of 1,019 respondents aged 60 years and older. Five-year changes in smoking, alcohol use, physical exercise and Body Mass Index (BMI are assessed according to prevalent and incident chronic health problems. Multivariate logistic analyses of “healthy” behavioural changes are conducted.Results: A total of 453 respondents (45% reported at least one chronic condition and 13% (N=133 reported onset of chronic conditions in the course of the past five years. Over a five-year period, there was an overall reduction in smoking rates and a decrease in regular physical activity. Alcohol consumption in older people slightly increased over time, but the incidence of chronic health problems tended to reduce alcohol intake. Older persons experiencing chronic health problems were less likely to initiate physical activity.Conclusions: The results provide limited support for the assumption that the onset of a chronic health condition triggers improved health behaviours. This suggests that the health care system could do more in targeting a potential “window of opportunity” for individuals to adopt new healthy behaviours in later life.

  15. Behavioural responses to thermal conditions affect seasonal mass change in a heat-sensitive northern ungulate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris M van Beest

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer. We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in

  16. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours among rural adults in suixi, china: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Miao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modernisation and urbanisation have led to lifestyle changes and increasing risks for chronic diseases in China. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours among rural populations need to be better understood, as the rural areas are undergoing rapid transitions. This study assessed levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviours of farming and non-farming adults in rural Suixi, described activity differences between farming and non-farming seasons, and examined correlates of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA and TV viewing. Methods A random sample of rural adults (n = 287 in Suixi County, Guangdong, China were surveyed in 2009 by trained interviewers. Questionnaires assessed multiple physical activities and sedentary behaviours, and their correlates. Analysis of covariance compared activity patterns across occupations, and multiple logistic regressions assessed correlates of LTPA and TV viewing. Quantitative data analyses were followed by community consultation for validation and interpretation of findings. Results Activity patterns differed by occupation. Farmers were more active through their work than other occupations, but were less active and more sedentary during the non-farming season than the farming season. Rural adults in Suixi generally had a low level of LTPA and a high level of TV viewing. Marital status, household size, social modelling for LTPA and owning sports equipment were significantly associated with LTPA but not with TV time. Most findings were validated through community consultation. Conclusions For chronic disease prevention, attention should be paid to the currently decreasing occupational physical activity and increasing sedentary behaviours in rural China. Community and socially-based initiatives provide opportunities to promote LTPA and prevent further increase in sedentary behaviours.

  17. Changing organizational energy consumption behaviour through comparative feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siero, F.W.; Bakker, A.B.; Dekker, G.B; van den Burg, T.C

    1996-01-01

    The differential effects of two forms of feedback on energy consumption behaviour were examined in two units of a metallurgical company. In one unit, employees received information about energy conservation, had to set goals and received feedback on their own conservation behaviour. The same procedu

  18. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Vas

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period. The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation.

  19. Behavioural activation for the treatment of depression in military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whybrow, Dean

    2013-03-01

    INTRODUCTION: Depression is a common mental health problem in both civilian and military populations. Access to evidence based psychological therapies for treating common mental health problems such as depression may not be adequate at present. Behavioural Activation (BA) represents a National Institute for Clinical Excellence recommended, evidence-based treatment for depression. The aim of this review was to review the literature to determine how BA could work as a therapeutic approach for military personnel with depression. METHOD: Five specialty-specific electronic databases were searched using the key words 'behavioural activation', 'activity scheduling' and 'depression'. Emerging themes were drawn out of the literature using a long table approach to thematic analysis. RESULTS: Seven themes were identified: Clinical Effectiveness, Cultural Competence, Co-morbidity, Cost Effectiveness, Alternatives to Face-to-Face Therapy, Training and Patient Experience. CONCLUSIONS: Group based BA is a cost effective option that may build upon service personnel's cultural affinity to teamwork and peer support. Brief training workshops and supervision could be provided to military mental health nurses to deliver group based BA. However service delivery may also be enhanced by enabling some nurses to specialise as Cognitive Behavioural Psychotherapists. More research is needed to understand whether this pragmatic, two pronged approach to training would result in the sustained dissemination of evidence based practice.

  20. A simple model for behaviour change in epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer Fred

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People change their behaviour during an epidemic. Infectious members of a population may reduce the number of contacts they make with other people because of the physical effects of their illness and possibly because of public health announcements asking them to do so in order to decrease the number of new infections, while susceptible members of the population may reduce the number of contacts they make in order to try to avoid becoming infected. Methods We consider a simple epidemic model in which susceptible and infectious members respond to a disease outbreak by reducing contacts by different fractions and analyze the effect of such contact reductions on the size of the epidemic. We assume constant fractional reductions, without attempting to consider the way in which susceptible members might respond to information about the epidemic. Results We are able to derive upper and lower bounds for the final size of an epidemic, both for simple and staged progression models. Conclusions The responses of uninfected and infected individuals in a disease outbreak are different, and this difference affects estimates of epidemic size.

  1. Use of mental simulations to change theory of planned behaviour variables

    OpenAIRE

    Armitage, Christopher J.; Reidy, John G.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. The predictive validity of the theory of planned behaviour iswell established, but much less is known about: (a) whether there are causal relationships between key components of the model and (b) how to go about changing the theory of planned behaviour variables. This study tested the ability of outcome and process simulations to change variables specified in the theory of planned behaviour in relation to blood donation. Design. Participants (N ¼ 146) were randomized to one of ...

  2. Self-identity Threat and Resistance to Change: Evidence from Regular Travel Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Murtagh, N; Gatersleben, B.; Uzzell, D.

    2012-01-01

    Despite widespread acceptance of the need to change individual behaviour towards sustainability, resistance to change remains a continuing challenge. Past behaviour or habit, and psychological reactance, have been explored as components of resistance. Growing evidence for the influence of self-identity on behaviour suggests self-identity as a further factor. The current study draws on Identity Process Theory (Breakwell, 1986) to propose that threat to self-identity contributes to resistance t...

  3. Perceived behavioural control and the role of information on climate change in increasing sustainable travel

    OpenAIRE

    Howarth, C.; Waterson, B.J.; McDonald, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which information on climate change can influence travel behaviour. Travel behaviour on the aggregate level is unsustainable; in light of increasing awareness on climate change, the need to substantially reduce emissions from the transport sector is growing. The status of travel behaviour has grown both in terms of its potential to fill the gaps left by technological and political progress as well as the potential longevity and transferability of its impa...

  4. Initiation of health-behaviour change among employees participating in a web-based health risk assessment with tailored feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraaijenhagen Roderik A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary prevention programs at the worksite can improve employee health and reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. Programs that include a web-based health risk assessment (HRA with tailored feedback hold the advantage of simultaneously increasing awareness of risk and enhancing initiation of health-behaviour change. In this study we evaluated initial health-behaviour change among employees who voluntarily participated in such a HRA program. Methods We conducted a questionnaire survey among 2289 employees who voluntarily participated in a HRA program at seven Dutch worksites between 2007 and 2009. The HRA included a web-based questionnaire, biometric measurements, laboratory evaluation, and tailored feedback. The survey questionnaire assessed initial self-reported health-behaviour change and satisfaction with the web-based HRA, and was e-mailed four weeks after employees completed the HRA. Results Response was received from 638 (28% employees. Of all, 86% rated the program as positive, 74% recommended it to others, and 58% reported to have initiated overall health-behaviour change. Compared with employees at low CVD risk, those at high risk more often reported to have increased physical activity (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.52-7.45. Obese employees more frequently reported to have increased physical activity (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.72-6.54 and improved diet (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.50-7.60. Being satisfied with the HRA program in general was associated with more frequent self-reported initiation of overall health-behaviour change (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.73-4.44, increased physical activity (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.06-3.39, and improved diet (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.61-5.17. Conclusions More than half of the employees who voluntarily participated in a web-based HRA with tailored feedback, reported to have initiated health-behaviour change. Self-reported initiation of health-behaviour change was more frequent among those at high CVD risk and BMI levels. In

  5. From global change to a butterfly flapping: biophysics and behaviour affect tropical climate change impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonebrake, Timothy C; Boggs, Carol L; Stamberger, Jeannie A; Deutsch, Curtis A; Ehrlich, Paul R

    2014-10-22

    Difficulty in characterizing the relationship between climatic variability and climate change vulnerability arises when we consider the multiple scales at which this variation occurs, be it temporal (from minute to annual) or spatial (from centimetres to kilometres). We studied populations of a single widely distributed butterfly species, Chlosyne lacinia, to examine the physiological, morphological, thermoregulatory and biophysical underpinnings of adaptation to tropical and temperate climates. Microclimatic and morphological data along with a biophysical model documented the importance of solar radiation in predicting butterfly body temperature. We also integrated the biophysics with a physiologically based insect fitness model to quantify the influence of solar radiation, morphology and behaviour on warming impact projections. While warming is projected to have some detrimental impacts on tropical ectotherms, fitness impacts in this study are not as negative as models that assume body and air temperature equivalence would suggest. We additionally show that behavioural thermoregulation can diminish direct warming impacts, though indirect thermoregulatory consequences could further complicate predictions. With these results, at multiple spatial and temporal scales, we show the importance of biophysics and behaviour for studying biodiversity consequences of global climate change, and stress that tropical climate change impacts are likely to be context-dependent.

  6. Understanding and changing human behaviour—antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factor...

  7. Sucking pump activity in feeding behaviour regulation in carpenter ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falibene, Agustina; Gontijo, Alberto de Figueiredo; Josens, Roxana

    2009-06-01

    Modulation of liquid feeding-rate would allow insects to ingest more food in the same time when this was required. Ants can vary nectar intake rate by increasing sucking pump frequency according to colony requirements. We analysed electrical signals generated by sucking pump activity of ants during drinking solutions of different sucrose concentrations and under different carbohydrate-deprivation levels. Our aim was to define parameters that characterize the recordings and analyse their relationship with feeding behaviour. Signals showed that the initial and final frequencies of sucking pump activity, as well as the difference between them were higher in sugar-deprived ants. However, these parameters were not influenced by sucrose solution concentration, which affected the number of pump contractions and the volume per contraction. Unexpectedly, we found two different responses in feeding behaviour of starved and non-starved ants depending on concentration. Starved ants drank dilute solutions for the same length of time as non-starved ants but ingested higher volumes. While drinking the concentrated solutions, starved ants drank the same volume, but did so in a shorter time than the non-starved ones. Despite these differences, for each analysed concentration the total number of pump contractions remained constant independently of sugar-deprivation level. These results are discussed in the frame of feeding regulation and decision making in ant foraging behaviour. PMID:19217950

  8. Sucking pump activity in feeding behaviour regulation in carpenter ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falibene, Agustina; Gontijo, Alberto de Figueiredo; Josens, Roxana

    2009-06-01

    Modulation of liquid feeding-rate would allow insects to ingest more food in the same time when this was required. Ants can vary nectar intake rate by increasing sucking pump frequency according to colony requirements. We analysed electrical signals generated by sucking pump activity of ants during drinking solutions of different sucrose concentrations and under different carbohydrate-deprivation levels. Our aim was to define parameters that characterize the recordings and analyse their relationship with feeding behaviour. Signals showed that the initial and final frequencies of sucking pump activity, as well as the difference between them were higher in sugar-deprived ants. However, these parameters were not influenced by sucrose solution concentration, which affected the number of pump contractions and the volume per contraction. Unexpectedly, we found two different responses in feeding behaviour of starved and non-starved ants depending on concentration. Starved ants drank dilute solutions for the same length of time as non-starved ants but ingested higher volumes. While drinking the concentrated solutions, starved ants drank the same volume, but did so in a shorter time than the non-starved ones. Despite these differences, for each analysed concentration the total number of pump contractions remained constant independently of sugar-deprivation level. These results are discussed in the frame of feeding regulation and decision making in ant foraging behaviour.

  9. Healthcare professional behaviour change using technological supports: A realist literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Keyworth

    2015-10-01

    Technological supports aiming to change the behaviour of healthcare professionals show considerable promise, particularly those involving computer-generated reminders and feedback. Due to the lack of theoretically-informed interventions, we were unable to draw conclusions around the effectiveness of theory-behaviour change interventions in this context. Interventions currently lack consistency in delivery method and content, which future research should address.

  10. Applying the Transtheoretical Model to Investigate Behavioural Change in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Ping; Wang, Ming-Jye

    2013-01-01

    Background: Long-term behaviour change in type 2 diabetic patients may provide effective glycemic control. Purpose: To investigate the key factors that promote behaviour change in diabetic subjects using the transtheoretical model. Methods: Subjects were selected by purposive sampling from type 2 diabetes outpatients. Self-administered…

  11. Group-based care: does it change problem behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    van Weel, Chris

    1980-01-01

    As a result of disappointing experiences in managing problem behaviour presented by patients in general practice, a system of team or group-based care was developed at the Ommoord Health Centre in Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

  12. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Mukhin

    Full Text Available Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1 the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1, (2 the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3 the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1 the markedly reduced mobility and (2 the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1 influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better

  13. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhin, Andrey; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Platonova, Elena; Kobylkov, Dmitry; Vakoliuk, Irina; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium) are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1) the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1), (2) the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3) the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle) did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected) birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1) the markedly reduced mobility and (2) the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1) influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better understand the

  14. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhin, Andrey; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Platonova, Elena; Kobylkov, Dmitry; Vakoliuk, Irina; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium) are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1) the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1), (2) the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3) the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle) did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected) birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1) the markedly reduced mobility and (2) the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1) influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better understand the

  15. Socially driven changes in neural and behavioural plasticity in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Teles, Magda Cristina, 1981-

    2015-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Etologia), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 Social competence, the ability of individuals to regulate the expression of their social behaviour in order to optimize their social relationships in a group, is especially benefic for individuals living in complex social environments, and implies the ability to perceive social cues and produce appropriate behavioural output responses (Social Plasticity). Numerous examples of social competence ca...

  16. Hypoxia increases the behavioural activity of schooling herring: a response to physiological stress or respiratory distress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Neill A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2006-01-01

    a deviation in physiological homeostasis is associated with any change in behavioural activity, we exposed C. harengus in a school to a progressive stepwise decline in water oxygen pressure  and measured fish swimming speed and valid indicators of primary and secondary stress (i.e. blood cortisol, lactate......Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, increase their swimming speed during low O2 (hypoxia) and it has been hypothesised that the behavioural response is modulated by the degree of "respiratory distress" (i.e. a rise in anaerobic metabolism and severe physiological stress). To test directly whether......, glucose and osmolality). Herring in hypoxia increased their swimming speed by 11-39% but only when  was behaviour, plasma cortisol also exhibited an increase with  plasma osmolality was subject to a transient rise at 8.5 k...

  17. Contribution of the After-School Period to Children's Daily Participation in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Arundell

    % of their daily screen-based sedentary behaviours and 80% of the sedentary behaviour guidelines. After-school MVPA was positively associated with achieving the physical activity guidelines (OR: 1.31, 95%CI 1.18, 1.44, p<0.05, and after-school screen-based sedentary behaviours were negatively associated with achieving the sedentary behaviours guidelines (OR: 0.97, 95%CI: 0.96, 0.97, p<0.05.The after-school period plays a critical role in the accumulation of children's physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Small changes to after-school behaviours can have large impacts on children's daily behaviours levels and likelihood of meeting the recommended levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Therefore interventions should target reducing after-school sedentary behaviours and increasing physical activity.

  18. Social inequalities in changes in health-related behaviour among Slovak adolescents aged between 15 and 19 : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salonna, Ferdinand; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Sleskova, Maria; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Lower socioeconomic position is generally associated with higher rates of smoking and alcohol consumption and lower levels of physical activity. Health-related behaviour is usually established during late childhood and adolescence. The aim of this study is to explore changes in health-re

  19. Creatures of habit: accounting for the role of habit in implementation research on clinical behaviour change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsen Per

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social cognitive theories on behaviour change are increasingly being used to understand and predict healthcare professionals’ intentions and clinical behaviours. Although these theories offer important insights into how new behaviours are initiated, they provide an incomplete account of how changes in clinical practice occur by failing to consider the role of cue-contingent habits. This article contributes to better understanding of the role of habits in clinical practice and how improved effectiveness of behavioural strategies in implementation research might be achieved. Discussion Habit is behaviour that has been repeated until it has become more or less automatic, enacted without purposeful thinking, largely without any sense of awareness. The process of forming habits occurs through a gradual shift in cognitive control from intentional to automatic processes. As behaviour is repeated in the same context, the control of behaviour gradually shifts from being internally guided (e.g., beliefs, attitudes, and intention to being triggered by situational or contextual cues. Much clinical practice occurs in stable healthcare contexts and can be assumed to be habitual. Empirical findings in various fields suggest that behaviours that are repeated in constant contexts are difficult to change. Hence, interventions that focus on changing the context that maintains those habits have a greater probability of success. Some sort of contextual disturbance provides a window of opportunity in which a behaviour is more likely to be deliberately considered. Forming desired habits requires behaviour to be carried out repeatedly in the presence of the same contextual cues. Summary Social cognitive theories provide insight into how humans analytically process information and carefully plan actions, but their utility is more limited when it comes to explaining repeated behaviours that do not require such an ongoing contemplative decisional

  20. Psychosocial predictors of reported HIV-preventive behaviour change among adults in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D; Dubley, I; Msimanga, S; Lavelle, L

    1991-07-01

    In order to reduce HIV transmission, improved understanding of factors that motivate safer sexual behaviour is needed. The Health Belief Model attempts to explain health-related behaviour, including HIV-preventive behaviour. The association of six elements of this model--AIDS knowledge, perceived susceptibility to HIV infection, perceived effectiveness of HIV-preventive measures, self-efficacy, barriers to behaviour change, accessibility of health care/advice and social support for safer sexual behaviour--to three indices of HIV-related behavioural risk reduction--reduced number of sexual partners, increased consistency of condom use and (among males only) reduced prostitute contact--was examined by self-report inventory among 202 men and 100 women in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Multiple logistic regression identified social support for behaviour change, followed by accessibility of health care/advice, as the most consistent predictors of risk reduction across sex and outcome measures. The remaining predictors were not consistently associated with behaviour change. It is concluded that AIDS campaigns must foster the perception that there is concerted normative support for HIV-related behaviour change and that community and small group, face-to-face AIDS education, which may have more impact on perceived social support than mass media campaigns, must be emphasised. PMID:1811902

  1. The effects of persuasive communication and planning on intentions to be more physically active and on physical activity behaviour among low-active adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Damien; Sarrazin, Philippe; Nicaise, Virginie; Dupont, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine, using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) combined with a self-regulatory behaviour change approach, whether persuasive communication based on adolescents' salient beliefs (SBCondition) and planning (PCondition) could promote the intention and physical activity (PA) behaviour of low-active adolescents participating in less than 1 h/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The protocol tested the effectiveness of two strategies used separately (i.e. SBC or PC) or in combination (i.e. CC = NSBC-SBC-PC) compared to a group receiving a message based on non-salient beliefs (NSBCondition). The 116 low-active students from ten 10th and 11th grade classes were assigned, using a cluster randomisation, into one of the four conditions (i.e. NSBC, SBC, PC and CC). Baseline data were collected two weeks before the intervention. The post-test data collection occurred directly after the intervention, and the follow-up took place two weeks later. Results showed that (1) the NSBC was the least effective strategy, (2) the SBC had no significant effect on PA behaviour and the TPB variables, (3) the PC had no significant effect on PA behaviour but increased the intention and perceived behavioural control and (4) the effects of the PC and the CC were not significantly different. PMID:25493545

  2. Opposite selection on behavioural types by active and passive fishing gears in a simulated guppy Poecilia reticulata fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Pauli, B; Wiech, M; Heino, M; Utne-Palm, A C

    2015-03-01

    This study assessed whether fishing gear was selective on behavioural traits, such as boldness and activity, and how this was related with a productivity trait, growth. Female guppies Poecilia reticulata were screened for their behaviour on the shy-bold axis and activity, and then tested whether they were captured differently by passive and active fishing gear, here represented by a trap and a trawl. Both gears were selective on boldness; bold individuals were caught faster by the trap, but escaped the trawl more often. Boldness and gear vulnerability showed weak correlations with activity and growth. The results draw attention to the importance of the behavioural dimension of fishing: selective fishing on behavioural traits will change the trait composition of the population, and might eventually affect resilience and fishery productivity.

  3. A behavioural intervention increases physical activity in people with subacute spinal cord injury: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla FJ Nooijen

    2016-01-01

    intervention was effective in eliciting a behavioural change toward a more active lifestyle among people with subacute spinal cord injury. Trial registration: NTR2424. [Nooijen CFJ, Stam H, Bergen MP, Bongers-Janssen HMH, Valent L, van Langeveld S, Twisk J, Act-Active Research Group, van den Berg-Emons RJG (2016 A behavioural intervention increases physical activity in people with subacute spinal cord injury: a randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 62: 35–41

  4. Ombuds’ corner: Code of Conduct and change of behaviour

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.   Is our Code of Conduct actually effective in influencing behaviour? Research studies suggest that codes, while necessary, are insufficient as a means of encouraging respectful behaviour among employees. Codes are only a potential means of influencing employee behaviour. For a Code of Conduct to be effective, several elements must be in place. Firstly, there needs to be communication and effective training using relevant examples to make the code real. It should be embraced by the leaders and accepted by the personnel. Finally, it should be embedded in the CERN culture and not seen as a separate entity, which requires serious discussions to raise awareness. In addition, every c...

  5. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours in pre-schoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Cardon, Greet; Labarque, Valery; Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse de

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To describe physical activity (PA) levels and sedentary behaviours in 4- and 5-year-old pre-school attending children (N= 157) on 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days. Methods: PA was quantified with accelerometers (MTI Actigraph model 7164 or GT1M), making use of 15 sec interval sampling. Additionally, a questionnaire was filled out by the parents and the preschool teachers. Results: Total PA was 701 mean accelerometer counts/minute. According to the cut points of Sirard et al., the c...

  6. Learning emergent behaviours for a hierarchical Bayesian framework for active robotic perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João Filipe; Tsiourti, Christiana; Dias, Jorge

    2012-08-01

    In this research work, we contribute with a behaviour learning process for a hierarchical Bayesian framework for multimodal active perception, devised to be emergent, scalable and adaptive. This framework is composed by models built upon a common spatial configuration for encoding perception and action that is naturally fitting for the integration of readings from multiple sensors, using a Bayesian approach devised in previous work. The proposed learning process is shown to reproduce goal-dependent human-like active perception behaviours by learning model parameters (referred to as "attentional sets") for different free-viewing and active search tasks. Learning was performed by presenting several 3D audiovisual virtual scenarios using a head-mounted display, while logging the spatial distribution of fixations of the subject (in 2D, on left and right images, and in 3D space), data which are consequently used as the training set for the framework. As a consequence, the hierarchical Bayesian framework adequately implements high-level behaviour resulting from low-level interaction of simpler building blocks by using the attentional sets learned for each task, and is able to change these attentional sets "on the fly," allowing the implementation of goal-dependent behaviours (i.e., top-down influences).

  7. Olfactory bulb ablation in the rat: behavioural changes and their reversal by antidepressant drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riezen, H; Schnieden, H; Wren, A F

    1977-01-01

    1. The effects of bilateral olfactory bulbectomy, sham-operation and inducement of peripheral anosmia were studied on locomotor activity, passive avoidance acquisition and irritability. 2. Bulbectomized rats were hyperactive, deficient at learning a step-down passive avoidance response and hyperirritable. Peripheral anosmia, induced by intranasal infusion of ZnSO4 solution resulted in no behavioural changes. 3. Chronic pretreatment with amitriptyline (3 and 10 mg/kg) and a tetracyclic antidepressant mianserin (Org GB 94, 5 and 15 mg/kg) reversed the hyperactivity and reduced the learning deficit of bulbectomized rats. These drugs had no significant effects on sham-operated animals. 4. Neither amitriptyline nor mianserin reduced the exaggerated responses of bulbectomized rats to external stimuli. 5. (+)-Amphetamine (1 and 3 mg/kg) accelerated the acquisition of the passive avoidance response, greatly enhanced the locomotor activity and slightly increased the irritability score of both sham-operated and bulbectomized rats. 6. Chlorpromazine (1 and 3 mg/kg) and chlordiazepoxide (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced the acquisition, locomotor activity and irritability of experimental and control rats. 7. Lithium sulphate (1 and 3 mg/kg) had no effect on activity or irritability but produced a small impairment in acquistion of bulbectomized rats. 8. It is concluded that the reversal by antidepressant drugs of the behavioural syndrome seen after olfactory bulb ablation could constitute a new model for the detection of this group of centrally acting compounds. PMID:907867

  8. Is a convergently derived muscle-activity pattern driving novel raking behaviours in teleost fishes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konow, Nicolai; Sanford, Christopher P J

    2008-03-01

    Behavioural differences across prey-capture and processing mechanisms may be governed by coupled or uncoupled feeding systems. Osteoglossomorph and salmonid fishes process prey in a convergently evolved tongue-bite apparatus (TBA), which is musculoskeletally coupled with the primary oral jaws. Altered muscle-activity patterns (MAPs) in these coupled jaw systems could be associated with the independent origin of a novel raking behaviour in these unrelated lineages. Substantial MAP changes in the evolution of novel behaviours have rarely been quantified so we examined MAP differences across strikes, chewing and rakes in a derived raking salmonid, the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Electromyography, including activity onset timing, duration, mean amplitude and integrated area from five feeding muscles revealed significant differences between behaviour-specific MAPs. Specifically, early activity onset in the protractor hyoideus and adductor mandibularis muscles characterised raking, congruent with a recent biomechanical model of the component-mechanisms driving the raking preparatory and power-stroke phases. Oncorhynchus raking MAPs were then compared with a phylogenetically derived osteoglossomorph representative, the Australian arowana, Scleropages jardinii. In both taxa, early onset of protractor hyoideus and adductor mandibularis activity characterised the raking preparatory phase, indicating a convergently derived MAP, while more subtle inter-lineage divergence in raking MAPs resulted from onset-timing and duration differences in sternohyoideus and hypaxialis activity. Convergent TBA morphologies are thus powered by convergently derived MAPs, a phenomenon not previously demonstrated in feeding mechanisms. Between lineages, differences in TBA morphology and associated differences in the functional coupling of jaw systems appear to be important factors in shaping the diversification of raking behaviours. PMID:18310124

  9. Addressing the social determinants of inequities in physical activity and sedentary behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kylie; Carver, Alison; Downing, Katherine; Jackson, Michelle; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    Participation in both physical activity and sedentary behaviours follow a social gradient, such that those who are more advantaged are more likely to be regularly physically active, less likely to be sedentary, and less likely to experience the adverse health outcomes associated with inactive lifestyles than their less advantaged peers. The aim of this paper is to provide, in a format that will support policymakers and practitioners, an overview of the current evidence base and highlight promising approaches for promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary behaviours equitably at each level of 'Fair Foundations: The VicHealth framework for health equity'. A rapid review was undertaken in February-April 2014. Electronic databases (Medline, PsychINFO, SportsDISCUS, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Global Health and Embase) were searched using a pre-defined search strategy and grey literature searches of websites of key relevant organizations were undertaken. The majority of included studies focussed on approaches targeting behaviour change at the individual level, with fewer focussing on daily living conditions or broader socioeconomic, political and cultural contexts. While many gaps in the evidence base remain, particularly in relation to reducing sedentary behaviour, promising approaches for promoting physical activity equitably across the three levels of the Fair Foundations framework include: community-wide approaches; support for local and state governments to develop policies and practices; neighbourhood designs (including parks) that are conducive to physical activity; investment in early childhood interventions; school programmes; peer- or group-based programmes; and targeted motivational, cognitive-behavioural, and/or mediated individual-level approaches. PMID:25855784

  10. Behavioural Change, Indoor Air Pollution and Child Respiratory Health in Developing Countries: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon R. Barnes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air pollution caused by the indoor burning of solid biomass fuels has been associated with Acute Respiratory Infections such as pneumonia amongst children of less than five years of age. Behavioural change interventions have been identified as a potential strategy to reduce child indoor air pollution exposure, yet very little is known about the impact of behavioural change interventions to reduce indoor air pollution. Even less is known about how behaviour change theory has been incorporated into indoor air pollution behaviour change interventions. A review of published studies spanning 1983–2013 suggests that behavioural change strategies have the potential to reduce indoor air pollution exposure by 20%–98% in laboratory settings and 31%–94% in field settings. However, the evidence is: (1 based on studies that are methodologically weak; and (2 have little or no underlying theory. The paper concludes with a call for more rigorous studies to evaluate the role of behavioural change strategies (with or without improved technologies to reduce indoor air pollution exposure in developing countries as well as interventions that draw more strongly on existing behavioural change theory and practice.

  11. Behavioural change, indoor air pollution and child respiratory health in developing countries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Brendon R

    2014-05-01

    Indoor air pollution caused by the indoor burning of solid biomass fuels has been associated with Acute Respiratory Infections such as pneumonia amongst children of less than five years of age. Behavioural change interventions have been identified as a potential strategy to reduce child indoor air pollution exposure, yet very little is known about the impact of behavioural change interventions to reduce indoor air pollution. Even less is known about how behaviour change theory has been incorporated into indoor air pollution behaviour change interventions. A review of published studies spanning 1983-2013 suggests that behavioural change strategies have the potential to reduce indoor air pollution exposure by 20%-98% in laboratory settings and 31%-94% in field settings. However, the evidence is: (1) based on studies that are methodologically weak; and (2) have little or no underlying theory. The paper concludes with a call for more rigorous studies to evaluate the role of behavioural change strategies (with or without improved technologies) to reduce indoor air pollution exposure in developing countries as well as interventions that draw more strongly on existing behavioural change theory and practice. PMID:24776723

  12. Intrinsic Changes: Energy Saving Behaviour among Resident University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rosemary; Davidson, Penny; Retra, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that explored the effectiveness of three intervention strategies in facilitating energy saving behaviour among resident undergraduate university students. In contrast to a dominant practice of motivating with rewards or competition this study sought to appeal to students' intrinsic motivations. An…

  13. Extending the Functionality of Behavioural Change-Point Analysis with k-Means Clustering: A Case Study with the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zhang

    Full Text Available We present a simple framework for classifying mutually exclusive behavioural states within the geospatial lifelines of animals. This method involves use of three sequentially applied statistical procedures: (1 behavioural change point analysis to partition movement trajectories into discrete bouts of same-state behaviours, based on abrupt changes in the spatio-temporal autocorrelation structure of movement parameters; (2 hierarchical multivariate cluster analysis to determine the number of different behavioural states; and (3 k-means clustering to classify inferred bouts of same-state location observations into behavioural modes. We demonstrate application of the method by analysing synthetic trajectories of known 'artificial behaviours' comprised of different correlated random walks, as well as real foraging trajectories of little penguins (Eudyptula minor obtained by global-positioning-system telemetry. Our results show that the modelling procedure correctly classified 92.5% of all individual location observations in the synthetic trajectories, demonstrating reasonable ability to successfully discriminate behavioural modes. Most individual little penguins were found to exhibit three unique behavioural states (resting, commuting/active searching, area-restricted foraging, with variation in the timing and locations of observations apparently related to ambient light, bathymetry, and proximity to coastlines and river mouths. Addition of k-means clustering extends the utility of behavioural change point analysis, by providing a simple means through which the behaviours inferred for the location observations comprising individual movement trajectories can be objectively classified.

  14. Effect of psychological capital and resistance to change on organisational citizenship behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Loyd Beal III; Jacqueline M. Stavros; Matthew L. Cole

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: Research in positive organisational behaviour shows that positive psychological capital (PsyCap) is a construct that enables self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resilience to succeed in the workplace and that employee resistance to change is a key barrier to organisational change.Research purpose: This study examined the possible role of resistance to change as a moderator of the predictive relationship between PsyCap and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB), in which OCB ser...

  15. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    McCowan, Luke S.C.; Griffith, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We fo...

  16. Mate-guarding courtship behaviour: Tactics in a changing world

    OpenAIRE

    Elias, DO; Sivalinghem, S; Mason, AC; Andrade, MCB; Kasumovic, MM

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Mate guarding is one of the most common tactics in sperm competition. Males are expected to guard their mates when costs of guarding (accrued from physical confrontations with rivals and/or reduced foraging) are low relative to the benefits of ensuring mating opportunities and paternity. We investigated mate guarding in the jumping spider Phidippus clarus, a species where males defend immature subadult females against rival males and a...

  17. Changes in pilot control behaviour across Stewart platform motion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwenhuizen, F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Flight simulators provide an effective, efficient, and safe environment for practising flight-critical manoeuvres without requiring a real aircraft. Most simulators are equipped with a Stewart-type motion system, which consists of six linear actuators in a hexapod configuration. The argument for use of motion systems in simulators is derived from the presence of motion cues during flight. It is hypothesised that if pilots would train in a fixed-base simulator, they would adapt their behaviour...

  18. Changes in learning and foraging behaviour within developing bumble bee (Bombus terrestris colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J Evans

    Full Text Available Organisation in eusocial insect colonies emerges from the decisions and actions of its individual members. In turn, these decisions and actions are influenced by the individual's behaviour (or temperament. Although there is variation in the behaviour of individuals within a colony, we know surprisingly little about how (or indeed if the types of behaviour present in a colony change over time. Here, for the first time, we assessed potential changes in the behavioural type of foragers during colony development. Using an ecologically relevant foraging task, we measured the decision speed and learning ability of bumble bees (Bombus terrestris at different stages of colony development. We determined whether individuals that forage early in the colony life cycle (the queen and early emerging workers behaved differently from workers that emerge and forage at the end of colony development. Whilst we found no overall change in the foraging behaviour of workers with colony development, there were strong differences in foraging behaviour between queens and their workers. Queens appeared to forage more cautiously than their workers and were also quicker to learn. These behaviours could allow queens to maximise their nectar collecting efficiency whilst avoiding predation. Because the foundress queen is crucial to the survival and success of a bumble bee colony, more efficient foraging behaviour in queens may have strong adaptive value.

  19. Predictors of technical adoption and behavioural change to transport energy-saving measures in response to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy conservation can be achieved through the adoption of technical measures or the changing of one's behaviour. A survey of 201 Malaysian public personnel was conducted to examine the predictors of these two types of transport energy-saving measures in response to climate change. The results indicated that there were significant differences in the relative acceptability of both behavioural measures with respect to gender, level of education, income, knowledge of climate change and attitude. Gender, knowledge of causes of climate change and personal norm were predictors for the acceptability of technical measures, while perceived efficacy and personal norm were the factors that influenced the acceptability of behavioural measures. The results also indicated that distinctions ought to be made between technology adoption and behaviour modifications that require lifestyle changes when assessing pro-environmental intent behaviour. The implications for theory and practice are discussed. - Highlights: • A survey was conducted to examine acceptability of transport energy-saving measures. • Gender, knowledge of causes, efficacy and personal norm are predictors of technical measures. • Personal norm and perceived efficacy influenced acceptability of behavioural change. • Both measures are strongly correlated to psychological factors than to socio-demographic variables

  20. Book review: nudge, nudge, think, think: experimenting with ways to change civic behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    van der Linden, Sander

    2011-01-01

    Peter John’s latest book investigates how to get the best out of nudge, considering positive behaviour changes in recycling, volunteering, voting, and petitioning, and provides some unexpected insights about some interventions, finds Sander van der Linden.

  1. Fabric and clay activity in soil water retention behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jommi Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling the water retention behaviour requires proper understanding of all the processes which affect the amount of water stored in the pore network, depending on the soil state and the soil history. Traditionally, in many applications a single water content – suction curve is used. This approach limits the applicability of the retention data to practical cases, especially when fine grain soils are dealt with, when the deformability and activity of the clay fraction significantly affect the interaction with water. On the other side, water retention is being recognised more and more as a fundamental information in the description of the mechanical response of the soil, as it provides the key connection to the partial volumetric strains in a deformation process. With reference to the work performed at the Politecnico di Milano in the last years, a contribution on the understanding and modelling the coupled water retention- mechanical response in deformable soils is presented. The contribution aims to: (i summarise the mechanisms which contribute to water retention; (ii point out the role played by an evolving fabric and the fluid properties on water retention; and (iii provide an overview on some of the consequences of evolving water retention properties on the mechanical behaviour.

  2. Effect of housing system on behavioural activity of lactating buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Grasso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the effect of a pool on behaviour and milk yield, eighty-eight lactating buffalo cows equally allocated to two treatments were used. Group WP was provided with a concrete pool of 208 m2, 36 m2/ head + 10 m2 of outdoor and indoor space allowance, respectively, whereas group NP only received 10 m2. Less animals from group WP were observed idling (P<0.05 compared to buffaloes from group NP, whereas subjects provided with a pool were more often involved in investigative activities (locomotion and exploration than cows without access to it (P< 0.01. A higher number of social interactions (sniffing and nuzzling and allogrooming were observed in group WP than in group NP (P< 0.01 and P< 0.05, respectively. The WP buffalo cows exhibited a higher yield of milk than NP subject (P< 0.05, whereas no differences between the two groups were observed for protein and fat contents. The provision of a pool can have beneficial effects on behaviour and milk production of buffaloes.

  3. Building low carbon communities in China: The role of individual’s behaviour change and engagement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low carbon sustainability has been addressed in China’s national development strategies. This research explores individual behaviour change and engagement in building low carbon communities in China through a case study looking at the building of a low carbon campus at Fudan University, Shanghai. Individual behaviour directly influences the overall energy consumption and carbon emissions on Fudan University’s campus. Even though relevant polices have been issued for energy conservation, the energy consumption increased by 5% every year, which suggests that the “top-down” approach telling students and staff “what to do” does not work effectively. Based on a comprehensive method which includes the individual and social aspects related to the energy behaviour, the research analyses the promotion of individual engagement in building a low carbon campus through behaviour change based on four main aspects: (1) awareness raising and behaviour forming; (2) approaches to encourage behaviour change; (3) beyond the barriers and the constraints; and (4) systems and mechanisms for the long-term engagement. A low carbon management system is proposed for not only addressing management and technical solutions at the university level, but also based on the contributions from behaviour changes in establishing a low carbon campus at Fudan University at the individual level. - Highlights: • The “top-down” approach is not an effective way to building low carbon communities in China. • Individuals’ behaviour change and engagement play a key role in low carbon sustainability. • Awareness raising, proper approaches and sound mechanisms are necessary to encourage long-term behaviour changes. • An integrated management system is developed for comprehensibly establishing a low carbon campus at Fudan University

  4. Nudge, nudge, think, think: experimenting with ways to change civic behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    van der Linden, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Peter John‘s recent book investigates how to get the best out of nudge theories, considering positive behaviour changes in recycling, volunteering, voting, and petitioning, and provides some unexpected insights about some interventions, finds Sander van der Linden. Nudge, Nudge, Think, Think: Experimenting with Ways to Change Civic Behaviour. Peter John, Sarah Cotterill, Alice Moseley, Liz Richardson, Graham Smith, Gerry Stoker and Corinne Wales. Bloomsbury Academic Publishing. September ...

  5. Effect of temperature on volume change behaviour of statically compacted kaolin clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileme Ogechi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several soils are subjected to high temperature due to the environment where they are located or activities around them. For instance, upper layer of soils in tropical regions, soils around geothermal structures, clay barriers around nuclear waste repository systems. Numerous studies have pointed out that high temperature affects the hydro-mechanical properties of soils. Notwithstanding already existing studies, the influence of temperature on soils is still a challenge, as most of these studies are soil specific and cannot be inferred as the behaviour of all soils. This paper presents an experimental study on the influence of temperature on the volume change behaviour of statically compacted kaolin clay. Compacted samples were tested at varying temperatures using a suction controlled oedometer cell. The influence of temperature on the magnitude of volumetric strain occurring during mechanical and thermal loading was investigated. The study showed that an increase in temperature increased the magnitude of volumetric strain of the soil on loading. Additionally, the results presented in the light of LC curve showed that an increase in temperature resulted in the contraction and a change in the position of the LC curve.

  6. Behaviour change and social blinkers? The role of sociology in trials of self-management behaviour in chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Bie Nio; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne; Bower, Peter; Sanders, Tom; Morden, Andrew; Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh; Richardson, Jane C; Stevenson, Fiona

    2014-02-01

    Individual-focused self-management interventions are one response to both an ageing society and the purported increase in chronic conditions. They tend to draw on psychological theories in self-management interventions, but over-reliance on these theories can reinforce a narrow focus on specified attitudinal and behavioural processes, omitting aspects of living with a chronic condition. While advances have been made in health behaviour change theory and practice, scant attention has been paid to the social, with the question of social context remaining under-theorised and under-explored empirically. This is particularly noticeable in trials of behaviour change interventions for self-management. The common sociological critique is that these ignore context and thus no explanation can be given as to why, for whom and under what circumstances a treatment works. Conversely, sociologists are criticised for offering no positive suggestions as to how context can be taken into account and for over-emphasising context with the risk of inhibiting innovation. This article provides an overview of these issues and provides examples of how context can be incorporated into the rigid method of trials of self-management for chronic conditions. We discuss modifications to both trial interventions and design that make constructive use of the concept of context. PMID:24528304

  7. Behaviour change and social blinkers? The role of sociology in trials of self-management behaviour in chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Bie Nio; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne; Bower, Peter; Sanders, Tom; Morden, Andrew; Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh; Richardson, Jane C; Stevenson, Fiona

    2014-02-01

    Individual-focused self-management interventions are one response to both an ageing society and the purported increase in chronic conditions. They tend to draw on psychological theories in self-management interventions, but over-reliance on these theories can reinforce a narrow focus on specified attitudinal and behavioural processes, omitting aspects of living with a chronic condition. While advances have been made in health behaviour change theory and practice, scant attention has been paid to the social, with the question of social context remaining under-theorised and under-explored empirically. This is particularly noticeable in trials of behaviour change interventions for self-management. The common sociological critique is that these ignore context and thus no explanation can be given as to why, for whom and under what circumstances a treatment works. Conversely, sociologists are criticised for offering no positive suggestions as to how context can be taken into account and for over-emphasising context with the risk of inhibiting innovation. This article provides an overview of these issues and provides examples of how context can be incorporated into the rigid method of trials of self-management for chronic conditions. We discuss modifications to both trial interventions and design that make constructive use of the concept of context.

  8. Effect of psychological capital and resistance to change on organisational citizenship behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loyd Beal III

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Research in positive organisational behaviour shows that positive psychological capital (PsyCap is a construct that enables self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resilience to succeed in the workplace and that employee resistance to change is a key barrier to organisational change.Research purpose: This study examined the possible role of resistance to change as a moderator of the predictive relationship between PsyCap and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB, in which OCB served as an index for measuring positive organisational change.Motivation for the study: Little empirical research has investigated the application of positive organisational behaviour to government organisations undergoing organisational change. Organisations can use the study results to increase positive outcomes and reduce resistance in government organisations experiencing a holistic change intervention.Research design, approach and method: The data comprised a cross-sectional survey of 97 employees from a government organisation that provides life-cycle career management support. Employees completed the 24-item psychological capital questionnaire, the 16-item organisational citizenship behaviour scale and the 17-item resistance to change scale. Data analyses used a mixed methods approach to merge quantitative inferential statistics with qualitative thematic analysis.Main findings: The quantitative analysis yielded high levels of resistance to change that moderated the positive effect of PsyCap on organisational citizenship behaviour. The thematic analysis revealed that affective, behavioural and cognitive forms of resistance to change were prevalent.Practical/managerial implications: Organisational leaders should seek to reduce resistance and increase the resources that organisations need to effect positive organisational change.Contribution/value-add: This study adds to the growing body of knowledge about positive organisational behaviour in government

  9. Modification of Insect and Arachnid Behaviours by Vertically Transmitted Endosymbionts: Infections as Drivers of Behavioural Change and Evolutionary Novelty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Goodacre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertically acquired, endosymbiotic bacteria such as those belonging to the Rickettsiales and the Mollicutes are known to influence the biology of their arthropod hosts in order to favour their own transmission. In this study we investigate the influence of such reproductive parasites on the behavior of their insects and arachnid hosts. We find that changes in host behavior that are associated with endosymbiont infections are not restricted to characteristics that are directly associated with reproduction. Other behavioural traits, such as those involved in intraspecific competition or in dispersal may also be affected. Such behavioural shifts are expected to influence the level of intraspecific variation and the rate at which adaptation can occur through their effects on effective population size and gene flow amongst populations. Symbionts may thus influence both levels of polymorphism within species and the rate at which diversification can occur.

  10. Changes in illness perceptions mediated the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy in severe functional somatic syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sara Sletten; Frostholm, Lisbeth; Ørnbøl, Eva;

    2014-01-01

    . Methods We analysed additional data from a randomised controlled trial comparing completers of cognitive behavioural group therapy (46 patients) to an enhanced usual care group (66 patients). Proposed mediators (illness perceptions) and primary (physical health) and secondary (somatic symptoms and illness...... (primary analysis), and (2) whether changes in illness perceptions during the whole trial period were associated with improved outcome (secondary analysis). Results Improvements in illness perceptions during treatment partially mediated the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy on physical health one......Objective Although there is substantial evidence that cognitive behavioural therapy alleviates symptoms in functional somatic syndromes, the mechanisms of change are less investigated. This study examined whether changes in illness perceptions mediated the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy...

  11. The effect of need supportive text messages on motivation and physical activity behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnafick, Florence-Emilie; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Duda, Joan

    2016-08-01

    Few short messaging service (SMS) studies to support behaviour change have used a theoretical underpinning. Using a self-determination theory perspective, we explored the effects of need supportive (NS) SMS on physical activity in 65 (BMI = 24.06 kg/m(2), SD = 5.49; M = 25.76 years, SD = 10.23) insufficiently active individuals embarking on an existing exercise programme. For 10 weeks participants were randomised to an intervention group (NS) or control group (neutral). SMS were sent twice weekly, randomly, via an online SMS service. Mixed design ANCOVA and MANCOVA analyses of measures taken at baseline, mid and post intervention revealed increased levels of perceived autonomy support and psychological need satisfaction in the intervention group post intervention. Both groups reported increases in intrinsic motivation from pre to post intervention. Moderate intensity physical activity was greater in the intervention than the control group at 4-month post intervention with control group returning to baseline levels. Findings provide preliminary causal evidence to support the use of NS SMS to optimise physical activity behaviour change in individuals who are insufficiently active. PMID:26915963

  12. Strategies for Developing Positive Behaviour Management. Teacher Behaviour Outcomes and Attitudes to the Change Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ben; Hindle, Sarah; Withington, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an extended action research project run in a large secondary school over an 18-month period. The work was part of a wider strategy for change within the school. The data presented here describes some of the features of the change process and reflections on its impact. A key aim was to challenge and enable teachers to modify…

  13. Behavioural change in an urban smart-grid community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milovanovic, Marko; Steg, Emmalina; Spears, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Achieving long term behavioral change is a challenging task, especially when it comes to changing energy use habits. In our research we explore the social route to behavioral change, and examine how people influence each other in urban communities. We explore the conditions under which individuals a

  14. Behaviour Change Techniques embedded in health and lifestyle apps: coding and analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston Antezana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background There is evidence showing that commercially available health and lifestyle apps can be used as co-adjuvants to clinical interventions and for the prevention of chronic and non-communicable diseases. This can be particularly significant to support and improve wellbeing of young people given their familiarity with these resources. However it is important to understand the content and consistency of Behaviour Change Techniques (BCT’s embedded in the apps to maximise their potential benefits. Objectives This study explores the BCT content of a selected list of health and lifestyle tracking apps in three behavioural dimensions: physical activity, sleep and diet. We identified BCT commonalities within and between categories to detect the most frequently used and arguably more effective techniques in the context of wellbeing and promotion of health behaviours. Methods Apps were selected by using keywords and by reviewing the “health and fitness” category of GooglePlay (477 apps. The selection criteria included free apps (even if they also offered paid versions and being common to GooglePlay and AppStore. A background review of each app was also completed. Selected apps were classified according to user ratings in GooglePlay (apps with less that 4+ star ratings were disregarded. The top ten apps in each category were selected, making it a total of 30 for the analysis. Three coders used the apps for two months and were trained to use a comprehensive 93 items taxonomy (BCTv1 to complete the analysis. Results Strong BCT similarities were found across all three categories, suggesting a consistent basic content composition. Out of all 93 BCTS’s 8 were identified as being present in at least 50% of the apps. 6 of these BCT’s are concentrated in categories “1. Goals and Planning” and “2. Feedback and Monitoring”. BCT “Social support (unspecified” was coded for in 63% of the apps, as it was present through different features in

  15. Behavioural Climate Change Mitigation Options and Their Appropriate Inclusion in Quantitative Longer Term Policy Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Schroten, A.; Bles, M.; Sevenster, M.; Markowska, A.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Rohde, C.; Duetschke, E.; Koehler, J.; Gigli, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Zimmermann, K.; Soboh, R.; Van ' t Riet, J. [Landbouw Economisch Instituut LEI, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Changes in consumer behaviour can lead to major reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union, particularly in the areas of transport, housing and food. Behavioural changes can complement technological changes and can allow emission reduction targets to be achieved more cost-effectively overall. The study identifies 36 options for behavioural change that would cut greenhouse gas emissions. Of these, 11 particularly relevant options have been studied in detail. They include shifting to a more healthy and balanced diet, eating less meat and dairy products, buying and using a smaller car or an electric car, teleworking, adjusting room temperature and optimising ventilation. For each of the behavioural changes studied in depth, emission reduction potentials have been quantified for 2020, 2030 and 2050. The study identifies barriers to implementing the changes, and quantifies the likely effects of policy packages which could overcome these barriers. The results show that the behavioural changes that could take place simultaneously have the potential to save emissions totalling up to about 600 million tonnes of CO2-equivalent a year in 2020. This is about one-quarter of the projected annual emissions from sectors not covered by the EU emissions trading system. The savings potential is particularly high in the area of food.

  16. A simulated avalanche search and rescue mission induces temporary physiological and behavioural changes in military dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverio, Silvana; Barbato, Olimpia; Cavallina, Roberta; Guelfi, Gabriella; Iaboni, Martina; Zasso, Renato; Di Mari, Walter; Santoro, Michele Matteo; Knowles, Toby G

    2016-09-01

    Saving human lives is of paramount importance in avalanche rescue missions. Avalanche military dogs represent an invaluable resource in these operations. However, their performance can be influenced by several environmental, social and transport challenges. If too severe, these are likely to activate a range of responses to stress, which might put at risk the dogs' welfare. The aim of this study was to assess the physiological and behavioural responses of a group of military dogs to a Simulated Avalanche Search and Rescue mission (SASR). Seventeen avalanche dogs from the Italian Military Force Guardia di Finanza (SAGF dogs) were monitored during a simulated search for a buried operator in an artificial avalanche area (SASR). Heart rate (HR), body temperature (RBT) and blood samples were collected at rest the day before the trial (T0), immediately after helicopter transport at the onset of the SASR (T1), after the discovery of the buried operator (T2) and 2h later (T3). Heart rate (HR), rectal body temperature (RBT), cortisol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured. During the search mission the behaviour of each SAGF dog was measured by focal animal sampling and qualitatively assessed by its handler and two observers. Inter-rater agreement was evaluated. Snow and environmental variables were also measured. All dogs successfully completed their search for the buried, simulated victim within 10min. The SASR was shown to exert significant increases on RBT, NEFA and cortisol (Ptransport, disembarking, and the search and rescue exercise. However, changes were moderate and limited over time, progressively decreasing with complete recovery at T3 except for sera cortisol that showed a slightly slower decline. More time walking within the search was related to lower RBT, conversely to walking. Standing still with head up and exploring with head-up were inversely related with HR

  17. A simulated avalanche search and rescue mission induces temporary physiological and behavioural changes in military dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverio, Silvana; Barbato, Olimpia; Cavallina, Roberta; Guelfi, Gabriella; Iaboni, Martina; Zasso, Renato; Di Mari, Walter; Santoro, Michele Matteo; Knowles, Toby G

    2016-09-01

    Saving human lives is of paramount importance in avalanche rescue missions. Avalanche military dogs represent an invaluable resource in these operations. However, their performance can be influenced by several environmental, social and transport challenges. If too severe, these are likely to activate a range of responses to stress, which might put at risk the dogs' welfare. The aim of this study was to assess the physiological and behavioural responses of a group of military dogs to a Simulated Avalanche Search and Rescue mission (SASR). Seventeen avalanche dogs from the Italian Military Force Guardia di Finanza (SAGF dogs) were monitored during a simulated search for a buried operator in an artificial avalanche area (SASR). Heart rate (HR), body temperature (RBT) and blood samples were collected at rest the day before the trial (T0), immediately after helicopter transport at the onset of the SASR (T1), after the discovery of the buried operator (T2) and 2h later (T3). Heart rate (HR), rectal body temperature (RBT), cortisol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured. During the search mission the behaviour of each SAGF dog was measured by focal animal sampling and qualitatively assessed by its handler and two observers. Inter-rater agreement was evaluated. Snow and environmental variables were also measured. All dogs successfully completed their search for the buried, simulated victim within 10min. The SASR was shown to exert significant increases on RBT, NEFA and cortisol (Pstress probably induced by the addition of factors such as helicopter transport, disembarking, and the search and rescue exercise. However, changes were moderate and limited over time, progressively decreasing with complete recovery at T3 except for sera cortisol that showed a slightly slower decline. More time walking within the search was related to lower RBT, conversely to walking. Standing still

  18. Drivers of sustained hygiene behaviour change: A case study from mid-western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Celia; Robinson, Priscilla

    2016-08-01

    Behaviour change is central to the prevention of many population health problems, yet it is typically difficult to initiate and sustain. This paper reports on an evaluation of a water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) intervention in mid-western Nepal, with particular focus on the drivers and barriers for handwashing with soap/ash and elimination of open defecation. The research was conducted during October-November 2014, two and half years following the intervention's end-point. Qualitative data were collected from the target community (n = 112) via group discussions, interviews and drawings/stories of 'most significant change'. Households' handwashing/water facilities and toilets were observed. Analysis was informed by a model that highlights environmental, psychosocial and technological factors that shape hygiene behaviours across multiple levels, from the habitual to the structural (Dreibelbis et al. 2013). Findings indicate the intervention has supported development of new norms around hygiene behaviours. Key drivers of sustained hygiene behaviour were habit formation, emotional drivers (e.g. disgust, affiliation), and collective action and civic pride; key constraints included water scarcity and socio-economic disadvantage. Identifying and responding to the drivers and constraints of hygiene behaviour change in specific contexts is critical to sustained behaviour change and population health impact. PMID:27391250

  19. Co-Occurrence of Language and Behavioural Change in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Harris

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the co-occurrence of language and behavioural impairment in patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD spectrum pathology. Methods: Eighty-one dementia patients with pathological confirmation of FTLD were identified. Anonymized clinical records from patients' first assessment were rated for language and behavioural features from frontotemporal dementia consensus criteria, primary progressive aphasia (PPA criteria and 1998 FTLD criteria. Results: Over 90% of patients with FTLD pathology exhibited a combination of at least one behavioural and one language feature. Changes in language, in particular, were commonly accompanied by behavioural change. Notably, the majority of patients who displayed language features characteristic of semantic variant PPA exhibited ‘early perseverative, stereotyped or compulsive/ritualistic behaviour'. Moreover, ‘executive/generation deficits with relative sparing of memory and visuospatial functions' occurred in most patients with core features of non-fluent variant PPA. Conclusion: Behavioural and language symptoms frequently co-occur in patients with FTLD pathology. Current classifications, which separate behavioural and language syndromes, do not reflect this co-occurrence.

  20. Initiating and continuing behaviour change within a weight gain prevention trial: a qualitative investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Kozica

    Full Text Available Preventing obesity is an international health priority. In Australia, young women who live in rural communities are at high risk of unhealthy weight gain. Interventions which engage young women and support sustainable behaviour change are needed and comprehensive evaluation of such interventions generates knowledge for population scale-up. This qualitative sub-study aims to identify enablers and barriers to behaviour change initiation and continuation within a community weight gain prevention program.In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants 6 months after baseline. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed independently by two investigators via thematic analysis.A total of 28 women with a mean age of 39.9±6.2years and a BMI of 28.6±5.2kg/m2 were purposively recruited from the larger cohort (n = 649 that participated in the prevention trial.Four behaviour change groups emerged were identified from participant interviews: (i no change, (ii relapse, (iii intermittent and (iv continued change. Factors influencing behaviour change initiation and continuation included realistic program expectations and the participant's ability to apply the core program elements including: setting small, achievable behaviour change goals, problem solving and using self-management techniques. Personal knowledge, skills, motivation, self-efficacy, accountability and perceived social and environmental barriers also affected behaviour change. Satisfaction with personal program progress and the perceived amount of program supports required to achieve ongoing behaviour change varied amongst participants. Women who relapsed expressed a desire for more intensive and regular support from health professionals, identified more barriers unrelated to the program, anticipated significant weight loss and had lower satisfaction with their progress.Initiating and continuing behaviour change is a complex

  1. The Influence of Semi-active Dampers on the Vibration Behaviour of Passenger Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sebastian; Brechter, Daniel; Janßen, Andreas; Mauch, Heiko

    The number of mechatronic components in modern car suspensions is increasing continuously to solve conflicts concerning design goals. Thus, changes in the vibration behaviour of the vehicle are caused. It needs to be ascertained whether this influence has to be taken into account when determining the fatigue life of a car and its components. Therefore, changes of the loads are studied in measurements and multi-body simulations of a passenger car with semi-active dampers. The evaluation of the forces at the wheel centre and at the shock absorber tower shows that different settings of semi-active dampers have an influence on fatigue life of the chassis and the car body. It is concluded that these effects need to be taken into account when determining fatigue life. Furthermore, multi-body simulations have been successfully applied to study the influence of semi-active dampers on the loads.

  2. Quantifying Behaviour Change in reducing environmental impact within large organisations - 3 case studies from the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F.G. Smith

    2015-10-01

    over 50% have been achieved. In total, these programmes have saved the organisations substantial amounts of money and avoided CO2 emissions. Analysis has shown that the three universities are currently benefitting by over £320,000 / year and 1,300 tonnes of avoided CO2, as behavioural-led changes have already reduced demand by between 5% and 8%. Figure 1 shows the savings made by one university, and demonstrates a 99kW reduction in electricity demand that has been created through staff behaviour change. CONCLUSIONS Effecting behaviour change within large organisations has always been difficult owing to the large numbers of people involved, the slow speed of feedback and the difficulty in quantifying results. This work shows that well-designed IT systems are a key enabler in overcoming all of these challenges. IT has permitted and facilitated the following: Community building, awareness raising, quantification of savings, feedback on actions, competitive activity and rapid reporting. The results from these programmes have helped three universities to cut their electricity consumption by between 5% and 8%, with potential for greater future cuts. Collectively, as a result of this mechanism, the three universities are reducing their environmental impact by over 1,300 tonnes of CO2 per year. The implications for other areas of behaviour change are significant. Potentially the lessons learned in these IT-enabled environmental impact reduction initiatives can be translated into other fields (eg: other health, organisational change, etc.

  3. Public attitudes to climate change and carbon mitigation—Implications for energy-associated behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work explores public opinions regarding climate change and mitigation options and examines how psychological factors, such as attitudes, norms, and willingness to pay, determine self-reported energy-efficient behaviour. The aim is to create knowledge for the design and implementation of policy measures. The results of an opinion poll conducted in 2005 and 2010 are compared. The number of respondents favouring new technologies as a way to reduce emissions was substantially lower in 2010 than in 2005, whereas there was an increase in the number of people who acknowledged that lifestyle changes are necessary to counteract climate changes. This indicates an increased awareness among the public of the need for lifestyle changes, which could facilitate implementation of policies promoting environmental behaviour. Renewable energy and energy saving measures were ranked as the top two measures for mitigating climate change in both polls. In determining which energy behaviours of the public are determined by psychological factors, an analysis of the 2010 survey revealed that respondents with pro-environmental attitudes towards global warming favour significantly increased use of renewable energy technologies and greater engagement in energy-efficient behaviours. - Highlights: ► Public opinion place priority to environmental issues and beliefs to change current lifestyle. ► A decline in favoring new technologies as a way to reduce emissions in 2010 compare to 2005 poll. ► Environmental attitudes relate to favor of renewable energy technologies. ► Environmental attitudes relate to households energy efficient behaviour

  4. Impaired affective and cognitive theory of mind and behavioural change in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    van der Hulst, Egberdina-Józefa; Bak, Thomas H.; Abrahams, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Executive and behavioural changes are well-recognised in classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), indicating a subclinical behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) in some patients. Social cognitive deficits in ALS have been recently described and an impairment was identified on a simple Theory of Mind (ToM) test, which assesses the judgement of the preference of another through direction of eye gaze. The present study further delineated this deficit, by distingui...

  5. Quantifying Behaviour Change in reducing environmental impact within large organisations - 3 case studies from the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew F.G. Smith

    2015-01-01

    In the field of environmental impact reduction, Behaviour Change has not traditionally been regarded as an easy route to achieving substantial results. Arguably this is driven by perceptions that it is (i) difficult to influence large numbers of people, and (ii) difficult to quantify the potentially nebulous results generated. This paper proposes that by use of innovative and engaging IT systems and good programme design, both of these challenges can be addressed. By so doing, Behaviour C...

  6. Behaviour change techniques in home-based cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Heron, Neil; Kee, Frank; Donnelly, Michael; Cardwell, Christopher; Tully, Mark A; Cupples, Margaret E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programmes offering secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease (CVD) advise healthy lifestyle behaviours, with the behaviour change techniques (BCTs) of goals and planning, feedback and monitoring, and social support recommended. More information is needed about BCT use in home-based CR to support these programmes in practice.AIM: To identify and describe the use of BCTs in home-based CR programmes.DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomised controlled trials o...

  7. Do increases in physical activity encourage positive beliefs about further change in the ProActive cohort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardeman, Wendy; Michie, Susan; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Sutton, Stephen

    2011-07-01

    Effects of behaviour change on cognitions are rarely examined within the Theory of Planned Behaviour. We tested whether increases in physical activity resulted in more positive beliefs about further change among a cohort of sedentary adults participating in a behavioural intervention trial (ProActive). At baseline, 6 and 12 months, 365 adults completed questionnaires assessing physical activity and cognitions about becoming more active over the coming year. Objective activity was assessed at baseline and 12 months. Participants reporting larger increases in activity were no more positive about making further increases than those reporting less behaviour change (p-values>0.05). Participants with larger increases in objective activity reported weaker perceived control (β=-0.342; p=0.001) and more negative instrumental attitudes (β=-0.230; p=0.017) at 12 months. Participants may have felt that they had changed enough or measures of perceived success may be more sensitive to behaviour change. Alternatively, long measurement intervals may have missed immediate cognitive and affective consequences of behaviour change, or such effects may require participants to consistently self-monitor or receive feedback on performance. Future studies could test the effect of such techniques on physical activity and a wider range of cognitive, affective and physiological consequences, using more frequent measurement intervals. PMID:21500102

  8. Thermal Mass Behaviour of Concrete Panels Incorporating Phase Change Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Niall, Dervilla; West, Roger; MCCORMACK, SARAH; Kinnane, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCM) have been incorporated into a range of building envelope materials with varied success. This study investigates two different methods of combining concrete and phase change materials to form PCM/concrete composite panels. The first method involves adding microencapsulated paraffin to fresh concrete during the mixing process. The second method involves vacuum impregnating butyl stearate into lightweight aggregate which is then included in the concrete mix design. T...

  9. A Widening Gap? Changes in Multiple Lifestyle Risk Behaviours by Socioeconomic Status in New South Wales, Australia, 2002-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Ding

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic inequalities in health outcomes have increased over the past few decades in some countries. However, the trends in inequalities related to multiple health risk behaviours have been infrequently reported. In this study, we examined the trends in individual health risk behaviours and a summary lifestyle risk index in New South Wales, Australia, and whether the absolute and relative inequalities in risk behaviours by socioeconomic positions have changed over time.Using data from the annual New South Wales Adult Population Health Survey during the period of 2002-2012, we examined four individual risk behaviours (smoking, higher than recommended alcohol consumption, insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, and insufficient physical activity and a combined lifestyle risk indicator. Socioeconomic inequalities were assessed based on educational attainment and postal area-level index of relative socio-economic disadvantage (IRSD, and were presented as prevalence difference for absolute inequalities and prevalence ratio for relative inequalities. Trend tests and survey logistic regression models examined whether the degree of absolute and relative inequalities between the most and least disadvantaged subgroups have changed over time.The prevalence of all individual risk behaviours and the summary lifestyle risk indicator declined from 2002 to 2012. Particularly, the prevalence of physical inactivity and smoking decreased from 52.6% and 22% in 2002 to 43.8% and 17.1% in 2012 (p for trend<0.001. However, a significant trend was observed for increasing absolute and relative inequalities in smoking, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and the summary lifestyle risk indicator.The overall improvement in health behaviours in New South Wales, Australia, co-occurred with a widening socioeconomic gap.Governments should address health inequalities through risk factor surveillance and combined strategies of population-wide and targeted

  10. Research priorities for child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillis, Lauren; Tomkinson, Grant; Olds, Timothy;

    2013-01-01

    The quantity and quality of studies in child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour have rapidly increased, but research directions are often pursued in a reactive and uncoordinated manner.......The quantity and quality of studies in child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour have rapidly increased, but research directions are often pursued in a reactive and uncoordinated manner....

  11. Brief Report: The Theory of Planned Behaviour Applied to Physical Activity in Young People Who Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Emma S.; Daley, Amanda J.; Ussher, Michael

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that physical activity may be useful as a smoking cessation intervention for young adults. In order to inform such interventions, this study evaluated the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) for understanding physical activity behaviour in young smokers. Regular smokers aged 16-19 years (N=124), self-reported physical…

  12. Estimation of leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour among school adolescents in Nepal.

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Susan; Subedi, Narayan; Bhandari, Ramjee; Bastola, Ramesh; Niroula, Rakshya; Poudyal, Amod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Leisure-time physical activity is essential for healthy and physically active life; however, this domain of physical activity is less common in developing countries. Information on leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour among Nepalese population is not available. The study was carried out to assess leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour among high school adolescents and identify the associated factors in Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional d...

  13. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke S.C. McCowan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual’s future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival.

  14. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Luke S C; Griffith, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual's entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual's future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

  15. Cost utility of behavioural activation delivered by the non-specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekers, David; Godfrey, Christine; Gilbody, Simon; Parrott, Steve; Richards, David A; Hammond, Danielle; Hayes, Adele

    2011-12-01

    Behavioural activation by non-specialists appears effective in the treatment of depression. We examined incremental cost-effectiveness of behavioural activation (n = 24) v. treatment as usual (n = 23) in a randomised controlled trial. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated a quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) difference in favour of behavioural activation of 0.20 (95% CI 0.01-0.39, P = 0.042), incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £5756 per QALY and a 97% probability that behavioural activation is more cost-effective at a threshold value of £20,000. Results are promising for dissemination of behavioural activation but require replication in a larger study.

  16. Changes in physiological stress and behaviour in semi-free-ranging red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) following antiparasitic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friant, Sagan; Ziegler, Toni E; Goldberg, Tony L

    2016-07-27

    Parasites are ubiquitous in wildlife populations, but physiological and behavioural responses of hosts to infection are difficult to measure. We experimentally treated semi-free-ranging red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) in Nigeria with antiparasitic drugs and examined subsequent changes in glucocorticoid production and individual behaviour. Because both parasites and stress impact energy balance and health, we measured (i) behavioural time re-allocation via activity budgets, (ii) social relationships (e.g. social connectivity and dominance hierarchy stability) and (iii) body condition. We collected triplicate faecal samples (n = 441) from 49 individuals prior to and following treatment. Cortisol levels fluctuated in parallel with parasite abundance. Elevations in cortisol, but not parasitism, were related to reduced body condition. Behaviour also shifted according to infection status, with uninfected individuals spending more time foraging and less time resting and vigilant compared with when they were infected. Time spent feeding, travelling or socializing did not differ between pre- and post-treatment time periods. Group cohesion, but not dominance stability, changed following treatment, suggesting parasite-induced social avoidance. Together, these findings show a coordinated response to infection that promotes host tolerance through stress and energy conservation, reduces transmission risk and increases protection when infected hosts are vulnerable. PMID:27466454

  17. Role of etology in detecting environmental pollutants that affect changes in animal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of chemical pollutants originating from industrial agricultural and urban through the direct or indirect disruption of endocrine gland and hormone function. That is why these pollutants are known as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC. By disrupting endocrine function, the EDC change certain forms of animal behaviour. This is why a direct link can be established between etology, as a scientific discipline that studied the role, function, ontogenetic and evolutionary development of behaviour from the aspect of the animal's adaption to living conditions, and ecotoxicology. In this mutual connection, the role of etology is to identify changes in animal behaviour which will serve as the first bioindicator of the presence of EDC in a certain environment, and before the occurrence of organic changes that could have lethal consequences.

  18. Soil transmitted helminthiases: implications of climate change and human behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil transmitted helminthiases (STH) collectively cause the highest global burden of parasitic disease after malaria and are most prevalent in the poorest communities, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Climate change is predicted to alter the physical environment through cumulative impacts of warmin...

  19. Synchronous behaviour of cetaceans observed with active acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godø, Olav Rune; Sivle, Lise Doksæter; Patel, Ruben; Torkelsen, Terje

    2013-12-01

    Scientific split-beam echosounders are sensitive instruments for observing biomass densities and individual behaviour. Earlier studies have demonstrated that these instruments can be used to study diving behaviour of cetaceans. In this paper, we go into more detail about the recorded signal to see if and how acoustic split-beam data can be used to extract information about synchronous behaviour and other species related characteristics. Data of several cetacean individuals were collected by a moored echosounder pinging upwards from about 900 m in the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone. In this paper, we discuss methodological issues associated with using split-beam tracking of large marine animals. Further we demonstrate that target tracking of cetaceans can be used to study solo dives as well as behavioural synchrony. We also show that paired signals can easily be interpreted as false synchrony due to the size of the animals. In such cases a rough estimate of the diameter, and hence size, of the animals can be estimated. We emphasise on four examples that clarify methodological challenges including synchronous swimmers as well as large single cetaceans that might be interpreted as two synchronous swimmers. The applied technology requires that the animals remain in a narrow acoustic beam for long enough time to extract behavioural information. The technology can be improved by developing automatic tracking of cetaceans with a steerable transducer. This will substantially increase the search volume and enable tracking of cetaceans over longer periods and thus, produce more realistic information about the whale behaviour.

  20. Mechanical behaviour of alkali-activated blast furnace slag-activated metakaolin blended pastes. Statistical study

    OpenAIRE

    Higuera, I.; Varga, C.; Palomo, J. G.; Gil-Maroto, A.; Vázquez, T.; Puertas, F.

    2012-01-01

    The study and development of alternative, more ecoefficient binders than portland cement are attracting a good deal of scientific and technological interest. Binders obtained from the chemical interaction between calcium silico-aluminous materials and highly alkaline solutions are one of several types of such possible cements. The present paper discusses the mechanical behaviour and mineralogical composition of blended pastes made from NaOH-activated vitreous blast furnace slag and metakaolin...

  1. Digital Behaviour Change Interventions for Osteoarthritis - A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Berry

    2015-10-01

    •\tTo examine how uptake and usage of digital interventions has been reported Methods: A pre-defined search was carried out using databases including: AMED, CINAHL Plus, Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, Psycinfo, Pubmed, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science. Articles were included if: they reported PA data; included people with OA; and if the intervention was accessed via a digital platform. Results: The database searches generated 2132 published papers. After applying selection criteria, eight studies were included in the final review. 5 out of the 8 included studies showed a statistically significant increase in self-reported levels of PA for up to 12 months. A number of outcome measures were used but were predominantly self-reported. BCTs used included: goal setting, action planning, problem solving, feedback, shaping knowledge, self-talk, and self-monitoring. Most studies (n=6 were based on social cognitive theory. A variety of methods were employed to report uptake and usage of digital interventions, making it difficult for comparisons to be made. Discussion and Conclusions: There is limited evidence supporting the effectiveness of internet based interventions to increase PA in OA. Most studies rely on self-report to determine change in levels of PA; objective measurement may be beneficial. Interventions were generally based on Social Cognitive Theory; other constructs may increase effectiveness. Clearer reporting of BCTs and intervention usage is needed.

  2. Providing education on evidence-based practice improved knowledge but did not change behaviour: a before and after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovarini Meryl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many health professionals lack the skills to find and appraise published research. This lack of skills and associated knowledge needs to be addressed, and practice habits need to change, for evidence-based practice to occur. The aim of this before and after study was to evaluate the effect of a multifaceted intervention on the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviour of allied health professionals. Methods 114 self-selected occupational therapists were recruited. The intervention included a 2-day workshop combined with outreach support for eight months. Support involved email and telephone contact and a workplace visit. Measures were collected at baseline, post-workshop, and eight months later. The primary outcome was knowledge, measured using the Adapted Fresno Test of Evidence-Based Practice (total score 0 to 156. Secondary outcomes were attitude to evidence-based practice (% reporting improved skills and confidence; % reporting barriers, and behaviour measured using an activity diary (% engaging/not engaging in search and appraisal activities, and assignment completion. Results Post-workshop, there were significant gains in knowledge which were maintained at follow-up. The mean difference in the Adapted Fresno Test total score was 20.6 points (95% CI, 15.6 to 25.5. The change from post-workshop to follow-up was small and non-significant (mean difference 1.2 points, 95% CI, -6.0 to 8.5. Fewer participants reported lack of searching and appraisal skills as barriers to evidence-based practice over time (searching = 61%, 53%, 24%; appraisal 60%, 65%, 41%. These differences were statistically significant (p = 0.0001 and 0.010 respectively. Behaviour changed little. Pre-workshop, 6% engaged in critical appraisal increasing to 18% post-workshop and 18% at follow-up. Nearly two thirds (60% were not reading any research literature at follow-up. Twenty-three participants (20.2% completed their assignment. Conclusion Evidence

  3. MRI and MRS alterations in the preclinical phase of murine prion disease: association with neuropathological and behavioural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Kerry A; Anthony, Daniel C; Lowe, John P; Griffin, Julian L; Scott, Helen; Blamire, Andrew M; Styles, Peter; Perry, V Hugh; Sibson, Nicola R

    2007-06-01

    Prion diseases are fatal chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Previous qualitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) studies report conflicting results in the symptomatic stages of the disease, but little work has been carried out during the earlier stages of the disease. Here we have used the murine ME7 model of prion disease to quantitatively investigate MRI and MRS changes during the period prior to the onset of overt clinical signs (20+ weeks) and have correlated these with pathological and behavioural abnormalities. Using in vivo MRI, at the later stages of the preclinical period (18 weeks) the diffusion of tissue water was significantly reduced, coinciding with significant microglial activation and behavioural hyperactivity. Using in vivo MRS, we found early (12 weeks) decreases in the ratio of N-acetyl aspartate to both choline (NAA/Cho) and creatine (NAA/Cr) in the thalamus and hippocampus, which were associated with early behavioural deficits. Ex vivo MRS of brain extracts confirmed and extended these findings, showing early (8-12 weeks) decreases in both the neuronal metabolites NAA and glutamate, and the metabolic metabolites lactate and glucose. Increases in the glial metabolite myo-inositol were observed at later stages when microglial and astrocyte activation is substantial. These changes in MRI and MRS signals, which precede overt clinical signs of disease, could provide insights into the pathogenesis of this disease and may enable early detection of pathology. PMID:17490889

  4. Monitoring progress of the role of integration of environmental health education with water and sanitation services in changing community behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, Ammal M; Saad, Amal; Ibrahim, Nihad A; Emam, Hanaa M; El-Etreby, Lobna A

    2007-02-01

    The health benefits of clean water, improved sanitation and better hygiene are now more recognized than ever before. The objective of the present study focused on monitoring the progress of behavioural changes towards appropriate behaviours related to water, environment and sanitation (WES). This was achieved through assessing the baseline community behaviours towards WES, exploring to what extent community hygienic behaviours had changed towards desirable and sustainable behaviours, through monitoring progress. The expected behavioural changes are results of an integrated package; safe water supply, sanitation, and hygiene education interventions produced by governmental and non-governmental organizations. The monitoring progress consisted of three household surveys that were administered over three years in four Egyptian districts within three Governorates; Fayoum, Beni Suef, and El-Menia. Behavioural changes were detected through special observation checklist indicators. These indicators were 7, 6, and 9 indicators each for personal hygienic behaviours, proper handling of drinking water, and proper use and maintenance of simple constructed sanitary latrines. The results from the baseline to mid-term and final surveys suggested improvement in the majority of the household behaviours towards the desirable behaviours. The proportions of the householders who practiced desirable behaviours were not to the same levels in the four districts. The results provide support to the concept that integrated interventions can produce a significant sustainable improvement in health promotion. PMID:17365081

  5. Optogenetically enhanced pituitary corticotroph cell activity post-stress onset causes rapid organizing effects on behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Thiemann, Theresa; Groneberg, Antonia H.; Herget, Ulrich; Ryu, Soojin

    2016-01-01

    The anterior pituitary is the major link between nervous and hormonal systems, which allow the brain to generate adequate and flexible behaviour. Here, we address its role in mediating behavioural adjustments that aid in coping with acutely threatening environments. For this we combine optogenetic manipulation of pituitary corticotroph cells in larval zebrafish with newly developed assays for measuring goal-directed actions in very short timescales. Our results reveal modulatory actions of corticotroph cell activity on locomotion, avoidance behaviours and stimulus responsiveness directly after the onset of stress. Altogether, the findings uncover the significance of endocrine pituitary cells for rapidly optimizing behaviour in local antagonistic environments. PMID:27646867

  6. Simultaneous Changes in Sleep, qEEG, Physiology, Behaviour and Neurochemistry in Rats Exposed to Repeated Social Defeat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnaou, A; Drinkenburg, W H I M

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by alterations at psychological, behavioural, physiological, neurophysiological, and neurochemical levels. Social stress is a prevalent stress in man, and the repeated social defeat stress model in rats has been proposed as being the rodent equivalent to loss of control, which in subordinate animals produces alterations that resemble several of the cardinal symptoms found in depressed patients. Here, rats followed a resident-intruder protocol for 4 consecutive days during which behavioural, physiological, and electroencephalographic (EEG) parameters were simultaneously monitored in subordinate rats. On day 5, prefrontal dopamine (DA) and hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) as well as corticosterone were measured in submissive rats that had visual, acoustic, and olfactory (but no physical) contact with a dominant, resident conspecific rat. Socially defeated rats demonstrated increases in ultrasonic vocalizations (20-25 KHz), freezing, submissive defensive behaviour, inactivity, and haemodynamic response, while decreases were found in repetitive grooming behaviour and body weight. Additionally, alterations in the sleep-wake architecture were associated with reduced active waking, enhanced light sleep, and increased frequency of transitions from light sleep to quiet wakefulness, indicating sleep instability. Moreover, the attenuation of EEG power over the frequency range of 4.2-30 Hz, associated with a sharp transient increase in delta oscillations, appeared to reflect increased brain activity and metabolism in subordinate animals. These EEG changes were synchronous with a marked increase in body temperature and a decrease in locomotor activity. Furthermore, psychosocial stress consistently increased 5-HT, DA, and corticosterone levels. The increased levels of cortical DA and hippocampal 5-HT during social threat may reflect a coping mechanism to promote alertness and psychological adaptation to provocative and threatening

  7. Behavioural Changes of Students By Peer Pressure in the Higher Educational Institution in context to Popularity in North East, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Chakravarty

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Human behaviour, the potential and expressed capacity for physical, mental, and social activity during the phases of human life. Change in human behaviour is the only static trait characterised by physical, mental and physiological features. It occurs in different phases of life from play age to old age. The outcome of these changes is due to education, advising, commanding, and appealing to values and peer pressure. Out of all the possible mentioned factors peer pressure is one of the most important, especially in regard to students in higher education. Peer pressure means pressure from one's peers to behave in a manner similar or acceptable to them. Peer group encourages positive as well as negative vibes. This study is an attempt to understand the impacts of peer pressure that lead to behavioural changes in the students of Higher Educational Institutions, in an effort to face the lure of popularity. It is based on data collected through questionnaires, telephonic interview and observation method conducted across different colleges of Dharmanagar, Routa, Dibrugarh, Jorhat, Shillong, Agartala, Kolkata, Siliguri and Guwahati city. The study further attempts to put forward suggestions towards managing peer pressure and the role of teachers and parents in this regard.

  8. Intervention Fidelity for a Complex Behaviour Change Intervention in Community Pharmacy Addressing Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, K. P.; O'Reilly, S. L.; George, J.; Peterson, G. M.; Jackson, S. L.; Duncan, G.; Howarth, H.; Dunbar, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delivery of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs by community pharmacists appears effective and enhances health service access. However, their capacity to implement complex behavioural change processes during patient counselling remains largely unexplored. This study aims to determine intervention fidelity by pharmacists…

  9. A match-mismatch test of a stage model of behaviour change in tobacco smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A; Conijn, B; De Vries, H

    2006-01-01

    Aims An innovation offered by stage models of behaviour change is that of stage-matched interventions. Match-mismatch studies are the primary test of this idea but also the primary test of the validity of stage models. This study aimed at conducting such a test among tobacco smokers using the Social

  10. An Investigation on Changing Behaviours of University Students Switching from Using Classical Cell Phones to Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was tried to comprehend whether there occur any changes in behaviours of university students switching from classical cell phones to smartphones. The investigation was carried out according to quantitative research method. Questionnaire was employed as data collection tool. The datum of the study was limited with the information…

  11. Choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Laurits Rohden; Lourenco, Sofia; Laub Hansen, Gitte;

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The primary objective of this review was to investigate the current evidence-base for the use of choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service eating settings, hence potentially reduce calorie intake. 12 databases were searched systematically for experimental ...

  12. Onset of impaired sleep as a predictor of change in health-related behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Salo, Paula; Lange, Theis;

    2015-01-01

    predicted initiating high-risk alcohol consumption (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.00-1.37). Onset of disturbed sleep was associated with changes in all assessed health-related behaviours: initiation of high-risk alcohol consumption (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.05-1.45), quitting smoking (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.......63-1.00), becoming physically inactive (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.06-1.30) and becoming overweight or obese (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.01-1.23). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that the onset of short or disturbed sleep are risk factors for adverse changes in health-related behaviours. These findings highlight potential......BACKGROUND: Changes in health-related behaviour may be a key mechanism linking impaired sleep to poor health, but evidence on this is limited. In this study, we analysed observational data to determine whether onset of impaired sleep is followed by changes in health-related behaviours. METHODS: We...

  13. Changing the Environmental Behaviour of Small Business Owners: The Business Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Beth; Redmond, Janice

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the environment is something of a cracked record to many small business owners, as historically any calls to business to change or improve their practices or behaviours were from the "environmental" or "green" perspective, rather than from a business perspective. As a consequence, many small businesses have…

  14. Successful malaria elimination strategies require interventions that target changing vector behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Tanya L

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ultimate long-term goal of malaria eradication was recently placed back onto the global health agenda. When planning for this goal, it is important to remember why the original Global Malaria Eradication Programme (GMEP, conducted with DDT-based indoor residual spraying (IRS, did not achieve its goals. One of the technical reasons for the failure to eliminate malaria was over reliance on a single intervention and subsequently the mosquito vectors developed behavioural resistance so that they did not come into physical contact with the insecticide. Hypothesis and how to test it Currently, there remains a monolithic reliance on indoor vector control. It is hypothesized that an outcome of long-term, widespread control is that vector populations will change over time, either in the form of physiological resistance, changes in the relative species composition or behavioural resistance. The potential for, and consequences of, behavioural resistance was explored by reviewing the literature regarding vector behaviour in the southwest Pacific. Discussion Here, two of the primary vectors that were highly endophagic, Anopheles punctulatus and Anopheles koliensis, virtually disappeared from large areas where DDT was sprayed. However, high levels of transmission have been maintained by Anopheles farauti, which altered its behaviour to blood-feed early in the evening and outdoors and, thereby, avoiding exposure to the insecticides used in IRS. This example indicates that the efficacy of programmes relying on indoor vector control (IRS and long-lasting, insecticide-treated nets [LLINs] will be significantly reduced if the vectors change their behaviour to avoid entering houses. Conclusions Behavioural resistance is less frequently seen compared with physiological resistance (where the mosquito contacts the insecticide but is not killed, but is potentially more challenging to control programmes because the intervention effectiveness

  15. Heuristic use of mental map information gained from behavioural inspection of routines in daily activities (HUMMINGBIRDS)

    OpenAIRE

    HANNES, Els; JANSSENS, Davy; Wets, Geert

    2007-01-01

    This research project aims at identifying the critical spatial factors in an individual’s mental map which influence daily activity travel behaviour in order to improve the agent-based modelling of activity travel behaviour by means of a computational process model. A qualitative travel survey and in depth interviews are used to identify the spatial factors that appear in the destination and travel mode choice heuristics of experts when discussing their activity space. Recorded interviews are...

  16. The use of choice heuristic in daily activity travel behaviour: an expert system

    OpenAIRE

    HANNES, Els; JANSSENS, Davy; Wets, Geert

    2007-01-01

    This research project aims at identifying the critical spatial factors in an individual’s mental map which influence daily activity travel behaviour in order to improve the agentbased modelling of activity travel behaviour by means of a computational process model. A qualitative travel survey and in depth interviews are used to identify the spatial factors that appear in the destination and travel mode choice heuristics of experts when discussing their daily activity space. Recorded interview...

  17. An update: choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Laurits Rohden; Perez-Cueto, Armando

    2014-01-01

    food choices. The majority of studies were of very weak quality and future research should emphasize a real-life setting and compare their results with the effect of other more well-established interventions on food behaviour in self-service eating settings. Key findings: An increasing interest......Objective: The primary objective of this review was to update the current evidence-base for the use of choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service eating settings, hence potentially reducing energy intake. Methodology: 12 databases were searched systematically...

  18. Predictors of health-related behaviour change in parents of overweight children in England ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Min Hae; Falconer, Catherine L; Croker, Helen; Saxena, Sonia; Kessel, Anthony S.; Viner, Russell M.; Kinra, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Objective Providing parents with information about their child's overweight status (feedback) could prompt them to make lifestyle changes for their children. We assessed whether parents of overweight children intend to or change behaviours following feedback, and examined predictors of these transitions. Methods We analysed data from a cohort of parents of children aged 4–5 and 10–11 years participating in the National Child Measurement Programme in five areas of England, 2010–2011. Parents o...

  19. Climate change and related activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and consumption of energy contributes to the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and is the focus of other environmental concerns as well. Yet the use of energy contributes to worldwide economic growth and development. If we are to achieve environmentally sound economic growth, we must develop and deploy energy technologies that contribute to global stewardship. The Department of Energy carries out an aggressive scientific research program to address some of the key uncertainties associated with the climate change issue. Of course, research simply to study the science of global climate change is not enough. At the heart of any regime of cost-effective actions to address the possibility of global climate change will be a panoply of new technologies-technologies both to provide the services we demand and to use energy more efficiently than in the past. These, too, are important areas of responsibility for the Department. This report is a brief description of the Department's activities in scientific research, technology development, policy studies, and international cooperation that are directly related to or have some bearing on the issue of global climate change

  20. Cigarette smoking and drug use in schoolchildren: IV--factors associated with changes in smoking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, H M; Callcott, R; Dobson, A J; Hardes, G R; Lloyd, D M; O'Connell, D L; Leeder, S R

    1983-03-01

    Factors associated with changes in the smoking behaviour of approximately 6000 schoolchildren (two cohorts aged between 10 and 12 years in 1979) over 12 months are described. They were measured twice as part of a randomized controlled trial of a smoking prevention programme. Four groups were defined: (a) those who became smokers (adopters); (b) those who remained non-smokers; (c) those who became non-smokers (quitters), and, (d) those who remained smokers. Personal and social variables were ordered using a logistic regression model according to the strength of their association with adopting and quitting smoking. Factors distinguishing adopters from children who remained nonsmokers were, being a member of the older cohort, having friends who smoke, having siblings who smoke, approving of cigarette advertising and having a relatively large amount of money to spend each week. Factors distinguishing quitters from children who continued to smoke were, having siblings who do not smoke, being a member of the younger cohort, disapproving of cigarette advertising and having a relatively small amount of money to spend each week. Initial attitude scores were indicative of future smoking behaviour and where smoking behaviour changed, attitudes also changed so that the two remained congruent. The younger cohort improved their knowledge of smoking hazards over the year irrespective of their smoking behaviour. The older cohort showed significant differences in knowledge which were dependent upon smoking category, with 1980 smokers having lower knowledge scores than non-smokers and showing an apparent decrement in their previous knowledge. PMID:6341272

  1. Spatial and sustained attention in relation to smoking status: behavioural performance and brain activation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossel, Simone; Warbrick, Tracy; Mobascher, Arian; Winterer, Georg; Fink, Gereon R

    2011-11-01

    Nicotine enhances attentional functions. Since chronic nicotine exposure through smoking induces neuroadaptive changes in the brain at a structural and molecular level, the present functional MRI (fMRI) study aimed at investigating the neural mechanisms underlying visuospatial and sustained attention in smokers and non-smokers. Visuospatial attention was assessed with a location-cueing paradigm, while sustained attention was measured by changes in response speed over time. During invalid trials, neural activity within the basal forebrain was selectively enhanced in smokers and higher basal forebrain activity was associated with increased parietal cortex activation. Moreover, higher levels of expired carbon monoxide in smokers before scanning were associated with higher parietal cortex activation and faster responses to invalidly cued targets. Smokers showed a slowing of responses and additionally recruited an area within the right supramarginal gyrus with increasing time on task. Activity decreases over time were observed in visual areas in smokers. The data provide evidence for altered attentional functions in smokers as compared with non-smokers, which were partly modulated by residual nicotine levels and were observed at a behavioural level for sustained and at a neural level for spatial and sustained attention.

  2. Reliability and validity of the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ for assessing physical activity behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Adams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ. METHODS: The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. RESULTS: In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59, cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61, walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48, cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35, moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47, vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63, and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56. The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60. In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, p<0.001, fair but non-significant agreement for moderate physical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09 and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05. Bland

  3. Relating the bipolar spectrum to dysregulation of behavioural activation: a perspective from dynamical modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Steinacher

    Full Text Available Bipolar Disorders affect a substantial minority of the population and result in significant personal, social and economic costs. Understanding of the causes of, and consequently the most effective interventions for, this condition is an area requiring development. Drawing upon theories of Bipolar Disorder that propose the condition to be underpinned by dysregulation of systems governing behavioural activation or approach motivation, we present a mathematical model of the regulation of behavioural activation. The model is informed by non-linear, dynamical principles and as such proposes that the transition from "non-bipolar" to "bipolar" diagnostic status corresponds to a switch from mono- to multistability of behavioural activation level, rather than an increase in oscillation of mood. Consistent with descriptions of the behavioural activation or approach system in the literature, auto-activation and auto-inhibitory feedback is inherent within our model. Comparison between our model and empirical, observational data reveals that by increasing the non-linearity dimension in our model, important features of Bipolar Spectrum disorders are reproduced. Analysis from stochastic simulation of the system reveals the role of noise in behavioural activation regulation and indicates that an increase of nonlinearity promotes noise to jump scales from small fluctuations of activation levels to longer lasting, but less variable episodes. We conclude that further research is required to relate parameters of our model to key behavioural and biological variables observed in Bipolar Disorder.

  4. Relating the bipolar spectrum to dysregulation of behavioural activation: a perspective from dynamical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinacher, Arno; Wright, Kim A

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar Disorders affect a substantial minority of the population and result in significant personal, social and economic costs. Understanding of the causes of, and consequently the most effective interventions for, this condition is an area requiring development. Drawing upon theories of Bipolar Disorder that propose the condition to be underpinned by dysregulation of systems governing behavioural activation or approach motivation, we present a mathematical model of the regulation of behavioural activation. The model is informed by non-linear, dynamical principles and as such proposes that the transition from "non-bipolar" to "bipolar" diagnostic status corresponds to a switch from mono- to multistability of behavioural activation level, rather than an increase in oscillation of mood. Consistent with descriptions of the behavioural activation or approach system in the literature, auto-activation and auto-inhibitory feedback is inherent within our model. Comparison between our model and empirical, observational data reveals that by increasing the non-linearity dimension in our model, important features of Bipolar Spectrum disorders are reproduced. Analysis from stochastic simulation of the system reveals the role of noise in behavioural activation regulation and indicates that an increase of nonlinearity promotes noise to jump scales from small fluctuations of activation levels to longer lasting, but less variable episodes. We conclude that further research is required to relate parameters of our model to key behavioural and biological variables observed in Bipolar Disorder.

  5. A Causal Modelling Approach to the Development of Theory-Based Behaviour Change Programmes for Trial Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardeman, Wendy; Sutton, Stephen; Griffin, Simon; Johnston, Marie; White, Anthony; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Kinmonth, Ann Louise

    2005-01-01

    Theory-based intervention programmes to support health-related behaviour change aim to increase health impact and improve understanding of mechanisms of behaviour change. However, the science of intervention development remains at an early stage. We present a causal modelling approach to developing complex interventions for evaluation in…

  6. Habitat change influences mate search behaviour in three-spined sticklebacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Salminen, Tiina; Candolin, Ulrika

    2012-01-01

    Mate choice is one of the main mechanisms of sexual selection, with profound implications for individual fitness. Changes in environmental conditions can cause individuals to alter their mate search behaviour, with consequences for mate choice. Human-induced eutrophication of water bodies...... evaluation in the absence of visual stimulation. This reduced the rate of mate encounters and probably also the opportunity for choice. Our results show that changes in habitat structure and visibility can alter female mate searching, with potential consequences for the opportunity for sexual selection....... is a global problem that alters habitat structure and visibility in aquatic ecosystems. We investigated whether changes in habitat complexity and male cue modality, visual or olfactory, influence mate search behaviour of female three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. We allowed gravid females...

  7. A strategy for implementing genomics into nursing practice informed by three behaviour change theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Verity; Tonkin, Emma; Lancastle, Deborah; Kirk, Maggie

    2016-06-01

    Genomics is an ever increasing aspect of nursing practice, with focus being directed towards improving health. The authors present an implementation strategy for the incorporation of genomics into nursing practice within the UK, based on three behaviour change theories and the identification of individuals who are likely to provide support for change. Individuals identified as Opinion Leaders and Adopters of genomics illustrate how changes in behaviour might occur among the nursing profession. The core philosophy of the strategy is that genomic nurse Adopters and Opinion Leaders who have direct interaction with their peers in practice will be best placed to highlight the importance of genomics within the nursing role. The strategy discussed in this paper provides scope for continued nursing education and development of genomics within nursing practice on a larger scale. The recommendations might be of particular relevance for senior staff and management.

  8. A strategy for implementing genomics into nursing practice informed by three behaviour change theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Verity; Tonkin, Emma; Lancastle, Deborah; Kirk, Maggie

    2016-06-01

    Genomics is an ever increasing aspect of nursing practice, with focus being directed towards improving health. The authors present an implementation strategy for the incorporation of genomics into nursing practice within the UK, based on three behaviour change theories and the identification of individuals who are likely to provide support for change. Individuals identified as Opinion Leaders and Adopters of genomics illustrate how changes in behaviour might occur among the nursing profession. The core philosophy of the strategy is that genomic nurse Adopters and Opinion Leaders who have direct interaction with their peers in practice will be best placed to highlight the importance of genomics within the nursing role. The strategy discussed in this paper provides scope for continued nursing education and development of genomics within nursing practice on a larger scale. The recommendations might be of particular relevance for senior staff and management. PMID:27241441

  9. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Greek-Cypriot children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Jago Russell; Loucaides Constantinos A; Theophanous Maria

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There are no data on physical activity and sedentary behaviours of Greek-Cypriot children and adolescents, and no study to date examined the association between these two behaviours in this population. The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behaviours among Greek-Cypriot adolescents and examine the association between physical activity and a range of sedentary behaviours. Logistic regression analyses were performed to ex...

  10. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Greek-Cypriot children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Loucaides, Constantinos A; Jago, Russell; Theophanous, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background There are no data on physical activity and sedentary behaviours of Greek-Cypriot children and adolescents, and no study to date examined the association between these two behaviours in this population. The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behaviours among Greek-Cypriot adolescents and examine the association between physical activity and a range of sedentary behaviours. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the...

  11. Objective measurements of daily physical activity patterns and sedentary behaviour in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Koster, Annemarie; Van Domelen, Dane R;

    2013-01-01

    objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer.......objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer....

  12. Traversing myths and mountains: addressing socioeconomic inequities in the promotion of nutrition and physical activity behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, Kylie

    2015-01-01

    Background In developed countries, individuals experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage – whether a low education level, low income, low-status occupation, or living in a socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhood – are less likely than those more advantaged to engage in eating and physical activity behaviours conducive to optimal health. These socioeconomic inequities in nutrition and physical activity (and some sedentary) behaviours are graded, persistent, and evident across multiple popu...

  13. Activities that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) in captivity at night

    OpenAIRE

    ANITA SARDIANA TJAKRADIDJAJA; DIDID DIAPARI; ARIA PERDANA; WARTIKA ROSA FARIDA

    2005-01-01

    Activities that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) in captivity at night study on activity that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider in captivity of small mammals at night has been conducted at the Division of Zoology, Research Center for Biology-LIPI, Bogor. Feeds consisted of passion fruit, banana, guava, papaya, sweet corn, coconut, and bread and were given ad libitum. Four sugar glider consisting of two males and females were place in two cages. One ...

  14. Driver's behavioural changes with new intelligent transport system interventions at railway level crossings--A driving simulator study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Grégoire S; Kim, Inhi; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Haworth, Narelle L; Ferreira, Luis

    2015-08-01

    Improving safety at railway level crossings is an important issue for the Australian transport system. Governments, the rail industry and road organisations have tried a variety of countermeasures for many years to improve railway level crossing safety. New types of intelligent transport system (ITS) interventions are now emerging due to the availability and the affordability of technology. These interventions target both actively and passively protected railway level crossings and attempt to address drivers' errors at railway crossings, which are mainly a failure to detect the crossing or the train and misjudgement of the train approach speed and distance. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of three emerging ITS that the rail industry considers implementing in Australia: a visual in-vehicle ITS, an audio in-vehicle ITS, as well as an on-road flashing beacons intervention. The evaluation was conducted on an advanced driving simulator with 20 participants per trialled technology, each participant driving once without any technology and once with one of the ITS interventions. Every participant drove through a range of active and passive crossings with and without trains approaching. Their speed approach of the crossing, head movements and stopping compliance were measured. Results showed that driver behaviour was changed with the three ITS interventions at passive crossings, while limited effects were found at active crossings, even with reduced visibility. The on-road intervention trialled was unsuccessful in improving driver behaviour; the audio and visual ITS improved driver behaviour when a train was approaching. A trend toward worsening driver behaviour with the visual ITS was observed when no trains were approaching. This trend was not observed for the audio ITS intervention, which appears to be the ITS intervention with the highest potential for improving safety at passive crossings.

  15. Can microgeneration catalyse behaviour change in the domestic energy sector in the UK?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, Noam (Univ. of Oxford, Environmental Change Inst., Oxford (United Kingdom))

    2009-07-01

    Domestic energy use accounts for more than a quarter of CO{sub 2} emissions in the UK. Traditional approaches to energy reduction look at direct emissions savings, and recommend insulation and efficiency as more cost-effective than microgeneration. However, microgeneration has indirect, 'soft' benefits and could play a significant role in emissions reduction. Current uptake of microgeneration in the UK is low, with various barriers economic, technical, cultural, behavioural and institutional both to uptake and to maximising energy and emissions savings once installed. Subsidies and spreading information alone do not guarantee maximising uptake, and even if successful, this is not enough to maximise savings. The industry focuses on maximising sales, with no incentives to ensure best installations and use; householders do not have access to the best information and user behaviour does not maximise energy and emission savings. This is related to a broader state of socio-technical 'lock-in' in domestic energy use there's a lack of connection between personal behaviour and energy consumption, let alone global climate change; energy use in the home is rising faster than energy saving measures are implemented. This suggests that a major cultural-behavioural shift is needed to reduce energy/emissions in the home. Transition theory and strategic niche management provide insights into possible systemic change, and a suitable framework for future policies, such as supporting a variety of radically innovative niches, both technological and social. Microgeneration, properly employed, has the potential to play a part in such a transition, by increasing awareness and energy literacy and empowering people to seriously engage in energy debates as producers, as well as consumers, of energy. This deeper understanding and heightened responsibility are crucial in a shift toward bottom-up emissions-reducing behaviour change and better acceptance of top

  16. Behaviour Change in the UK Climate Debate: An Assessment of Responsibility, Agency and Political Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Fudge

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the politics around the role of agency in the UK climate change debate. Government interventions on the demand side of consumption have increasingly involved attempts to obtain greater traction with the values, attitudes and beliefs of citizens in relation to climate change and also in terms of influencing consumer behaviour at an individual level. With figures showing that approximately 40% of the UK’s carbon emissions are attributable to household and transport behaviour, policy initiatives have progressively focused on the facilitation of “sustainable behaviours”. Evidence suggests however, that mobilisation of pro-environmental attitudes in addressing the perceived “value-action gap” has so far had limited success. Research in this field suggests that there is a more significant and nuanced “gap” between context and behaviour; a relationship that perhaps provides a more adroit reflection of reasons why people do not necessarily react in the way that policy-makers anticipate. Tracing the development of the UK Government’s behaviour change agenda over the last decade, we posit that a core reason for the limitations of this programme relates to an excessively narrow focus on the individual. This has served to obscure some of the wider political and economic aspects of the debate in favour of a more simplified discussion. The second part of the paper reports findings from a series of focus groups exploring some of the wider political views that people hold around household energy habits, purchase and use of domestic appliances, and transport behaviour-and discusses these insights in relation to the literature on the agenda’s apparent limitations. The paper concludes by considering whether the aims of the Big Society approach (recently established by the UK’s Coalition Government hold the potential to engage more directly with some of these issues or whether they merely constitute a “repackaging” of the

  17. Development and validation of the ACSI : measuring students' science attitudes, pro-environmental behaviour, climate change attitudes and knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, E. M.; Goedhart, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students' pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of science

  18. How does cognitive behaviour therapy reduce fatigue in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome? The role of physical activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Wiborg, J.F.; Knoop, H.; Stulemeijer, M.; Prins, J. B.; Bleijenberg, G

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is known to reduce fatigue severity in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). How this change in symptomatology is accomplished is not yet understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the effect of CBT on fatigue is mediated by an increase in physical activity. METHOD: Three randomized controlled trials were reanalysed, previously conducted to evaluate the efficacy of CBT for CFS. In all samples, actigraphy was used to assess the...

  19. 1-D Compression Behaviour of Acid Sulphate Soils Treated with Alkali-Activated Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidul Islam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Improvements of soft soils by mechanically mixing cementitious additives have been widely practised for construction of infrastructure. Mixing of additives improves strength and compressibility properties of soils through the development of soil structure. This study investigates the 1-D compression behaviour of alkali-activated slag treated acid sulphate soils (ASS cured up to 365 days. The void ratio-logarithm of pressure (e-logσ′ behaviour of treated ASS, including the destructuration behaviour, with additive contents and curing time have been analysed. X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analyses have been undertaken to explain the observed variations of the 1-D compression behaviour. This paper presents the results of these analyses in view of obtaining an insight into the 1-D compression behaviour of treated ASS with the help of mineralogical analysis.

  20. Movement activity based classification of animal behaviour with an application to data from cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Grünewälder

    Full Text Available We propose a new method, based on machine learning techniques, for the analysis of a combination of continuous data from dataloggers and a sampling of contemporaneous behaviour observations. This data combination provides an opportunity for biologists to study behaviour at a previously unknown level of detail and accuracy; however, continuously recorded data are of little use unless the resulting large volumes of raw data can be reliably translated into actual behaviour. We address this problem by applying a Support Vector Machine and a Hidden-Markov Model that allows us to classify an animal's behaviour using a small set of field observations to calibrate continuously recorded activity data. Such classified data can be applied quantitatively to the behaviour of animals over extended periods and at times during which observation is difficult or impossible. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method by applying it to data from six cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Cumulative activity data scores were recorded every five minutes by accelerometers embedded in GPS radio-collars for around one year on average. Direct behaviour sampling of each of the six cheetah were collected in the field for comparatively short periods. Using this approach we are able to classify each five minute activity score into a set of three key behaviour (feeding, mobile and stationary, creating a continuous behavioural sequence for the entire period for which the collars were deployed. Evaluation of our classifier with cross-validation shows the accuracy to be 83%-94%, but that the accuracy for individual classes is reduced with decreasing sample size of direct observations. We demonstrate how these processed data can be used to study behaviour identifying seasonal and gender differences in daily activity and feeding times. Results given here are unlike any that could be obtained using traditional approaches in both accuracy and detail.

  1. The application of behaviour change theory, delivered through mobile-app and wearable-based technology, proven to engage and improve the health & wellbeing of populations. A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Carter

    2015-09-01

    A snapshot of qualified aggregated totals is shown below. In summary, the evidence shows that implementation of the Yomp system successfully leads to activity behaviour change both during the challenge period and for six months following the last challenge.

  2. On the current solar magnetic activity in the light of its behaviour during the Holocene

    CERN Document Server

    Inceoglu, F; Knudsen, M F; Karoff, C; Olsen, J; Turck-Chièze, S

    2015-01-01

    Solar modulation potential (SMP) reconstructions based on cosmogenic nuclide records reflect changes in the open solar magnetic field and can therefore help us obtain information on the behaviour of the open solar magnetic field over the Holocene period. We aim at comparing the Sun's large-scale magnetic field behaviour over the last three solar cycles with variations in the SMP reconstruction through the Holocene epoch. To achieve these objectives, we use the IntCal13 $^{14}$C data to investigate distinct patterns in the occurrences of grand minima and maxima during the Holocene period. We then check whether these patterns might mimic the recent solar magnetic activity by investigating the evolution of the energy in the Sun's large-scale dipolar magnetic field using the Wilcox Solar Observatory data. The cosmogenic radionuclide data analysis shows that $\\sim$71\\% of grand maxima during the period from 6600 BC to 1650 AD were followed by a grand minimum. The occurrence characteristics of grand maxima and mini...

  3. Effect of socio-environmental isolation on brain biochemistry, behaviour and psychoactive drug activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valzelli, L

    1978-01-01

    Isolation has been widely described to induce a strong aggressive behaviour in many animal species and especially in rodents. A deeper analysis of this altered behaviour induced by isolation, allows for the identification of several other changes involving numerous peripheral, behavioural and neurochemical functions. As a consequence of the manifold aspects involved in this experimental situation, the definition "isolation syndrome" seems to be much more adequate than the simplest definition of "aggressiveness by isolation". On this framework, some similarities with psychoneurosis in men are also suggested.

  4. A Theory-Based Approach for Developing Interventions to Change Patient Behaviours: A Medication Adherence Example from Paediatric Secondary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Heath

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a Health Psychology approach to changing patient behaviour, in order to demonstrate the value of Health Psychology professional practice as applied within healthcare settings. Health Psychologists are experts in understanding, predicting and changing health-related behaviours at the individual, group and population level. They combine psychological theory, research evidence and service-user views to design interventions to solve clinically relevant behavioural problems and improve health outcomes. We provide a pragmatic overview of a theory and evidence-based Intervention Mapping approach for developing, implementing and evaluating interventions to change health-related behaviour. An example of a real behaviour change intervention designed to improve medication adherence in an adolescent patient with poorly controlled asthma is described to illustrate the main stages of the intervention development process.

  5. A Theory-Based Approach for Developing Interventions to Change Patient Behaviours: A Medication Adherence Example from Paediatric Secondary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Gemma; Cooke, Richard; Cameron, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    In this article we introduce a Health Psychology approach to changing patient behaviour, in order to demonstrate the value of Health Psychology professional practice as applied within healthcare settings. Health Psychologists are experts in understanding, predicting and changing health-related behaviours at the individual, group and population level. They combine psychological theory, research evidence and service-user views to design interventions to solve clinically relevant behavioural problems and improve health outcomes. We provide a pragmatic overview of a theory and evidence-based Intervention Mapping approach for developing, implementing and evaluating interventions to change health-related behaviour. An example of a real behaviour change intervention designed to improve medication adherence in an adolescent patient with poorly controlled asthma is described to illustrate the main stages of the intervention development process. PMID:27417822

  6. Using cognitive behavioural therapy with complex cases: using the therapeutic relationship to change core beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnie, James

    2012-07-01

    Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is often perceived as a manualised, symptom focused, surface level approach. This article aims to reflect on working with complex clinical presentations and explore how third wave CBT can be effectively integrated into standard cognitive behavioural interventions. To achieve these aims, a case study of a CBT assessment and treatment is presented. The interventions used are described in detail. The focus changes from the more traditional symptom-led interventions to third wave approaches based on the therapeutic relationship. When the focus was redirected towards the therapeutic relationship then real change occurred, quickly and powerfully. Reflections on the process are discussed and the overall approach used was evaluated with an action plan developed to enhance future clinical practice. It is hoped that this study can help CBT be viewed as a comprehensive form of psychotherapy.

  7. Values and Environmental Ethics – Pillars of Changing Human Behaviour Toward Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Florina Bran; Carmen Valentina Radulescu; Ildiko Ioan

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable development necessitates the harmonisation of human’s and nature’s needs under the siege of continuous demographic growth and the quest for wellbeing based on material things. This outcome implies important changes to occur at individual, collective and corporate behaviour. How they could be accomplished is a question that animates debates for several decades and revealed that solutions should be related to the process of valuation. Better understanding of value and how it relates...

  8. Role of etology in detecting environmental pollutants that affect changes in animal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana M.

    2005-01-01

    A large number of chemical pollutants originating from industrial agricultural and urban through the direct or indirect disruption of endocrine gland and hormone function. That is why these pollutants are known as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC). By disrupting endocrine function, the EDC change certain forms of animal behaviour. This is why a direct link can be established between etology, as a scientific discipline that studied the role, function, ontogenetic and evolutionary developmen...

  9. A smarter choice? Exploring the behaviour change agenda for environmentally sustainable mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart Barr; Jan Prillwitz

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores some of the limitations of individualistic approaches towards the study and promotion of environmentally sustainable practices within the context of efforts by states to tackle global climate change. Using the example of government attempts to promote sustainable mobility through behavioural shifts amongst citizens in the UK, the paper argues that an overreliance on individualistic approaches poses three major challenges through the ways in which: (1) mobility is intricate...

  10. A South African University practitioner partnership to strengthen capacity in social and behaviour change communication

    OpenAIRE

    Christofides, Nicola J.; Nieuwoudt, Sara; Usdin, Shereen; Goldstein, Susan; Fonn, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Globally, communication plays an integral role in public health strategies, from infectious diseases to diseases related to lifestyles. The evolution of the field of social and behaviour change communication (SBCC), combined with the need for evidence based practice and multi-level interventions to promote health, and human resource gaps in sub-Saharan Africa have led to the imperative to standardise and formalise the field. Moreover, current practitioners come from different disciplinary bac...

  11. Stability and change in health behaviours as predictors for disability pension: a prospective cohort study of Swedish twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexanderson Kristina

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stability or changes of health behaviours have not been studied in association with incidence of disability pension (DP. The aims were to (1 investigate if stability or changes in health behaviours predict DP due to musculoskeletal diagnosis (MSD, (2 to evaluate if an association exists for DP in general, and (3 after taking familial confounding into account. Methods The study sample was 16,713 like-sexed twin individuals born in Sweden between 1935-1958 (6195 complete twin pairs who had participated in two surveys 25 years apart, were alive, and not pensioned at the time of the latest survey. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the associations (hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (CI between stability and change in health behaviours (physical activity, tobacco and alcohol use, body mass index (BMI, and number of pain locations collected at two time points 25 years apart and the incidence of DP until 2008. Results During the follow-up, 1843 (11% individuals were granted DP with 747 of these due to MSD. A higher proportion of women were granted DP than men. Increase in BMI and stable use of tobacco products were predictors for DP due to MSD (HR 1.21-1.48 and DP in general (HR 1.10-1.41. The stability in the frequency of physical activity and increased frequency of physical activity were protective factors for DP due to MSD only when accounting for familial confounding. However, the number of pain locations (stability, increase, or decrease was the strongest predictor for future DP due to MSD (HR 3.69, CI 2.99-4.56 and DP in general (HR 2.15, CI 1.92-2.42. In discordant pair analysis, the HRs for pain were lower, indicating potential familial confounding. Conclusions Health behaviours in adulthood, including an increase in pain locations were associated with the incidence of DP. The association between physical activity and DP was especially related to adulthood choices or habits, i.e., the

  12. Family circumstance, sedentary behaviour and physical activity in adolescents living in England: Project STIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorely Trish

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of non-modifiable correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in youth contributes to the development of effective targeted intervention strategies. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between family circumstances (e.g. socio-economic status, single vs. dual parent household, presence/absence of siblings and leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behaviours in adolescents. Methods A total of 1171 adolescents (40% male; mean age 14.8 years completed ecological momentary assessment diaries every 15 minutes for 3 weekdays outside of school hours and 1 weekend day. Analysed behaviours were sports/exercise, active travel, TV viewing, computer use, sedentary socialising (hanging-out, using the telephone, sitting and talking and total sedentary behaviour. Linear regression was employed to estimate levels of association between individual family circumstance variables and each behaviour. Results Compared to girls from higher socioeconomic status (SES groups, girls from low SES groups reported higher weekend TV viewing and higher weekday total sedentary behaviour. For boys, single parent status was associated with greater total sedentary behaviour compared to those from dual parent households. Boys and girls from low socio-economic neighbourhoods reported lower participation in sports/exercise compared to those living in higher socio-economic neighbourhoods. Conclusion Associations were not consistent across behaviours or between genders. Overall, findings indicate that boys from single parent households and girls from low socio-economic families may be at increased risk of high sedentary behaviour. Those living in low socioeconomic neighbourhoods may be at increased risk of reduced participation in sports and exercise.

  13. Evaluation of Using Behavioural Changes to Assess Post-Operative Pain in the Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Yvette; Flecknell, Paul; Leach, Matt

    2016-01-01

    To manage pain effectively in people and animals, it is essential to recognise when pain is present and to assess its intensity. Currently there is very little information regarding the signs of post-surgical pain or its management in guinea pigs. Studies from other rodent species indicate that behaviour-based scoring systems can be used successfully to detect pain and evaluate analgesic efficacy. This preliminary study aimed to establish whether behaviour-based scoring systems could be developed to assess post-surgical pain in guinea pigs. This prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled study used 16 guinea pigs, and evaluated changes in behaviour following either anaesthesia alone or anaesthesia and orchiectomy. Behaviour was assessed using a combination of manual and automated scoring of remotely obtained video footage. A small number of behaviours were identified that appeared to have high specificity for pain caused by orchiectomy. However, the behaviours were displayed infrequently. The most common was a change in posture from standing to recumbency, sometimes with one hind leg extended either to the side or behind the body. A composite behaviour score incorporating these abnormal behaviours differentiated between the effects of surgery and anaesthesia alone (p<0.0001), and between animals that received analgesia post-operatively compared to an untreated group (p<0.0001). Although behavioural changes occurred in these guinea pigs after orchiectomy, the changes were relatively subtle and the individual specific pain-related behaviours occurred infrequently. However, it may prove possible to develop a behaviour-based scoring system for routine use in this species using a combination of pain-related behaviours. PMID:27583446

  14. The contribution of lifestyle coaching of overweight patients in primary care to more autonomous motivation for physical activity and healthy dietary behaviour: results of a longitudinal study.

    OpenAIRE

    Rutten, G.M.; Meis, J.J.M.; Hendriks, M.R.C.; Hamers, F.J.M.; Veenhof, C.; Kremers, S. P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Combined lifestyle interventions (CLIs) have been advocated as an effective instrument in efforts to reduce overweight and obesity. The odds of maintaining higher levels of physical activity (PA) and healthier dietary behaviour improve when people are more intrinsically motivated to change their behaviour. To promote the shift towards more autonomous types of motivation, facilitator led CLIs have been developed including lifestyle coaching as key element. The present study examine...

  15. Validation of the theoretical domains framework for use in behaviour change and implementation research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cane James

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An integrative theoretical framework, developed for cross-disciplinary implementation and other behaviour change research, has been applied across a wide range of clinical situations. This study tests the validity of this framework. Methods Validity was investigated by behavioural experts sorting 112 unique theoretical constructs using closed and open sort tasks. The extent of replication was tested by Discriminant Content Validation and Fuzzy Cluster Analysis. Results There was good support for a refinement of the framework comprising 14 domains of theoretical constructs (average silhouette value 0.29: ‘Knowledge’, ‘Skills’, ‘Social/Professional Role and Identity’, ‘Beliefs about Capabilities’, ‘Optimism’, ‘Beliefs about Consequences’, ‘Reinforcement’, ‘Intentions’, ‘Goals’, ‘Memory, Attention and Decision Processes’, ‘Environmental Context and Resources’, ‘Social Influences’, ‘Emotions’, and ‘Behavioural Regulation’. Conclusions The refined Theoretical Domains Framework has a strengthened empirical base and provides a method for theoretically assessing implementation problems, as well as professional and other health-related behaviours as a basis for intervention development.

  16. Engineering behaviour change in an epidemic: the epistemology of NIH-funded HIV prevention science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam; Kolar, Kat

    2015-05-01

    Social scientific and public health literature on National Institutes of Health-funded HIV behavioural prevention science often assumes that this body of work has a strong biomedical epistemological orientation. We explore this assumption by conducting a systematic content analysis of all NIH-funded HIV behavioural prevention grants for men who have sex with men between 1989 and 2012. We find that while intervention research strongly favours a biomedical orientation, research into the antecedents of HIV risk practices favours a sociological, interpretive and structural orientation. Thus, with respect to NIH-funded HIV prevention science, there exists a major disjunct in the guiding epistemological orientations of how scientists understand HIV risk, on the one hand, and how they engineer behaviour change in behavioural interventions, on the other. Building on the extant literature, we suggest that the cause of this disjunct is probably attributable not to an NIH-wide positivist orientation, but to the specific standards of evidence used to adjudicate HIV intervention grant awards, including randomised controlled trials and other quantitative measures of intervention efficacy.

  17. Preliminary Study on Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC: Hemispheric Lateralization with Behavioural Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Azuin Suliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is designed inspired by the fact that there is an interhemisphere asymmetry of the brain region. A lot of researches studied in demonstrating the differences between right and left hemispheres of the brain. The objective of this preliminary study is to observe scientifically the effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC on the hemispheric lateralization with behavioural changes. Two regions of brain are selected, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Behavioural tests, namely heat stress test and novel-object discrimination test (NOD, were done on day seven. The hippocampus and prefrontal cortex regions of the brain were preceded to Western Blot technique in detecting c-fos. As for behavioural tests, heat stress and NOD and c-fos on hippocampus did not show significant differences. Meanwhile, the prefrontal cortex shows significant difference with p < 0.01. With these findings, reasonable dosages of ∆9-THC should be used to have statistically significant differences effects on behavioural tests. 

  18. Low-carbon communities as a context for individual behavioural change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, Eva; Johnson, Mikael; Saastamoinen, Mika [National Consumer Research Centre, P.O. Box 5, 00531 Helsinki (Finland); Robinson, Simon [Manchester Knowledge Capital, Churchgate House, 56 Oxford Street, Manchester, M60 7HJ (United Kingdom); Vadovics, Edina [Green Dependent Sustainable Solutions Association, Eva u. 4, 2100 Goedoelloe (Hungary)

    2010-12-15

    Previous attempts to change energy-related behaviour were targeted at individuals as consumers of energy. Recent literature has suggested that more focus should be placed on the community level and that energy users should be engaged in the role of citizens, and not only that of consumers. This article analyses different types of emerging low-carbon communities as a context for individual behavioural change. The focus is on how these communities offer solutions to problems in previous attempts to change individual behaviour. These problems include social dilemmas, social conventions, socio-technical infrastructures and the helplessness of individuals. Different community types are examined, including geographical communities as well as sector-based, interest-based and smart mob communities. Through four case studies representing each of these community types, we examine how different communities reframe problems on the individual level to reduce carbon emissions. On the basis of an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of various community solutions, implications are drawn for further research and for the design and support of low-carbon communities. (author)

  19. Development of the Motivation to Change Lifestyle and Health Behaviours for Dementia Risk Reduction Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarang Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: It is not yet understood how attitudes concerning dementia risk may affect motivation to change health behaviours and lifestyle. This study was designed to develop a reliable and valid theory-based measure to understand beliefs underpinning the lifestyle and health behavioural changes needed for dementia risk reduction. Methods: 617 participants aged ≥50 years completed a theory-based questionnaire, namely, the Motivation to Change Lifestyle and Health Behaviours for Dementia Risk Reduction (MCLHB-DRR scale. The MCLHB-DRR consists of 53 items, reflecting seven subscales of the Health Belief Model. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis was performed and revealed that a seven-factor solution with 27 items fitted the data (comparative fit index = 0.920, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.047 better than the original 53 items. Internal reliability (α = 0.608-0.864 and test-retest reliability (α = 0.552-0.776 were moderate to high. Measurement of invariance across gender and age was also demonstrated. Conclusions: These results propose that the MCLHB-DRR is a useful tool in assessing the beliefs and attitudes of males and females aged ≥50 years towards dementia risk reduction. This measure can be used in the development and evaluation of interventions aimed at dementia prevention.

  20. The effects of goal variation on adult physical activity behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Dal-Hyun; Yun, Joonkoo; McNamee, Jeff

    2016-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of varying levels of goals on increasing daily steps and the frequency of goal achievement among middle-aged adults. Ninety-six adults participated in a randomised control study. Participants were randomly assigned to five different step goal groups: (1) Easy (n = 19), (2) Medium (n = 19), (3) Difficult (n = 19), (4) Do-your-best (n = 19), and (5) No goal (n = 20) based on previous research. The participants wore a pedometer and were asked to reach a pre-established goal during the experimental period. In order to examine the effectiveness of the goal difficulty, (a) an average number of steps taken by different goal conditions and (b) the number of days meeting the assigned goal were tested. A one-way ANCOVA revealed significant step count differences among goal groups. Post hoc analyses indicated that the change in step count in both the Medium and Difficult goal groups was significantly greater than the remaining groups. However, there was no significant difference between the medium and difficult goal conditions. In addition, a one-way ANOVA indicated that there were no significant differences in the frequency of goal achievement among the Easy, Medium, and Difficult goal groups. Results suggest that when promoting physical activity through increasing step counts, researchers and clinicians should design goals that are specific and challenging. PMID:26860430

  1. Physical activity attitudes, intentions and behaviour among 18–25 year olds: A mixed method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poobalan Amudha S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people (18–25 years during the adolescence/adulthood transition are vulnerable to weight gain and notoriously hard to reach. Despite increased levels of overweight/obesity in this age group, physical activity behaviour, a major contributor to obesity, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore physical activity (PA behaviour among 18–25 year olds with influential factors including attitudes, motivators and barriers. Methods An explanatory mixed method study design, based on health Behaviour Change Theories was used. Those at university/college and in the community, including those Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET were included. An initial self reported quantitative questionnaire survey underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory was conducted. 1313 questionnaires were analysed. Results from this were incorporated into a qualitative phase also grounded in these theories. Seven focus groups were conducted among similar young people, varying in education and socioeconomic status. Exploratory univariate analysis was followed by multi staged modelling to analyse the quantitative data. ‘Framework Analysis’ was used to analyse the focus groups. Results Only 28% of 18–25 year olds achieved recommended levels of PA which decreased with age. Self-reported overweight/obesity prevalence was 22%, increasing with age, particularly in males. Based on the statistical modelling, positive attitudes toward PA were strong predictors of physical activity associated with being physically active and less sedentary. However, strong intentions to do exercise, was not associated with actual behaviour. Interactive discussions through focus groups unravelled attitudes and barriers influencing PA behaviour. Doing PA to feel good and to enjoy themselves was more important for young people than the common assumptions of ‘winning’ and ‘pleasing others’. Further

  2. Predictors of physical activity among rural and small town breast cancer survivors: an application of the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Jeff K; Lavallee, Celeste; Culos-Reed, Nicole S; Trudeau, Marc G

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the utility of the two-component theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in understanding physical activity intentions and behaviour in rural and small town breast cancer survivors. The secondary objective was to elicit the most common behavioural, normative and control beliefs of rural and small town survivors regarding physical activity. Using a cross-sectional survey design, 524 rural and small town breast cancer survivors completed a mailed survey that assessed physical activity and TPB variables. Physical activity intention explained 12% of the variance in physical activity behaviour (p activity intention (p activity determinants among rural and small town breast cancer survivors. These data can be used in the development and establishment of physical activity behaviour interventions and health promotion materials designed to facilitate physical activity behaviour among rural and small town breast cancer survivors.

  3. Southern elephant seals from Kerguelen Islands confronted by Antarctic Sea ice. Changes in movements and in diving behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, Frédéric; Charrassin, Jean-Benoıˆt; Ezraty, Robert; Girard-Ardhuin, Fanny; McMahon, Clive R.; Field, Iain C.; Guinet, Christophe

    2007-02-01

    The behaviour of southern elephant seals from Kerguelen Island ( 49∘50'S, 70∘30'E) was investigated in relation to the oceanographic regions of the Southern Ocean. The oceanographic and the seal behaviour data, including location and diving activity, were collected using a new generation of satellite-relayed devices measuring and transmitting pressure, temperature, and salinity along with locations. Dive duration, maximum diving depth, time spent at the bottom of the dives, and shape of dive profiles were compared between male and female seals, and were related to the oceanographic characteristics of areas prospected by the seals. Most animals travelled to the Antarctic shelf. However, during winter, adult females travelled away from the continent, remained and foraged within the marginal sea-ice zone, while juvenile males remained within the pack ice to forage mainly on the Antarctic shelf. Therefore, as the ice expanded females appeared to shift from benthic to pelagic foraging farther north, while males continued to forage almost exclusively benthically on the continental shelf. This difference is likely related to the different energetic requirements between the two sexes, but also may be related to pregnant females having to return to Kerguelen in early spring in order to give birth and successfully raise their pups, while males can remain in the ice. Our results show an important link between elephant seals and Antarctic sea ice and suggest that changes in sea-ice conditions could strongly affect the behaviour of this species.

  4. The effects of dihydropyridine compounds in behavioural tests of dopaminergic activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Bourson, A.; Gower, A. J.; Mir, A. K.; Moser, P C

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects of the dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker nifedipine and the activator Bay K 8644 were investigated in different behavioural tests involving dopaminergic systems. These were the discriminative stimulus induced by amphetamine, rotational behaviour in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions and apomorphine-induced yawning in rats. 2. The yawning induced by apomorphine (40 micrograms kg-1 s.c.) was significantly potentiated by nifedipine (5-10 mgkg-1 i.p.). Ba...

  5. Nutrition knowledge and food consumption: can nutrition knowledge change food behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    The status and explanatory role of nutrition knowledge is uncertain in public health nutrition. Much of the uncertainty about this area has been generated by conceptual confusion about the nature of knowledge and behaviours, and, nutrition knowledge and food behaviours in particular. So the paper describes several key concepts in some detail. The main argument is that 'nutrition knowledge' is a necessary but not sufficient factor for changes in consumers' food behaviours. Several classes of food behaviours and their causation are discussed. They are influenced by a number of environmental and intra-individual factors, including motivations. The interplay between motivational factors and information processing is important for nutrition promoters as is the distinction between declarative and procedural knowledge. Consideration of the domains of nutrition knowledge shows that their utility is likely to be related to consumers' and nutritionists' particular goals and viewpoints. A brief survey of the recent literature shows that the evidence for the influence of nutrition knowledge on food behaviours is mixed. Nevertheless, recent work suggests that nutrition knowledge may play a small but pivotal role in the adoption of healthier food habits. The implications of this overview for public health nutrition are: (i) We need to pay greater attention to the development of children's and adults' knowledge frameworks (schema building); (ii) There is a need for a renewed proactive role for the education sector; (iii) We need to take account of consumers' personal food goals and their acquisition of procedural knowledge which will enable them to attain their goals; (iv) Finally, much more research into the ways people learn and use food-related knowledge is required in the form of experimental interventions and longitudinal studies. PMID:12492651

  6. Health complaints among adolescents: Associations with more screen-based behaviours and less physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Adilson; Calmeiro, Luís; Loureiro, Nuno; Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between screen-based behaviours, physical activity, and health complaints (headaches, feeling low, irritability, and nervousness). Screen-based behaviour included TV viewing, computer use, and time spent playing video games. Data were collected from 4462 Portuguese adolescents (2394 girls) aged 11-16 years. Girls who reported engaging in more screen-based behaviour (hours/day) also reported having more headaches, feeling lower, being more irritable, and feeling more nervous. Boys who reported more screen time were more irritable. Physical activity (times/week) was negatively associated with reports of feeling nervous among girls, and with headaches, feeling low, irritability, and feeling nervous among boys. Considering that time spent using the computer is related with more health complaints, and physical activity was related with fewer health complaints among boys, it is important to develop strategies to reduce adolescents' computer screen time, and to promote physical activity. PMID:26275746

  7. First Results of 3 Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants' Behavioural Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days can currently not be performed reliably and remain limited to only a few minutes before the event. Abnormal animal behaviours prior to earthquakes have been reported previously but their detection creates problems in monitoring and reliability. A different situation is encountered for red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). They have stationary nest sites on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas and are simultaneously information channels deeply reaching into the crust. A particular advantage of monitoring RWA is their high sensitivity to environmental changes. Besides an evolutionarily developed extremely strong temperature sensitivity of 0.25 K, they have chemoreceptors for the detection of CO2 concentrations and a sensitivity for electromagnetic fields. Changes of the electromagnetic field are discussed or short-lived "thermal anomalies" are reported as trigger mechanisms for bioanomalies of impending earthquakes. For 3 years, we have monitored two Red Wood Ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), 24/7 by high-resolution cameras equipped with a colour and infrared sensor. In the Neuwied Basin, an average of about 100 earthquakes per year with magnitudes up to M 3.9 occur located on different tectonic fault regimes (strike-slip faults and/or normal or thrust faults). The RWA mounds are located on two different fault regimes approximately 30 km apart. First results show that the ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants' behaviour hours before the earthquake event: The nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine is continued not before the next day. Additional parameters that might have an effect on the ants' daily routine

  8. First Results of 3 Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants' Behavioural Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days can currently not be performed reliably and remain limited to only a few minutes before the event. Abnormal animal behaviours prior to earthquakes have been reported previously but their detection creates problems in monitoring and reliability. A different situation is encountered for red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). They have stationary nest sites on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas and are simultaneously information channels deeply reaching into the crust. A particular advantage of monitoring RWA is their high sensitivity to environmental changes. Besides an evolutionarily developed extremely strong temperature sensitivity of 0.25 K, they have chemoreceptors for the detection of CO2 concentrations and a sensitivity for electromagnetic fields. Changes of the electromagnetic field are discussed or short-lived "thermal anomalies" are reported as trigger mechanisms for bioanomalies of impending earthquakes. For 3 years, we have monitored two Red Wood Ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), 24/7 by high-resolution cameras equipped with a colour and infrared sensor. In the Neuwied Basin, an average of about 100 earthquakes per year with magnitudes up to M 3.9 occur located on different tectonic fault regimes (strike-slip faults and/or normal or thrust faults). The RWA mounds are located on two different fault regimes approximately 30 km apart. First results show that the ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants' behaviour hours before the earthquake event: The nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine is continued not before the next day. Additional parameters that might have an effect on the ants' daily routine

  9. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour and energy balance in the preschool child: opportunities for early obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J

    2008-08-01

    Prevalence of obesity in preschool children has increased dramatically in recent years. The preschool years (age 3-6 years) have been regarded as critical for the programming of energy balance, via the concept of early 'adiposity rebound'. Children who undergo early adiposity rebound are at increased risk of later obesity. Recent evidence suggests that associations between timing of adiposity rebound and later obesity may not reflect programming, but might denote that 'obesogenic' growth trajectories are often established by the preschool period. Studies of objectively-measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in preschool children show that levels of physical activity are typically low and sedentary behaviour high. The review of evidence presented here is supportive of the hypothesis that physical activity is protective against obesity in the preschool period, and that sedentary behaviour, particularly television viewing, is obesogenic. Definitive evidence on dose-response relationships between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and obesity remain unclear. Dose-response evidence could be obtained fairly readily by intervention and longitudinal observational studies that use accelerometry in preschool children. The generalisability of much of the evidence base is limited and there is a need for research on the influence of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the preschool years in the aetiology of obesity in the developing world.

  10. Planning to break unwanted habits: habit strength moderates implementation intention effects on behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2009-09-01

    Implementation intention formation promotes effective goal striving and goal attainment. However, little research has investigated whether implementation intentions promote behaviour change when people possess strong antagonistic habits. Experiment 1 developed relatively habitual responses that, after a task switch, had a detrimental impact on task performance. Forming an if-then plan reduced the negative impact of habit on performance. However, the effect of forming implementation intentions was smaller among participants who possessed strong habits as compared to participants who had weaker habits. Experiment 2 provided a field test of the role of habit strength in moderating the relationship between implementation intentions and behaviour in the context of smoking. Implementation intentions reduced smoking among participants with weak or moderate smoking habits, but not among participants with strong smoking habits. In summary, habit strength moderates the effectiveness of if-then plan formation in breaking unwanted habits. PMID:18851764

  11. Active and sedentary behaviours in children aged 7 to 10 years old: the urban and rural contexts, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Neto, Flávio de; Eto, Fabiola Naomi; Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Carletti, Luciana; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the effects of physical activity (PA) on health and wellness are well-established, incorporating sedentary behaviours in the daily lives of populations from high- and medium-income countries is becoming increasingly common. Regardless of other factors, the area of residence can influence the physical activity level and sedentary behaviours. The aim of this study was to identify and analyse active and sedentary behaviours and factors associated with physical activity in two...

  12. Effects of a behaviour change intervention for Girl Scouts on child and parent energy-saving behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudet, Hilary; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Flora, June; Armel, K. Carrie; Desai, Manisha; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2016-08-01

    Energy education programmes for children are hypothesized to have great potential to save energy. Such interventions are often assumed to impact child and family behaviours. Here, using a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 30 Girl Scout troops in Northern California, we assess the efficacy of two social cognitive theory-based interventions focused on residential and food-and-transportation energy-related behaviours of Girl Scouts and their families. We show that Girl Scouts and parents in troops randomly assigned to the residential energy intervention significantly increased their self-reported residential energy-saving behaviours immediately following the intervention and after more than seven months of follow-up, compared with controls. Girl Scouts in troops randomly assigned to the food-and-transportation energy intervention significantly increased their self-reported food-and-transportation energy-saving behaviours immediately following the intervention, compared with controls, but not at follow-up. The results demonstrate that theory-based, child-focused energy interventions have the potential to increase energy-saving behaviours among both children and their parents.

  13. Do behavioural health intentions engender health behaviour change? A study on the moderating role of self-affirmation on actual fruit intake versus vegetable intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietersma, Suzanne; Dijkstra, Arie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this persuasion research was to show that self-affirmation (SA) increases intentions in the advocated direction and that these intentions predict actual health behaviour change. That is, these intentions not only serve the function of short-term relief of the threat caused

  14. Relationship of obesity to physical activity, domestic activities, and sedentary behaviours: cross-sectional findings from a national cohort of over 70,000 Thai adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bain Chris

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of physical activity (PA, domestic activity and sedentary behaviours are changing rapidly in Asia. Little is known about their relationship with obesity in this context. This study investigates in detail the relationship between obesity, physical activity, domestic activity and sedentary behaviours in a Thai population. Methods 74,981 adult students aged 20-50 from all regions of Thailand attending the Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University in 2005-2006 completed a self-administered questionnaire, including providing appropriate self-reported data on height, weight and PA. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of the relationship between obesity, defined according to Asian criteria (Body Mass Index (BMI ≥25, and measures of physical activity and sedentary behaviours (exercise-related PA; leisure-related computer use and television watching ("screen-time"; housework and gardening; and sitting-time adjusted for age, sex, income and education and compared according to a range of personal characteristics. Results Overall, 15.6% of participants were obese, with a substantially greater prevalence in men (22.4% than women (9.9%. Inverse associations between being obese and total weekly sessions of exercise-related PA were observed in men, with a significantly weaker association seen in women (p(interaction Conclusions Domestic activities and sedentary behaviours are important in relation to obesity in Thailand, independent of exercise-related physical activity. In this setting, programs to prevent and treat obesity through increasing general physical activity need to consider overall energy expenditure and address a wide range of low-intensity high-volume activities in order to be effective.

  15. Students' physical activity behaviour and sports services at SAMK

    OpenAIRE

    Honkanen, Jenni

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to determine the level of physical activity among the students of Satakunta University of Applied Science. In addition, to find out what type of physical activity services is provided by the University at each campus and to define the students’ activity and interest to use and participate into offered opportunities. This thesis was carried out as a survey research in autumn 2010. The questionnaire included both closed and open questions. In total of 909 answ...

  16. The control of deviant sexual behaviour by drugs. I. Behavioural changes following oestrogens and anti-androgens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, J; Tennent, G; Loucas, K; Cass, J

    1974-09-01

    Using attitudinal, behavorial, and physiological measures, the effects of cyproterone acetate and ethinyl estradiol on the sexual behavior of sexual offenders was assessed. The effects of the drugs did not differ significantly on any measure. Compared to no treatment, both drugs lowered sexual interest and sexual activity. Sexual attitudes were not changed. No important side effects were noted. These studies do not indicate what long-term side effects might be expected. Further research will be needed to determine these. Since estrogens carry the risk of serious and irreversible side effects, cyproterone acetate seems to be more desirable for controlling sexual behavior. PMID:4607733

  17. Investigating the pore-water chemistry effects on the volume change behaviour of Boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Essen site has been chosen as an alternative site for nuclear waste disposal in Belgium. The soil formation involved at this site is the same as at Mol site: Boom clay. However, owing to its geographical situation closer to the sea, Boom clay at Essen presents a pore water salinity 4-5 times higher than Boom clay at Mol. This study aims at studying the effects of pore water salinity on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom clay. Specific odometer cells were used allowing 'flushing' the pore water in soil specimen by synthetic pore water or distilled water. The synthetic pore water used was prepared with the chemistry as that for the site water: 5.037 g/L for core Ess83 and 5.578 g/L for core Ess96. Mechanical loading was then carried out on the soil specimen after flushing. The results show that water salinity effect on the liquid limit is negligible. The saturation or pore water replacement under the in situ effective stress of 2.4 MPa does not induce significant volume change. For Ess83, hydro-mechanical behaviour was found to be slightly influenced by the water salinity; on the contrary, no obvious effect was identified on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Ess96. This can be attributed to the higher smectite content in Ess83 than in Ess96. (authors)

  18. Initiation of health-behaviour change among employees participating in a web-based health risk assessment with tailored feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Kraaijenhagen Roderik A; Vosbergen Sandra; Peek Niels; Niessen Maurice AJ; Colkesen Ersen B; van Kalken Coenraad K; Tijssen Jan GP; Peters Ron JG

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary prevention programs at the worksite can improve employee health and reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. Programs that include a web-based health risk assessment (HRA) with tailored feedback hold the advantage of simultaneously increasing awareness of risk and enhancing initiation of health-behaviour change. In this study we evaluated initial health-behaviour change among employees who voluntarily participated in such a HRA program. Methods We conducted a q...

  19. Randomised controlled trial of the effects of physical activity feedback on awareness and behaviour in UK adults: the FAB study protocol [ISRCTN92551397

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marteau Theresa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there are increasing data implicating poor recognition of physical inactivity as a potential barrier to healthy behaviour change, the efficacy of feedback to promote physical activity is uncertain. Using a randomised controlled trial nested within a population-based cohort study, we plan to test three variations of physical activity feedback against a control group. Our primary objective is to assess the efficacy of physical activity feedback in promoting physical activity behaviour change. Secondary objectives are to determine the influence of feedback on physical activity awareness and cognitions, and to compare behavioural effects by type of feedback. Methods/Design We aim to recruit 500 healthy participants aged 30 to 55 years from the ongoing Fenland Study (Cambridge, UK. Following careful phenotyping during baseline measurement (anthropometric, clinical, body composition and fitness measurements, as well as questionnaires assessing self-reported and self-rated physical activity, psychosocial correlates of physical activity behaviour, diet, lifestyle and general health, participants wear a combined heart rate and movement sensor (Actiheart® for six continuous days and nights. After receipt of the physical activity data (around 2 weeks later, participants are randomly allocated to either a control group (no feedback or one of three types of personalised physical activity feedback ('simple', 'visualised' or 'contextualised', and complete repeat measures of self-rated physical activity and psychosocial correlates. Approximately five weeks after receiving feedback, all participants wear the Actiheart® for another six-day follow-up period and complete repeat questionnaires. Values at outcome, adjusted for baseline, will be compared between randomised groups. Discussion Given the randomised trial design and use of objective measure of physical activity, this study is likely to provide valuable insights into the

  20. Short periods of prenatal stress affect growth, behaviour and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in male guinea pig offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G

    2005-08-01

    Prenatal stress can have profound long-term influences on physiological function throughout the course of life. We hypothesized that focused periods of moderate prenatal stress at discrete time points in late gestation have differential effects on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in adult guinea pig offspring, and that changes in HPA axis function will be associated with modification of anxiety-related behaviour. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to a strobe light for 2 h on gestational days (GD) 50, 51, 52 (PS50) or 60, 61, 62 (PS60) (gestation length approximately 70 days). A control group was left undisturbed throughout pregnancy. Behaviour was assessed in male offspring on postnatal day (PND)25 and PND70 by measurement of ambulatory activity and thigmotaxis (wall-seeking behaviour) in a novel open field environment. Subsequent to behavioural testing, male offspring were cannulated (PND75) to evaluate basal and activated HPA axis function. Body weight was significantly decreased in adult PS50 and PS60 offspring and this effect was apparent soon after weaning. The brain-to-body-weight ratio was significantly increased in adult PS50 males. Basal plasma cortisol levels were elevated in PS50 male offspring throughout the 24 h sampling period compared with controls. In response to an ACTH challenge and to exposure to an acute stressor, PS60 male offspring exhibited elevated plasma cortisol responses. Plasma testosterone concentrations were strikingly decreased in PS50 offspring. Thigmotaxis in the novel environment was increased in PS50 male offspring at PND25 and PND70, suggesting increased anxiety in these animals. In conclusion, prenatal stress during critical windows of neuroendocrine development programs growth, HPA axis function, and stress-related behaviour in adult male guinea pig offspring. Further, the nature of the effect is dependant on the timing of the maternal stress during pregnancy.

  1. The effectiveness of adding cognitive behavioural therapy aimed at changing lifestyle to managed diabetes care for patients with type 2 diabetes: design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oppen Patricia

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with type 2 diabetes, the risk for cardiovascular disease is substantial. To achieve a more favourable risk profile, lifestyle changes on diet, physical activity and smoking status are needed. This will involve changes in behaviour, which is difficult to achieve. Cognitive behavioural therapies focussing on self-management have been shown to be effective. We have developed an intervention combining techniques of Motivational Interviewing (MI and Problem Solving Treatment (PST. The aim of our study is to investigate if adding a combined behavioural intervention to managed care, is effective in achieving changes in lifestyle and cardiovascular risk profile. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes will be selected from general practices (n = 13, who are participating in a managed diabetes care system. Patients will be randomised into an intervention group receiving cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT in addition to managed care, and a control group that will receive managed care only. The CBT consists of three to six individual sessions of 30 minutes to increase the patient's motivation, by using principles of MI, and ability to change their lifestyle, by using PST. The first session will start with a risk assessment of diabetes complications that will be used to focus the intervention. The primary outcome measure is the difference between intervention and control group in change in cardiovascular risk score. For this purpose blood pressure, HbA1c, total and HDL-cholesterol and smoking status will be assessed. Secondary outcome measures are quality of life, patient satisfaction, physical activity, eating behaviour, smoking status, depression and determinants of behaviour change. Differences between changes in the two groups will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle, with 95% confidence intervals. The power calculation is based on the risk for cardiovascular disease and we calculated that 97 patients

  2. Handedness and behavioural inhibition system/behavioural activation system (BIS/BAS) scores: A replication and extension of Wright, Hardie, and Wilson (2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Alan A; Kaack, Imogen H; Corr, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    The Annett Hand Preference Questionnaire (AHPQ) as modified by Briggs and Nebes was administered along with Carver and White's behavioural inhibition system (BIS) and behavioural activation system (BAS) scale and a shortened form of the Big Five personality questionnaire to 92 university students. After eliminating the data from five respondents who reported having changed handedness and one outlier, there was a significant sex difference in mean BIS scores, with females (n = 43) scoring higher than males (n = 43). Replicating the results of Wright, Hardie and Wilson, non-right-handers (n = 36) had significantly higher mean BIS score than right-handers (n = 50). Controlling for sex of participant, neuroticism and BAS sub-scale scores in hierarchical regression analyses left this BIS effect substantially unaffected. There was no handedness or sex difference on any of the three BAS sub-scales. Further analyses revealed no association between strength, as distinct from direction, of handedness and BIS (or BAS) scores. The findings are discussed with reference to recent developments in reinforcement sensitivity theory on which BIS/BAS variables are based. PMID:25697855

  3. Handedness and behavioural inhibition system/behavioural activation system (BIS/BAS) scores: A replication and extension of Wright, Hardie, and Wilson (2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Alan A; Kaack, Imogen H; Corr, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    The Annett Hand Preference Questionnaire (AHPQ) as modified by Briggs and Nebes was administered along with Carver and White's behavioural inhibition system (BIS) and behavioural activation system (BAS) scale and a shortened form of the Big Five personality questionnaire to 92 university students. After eliminating the data from five respondents who reported having changed handedness and one outlier, there was a significant sex difference in mean BIS scores, with females (n = 43) scoring higher than males (n = 43). Replicating the results of Wright, Hardie and Wilson, non-right-handers (n = 36) had significantly higher mean BIS score than right-handers (n = 50). Controlling for sex of participant, neuroticism and BAS sub-scale scores in hierarchical regression analyses left this BIS effect substantially unaffected. There was no handedness or sex difference on any of the three BAS sub-scales. Further analyses revealed no association between strength, as distinct from direction, of handedness and BIS (or BAS) scores. The findings are discussed with reference to recent developments in reinforcement sensitivity theory on which BIS/BAS variables are based.

  4. A campaign encouraging dental attendance among adolescents in Scotland: the barriers to behaviour change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, R C; Blinkhorn, A S; Schou, L

    1994-01-01

    Qualitative consumer research was used to develop a health promotion campaign for school pupils aged 15-17 years to encourage them to attend a dentist for examination. The campaign used a combination of conventional health education about the benefits of dental care together with incentives...... to behaviour change. Those who responded were mainly female, intended to stay on at school beyond the age of 16 years and were more likely to be frequent attenders. Apathy and a lack of felt need were the main barriers to responding. Easier access to care and targeting a younger age group might enhance...

  5. How changes in consumer behaviour and retailing affect competence requirements for food producers and processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    This paper analyses the changing competence requirements which members of the food chain face in their pursuit of competitive advantage. Two groups of trends serve as point of departure: more dynamic and heterogeneous consumer demands, which can be analysed in terms of consumer demands for sensory......, health, process and convenience qualities, and changing roles for retailers in the food chain. Based on these trends, it is argued that competencies which can increase producers' level of market orientation get increased weight in the attainment of competitive advantage, and three types of competencies...... are singled out as especially important: consumer understanding, relationship management, and new product development. The development of market-related competencies aimed at exploiting trends in consumer behaviour and retailing will also entail changing forms of cooperation among members of the value chain...

  6. The application of behaviour change theory, delivered through mobile-app and wearable-based technology, proven to engage and improve the health & wellbeing of populations. A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Ronan Carter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Yomp’s aims are simple – get more people active, more often. Especially those sedentary or ‘high risk’. Yomp do this through community engagement and behavioural change techniques applied through ‘gamification’ via our award-winning technology (online platform, app and integration into wearable devices). A London-based technology company now working globally, Yomp has been developing behaviour change programs for almost five years, initially in cycling and now across all for...

  7. Activities that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps in captivity at night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANITA SARDIANA TJAKRADIDJAJA

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Activities that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps in captivity at night study on activity that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider in captivity of small mammals at night has been conducted at the Division of Zoology, Research Center for Biology-LIPI, Bogor. Feeds consisted of passion fruit, banana, guava, papaya, sweet corn, coconut, and bread and were given ad libitum. Four sugar glider consisting of two males and females were place in two cages. One zero sampling method was used to observe daily activity with interval every 15 minutes which was divided in two periods (06.00-11.45 pm and 00.15-06.00 am. Result of behaviour observation showed that feeding activity (13.65%, drinking activity (0.58%, urination activity (4.71% and defecation activity (5.93%. Other activities are locomotion, grooming, and resting activities 42.59%; 23.54%; and 9.01%. Male and female sugar gliders different in their feeding activities and locomotion.

  8. Mechanical behaviour of alkali-activated blast furnace slag-activated metakaolin blended pastes. Statistical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higuera, I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study and development of alternative, more ecoefficient binders than portland cement are attracting a good deal of scientific and technological interest. Binders obtained from the chemical interaction between calcium silico-aluminous materials and highly alkaline solutions are one of several types of such possible cements. The present paper discusses the mechanical behaviour and mineralogical composition of blended pastes made from NaOH-activated vitreous blast furnace slag and metakaolin. The aim of the study was to determine how parameters such as the slag/metakaolin ratio, activating solution concentration and curing temperature affect strength development in these binders. A statistical study was conducted to establish the impact of each variable and model strength behaviour in these alkaline cements. The conclusion drawn is that activator concentration and the slag/metakaolin ratio are both determinant parameters.

    El estudio y desarrollo de cementos alternativos y más eco-eficientes que el cemento Portland es un tema de gran impacto a nivel científico y tecnológico. Entre esos posibles cementos se encuentran los cementos alcalinos que son materiales conglomerantes obtenidos por la interacción química de materiales silico-aluminosos cálcicos y disoluciones fuertemente alcalinas. En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento mecánico y la composición mineralógica de mezclas de escoria vítrea de horno alto y metacaolín activadas alcalinamente con disoluciones de NaOH. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer cómo afectan parámetros tales como la relación escoria/metacaolín, la concentración de la disolución activadora y la temperatura de curado, al desarrollo resistente de las mezclas. A través del estudio estadístico realizado se ha podido establecer la influencia de cada variable y modelizar el comportamiento resistente de estos cementos alcalinos. Se concluye que la concentración del activador y la relaci

  9. The Influence Of Experiential Learning With Physical Movement Activities On Social Status Of Integrated Pupils With Behavioural Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintérová Zuzana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to broaden the knowledge about experiential education comprising of physical movement and sport activities as a part of the educational process and to verify the potential influence of experiential education on the changes in the field of social relationships in selected integrated classes with pupils suffering from behavioural disorders. To meet this goal, we used a standardized psycho-diagnostic method, a socio-metric rating questionnaire, by which means we proved the positive influence of the experiential education programme connected to movement on the overall improvement of the social structure of a class with pupils with behavioural disorders and their status in the class’s hierarchy. We formulated recommendations for the practical field based on this fact.

  10. Behavioural strategies of aggressive and non-aggressive male mice in active shock avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Benus, R.F.; Bohus, B.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Oortmerssen, G.A. van

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis, partly based on findings in social interactions, that aggressive mice generally adopt an active behavioural strategy (cf. fight-flight) in threatening situations, while non-aggressive ones generally assume a passive strategy (cf. conservation-withdrawal) was tested using a two-way active shock avoidance paradigm. Overall, aggressive mice were found to be better active shock avoiders than non-aggressive animals, a finding that is consistent with our hypothesis. However, within ...

  11. Active Learning about Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, I.C.; Tol, R.S.J.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a climate-economy model with active learning. We consider three ways of active learning: improved observations, adding observations from the past and improved theory from climate research. From the model, we find that the decision maker invests a significant amount of money in climate research. Expenditures to increase the rate of learning are far greater than the current level of expenditure on climate research, as it helps in taking improved decisions. The optimal carbon tax for ...

  12. Optimisation of infection prevention and control in acute health care by use of behaviour change: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rachel; Charani, Esmita; Sevdalis, Nick; Alexandrou, Banos; Sibley, Eleanor; Mullett, David; Loveday, Heather P; Drumright, Lydia N; Holmes, Alison

    2012-04-01

    Changes in the behaviour of health-care workers (HCWs) are required to improve adherence to infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines. Despite heavy investment in strategies to change behaviour, effectiveness has not been adequately assessed. We did a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and sustainability of interventions to change IPC behaviour and assessed exploratory literature for barriers to and facilitators of behaviour change. 21 studies published from 1999 to 2011 met our inclusion criteria: seven intervention studies and 14 exploratory studies. Of the intervention studies none explicitly incorporated psychological theory and only two contained elements of social marketing in the design, although five addressed sustainability. All elicited behaviour change, reduction in infection risk, or both. The exploratory studies identified social and cultural factors that affect the IPC behaviour of HCWs. To improve the standard of research and broaden the evidence base, we recommend that quality criteria are added to existing systematic review guidelines to enable the inclusion of qualitative research and to ensure robust design, implementation, and reporting of interventions. PMID:22342325

  13. Who will increase their physical activity? Predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Stephen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to identify predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort to improve understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity. Methods ProActive is a physical activity promotion trial that took place in Eastern England (1999-2004. 365 offspring of people with type 2 diabetes underwent measurement of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE using heart rate monitoring, fitness, and anthropometric and biochemical status at baseline and 1 year (n = 321. Linear regression was used to quantify the associations between baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural variables and change in PAEE over 12 months. This study is registered as ISRCTN61323766. Results ProActive participants significantly increased their PAEE by 0.6 kj/min (SD 4.2, p = 0.006 over one year, the equivalent of around 20 minutes brisk walking/day. Male sex and higher fitness at baseline predicted increase in PAEE. No significant associations were found for any other variables. Very few baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural predictors were associated with change in objectively measured physical activity. Conclusions Traditional baseline determinants of self-reported physical activity targeted by behavioural interventions may be relatively weak predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity to inform the development and targeting of interventions.

  14. A re-examination of information seeking behaviour in the context of activity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson T.D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Activity theory, developed in the USSR as a Marxist alternative to Western psychology, has been applied widely in educational studies and increasingly in human-computer interaction research. Argument. The key elements of activity theory, Motivation, Goal, Activity, Tools, Object, Outcome, Rules, Community and Division of labour are all directly applicable to the conduct of information behaviour research. An activity-theoretical approach to information behaviour research would provide a sound basis for the elaboration of contextual issues, for the discovering of organizational and other contradictions that affect information behaviour. It may be used to aid the design and analysis of investigations. Elaboration. The basic ideas of activity theory are outlined and an attempt is made to harmonize different perspectives. A contrast is made between an activity system perspective and an activity process perspective and a diagrammatic representation of the process perspective is offered. Conclusion. Activity theory is not a predictive theory but a conceptual framework within which different theoretical perspectives may be employed. Typically, it is suggested that several methods of data collection should be employed and that the time frame for investigation should be long enough for the full range of contextual issues to emerge. Activity theory offers not only a useful conceptual framework, but also a coherent terminology to be shared by researchers, and a rapidly developing body of literature in associated disciplines.

  15. A transactional analysis of changes in parent and chick behaviour prior to separation of Herring Gulls (Larus Argentatus): A three-term contingency model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil

    2015-09-01

    The effect of the passage of time on parent-offspring behaviour of urban Herring Gulls (Larus Argentatus) was studied and analysed using a three-term contingency model. A behavioural sequence was initiated by the arrival of a parental adult gull, which would lead to feeding in the chick. However, with the passage of time, and approach of the separation period, this pattern changed. Chicks' begging became more intense, and parent gulls more often withheld food. However, the chicks' begging became directed at a wider range of adults over the observation period. These activities are placed within a three-term contingency model, which may have implications for understanding some behavioural processes involved in parent-offspring separation. PMID:26003136

  16. Objectively measured habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour in obese and non-obese Malaysian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Sharifah Wajihah; Hamzaid, Hana; Talib, Ruzita Abd; Reilly, John J

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined objectively measured physical activity in Malaysian children and compared the differences in physical levels between obese and healthy weight children. Eighty-six obese children were matched for age and sex with 86 healthy weight children with median age 9.5 years. Habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour were measured over 5 days using Actigraph accelerometers. Time spent sedentary was significantly higher in the obese group (90% vs. 86% of daytime; p = 0.001). Moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly higher in the healthy weight group (1.2 vs. 0.7% of daytime, p low, although moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly lower in the obese group than the healthy weight group. Efforts to prevent and treat obesity in Malaysian children will need a substantial focus on the promotion of reductions in sedentary behaviour and increases in physical activity.

  17. Chromium Isotope Behaviour During Aerobic Microbial Reduction Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Amor, K.; Porcelli, D.; Thompson, I.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial activity is a very important, and possibly even the dominant, reduction mechanism for many metals in natural water systems. Isotope fractionations during microbial metal reduction can reflect one major mechanism in metal cycling in the environment, and isotopic signatures can be used to identify and quantify reduction processes during biogeochemical cycling in the present environment as well as in the past. There are many Cr (VI)-reducing bacteria that have been discovered and isolated from the environment, and Cr isotopes were found to be fractionated during microbial reduction processes. In this study, Cr reduction experiments have been undertaken to determine the conditions under which Cr is reduced and the corresponding isotope signals that are generated. The experiments have been done with a facultative bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens LB 300, and several parameters that have potential impact on reduction mechanisms have been investigated. Electron donors are important for bacteria growth and metabolism. One factor that can control the rate of Cr reduction is the nature of the electron donor. The results show that using citrate as an electron donor can stimulate bacteria reduction activity to a large extent; the reduction rate is much higher (15.10 mgˑL-1hour-1) compared with experiments using glucose (6.65 mgˑL-1ˑhour-1), acetate (4.88 mgˑL-1hour-1) or propionate (4.85 mgˑL-1hour-1) as electron donors. Groups with higher electron donor concentrations have higher reduction rates. Chromium is toxic, and when increasing Cr concentrations in the medium, the bacteria reduction rate is also higher, which reflects bacteria adapting to the toxic environment. In the natural environment, under different pH conditions, bacteria may metabolise in different ways. In our experiments with pH, bacteria performed better in reducing Cr (VI) when pH = 8, and there are no significant differences between groups with pH = 4 or pH = 6. To investigate this further, Cr

  18. Working mechanisms of a behavioural intervention promoting physical activity in persons with subacute spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooijen, Carla F J; Stam, Henk J; Schoenmakers, Imte; Sluis, Tebbe A R; Post, Marcel W M; Twisk, Jos W R; Group, Act-Active Research; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J G

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In order to unravel the working mechanisms that underlie the effectiveness of a behavioural intervention promoting physical activity in persons with subacute spinal cord injury, the aim of this study was to assess the mediating effects of physical and psychosocial factors on the intervent

  19. Structure and behaviour of proteins, nucleic acids and viruses from vibrational Raman optical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barron, L.D.; Blanch, E.W.; McColl, I.H.;

    2003-01-01

    On account of its sensitivity to chirality Raman optical activity (ROA), which may be measured as a small difference in vibrational Raman scattering from chiral molecules in right- and left-circularly polarized incident light, is a powerful probe of structure and behaviour of biomolecules in aque...

  20. On the behaviour of the IR Ca II triplet in normal and active galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Terlevich, Elena; Angeles I. Díaz; Terlevich, Roberto

    1990-01-01

    This is an electronic version of an article published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Terlevich, E., Díaz, A.I., Terlevich, R. On the behaviour of the IR Ca II triplet in normal and active galaxies. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 242 (1990): 271-284

  1. Behavioural strategies of aggressive and non-aggressive male mice in active shock avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benus, R.F.; Bohus, B.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Oortmerssen, G.A. van

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis, partly based on findings in social interactions, that aggressive mice generally adopt an active behavioural strategy (cf. fight-flight) in threatening situations, while non-aggressive ones generally assume a passive strategy (cf. conservation-withdrawal) was tested using a two-way ac

  2. Self-Identity as a Component of the Theory of Planned Behaviour in Predicting Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Francis; Hein, Vello; Pihu, Maret; Armenta, Jose Manuel Sevillano

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of self-identity, defined as salient and enduring aspects of one's self-perception (Sparks, 2000), in relation to adolescent physical activity (PA) intentions within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). School students aged 12 to 18 from two cultural groups (Estonia and Spain) completed measures of…

  3. Behavioural activation for depression; an update of meta-analysis of effectiveness and sub group analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ekers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression is a common, disabling condition for which psychological treatments are recommended. Behavioural activation has attracted increased interest in recent years. It has been over 5 years since our meta-analyses summarised the evidence supporting and this systematic review updates those findings and examines moderators of treatment effect. METHOD: Randomised trials of behavioural activation for depression versus controls or anti-depressant medication were identified using electronic database searches, previous reviews and reference lists. Data on symptom level and study level moderators were extracted and analysed using meta-analysis, sub-group analysis and meta-regression respectively. RESULTS: Twenty six randomised controlled trials including 1524 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. A random effects meta-analysis of symptom level post treatment showed behavioural activation to be superior to controls (SMD -0.74 CI -0.91 to -0.56, k = 25, N = 1088 and medication (SMD -0.42 CI -0.83 to-0.00, k = 4, N = 283. Study quality was low in the majority of studies and follow- up time periods short. There was no indication of publication bias and subgroup analysis showed limited association between moderators and effect size. CONCLUSIONS: The results in this meta-analysis support and strengthen the evidence base indicating Behavioural Activation is an effective treatment for depression. Further high quality research with longer term follow-up is needed to strengthen the evidence base.

  4. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour and metabolic control following stroke: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Moore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical activity and sedentary behaviour are key moderators of cardiovascular disease risk and metabolic control. Despite the importance of a physically active lifestyle, little is known about the effects of stroke on physical activity. We assessed physical activity and sedentary behaviour at three time points following stroke compared to a healthy control group. METHODS: Physical activity and sedentary behaviour were objectively measured using a portable multi-sensor array in 31 stroke participants (73±9 years, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale 2±2, mobile 10 metres with/without aid within seven days and at three and six months. Stroke data were compared with an age, sex and body mass index matched healthy control group (n = 31. RESULTS: Within seven days of stroke, total energy expenditure and physical activity were significantly lower and sedentary time higher in the stroke group compared to controls (total energy expenditure 1840±354 vs. 2220±489 kcal, physical activity 28±32 vs. 79±46 min/day, steps 3111±2290 vs. 7996±2649, sedentary time 1383±42 vs. 1339±44 min/day, p<0.01. At three months physical activity levels had increased (64±58 min/day but plateaued by six months (66±68 min/day. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity levels are reduced immediately post-stroke and remain below recommended levels for health and wellbeing at the three and six month time points. Clinicians should explore methods to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour in both the acute and later stages following stroke.

  5. Achieving behaviour change at scale: Alive & Thrive's infant and young child feeding programme in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghvi, Tina; Haque, Raisul; Roy, Sumitro; Afsana, Kaosar; Seidel, Renata; Islam, Sanjeeda; Jimerson, Ann; Baker, Jean

    2016-05-01

    The Alive & Thrive programme scaled up infant and young child feeding interventions in Bangladesh from 2010 to 2014. In all, 8.5 million mothers benefited. Approaches - including improved counselling by frontline health workers during home visits; community mobilization; mass media campaigns reaching mothers, fathers and opinion leaders; and policy advocacy - led to rapid and significant improvements in key practices related to breastfeeding and complementary feeding. (Evaluation results are forthcoming.) Intervention design was based on extensive formative research and behaviour change theory and principles and was tailored to the local context. The programme focused on small, achievable actions for key audience segments identified through rigorous testing. Promotion strategies took into account underlying behavioural determinants and reached a high per cent of the priority groups through repeated contacts. Community volunteers received monetary incentives for mothers in their areas who practised recommended behaviours. Programme monitoring, midterm surveys and additional small studies to answer questions led to ongoing adjustments. Scale-up was achieved through streamlining of tools and strategies, government branding, phased expansion through BRAC - a local non-governmental implementing partner with an extensive community-based platform - and nationwide mainstreaming through multiple non-governmental organization and government programmes. Key messages Well-designed and well-implemented large-scale interventions that combine interpersonal counselling, community mobilization, advocacy, mass communication and strategic use of data have great potential to improve IYCF practices rapidly. Formative research and ongoing studies are essential to tailor strategies to the local context and to the perspectives of mothers, family members, influential community members and policymakers. Continued use of data to adjust programme elements is also central to the process. Scale

  6. Achieving behaviour change at scale: Alive & Thrive's infant and young child feeding programme in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghvi, Tina; Haque, Raisul; Roy, Sumitro; Afsana, Kaosar; Seidel, Renata; Islam, Sanjeeda; Jimerson, Ann; Baker, Jean

    2016-05-01

    The Alive & Thrive programme scaled up infant and young child feeding interventions in Bangladesh from 2010 to 2014. In all, 8.5 million mothers benefited. Approaches - including improved counselling by frontline health workers during home visits; community mobilization; mass media campaigns reaching mothers, fathers and opinion leaders; and policy advocacy - led to rapid and significant improvements in key practices related to breastfeeding and complementary feeding. (Evaluation results are forthcoming.) Intervention design was based on extensive formative research and behaviour change theory and principles and was tailored to the local context. The programme focused on small, achievable actions for key audience segments identified through rigorous testing. Promotion strategies took into account underlying behavioural determinants and reached a high per cent of the priority groups through repeated contacts. Community volunteers received monetary incentives for mothers in their areas who practised recommended behaviours. Programme monitoring, midterm surveys and additional small studies to answer questions led to ongoing adjustments. Scale-up was achieved through streamlining of tools and strategies, government branding, phased expansion through BRAC - a local non-governmental implementing partner with an extensive community-based platform - and nationwide mainstreaming through multiple non-governmental organization and government programmes. Key messages Well-designed and well-implemented large-scale interventions that combine interpersonal counselling, community mobilization, advocacy, mass communication and strategic use of data have great potential to improve IYCF practices rapidly. Formative research and ongoing studies are essential to tailor strategies to the local context and to the perspectives of mothers, family members, influential community members and policymakers. Continued use of data to adjust programme elements is also central to the process. Scale

  7. Reproductive experience alters neural and behavioural responses to acute oestrogen receptor α activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, E M; Casey, K; Carini, L M; Bridges, R S

    2013-12-01

    demonstrate that reproductive experience alters the behavioural response to acute ERα activation. Moreover, the findings suggest that central regulation of the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis is modified as a consequence of reproductive experience.

  8. Self-reported physical activity behaviour; exercise motivation and information among Danish adult cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, J.; Baadsgaard, M.T.; Moller, T.;

    2009-01-01

    . PURPOSE: The current study aimed at investigating self-reported physical activity behaviour, exercise motivation and information in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. METHODS AND SAMPLE: Using a cross-sectional design, 451 patients (18-65 years) completed a questionnaire assessing pre......-illness and present physical activity; motivation and information received. RESULTS: Patients reported a significant decline in physical activity from pre-illness to the time in active treatment (p... not exercising as much as desired. Exercise barriers included fatigue (74%) and physical discomfort (45%). Present physical activity behaviour was associated with pre-illness physical activity behaviour (p40 years...

  9. Abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramics containing apatite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I Sevim; M K Kulekci

    2006-06-01

    In this study, abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramic materials produced with two different processes is studied. Hot pressing process and conventional casting and controlled crystallization process were used to produce bio-active ceramics. Fracture toughness of studied material was calculated by fracture toughness equations using experimental hardness results of the bio-active glass ceramic material. Two fracture toughness equations in the literature were used to identify the wear behaviour of studied ceramics. Wear resistance results that identified with both of the equations were similar. The results showed that the abrasive wear resistance of the bio-active glass ceramics produced with hot pressing process was found to be higher than that of the ceramics produced by conventional casting and controlled crystallization process.

  10. Lowbury Lecture 2013. Cultural determinants of infection control behaviour: understanding drivers and implementing effective change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, M A

    2014-03-01

    Despite dealing with biomedical practices, infection prevention and control (IPC) is essentially a behavioural science. Human behaviour is influenced by various factors, including culture. Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions proposes that national cultures vary along consistent dimensions which can be grouped and scored as specific constructs. Studies have reported that three Hofstede constructs--power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity--show significant association with several key performance indicators relevant to IPC and antibiotic stewardship. In addition, national meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) levels within Europe correlate well with general quality-of-care indices, including preventive strategies and patient rights. This suggests that IPC may be simply a microcosm of overall quality and safety standards within hospitals and countries. Effective improvement would therefore need to address underlying and embedded core cultural values relevant to patient safety and quality of care. Successful IPC strategies are likely to be those that are compatible with the cultural background where they are implemented. To this end, content analysis of many current IPC improvement tools identifies elements of strong compatibility with cultures that are low in uncertainty avoidance and power distance, and high in individualism and masculinity. However, this cultural combination is largely restricted to Anglo-Saxon countries, where most of the recent improvements in healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) incidence have taken place. There is a paucity of research on IPC behaviour change in different cultural backgrounds, especially countries that score high for power distance and/or uncertainty avoidance. This information is vital to inform IPC campaigns in these countries, which often show high HCAI prevalence.

  11. Unintended consequences of incentive provision for behaviour change and maintenance around childbirth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Thomson

    Full Text Available Financial (positive or negative and non-financial incentives or rewards are increasingly used in attempts to influence health behaviours. While unintended consequences of incentive provision are discussed in the literature, evidence syntheses did not identify any primary research with the aim of investigating unintended consequences of incentive interventions for lifestyle behaviour change. Our objective was to investigate perceived positive and negative unintended consequences of incentive provision for a shortlist of seven promising incentive strategies for smoking cessation in pregnancy and breastfeeding. A multi-disciplinary, mixed-methods approach included involving two service-user mother and baby groups from disadvantaged areas with experience of the target behaviours as study co-investigators. Systematic reviews informed the shortlist of incentive strategies. Qualitative semi-structured interviews and a web-based survey of health professionals asked open questions on positive and negative consequences of incentives. The participants from three UK regions were a diverse sample with and without direct experience of incentive interventions: 88 pregnant women/recent mothers/partners/family members; 53 service providers; 24 experts/decision makers and interactive discussions with 63 conference attendees. Maternity and early years health professionals (n = 497 including doctors, midwives, health visitors, public health and related staff participated in the survey. Qualitative analysis identified ethical, political, cultural, social and psychological implications of incentive delivery at population and individual levels. Four key themes emerged: how incentives can address or create inequalities; enhance or diminish intrinsic motivation and wellbeing; have a positive or negative effect on relationships with others within personal networks or health providers; and can impact on health systems and resources by raising awareness and directing

  12. Lowbury Lecture 2013. Cultural determinants of infection control behaviour: understanding drivers and implementing effective change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, M A

    2014-03-01

    Despite dealing with biomedical practices, infection prevention and control (IPC) is essentially a behavioural science. Human behaviour is influenced by various factors, including culture. Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions proposes that national cultures vary along consistent dimensions which can be grouped and scored as specific constructs. Studies have reported that three Hofstede constructs--power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity--show significant association with several key performance indicators relevant to IPC and antibiotic stewardship. In addition, national meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) levels within Europe correlate well with general quality-of-care indices, including preventive strategies and patient rights. This suggests that IPC may be simply a microcosm of overall quality and safety standards within hospitals and countries. Effective improvement would therefore need to address underlying and embedded core cultural values relevant to patient safety and quality of care. Successful IPC strategies are likely to be those that are compatible with the cultural background where they are implemented. To this end, content analysis of many current IPC improvement tools identifies elements of strong compatibility with cultures that are low in uncertainty avoidance and power distance, and high in individualism and masculinity. However, this cultural combination is largely restricted to Anglo-Saxon countries, where most of the recent improvements in healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) incidence have taken place. There is a paucity of research on IPC behaviour change in different cultural backgrounds, especially countries that score high for power distance and/or uncertainty avoidance. This information is vital to inform IPC campaigns in these countries, which often show high HCAI prevalence. PMID:24534705

  13. Behaviour of oscillations in loop structures above active regions

    CERN Document Server

    Kolobov, D Y; Chelpanov, A A; Kochanov, A A; Anfinogentov, S A; Chupin, S A; Myshyakov, I I; Tomin, V E

    2015-01-01

    In this study we combine the multiwavelength ultraviolet -- optical (Solar Dynamics Observatory, SDO) and radio (Nobeyama Radioheliograph, NoRH) observations to get further insight into space-frequency distribution of oscillations at different atmospheric levels of the Sun. We processed the observational data on NOAA 11711 active region and found oscillations propagating from the photospheric level through the transition region upward into the corona. The power maps of low-frequency (1--2 mHz) oscillations reproduce well the fan-like coronal structures visible in the Fe ix 171A line. High frequency oscillations (5--7 mHz) propagate along the vertical magnetic field lines and concentrate inside small-scale elements in the umbra and at the umbra-penumbra boundary. We investigated the dependence of the dominant oscillation frequency upon the distance from the sunspot barycentre to estimate inclination of magnetic tubes in higher levels of sunspots where it cannot be measured directly, and found that this angle i...

  14. EFFECT OF FLOOR TYPE ON BEHAVIOURAL ACTIVITIES OF INTENSIVELY MANAGED OSTRICHES

    OpenAIRE

    Dan SEABO; Esu WAUGH; Chistopher TSOPITO; Funnie COOPER

    2015-01-01

    Effects of providing grit on daily behavioural activities of intensively kept ostriches were investigated at the Botswana College of Agriculture. Two groups of ostriches were each housed in a 30 x 6m pen. Each group had seven ostriches in it. Each member of the group was identified by a number tag attached to its neck. Activities studied were feeding, picking objects, walking about, sparring, standing rest, sitting rest, grooming self, and grooming others. The study lasted 30 days. The result...

  15. Nutritional and physical activity behaviours and habits in adolescent population of Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević-Nikić Marina; Dopsaj Milivoj; Vesković Ana

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. Proper nutrition and regular physical activity are essential parts of a adolescent's overall health. The aim of this research was to evaluated eating and physical activity behaviours and habits, nutritional and food knowledge, beliefs and self-efficacy related to diet and health of the adolescents of the city of Belgrade, Serbia. Methods. A dietary questionnaire previously constructed and tested in adolescent population from Italy was self-administrated. We evaluated eat...

  16. An extended version of the theory of planned behaviour: the role of self-efficacy and past behaviour in predicting the physical activity of Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to use an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB), which incorporated additional self-efficacy and past behaviour, to predict the intention to engage in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and the MVPA level of Chinese adolescents. Questionnaires that focused on MVPA, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control (PBC), self-efficacy and past behaviour related to the MVPA engagement were administered to a sample of 488 young people. Multiple regression analyses provided moderate support for TPB. Three TPB constructs predicted 28.7% of the variance in intentions to engage in MVPA, and that PBC, but not intention, explained 3.4% of the variance in MVPA. Self-efficacy significantly affected intention and behaviour over and above the influence of TPB. Past behaviour had a small but significant improvement in the prediction of intention, but no improvement in the prediction of MVPA. Based on the results, interventions should target adolescent self-efficacy and PBC in physical activity participation. PMID:26148128

  17. An extended version of the theory of planned behaviour: the role of self-efficacy and past behaviour in predicting the physical activity of Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to use an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB), which incorporated additional self-efficacy and past behaviour, to predict the intention to engage in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and the MVPA level of Chinese adolescents. Questionnaires that focused on MVPA, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control (PBC), self-efficacy and past behaviour related to the MVPA engagement were administered to a sample of 488 young people. Multiple regression analyses provided moderate support for TPB. Three TPB constructs predicted 28.7% of the variance in intentions to engage in MVPA, and that PBC, but not intention, explained 3.4% of the variance in MVPA. Self-efficacy significantly affected intention and behaviour over and above the influence of TPB. Past behaviour had a small but significant improvement in the prediction of intention, but no improvement in the prediction of MVPA. Based on the results, interventions should target adolescent self-efficacy and PBC in physical activity participation.

  18. How big is the physical activity intention-behaviour gap? A meta-analysis using the action control framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. Rhodes; G.-J. de Bruijn

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The physical activity (PA) intention-behaviour gap is a topic of considerable contemporary research, given that most of our models used to understand physical activity suggest that intention is the proximal antecedent of behavioural enactment. The purpose of this study was to quantify the

  19. Monoterpenoid Terpinen-4-ol Exhibits Anticonvulsant Activity in Behavioural and Electrophysiological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin F. F. Nóbrega

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Terpinen-4-ol (4TRP is a monoterpenoid alcoholic component of essential oils obtained from several aromatic plants. We investigated the psychopharmacological and electrophysiological activities of 4TRP in male Swiss mice and Wistar rats. 4TRP was administered intraperitoneally (i.p. at doses of 25 to 200 mg/kg and intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v. at concentrations of 10, 20, and 40 ng/2 μL. For in vitro experiments, 4TRP concentrations were 0.1 mM and 1.0 mM. 4TRP (i.p. inhibited pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ- induced seizures, indicating anticonvulsant effects. Electroencephalographic recordings showed that 4TRP (i.c.v. protected against PTZ-induced seizures, corroborating the behavioural results. To determine whether 4TRP exerts anticonvulsant effects via regulation of GABAergic neurotransmission, we measured convulsions induced by 3-mercapto-propionic acid (3-MP. The obtained results showed involvement of the GABAergic system in the anticonvulsant action exerted by 4TRP, but flumazenil, a selective antagonist of the benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor, did not reverse the anticonvulsant effect, demonstrating that 4TRP does not bind to the benzodiazepine-binding site. Furthermore, 4TRP decreased the sodium current through voltage-dependent sodium channels, and thus its anticonvulsant effect may be related to changes in neuronal excitability because of modulation of these channels.

  20. Biomimetics Micro Robot with Active Hardware Neural Networks Locomotion Control and Insect-Like Switching Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Saito

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we presented the 4.0, 2.7, 2.5 mm, width, length, height size biomimetics micro robot system which was inspired by insects. The micro robot system was made from silicon wafer fabricated by micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS technology. The mechanical system of the robot was equipped with small size rotary type actuators, link mechanisms and six legs to realize the insect‐like switching behaviour. In addition, we constructed the active hardware neural networks (HNN by analogue CMOS circuits as a locomotion controlling system. The HNN utilized the pulse‐type hardware neuron model (P‐HNM as a basic component. The HNN outputs the driving pulses using synchronization phenomena such as biological neural networks. The driving pulses can operate the actuators of the biomimetics micro robot directly. Therefore, the HNN realized the robot control without using any software programs or A/D converters. The micro robot emulated the locomotion method and the neural networks of an insect with rotary type actuators, link mechanisms and HNN. The micro robot performed forward and backward locomotion, and also changed direction by inputting an external trigger pulse. The locomotion speed was 26.4 mm/min when the step width was 0.88 mm.

  1. Autistic-like behavioural and neurochemical changes in a mouse model of food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; Wu, Jiangbo; Koelink, Pim J; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Borre, Yuliya; Kas, Martien J H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy has been suggested to contribute to the expression of psychological and psychiatric traits, including disturbed social behaviour and repetitive behaviour inherent in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Most research in this field receives little attention, since fundamental evidence showin

  2. Rhythmicity in mice selected for extremes in stress reactivity: behavioural, endocrine and sleep changes resembling endophenotypes of major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadi Touma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, including hyper- or hypo-activity of the stress hormone system, plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders such as major depression (MD. Further biological hallmarks of MD are disturbances in circadian rhythms and sleep architecture. Applying a translational approach, an animal model has recently been developed, focusing on the deviation in sensitivity to stressful encounters. This so-called 'stress reactivity' (SR mouse model consists of three separate breeding lines selected for either high (HR, intermediate (IR, or low (LR corticosterone increase in response to stressors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: In order to contribute to the validation of the SR mouse model, our study combined the analysis of behavioural and HPA axis rhythmicity with sleep-EEG recordings in the HR/IR/LR mouse lines. We found that hyper-responsiveness to stressors was associated with psychomotor alterations (increased locomotor activity and exploration towards the end of the resting period, resembling symptoms like restlessness, sleep continuity disturbances and early awakenings that are commonly observed in melancholic depression. Additionally, HR mice also showed neuroendocrine abnormalities similar to symptoms of MD patients such as reduced amplitude of the circadian glucocorticoid rhythm and elevated trough levels. The sleep-EEG analyses, furthermore, revealed changes in rapid eye movement (REM and non-REM sleep as well as slow wave activity, indicative of reduced sleep efficacy and REM sleep disinhibition in HR mice. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, we could show that by selectively breeding mice for extremes in stress reactivity, clinically relevant endophenotypes of MD can be modelled. Given the importance of rhythmicity and sleep disturbances as biomarkers of MD, both animal and clinical studies on the interaction of behavioural, neuroendocrine and sleep parameters may

  3. Changes In Growth Culture FDA Activity Under Changing Growth Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Per Elberg; Eriksen, Thomas Juul; Jensen, Bjørn K.

    1992-01-01

    of the bacteria. The FDA activity/ATP ratio was calculated for different concentrations of autoclaved sludge. A faster decay rate of ATP relative to FDA hydrolysis activity was observed, thus causing changes in the ratio. Furthermore, comparison between values obtained from pure cultures and different soils...

  4. Evaluation of EMLA cream for preventing pain during tattooing of rabbits: changes in physiological, behavioural and facial expression responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C J Keating

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ear tattooing is a routine procedure performed on laboratory, commercial and companion rabbits for the purpose of identification. Although this procedure is potentially painful, it is usually performed without the provision of analgesia, so compromising animal welfare. Furthermore, current means to assess pain in rabbits are poor and more reliable methods are required. The objectives of this study were to assess the physiological and behavioural effects of ear tattooing on rabbits, evaluate the analgesic efficacy of topical local anaesthetic cream application prior to this procedure, and to develop a scale to assess pain in rabbits based on changes in facial expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a crossover study, eight New Zealand White rabbits each underwent four different treatments of actual or sham ear tattooing, with and without prior application of a topical local anaesthetic (lidocaine/prilocaine. Changes in immediate behaviour, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, serum corticosterone concentrations, facial expression and home pen behaviours were assessed. Changes in facial expression were examined to develop the Rabbit Grimace Scale in order to assess acute pain. Tattooing without EMLA cream resulted in significantly greater struggling behaviour and vocalisation, greater facial expression scores of pain, higher peak heart rate, as well as higher systolic and mean arterial blood pressure compared to all other treatments. Physiological and behavioural changes following tattooing with EMLA cream were similar to those in animals receiving sham tattoos with or without EMLA cream. Behavioural changes 1 hour post-treatment were minimal with no pain behaviours identifiable in any group. Serum corticosterone responses did not differ between sham and tattoo treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Ear tattooing causes transient and potentially severe pain in rabbits, which is almost completely prevented by prior application of local

  5. Neural and behavioural changes in male periadolescent mice after prolonged nicotine-MDMA treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, Philip A; Ishola, Azeez O; Laoye, Babafemi J; Olatunji, Babawale P; Bankole, Oluwamolakun O; Shallie, Philemon D; Ogundele, Olalekan M

    2016-02-01

    The interaction between MDMA and Nicotine affects multiple brain centres and neurotransmitter systems (serotonin, dopamine and glutamate) involved in motor coordination and cognition. In this study, we have elucidated the effect of prolonged (10 days) MDMA, Nicotine and a combined Nicotine-MDMA treatment on motor-cognitive neural functions. In addition, we have shown the correlation between the observed behavioural change and neural structural changes induced by these treatments in BALB/c mice. We observed that MDMA (2 mg/Kg body weight; subcutaneous) induced a decline in motor function, while Nicotine (2 mg/Kg body weight; subcutaneous) improved motor function in male periadolescent mice. In combined treatment, Nicotine reduced the motor function decline observed in MDMA treatment, thus no significant change in motor function for the combined treatment versus the control. Nicotine or MDMA treatment reduced memory function and altered hippocampal structure. Similarly, a combined Nicotine-MDMA treatment reduced memory function when compared with the control. Ultimately, the metabolic and structural changes in these neural systems were seen to vary for the various forms of treatment. It is noteworthy to mention that a combined treatment increased the rate of lipid peroxidation in brain tissue. PMID:26088184

  6. Behavioural activation system sensitivity is associated with cerebral μ-opioid receptor availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Tomi; Tuominen, Lauri; Manninen, Sandra; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Nuutila, Pirjo; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-08-01

    The reinforcement-sensitivity theory proposes that behavioural activation and inhibition systems (BAS and BIS, respectively) guide approach and avoidance behaviour in potentially rewarding and punishing situations. Their baseline activity presumably explains individual differences in behavioural dispositions when a person encounters signals of reward and harm. Yet, neurochemical bases of BAS and BIS have remained poorly understood. Here we used in vivo positron emission tomography with a µ-opioid receptor (MOR) specific ligand [(11)C]carfentanil to test whether individual differences in MOR availability would be associated with BAS or BIS. We scanned 49 healthy subjects and measured their BAS and BIS sensitivities using the BIS/BAS scales. BAS but not BIS sensitivity was positively associated with MOR availability in frontal cortex, amygdala, ventral striatum, brainstem, cingulate cortex and insula. Strongest associations were observed for the BAS subscale 'Fun Seeking'. Our results suggest that endogenous opioid system underlies BAS, and that differences in MOR availability could explain inter-individual differences in reward seeking behaviour. PMID:27053768

  7. Behavioural activation system sensitivity is associated with cerebral μ-opioid receptor availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Tomi; Tuominen, Lauri; Manninen, Sandra; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Nuutila, Pirjo; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-08-01

    The reinforcement-sensitivity theory proposes that behavioural activation and inhibition systems (BAS and BIS, respectively) guide approach and avoidance behaviour in potentially rewarding and punishing situations. Their baseline activity presumably explains individual differences in behavioural dispositions when a person encounters signals of reward and harm. Yet, neurochemical bases of BAS and BIS have remained poorly understood. Here we used in vivo positron emission tomography with a µ-opioid receptor (MOR) specific ligand [(11)C]carfentanil to test whether individual differences in MOR availability would be associated with BAS or BIS. We scanned 49 healthy subjects and measured their BAS and BIS sensitivities using the BIS/BAS scales. BAS but not BIS sensitivity was positively associated with MOR availability in frontal cortex, amygdala, ventral striatum, brainstem, cingulate cortex and insula. Strongest associations were observed for the BAS subscale 'Fun Seeking'. Our results suggest that endogenous opioid system underlies BAS, and that differences in MOR availability could explain inter-individual differences in reward seeking behaviour.

  8. Assessing behavioural effects of chronic HPA axis activation using conditional CRH-overexpressing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedic, Nina; Touma, Chadi; Romanowski, Cristoph P; Schieven, Marcel; Kühne, Claudia; Ableitner, Martin; Lu, Ailing; Holsboer, Florian; Wurst, Wolfgang; Kimura, Mayumi; Deussing, Jan M

    2012-07-01

    The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and its cognate receptors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. Hypersecretion of central CRH and elevated glucocorticoid levels, as a consequence of impaired feedback control, have been shown to accompany mood and anxiety disorders. However, a clear discrimination of direct effects of centrally hypersecreted CRH from those resulting from HPA axis activation has been difficult. Applying a conditional strategy, we have generated two conditional CRH-overexpressing mouse lines: CRH-COE ( Del ) mice overexpress CRH throughout the body, while CRH-COE ( APit ) mice selectively overexpress CRH in the anterior and intermediate lobe of the pituitary. Both mouse lines show increased basal plasma corticosterone levels and consequently develop signs of Cushing's syndrome. However, while mice ubiquitously overexpressing CRH exhibited increased anxiety-related behaviour, overexpression of CRH in the pituitary did not produce alterations in emotional behaviour. These results suggest that chronic hypercorticosteroidism alone is not sufficient to alter anxiety-related behaviour but rather that central CRH hyperdrive on its own or in combination with elevated glucocorticoids is responsible for the increase in anxiety-related behaviour. In conclusion, the generated mouse lines represent valuable animal models to study the consequences of chronic CRH overproduction and HPA axis activation.

  9. SEXUAL EXPLOITATION AND ABUSE BY UN PEACEKEEPERS: THE PSYCHOSOCIAL CONTEXT OF BEHAVIOUR CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Allais

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available United Nations peacekeepers have been subject to allegations of serious sexual misconduct for many years. Such incidents of sexual assault perpetrated by peacekeepers have been documented over the years in a number of countries. The violation of codes of conduct, particularly regarding sexual exploitation and abuse, damages the image and credibility of a peacekeeping operation. Victims of sexual exploitation and abuse suffer sever physical and psychological consequences.The sexual exploitation of children by peacekeepers is particularly insidious. Educational interventions and training initiatives to bring about behaviour change to address sexual exploitation and abuse must take cognisance of the way in which social identities are shaped in response to the life challenges posed by the relevant social and material world in which peacekeepers find themselves.

  10. Effect of transient change in strain rate on plastic flow behaviour of low carbon steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Ray; P Barat; P Mukherjee; A Sarkar; S K Bandyopadhyay

    2007-02-01

    Plastic flow behaviour of low carbon steel has been studied at room temperature during tensile deformation by varying the initial strain rate of 3.3 × 10-4 s-1 to a final strain rate ranging from 1.33 × 10-3 s-1 to 2 × 10-3 s-1 at a fixed engineering strain of 12%. Haasen plot revealed that the mobile dislocation density remained almost invariant at the juncture where there was a sudden increase in stress with a change in strain rate and the plastic flow was solely dependent on the velocity of mobile dislocations. In that critical regime, the variation of stress with time was fitted with a Boltzmann type Sigmoid function. The increase in stress was found to increase with final strain rate and the time elapsed in attaining these stress values showed a decreasing trend. Both of these parameters saturated asymptotically at a higher final strain rate.

  11. From mother to child: orbitofrontal cortex gyrification and changes of drinking behaviour during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Witt, Charlotte; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barbot, Alexis; Barker, Gareth J; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paus, Tomas; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Brühl, Rüdiger; Schumann, Gunter; Heinz, Andreas; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Adolescence is a common time for initiation of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders. Importantly, the neuro-anatomical foundation for later alcohol-related problems may already manifest pre-natally, particularly due to smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy. In this context, cortical gyrification is an interesting marker of neuronal development but has not been investigated as a risk factor for adolescent alcohol use. On magnetic resonance imaging scans of 595 14-year-old adolescents from the IMAGEN sample, we computed whole-brain mean curvature indices to predict change in alcohol-related problems over the following 2 years. Change of alcohol use-related problems was significantly predicted from mean curvature in left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Less gyrification of OFC was associated with an increase in alcohol use-related problems over the next 2 years. Moreover, lower gyrification in left OFC was related to pre-natal alcohol exposure, whereas maternal smoking during pregnancy had no effect. Current alcohol use-related problems of the biological mother had no effect on offsprings' OFC gyrification or drinking behaviour. The data support the idea that alcohol consumption during pregnancy mediates the development of neuro-anatomical phenotypes, which in turn constitute a risk factor for increasing problems due to alcohol consumption in a vulnerable stage of life. Maternal smoking during pregnancy or current maternal alcohol/nicotine consumption had no significant effect. The OFC mediates behaviours known to be disturbed in addiction, namely impulse control and reward processing. The results stress the importance of pre-natal alcohol exposure for later increases in alcohol use-related problems, mediated by structural brain characteristics. PMID:25913102

  12. Predictors of physical activity, healthy eating and being smoke-free in teens: a theory of planned behaviour approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnaghan, Donna A; Blanchard, Chris M; Rodgers, Wendy M; LaRosa, Jennifer N; MacQuarrie, Colleen R; MacLellan, Debbie L; Gray, Bob J

    2010-10-01

    This paper elicited context specific underlying beliefs for physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption and smoke-free behaviour from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), and then determined whether the TPB explained significant variation in intentions and behaviour over a 1 month period in a sample of grade 7-9 (age 12-16 years) adolescents. Eighteen individual interviews and one focus group were used to elicit student beliefs. Analyses of this data produced behavioural, normative and control beliefs which were put into a TPB questionnaire completed by 183 students at time 1 and time 2. The Path analyses from the main study showed that the attitude/intention relationship was moderately large for fruit and vegetable consumption and small to moderate for being smoke free. Perceived behavioural control had a large effect on being smoke free and a moderately large effect for fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Intention had a large direct effect on all three behaviours. Common (e.g. feel better, more energy) and behaviour-specific (e.g., prevent yellow fingers, control my weight) beliefs emerged across the three health behaviours. These novel findings, to the adolescent population, support the importance of specific attention being given to each of the behaviours in future multi-behavioural interventions.

  13. Predictors of physical activity, healthy eating and being smoke-free in teens: a theory of planned behaviour approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnaghan, Donna A; Blanchard, Chris M; Rodgers, Wendy M; LaRosa, Jennifer N; MacQuarrie, Colleen R; MacLellan, Debbie L; Gray, Bob J

    2010-10-01

    This paper elicited context specific underlying beliefs for physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption and smoke-free behaviour from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), and then determined whether the TPB explained significant variation in intentions and behaviour over a 1 month period in a sample of grade 7-9 (age 12-16 years) adolescents. Eighteen individual interviews and one focus group were used to elicit student beliefs. Analyses of this data produced behavioural, normative and control beliefs which were put into a TPB questionnaire completed by 183 students at time 1 and time 2. The Path analyses from the main study showed that the attitude/intention relationship was moderately large for fruit and vegetable consumption and small to moderate for being smoke free. Perceived behavioural control had a large effect on being smoke free and a moderately large effect for fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Intention had a large direct effect on all three behaviours. Common (e.g. feel better, more energy) and behaviour-specific (e.g., prevent yellow fingers, control my weight) beliefs emerged across the three health behaviours. These novel findings, to the adolescent population, support the importance of specific attention being given to each of the behaviours in future multi-behavioural interventions. PMID:20204952

  14. The limits of behaviour change theory: condom use and contexts of HIV risk in the Kolkata sex industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Catrin; Lambert, Helen

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses ethnographic data from a sex workers' HIV project in India to consider the appropriateness of individual, social/group and structural theories of health behaviour when applied to HIV-prevention initiatives. Existing theories are critiqued for their modernist representation of behaviour as determined by individual rational decision-making processes or by external structural forces, with inadequate recognition being given to the roles that human agency, subjective meaning and local context play in everyday actions. Analysis of sex workers' accounts of their sexual practices suggests that existing theories of health behaviour can only partially account for sexual behaviour change retrospectively and that they have limited predictive value with respect to the outcomes of individual sexual encounters. Our data show that these outcomes were, in fact, highly context dependent, while possibilities for action were ultimately strongly constrained by structural forces. Findings suggest that interventions need to adopt an integrated, structurally-oriented approach for promoting safer sexual practices in sex work settings. Recognising that no one model of health behaviour is likely to be adequate in explaining or predicting behaviour change encourages responsiveness to local people's agency, recognises the different (health- and non-health-related) registers of risk with which people operate and encourages flexibility according to local contingencies and contexts. PMID:18038279

  15. The assumption of self_ responsibility for health behaviour change in patients with hypertension from poor socio-economic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Stewart

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients with hypertension need to convert their knowledgeabout the disease and its management into meaningful action to be able to change their health behaviour. By doing this they are able to reduce the risk of the cardiovascular complications that are associated with hypertension If they can change their health behaviour it can be said that they have taken responsibility for their health. In this study a group of patients with hypertension who assumed responsibility for health behaviour change during a health behaviour modification programme was identified and compared to a group who did not. There were significant differences between the group that assumed responsibility for health behaviour change and the group that did not. The group that assumed responsibility:• had the support of a health care practitioner and a family member (p<0,000; • were employed (p=0.03; • were not anxious or depressed (p=0.07; • experienced their usual sex-lives (p=0.03; • did not have symptoms of heart pounding present (p=0.03. The adjusted odds ratio obtained from a logistic regression analysis showed a seven- times more likelihood ofpatients becoming responsible for their health if they were supported by their families and a health-care practitioner

  16. A systematic review of patient reported factors associated with uptake and completion of cardiovascular lifestyle behaviour change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Jenni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy lifestyles are an important facet of cardiovascular risk management. Unfortunately many individuals fail to engage with lifestyle change programmes. There are many factors that patients report as influencing their decisions about initiating lifestyle change. This is challenging for health care professionals who may lack the skills and time to address a broad range of barriers to lifestyle behaviour. Guidance on which factors to focus on during lifestyle consultations may assist healthcare professionals to hone their skills and knowledge leading to more productive patient interactions with ultimately better uptake of lifestyle behaviour change support. The aim of our study was to clarify which influences reported by patients predict uptake and completion of formal lifestyle change programmes. Methods A systematic narrative review of quantitative observational studies reporting factors (influences associated with uptake and completion of lifestyle behaviour change programmes. Quantitative observational studies involving patients at high risk of cardiovascular events were identified through electronic searching and screened against pre-defined selection criteria. Factors were extracted and organised into an existing qualitative framework. Results 374 factors were extracted from 32 studies. Factors most consistently associated with uptake of lifestyle change related to support from family and friends, transport and other costs, and beliefs about the causes of illness and lifestyle change. Depression and anxiety also appear to influence uptake as well as completion. Many factors show inconsistent patterns with respect to uptake and completion of lifestyle change programmes. Conclusion There are a small number of factors that consistently appear to influence uptake and completion of cardiovascular lifestyle behaviour change. These factors could be considered during patient consultations to promote a tailored approach to

  17. Graded hypoxia acts through a network of distributed peripheral oxygen chemoreceptors to produce changes in respiratory behaviour and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Tara A; Xu, Fenglian; Syed, Naweed I

    2015-07-01

    Respiratory behaviour relies critically upon sensory feedback from peripheral oxygen chemoreceptors. During environmental or systemic hypoxia, chemoreceptor input modulates respiratory central pattern generator activity to produce reflex-based increases in respiration and also shapes respiratory plasticity over longer timescales. The best-studied oxygen chemoreceptors are undoubtedly the mammalian carotid bodies; however, questions remain regarding this complex organ's role in shaping respiration in response to varying oxygen levels. Furthermore, many taxa possess distinct oxygen chemoreceptors located within the lungs, airways and cardiovasculature, but the functional advantage of multiple chemoreceptor sites is unclear. In this study, it is demonstrated that a distributed network of peripheral oxygen chemoreceptors exists in Lymnaea stagnalis and significantly modulates aerial respiration. Specifically, Lymnaea breath frequency and duration represent parameters that are shaped by interactions between hypoxic severity and its time-course. Using a combination of behaviour and electrophysiology approaches, the chemosensory pathways underlying hypoxia-induced changes in breath frequency/duration were explored. The current findings demonstrate that breath frequency is uniquely modulated by the known osphradial ganglion oxygen chemoreceptors during moderate hypoxia, while a newly discovered area of pneumostome oxygen chemoreception serves a similar function specifically during more severe hypoxia. Together, these findings suggest that multiple oxygen chemosensory sites, each with their own sensory and modulatory properties, act synergistically to form a functionally distributed network that dynamically shapes respiration in response to changing systemic or environmental oxygen levels. These distributed networks may represent an evolutionarily conserved strategy vis-à-vis respiratory adaptability and have significant implications for the understanding of fundamental

  18. Why don't we change our mobility behaviours ? Acceptance and hindrance to a change: the case study of the Greater Paris Region as compared to Nagoya

    OpenAIRE

    ROCCI, A.

    2006-01-01

    We all know the harmful effects of car use, on social, environmental and urban aspects. But despite the urgency to reduce car use, in practice it seems difficult to bring about changes in mobility behaviours. My purpose is to understand why most people are not prepared to refrain from using cars in urban areas and what would make them change. I attempt to identify limiting factors to a behavioural change and the acceptability of more sustainable mobility practices. First I will analyse the mo...

  19. Associations between Aspects of Friendship Networks, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviour among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri Jo Sawka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescent friendships have been linked to physical activity levels; however, network characteristics have not been broadly examined. Method. In a cross-sectional analysis of 1061 adolescents (11–15 years, achieving 60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and participating in over 2 hours/day of sedentary behaviour were determined based on friendship network characteristics (density; proportion of active/sedentary friends; betweenness centrality; popularity; clique membership and perceived social support. Results. Adolescents with no friendship nominations participated in less MVPA. For boys and girls, a ten percent point increase in active friends was positively associated with achievement of 60 minutes/day of MVPA (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02–1.21, OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.02–1.27, resp.. For boys, higher social support from friends was negatively associated with achieving 60 minutes/day of MVPA (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.42–0.96. Compared with low density networks, boys in higher density networks were more likely to participate in over 2 hours/day of sedentary behaviour (OR 2.93; 95% CI 1.32–6.49. Social support from friends also modified associations between network characteristics and MVPA and sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Different network characteristics appeared to have different consequences. The proportion of active close friends was associated with MVPA, while network density was associated with sedentary behaviour. This poses challenges for intervention design.

  20. Recent temporal trends in sleep duration, domain-specific sedentary behaviour and physical activity. A survey among 25-79-year-old Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadahl, Mette; Andreasen, Anne Helms; Hammer-Helmich, Lene;

    2013-01-01

    cross-sectional population-based surveys of 25-79-year-old inhabitants were conducted in The Capital Region of Denmark in 2007 (N = 69.800, response rate 52.3%) and 2010 (N = 77.517, response rate 54.8%). Information on sedentary behaviour and physical activity was obtained from self......Background: Prevalence of sedentary behaviour is high in many countries, but little is known about temporal trends in sitting time. Objective: To examine temporal changes in sleep and domain-specific sedentary behaviour and moderate to vigorous leisure time physical activity (MVPA). Methods: Two......-report questionnaire and sociodemographic information from central registers. Data were weighted for survey design and for non-response and were analysed by multiple regression analyses. Results: In 2007, the entire survey population reported a mean daily sleeping duration of 7.4 hours, leisure time sitting of 3...

  1. Adolescent Weight Status and Related Behavioural Factors: Web Survey of Physical Activity and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E. Storey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To identify whether non-overweight students were different from their overweight or obese peers with respect to diet, suboptimal meal behaviours, and physical activity using a self-administered web-based survey. Methods. 4097 adolescents living in Alberta, Canada completed Web-SPAN (Web Survey of Physical Activity and Nutrition. Students were classified as overweight or obese, and differences were described in terms of nutrient intakes, physical activity, and meal behaviours. Results. Non-overweight students consumed significantly more carbohydrate and fibre, and significantly less fat and high calorie beverages, and had a higher frequency of consuming breakfast and snacks compared to overweight or obese students. Both non-overweight and overweight students were significantly more active than obese students. Conclusions. This research supports the need to target suboptimal behaviours such as high calorie beverage consumption, fat intake, breakfast skipping, and physical inactivity. School nutrition policies and mandatory physical education for all students may help to improve weight status in adolescents.

  2. Demand response to improved walking infrastructure: A study into the economics of walking and health behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Alberto; Hutchinson, W George; Hunter, Ruth F; Tully, Mark A; Kee, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Walking is the most common form of moderate-intensity physical activity among adults, is widely accessible and especially appealing to obese people. Most often policy makers are interested in valuing the effect on walking of changes in some characteristics of a neighbourhood, the demand response for walking, of infrastructure changes. A positive demand response to improvements in the walking environment could help meet the public health target of 150 min of at least moderate-intensity physical activity per week. We model walking in an individual's local neighbourhood as a 'weak complement' to the characteristics of the neighbourhood itself. Walking is affected by neighbourhood characteristics, substitutes, and individual's characteristics, including their opportunity cost of time. Using compensating variation, we assess the economic benefits of walking and how walking behaviour is affected by improvements to the neighbourhood. Using a sample of 1209 respondents surveyed over a 12 month period (Feb 2010-Jan 2011) in East Belfast, United Kingdom, we find that a policy that increased walkability and people's perception of access to shops and facilities would lead to an increase in walking of about 36 min/person/week, valued at £13.65/person/week. When focussing on inactive residents, a policy that improved the walkability of the area would lead to guidelines for physical activity being reached by only 12.8% of the population who are currently inactive. Additional interventions would therefore be needed to encourage inactive residents to achieve the recommended levels of physical activity, as it appears that interventions that improve the walkability of an area are particularly effective in increasing walking among already active citizens, and, among the inactive ones, the best response is found among healthier, younger and wealthier citizens.

  3. Demand response to improved walking infrastructure: A study into the economics of walking and health behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Alberto; Hutchinson, W George; Hunter, Ruth F; Tully, Mark A; Kee, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Walking is the most common form of moderate-intensity physical activity among adults, is widely accessible and especially appealing to obese people. Most often policy makers are interested in valuing the effect on walking of changes in some characteristics of a neighbourhood, the demand response for walking, of infrastructure changes. A positive demand response to improvements in the walking environment could help meet the public health target of 150 min of at least moderate-intensity physical activity per week. We model walking in an individual's local neighbourhood as a 'weak complement' to the characteristics of the neighbourhood itself. Walking is affected by neighbourhood characteristics, substitutes, and individual's characteristics, including their opportunity cost of time. Using compensating variation, we assess the economic benefits of walking and how walking behaviour is affected by improvements to the neighbourhood. Using a sample of 1209 respondents surveyed over a 12 month period (Feb 2010-Jan 2011) in East Belfast, United Kingdom, we find that a policy that increased walkability and people's perception of access to shops and facilities would lead to an increase in walking of about 36 min/person/week, valued at £13.65/person/week. When focussing on inactive residents, a policy that improved the walkability of the area would lead to guidelines for physical activity being reached by only 12.8% of the population who are currently inactive. Additional interventions would therefore be needed to encourage inactive residents to achieve the recommended levels of physical activity, as it appears that interventions that improve the walkability of an area are particularly effective in increasing walking among already active citizens, and, among the inactive ones, the best response is found among healthier, younger and wealthier citizens. PMID:26347960

  4. Italy: Delayed adaptation of social institutions to changes in family behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Laura Zanatta

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering its very low fertility and high age at childbearing, Italy stands alone in the European context and can hardly be compared with other countries, even those in the Southern region. The fertility decline occurred without any radical change in family formation. Individuals still choose (religious marriage for leaving their parental home and rates of marital dissolution and subsequent step-family formation are low. Marriage is being postponed and fewer people marry. The behaviours of young people are particularly alarming. There is a delay in all life cycle stages: end of education, entry into the labour market, exit from the parental family, entry into union, and managing an independent household. Changes in family formation and childbearing are constrained and slowed down by a substantial delay (or even failure with which the institutional and cultural framework has adapted to changes in economic and social conditions, in particular to the growth of the service sector, the increase in female employment and the female level of education. In a Catholic country that has been led for almost half a century by a political party with a Catholic ideology, the paucity of attention to childhood and youth seems incomprehensible. Social policies focus on marriage-based families already formed and on the phases of life related to pregnancy, delivery, and the first months of a newborn's life, while forming a family and childbearing choices are considered private affairs and neglected.

  5. Brief Report: Understanding Intention to Be Physically Active and Physical Activity Behaviour in Adolescents from a Low Socio-Economic Status Background: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J.; Rivis, Amanda; Jordan, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this brief report is to report on the utility of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) for predicting the physical activity intentions and behaviour of British adolescents from lower-than-average socio-economic backgrounds. A prospective questionnaire design was employed with 197, 13-14 year olds (76 males, 121 females). At time 1…

  6. Predictors of physical activity among rural and small town breast cancer survivors: an application of the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Jeff K; Lavallee, Celeste; Culos-Reed, Nicole S; Trudeau, Marc G

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the utility of the two-component theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in understanding physical activity intentions and behaviour in rural and small town breast cancer survivors. The secondary objective was to elicit the most common behavioural, normative and control beliefs of rural and small town survivors regarding physical activity. Using a cross-sectional survey design, 524 rural and small town breast cancer survivors completed a mailed survey that assessed physical activity and TPB variables. Physical activity intention explained 12% of the variance in physical activity behaviour (p behavioural, normative and control beliefs were elicited from the sample. The two-component TPB framework appears to be a suitable model to initiate an understanding of physical activity determinants among rural and small town breast cancer survivors. These data can be used in the development and establishment of physical activity behaviour interventions and health promotion materials designed to facilitate physical activity behaviour among rural and small town breast cancer survivors. PMID:22409699

  7. Perceived family functioning and friendship quality: cross-sectional associations with physical activity and sedentary behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Atkin, Andrew J.; Corder, Kirsten; Goodyer, Ian M.; Bamber, Diane J; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Søren; Valerie J. Dunn; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association of adolescent-reported family functioning and friendship quality with objectively-measured moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary time, and self-reported sedentary behaviours. Methods: Data are from the ROOTS study. MVPA and sedentary time were assessed using combined movement and heart rate sensing. Time spent TV viewing, using the internet, playing video games, doing homework and reading for pleasure was self-rep...

  8. Modelling demographic behaviours in the French microsimulation model Destinie: An analysis of future change in completed fertility

    OpenAIRE

    I. ROBERT-BOBEE

    2001-01-01

    Future change in partnerships and fertility are not easy to forecast. However, the fertility of the youngest cohorts will depend on those behaviours. The way young people start a partnership has changed a lot during the past three decades. Many couples are now unmarried, union disruptions and step-families are more frequent, young people leave school later and the age of motherhood has increased. Microsimulation can provide a measure of the change in future completed fertility, which helps to...

  9. Joint associations of multiple leisure-time sedentary behaviours and physical activity with obesity in Australian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmon Jo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Television viewing and physical inactivity are independently associated with risk of obesity. However, how the combination of multiple leisure-time sedentary behaviours (LTSB and physical activity (LTPA may contribute to the risk of obesity is not well understood. We examined the joint associations of multiple sedentary behaviours and physical activity with the odds of being overweight or obese. Methods A mail survey collected the following data from adults living in Adelaide, Australia (n = 2210: self-reported height, weight, six LTSB, LTPA and sociodemographic variables. Participants were categorised into four groups according to their level of LTSB (dichotomised into low and high levels around the median and LTPA (sufficient: ≥ 2.5 hr/wk; insufficient: 2 by the combined categories. Results The odds of being overweight or obese relative to the reference category (low sedentary behaviour time and sufficient physical activity were: 1.54 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20–1.98 for the combination of low sedentary behaviour time and insufficient physical activity; 1.55 (95% CI: 1.20–2.02 for the combination of high sedentary behaviour time and sufficient physical activity; and 2.26 (95% CI: 1.75–2.92 for the combination of high sedentary behaviour time and insufficient physical activity. Conclusion Those who spent more time in sedentary behaviours (but were sufficiently physically active and those who were insufficiently active (but spent less time in sedentary behaviour had a similar risk of being overweight or obese. Reducing leisure-time sedentary behaviours may be as important as increasing leisure-time physical activity as a strategy to fight against obesity in adults.

  10. Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change

    OpenAIRE

    Dake Fidelia AA; Tagoe Henry A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Many countries have adopted health policies that are targeted at reducing the risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. These policies promote a healthy population by encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours. This paper examines healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults by comparing behaviours before and after the introduction of a national health policy. The paper also explores the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with he...

  11. Can we use digital life-log images to investigate active and sedentary travel behaviour? Results from a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges Steve; Berry Emma; Doherty Aiden; Kelly Paul; Batterham Alan M; Foster Charlie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Active travel such as walking and cycling has potential to increase physical activity levels in sedentary individuals. Motorised car travel is a sedentary behaviour that contributes to carbon emissions. There have been recent calls for technology that will improve our ability to measure these travel behaviours, and in particular evaluate modes and volumes of active versus sedentary travel. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the potential efficacy of a new el...

  12. Impact of a physical activity intervention program on cognitive predictors of behaviour among adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes (ProActive randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Stephen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the ProActive Trial an intensive theory-based intervention program was no more effective than theory-based brief advice in increasing objectively measured physical activity among adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes. We aimed to illuminate these findings by assessing whether the intervention program changed cognitions about increasing activity, defined by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, in ways consistent with the theory. Methods N = 365 sedentary participants aged 30–50 years with a parental history of Type 2 diabetes were randomised to brief advice alone or to brief advice plus the intervention program delivered face-to-face or by telephone. Questionnaires at baseline, 6 and 12 months assessed cognitions about becoming more physically active. Analysis of covariance was used to test intervention impact. Bootstrapping was used to test multiple mediation of intervention impact. Results At 6 months, combined intervention groups (face-to-face and telephone reported that they found increasing activity more enjoyable (affective attitude, d = .25, and they perceived more instrumental benefits (e.g., improving health (d = .23 and more control (d = .32 over increasing activity than participants receiving brief advice alone. Stronger intentions (d = .50 in the intervention groups than the brief advice group at 6 months were partially explained by affective attitude and perceived control. At 12 months, intervention groups perceived more positive instrumental (d = .21 and affective benefits (d = .29 than brief advice participants. The intervention did not change perceived social pressure to increase activity. Conclusion Lack of effect of the intervention program on physical activity over and above brief advice was consistent with limited and mostly small short-term effects on cognitions. Targeting affective benefits (e.g., enjoyment, social interaction and addressing barriers to physical activity may strengthen intentions, but

  13. Pyrazine analogues are active components of wolf urine that induce avoidance and freezing behaviours in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumi Osada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The common grey wolf (Canis lupus is found throughout the entire Northern hemisphere and preys on many kinds of mammals. The urine of the wolf contains a number of volatile constituents that can potentially be used for predator-prey chemosignalling. Although wolf urine is put to practical use to keep rabbits, rodents, deer and so on at bay, we are unaware of any prior behavioural studies or chemical analyses regarding the fear-inducing impact of wolf urine on laboratory mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three wolf urine samples harvested at different times were used in this study. All of them induced stereotypical fear-associated behaviors (i.e., avoidance and freezing in female mice. The levels of certain urinary volatiles varied widely among the samples. To identify the volatiles that provoked avoidance and freezing, behavioural, chemical, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. One of the urine samples (sample C had higher levels of 2,6-dimethylpyrazine (DMP, trimethylpyrazine (TMP, and 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethyl pyrazine (EDMP compared with the other two urine samples (samples A and B. In addition, sample C induced avoidance and freezing behaviours more effectively than samples A and B. Moreover, only sample C led to pronounced expression of Fos-immunoreactive cells in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB of female mice. Freezing behaviour and Fos immunoreactivity were markedly enhanced when the mice were confronted with a mixture of purified DMP, TMP, and EDMP vs. any one pyrazine alone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current results suggest that wolf urinary volatiles can engender aversive and fear-related responses in mice. Pyrazine analogues were identified as the predominant active components among these volatiles to induce avoidance and freezing behaviours via stimulation of the murine AOB.

  14. CB1 receptor deficiency decreases wheel-running activity: consequences on emotional behaviours and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreucq, Sarah; Koehl, Muriel; Abrous, Djoher N; Marsicano, Giovanni; Chaouloff, Francis

    2010-07-01

    Chronic voluntary wheel-running activity has been reported to hypersensitise central CB1 receptors in mice. On the other hand, pharmacological findings suggest that the CB1 receptor could be involved in wheel-running behaviour and in running-induced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. We analysed wheel-running behaviour for 6 weeks and measured its consequences on hippocampal neurogenesis in CB1 knockout (CB1(-/-)) animals, compared to wild-type (CB1(+/+)) littermates. Because wheel running has been shown to affect locomotor reactivity in novel environments, memory for aversive events and depression-like behaviours, we also assessed these behaviours in control and running CB1(+/+) and CB1(-/-) mice. When compared with running CB1(+/+) mice, the distance covered weekly by CB1(-/-) mice was decreased by 30-40%, an observation accounted for by decreased time spent and maximal velocity on the wheels. Analyses of running distances with respect to the light/dark cycle revealed that mutant covered less distance throughout both the inactive and the active phases of that cycle. Locomotion in an activity cage, exploration in an open field, and immobility time in the forced swim test proved insensitive to chronic wheel running in either genotype. Wheel running, per se, did not influence the expression and extinction of cued fear memory but counteracted in a time-dependent manner the deficiency of extinction measured in CB1(-/-) mice. Hippocampal neurogenesis, assessed by doublecortin labelling of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus, was lowered by 40% in control CB1(-/-) mice, compared to control CB1(+/+) mice. Although CB1(-/-) mice ran less than their wild-type littermates, the 6-week running protocol increased neurogenesis to similar extents (37-39%) in both genotypes. This study suggests that mouse CB1 receptors control wheel running but not its neurogenic consequences in the hippocampus.

  15. Category activation effects in judgment and behaviour: the moderating role of perceived comparability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Henk; Dijksterhuis, Ap

    2002-03-01

    Previous research on category activation effects demonstrates that extreme exemplar priming can lead to contrast effects as well as assimilation effects in target judgments. Two experiments extended this line of research by investigating the moderating role of perceived comparability, that is, the extent to which the exemplar and target are believed to belong to the same category and thus can be compared. In both experiments, participants judged the speed of a person displayed on a picture following priming with animals exemplifying either extreme speed ('cheetah') or extreme slowness ('turtle'). In addition, in the second experiment a behavioural measure was included. In the first experiment individual differences concerning the perceived comparability between animals and humans were assessed. In the second experiment perceived comparability was experimentally varied. Results showed that the direction of category activation effects (i.e. assimilation versus contrast) depended on the extent to which the prime and target categories were seen as comparable. Contrast effects on both judgments and behaviour emerged when the prime and the target category were perceived as comparable. However, assimilation effects on judgment and behaviour ensued when the prime and target category were not perceived as comparable.

  16. Changes in active commuting and changes in physical activity in adults: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, Louise; Panter, Jenna; Heinen, Eva; Prins, Richard; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Active travel is associated with greater physical activity, but there is a dearth of research examining this relationship over time. We examined the longitudinal associations between change in time spent in active commuting and changes in recreational and total physical activity. Methods Adult commuters working in Cambridge, United Kingdom completed questionnaires in 2009 and 2012, and a sub-set completed objective physical activity monitoring in 2010 and 2012. Commuting was assess...

  17. Dynamic changes of adenosine triphosphate enzyme activity in encephalon tissue of rat with posttraumatic stress disorder psycho and behaviour abnormity%创伤后应激障碍样情感行为异常大鼠脑组织ATP酶活性的动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖凯

    2004-01-01

    AIM:To discuss the pathophysiology basis of posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD like) psycho and behaviour abnormity in attempt to provide a new method in treatments. METHODS:Seventy two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups:hippocampus under threshold electric stimulation group(SE,n=32),hippocampus electrode burying control group(CE,n=32) and normal control group(NC,n=8).Hippocampus were continuously stimulated by constant monopulse electricity,with 25 Hz frequency,1 ms wave length,10 s cluster length,7 min cluster interval and 100 μ A strength under eclampsia threshold. The enzymatic activity changes of Na+ K+ adenosine triphosphate enzyme(ATPase) and Ca2+ ATPase in hippocampal homogenate of the experimental animals and mitochondria were detected in quantitation.RESULTS:The enzymatic activity of Na+-K+-ATPase in hippocampus mitochondria decreased obviously(0.56±0.15)mmol/(kg·s)(F=4.348,P<0.01) in under-threshold electric stimulation group atfer 12 hours of electric timulations as well as(0.61±0.17) mmol/(kg·s) (P<0.05) after 48 hours,which were significantly lower than NC group (0.84±0.22) mmol/(kg·s) the enzymatic activity of Ca2+-ATPase in hippocampus mitochondria also decreased obviously into (0.53±0.14) mmol/(kg·s) (F=4.999,P<0.05) after 24 hours of electric stimulations as well as (0.60±0.16) mmol/(kg·s) after 72 hours, which were significantly lower than NC group (0.83±0.22) mmol/(kg·s).CONCLUSION:Functional damages of the hippocampus, especially the Na K pump and Ca2+ pump in hippocampal mitochondria may have an important significance in the occurrence and development of long term PTSD like psycho and behaviour abnormity in experimental animals.%目的:探讨创伤后应激障碍( posttraumatic stress disorder,PTSD)样精神与行为异常的病理生理基础,为其治疗途径提供新思路. 方法:将 72只雄性 Wistar大鼠随机分组为海马阈下电刺激组( SE, n=32)、海马电极埋植对照组( CE, n=32)

  18. Processes of Change in Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder : Current Status and Some Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polman, Annemiek; Bouman, Theo K.; van Hout, Wiljo J. P. J.; de Jong, Peter J.; den Boer, Johan A.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper discusses theoretical and methodological issues involved in the processes of change in cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Treatment outcome studies showed that CBT is effective in reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms. However, why and ho

  19. Consumer willingness to invest money and time for benefits of lifestyle behaviour change: An application of the contingent valuation method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F.G. Alayli-Goebbels (Adrienne F.G.); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); A.J.H.A. Ament (André); N.K. de Vries (Nanne); S.D.M. Bot (Sandra); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Objective: To use contingent valuation (CV) to derive individual consumer values for both health and broader benefits of a public-health intervention directed at lifestyle behaviour change (LBC) and to examine the feasibility and validity of the method. Method: Particip

  20. Improving Exposure to Internet-Delivered Health Behaviour Change Interventions: An exploration of determinants and dissemination strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Brouwer (Wendy)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe Internet has become the key medium to obtain health information for many people. This makes the Internet an attractive and increasingly used medium for the delivery of health behaviour change programs aiming to contribute to the primary prevention of chronic diseases. Although in the

  1. Development of Self-Produced Locomotion in the First Year: Changes in Parent Perceptions and Infant Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Rebecca R.; Thompson, Ross A.

    2011-01-01

    Self-produced locomotion is regarded as a setting event for other developmental transitions in infancy with important implications for socioemotional development and parent-child interaction. Using an age-held-constant design, this study examined changes in reported infant behaviour and maternal proactive/reactive control and compared them with…

  2. Statin utilization according to indication and age: A Danish cohort study on changing prescribing and purchasing behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Vass, Mikkel; Hendriksen, Carsten;

    2012-01-01

    and age during 1996-2009, and to analyse changing prescribing and purchasing behaviour during time intervals (driver periods) a priori defined by potential influential factors. Methods: A nationwide cohort (N = 4,998,580) was followed in Danish individual-level registries. Based on a hierarchy of register...

  3. FEMALE EDUCATION AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH CHANGES IN SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC BEHAVIOUR: EVIDENCE FROM INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkotoky, Kakoli; Unisa, Sayeed

    2015-09-01

    Education is a crucial factor in influencing the pattern and timing of marriage for women, and the changes in levels of female literacy will also change the dynamics of family formation. India has experienced consistent improvement in levels of female literacy; therefore, this study examined the association of women's education with the changes in their demographic behaviour in the Indian context. The central idea of the paper is to examine the differences in age at marriage and first birth, choice of marriage partner and the number of children ever born based on educational attainment of women. In addition, the study examined incongruence in years of schooling and discontinuation from school, for children based on education of the mother. The study utilized data from the third round of District Level Household and Facility Survey. The sample constituted 344,164 ever-married women aged 35 years and above with surviving children aged 5-20 years. The results imply that women with higher education are more likely to marry late and have fewer children compared with less educated women. Accordingly, increase in education of women also increases the probability of marrying men with better education than themselves. The study further observed that education of wife has a greater association with the number of children ever born than the education of husband. At the same time, incongruence in years of schooling and drop-out from school are both high for children of uneducated women. The study also found that the children from urban areas are more likely to drop out than their rural counterparts. In addition to education of the mother, number and composition of children in the family and economic condition of the household are some other factors that influence the educational attainment of children.

  4. Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dake Fidelia AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries have adopted health policies that are targeted at reducing the risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. These policies promote a healthy population by encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours. This paper examines healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults by comparing behaviours before and after the introduction of a national health policy. The paper also explores the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with healthy lifestyle behaviour. Method Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regression techniques were employed on two nationally representative surveys (2003 World Health Survey (Ghana and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey to arrive at the results. Results While the prevalence of some negative lifestyle behaviours like smoking has reduced others like alcohol consumption has increased. Relatively fewer people adhered to consuming the recommended amount of fruit and vegetable servings per day in 2008 compared to 2003. While more females (7.0% exhibited healthier lifestyles, more males (9.0% exhibited risky lifestyle behaviours after the introduction of the policy. Conclusion The improvement in healthy lifestyle behaviours among female adult Ghanaians will help promote healthy living and potentially lead to a reduction in the prevalence of obesity among Ghanaian women. The increase in risky lifestyle behaviour among adult male Ghanaians even after the introduction of the health policy could lead to an increase in the risk of non-communicable diseases among men and the resultant burden of disease on them and their families will push more people into poverty.

  5. Measurement and Intervention on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviours in Bariatric Surgery Patients: Emphasis on Mobile Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Dale S; Thomas, J Graham

    2015-11-01

    Physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours (SB-i.e. activities involving low-energy expenditure and a sitting/reclining posture) may each have significant implications for weight loss and other bariatric surgery outcomes. While early studies suggested that patients typically comply with clinical recommendations to adopt habitual PA, these data were based on retrospective questionnaires. Conversely, recent studies incorporating mobile health (mHealth) technologies (e.g. objective monitors), which assess PA and SB in real time and in the natural environment, show that most patients are inactive and highly sedentary pre-operatively and only make modest changes in these behaviours postoperatively. In addition to using mHealth technologies for obtaining accurate and detailed information on PA and SB, they are increasingly being employed to intervene on patients' PA and SB and/or evaluate intervention outcomes. Researchers and clinicians are encouraged to consider the benefits of using mHealth technology when studying and treating PA and SB in bariatric surgery patients.

  6. Solar activities and Climate change hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hady, A. A., II

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the geological history of Earth, climate change is one of the recurrent natural hazards. In recent history, the impact of man brought about additional climatic change. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary, both solar activities and building-up of green-house gases effect added to the climatic changes. This paper discusses if the global worming caused by the green-house gases effect will be equal or less than the global cooling resulting from the solar activities. In this respect, we refer to the Modern Dalton Minimum (MDM) which stated that starting from year 2005 for the next 40 years; the earth's surface temperature will become cooler than nowadays. However the degree of cooling, previously mentioned in old Dalton Minimum (c. 210 y ago), will be minimized by building-up of green-house gases effect during MDM period. Regarding to the periodicities of solar activities, it is clear that now we have a new solar cycle of around 210 years. Keywords: Solar activities; solar cycles; palaeoclimatic changes; Global cooling; Modern Dalton Minimum.

  7. Spurring climate-friendly behaviour change: a case study of the university of Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is definitely a huge challenge for the 21. century. Models in energy economics show that efficiency gains through energy productivity improvement, technical change and technological innovations towards lower carbon technologies will not be sufficient to achieve the ultimate objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), i.e. stabilize greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Mitigation actions that stem from individual behaviour change towards a lower individual carbon footprint are also part of the response to the climate challenge. Depending on their current behaviour, individuals may focus on many different actions to reduce their carbon footprint, be they at home, at work or any other place: for example, they can use the public transportation system or ride their bike instead of driving their car, video conference instead of flying to a conference or a meeting, turn the heating system off if they open the window when it is cold outside or if they are out of town for some time, turn the lights off when leaving a room, set their computer in sleep mode when not using it for some time, install sockets to shut off the standby modes of their multi-media devices, reduce the amount of waste they generate by purchasing products in bulk or with little packaging, consume local products rather than goods imported from other regions or countries, follow a diet with a low-meat content, and much more. All those actions, as insignificant as they seem to be in terms of individual energy savings and greenhouse gas emission reductions, do have a real impact at the macro-economic level. Furthermore, they are often 'low-hanging fruit' options, easy to implement at nearly zero cost. Studies that illustrate this point are numerous and cover all GHG emitting sectors. For example, lowering room temperatures by 1 deg. C is estimated to save 7

  8. [Reactive changes in psychological condition and behaviour in children of parents with cancer--results of an epidemiological survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Ernst, Johanna Christine; Beierlein, Volker; Inhestern, Laura; Holes, Sarah; Möller, Birgit; Romer, Georg; Koch, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Children of cancer patients are at risk for developing psychological symptoms. The parental appraisal of the child's psychological condition is a key variable for the utilization of child-centred psychosocial services. This study aimed at the systematic analysis of parental appraisals of changes in the emotional condition or behaviour of their children. We conducted an epidemiologic survey with a sample size of 1,809 patients with different cancer diagnoses, giving information about 2,581 children aged 21 years or younger at time of diagnosis. Quantitative information on children's distress during the disease and on changes in psychological condition or behaviour and qualitative information on the kind of changes were analysed. About half of the children were considered to be psychologically strongly affected during the disease. For about 25 % negative changes in psychological condition or behaviour are reported, positive changes are reported for 20 % of the children. Negative changes are most frequently described in young children (up to five years), positive changes are most frequently described in young adults (18 to 21 years). The results indicate that from the cancer parent's view many children are substantially distressed. Thus, the implementation of additional preventive psychosocial services seems reasonable and necessary. PMID:22950334

  9. Perspectives and reflections on the practice of behaviour change communication for infant and young child feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, Gretel H; Martin, Stephanie L; van Liere, Marti J; Fabrizio, Cecilia S

    2016-04-01

    Behaviour change communication (BCC) is a critical component of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) interventions. In this study we asked BCC practitioners working in low- and middle-income countries to participate in an examination of BCC practice. We focus here on results of their personal reflections related to larger issues of practice. We used a combination of iterative triangulation and snowball sampling procedures to obtain a sample of 29 BCC professionals. Major themes include (1) participants using tools and guidelines to structure their work, and many consider their organisation's tools to be their most important contribution to the field; (2) they value research to facilitate programme design and implementation; (3) half felt research needed to increase; (4) they have a strong commitment to respecting cultural beliefs and culturally appropriate programming; (5) they are concerned about lack of a strong theoretical foundation for their work. Based on participants' perspectives and the authors' reflections, we identified the following needs: (1) conducting a systematic examination of the alternative theoretical structures that are available for nutrition BCC, followed by a review of the evidence base and suggestions for future programmatic research to fill the gaps in knowledge; (2) developing a checklist of common patterns to facilitate efficiency in formative research; (3) developing an analytic compendium of current IYCF BCC guidelines and tools; (4) developing tools and guidelines that cover the full programme process, including use of innovative channels to support 'scaling up nutrition'; and (5) continued support for programmes of proven effectiveness.

  10. A mathematical model for the dynamics of HIV/AIDS with gradual behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryarama, F; Mugisha, J Y T; Luboobi, L S

    2006-03-01

    An HIV/AIDS model that incorporates gradual behaviour change is formulated with a variable force of infection for the adult population. The variability is modelled using a general function of time since introduction of the initial infective and exemplified for three specific functions. Expressions for the time taken for the reproductive number to reduce to unity and expressions for the time taken to attain a stationary steady state are deduced and discussed. Model projections for urban, peri-urban and rural Uganda are compared with corresponding antenatal clinic sites prevalence trends. The analysis shows that the dramatic decline in HIV prevalence in Uganda in the early 1990s was only possible through drastic declines in the force of infection. Since prevalence was high and reductions in frequency of sexual acts was minimal, the huge reduction could be attributed to reductions in probability of transmission per sexual act probably due to increased selective condom use among high risk sexual partnerships since overall condom use was low. PMID:21812579

  11. Perspectives and reflections on the practice of behaviour change communication for infant and young child feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, Gretel H; Martin, Stephanie L; van Liere, Marti J; Fabrizio, Cecilia S

    2016-04-01

    Behaviour change communication (BCC) is a critical component of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) interventions. In this study we asked BCC practitioners working in low- and middle-income countries to participate in an examination of BCC practice. We focus here on results of their personal reflections related to larger issues of practice. We used a combination of iterative triangulation and snowball sampling procedures to obtain a sample of 29 BCC professionals. Major themes include (1) participants using tools and guidelines to structure their work, and many consider their organisation's tools to be their most important contribution to the field; (2) they value research to facilitate programme design and implementation; (3) half felt research needed to increase; (4) they have a strong commitment to respecting cultural beliefs and culturally appropriate programming; (5) they are concerned about lack of a strong theoretical foundation for their work. Based on participants' perspectives and the authors' reflections, we identified the following needs: (1) conducting a systematic examination of the alternative theoretical structures that are available for nutrition BCC, followed by a review of the evidence base and suggestions for future programmatic research to fill the gaps in knowledge; (2) developing a checklist of common patterns to facilitate efficiency in formative research; (3) developing an analytic compendium of current IYCF BCC guidelines and tools; (4) developing tools and guidelines that cover the full programme process, including use of innovative channels to support 'scaling up nutrition'; and (5) continued support for programmes of proven effectiveness. PMID:26194743

  12. A South African university-practitioner partnership to strengthen capacity in social and behaviour change communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofides, Nicola J; Nieuwoudt, Sara; Usdin, Shereen; Goldstein, Susan; Fonn, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Globally, communication plays an integral role in public health strategies, from infectious diseases to diseases related to lifestyles. The evolution of the field of social and behaviour change communication (SBCC), combined with the need for evidence based practice and multi-level interventions to promote health, and human resource gaps in sub-Saharan Africa have led to the imperative to standardise and formalise the field. Moreover, current practitioners come from different disciplinary backgrounds underlining the need to define common core skills and competencies. This paper describes the partnership between the Wits School of Public Health and the Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication and how the partners responded to this need. It highlights the factors influencing sustainable institutional capacity to provide quality assured, accredited training. We describe an unexpected positive response from a number of practitioner organisations that have chosen to send multiple staff members for training, specifically to build a critical mass within their organisations. Finally, we note the interest from (mostly) southern-based academic institutions in setting up similar programmes and postulate that south-south collaborations can contribute to building sustainable context specific and evidence-informed SBCC programmes in the global south. PMID:23364096

  13. Plant root exudates mediate neighbour recognition and trigger complex behavioural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semchenko, Marina; Saar, Sirgi; Lepik, Anu

    2014-11-01

    Some plant species are able to distinguish between neighbours of different genetic identity and attempt to pre-empt resources through root proliferation in the presence of unrelated competitors, but avoid competition with kin. However, studies on neighbour recognition have met with some scepticism because the mechanisms by which plants identify their neighbours have remained unclear. In order to test whether root exudates could mediate neighbour recognition in plants, we performed a glasshouse experiment in which plants of Deschampsia caespitosa were subjected to root exudates collected from potential neighbours of different genetic identities, including siblings and individuals belonging to the same or a different population or species. Our results show that root exudates can carry specific information about the genetic relatedness, population origin and species identity of neighbours, and trigger different responses at the whole root system level and at the level of individual roots in direct contact with locally applied exudates. Increased root density was mainly achieved through changes in morphology rather than biomass allocation, suggesting that plants are able to limit the energetic cost of selfish behaviour. This study reveals a new level of complexity in the ability of plants to interpret and react to their surroundings.

  14. A Mathematical Model for the Dynamics of HIV/AIDS with Gradual Behaviour Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Baryarama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An HIV/AIDS model that incorporates gradual behaviour change is formulated with a variable force of infection for the adult population. The variability is modelled using a general function of time since introduction of the initial infective and exemplified for three specific functions. Expressions for the time taken for the reproductive number to reduce to unity and expressions for the time taken to attain a stationary steady state are deduced and discussed. Model projections for urban, peri-urban and rural Uganda are compared with corresponding antenatal clinic sites prevalence trends. The analysis shows that the dramatic decline in HIV prevalence in Uganda in the early 1990s was only possible through drastic declines in the force of infection. Since prevalence was high and reductions in frequency of sexual acts was minimal, the huge reduction could be attributed to reductions in probability of transmission per sexual act probably due to increased selective condom use among high risk sexual partnerships since overall condom use was low.

  15. A South African university-practitioner partnership to strengthen capacity in social and behaviour change communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. Christofides

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, communication plays an integral role in public health strategies, from infectious diseases to diseases related to lifestyles. The evolution of the field of social and behaviour change communication (SBCC, combined with the need for evidence based practice and multi-level interventions to promote health, and human resource gaps in sub-Saharan Africa have led to the imperative to standardise and formalise the field. Moreover, current practitioners come from different disciplinary backgrounds underlining the need to define common core skills and competencies. This paper describes the partnership between the Wits School of Public Health and the Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication and how the partners responded to this need. It highlights the factors influencing sustainable institutional capacity to provide quality assured, accredited training. We describe an unexpected positive response from a number of practitioner organisations that have chosen to send multiple staff members for training, specifically to build a critical mass within their organisations. Finally, we note the interest from (mostly southern-based academic institutions in setting up similar programmes and postulate that south–south collaborations can contribute to building sustainable context specific and evidence-informed SBCC programmes in the global south.

  16. 'Making every contact count': Evaluation of the impact of an intervention to train health and social care practitioners in skills to support health behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Wendy; Black, Christina; Tinati, Tannaze; Cradock, Sue; Begum, Rufia; Jarman, Megan; Pease, Anna; Margetts, Barrie; Davies, Jenny; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Baird, Janis; Barker, Mary

    2016-02-01

    A total of 148 health and social care practitioners were trained in skills to support behaviour change: creating opportunities to discuss health behaviours, using open discovery questions, listening, reflecting and goal-setting. At three time points post-training, use of the skills was evaluated and compared with use of skills by untrained practitioners. Trained practitioners demonstrated significantly greater use of these client-centred skills to support behaviour change compared to their untrained peers up to 1 year post-training. Because it uses existing services to deliver support for behaviour change, this training intervention has the potential to improve public health at relatively low cost.

  17. Changes in Eating Attitudes, Body Esteem and Weight Control Behaviours during Adolescence in a South African Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Tabither M Gitau; Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Pettifor, John. M.; Norris, Shane A

    2014-01-01

    Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal 'ideal' body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years...

  18. Can research assessments themselves cause bias in behaviour change trials? A systematic review of evidence from solomon 4-group studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim McCambridge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The possible effects of research assessments on participant behaviour have attracted research interest, especially in studies with behavioural interventions and/or outcomes. Assessments may introduce bias in randomised controlled trials by altering receptivity to intervention in experimental groups and differentially impacting on the behaviour of control groups. In a Solomon 4-group design, participants are randomly allocated to one of four arms: (1 assessed experimental group; (2 unassessed experimental group (3 assessed control group; or (4 unassessed control group. This design provides a test of the internal validity of effect sizes obtained in conventional two-group trials by controlling for the effects of baseline assessment, and assessing interactions between the intervention and baseline assessment. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate evidence from Solomon 4-group studies with behavioural outcomes that baseline research assessments themselves can introduce bias into trials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Electronic databases were searched, supplemented by citation searching. Studies were eligible if they reported appropriately analysed results in peer-reviewed journals and used Solomon 4-group designs in non-laboratory settings with behavioural outcome measures and sample sizes of 20 per group or greater. Ten studies from a range of applied areas were included. There was inconsistent evidence of main effects of assessment, sparse evidence of interactions with behavioural interventions, and a lack of convincing data in relation to the research question for this review. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There were too few high quality completed studies to infer conclusively that biases stemming from baseline research assessments do or do not exist. There is, therefore a need for new rigorous Solomon 4-group studies that are purposively designed to evaluate the potential for research assessments to cause bias in behaviour

  19. Infection-induced behavioural changes reduce connectivity and the potential for disease spread in wild mice contact networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Patricia C.; Block, Per; König, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Infection may modify the behaviour of the host and of its conspecifics in a group, potentially altering social connectivity. Because many infectious diseases are transmitted through social contact, social connectivity changes can impact transmission dynamics. Previous approaches to understanding disease transmission dynamics in wild populations were limited in their ability to disentangle different factors that determine the outcome of disease outbreaks. Here we ask how social connectivity is affected by infection and how this relationship impacts disease transmission dynamics. We experimentally manipulated disease status of wild house mice using an immune challenge and monitored social interactions within this free-living population before and after manipulation using automated tracking. The immune-challenged animals showed reduced connectivity to their social groups, which happened as a function of their own behaviour, rather than through conspecific avoidance. We incorporated these disease-induced changes of social connectivity among individuals into models of disease outbreaks over the empirically-derived networks. The models revealed that changes in host behaviour frequently resulted in the disease being contained to very few animals, as opposed to becoming widespread. Our results highlight the importance of considering the role that behavioural alterations during infection can have on social dynamics when evaluating the potential for disease outbreaks. PMID:27548906

  20. What Is the Relationship between Outdoor Time and Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Physical Fitness in Children? A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Casey Gray; Rebecca Gibbons; Richard Larouche; Ellen Beate Hansen Sandseter; Adam Bienenstock; Mariana Brussoni; Guylaine Chabot; Susan Herrington; Ian Janssen; William Pickett; Marlene Power; Nick Stanger; Margaret Sampson; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between outdoor time and: (1) physical activity, (2) cardiorespiratory fitness, (3) musculoskeletal fitness, (4) sedentary behaviour; or (5) motor skill development in children aged 3–12 years. We identified 28 relevant studies that were assessed for quality using the GRADE framework. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of outdoor time on physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and cardiorespiratory fi...

  1. Physical activity attitudes, intentions and behaviour among 18–25 year olds: A mixed method study

    OpenAIRE

    Poobalan Amudha S; Aucott Lorna S; Clarke Amanda; Smith W Cairns S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Young people (18–25 years) during the adolescence/adulthood transition are vulnerable to weight gain and notoriously hard to reach. Despite increased levels of overweight/obesity in this age group, physical activity behaviour, a major contributor to obesity, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore physical activity (PA) behaviour among 18–25 year olds with influential factors including attitudes, motivators and barriers. Methods An explanatory mixed ...

  2. Nutritional and physical activity behaviours and habits in adolescent population of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević-Nikić Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Proper nutrition and regular physical activity are essential parts of a adolescent's overall health. The aim of this research was to evaluated eating and physical activity behaviours and habits, nutritional and food knowledge, beliefs and self-efficacy related to diet and health of the adolescents of the city of Belgrade, Serbia. Methods. A dietary questionnaire previously constructed and tested in adolescent population from Italy was self-administrated. We evaluated eating habits, physical activity, meaning of healthy and unhealthy dietary habits and food, self-efficacy, barriers affecting food choices, nutritional and food safety, and body mass index (BMI of the adolescents. The sample included 707 adolescents, the mean age of 15,8 ± 2 years enrolled in the first grade at several high schools in Belgrade. Results. Only 27% of the adolescents had satisfactory eating habits; 31% have a very active lifestyle; 7% good nutritional knowledge and 6- 12% satisfactory food safety knowledge and hygiene practices. Conclusion. Significant deviations from recommendations for healthy lifestyle was noted in adolescents’ habits, knowledge and practice. It is therefore necessary to develop and organize programs for promotion of healthy behaviours adapted to the adolescents’ needs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III47015

  3. Innocent or guilty? Redox activity in and magnetic and optical behaviour of dinuclear molydenum complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jon A McCleverty; Michael D Ward

    2002-08-01

    The phenomenon of `non-innocence’, first articulated by Jørgensen in 1966, is briefly reviewed. Spectroelectrochemical studies of a range of dinuclear complexes of the type [{Mo(NO)Tp∗Cl}2(bridge)] (bridge = dipyridyls) and [{Mo(O)Tp∗Cl}2(bridge)] (bridge = diphenolates) which are redox active, show that oxidised or reduced forms of these species exhibit `non-innocence’. The spectral behaviour is associated with metal-to-ligand or ligand-to-metal charge transfer phenomena, probably the first time that monodentate bridging ligands have been implicated in `non-innocent’ behaviour. These bridging ligands also determine the nature and extent of magnetic interaction between the unpaired spins in [{Mo(NO)Tp∗Cl}2(bridge)] and [{Mo(O)Tp∗Cl}2(bridge)], the dominant mechanism of spin-exchange relying on the extent of $\\eth$-delocalisation within the bridging ligands. The unusual optical behaviour of these dinuclear complexes when oxidised (oxomolybdenum diphenolates) or reduced (nitrosyl molybdenum dipyridyls) has led to the exploration of electrochromism as a means to develop variable optical attenuators operating in the near-infrared region.

  4. The roles of behavioural activation and inhibition among young adults engaging in self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Abigail L; Seelbach, Abigail C; Conner, Bradley T; Alloy, Lauren B

    2013-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent behaviour, particularly among young adults. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms underlying NSSI or the personality correlates of these behaviours. The goal of this study was to examine the roles of the behavioural activation and inhibition systems (BAS and BIS) in NSSI. A total of 604 undergraduates completed two self-report measures of BAS and BIS, as well as NSSI history. Logistic and negative binomial linear regressions were used to examine the relationships between measures of BAS and BIS and the presence and course characteristics of NSSI. Approximately 30% of participants reported a history of NSSI. High scores on BAS (drive, reward and fun seeking), combined with low scores on BIS total, predicted NSSI history. However, the opposite was also true, with high levels of BIS total, combined with low levels of BAS (drive, reward and fun seeking), also predicting NSSI history. In addition, several BAS by BIS interactions predicted an NSSI course characterized by more acts and methods used. This study supports the roles of both BAS and BIS in NSSI and takes the first step in identifying how these personality correlates may help identify individuals at risk for NSSI.

  5. Disease and disaster: Optimal deployment of epidemic control facilities in a spatially heterogeneous population with changing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaythorpe, Katy; Adams, Ben

    2016-05-21

    Epidemics of water-borne infections often follow natural disasters and extreme weather events that disrupt water management processes. The impact of such epidemics may be reduced by deployment of transmission control facilities such as clinics or decontamination plants. Here we use a relatively simple mathematical model to examine how demographic and environmental heterogeneities, population behaviour, and behavioural change in response to the provision of facilities, combine to determine the optimal configurations of limited numbers of facilities to reduce epidemic size, and endemic prevalence. We show that, if the presence of control facilities does not affect behaviour, a good general rule for responsive deployment to minimise epidemic size is to place them in exactly the locations where they will directly benefit the most people. However, if infected people change their behaviour to seek out treatment then the deployment of facilities offering treatment can lead to complex effects that are difficult to foresee. So careful mathematical analysis is the only way to get a handle on the optimal deployment. Behavioural changes in response to control facilities can also lead to critical facility numbers at which there is a radical change in the optimal configuration. So sequential improvement of a control strategy by adding facilities to an existing optimal configuration does not always produce another optimal configuration. We also show that the pre-emptive deployment of control facilities has conflicting effects. The configurations that minimise endemic prevalence are very different to those that minimise epidemic size. So cost-benefit analysis of strategies to manage endemic prevalence must factor in the frequency of extreme weather events and natural disasters. PMID:26992574

  6. Adolescent understanding of DOHaD concepts: a school-based intervention to support knowledge translation and behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, J L; Mora, H A; Sloboda, D M; Morton, S M; Vickers, M H; Gluckman, P D

    2012-12-01

    A life-course approach to reduction of risk of non-communicable diseases (NCD) suggests that early-life interventions may be more effective than lifestyle modifications in middle age. Knowledge translation to develop understanding of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) within the community offers the potential to encourage informed diet and lifestyle choices supporting reduction of NCD risk in current and future generations. Many women do not make sustained dietary change before or during pregnancy, therefore appropriate nutritional behaviours need to be established prior to adulthood. This makes adolescence an appropriate stage for interventions to establish suitable dietary and lifestyle behaviours. Therefore, we engaged adolescents in a school-based educational intervention, and assessed the value of this in development of understanding of DOHaD concepts to support behaviour change that could lead to NCD risk reduction in the next generation. Modules of course work were written for 11-14 year olds and trialled in nine schools. Matched pre- and post-intervention questionnaire responses from 238 students and 99 parents, and post-intervention interviews evaluated the intervention. Understanding of a link between maternal diet during pregnancy and the health of the foetus in adulthood increased from 46% to 76% following intervention. Post-intervention evidence suggests the programme facilitated discussion of diet, lifestyle and DOHaD concepts in most families. The intervention was effective in improving understanding of DOHaD concepts and in some cases led to appropriate behaviour change. However, the sustainability of these changes remains to be determined through on-going evaluation of attitudes and behaviour within this cohort. PMID:25084300

  7. Age-related changes in the behavioural response of honeybees to Apiguard®, a thymol-based treatment used to control the mite Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondet, Fanny; Goodwin, Mark; Mercer, Alison

    2011-11-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor is responsible for heavy losses in honey bee colonies and represents a major threat to the beekeeping industry. Essential oils offer an attractive alternative to the use of synthetic chemicals for the control of varroa. Amongst them, thymol appears to be particularly promising. However, treatments using thymol as their active substance, such as the gel formulation Apiguard(®), are suspected to have adverse effects on honey bee colonies. In this study, laboratory assays are used to investigate the effects of Apiguard(®) exposure on honey bee behaviour. Our results reveal that honey bee responses to this anti-varroa treatment change with honey bee age. While 2-day-old bees respond neutrally to Apiguard(®), older bees generally avoid the Apiguard(®) gel. Responses of forager bees were particularly striking. Foragers appear to be repelled by Apiguard(®). Touching their antennae with Apiguard(®) induces robust fanning behaviour. Our data suggest, however, that forager bees exposed to Apiguard(®) in the hive can become habituated to this treatment. These results offer interesting new perspectives on the effects of Apiguard(®) on honey bee behaviour and serve to highlight age-related changes in honey bee responses to gustatory, as well as olfactory cues.

  8. The role of knowledge in the contraceptive behaviour of sexually active young people in state care

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, Abbey; Fullerton, Deirdre; Lohan, Maria; et al.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To analyse the role of sex-focused knowledge in the contraceptive behaviour of sexually active young people in state care. Methods: The sample consisted of 19 care leavers (young people previously in state care) aged 18–22 years, 16 females and 3 males. In-depth interviewing was the method of data collection, and a qualitative strategy resembling modified analytical induction was used to analyse data. Findings: Findings indicated that a lack of information was not the sole or even the pr...

  9. Neurobiological changes after intervention in individuals with anti-social behaviour: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornet, L.J.M.; Kogel, C.H. de; Nijman, H.L.I.; Raine, A.; Laan, P.H. van der

    2015-01-01

    Background A neurobiological perspective has become accepted as a valuable approach for understanding anti-social behaviour. There is literature to suggest that, in non-offending populations, psychological treatments affect both neurobiological measures and clinical presentation. A theoretical posit

  10. An improved model for predicting coolant activity behaviour for fuel-failure monitoring analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Jaby, A.; Lewis, B.J.; Thompson, W.T. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Iglesias, F.C. [Candesco Corporation, 230 Richmond Street West, 10th Floor, Toronto, Ontario, M5V 1V6 (Canada); Ip, Monique [Bruce Power, 123 Front Street West, 4th Floor Toronto, Ontario, M5J 2M2 (Canada)

    2009-06-15

    ), that is applicable in all operating reactor conditions, and which accounts for the changing condition of the defect. Previous work focused on the development of a general fission product release model for defective fuel using the COMSOL Multiphysics finite-element commercial platform. The current work synthesizes all previous theoretical treatments with the solution of the general time-dependent model using a custom-developed finite-difference variable mesh (FDVM) numerical treatment as a stand-alone tool (code). This model, entitled STAR (Steady-state and Transient Activity Release), is able to specifically predict the fission product activity behaviour in the UO{sub 2} fuel matrix, fuel-to-sheath gap, and PHTS coolant, while respecting the overall fission product mass-balance under all reactor operating conditions, including: startup, steady-state, shutdown, and bundle-shifting manoeuvres. In addition, an improved ability to predict the PHTS coolant activity of the Xe-135 isotope in commercial reactors is discussed. Moreover, a method to approximate both the burnup and the amount of the tramp uranium deposits in-core, as well as the tramp uranium fission rate is proposed. The model parameters are derived from in-reactor experiments conducted with defective fuel elements containing natural and artificial failures at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). The STAR code has also been successfully validated against analytical solutions to the release-to-birth ratio R/B of both short and long-lived fission product species, as well as the specific analytical solution to the coolant activity of {sup 129}I. In addition, STAR has been benchmarked against several documented defect occurrences in a commercial reactor. Lastly, the performance of the FDVM numerical algorithm implemented in the stand-alone STAR C++ code has been benchmarked against the COMSOL Multiphysics finite-element implementation. (authors)

  11. Behavioural changes induced by N,N-dimethyl-tryptamine in rodents.

    OpenAIRE

    Jenner, P; Marsden, C D; Thanki, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    1 N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) in pargyline pretreated rodents induced a dose-dependent behavioural syndrome consisting of hyperactivity, prostration and hindlimb abduction, mild tremor, Straub tail, retropulsion and jerking. 2 In rats pretreated with pargyline, the behavioural syndrome induced by DMT differed from that induced by L-tryptophan or quipazine, in the lack of forepaw treading and head-weaving and in the presence of only mild tremor. 3 The hyperactivity component of the DMT-induce...

  12. Seahorses under a changing ocean: the impact of warming and acidification on the behaviour and physiology of a poor-swimming bony-armoured fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Santos, Catarina; Aurélio, Maria L; Pimentel, Marta; Pegado, Maria Rita; Paula, José Ricardo; Calado, Ricardo; Repolho, Tiago; Rosa, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Seahorses are currently facing great challenges in the wild, including habitat degradation and overexploitation, and how they will endure additional stress from rapid climate change has yet to be determined. Unlike most fishes, the poor swimming skills of seahorses, along with the ecological and biological constraints of their unique lifestyle, place great weight on their physiological ability to cope with climate changes. In the present study, we evaluate the effects of ocean warming (+4°C) and acidification (ΔpH = -0.5 units) on the physiological and behavioural ecology of adult temperate seahorses, Hippocampus guttulatus. Adult seahorses were found to be relatively well prepared to face future changes in ocean temperature, but not the combined effect of warming and acidification. Seahorse metabolism increased normally with warming, and behavioural and feeding responses were not significantly affected. However, during hypercapnia the seahorses exhibited signs of lethargy (i.e. reduced activity levels) combined with a reduction of feeding and ventilation rates. Nonetheless, metabolic rates were not significantly affected. Future ocean changes, particularly ocean acidification, may further threaten seahorse conservation, turning these charismatic fishes into important flagship species for global climate change issues. PMID:27293694

  13. Analysis of automated quantification of motor activity in REM sleep behaviour disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rune; Nikolic, Miki; Zoetmulder, Marielle;

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment and REM sleep without atonia. Atonia is evaluated on the basis of visual criteria, but there is a need for more objective, quantitative measurements. We aimed to define and optimize a method for establishing...... baseline and all other parameters in automatic quantifying submental motor activity during REM sleep. We analysed the electromyographic activity of the submental muscle in polysomnographs of 29 patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD), 29 controls and 43 Parkinson's (PD) patients. Six adjustable parameters...... were validated on PD patients. Automatic baseline estimation improved characterization of atonia during REM sleep, as it eliminates inter/intra-observer variability and can be standardized across diagnostic centres. We found an optimized method for quantifying motor activity during REM sleep...

  14. Changing handwashing behaviour in southern Ethiopia: a longitudinal study on infrastructural and commitment interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contzen, Nadja; Meili, Iara Helena; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Improved hand hygiene efficiently prevents the major killers of children under the age of five years in Ethiopia and globally, namely diarrhoeal and respiratory diseases. Effective handwashing interventions are thus in great demand. Evidence- and theory-based interventions, especially when matched to the target population's needs, are expected to perform better than common practice. To test this hypothesis, we selected two interventions drawing on a baseline questionnaire-study that applied the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) approach and focused on the primary caregivers of households in four rural, water-scarce kebeles (smallest administrative units of Ethiopia) in southern Ethiopia (N = 462). The two interventions were tested in combination with a standard education intervention in a quasi-experiment, as follows: kebele 1, education intervention, namely an f-diagram exercise, (n = 23); kebele 2, education intervention and public-commitment (n = 122); kebele 3, education intervention and tippy-tap-promotion (i.e. handwashing-station-promotion; n = 150); kebele 4, education intervention, public-commitment and tippy-tap-promotion (n = 113). In kebeles 3 and 4, nearly 100% of the households followed the promotion and invested material and time to construct for themselves a tippy-tap. Three months after intervention termination, the tippy-taps were in use with water and soap being present in up to 83% of the households (kebele 4). Pre-post data analysis on self-reported handwashing revealed that the population-tailored interventions, and especially the tippy-tap-promotion, performed better than the standard education intervention. Tendencies in observed behaviour and a recently developed implicit self-measure pointed to similar results. Changing people's hand hygiene is known to be a challenging task, especially in a water-scarce environment. The present project suggests not only to apply theory and evidence to improve handwashing

  15. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Greek-Cypriot children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jago Russell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no data on physical activity and sedentary behaviours of Greek-Cypriot children and adolescents, and no study to date examined the association between these two behaviours in this population. The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behaviours among Greek-Cypriot adolescents and examine the association between physical activity and a range of sedentary behaviours. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Methods A cross-sectional study among 1,966 Greek-Cypriot children and adolescents was conducted in 2008/2009. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire across primary, middle, high and technical/vocational schools. Results Overall 52.3% and 52.4% of the participants met physical activity and television viewing guidelines respectively. Boys and younger children were more likely to meet guidelines. Boys who attended sports clubs for two or more times per week were more likely to be physically active (OR = 3.4, and those who listened to music for one or less than one hour per day were less likely to be physically active (OR = 0.6. Girls who attended sports clubs for two or more times per week and who watched television for two or less than two hours per day were more likely to be physically active, (OR = 3.0 and OR = 1.5 respectively. Girls who reported travelling by car/bus/motorbike for one or less than one hour per day were more likely to actively travel to school (OR = 1.8. Conclusions Findings from this study provide limited support for the displacement hypothesis whereby sedentary behaviours displace physically active time. About 50.0% of Greek children and adolescents in Cyprus meet existing physical activity and television viewing guidelines. Encouraging children to attend sports clubs for at least two times per week may markedly improve their physical activity levels.

  16. Analysis of automated quantification of motor activity in REM sleep behaviour disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Rune; Nikolic, Miki; Zoetmulder, Marielle; Kempfner, Lykke; Jennum, Poul

    2015-10-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment and REM sleep without atonia. Atonia is evaluated on the basis of visual criteria, but there is a need for more objective, quantitative measurements. We aimed to define and optimize a method for establishing baseline and all other parameters in automatic quantifying submental motor activity during REM sleep. We analysed the electromyographic activity of the submental muscle in polysomnographs of 29 patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD), 29 controls and 43 Parkinson's (PD) patients. Six adjustable parameters for motor activity were defined. Motor activity was detected and quantified automatically. The optimal parameters for separating RBD patients from controls were investigated by identifying the greatest area under the receiver operating curve from a total of 648 possible combinations. The optimal parameters were validated on PD patients. Automatic baseline estimation improved characterization of atonia during REM sleep, as it eliminates inter/intra-observer variability and can be standardized across diagnostic centres. We found an optimized method for quantifying motor activity during REM sleep. The method was stable and can be used to differentiate RBD from controls and to quantify motor activity during REM sleep in patients with neurodegeneration. No control had more than 30% of REM sleep with increased motor activity; patients with known RBD had as low activity as 4.5%. We developed and applied a sensitive, quantitative, automatic algorithm to evaluate loss of atonia in RBD patients.

  17. Outcome mapping for fostering and measuring change in risk management behaviour among urban dairy farmers in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyangaga, Julius N; Grace, Delia; Kimani, Violet; Kiragu, Monica W; Langat, Alfred K; Mbugua, Gabriel; Mitoko, Grace; Kang'ethe, Erastus K

    2012-09-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate and mitigate the risk from zoonotic Cryptosporidium associated with dairy farming in Dagoretti division, Nairobi, Kenya. Outcome mapping (OM), a relatively new tool for planning and evaluation, was used to foster and then monitor changes in farmer management of health risks. Elements of the OM framework, including the vision, mission and expected progress markers, were developed in participatory sessions and a set of progress markers was used for monitoring behaviour change in farmers participating in the project (the boundary partners). Behaviour change (the outcome challenge) was supported by a range of awareness and educational campaigns, working with strategic partners (extension agents and administrative leaders). The farmers the project worked with made considerable progress according to the markers; they demonstrated an understanding of cryptosporidiosis, established or maintained clean and well drained cattle sheds, and took conscious effort to reduce possible infection. Farmers who did not participate in the project (non-contact farmers) were found to be less advanced on the progress marker indicators. Non-contact farmers who carried out risk-reducing practices had done so independently of the project team. The administration leaders, as strategic partners, had a positive attitude towards the project and confidence in their ability to support project objectives. The study demonstrates the utility of OM in helping to identify and support behavioural change.

  18. The microstructure of coaching practice: behaviours and activities of an elite rugby union head coach during preparation and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward Thomas; Gray, Shirley; Sproule, John

    2016-01-01

    The activities and behaviours of a female head coach of a national rugby union team were recorded in both training and competition, across a whole rugby season, using the newly developed Rugby Coach Activities and Behaviours Instrument (RCABI). The instrument incorporates 24 categories of behaviour, embedded within three forms of activity (training form (TF), playing form (PF) and competitive match) and seven sub-activity types. In contrast to traditional drill-based coaching, 58.5% of the training time was found to have been spent in PF activities. Moreover, the proportion of PF activities increased to a peak average of 83.8% in proximity to the team's annual international championship. Uniquely, one of the coach's most prolific behaviours was conferring with associates (23.3%), highlighting the importance of interactions with assistant coaches, medical staff and others in shaping the coaching process. Additionally, the frequencies of key behaviours such as questioning and praise were found to vary between the different activity forms and types, raising questions about previous conceptions of effective coaching practice. The findings are discussed in the light of the Game Sense philosophy and the role of the head coach. PMID:26260577

  19. The microstructure of coaching practice: behaviours and activities of an elite rugby union head coach during preparation and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward Thomas; Gray, Shirley; Sproule, John

    2016-01-01

    The activities and behaviours of a female head coach of a national rugby union team were recorded in both training and competition, across a whole rugby season, using the newly developed Rugby Coach Activities and Behaviours Instrument (RCABI). The instrument incorporates 24 categories of behaviour, embedded within three forms of activity (training form (TF), playing form (PF) and competitive match) and seven sub-activity types. In contrast to traditional drill-based coaching, 58.5% of the training time was found to have been spent in PF activities. Moreover, the proportion of PF activities increased to a peak average of 83.8% in proximity to the team's annual international championship. Uniquely, one of the coach's most prolific behaviours was conferring with associates (23.3%), highlighting the importance of interactions with assistant coaches, medical staff and others in shaping the coaching process. Additionally, the frequencies of key behaviours such as questioning and praise were found to vary between the different activity forms and types, raising questions about previous conceptions of effective coaching practice. The findings are discussed in the light of the Game Sense philosophy and the role of the head coach.

  20. Incorporating Student Activities into Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, H.; Kelly, K.; Klein, D.; Cadavid, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    atmospheric circulation with applications of the Lorenz model, explored the land-sea breeze problem with the Dynamics and Thermodynamics Circulation Model (DTDM), and developed simple radiative transfer models. Class projects explored the effects of varying the content of CO2 and CH4 in the atmosphere, as well as the properties of paleoclimates in atmospheric simulations using EdGCM. Initial assessment of student knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors associated with these activities, particularly about climate change, was measured. Pre- and post-course surveys provided student perspectives about the courses and their learning about remote sensing and climate change concepts. Student performance on the tutorials and course projects evaluated students' ability to learn and apply their knowledge about climate change and skills with remote sensing to assigned problems or proposed projects of their choice. Survey and performance data illustrated that the exercises were successful in meeting their intended learning objectives as well as opportunities for further refinement and expansion.

  1. Inhibitory control training for appetitive behaviour change: A meta-analytic investigation of mechanisms of action and moderators of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew; Di Lemma, Lisa C G; Robinson, Eric; Christiansen, Paul; Nolan, Sarah; Tudur-Smith, Catrin; Field, Matt

    2016-02-01

    Inhibitory control training (ICT) is a novel intervention in which participants learn to associate appetitive cues with inhibition of behaviour. We present a meta-analytic investigation of laboratory studies of ICT for appetitive behaviour change in which we investigate candidate mechanisms of action, individual differences that may moderate its effectiveness, and compare it to other psychological interventions. We conducted random-effects generic inverse variance meta-analysis on data from 14 articles (18 effect sizes in total). Participants who received ICT chose or consumed significantly less food or alcohol compared to control groups (SMD = 0.36, 95% CIs [0.24, 0.47]; Z = 6.18, p Effect sizes were larger for motor (Go/No-Go and Stop Signal) compared to oculomotor (Antisaccade) ICT. The effects of ICT on behaviour were comparable to those produced by other psychological interventions, and effects of ICT on food intake were greater in participants who were attempting to restrict their food intake. The magnitude of the effect of ICT on behaviour was predicted by the proportion of successful inhibitions but was unrelated to the absolute number of trials in which appetitive cues were paired with the requirement to inhibit, or the contingency between appetitive cues and the requirement to inhibit. The effect of ICT on cue devaluation (primarily assessed with implicit association tests) was not statistically significant. Our analysis confirms the efficacy of ICT for short-term behaviour change in the laboratory, and we have demonstrated that its effectiveness may depend on pairings between appetitive cues and successful inhibition. We highlight the need for further research to translate these findings outside of the laboratory. PMID:26592707

  2. Sexual activity and school deviant behaviour among adolescents: peer influence and homophily interactions with sex and ethnicity

    OpenAIRE

    Berten, Hans; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2009-01-01

    Criminologist and sociologists have since long recognized the importance of peer influence in adolescence, but only rarely are peer influence interactions studied with regard to important salient status characteristics. This study examines whether homophily status characteristics condition the influence between best friends and the individual´s behaviour. The focus of the study is on school deviant behaviour as well as sexual activity. More specifically, we address the question to what extent...

  3. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Carson, Valerie; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dinh, Thy; Duggan, Mary; Faulkner, Guy; Gray, Casey E; Gruber, Reut; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; LeBlanc, Claire; Okely, Anthony D; Olds, Timothy; Pate, Russell R; Phillips, Andrea; Poitras, Veronica J; Rodenburg, Sophie; Sampson, Margaret; Saunders, Travis J; Stone, James A; Stratton, Gareth; Weiss, Shelly K; Zehr, Lori

    2016-06-01

    Leaders from the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology convened representatives of national organizations, content experts, methodologists, stakeholders, and end-users who followed rigorous and transparent guideline development procedures to create the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep. These novel guidelines for children and youth aged 5-17 years respect the natural and intuitive integration of movement behaviours across the whole day (24-h period). The development process was guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and systematic reviews of evidence informing the guidelines were assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Four systematic reviews (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep, integrated behaviours) examining the relationships between and among movement behaviours and several health indicators were completed and interpreted by expert consensus. Complementary compositional analyses were performed using Canadian Health Measures Survey data to examine the relationships between movement behaviours and health indicators. A stakeholder survey was employed (n = 590) and 28 focus groups/stakeholder interviews (n = 104) were completed to gather feedback on draft guidelines. Following an introductory preamble, the guidelines provide evidence-informed recommendations for a healthy day (24 h), comprising a combination of sleep, sedentary behaviours, light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity. Proactive dissemination, promotion, implementation, and evaluation plans have been prepared in an effort to optimize uptake and activation of the new guidelines. Future research should consider the integrated relationships among movement behaviours, and similar integrated guidelines for other age groups should be developed. PMID:27306437

  4. Is physical activity associated with low-risk health behaviours among 15-year-old adolescents in Finland?

    OpenAIRE

    Vuori, Mika; Kannas, Lasse; Villberg, Jari; Ojala, Kristiina; Tynjälä, Jorma; Välimaa, Raili

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the associations between physical activity and the pattern of risk health behaviour consisting of smoking, alcohol consumption, snuff (snus), cannabis and condom use among 15-year-old adolescents, taking their educational aspirations and family affluence into account. Methods: The data were collected in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in Finland in 2006. Standardised questionnaires were issued at schools to a 15-year-old nationally representative...

  5. How do lay health workers tailor in effective health behaviour change interventions? A protocol for a qualitative synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgins, Faith; Gnich, Wendy; Ross, Alastair J.; Sherriff, Andrea; Worlledge-Andrew, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lay health workers (LHWs) are utilised as a channel of delivery in many health interventions. While they have no formal professional training related to their role, they utilise their connections with the target group or community in order to reach individuals who would not normally readily engage with health services. Lay health worker programmes are often based on psychological theories of behaviour change that point to ‘tailoring to individuals’ needs or characteristics’ as ...

  6. Changing teacher's beliefs about school self-evaluation and the impact on teacher behaviour and student achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Alenka Hauptman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine if different ways of promoting school self-evaluation had an effect on changing teachers' beliefs about school self-evaluation, on their behaviour in the classroom and on student achievement. Although school self-evaluation in Slovenian primary schools is legally required; there are no uniform instructions about using it or even systematic research on its effectiveness. Our sample included 111 fourth grade teachers from 59 Slovenian primary ...

  7. How lay health workers tailor in effective health behaviour change interventions: a protocol for a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgins, Faith; Gnich, Wendy; Ross, Alastair J.; Sherriff, Andrea; Worlledge-Andrew, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background Lay health workers (LHWs) are utilised as a channel of delivery in many health interventions. While they have no formal professional training related to their role, they utilise their connections with the target group or community in order to reach individuals who would not normally readily engage with health services. Lay health worker programmes are often based on psychological theories of behaviour change that point to ‘tailoring to individuals’ needs or characteristics’ as key ...

  8. Improving hand hygiene compliance for the reduction of nosocomial infections: recommendations for behaviour change in a health care setting

    OpenAIRE

    Reason, Florence Paige

    2008-01-01

    Nosocomial infection rates are highly dependent on hand hygiene compliance within health care facilities. This paper examines the literature concerning elements of effective hand hygiene interventions and relevant behaviour change theory, in addition to current practice surrounding hand hygiene interventions in leading institutions, in order to inform and propose recommendations for the improvement and success of the University Health Network’s current hand hygiene initiative. The results of ...

  9. Seasonal changes in mood and behaviour in the general population. Associations with mood, sleep and health risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Øyane, Nicolas Melchior Frederic

    2010-01-01

    The way seasons affect humans varies considerably between individuals, nevertheless most humans’ mood and behaviour change throughout the year. Almost 25 years ago, Seasonal Affective Disorder was described as recurring major depressive episodes during a certain time of the year. Seasonal Affective Disorder has been reported to be associated with hypersomnia, increased appetite and carbohydrate craving, and the disorder is most common in subjects with high education and socioec...

  10. Modelling the thermo-mechanical volume change behaviour of compacted expansive clays

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Anh-Minh; 10.1680/geot.2009.59.3.185

    2009-01-01

    Compacted expansive clays are often considered as a possible buffer material in high-level deep radioactive waste disposals. After the installation of waste canisters, the engineered clay barriers are subjected to thermo-hydro-mechanical actions in the form of water infiltration from the geological barrier, heat dissipation from the radioactive waste canisters, and stresses generated by clay swelling under almost confined conditions. The aim of the present work is to develop a constitutive model that is able to describe the behaviour of compacted expansive clays under these coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical actions. The proposed model is based on two existing models: one for the hydro-mechanical behaviour of compacted expansive clays and another for the thermo-mechanical behaviour of saturated clays. The elaborated model has been validated using the thermo-hydro-mechanical test results on the compacted MX80 bentonite. Comparison between the model prediction and the experimental data show that this model is able...

  11. Projected near-future CO2 levels increase activity and alter defensive behaviours in the tropical squid Idiosepius pygmaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake L. Spady

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 levels projected to occur in the oceans by the end of this century cause a range of behavioural effects in fish, but whether other highly active marine organisms, such as cephalopods, are similarly affected is unknown. We tested the effects of projected future CO2 levels (626 and 956 µatm on the behaviour of male two-toned pygmy squid, Idiosepius pygmaeus. Exposure to elevated CO2 increased the number of active individuals by 19–25% and increased movement (number of line-crosses by nearly 3 times compared to squid at present-day CO2. Squid vigilance and defensive behaviours were also altered by elevated CO2 with >80% of individuals choosing jet escape responses over defensive arm postures in response to a visual startle stimulus, compared with 50% choosing jet escape responses at control CO2. In addition, more escape responses were chosen over threat behaviours in body pattern displays at elevated CO2 and individuals were more than twice as likely to use ink as a defence strategy at 956 µatm CO2, compared with controls. Increased activity could lead to adverse effects on energy budgets as well as increasing visibility to predators. A tendency to respond to a stimulus with escape behaviours could increase survival, but may also be energetically costly and could potentially lead to more chases by predators compared with individuals that use defensive postures. These results demonstrate that projected future ocean acidification affects the behaviours of a tropical squid species.

  12. Predicting Changes in Physical Activity among Adolescents: The Role of Self-Efficacy, Intention, Action Planning and Coping Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo-Soares, Vera; McIntyre, Teresa; Sniehotta, Falko F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to test the direct predictors of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), action planning and coping planning as predictors of changes in physical activity (PA) in 157 adolescents (mean age: 12). TPB measures, the Action Planning and Coping Planning Scales (APCPS) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaires were measured…

  13. The climatic change induced by human activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climate of the Earth is a changing climate. Along their history many natural climate changes have existed in all time scales. At the present time we use the term climate changes have existed in all time scales. At the present time we use the term climate change in a restricted way, understanding that we have referring to a singular change that has their origin in the modification of the natural composition of the atmosphere. The increase of greenhouse gases from the second half the XVIII century, is due to the human activities of fossil fuels burning to obtain energy and to industrial and agricultural activities needing for the development of a world which population has been duplicated between 1960 and 2000, until overcoming the 6,000 million inhabitants. In particular, the concentrations of carbon dioxide-CO2 have increased in a 34%. The more recent emission scenarios proposed by the IPCC (SRES, 2000) are based on hypothesis about the population evolution, the energy consumption and the word patterns of development, which are grouped in four families dominated as A1, A2, B1 and B2. The answer for these scenarios from a range of climate models results in an increase of the world average surface atmospheric temperature between 1,4 degree centigrade and 5,8 degree centigrade and a corresponding sea level rise understood between 9 cm and 88 cm. The changes in the precipitation patterns show us that could be above to the current one in high and media latitudes and below in subtropical latitudes, with exceptions highly depending of the model used. (Author)

  14. Electroconvulsive stimulations normalizes stress-induced changes in the glucocorticoid receptor and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hageman, Ida; Nielsen, Marianne; Wörtwein, Gitta;

    2009-01-01

    stress paradigm influences expression of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor mRNA, (2) to study the effect of previous repeated restraint stress on the behaviours executed in the forced swim test (FST) (e.g. a novel inescapable stress situation) and (3) to investigate the modulating effect...... in this model. Furthermore, stressed rats displayed higher increases in immobility and decreased latency to immobility subjected to the novel stressor of the FST than non-stressed rats. ECS abolished both the neural and behavioural effects of the restraint stress and thus protected against the deleterious...

  15. Care staff intentions to support adults with an intellectual disability to engage in physical activity: an application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emma; McKenzie, Karen; Newman, Emily; Bowden, Keith; Morris, Paul Graham

    2011-01-01

    Researchers suggest that people with an intellectual disability (ID) undertake less physical activity than the general population and many rely, to some extent, on others to help them to access activities. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) model was previously found to significantly predict the intention of care staff to facilitate a healthy diet in those they supported. The present study examined whether the TPB was useful in predicting the intentions of 78 Scottish care staff to support people with ID to engage in physical activity. Regression analyses indicated that perceived behavioural control was the most significant predictor of both care staff intention to facilitate physical activity and reported physical activity levels of the people they supported. Attitudes significantly predicted care staff intention to support physical activity, but this intention was not itself significantly predictive of reported activity levels. Increasing carers' sense of control over their ability to support clients' physical activity may be more effective in increasing physical activity than changing their attitudes towards promoting activity.

  16. Protocol for the ADDITION-Plus study: a randomised controlled trial of an individually-tailored behaviour change intervention among people with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes under intensive UK general practice care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanshawe Tom

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes poses both clinical and public health challenges. Cost-effective approaches to prevent progression of the disease in primary care are needed. Evidence suggests that intensive multifactorial interventions including medication and behaviour change can significantly reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among patients with established type 2 diabetes, and that patient education in self-management can improve short-term outcomes. However, existing studies cannot isolate the effects of behavioural interventions promoting self-care from other aspects of intensive primary care management. The ADDITION-Plus trial was designed to address these issues among recently diagnosed patients in primary care over one year. Methods/Design ADDITION-Plus is an explanatory randomised controlled trial of a facilitator-led, theory-based behaviour change intervention tailored to individuals with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. 34 practices in the East Anglia region participated. 478 patients with diabetes were individually randomised to receive (i intensive treatment alone (n = 239, or (ii intensive treatment plus the facilitator-led individual behaviour change intervention (n = 239. Facilitators taught patients key skills to facilitate change and maintenance of key behaviours (physical activity, dietary change, medication adherence and smoking, including goal setting, action planning, self-monitoring and building habits. The intervention was delivered over one year at the participant's surgery and included a one-hour introductory meeting followed by six 30-minute meetings and four brief telephone calls. Primary endpoints are physical activity energy expenditure (assessed by individually calibrated heart rate monitoring and movement sensing, change in objectively measured dietary intake (plasma vitamin C, medication adherence (plasma drug levels, and smoking status (plasma cotinine levels at

  17. Sound exposure changes European seabass behaviour in a large outdoor floating pen: Effects of temporal structure and a ramp-up procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Y Y; Hubert, J; Bolle, L; Winter, H V; Ten Cate, C; Slabbekoorn, H

    2016-07-01

    Underwater sound from human activities may affect fish behaviour negatively and threaten the stability of fish stocks. However, some fundamental understanding is still lacking for adequate impact assessments and potential mitigation strategies. For example, little is known about the potential contribution of the temporal features of sound, the efficacy of ramp-up procedures, and the generalisability of results from indoor studies to the outdoors. Using a semi-natural set-up, we exposed European seabass in an outdoor pen to four treatments: 1) continuous sound, 2) intermittent sound with a regular repetition interval, 3) irregular repetition intervals and 4) a regular repetition interval with amplitude 'ramp-up'. Upon sound exposure, the fish increased swimming speed and depth, and swam away from the sound source. The behavioural readouts were generally consistent with earlier indoor experiments, but the changes and recovery were more variable and were not significantly influenced by sound intermittency and interval regularity. In addition, the 'ramp-up' procedure elicited immediate diving response, similar to the onset of treatment without a 'ramp-up', but the fish did not swim away from the sound source as expected. Our findings suggest that while sound impact studies outdoors increase ecological and behavioural validity, the inherently higher variability also reduces resolution that may be counteracted by increasing sample size or looking into different individual coping styles. Our results also question the efficacy of 'ramp-up' in deterring marine animals, which warrants more investigation. PMID:27061472

  18. Neural correlates of behavioural olfactory sensitivity changes seasonally in European starlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert De Groof

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Possibly due to the small size of the olfactory bulb (OB as compared to rodents, it was generally believed that songbirds lack a well-developed sense of smell. This belief was recently revised by several studies showing that various bird species, including passerines, use olfaction in many respects of life. During courtship and nest building, male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris incorporate aromatic herbs that are rich in volatile compounds (e.g., milfoil, Achillea millefolium into the nests and they use olfactory cues to identify these plants. Interestingly, European starlings show seasonal differences in their ability to respond to odour cues: odour sensitivity peaks during nest-building in the spring, but is almost non-existent during the non-breeding season. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used repeated in vivo Manganese-enhanced MRI to quantify for the first time possible seasonal changes in the anatomy and activity of the OB in starling brains. We demonstrated that the OB of the starling exhibits a functional seasonal plasticity of certain plant odour specificity and that the OB is only able to detect milfoil odour during the breeding season. Volumetric analysis showed that this seasonal change in activity is not linked to a change in OB volume. By subsequently experimentally elevating testosterone (T in half of the males during the non-breeding season we showed that the OB volume was increased compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: By investigating the neural substrate of seasonal olfactory sensitivity changes we show that the starlings' OB loses its ability during the non-breeding season to detect a natural odour of a plant preferred as green nest material by male starlings. We found that testosterone, applied during the non-breeding season, does not restore the discriminatory ability of the OB but has an influence on its size.

  19. Is male puddling behaviour of tropical butterflies targeted at sodium for nuptial gifts or activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, F.; Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Liefting, M.; Zwaan, B.J.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    An apparent sexual difference in adult feeding behaviour in many species of Lepidoptera relates to puddling on mud, dung and carrion. In most butterfly species, puddling is exclusively a male behaviour. A possible explanation for this division in feeding behaviour is that nutrients derived from pudd

  20. Are Incentive Schemes Effective in Changing Young People's Behaviour? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Josephine; Oakley, Ann; Harden, Angela; Trouton, Alex; Powell, Chloe

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of single or dual component incentive schemes on health and social behaviours, in young people. Design: A systematic review. Method: Systematic and comprehensive cross-disciplinary searches were conducted to identify research. Following screening for relevance, included studies were quality assessed and data…

  1. Maintenance of behaviour change after a 12-week mHealth lifestyle programme for young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Allman-Farinelli

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Young adulthood is a period of rapid weight gain but this group are hard to reach for health promotion. Despite the relatively low intensity of the TXT2BFiT programme, behaviours were maintained during the six months following the intervention. mHealth shows promise to deliver intervention with wide reach and low cost.

  2. Perceived Indices of Truancy among Selected Adolescents in Oyo Town: Implications for Behavioural Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adika, Lawrence Olagoke

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated perceived indices of truancy behaviour among selected adolescents in Oyo town. The descriptive survey study had 200 randomly selected adolescents from five secondary schools in Oyo town. A self-designed instrument tagged Adolescent Truancy Scale (ATS) was employed in collecting data for the study and the data was subjected…

  3. Self-evaluative emotions and expectations about self-evaluative emotions in health-behaviour change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Arie; Buunk, Abraham R.

    2008-01-01

    Engaging in a behaviour that has negative physical consequences is considered to be a threat to the self because it makes the self appear inadequate and non-adaptive. This self-threat is experienced as self-evaluative emotions. The self-threat can be removed by refraining from the unhealthy behaviou

  4. AutoEPG: software for the analysis of electrical activity in the microcircuit underpinning feeding behaviour of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Dillon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pharyngeal microcircuit of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans serves as a model for analysing neural network activity and is amenable to electrophysiological recording techniques. One such technique is the electropharyngeogram (EPG which has provided insight into the genetic basis of feeding behaviour, neurotransmission and muscle excitability. However, the detailed manual analysis of the digital recordings necessary to identify subtle differences in activity that reflect modulatory changes within the underlying network is time consuming and low throughput. To address this we have developed an automated system for the high-throughput and discrete analysis of EPG recordings (AutoEPG. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: AutoEPG employs a tailor made signal processing algorithm that automatically detects different features of the EPG signal including those that report on the relaxation and contraction of the muscle and neuronal activity. Manual verification of the detection algorithm has demonstrated AutoEPG is capable of very high levels of accuracy. We have further validated the software by analysing existing mutant strains with known pharyngeal phenotypes detectable by the EPG. In doing so, we have more precisely defined an evolutionarily conserved role for the calcium-dependent potassium channel, SLO-1, in modulating the rhythmic activity of neural networks. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: AutoEPG enables the consistent analysis of EPG recordings, significantly increases analysis throughput and allows the robust identification of subtle changes in the electrical activity of the pharyngeal nervous system. It is anticipated that AutoEPG will further add to the experimental tractability of the C. elegans pharynx as a model neural circuit.

  5. A randomised controlled trial of an exercise plus behaviour change intervention in people with multiple sclerosis: the step it up study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Coote, Susan; Gallagher, Stephen; Msetfi, Rachel M.; Larkin, Aidan; Newell, John; Motl, Robert; Hayes, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise has consistently yielded short-term, positive effects on health outcomes in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, these effects have not been maintained in the long-term. Behaviour change interventions aim to promote long-term positive lifestyle change. This study, namely, “Step it Up” will compare the effect of an exercise plus Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)-based behaviour change intervention with an exercise plus control education intervention on walking mobility...

  6. Acidification in Three Lake District Tarns: Historical Iong term trends and modelled future behaviour under changing sulphate and nitrate deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Whitchead

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Three upland Lake District Tarns, Scoat, Greendale and Burnmoor, have been evaluated using MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater In Catchments to reconstruct past, present and future chemical behaviour. The modelled historical changes in acidity are compared with palaeoecological estimation of pH to demonstrate model validity. Chemistry as simulated for all anions and cations and two of the three lakes are shown to have undergone significant acidification. The effects of changing atmospheric pollution levels on lake chemistry is evaluated and 80-90% sulphur reduction levels are required to achieve zero alkalinity. The impacts of increased nitrogen deposition are assessed and are shown to further delay reversibility.

  7. Behavioural Medicine Perspectives for Change and Prediction of Oral Hygiene Behaviour : Development and Evaluation of an Individually Tailored Oral Health Educational Program

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Birgitta

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is about a behavioural medicine approach in periodontal treatment and oral hygiene self-care. The aim of this thesis was to develop, describe, and evaluate an individually tailored oral health educational program on oral hygiene behaviour and non-surgical periodontal treatment success, and to determine factors of importance for predicting oral hygiene behaviour. Two separate studies, both conducted at a specialist clinic for periodontics in a Swedish county council are described. ...

  8. Impact of social norms and social support on diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour of adolescents: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, C E; Grobler, L; Micklesfield, L K; Norris, S A

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood is rapidly increasing, and it is essential that risk factors for NCDs be addressed in adolescence, both for the health of individuals during adolescence and for their health in later life. These risk factors include diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. No literature has been published that comprehensively summarizes the impact of social norms and social support on these behaviours among adolescents. Therefore, a scoping review was conducted to determine the extent of recent (since 2000) literature available on this topic. A comprehensive search strategy was used to search PubMed and EMBASE for eligible reviews. Review papers (narrative reviews, systematic and non-systematic reviews) published in English in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to February 2013 were included in the overview. Two of the authors screened the titles and abstracts of the search results independently. Thirty reviews were included in the scoping review. This scoping review has shown sufficient evidence for parental influences, and especially the positive impact of an authoritative parenting style, on healthy behaviours of adolescents, although the evidence is somewhat more compelling for diet than for physical activity and sedentary behaviour. More research is needed to investigate parental and family influences on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. And the effect of peer influences on diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour of adolescents requires further investigation. The evidence presented affirms the consideration of social norms and social support in the development of interventions to address these behaviours in adolescents. The evidence regarding parenting style provides some concrete guidance for such interventions. PMID:25809525

  9. Impact of social norms and social support on diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour of adolescents: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, C E; Grobler, L; Micklesfield, L K; Norris, S A

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood is rapidly increasing, and it is essential that risk factors for NCDs be addressed in adolescence, both for the health of individuals during adolescence and for their health in later life. These risk factors include diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. No literature has been published that comprehensively summarizes the impact of social norms and social support on these behaviours among adolescents. Therefore, a scoping review was conducted to determine the extent of recent (since 2000) literature available on this topic. A comprehensive search strategy was used to search PubMed and EMBASE for eligible reviews. Review papers (narrative reviews, systematic and non-systematic reviews) published in English in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to February 2013 were included in the overview. Two of the authors screened the titles and abstracts of the search results independently. Thirty reviews were included in the scoping review. This scoping review has shown sufficient evidence for parental influences, and especially the positive impact of an authoritative parenting style, on healthy behaviours of adolescents, although the evidence is somewhat more compelling for diet than for physical activity and sedentary behaviour. More research is needed to investigate parental and family influences on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. And the effect of peer influences on diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour of adolescents requires further investigation. The evidence presented affirms the consideration of social norms and social support in the development of interventions to address these behaviours in adolescents. The evidence regarding parenting style provides some concrete guidance for such interventions.

  10. Developmental neurotoxicity of Propylthiouracil (PTU) in rats: Relationship between transient hypothyroxinemia during development and long-lasting behavioural and functional changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markedly lowered thyroid hormone levels during development may influence a child's behaviour, intellect, and auditory function. Recent studies, indicating that even small changes in the mother's thyroid hormone status early in pregnancy may cause adverse effects on her child, have lead to increased concern for thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals in the environment. The overall aim of the study was therefore to provide a detailed knowledge on the relationship between thyroid hormone levels during development and long-lasting effects on behaviour and hearing. Groups of 16-17 pregnant rats (HanTac:WH) were dosed with PTU (0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 mg/kg/day) from gestation day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) 17, and the physiological and behavioural development of rat offspring was assessed. Both dams and pups in the higher dose groups had markedly decreased thyroxine (T4) levels during the dosing period, and the weight and histology of the thyroid glands were severely affected. PTU exposure caused motor activity levels to decrease on PND 14, and to increase on PND 23 and in adulthood. In the adult offspring, learning and memory was impaired in the two highest dose groups when tested in the radial arm maze, and auditory function was impaired in the highest dose group. Generally, the results showed that PTU-induced hypothyroxinemia influenced the developing rat brain, and that all effects on behaviour and loss of hearing in the adult offspring were significantly correlated to reductions in T4 during development. This supports the hypothesis that decreased T4 may be a relevant predictor for long-lasting developmental neurotoxicity

  11. On the behaviour of the IR Ca II triplet in normal and active galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ca II triplet in absorption at λλ8498,8542,8662 A is the strongest feature in the infrared spectrum of late-type stars and normal galaxies. Its strength has been found to be a good luminosity indicator for metal-rich stellar populations. We present high signal-to-noise near-IR spectroscopic data for the nuclear region of 42 normal and active galaxies. We have explored the behaviour of the Ca II triplet strength and found that it shows a small spread around a mean value of 7 A for our sample of normal galaxies. We also found that, in all the Seyfert type 2 galaxies measured and even in some Seyfert type 1, while the optical stellar features show substantial dilution, the strength of the IR Ca II triplet is equal to and in some cases larger than that in normal elliptical galaxies. (author)

  12. Dissemination of behavioural activation for depression to mental health nurses: training evaluation and benchmarked clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekers, D M; Dawson, M S; Bailey, E

    2013-03-01

    Depression causes significant distress, disability and cost within the UK. Behavioural activation (BA) is an effective single-strand psychological approach which may lend itself to brief training programmes for a wide range of clinical staff. No previous research has directly examined outcomes of such dissemination. A 5-day training course for 10 primary care mental health workers aiming to increase knowledge and clinical skills in BA was evaluated using the Training Acceptability Rating Scale. Depression symptom level data collected in a randomized controlled trial using trainees were then compared to results from meta-analysis of studies using experienced therapists. BA training was highly acceptable to trainees (94.4%, SD 6%). The combined effect size of BA was unchanged by the addition of the results of this evaluation to those of studies using specialist therapists. BA offers a promising psychological intervention for depression that appears suitable for delivery by mental health nurses following brief training.

  13. Behavioural activation: a pilot trial of transdiagnostic treatment for excessive worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junwen; Liu, Xi; Rapee, Ronald M; Pillay, Pallavi

    2013-09-01

    Transdiagnostic interventions present pragmatic benefits in treatment dissemination and training of mental health professionals when faced with emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression. Excessive worry is a common feature across emotional disorders and represents an ideal candidate target for transdiagnostic intervention. The current pilot trial examined the efficacy of a behavioural activation treatment for worry (BAW) in a community population. 49 individuals experiencing excessive worry were randomised to waitlist or BAW receiving an 8 week group based intervention. Results demonstrated that BAW was successful in reducing excessive worry, depressive symptoms, cognitive avoidance, Intolerance of Uncertainty and improving problem solving orientation. Twice as many individuals showed clinically significant reductions in excessive worry after treatment compared to the waitlist control. Despite limitations to sample size and power, this study presents promising support for BAW as a practical transdiagnostic treatment for worry.

  14. Outlook for activity and structural change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level of energy-using activities is continuing to increase throughout the world, but the rates of likely growth differ among regions. Over the next 20 years, manufacturing production is expected to grow at a rapid pace in parts of the developing world, and moderately in the OECD countries. In the Former East Bloc, it seems likely to stagnate or decline for much of the 1990s, but could then grow at a moderate pace if the transition to a market economy is successfully managed. Domestic passenger travel seems likely to increase everywhere, and growth in international travel will be especially strong. Freight transport activity is difficult to evaluate in the aggregate, since the composition of goods changes over time, but increase is expected in all regions, especially in the developing countries. Structural change within sectors will have significant impacts on energy use. In manufacturing, faster growth in light industry will lead to lower energy intensity in the OECD countries and especially in the Former East Bloc. The outlook in the LDCs suggests somewhat higher growth in energy-intensive industries, but this trend will vary among countries. In passenger travel, structural change is pointing toward higher energy intensity in most of the world as the role of automobiles and air travel continues to grow. Increase in the use of trucks is pushing in a similar direction in freight transport. In the residential sector, structural change will have only a moderate impact in the OECD countries, where per capita levels of home services are already high, but will push energy use significantly upward in the LDCs, and to a lesser extent, in the Former East Bloc. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. An mHealth intervention: Associations between Theory of Planned Behaviour constructs for physical activity and longitudinal smoking related behavioural data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hassandra

    2015-10-01

    The results support previous literature suggesting that a possible mechanism behind the beneficial effects of exercise on decreasing smoking behaviour might be the increased perceived behavioural control over exercise that has an effect on the control to smoking behaviour. Moreover, using exercise to manage after quit smoking cravings can delay further smoking behaviour relapses.

  16. Thermally activated relaxation behaviour of shot-peened tool steels for cutting tool body applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Different shot-peened tool steels had different thermal surface stress relaxation. → Hot-work tool steel had better stress relaxation resistance than low-alloyed steel. → Stress relaxation mechanism was diffusion-controlled. → Relaxation rate determining exponent was time and temperature dependent. - Abstract: Surface residual stress, microstrain and domain size were determined using X-ray diffraction in shot-peened low-alloyed and hot-work tool steels subjected to varying temperatures (200-600 deg. C) and times (0.5-50 h). The stress relaxation was directly related to microstrain decrease and domain size increase.The Zener-Wert-Avrami function was used to model the relaxation behaviour. The mechanism responsible for the relaxation behaviour is proposed to be diffusion-controlled as the activation energies for stress and microstrain relaxation were close to the activation enthalpy for lattice self-diffusion of alpha-iron.The relaxation rate varied over time and temperature. At temperatures up to 300 deg. C, the relaxation rate was insignificant in all the steels. In the temperature range of 300-400 deg. C and 400-550 deg. C for low-alloyed and hot-work tool steels, respectively, the stresses decreased at a similar rate with increasing time and temperature. At the tempering temperatures of the steels, the stress relaxation was controlled by microstructure transformations. A stress relaxation stabilization was found in one of hot-work steels between 450 and 500 deg. C at annealing times longer than 3 h.

  17. A web delivered intervention for depression combining Behavioural Activation with physical activity promotion: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey David Lambert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity (PA yields moderate effect sizes for treating depression (Cooney et al., 2013. PA may also help reduce depressive relapse, providing additional psychological benefits such as positive self-regard and a sense of competence (Babyak et al., 2000. Behavioural Activation (BA is an evidence-based psychological therapy for depression, which aims to get people more engaged with activities that provide positive reinforcement for non-depressed behaviours (Hopko, Lejuez, LePage, Hopko, & McNeil, 2003. The structured nature of BA is consistent with the use of good behaviour change techniques (specific goal-setting, self-regulation offering a potential platform for promoting PA alongside depression treatment. BA may also be useful for gradually increasing PA in people who are more sedentary than the general population. Aims: This pilot randomised controlled trial aims to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and fidelity of a web-delivered intervention combining BA and PA (eBAcPAc to enhance mental and physical health, and assess the trial methods. Method: A community sample of 120 people exhibiting symptoms of depression and who are participating in less than 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week will be randomized to receive eBAcPAc or be put on a wait list control group. eBAcPAc is informed by previous work (Farrand et al., 2014; Pentecost et al., 2015 and further developed using the Centre for eHealth Research and Disease management Roadmap (CeHReS (van Gemert-Pijnen et al., 2011 in order to be applied in an web-based setting. A platform hosted by the University of Glasgow which has been used to deliver a wide range of successful web-delivered interventions for mental health, will be used to deliver eBAcPAc. Feasibility measures will include data on recruitment, attrition and acceptability. Pre-post outcome measures will include the PHQ-9, and self-reported and accelerometer measured PA. Process and

  18. Executive Functioning and Social Behaviour: How Are They Related and How Does This Change With Age?

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Executive functions, such as inhibition and dual tasking, have repeatedly been linked to social behaviour (e.g. McDonald & Pearce, 1996; Foley, Cantagallo, Della Sala & Logie, 2010); however the exact strength and nature of this relationship is still unknown. Although certain executive functions, such as dual tasking, are maintained at a high-level into old age (e.g. Logie, Cocchini, Della Sala & Baddeley, 2004) others, such as inhibition, have repeatedly been shown to decline with age (e.g. ...

  19. Comparative studies of offices pre and post — how changing spatial configurations affect organisational behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Sailer, K.; Budgen, A.; Lonsdale, N; Turner, A; Penn, A

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the way in which design interventions in an office affect everyday users, and thus shape organisational behaviour, should be high on the agenda for architects, designers and consultants alike. Surprisingly, this seems rarely to be the case. Here we aim to help close this gap by studying a variety of organisations in depth both before and after an office move from the point of view of design practice. This paper thus aims at understanding how a newly designed office is seen, used...

  20. Subclinical mastitis changes the patterns of maternal-offspring behaviour in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougoulis, D A; Kyriazakis, I; Papaioannou, N; Papadopoulos, E; Taitzoglou, I A; Fthenakis, G C

    2008-06-01

    Subclinical mastitis was induced by inoculating one mammary gland in dairy ewes (n=8) with a Staphylococcus simulans isolate; control ewes (n=4) were included. The milk yield of inoculated glands decreased (PMastitis Test (CMT) score increased and the organism could be recovered from the inoculated glands. With time, there was significantly increased frequency of "hindering sucking" (P=0.016) and "head up posture" (Pmastitis alters the sucking behaviour of both ewes and lambs. PMID:17451978

  1. Implementing quality indicators in intensive care units: exploring barriers to and facilitators of behaviour change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Keizer Nicolette F

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Quality indicators are increasingly used in healthcare but there are various barriers hindering their routine use. To promote the use of quality indicators, an exploration of the barriers to and facilitating factors for their implementation among healthcare professionals and managers of intensive care units (ICUs is advocated. Methods All intensivists, ICU nurses, and managers (n = 142 working at 54 Dutch ICUs who participated in training sessions to support future implementation of quality indicators completed a questionnaire on perceived barriers and facilitators. Three types of barriers related to knowledge, attitude, and behaviour were assessed using a five-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree. Results Behaviour-related barriers such as time constraints were most prominent (Mean Score, MS = 3.21, followed by barriers related to knowledge and attitude (MS = 3.62; MS = 4.12, respectively. Type of profession, age, and type of hospital were related to knowledge and behaviour. The facilitating factor perceived as most important by intensivists was administrative support (MS = 4.3; p = 0.02; for nurses, it was education (MS = 4.0; p = 0.01, and for managers, it was receiving feedback (MS = 4.5; p = 0.001. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that healthcare professionals and managers are familiar with using quality indicators to improve care, and that they have positive attitudes towards the implementation of quality indicators. Despite these facts, it is necessary to lower the barriers related to behavioural factors. In addition, as the barriers and facilitating factors differ among professions, age groups, and settings, tailored strategies are needed to implement quality indicators in daily practice.

  2. Developing theory-informed behaviour change interventions to implement evidence into practice: a systematic approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Simon D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little systematic operational guidance about how best to develop complex interventions to reduce the gap between practice and evidence. This article is one in a Series of articles documenting the development and use of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF to advance the science of implementation research. Methods The intervention was developed considering three main components: theory, evidence, and practical issues. We used a four-step approach, consisting of guiding questions, to direct the choice of the most appropriate components of an implementation intervention: Who needs to do what, differently? Using a theoretical framework, which barriers and enablers need to be addressed? Which intervention components (behaviour change techniques and mode(s of delivery could overcome the modifiable barriers and enhance the enablers? And how can behaviour change be measured and understood? Results A complex implementation intervention was designed that aimed to improve acute low back pain management in primary care. We used the TDF to identify the barriers and enablers to the uptake of evidence into practice and to guide the choice of intervention components. These components were then combined into a cohesive intervention. The intervention was delivered via two facilitated interactive small group workshops. We also produced a DVD to distribute to all participants in the intervention group. We chose outcome measures in order to assess the mediating mechanisms of behaviour change. Conclusions We have illustrated a four-step systematic method for developing an intervention designed to change clinical practice based on a theoretical framework. The method of development provides a systematic framework that could be used by others developing complex implementation interventions. While this framework should be iteratively adjusted and refined to suit other contexts and settings, we believe that the four-step process should be

  3. EFFECT OF FLOOR TYPE ON BEHAVIOURAL ACTIVITIES OF INTENSIVELY MANAGED OSTRICHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan SEABO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of providing grit on daily behavioural activities of intensively kept ostriches were investigated at the Botswana College of Agriculture. Two groups of ostriches were each housed in a 30 x 6m pen. Each group had seven ostriches in it. Each member of the group was identified by a number tag attached to its neck. Activities studied were feeding, picking objects, walking about, sparring, standing rest, sitting rest, grooming self, and grooming others. The study lasted 30 days. The results of the study show that during the mornings and afternoons, ostriches without access to grit allocated significantly (P<0.05 greater proportion of their activity time to feeding than did those with access to grit. The proportion of time allocated to morning feeding by the non-grit group was 23.1% as opposed to 13.9% for the grit group. In the afternoon, the non-grit group of ostriches continued allocating significantly more time (13.3 % to feeding than the grit group which only allocated 4.8% of their activity to the same activity. This trend in apportioning activity time by the two groups of ostriches was maintained with regards to the proportion of time allocated to walking about in the pens. The non-grit group allocated significantly (P<0.05 greater proportions of time to walking than the grit group. In the morning, non-grit ostriches allocated 25.8% of their daily activity to walking about in the pen while their grit counterparts allocated 19.9% to the same activity. The grit-fed group of ostriches rested more as they allocated significantly higher proportion (28.1% of their afternoon time to resting while standing than the proportion (17.7% allocated to the same by the non-grit group. Both treatment groups allocated higher proportions of their activity times to morning feeding. The group with access to grit spent 35.2% of the morning time feeding while allocating only 22.5% for the same activity in the afternoon feeding. The non-grit group allocated 24

  4. Using Photovoice as a Community Based Participatory Research Tool for Changing Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Behaviours in Usoma, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Bisung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed an increase in the use of community based participatory research (CBPR tools for understanding environment and health issues and facilitating social action. This paper explores the application and utility of photovoice for understanding water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH behaviours and catalysing community led solutions to change behaviours. Between June and August 2013, photovoice was conducted with eight (8 women in Usoma, a lakeshore community in Western Kenya with a follow-up community meeting (baraza in May 2014 to discuss findings with the community members and government officials. In the first part of the study, photovoice one-on-one interviews were used to explore local perceptions and practices around water-health linkages and how the ecological and socio-political environment shapes these perceptions and practices. This paper, which is the second component of the study, uses photovoice group discussions to explore participants’ experiences with and (reaction to the photographs and the photovoice project. The findings illustrate that photovoice was an effective CBPR methodology for understanding behaviours, creating awareness, facilitating collective action, and engaging with local government and local health officials at the water-health nexus.

  5. How does cognitive behaviour therapy reduce fatigue in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome? The role of physical activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiborg, J.F.; Knoop, H.; Stulemeijer, M.; Prins, J.B.; Bleijenberg, G.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is known to reduce fatigue severity in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). How this change in symptomatology is accomplished is not yet understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the effect of CBT on fatigue is mediated by an incre

  6. Treating depression and depression-like behaviour with physical activity: an immune perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Anthony Eyre

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing burden of major depressive disorder makes the search for an extended understanding of aetiology, and for the development of additional treatments highly significant. Biological factors may be useful biomarkers for treatment with physical activity (PA, and neurobiological effects of PA may herald new therapeutic development in the future. This paper provides a thorough and up-to-date review of studies examining the neuroimmunomodulatory effects of PA on the brain in depression and depression-like behaviours. From a neuroimmune perspective, evidence suggests PA does enhance the beneficial and reduce the detrimental effects of the neuroimmune system. PA appears to increase the following factors: interleukin (IL-10, IL-6 (acutely, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, central nervous system-specific autoreactive CD4+ T cells, M2 microglia, quiescent astrocytes, CX3CL1 and insulin-like growth factor-1. On the other hand, PA appears to reduce detrimental neuroimmune factors such as: Th1/Th2 balance, pro-inflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein, M1 microglia and reactive astrocytes. The effect of other mechanisms is unknown, such as: CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (T regs, CD200, chemokines, miRNA, M2-type blood-derived macrophages and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α (via receptor 2 (R2. The beneficial effects of PA are likely to occur centrally and peripherally (e.g. in visceral fat reduction. The investigation of the neuroimmune effects of PA on depression and depression-like behaviour is a rapidly developing and important field.

  7. Smartphone-Supported versus Full Behavioural Activation for Depression: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kien Hoa Ly

    Full Text Available There is need for more cost and time effective treatments for depression. This is the first randomised controlled trial in which a blended treatment--including four face-to-face sessions and a smartphone application--was compared against a full behavioural treatment. Hence, the aim of the current paper was to examine whether a blended smartphone treatment was non-inferior to a full behavioural activation treatment for depression.This was a randomised controlled non-inferiority trial (NCT01819025 comparing a blended treatment (n=46 against a full ten-session treatment (n=47 for people suffering from major depression. Primary outcome measure was the BDI-II, that was administered at pre- and post-treatment, as well as six months after the treatment.Results showed significant improvements in both groups across time on the primary outcome measure (within-group Cohen's d=1.35; CI [-0.82, 3.52] to d=1.47; CI [-0.41, 3.35]; between group d=-0.13 CI [-2.37, 2.09] and d=-0.10 CI [-2.53, 2.33]. At the same time, the blended treatment reduced the therapist time with an average of 47%.We could not establish whether the blended treatment was non-inferior to a full BA treatment. Nevertheless, this study points to that the blended treatment approach could possibly treat nearly twice as many patients suffering from depression by using a smartphone application as add-on. More studies are needed before we can suggest that the blended treatment method is a promising cost-effective alternative to regular face-to-face treatment for depression.Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Treatment of Depression With Smartphone Support NCT01819025.

  8. A Longitudinal Operant Assessment of Cognitive and Behavioural Changes in the HdhQ111 Mouse Model of Huntington’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnett, Stephen B.; Brooks, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is characterised by motor symptoms which are often preceded by cognitive and behavioural changes, that can significantly contribute to disease burden for people living with HD. Numerous knock-in mouse models of HD are currently available for scientific research. However, before their use, they must be behaviourally characterised to determine their suitability in recapitulating the symptoms of the human condition. Thus, we sought to longitudinally characterise the nature, severity and time course of cognitive and behavioural changes observed in HdhQ111 heterozygous knock-in mice.To determine changes in cognition and behaviour an extensive battery of operant tests including: fixed ratio, progressive ratio, the five choice serial reaction time task and the serial implicit learning task, were applied longitudinally to HdhQ111 and wild type mice. The operant test battery was conducted at 6, 12 and 18 months of age. Significant deficits were observed in HdhQ111 animals in comparison to wild type animals in all operant tests indicating altered cognition (attentional and executive function) and motivation. However, the cognitive and behavioural deficits observed were not shown to be progressive over time in the longitudinal testing paradigm that was utilised. The results therefore demonstrate that the HdhQ111 mouse model of HD reflects some features of the cognitive and behavioural changes shown in the human condition of HD. Although, the cognitive and behavioural deficits demonstrated were not shown to be progressive over time. PMID:27701442

  9. Physical activity and nutrition behavioural outcomes of a home-based intervention program for seniors: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Burke Linda; Lee Andy H; Jancey Jonine; Xiang Liming; Kerr Deborah A; Howat Peter A; Hills Andrew P; Anderson Annie S

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background This intervention aimed to ascertain whether a low-cost, accessible, physical activity and nutrition program could improve physical activity and nutrition behaviours of insufficiently active 60–70 year olds residing in Perth, Australia. Methods A 6-month home-based randomised controlled trial was conducted on 478 older adults (intervention, n = 248; control, n = 230) of low to medium socioeconomic status. Both intervention and control groups completed postal questionnaires...

  10. Rapidly learning preconditions for means-ends behaviour using active learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichtl, Severin; Alexander, John; Guerin, Frank;

    2013-01-01

    In [1], we argue that ongoing development may be the result of a set of developmental mechanisms which are in continuous operation during infancy. One such mechanism identified is sensorimotor differentiation. Sensorimotor differentiation allows infants to generate new behaviours by modifying old...... ones. For example a young infant has a behaviour for waving an object back and forth on a table surface. At some later point, this behaviour becomes differentiated to produce a behaviour for deliberately displacing an object to one side in order to retrieve a visible toy behind it (see Figure I)....

  11. Mediating relationship between body mass index and the direct measures of the Theory of Planned Behaviour on physical activity intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Duncan, Mitch J; Mummery, Kerry; Steele, Rebekah; Schofield, Grant

    2008-03-01

    This research examines (a) the interrelationships between body mass index (BMI), the direct measures of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and physical activity intention and (b) the potential mediation effects of the direct measures of the TPB in the relationship between BMI and physical activity intention in a sample of Australian adults. A total sample of 1,062 respondents participated in a computer-assisted telephone-interview (CATI) survey comprised of a standardised introduction; questions regarding TPB and physical activity; and standard demographic questions. BMI for each participant was calculated from self-reported height and weight. Separate regression analyses were performed to examine the mediating effects of each of the direct measures of the TPB on the predictive relationship between the BMI and physical activity intention, as proposed by Baron and Kenny (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173 - 1182, 1986). Findings indicated that the direct measure of attitude and perceived behavioural control mediated the relationship between BMI and physical activity intention. However, the direct measure of subjective norm failed to act as a mediating mechanism. To date there has been no research that has examined the mechanism by which body mass may affect physical activity behaviour. Given the current focus for health promotion specialists on promoting physical activity as a strategy for reducing overweight and obesity, a theoretical understanding of weight-related barriers to physical activity may aid in the development of future interventions and community physical activity programs, particularly those targeting overweight and obese populations.

  12. [Changes in the behaviour of Moina macrocopa (Crustacea: Cladocera) under the influence of Gurleya sp. (Microsporidia: Gurleyidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrushin, A V

    2010-01-01

    It is established, that infestation with Gurleya sp. (Microsporidia, Gurleyidae) changes the behaviour of its host Moina macrocopa (Straus, 1820), a crustacean inhabiting pools. Heavily infested host individuals attach to surface film of water before their death by senescence. As a consequence, their dead bodies filled with spores of the parasite adhere to objects dipped in water that probably facilitates the transfer of spores by birds and cattle to other pools. Weakly infested or uninfested individuals drown after the end of their ontogenesis. Distribution of the microsporidian spores by two different ways (with attached dead bodies of the hosts or with bottom sediments) makes invasion of a new host more probable. PMID:21309152

  13. Development of behaviour change communication strategy for a vaccination-linked malaria control tool in southern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mshinda Hassan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and linked to the expanded programme on immunization (EPI is a promising strategy for malaria control in young children. As evidence grows on the efficacy of IPTi as public health strategy, information is needed so that this novel control tool can be put into practice promptly, once a policy recommendation is made to implement it. This paper describes the development of a behaviour change communication strategy to support implementation of IPTi by the routine health services in southern Tanzania, in the context of a five-year research programme evaluating the community effectiveness of IPTi. Methods Mixed methods including a rapid qualitative assessment and quantitative health facility survey were used to investigate communities' and providers' knowledge and practices relating to malaria, EPI, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and existing health posters. Results were applied to develop an appropriate behaviour change communication strategy for IPTi involving personal communication between mothers and health staff, supported by a brand name and two posters. Results Malaria in young children was considered to be a nuisance because it causes sleepless nights. Vaccination services were well accepted and their use was considered the mother's responsibility. Babies were generally taken for vaccination despite complaints about fevers and swellings after the injections. Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine was widely used for malaria treatment and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy, despite widespread rumours of adverse reactions based on hearsay and newspaper reports. Almost all health providers said that they or their spouse were ready to take SP in pregnancy (96%, 223/242. A brand name, key messages and images were developed and pre-tested as behaviour change communication materials. The posters contained public health messages

  14. Behavioural deficits associated with maternal immune activation in the rat model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Amy R; Cheyne, Kirsten R; Bilkey, David K

    2011-11-20

    Schizophrenia is associated with changes in memory and contextual processing. As maternal infection is a risk factor in schizophrenia we tested for these impairments in a maternal immune activation (MIA) animal model. MIA rats displayed impaired object recognition memory, despite intact object discrimination, and a reduced reinstatement of rearing in response to a contextual manipulation. These results link MIA to contextual impairments in schizophrenia, possibly through changes in hippocampal function.

  15. An improved model for predicting coolant activity behaviour for fuel-failure monitoring analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Candu fuel element becomes defective when the Zircaloy-4 sheath is breached, allowing high pressure D2O coolant to enter the fuel-to-sheath gap, thereby creating a direct path for fission products (mainly volatile species of iodine and noble gases) and fuel debris to escape into the primary heat transport system (PHTS). In addition, the entry of high-pressure D2O coolant into the fuel-to-sheath gap may cause the UO2 fuel to oxidize, which in turn can augment the rate of fission product release into the PHTS. The release of fission products and fuel debris into the PHTS will elevate circuit contamination levels, consequently increasing radiation exposure to station personnel during maintenance tasks. Moreover, the continued operation of a defective fuel element may result in a diminished thermal performance if the thermal conductivity and the incipient melting temperature of the UO2 fuel are reduced due to fuel oxidation effects. It is therefore desirable to discharge defective fuel as soon as possible. Hence, a better understanding of defective fuel behaviour is required in order to develop an improved methodology for fuel-failure monitoring and PHTS coolant activity prediction. Several codes have been previously developed for fuel-failure monitoring in Candu, LWR (PWR and BWR), and WWER reactors. Most tools use a steady-state coolant activity analysis, where a Booth diffusion-type model is used to describe the fission product release from the UO2 fuel matrix into the fuel-to-sheath gap, and a first order kinetic model to consider the transport, hold-up, and release of volatile fission products from the fuel-to-sheath gap into the PHTS coolant. It is therefore necessary to use an empirical diffusion coefficient D' to account for the fission product diffusion in the UO2 fuel matrix and an escape rate coefficient ν for the release from the fuel-to-sheath gap into the PHTS coolant. However, these parameters are not constant in time as they are influenced by the

  16. Effects of a post-weaning cafeteria diet in young rats: metabolic syndrome, reduced activity and low anxiety-like behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanza, Jaume F; Caimari, Antoni; del Bas, Josep M; Torregrosa, Daniel; Cigarroa, Igor; Pallàs, Mercè; Capdevila, Lluís; Arola, Lluís; Escorihuela, Rosa M

    2014-01-01

    Among adolescents, overweight, obesity and metabolic syndrome are rapidly increasing in recent years as a consequence of unhealthy palatable diets. Animal models of diet-induced obesity have been developed, but little is known about the behavioural patterns produced by the consumption of such diets. The aim of the present study was to determine the behavioural and biochemical effects of a cafeteria diet fed to juvenile male and female rats, as well as to evaluate the possible recovery from these effects by administering standard feeding during the last week of the study. Two groups of male and female rats were fed with either a standard chow diet (ST) or a cafeteria (CAF) diet from weaning and for 8 weeks. A third group of males (CAF withdrawal) was fed with the CAF diet for 7 weeks and the ST in the 8th week. Both males and females developed metabolic syndrome as a consequence of the CAF feeding, showing overweight, higher adiposity and liver weight, increased plasma levels of glucose, insulin and triglycerides, as well as insulin resistance, in comparison with their respective controls. The CAF diet reduced motor activity in all behavioural tests, enhanced exploration, reduced anxiety-like behaviour and increased social interaction; this last effect was more pronounced in females than in males. When compared to animals only fed with a CAF diet, CAF withdrawal increased anxiety in the open field, slightly decreased body weight, and completely recovered the liver weight, insulin sensitivity and the standard levels of glucose, insulin and triglycerides in plasma. In conclusion, a CAF diet fed to young animals for 8 weeks induced obesity and metabolic syndrome, and produced robust behavioural changes in young adult rats, whereas CAF withdrawal in the last week modestly increased anxiety, reversed the metabolic alterations and partially reduced overweight.

  17. Contrasts in active transport behaviour across four countries: How do they translate into public health benefits?

    OpenAIRE

    Götschi, T.; Tainio, M; Maizlish, N.; Schwanen, T.; Goodman, A.; Woodcock, J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Countries and regions vary substantially in transport related physical activity that people gain from walking and cycling and in how this varies by age and gender. This study aims to quantify the population health impacts of differences between four settings. METHOD: The Integrated Transport and Health Model (ITHIM) was used to estimate health impacts from changes to physical activity that would arise if adults in urban areas in England and Wales adopted travel patterns of Switzerl...

  18. Key Beliefs for Targeted Interventions to Increase Physical Activity in Children: Analyzing Data from an Extended Version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bélanger-Gravel; Godin, G.

    2010-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children, a better understanding of physical activity behaviour is an important step in intervention planning. This study, based on the theory of planned behaviour, was conducted among 313 fifth graders and their parents. Children completed a computer-based questionnaire to evaluate theoretical constructs and behaviour. Additional information was obtained from parents by means of a questionnaire. Correlates of c...

  19. Consistent abnormalities in metabolic network activity in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ping; Yu, Huan; Peng, Shichun; Dauvilliers, Yves; Wang, Jian; Ge, Jingjie; Zhang, Huiwei; Eidelberg, David; Ma, Yilong; Zuo, Chuantao

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by dream-enactment behaviour and loss of REM atonia, and is considered a prodromal symptom of Parkinson’s disease. Wu et al. identify an abnormal brain metabolic network associated with the disorder, and show that evolution of this network occurs with progression to Parkinson’s disease.

  20. Changes over time in sexual behaviour among young people with different levels of educational attainment in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Fearon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV prevalence trends in Tanzania differ between socioeconomic groups. While HIV prevalence was initially higher among those with higher levels of educational attainment, it has fallen fastest among these groups. Among those with lower levels of education HIV prevalence has been stable. The behavioural dynamics underlying this phenomenon remain unclear, and a theory to guide interpretation of these trends and enable predictions of future patterns has not emerged. Methods: We analysed data from two large nationally representative surveys conducted in Tanzania in 2003/2004 and 2007/2008. We focused on young people aged 15 to 24 years and explored reports of (i first sex, (ii having had more than one sexual partner in the last year and (iii unprotected last sex with a non-cohabiting partner. Our analysis explored whether the behaviours differed by educational attainment in 2003/2004 and in 2007/2008, and whether changes over time in these behaviours differed between educational groups. Results: The rate of first sex was lower among more educated males in 2007/2008 but not in 2003/2004, and among females in both surveys. The change over time in educational patterning of the rate of first sex in males was mostly due to a declining rate among the secondary educated groups. Among males, having had more than one sexual partner in the last year was associated with lower education in 2003/2004 and in 2007/2008. Among females, those with less education were more likely to report more than one partner in 2003/2004, although by 2007/2008 there was little association between education and reporting more than one partner. Unprotected last sex with a non-cohabiting partner was less common among the more educated. Among both sexes this decreased over time among those with no education and increased among those with secondary education. Conclusions: Patterns of behaviour suggest that differences in HIV incidence might explain trends in HIV prevalence

  1. Physical environmental characteristics and individual interests as correlates of physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools: The health behaviour in school-aged children study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samdal Oddrun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The school has been identified as a key arena for physical activity promotion for young people. Effective change of physical activity behaviour requires identification of consistent and modifiable correlates. The study explores students' interests in school physical activity and facilities in the school environment and examines their associations with students' participation in physical activity during recess and their cross-level interaction effect. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on a national representative sample of Norwegian secondary schools and grade 8 students who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC 2005/06 study. The final sample comprised 68 schools and 1347 students. Physical environment characteristics were assessed through questionnaires completed by the principals, and students' physical activity and interests in physical activity were assessed through student self-completion questionnaires. Results Most students were interested in more opportunities for physical activity in school. Multilevel logistic regression models demonstrated that students attending schools with many facilities had 4.49 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.93–10.44 higher odds of being physically active compared to students in schools with fewer facilities when adjusting for socio-economic status, sex and interests in school physical activity. Also open fields (Odds Ratio (OR = 4.31, 95% CI = 1.65–11.28, outdoor obstacle course (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.32–2.40, playground equipment (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.24–2.42 and room with cardio and weightlifting equipment (OR = 1.58, 95%CI = 1.18–2.10 were associated with increased participation in physical activity. Both students' overall interests and the physical facilitation of the school environment significantly contributed to the prediction of recess physical activity. The interaction term demonstrated that students' interests might

  2. Evaluation of behavioural and antioxidant activity of Cytisus scoparius Link in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harisudhan Thanukrishnan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various human diseases have oxidative stress as one of their component. Many herbs have been reported to exhibit properties that combat oxidative stress through their active constituents such as flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds etc. Cytisus scoparius (CS Link, (Family: Leguminosae, also called Sarothamnus scoparius, has been shown in invitro experiments to be endowed with anti-diabetic, hypnotic and sedative and antioxidant activity. Therefore this study was carried out to evaluate CS for its anxiolytic, antidepressant and anti-oxidant activity in stressed rats. Methods 60% methanolic extract of CS was quantified for phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau's method. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS was employed to induce stress in rats. CS (125 and 250 mg/kg, p.o and diazepam (DZM (2 mg/kg, p.o was administered during the 21 day stress exposure period. Anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of CS were assessed in open field exploratory and behavioural despair paradigms, respectively. Plasma glucose and total lipids; endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT; non-enzymic-ascorbic acid and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS levels were measured in brain, kidneys and adrenals using standard protocols to assess the effect of CS. Results Total phenolic content of CS was found to be 8.54 ± 0.16% w/w. CMS produced anxiogenic and depressive behaviour in experimental rats with metabolic disturbance. Significant decrease in SOD, CAT levels and increase in lipid peroxidation level was observed in stressed rats. CS administration for 21 days during stress exposure significantly increased the ambulatory behaviour and decreased the freezing time in open field behaviour. In behavioural despair test no significant alteration in the immobility period was observed. CS also improved SOD, CAT, and ascorbic acid level and controlled the lipid peroxidation in different tissues

  3. Factor structure and psychometric properties of a French and German shortened version of the Behavioural Inhibition System/Behavioural Activation System scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-03-01

    The Behavioural Inhibition System/Behavioural Activation System scales (BIS/BAS scales) constitute one of the most prominent questionnaires to assess individual differences in sensitivity to punishment and reward. However, some studies questioned its validity, especially that of the French and German translations. The aim of the present study was to re-evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the BIS/BAS scales in a large sample of French- and German-speaking young Swiss men (N = 5872). Results showed that factor structures previously found in the literature did not meet the standards of fit. Nine items had to be removed to achieve adequate fit statistics in confirmatory factor analysis, yielding a shortened version with four factors: one BIS factor comprising five items and three BAS factors, namely Reward Reactivity, Drive and Fun Seeking, each comprising two items. Convergent validity and group invariance analyses suggest that the shortened BIS/BAS scales constitute a valid and reliable instrument. Researchers interested in assessing individual differences in BIS and BAS reactivity in French- and German-speaking individuals should avoid using the BIS/BAS scales as originally specified. The shortened version may be a sound alternative at least in samples of young adults. Its shorter format may be particularly suited for surveys with constraints on questionnaire length. PMID:27471754

  4. Factor structure and psychometric properties of a French and German shortened version of the Behavioural Inhibition System/Behavioural Activation System scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-03-01

    The Behavioural Inhibition System/Behavioural Activation System scales (BIS/BAS scales) constitute one of the most prominent questionnaires to assess individual differences in sensitivity to punishment and reward. However, some studies questioned its validity, especially that of the French and German translations. The aim of the present study was to re-evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the BIS/BAS scales in a large sample of French- and German-speaking young Swiss men (N = 5872). Results showed that factor structures previously found in the literature did not meet the standards of fit. Nine items had to be removed to achieve adequate fit statistics in confirmatory factor analysis, yielding a shortened version with four factors: one BIS factor comprising five items and three BAS factors, namely Reward Reactivity, Drive and Fun Seeking, each comprising two items. Convergent validity and group invariance analyses suggest that the shortened BIS/BAS scales constitute a valid and reliable instrument. Researchers interested in assessing individual differences in BIS and BAS reactivity in French- and German-speaking individuals should avoid using the BIS/BAS scales as originally specified. The shortened version may be a sound alternative at least in samples of young adults. Its shorter format may be particularly suited for surveys with constraints on questionnaire length.

  5. An interactive activation and competition model of person knowledge, suggested by proactive interference by traits spontaneously inferred from behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanbo E; Higgins, Nancy C; Uleman, James S; Michaux, Aaron; Vipond, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    People unconsciously and unintentionally make inferences about others' personality traits based on their behaviours. In this study, a classic memory phenomenon--proactive interference (PI)--is for the first time used to detect spontaneous trait inferences. PI should occur when lists of behaviour descriptions, all implying the same trait, are to be remembered. Switching to a new trait should produce 'release' from proactive interference (or RPI). Results from two experiments supported these predictions. PI and RPI effects are consistent with an interactive activation and competition model of person perception (e.g., McNeill & Burton, 2002, J. Exp. Psychol., 55A, 1141), which predicts categorical organization of social behaviours based on personality traits. Advantages of this model are discussed. PMID:26096621

  6. Role of psychosocial work factors in the relation between becoming a caregiver and changes in health behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Head, Jenny; Hulvej Rod, Naja

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The present study tested the effects of becoming a caregiver combined with adverse working conditions on changes in health behaviours. METHODS: Participants were 5419 British civil servants from the Whitehall II cohort study who were not caregivers at baseline (phase 3, 1991-1994). Ps......BACKGROUND: The present study tested the effects of becoming a caregiver combined with adverse working conditions on changes in health behaviours. METHODS: Participants were 5419 British civil servants from the Whitehall II cohort study who were not caregivers at baseline (phase 3, 1991...... caregivers were more likely to increase frequency of alcohol consumption, but only if they also reported low decision latitude at work (OR= 1.65, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.37 compared with non-caregivers with average decision latitude), or belonged to low occupational social class (OR=2.38, 95% CI 1.17 to 4...... with average social support). There was no effect of caregiving on reducing exercise below recommended number of hours per week, or on drinking above recommended number of units per week, regardless of working conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The findings underscore the importance of a well-balanced work environment...

  7. The parasite's long arm: a tapeworm parasite induces behavioural changes in uninfected group members of its social host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beros, Sara; Jongepier, Evelien; Hagemeier, Felizitas; Foitzik, Susanne

    2015-11-22

    Parasites can induce alterations in host phenotypes in order to enhance their own survival and transmission. Parasites of social insects might not only benefit from altering their individual hosts, but also from inducing changes in uninfected group members. Temnothorax nylanderi ant workers infected with the tapeworm Anomotaenia brevis are known to be chemically distinct from nest-mates and do not contribute to colony fitness, but are tolerated in their colonies and well cared for. Here, we investigated how tapeworm- infected workers affect colony aggression by manipulating their presence in ant colonies and analysing whether their absence or presence resulted in behavioural alterations in their nest-mates. We report a parasite-induced shift in colony aggression, shown by lower aggression of uninfected nest-mates from parasitized colonies towards conspecifics, potentially explaining the tolerance towards infected ants. We also demonstrate that tapeworm-infected workers showed a reduced flight response and higher survival, while their presence caused a decrease in survival of uninfected nest-mates. This anomalous behaviour of infected ants, coupled with their increased survival, could facilitate the parasites' transmission to its definitive hosts, woodpeckers. We conclude that parasites exploiting individuals that are part of a society not only induce phenotypic changes within their individual hosts, but in uninfected group members as well. PMID:26582019

  8. Communication and social capital in the control of avian influenza: lessons from behaviour change experiences in the Mekong Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisbord, S R; Michaelides, T; Rasmuson, M

    2008-01-01

    International development agencies, national governments, and nongovernmental organizations are increasingly collaborating with local civil society groups in mounting behaviour change communication (BCC) interventions. Even in countries with weakened civil societies, the social capital of local organizations can be a fundamental communication resource. The experience of three programmes in the Mekong Region that used BCC to prevent and control outbreaks of avian influenza bore out this finding. These programmes worked with the Vietnam Women's Union to mobilize local women as conduits for education; worked with the Centre d'Etude et de Developpement Agricole Cambodgien (CEDAC), in Cambodia, to educate and train village health promoters and model farmers; and worked with the Lao Journalists Association to educate and build skills among print and broadcast journalists to enhance avian influenza coverage. Collaborating with civil society organizations can enhance communication reach, trust, and local ownership, but poses many challenges, particularly institutional capacity. Our experience, nevertheless, holds promise for a measured approach that views social capital as a set of communication resources at the community level that can be mobilized to promote complex behaviours, particularly in a rapidly changing outbreak situation.

  9. Lifestyles of Adult Omani Women; Cross-sectional study on physical activity and sedentary behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Al-Habsi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the lifestyles of adult Omani women with regards to physical activity (PA levels and sedentary behaviour (SB. Methods: The study was carried out between May and June 2013 and included a total of 277 healthy women aged 18–48 years from five governorates in Oman. Total, moderate and vigorous PA levels and walking were self-reported by participants using the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. SB (total sitting time and different types of sitting time was self-reported using the Domain- Specific Sitting Time Questionnaire on both working and non-working days. PA levels and SB were also objectively measured among 86 of the participants using an accelerometer. Results: The self-reported median ± interquartile range (IQR total PA was 1,516 ± 3,392 metabolic equivalent of task minutes/week. The self-reported median ± IQR total sitting time was 433 ± 323 minutes/day and 470 ± 423 minutes/day for working and non-working days, respectively. Sitting at work on working days and sitting during leisure activities on non-working days formed the greatest proportion of total sitting time. Overall, accelerometer results indicated that participants spent 62% of their time involved in SB, 35% in light PA and only 3% in moderate to vigorous PA. Conclusion: Sedentary lifestyles were common among the adult Omani women studied. Lack of PA and increased SB is known to increase the risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. The use of accelerometers to monitor PA and SB among different groups in Oman is highly recommended in order to accurately assess the lifestyle risks of this population.

  10. Changing oral health status and oral health behaviour of schoolchildren in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicka, Maria; Petersen, Poul Erik; Szatko, Franciszek;

    2002-01-01

    aged 6 and 12 years were carried out in 1995, 1997, 1999 and 2000; questionnaire surveys of a sample of mothers and schoolteachers were conducted in 1999. SETTING: The surveys in schools intended to aid planning and evaluation of the revitalised school oral health programme in Poland. SUBJECTS......OBJECTIVES: To assess the occurrence of dental caries over time in Polish schoolchildren, to analyse the oral health behaviour of children and mothers, and to compare the levels of dental knowledge and attitudes of mothers and schoolteachers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional oral health surveys of children...... while self-administered questionnaires for teachers covered dental knowledge, attitudes and involvement in health education. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The proportions of 6-year-old children being caries-free were 13% in 1995, 17% in 1997, 18% in 1999 and 12% in 2000. The mean DMFT of children aged 12...

  11. Can we use digital life-log images to investigate active and sedentary travel behaviour? Results from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodges Steve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active travel such as walking and cycling has potential to increase physical activity levels in sedentary individuals. Motorised car travel is a sedentary behaviour that contributes to carbon emissions. There have been recent calls for technology that will improve our ability to measure these travel behaviours, and in particular evaluate modes and volumes of active versus sedentary travel. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the potential efficacy of a new electronic measurement device, a wearable digital camera called SenseCam, in travel research. Methods Participants (n = 20 were required to wear the SenseCam device for one full day of travel. The device automatically records approximately 3,600 time-stamped, first-person point-of-view images per day, without any action required by the wearer. Participants also completed a self-report travel diary over the same period for comparison, and were interviewed afterwards to assess user burden and experience. Results There were a total of 105 confirmed journeys in this pilot. The new SenseCam device recorded more journeys than the travel diary (99 vs. 94. Although the two measures demonstrated an acceptable correlation for journey duration (r = 0.92, p Conclusions Direct observation of travel behaviour from time-stamped images shows considerable potential in the field of travel research. Journey duration derived from direct observation of travel behaviour from time-stamped images appears to suggest over-reporting of self-reported journey duration.

  12. Past ice-sheet behaviour: retreat scenarios and changing controls in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Anna Ruth W.; Simkins, Lauren M.; Greenwood, Sarah L.; Anderson, John B.

    2016-05-01

    Studying the history of ice-sheet behaviour in the Ross Sea, Antarctica's largest drainage basin can improve our understanding of patterns and controls on marine-based ice-sheet dynamics and provide constraints for numerical ice-sheet models. Newly collected high-resolution multibeam bathymetry data, combined with two decades of legacy multibeam and seismic data, are used to map glacial landforms and reconstruct palaeo ice-sheet drainage. During the Last Glacial Maximum, grounded ice reached the continental shelf edge in the eastern but not western Ross Sea. Recessional geomorphic features in the western Ross Sea indicate virtually continuous back-stepping of the ice-sheet grounding line. In the eastern Ross Sea, well-preserved linear features and a lack of small-scale recessional landforms signify rapid lift-off of grounded ice from the bed. Physiography exerted a first-order control on regional ice behaviour, while sea floor geology played an important subsidiary role. Previously published deglacial scenarios for Ross Sea are based on low-spatial-resolution marine data or terrestrial observations; however, this study uses high-resolution basin-wide geomorphology to constrain grounding-line retreat on the continental shelf. Our analysis of retreat patterns suggests that (1) retreat from the western Ross Sea was complex due to strong physiographic controls on ice-sheet drainage; (2) retreat was asynchronous across the Ross Sea and between troughs; (3) the eastern Ross Sea largely deglaciated prior to the western Ross Sea following the formation of a large grounding-line embayment over Whales Deep; and (4) our glacial geomorphic reconstruction converges with recent numerical models that call for significant and complex East Antarctic ice sheet and West Antarctic ice sheet contributions to the ice flow in the Ross Sea.

  13. Changing behaviours and continuing silence: sex in the post-immigration lives of mainland Chinese immigrants in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanqiu Rachel

    2012-01-01

    In China, reluctance to discuss sex continues to be widely observed despite the sexual revolution there. That silence generates questions about health risks in the contexts of HIV/AIDS and international migration. Based on a qualitative study of mainland Chinese immigrants in Canada, this paper explores the impacts of immigration processes on sex and sexuality. The findings reveal a gap between these individuals' changing sexual behaviours and the continuing silence on sex. Although Canada has exposed them to a new living environment that has shaped the dynamics and patterns of their sexual practices, their incomplete integration into the host society and their close connections with China as the home country mean that traditional Chinese norms continue to influence their understanding of these changes. With the increasing openness of these immigrants' sexual relationships, the obsolescence of their consciousness and knowledge of sexuality should be addressed in order to reduce their vulnerability to sexual inequalities and consequent health risks. PMID:22084889

  14. First direct measurements of behavioural responses by Cuvier's beaked whales to mid-frequency active sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRuiter, Stacy L; Southall, Brandon L; Calambokidis, John; Zimmer, Walter M X; Sadykova, Dinara; Falcone, Erin A; Friedlaender, Ari S; Joseph, John E; Moretti, David; Schorr, Gregory S; Thomas, Len; Tyack, Peter L

    2013-08-23

    Most marine mammal- strandings coincident with naval sonar exercises have involved Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris). We recorded animal movement and acoustic data on two tagged Ziphius and obtained the first direct measurements of behavioural responses of this species to mid-frequency active (MFA) sonar signals. Each recording included a 30-min playback (one 1.6-s simulated MFA sonar signal repeated every 25 s); one whale was also incidentally exposed to MFA sonar from distant naval exercises. Whales responded strongly to playbacks at low received levels (RLs; 89-127 dB re 1 µPa): after ceasing normal fluking and echolocation, they swam rapidly, silently away, extending both dive duration and subsequent non-foraging interval. Distant sonar exercises (78-106 dB re 1 µPa) did not elicit such responses, suggesting that context may moderate reactions. The observed responses to playback occurred at RLs well below current regulatory thresholds; equivalent responses to operational sonars could elevate stranding risk and reduce foraging efficiency.

  15. Liparid and macrourid fishes of the hadal zone: in situ observations of activity and feeding behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, A J; Fujii, T; Solan, M; Matsumoto, A K; Bagley, P M; Priede, I G

    2009-03-22

    Using baited camera landers, the first images of living fishes were recorded in the hadal zone (6000-11000 m) in the Pacific Ocean. The widespread abyssal macrourid Coryphaenoides yaquinae was observed at a new depth record of approximately 7000 m in the Japan Trench. Two endemic species of liparid were observed at similar depths: Pseudoliparis amblystomopsis in the Japan Trench and Notoliparis kermadecensis in the Kermadec Trench. From these observations, we have documented swimming and feeding behaviour of these species and derived the first estimates of hadal fish abundance. The liparids intercepted bait within 100-200 min but were observed to preferentially feed on scavenging amphipods. Notoliparis kermadecensis act as top predators in the hadal food web, exhibiting up to nine suction-feeding events per minute. Both species showed distinctive swimming gaits: P. amblystomopsis (mean length 22.5 cm) displayed a mean tail-beat frequency of 0.47 Hz and mean caudal:pectoral frequency ratio of 0.76, whereas N. kermadecensis (mean length 31.5 cm) displayed respective values of 1.04 and 2.08 Hz. Despite living at extreme depths, these endemic liparids exhibit similar activity levels compared with shallow-water liparids. PMID:19129104

  16. Characterisation of charge and discharge behaviour of lithium ion batteries with olivine based cathode active material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscher, Michael A.; Sauer, Dirk Uwe [RWTH Aachen University, Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group, Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA), 52066 Aachen (Germany); Vetter, Jens [BMW Group, 80788 Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    This paper gives insight to the physical processes taking part during the two-phase transition in lithium intercalation compounds. The behaviour of olivine based electrodes is in the special focus of this work. These electrodes exhibit phase juxtaposition within the electrode particles over a wide state of charge (SOC) range. Measurements were made to explore effects related to the formation of distinct phase sequences within the particles. Asymmetric charge characteristics, a load history dependency of the internal resistance and a voltage effect related to the disappearance of certain phase regions (the later on called vanishing phase effect) were identified. Moreover, these measurements give evidence to the existence of stable phase regions inside the electrode active material. An intuitive model is given to visualize the phase regions within spherical olivine particles. Therefore an analytical approach is developed in order to take the geometry of the particles, the ion permeability as well as the size distribution of the particles in consideration. According to the developed approach and the obtained measurement results, an enhanced cell equivalent electrical circuit is evaluated, considering phase shell development effects. (author)

  17. Central nervous action of interleukin-1 mediates activation of limbic structures and behavioural depression in response to peripheral administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsman, J P; Veeneman, J; Combe, C; Poole, S; Luheshi, G N; Dantzer, R

    2008-12-01

    Although receptors for the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 have long been known to be expressed in the brain, their role in fever and behavioural depression observed during the acute phase response (APR) to tissue infection remains unclear. This may in part be due to the fact that interleukin-1 in the brain is bioactive only several hours after peripheral administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To study the role of cerebral interleukin-1 action in temperature and behavioural changes, and activation of brain structures during the APR, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra; 100 microg) was infused into the lateral brain ventricle 4 h after intraperitoneal (i.p.) LPS injection (250 microg/kg) in rats. I.p. LPS administration induced interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) production in systemic circulation as well as in brain circumventricular organs and the choroid plexus. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of IL-1ra 4 h after i.p. LPS injection attenuated the reduction in social interaction, a cardinal sign of behavioural depression during sickness, and c-Fos expression in the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. However, LPS-induced fever, rises in plasma corticosterone, body weight loss and c-Fos expression in the hypothalamus and caudal brainstem were not altered by i.c.v. infusion of IL-1ra. These findings, together with our previous observations showing that i.c.v. infused IL-1ra diffuses throughout perivascular spaces, where macrophages express interleukin-1 receptors, can be interpreted to suggest that circulating or locally produced brain IL-1beta acts on these cells to bring about behavioural depression and activation of limbic structures during the APR after peripheral LPS administration.

  18. Macro-level change and micro level effects: a twenty-year perspective on changing grocery shopping behaviour in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    de Kervenoael, Ronan; Hallsworth, Alan; Clarke, Ian

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we summarise key elements of retail change in Britain over a twenty-year period. The time period is that covered by a funded study into long-term change in grocery shopping habits in Portsmouth, England. The major empirical findings—to which we briefly allude—are reported elsewhere: the present task is to assess the wider context underlying that change. For example, it has frequently been stated that retailing in the UK is not as competitive as in other leading economies. As a r...

  19. [A behavioural rating scale of activity engagement in psychogeriatric day care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2014-09-01

    The Participation Scale was developed as an observational measure of activity engagement (as rated by group facilitators) of adult day care clients with mild to moderate dementia. In a consecutive sample of 448 subjects Mokken scaling procedure was conducted to assess the latent structure of 27 questionnaire items. The study included an exploratory and a confirmatory approach. For that purpose the sample was randomly divided into two halves. Exploratory analysis revealed three dimensions of participation that adequately captured the item structure: motivation (10 items; Loevinger's H = 0.48), competence (7 items; H = 0.56) and self-confidence (4 items; H = 0.57). The structure was validated in a confirmatory analysis. In a stepwise multiple regression model 49% of the variance in motivation was explained by independent behavioural measures of apathy and affect. Apathy and cognitive impairment were significant predictors of competence in participation (R(2) = 31.2%). Negative affect was the main predictor of reduced self-confidence (R(2) = 37.9%). Cross-validation of these exploratory regression models on the confirmatory sample explained 39.6%, 29.2% and 23.1% of the variance in motivation, competence and self-confidence, respectively. Test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2(A,1)) as determined in a random subsample of 56 participants, were 0.77 (motivation), 0.85 (competence) and 0.76 (self-confidence). The three measures allow the differentiation and ordering of individual participants on separate dimensions of activity engagement in psychogeriatric day care. PMID:25007866

  20. Participants’ perspectives on making and maintaining behavioural changes in a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention: a qualitative study using the theory domain framework

    OpenAIRE

    Penn, Linda; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Sniehotta, Falko F.; White, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In a qualitative substudy, we sought to elicit participants’ perspectives of their behavioural change and maintenance of new behaviours towards intervention optimisation. Setting The intervention was delivered in leisure and community settings in a local authority, which according to the UK government statistics ranks as 1 of the 10 most socioeconomically deprived areas in England. Participants We recruited 218 adults aged 40–65 years at elevated risk of type 2 diabetes (Finnish Di...