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Sample records for activity alters plant

  1. Plant adaptation to extreme environments: the example of Cistus salviifolius of an active geothermal alteration field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Giacomo; Bottega, Stefania; Forino, Laura M C; Ciccarelli, Daniela; Spanò, Carmelina

    2014-02-01

    Cistus salviifolius is able to colonise one of the most extreme active geothermal alteration fields in terms of both soil acidity and hot temperatures. The analyses of morpho-functional and physiological characters, investigated in leaves of plants growing around fumaroles (G leaves) and in leaves developed by the same plants after transfer into growth chamber under controlled conditions (C leaves) evidenced the main adaptive traits developed by this pioneer plant in a stressful environment. These traits involved leaf shape and thickness, mesophyll compactness, stomatal and trichome densities, chloroplast size. Changes of functional and physiological traits concerned dry matter content, peroxide and lipid peroxidation, leaf area, relative water and pigment contents. A higher reducing power and antioxidant enzymatic activity were typical of G leaves. Though the high levels of stress parameters, G leaves showed stress-induced specific morphogenic and physiological responses putatively involved in their surviving in active geothermal habitats.

  2. Differential Larval Toxicity and Oviposition Altering Activity of Some Indigenous Plant Extracts against Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Aedes albopictus.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruchi Yadav; Varun Tyagi; Tikar, Sachin N; Sharma, Ajay K.; Murlidhar J Mendki; Jain, Ashok K; Devanathan Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mosquitoes are well known as vectors of several disease causing pathogens. The extensive use of synthetic insecticides in the mosquito control strategies resulted to the development of pesticide resistance and fostered environmental deterioration. Hence in recent years plants become alternative source of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the larvicidal and oviposition altering activity of six different plants species-Alstonia scholaris, Callistemon viminalis, Hyp...

  3. Root endophyte Piriformospora indica DSM 11827 alters plant morphology, enhances biomass and antioxidant activity of medicinal plant Bacopa monniera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ram; Kamal, Shwet; Sharma, Pradeep K; Oelmüller, Ralf; Varma, Ajit

    2013-12-01

    Unorganized collections and over exploitation of naturally occurring medicinal plant Bacopa monniera is leading to rapid depletion of germplasm and is posing a great threat to its survival in natural habitats. The species has already been listed in the list of highly threatened plants of India. This calls for micropropagation based multiplication of potential accessions and understanding of their mycorrhizal associations for obtaining plants with enhanced secondary metabolite contents. The co-cultivation of B. monniera with axenically cultivated root endophyte Piriformospora indica resulted in growth promotion, increase in bacoside content, antioxidant activity and nuclear hypertrophy of this medicinal plant.

  4. Changes at an activated sludge sewage treatment plant alter the numbers of airborne aerobic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Nadeesha L; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2005-11-01

    In 1976, the activated sludge sewage treatment plant in Edmonton, Canada, was surveyed to determine the numbers of culturable airborne microorganisms. Many changes have been made at the plant to reduce odors and improve treatment efficiency, so in 2004 another survey was done to determine if these changes had reduced the bioaerosols. Covering the grit tanks and primary settling tanks greatly reduced the numbers of airborne microbes. Changing the design and operation of indoor automated sampling taps and sinks also reduced bioaerosols. The secondary was expanded and converted from a conventional activated sludge process using coarse bubble aeration to a biological nutrient removal system using fine bubble aeration. Although the surface area of the secondary more than doubled, the average number of airborne microorganisms in this part of the plant in 2004 was about 1% of that in 1976.

  5. Differential Larval Toxicity and Oviposition Altering Activity of Some Indigenous Plant Extracts against Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Yadav

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are well known as vectors of several disease causing pathogens. The extensive use of synthetic insecticides in the mosquito control strategies resulted to the development of pesticide resistance and fostered environmental deterioration. Hence in recent years plants become alternative source of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the larvicidal and oviposition altering activity of six different plants species-Alstonia scholaris, Callistemon viminalis, Hyptis suaveolens, Malvastrum coromandelianum, Prosopis juliflora, Vernonia cinerea against Aedes albopictus mosquito in laboratory.Leaf extracts of all the six plants species in five different solvents of various polarities were used in the range of 20-400ppm for larval bioassay and 50,100 and 200ppm for cage bioassay (for the study of oviposition behavior against Ae. albopictus. The larval mortality data were recorded after 24 h and subjected to Probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50, while OAI (Oviposition activity index was calculated for oviposition altering activity of the plant extracts.Vernonia cinerea extract in acetone and C. viminalis extract in isopropanol were highly effective against Aedes albopictus larvae with LC50 value 64.57, 71.34ppm respectively. Acetone extract of P. juliflora found to be strong oviposition-deterrent which inhibited >2 fold egg laying (OAI-0.466 at 100ppm.Vernonia cinerea and C. viminallis leaf extracts have the potential to be used as larvicide and P. juliflora as an oviposition-deterrent for the control of Ae. albopictus mosquito.

  6. Overexpression of plastidial thioredoxins f and m differentially alters photosynthetic activity and response to oxidative stress in tobacco plants

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    Pascal eREY

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants display a remarkable diversity of thioredoxins (Trxs, reductases controlling the thiol redox status of proteins. The physiological function of many of them remains elusive, particularly for plastidial Trxs f and m, which are presumed based on biochemical data to regulate photosynthetic reactions and carbon metabolism. Recent reports revealed that Trxs f and m participate in vivo in the control of starch metabolism and cyclic photosynthetic electron transfer around photosystem I, respectively. To further delineate their in planta function, we compared the photosynthetic characteristics, the level and/or activity of various Trx targets and the responses to oxidative stress in transplastomic tobacco plants overexpressing either Trx f or Trx m. We found that plants overexpressing Trx m specifically exhibit altered growth, reduced chlorophyll content, impaired photosynthetic linear electron transfer and decreased pools of glutathione and ascorbate. In both transplastomic lines, activities of two enzymes involved in carbon metabolism, NADP-malate dehydrogenase and NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase are markedly and similarly altered. In contrast, plants overexpressing Trx m specifically display increased capacity for methionine sulfoxide reductases, enzymes repairing damaged proteins by regenerating methionine from oxidized methionine. Finally, we also observed that transplastomic plants exhibit distinct responses when exposed to oxidative stress conditions generated by methyl viologen or exposure to high light combined with low temperature, the plants overexpressing Trx m being notably more tolerant than Wt and those overexpressing Trx f. Altogether, these data indicate that Trxs f and m fulfill distinct physiological functions. They prompt us to propose that the m type is involved in key processes linking photosynthetic activity, redox homeostasis and antioxidant mechanisms in the chloroplast.

  7. Azospirillum Inoculation Alters Nitrate Reductase Activity and Nitrogen Uptake in Wheat Plant under Water Deficit Conditions

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    N. Aliasgharzad N. Aliasgharzad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit stress usually diminishes nitrogen uptake by plants. There are evidences that some nitrogen fixing bacteria can alleviate this stress by supplying nitrogen and improving its metabolism in plants. Four Azospirillum strains, A. lipoferum AC45-II, A. brasilense AC46-I, A. irakense AC49-VII and A. irakense AC51-VI were tested for nitrate reductase activity (NRA. In a pot culture experiment using a sandy loam soil, wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Sardari were inoculated with these bacterial strains and three ranges of soil water potential (W1: -10 to -20, W2: -40 to -50 and W3: -65 to -75 kPa were applied to the pots. All strains were positive in NRA test and the highest (7.63mg NO2-N.L-1.48h-1 was recorded for AC49-VII and the least (0.23mg NO2-N.L-1.48h-1 was belong to AC51-VI. Leaf and root NRA, root and shoot nitrogen concentrations, and dry weights of root and shoot decreased by increasing water deficit stress. All four bacterial strains caused a significant enhancement in root NRA and in each water deficit level, the higher root NRA was recorded in AC46-I and AC49-VII inoculated plants. The highest leaf NRA was achieved by AC49-VII. The mean increment of root NRA by bacterial strains was 171% compared to the non-bacterial plants. Moreover, at the highest level of water deficit stress, the highest dry weight and nitrogen concentration in root and shoot were obtained by AC46-I and AC49-VII treatments.

  8. Plant location and extraction procedure strongly alter the antimicrobial activity of murta extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shene, Carolina; Reyes, Agnes K.; Villarroel, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Leaves and fruits of Murta (Ugni Molinae Turcz.) growing in three locations of Chile with diverse climatic conditions were extracted by using ethanol/water mixtures at different ratios and the antimicrobial activity was assessed. Extracts containing the highest polyphenolic content were from murta...

  9. Alteration of plant meristem function by manipulation of the Retinoblastoma-like plant RRB gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Tim; Feiler, Heidi; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Jenkins, Susan; Roe, Judith; Zambryski, Patricia

    2007-01-16

    This invention provides methods and compositions for altering the growth, organization, and differentiation of plant tissues. The invention is based on the discovery that, in plants, genetically altering the levels of Retinoblastoma-related gene (RRB) activity produces dramatic effects on the growth, proliferation, organization, and differentiation of plant meristem.

  10. Natal Host Plants Can Alter Herbivore Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Huipeng; Evan L. Preisser; Su, Qi; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific competition between herbivores is widely recognized as an important determinant of community structure. Although researchers have identified a number of factors capable of altering competitive interactions, few studies have addressed the influence of neighboring plant species. If adaptation to/ epigenetic effects of an herbivore’s natal host plant alter its performance on other host plants, then interspecific herbivore interactions may play out differently in heterogeneous and h...

  11. Plant growth conditions alter phytolith carbon

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    Kimberley L Gallagher

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many plants, including grasses and some important human food sources, accumulate and precipitate silica in their cells to form opaline phytoliths. These phytoliths contain small amounts of organic matter (OM that are trapped during the process of silicification. Previous work has suggested that plant silica is associated with compounds such as proteins, lipids, lignin and carbohydrate complexes. It is not known whether these compounds are cellular components passively encapsulated as the cell silicifies, polymers actively involved in the precipitation process or random compounds assimilated by the plant and discarded into a glass wastebasket. Here, we used Raman spectroscopy to map the distribution of OM in phytoliths, and to analyze individual phytoliths isolated from Sorghum bicolor plants grown under different laboratory treatments. Using mapping, we showed that OM in phytoliths is distributed throughout the silica and is not related to dark spots visible in light microscopy, previously assumed to be the repository for phytolith OM. The Raman spectra exhibited common bands indicative of C-H stretching modes of general OM, and further more diagnostic bands consistent with carbohydrates, lignins and other OM. These Raman spectra exhibited variability of spectral signatures and of relative intensities between sample treatments indicating that differing growth conditions altered the phytolith carbon. This may have strong implications for understanding the mechanism of phytolith formation, and for use of phytolith carbon isotope values in dating or paleoclimate reconstruction.

  12. Natal Host Plants Can Alter Herbivore Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huipeng; Preisser, Evan L.; Su, Qi; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific competition between herbivores is widely recognized as an important determinant of community structure. Although researchers have identified a number of factors capable of altering competitive interactions, few studies have addressed the influence of neighboring plant species. If adaptation to/ epigenetic effects of an herbivore’s natal host plant alter its performance on other host plants, then interspecific herbivore interactions may play out differently in heterogeneous and homogenous plant communities. We tested wether the natal host plant of a whitefly population affected interactions between the Middle-east Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci by rearing the offspring of a cabbage-derived MEAM1 population and a poinsettia-derived MED population together on three different host plants: cotton, poinsettia, and cabbage. We found that MED dominated on poinsettia and that MEAM1 dominated on cabbage, results consistent with previous research. MED also dominated when reared with MEAM1 on cotton, however, a result at odds with multiple otherwise-similar studies that reared both species on the same natal plant. Our work provides evidence that natal plants affect competitive interactions on another plant species, and highlights the potential importance of neighboring plant species on herbivore community composition in agricultral systems. PMID:28030636

  13. Natal Host Plants Can Alter Herbivore Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huipeng; Preisser, Evan L; Su, Qi; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific competition between herbivores is widely recognized as an important determinant of community structure. Although researchers have identified a number of factors capable of altering competitive interactions, few studies have addressed the influence of neighboring plant species. If adaptation to/ epigenetic effects of an herbivore's natal host plant alter its performance on other host plants, then interspecific herbivore interactions may play out differently in heterogeneous and homogenous plant communities. We tested wether the natal host plant of a whitefly population affected interactions between the Middle-east Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci by rearing the offspring of a cabbage-derived MEAM1 population and a poinsettia-derived MED population together on three different host plants: cotton, poinsettia, and cabbage. We found that MED dominated on poinsettia and that MEAM1 dominated on cabbage, results consistent with previous research. MED also dominated when reared with MEAM1 on cotton, however, a result at odds with multiple otherwise-similar studies that reared both species on the same natal plant. Our work provides evidence that natal plants affect competitive interactions on another plant species, and highlights the potential importance of neighboring plant species on herbivore community composition in agricultral systems.

  14. Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0523 TITLE: Complement Activation Alters Platelet Function PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: George Tsokos, M.D. CONTRACTING...Activation Alters Platelet Function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0523 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) George Tsokos, M.D...a decreased level of disease. Further studies will expand upon these observations better outlining the function of platelets in the injury associated

  15. Evidences for structural basis of altered ascorbate peroxidase activity in cadmium-stressed rice plants exposed to jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Indra; Shah, Kavita

    2014-04-01

    Binding interactions of cadmium (Cd) with rice ascorbate peroxidase (OsAPX) in presence or absence of jasmonate was examined in-silico. OsAPX is a 250 amino acid long protein with 90 % sequence similarity to soybean-APX. The 3D model of OsAPX obtained by homology modeling using soybean APX (PDBID:1OAF) as template was associated with -15975.85 kJ/mol energy, 100 % residues in favoured region, verify score of 0.85, ERRAT score 89.625 and a negative ProSA graph, suggesting OsAPX model to be of good quality, robust and reliable which was submitted with Protein Model Database with PMDBID: PM0078091. The rice ascorbate peroxidase ascorbate [OsAPX-Asc] complex had a substrate binding cavity involving residues at position (30)KSCAPL(35), (167)RCH(169) and (172)R wherein ascorbate accommodated via three H-bonds involving (30)Lys at the γ-edge of heme. (169)His served as a bridge between heme-porphyrin of OsAPX and ascorbate creating a charge relay system. Cd bound in [OsAPX-Asc-Cd] complex at (29)EKSCAPL(35), a site similar to ascorbate binding site. The binding of Cd caused breaking of (169)His bridge shifting the protein conformation. Cadmium exhibited four electrostatic interactions via (29)Glu of OsAPX backbone. Docking of [OsAPX-Asc] with jasmonic acid (JA) resulted in [OsAPX-Asc-JA] complex where 4-H-bonds held JA to OsAPX in a cavity at γ-edge on the distal side of heme. The binding of [OsAPX-Asc-JA] to Cd show the metal to bind at a position other than that involved in binding of OsAPX with Cd alone. Results indicate that Cd does not replace iron or ascorbate or JA but binds to OsAPX on the surface at a separate site electrostatically. In presence of JA the interactions involved in formation of [OsAPXAsc] are restored which is otherwise altered by the presence of Cd. The formation and reformation of H-bond take place between the [OsAPX-Asc] and Cd/JA. It is the interaction between heme and ascorbate which is modulated differently in presence of Cd/JA. In absence

  16. Plant cells in vitro under altered gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymchuk, D O

    1998-07-01

    Establishing the role of gravity in plant requires information about how gravity regulates the metabolism of individual cells. Plant cells and tissues in vitro are valuable models for such purpose. Disrupted intercellular relations in such models have allowed to elucidate both the gravity role in non-specialised to gravity plant cells and the correlative relation role of an intact plant organism. The data obtained from non-numerous space and clinostat experiments with plant cells in vitro have demonstrated that their metabolism is sensitive to g-environment. The most experiments have shown a decrease in the biomass production and cell proliferation of spaceflight samples compared with ground controls, although there is study reporting of increased biomass production in an anise suspension culture and D. carota crown gall tissue culture. At the same time, results of experiments with single carrot cells and tomato callus culture demonstrated similarities in differentiation process in microgravity and in ground controls. Noted ultrastructural arrangement in cells, especially mitochondria and plastids, have been related to altered energy load and functions of organelles in microgravity, as well as changes in the lipid peroxidation and the content of malonic dyaldehyde in a haplopappus tissue culture under altered gravity supposed with modification of membrane structural-functional state. This article focuses on growth aspects of the cultured cells in microgravity and under clinostat conditions and considers those aspects that require further analysis.

  17. Fungal symbionts alter plant drought response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worchel, Elise R; Giauque, Hannah E; Kivlin, Stephanie N

    2013-04-01

    Grassland productivity is often primarily limited by water availability, and therefore, grasslands may be especially sensitive to climate change. Fungal symbionts can mediate plant drought response by enhancing drought tolerance and avoidance, but these effects have not been quantified across grass species. We performed a factorial meta-analysis of previously published studies to determine how arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and endophytic fungal symbionts affect growth of grasses under drought. We then examined how the effect of fungal symbionts on plant growth was influenced by biotic (plant photosynthetic pathway) and abiotic (level of drought) factors. We also measured the phylogenetic signal of fungal symbionts on grass growth under control and drought conditions. Under drought conditions, grasses colonized by AM fungi grew larger than those without mycorrhizal symbionts. The increased growth of grasses conferred from fungal symbionts was greatest at the lowest soil moisture levels. Furthermore, under both drought and control conditions, C3 grasses colonized by AM fungi grew larger than C3 grasses without symbionts, but the biomass of C4 grasses was not affected by AM fungi. Endophytes did not increase plant biomass overall under any treatment. However, there was a phylogenetically conserved increase in plant biomass in grasses colonized by endophytes. Grasses and their fungal symbionts seem to interact within a context-dependent symbiosis, varying with biotic and abiotic conditions. Because plant-fungal symbioses significantly alter plant drought response, including these responses could improve our ability to predict grassland functioning under global change.

  18. Calcium signaling in plant cells in altered gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, E. L.

    2003-10-01

    Changes in the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration in altered gravity (microgravity and clinostating) evidence that Ca 2+ signaling can play a fundamental role in biological effects of microgravity. Calcium as a second messenger is known to play a crucial role in stimulus - response coupling for many plant cellular signaling pathways. Its messenger functions are realized by transient changes in the cytosolic ion concentration induced by a variety of internal and external stimuli such as light, hormones, temperature, anoxia, salinity, and gravity. Although the first data on the changes in the calcium balance in plant cells under the influence of altered gravity have appeared in 80 th, a review highlighting the performed research and the possible significance of such Ca 2+ changes in the structural and metabolic rearrangements of plant cells in altered gravity is still lacking. In this paper, an attempt was made to summarize the available experimental results and to consider some hypotheses in this field of research. It is proposed to distinguish between cell gravisensing and cell graviperception; the former is related to cell structure and metabolism stability in the gravitational field and their changes in microgravity (cells not specialized to gravity perception), the latter is related to active use of a gravitational stimulus by cells presumebly specialized to gravity perception for realization of normal space orientation, growth, and vital activity (gravitropism, gravitaxis) in plants. The main experimental data concerning both redistribution of free Ca 2+ ions in plant cell organelles and the cell wall, and an increase in the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration under the influence of altered gravity are presented. Based on the gravitational decompensation hypothesis, the consequence of events occurring in gravisensing cells not specialized to gravity perception under altered gravity are considered in the following order: changes in the cytoplasmic membrane surface

  19. The role of supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation in altering the metabolite profile, essential oil content and composition, and free radical scavenging activities of Coleus forskohlii, an indigenous medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshak, Swabha; Agrawal, S B

    2016-04-01

    The effects of supplemental ultraviolet-B (s-UV-B; 3.6 kJ m(-2) day(-1) above ambient) radiation were investigated on plant metabolite profile, essential oil content and composition, and free radical scavenging capacities of methanolic extracts of Coleus forskohlii (an indigenous medicinal plant) grown under field conditions. Essential oil was isolated using hydrodistillation technique while alterations in metabolite profile and oil composition were determined via gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Leaf and root methanolic extracts were investigated via various in vitro assays for their DPPH radical-, superoxide radical-, hydrogen peroxide-, hydroxyl radical-, and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities, ferrous ion chelating activity, and reducing power. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthocyanins, coumarins, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids. Oil content was found to be reduced (by ∼7 %) in supplemental UV-B (s-UV-B) treated plants; the composition of the plant extracts as well as essential oil was also considerably altered. Methanolic extracts from treated plant organs showed more potency as free radical scavengers (their EC50 values being lower than their respective controls). Anomalies were observed in Fe(2+) chelating activity for both leaves and roots. The present study concludes that s-UV-B adversely affects oil content in C. forskohlii and also alters the composition and contents of metabolites in both plant extracts and oil. The results also denote that s-UV-B treated plant organs might be more effective in safeguarding against oxidative stress, though further studies are required to authenticate these findings.

  20. Studies on the alterations in haematological indices, micronuclei induction and pathological marker enzyme activities in Channa punctatus (spotted snakehead) perciformes, channidae exposed to thermal power plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Ahmad, Irshad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Usmani, Nazura; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the toxicity of thermal power plant effluent containing heavy metals (Fe > Cu > Zn > Mn > Ni > Co > Cr) on haematological indices, micronuclei, lobed nuclei and activity of pathological marker enzymes [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK)] in Channa punctatus. Total erythrocyte count (-54.52 %), hemoglobin (-36.98 %), packed cell volume (-36.25 %), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (-1.41 %) and oxygen (O2) carrying capacity (-37.04 %) declined significantly over reference fish, however total leukocyte count (+25.43 %), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (+33.52 %) and mean corpuscular volume (+35.49 %) showed elevation. High frequency of micronuclei (1133.3 %) and lobed nuclei (150 %) were observed in exposed fish which may indicate mutagenesis. Activities of pathological marker enzymes ALP, AST, ALT and CK increased significantly in serum of exposed fish. The ratio of ALT: AST in exposed fish was beyond 1 which indicates manifestation of pathological processes. These biomarkers show that fish have macrocytic hypochromic anemia. Leukocytosis showed general defence response against heavy metal toxicity and marker enzymes showed tissue degeneration. In conclusion, thermal power plant effluent has strong potential to induce micronuclei, tissue pathology, making the fish anemic, weak, stressed and vulnerable to diseases.

  1. Root bacterial endophytes alter plant phenotype, but not physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah A. Henning

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant traits, such as root and leaf area, influence how plants interact with their environment and the diverse microbiota living within plants can influence plant morphology and physiology. Here, we explored how three bacterial strains isolated from the Populus root microbiome, influenced plant phenotype. We chose three bacterial strains that differed in predicted metabolic capabilities, plant hormone production and metabolism, and secondary metabolite synthesis. We inoculated each bacterial strain on a single genotype of Populus trichocarpa and measured the response of plant growth related traits (root:shoot, biomass production, root and leaf growth rates and physiological traits (chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis, net photosynthesis at saturating light–Asat, and saturating CO2–Amax. Overall, we found that bacterial root endophyte infection increased root growth rate up to 184% and leaf growth rate up to 137% relative to non-inoculated control plants, evidence that plants respond to bacteria by modifying morphology. However, endophyte inoculation had no influence on total plant biomass and photosynthetic traits (net photosynthesis, chlorophyll content. In sum, bacterial inoculation did not significantly increase plant carbon fixation and biomass, but their presence altered where and how carbon was being allocated in the plant host.

  2. Fungal symbionts alter plant responses to global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlin, Stephanie N; Emery, Sarah M; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2013-07-01

    While direct plant responses to global change have been well characterized, indirect plant responses to global change, via altered species interactions, have received less attention. Here, we examined how plants associated with four classes of fungal symbionts (class I leaf endophytes [EF], arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi [AMF], ectomycorrhizal fungi [ECM], and dark septate endophytes [DSE]) responded to four global change factors (enriched CO2, drought, N deposition, and warming). We performed a meta-analysis of 434 studies spanning 174 publications to search for generalizable trends in responses of plant-fungal symbioses to future environments. Specifically, we addressed the following questions: (1) Can fungal symbionts ameliorate responses of plants to global change? (2) Do fungal symbiont groups differ in the degree to which they modify plant response to global change? (3) Do particular global change factors affect plant-fungal symbioses more than others? In all global change scenarios, except elevated CO2, fungal symbionts significantly altered plant responses to global change. In most cases, fungal symbionts increased plant biomass in response to global change. However, increased N deposition reduced the benefits of symbiosis. Of the global change factors we considered, drought and N deposition resulted in the strongest fungal mediation of plant responses. Our analysis highlighted gaps in current knowledge for responses of particular fungal groups and revealed the importance of considering not only the nonadditive effects of multiple global change factors, but also the interactive effects of multiple fungal symbioses. Our results show that considering plant-fungal symbioses is critical to predicting ecosystem response to global change.

  3. Changes in non Protein Thiols, some Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Ultrastructural Alteration in Radish Plant (Raphanus sativus L. Grown under Lead Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Saad EL-BELTAGI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Forty days old radish plants (Raphanus sativus L. were exposed to different regimes of lead stress as Pb(NO32 at the following concentrations 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 250 and 500 ppm. The possible generation of oxidative stress, antioxidant metabolism and changes in the chloroplast and cell membrane ultrastructure were investigated. Greater loss of the photosynthetic pigments (Chl. a, Chl. b and total carotenoids were observed especially under 500 ppm lead (Pb. The accumulation of lead in roots and leaves of plant were measured and the results showed that lead accumulation increased with increasing of the metal treatment concentration. An increasing trend was observed in levels of ascorbate and decreasing trend in glutathione. Also, the antioxidant enzymes, viz., guaiacol peroxidase (GPX ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT and glutathione S-transferase (GST showed significant variation with the increase in lead stress compared to control (untreated plants. The rapid inducibility of some of these enzymes is useful early and sensitive indicators of heavy metal toxicity. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed an increase in the isoenzymes profile of CAT in both leaves and roots. While POD isoenzymes bands prominently increased in leaves and slightly decreased in roots at the higher Pb concentration in the growth media. The ultrastructural studies at selected concentrations; 100 and 500 ppm of Pb showed distortion of the structure and cell membranes in roots. Therefore, the changes in the levels of some antioxidants may play an important role against oxidative injury.

  4. Mutualistic rhizobia reduce plant diversity and alter community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kane R

    2014-12-01

    Mutualistic interactions can be just as important to community dynamics as antagonistic species interactions like competition and predation. Because of their large effects on both abiotic and biotic environmental variables, resource mutualisms, in particular, have the potential to influence plant communities. Moreover, the effects of resource mutualists such as nitrogen-fixing rhizobia on diversity and community composition may be more pronounced in nutrient-limited environments. I experimentally manipulated the presence of rhizobia across a nitrogen gradient in early assembling mesocosm communities with identical starting species composition to test how the classic mutualism between nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and their legume host influence diversity and community composition. After harvest, I assessed changes in α-diversity, community composition, β-diversity, and ecosystem properties such as inorganic nitrogen availability and productivity as a result of rhizobia and nitrogen availability. The presence of rhizobia decreased plant community diversity, increased community convergence (reduced β-diversity), altered plant community composition, and increased total community productivity. These community-level effects resulted from rhizobia increasing the competitive dominance of their legume host Chamaecrista fasciculata. Moreover, different non-leguminous species responded both negatively and positively to the presence of rhizobia, indicating that rhizobia are driving both inhibitory and potentially facilitative effects in communities. These findings expand our understanding of plant communities by incorporating the effects of positive symbiotic interactions on plant diversity and composition. In particular, rhizobia that specialize on dominant plants may serve as keystone mutualists in terrestrial plant communities, reducing diversity by more than 40%.

  5. Altered sucrose metabolism impacts plant biomass production and flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Heather D; Beamish, Leigh; Reid, Anya; Park, Ji-Young; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2010-04-01

    Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) was transformed with three genes involved in sucrose metabolism, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase, EC 2.7.7.9), sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC 2.4.1.14). Plants harbouring the single transgenes were subsequently crossed to produce double and triple transgenic lines, including: 2 x 35S::UGPase x SPS, 4CL::UGPase x SPS, 2 x 35S::SuSy x SPS, 4CL::SuSy x SPS, 2 x 35S::UGPase x SuSy x SPS, and 4CL::UGPase x SuSy x SPS. The ultimate aim of the study was to examine whether it is possible to alter cellulose production through the manipulation of sucrose metabolism genes. While altering sucrose metabolism using UGPase, SuSy and SPS does not have an end effect on cellulose production, their simultaneous overexpression resulted in enhanced primary growth as seen in an increase in height growth, in some cases over 50%. Furthermore, the pyramiding strategy of simultaneously altering the expression of multiple genes in combination resulted in increased time to reproductive bud formation as well as altered flower morphology and foliar stipule formation in 4CL lines. Upregulation of these sucrose metabolism genes appears to directly impact primary growth and therefore biomass production in tobacco.

  6. Invasive plant species alters consumer behavior by providing refuge from predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Humberto P; Barnett, Kirk; Reinhardt, Jason R; Marquis, Robert J; Orrock, John L

    2011-07-01

    Understanding the effects of invasive plants on native consumers is important because consumer-mediated indirect effects have the potential to alter the dynamics of coexistence in native communities. Invasive plants may promote changes in consumer pressure due to changes in protective cover (i.e., the architectural complexity of the invaded habitat) and in food availability (i.e., subsidies of fruits and seeds). No experimental studies have evaluated the relative interplay of these two effects. In a factorial experiment, we manipulated cover and food provided by the invasive shrub Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) to evaluate whether this plant alters the foraging activity of native mammals. Using tracking plates to quantify mammalian foraging activity, we found that removal of honeysuckle cover, rather than changes in the fruit resources it provides, reduced the activity of important seed consumers, mice in the genus Peromyscus. Two mesopredators, Procyon lotor and Didelphis virginiana, were also affected. Moreover, we found rodents used L. maackii for cover only on cloudless nights, indicating that the effect of honeysuckle was weather-dependent. Our work provides experimental evidence that this invasive plant species changes habitat characteristics, and in so doing alters the behavior of small- and medium-sized mammals. Changes in seed predator behavior may lead to cascading effects on the seeds that mice consume.

  7. Treeline proximity alters an alpine plant-herbivore interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illerbrun, Kurt; Roland, Jens

    2011-05-01

    Rising treeline threatens the size and contiguity of alpine meadows worldwide. As trees encroach into previously open habitat, the movement and population dynamics of above-treeline alpine species may be disrupted. This process is well documented in studies of the Rocky Mountain apollo butterfly (Parnassius smintheus). However, subtler consequences of treeline rise remain poorly understood. In this study, we examine whether treeline proximity affects feeding behaviour of P. smintheus larvae, due to altered habitat affecting the distribution and availability of their host plant, lance-leaved stonecrop (Sedum lanceolatum). Understanding differential larval exploitation of food resources in relation to the treeline is an important step in predicting the consequences of continued treeline rise. Parnassius smintheus larvae feed more intensively on S. lanceolatum away from the treeline despite the relative paucity of hosts in these areas, and despite higher fitness penalties associated with the plant's herbivory-induced chemical defenses. Sedum lanceolatum growing near the treeline is less attractive, and therefore represents a less significant resource for P. smintheus larvae than its abundance might imply. If treeline rise continues, we suggest that this pattern of altered resource exploitation may represent a mechanism by which larvae are adversely affected even while adult movement among and within meadows appears sufficient for maintaining population health, and total host availability seems ample.

  8. Absence of snow cover reduces understory plant cover and alters plant community composition in boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyling, Juergen; Haei, Mahsa; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2012-02-01

    Snow regimes affect biogeochemistry of boreal ecosystems and are altered by climate change. The effects on plant communities, however, are largely unexplored despite their influence on relevant processes. Here, the impact of snow cover on understory community composition and below-ground production in a boreal Picea abies forest was investigated using a long-term (8-year) snow cover manipulation experiment consisting of the treatments: snow removal, increased insulation (styrofoam pellets), and control. The snow removal treatment caused longer (118 vs. 57 days) and deeper soil frost (mean minimum temperature -5.5 vs. -2.2°C) at 10 cm soil depth in comparison to control. Understory species composition was strongly altered by the snow cover manipulations; vegetation cover declined by more than 50% in the snow removal treatment. In particular, the dominant dwarf shrub Vaccinium myrtillus (-82%) and the most abundant mosses Pleurozium schreberi (-74%) and Dicranum scoparium (-60%) declined strongly. The C:N ratio in V. myrtillus leaves and plant available N in the soil indicated no altered nitrogen nutrition. Fine-root biomass in summer, however, was negatively affected by the reduced snow cover (-50%). Observed effects are attributed to direct frost damage of roots and/ or shoots. Besides the obvious relevance of winter processes on plant ecology and distribution, we propose that shifts in the vegetation caused by frost damage may be an important driver of the reported alterations in biogeochemistry in response to altered snow cover. Understory plant performance clearly needs to be considered in the biogeochemistry of boreal systems in the face of climate change.

  9. Land-use legacies and present fire regimes interact to mediate herbivory by altering the neighboring plant community.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Philip G. [University of Wisconsin; Orrock, John L. [University of Wisconsin

    2015-04-01

    Past and present human activities, such as historic agriculture and fire suppression, are widespread and can create depauperate plant communities. Although many studies show that herbivory on focal plants depends on the density of herbivores or the composition of the surrounding plant community, it is unclear whether anthropogenic changes to plant communities alter herbivory. We tested the hypothesis that human activities that alter the plant community lead to subsequent changes in herbivory. At 20 sites distributed across 80 300 hectares, we conducted a field experiment that manipulated insect herbivore access (full exclosures and pseudo-exclosures) to four focal plant species in longleaf pine woodlands with diff erent land-use histories (post-agricultural sites or non-agricultural sites) and degrees of fi re frequency (frequent and infrequent). Plant cover, particularly herbaceous cover, was lower in post-agricultural and fi re suppressed woodlands. Density of the dominant insect herbivore at our site (grasshoppers) was positively related to plant cover. Herbivore access reduced biomass of the palatable forb Solidago odora in frequently burned post-agricultural sites and in infrequently burned non-agricultural woodlands and increased mortality of another forb (Pityopsis graminifolia ), but did not aff ect two other less palatable species ( Schizachyrium scoparium and Tephrosia virginiana ). Herbivory on S. odora exhibited a hump-shaped response to plant cover, with low herbivory at low and high levels of plant cover. Herbivore density had a weak negative effect on herbivory. These findings suggest that changes in plant cover related to past and present human activities can modify damage rates on focal S. odora plants by altering grasshopper foraging behavior rather than by altering local grasshopper density. The resulting changes in herbivory may have the potential to limit natural recovery or restoration eff orts by reducing the establishment or performance of

  10. Antifertility activity of medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive summary of medicinal plants used as antifertility agents in females throughout the world by various tribes and ethnic groups. We undertook an extensive bibliographic review by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, and further consulting well accepted worldwide scientific databases. We performed CENTRAL, Embase, and PubMed searches using terms such as "antifertility", "anti-implantation", "antiovulation", and "antispermatogenic" activity of plants. Plants, including their parts and extracts, that have traditionally been used to facilitate antifertility have been considered as antifertility agents. In this paper, various medicinal plants have been reviewed for thorough studies such as Polygonum hydropiper Linn, Citrus limonum, Piper nigrum Linn, Juniperis communis, Achyanthes aspera, Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Barleria prionitis. Many of these medicinal plants appear to act through an antizygotic mechanism. This review clearly demonstrates that it is time to expand upon experimental studies to source new potential chemical constituents from medicinal plants; plant extracts and their active constituents should be further investigated for their mechanisms. This review creates a solid foundation upon which to further study the efficacy of plants that are both currently used by women as traditional antifertility medicines, but also could be efficacious as an antifertility agent with additional research and study.

  11. Plant polyphenols alter a pathway of energy metabolism by inhibiting fecal Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Bin; Xie, Jinli; Huang, Jiachen; Chen, Long; Gao, Lijuan; Ou, Shiyi; Wang, Yong; Peng, Xichun

    2016-03-01

    The function of plant polyphenols in controlling body weight has been in focus for a long time. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of plant polyphenols on fecal microbiota utilizing oligosaccharides. Three plant polyphenols, quercetin, catechin and puerarin, were added into liquid media for fermenting for 24 h. The pH values, OD600 of the cultures and the content of carbohydrates at 0, 6, 10, 14, 18 and 24 h were determined. The abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in each culture was quantified with qPCR after 10 h of fermentation, and the bacterial composition was analyzed using the software Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology. The results revealed that all three plant polyphenols could significantly inhibit the growth of Bacteroidetes (P polyphenols, catechin presented the most intense inhibitory activity towards the growth of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and quercetin was the second. Only the samples with catechin had a significantly lower energy metabolism (P polyphenols can change the pathway of degrading FOS or even energy metabolism in vivo by altering gut microbiota composition. It may be one of the mechanisms in which plant polyphenols can lead to body weight loss. It's the first report to study in vitro gastrointestinal microbiota fermenting dietary fibers under the intervention of plant polyphenols.

  12. Different Narrow-Band Light Ranges Alter Plant Secondary Metabolism and Plant Defense Response to Aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechner, Ole; Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Wu, Sasa; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2016-10-01

    Light of different wavelengths affects various physiological processes in plants. Short-wavelength radiation (like UV) can activate defense pathways in plants and enhance the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (such as flavonoids and glucosinolates) responsible for resistance against certain herbivorous insects. The intensity of light-induced, metabolite-based resistance is plant- and insect species-specific and depends on herbivore feeding guild and specialization. In this study, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) plants were grown for 4 weeks in a climate chamber under conventional fluorescent tubes and were additionally treated with UV-B (310 nm), UV-A (365 or 385 nm), or violet (420 nm) light generated with UV-B tubes or light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The objective was to determine the influence of narrow bandwidths of light (from UV-B to violet) on plant secondary metabolism and on the performance of the cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae (a specialist) and the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (a generalist). Among flavonol glycosides, specific quercetin and kaempferol glycosides increased markedly under UV-B, while among glucosinolates only 4-methoxy-3-indolylmethyl showed a 2-fold increase in plants exposed to UV-B and UV-A. The concentration of 3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate in broccoli plants increased with UV-B treatment. Brevicoryne brassicae adult weights and fecundity were lower on UV-B treated plants compared to UV-A or violet light-treated plants. Adult weights and fecundity of M. persicae were increased under UV-B and UV-A treatments. When specific light wavelengths are used to induce metabolic changes in plants, the specificity of the induced effects on herbivores should be considered.

  13. Fingerprinting antioxidative activities in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Livia; Plieth, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Background A plethora of concurrent cellular activities is mobilised in the adaptation of plants to adverse environmental conditions. This response can be quantified by physiological experiments or metabolic profiling. The intention of this work is to reduce the number of metabolic processes studied to a minimum of relevant parameters with a maximum yield of information. Therefore, we inspected 'summary parameters' characteristic for whole classes of antioxidative metabolites and key enzymes. Results Three bioluminescence assays are presented. A horseradish peroxidase-based total antioxidative capacity (TAC) assay is used to probe low molecular weight antioxidants. Peroxidases are quantified by their luminol converting activity (LUPO). Finally, we quantify high molecular weight superoxide anion scavenging activity (SOSA) using coelenterazine. Experiments with Lepidium sativum L. show how salt, drought, cold, and heat influence the antioxidative system represented here by TAC, LUPO, SOSA, catalase, and glutathione reductase (GR). LUPO and SOSA run anti-parallel under all investigated stress conditions suggesting shifts in antioxidative functions rather than formation of antioxidative power. TAC runs in parallel with GR. This indicates that a majority of low molecular weight antioxidants in plants is represented by glutathione. Conclusion The set of assays presented here is capable of characterising antioxidative activities in plants. It is inexpensive, quick and reproducible and delivers quantitative data. 'Summary parameters' like TAC, LUPO, and SOSA are quantitative traits which may be promising for implementation in high-throughput screening for robustness of novel mutants, transgenics, or breeds. PMID:19171044

  14. Physiological and molecular alterations in plants exposed to high [CO2] under phosphorus stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Renu; Zinta, Gaurav; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Ahmad, Altaf; Jain, Vanita; Janssens, Ivan A

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric [CO2] has increased substantially in recent decades and will continue to do so, whereas the availability of phosphorus (P) is limited and unlikely to increase in the future. P is a non-renewable resource, and it is essential to every form of life. P is a key plant nutrient controlling the responsiveness of photosynthesis to [CO2]. Increases in [CO2] typically results in increased biomass through stimulation of net photosynthesis, and hence enhance the demand for P uptake. However, most soils contain low concentrations of available P. Therefore, low P is one of the major growth-limiting factors for plants in many agricultural and natural ecosystems. The adaptive responses of plants to [CO2] and P availability encompass alterations at morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular levels. In general low P reduces growth, whereas high [CO2] enhances it particularly in C3 plants. Photosynthetic capacity is often enhanced under high [CO2] with sufficient P supply through modulation of enzyme activities involved in carbon fixation such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). However, high [CO2] with low P availability results in enhanced dry matter partitioning towards roots. Alterations in below-ground processes including root morphology, exudation and mycorrhizal association are influenced by [CO2] and P availability. Under high P availability, elevated [CO2] improves the uptake of P from soil. In contrast, under low P availability, high [CO2] mainly improves the efficiency with which plants produce biomass per unit P. At molecular level, the spatio-temporal regulation of genes involved in plant adaptation to low P and high [CO2] has been studied individually in various plant species. Genome-wide expression profiling of high [CO2] grown plants revealed hormonal regulation of biomass accumulation through complex transcriptional networks. Similarly, differential transcriptional regulatory networks are involved in P

  15. Aruscular mycorhizal fungi alter plant allometry and biomass - density relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Lu; Weiner, Jacob;

    2011-01-01

    fungi (AMF) can promote plant growth and affect plant form. Here experiments were carried out to test whether AMF affect plant allometry and the self-thinning trajectory. Methods Two experiments were conducted on Medicago sativa L., a leguminous species known to be highly dependent on mycorrhiza. Two...

  16. Root bacterial endophytes alter plant phenotype, but not physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Jeremiah A.; Weston, David J.; Pelletier, Dale A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant traits, such as root and leaf area, influence how plants interact with their environment and the diverse microbiota living within plants can influence plant morphology and physiology. Here, we explored how three bacterial strains isolated from the Populus root microbiome, influenced plant...... phenotype. We chose three bacterial strains that differed in predicted metabolic capabilities, plant hormone production and metabolism, and secondary metabolite synthesis. We inoculated each bacterial strain on a single genotype of Populus trichocarpa and measured the response of plant growth related traits...... (root:shoot, biomass production, root and leaf growth rates) and physiological traits (chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis, net photosynthesis at saturating light-Asat, and saturating CO2-Amax). Overall, we found that bacterial root endophyte infection increased root growth rate up to 184% and leaf...

  17. Global Activities and Plant Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an extensive review of the empirical evidence found for Sweden concerning plant survival. The result reveals that foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants have the lowest exit rates, followed by purely domestic-oriented plants, and that domestic MNE plants have...... the highest exit rates. Moreover, the exit rates of globally engaged plants seem to be unaffected by increased foreign presence, whereas there appears to be a negative impact on the survival rates of non-exporting non-MNE plants. Finally, the result reveals that the survival ratio of plants of acquired...... exporters, but not other types of plants, improves post acquisition....

  18. The Presence of Plants Alters the Effect of Soil Moisture on Soil C Decomposition in Two Different Soil Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, F. A.; Cheng, W.

    2005-12-01

    While it is well known that soil moisture directly affects microbial activity and soil C decomposition, it is unclear if the presence of plants alters these effects through rhizosphere processes. We studied soil moisture effects on soil C decomposition with and without sunflower and soybean. Plants were grown in two different soil types with soil moisture contents of 45 and 85% of field capacity in a greenhouse experiment. We continuously labeled plants with depleted 13C, which allowed us to separate plant-derived CO2-C from original soil-derived CO2-C in soil respiration measurements. We observed an overall increase in soil-derived CO2-C efflux in the presence of plants (priming effect) in both soils with on average a greater priming effect in the high soil moisture treatment (60% increase in soil-derived CO2-C compared to control) than in the low soil moisture treatment (37% increase). Greater plant biomass in the high soil moisture treatment contributed to greater priming effects, but priming effects remained significantly higher after correcting for plant biomass. Possibly, root exudation of labile C may have increased more than plant biomass and may have become more effective in stimulating microbial decomposition in the higher soil moisture treatment. Our results indicate that changing soil moisture conditions can significantly alter rhizosphere effects on soil C decomposition.

  19. Plant interactions alter the predictions of metabolic scaling theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yue; Berger, Uta; Grimm, Volker;

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic scaling theory (MST) is an attempt to link physiological processes of individual organisms with macroecology. It predicts a power law relationship with an exponent of 24/3 between mean individual biomass and density during densitydependent mortality (self-thinning). Empirical tests have...... produced variable results, and the validity of MST is intensely debated. MST focuses on organisms’ internal physiological mechanisms but we hypothesize that ecological interactions can be more important in determining plant mass-density relationships induced by density. We employ an individual-based model...... of plant stand development that includes three elements: a model of individual plant growth based on MST, different modes of local competition (size-symmetric vs. -asymmetric), and different resource levels. Our model is consistent with the observed variation in the slopes of self-thinning trajectories...

  20. Plant interactions alter the predictions of metabolic scaling theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Lin

    Full Text Available Metabolic scaling theory (MST is an attempt to link physiological processes of individual organisms with macroecology. It predicts a power law relationship with an exponent of -4/3 between mean individual biomass and density during density-dependent mortality (self-thinning. Empirical tests have produced variable results, and the validity of MST is intensely debated. MST focuses on organisms' internal physiological mechanisms but we hypothesize that ecological interactions can be more important in determining plant mass-density relationships induced by density. We employ an individual-based model of plant stand development that includes three elements: a model of individual plant growth based on MST, different modes of local competition (size-symmetric vs. -asymmetric, and different resource levels. Our model is consistent with the observed variation in the slopes of self-thinning trajectories. Slopes were significantly shallower than -4/3 if competition was size-symmetric. We conclude that when the size of survivors is influenced by strong ecological interactions, these can override predictions of MST, whereas when surviving plants are less affected by interactions, individual-level metabolic processes can scale up to the population level. MST, like thermodynamics or biomechanics, sets limits within which organisms can live and function, but there may be stronger limits determined by ecological interactions. In such cases MST will not be predictive.

  1. Altered phenotypes in plants transformed with chimeric tobacco peroxidase genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagrimini, L.M.

    1990-12-31

    Peroxidases have been implicated in a variety of secondary metabolic reactions including lignification, cross-linking of cell wall polysaccharides, oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid, regulation of cell elongation, wound-healing, phenol oxidation, and pathogen defense. However, due to the many different isoenzymes and even more potential substrates, it has proven difficult to verify actual physiological roles for peroxidase. We are studying the molecular biology of the tobacco peroxidase genes, and have utilized genetic engineering techniques to produce transgenic plants which differ only in their expression of an individual peroxidase isoenzyme. Many of the in planta functions for any individual isoenzyme may be predicted through the morphological and physiological analysis of transformed plants.

  2. Altered phenotypes in plants transformed with chimeric tobacco peroxidase genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagrimini, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    Peroxidases have been implicated in a variety of secondary metabolic reactions including lignification, cross-linking of cell wall polysaccharides, oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid, regulation of cell elongation, wound-healing, phenol oxidation, and pathogen defense. However, due to the many different isoenzymes and even more potential substrates, it has proven difficult to verify actual physiological roles for peroxidase. We are studying the molecular biology of the tobacco peroxidase genes, and have utilized genetic engineering techniques to produce transgenic plants which differ only in their expression of an individual peroxidase isoenzyme. Many of the in planta functions for any individual isoenzyme may be predicted through the morphological and physiological analysis of transformed plants.

  3. Above–belowground herbivore interactions in mixed plant communities are influenced by altered precipitation patterns

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Root- and shoot-feeding herbivores have the capacity to influence one another by modifying the chemistry of the shared host plant. This can alter rates of nutrient mineralisation and uptake by neighbouring plants and influence plant–plant competition, particularly in mixtures combining grasses and legumes. Root herbivory-induced exudation of nitrogen (N) from legume roots, for example, may increase N acquisition by co-occurring grasses, with knock-on effects on grassland community compositi...

  4. Altered myoelectric activity in the experimental blind loop syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, P G; Fernandez, A; Martin, J L; King, C E; Toskes, P P; Mathias, J R

    1983-09-01

    Nutrient malabsorption and diarrhea are characteristic of the blind loop syndrome. Alterations in motility have been implicated as a cause of bacterial overgrowth, but the possibility that altered motility may result from alterations in the flora has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to characterize the myoelectric activity of the small intestine in the blind loop rat model. Eight groups of rats were studied: rats with self-filling blind loops, which develop bacterial overgrowth; rats with self-emptying blind loops, which are surgical controls that do not develop overgrowth; unoperated litter mates; rats with self-filling blind loops and unoperated controls treated with chloramphenicol, 200 mg/d i.p.; rats with surgically removed self-filling blind loops; operated control rats; and gnotobiotic rats with self-filling blind loops. In the untreated rats with self-filling blind loops, there was altered myoelectric activity characterized by an increased percentage of slow waves occupied by action potentials and by organized activity similar to the migrating action potential complex. Migrating action potential complex activity and percentage of slow waves occupied by action potentials were significantly decreased with chloramphenicol therapy; that decrease correlated with a decrease in aerobes and anaerobes. Migrating action potential complex activity was abolished in rats with surgically removed self-filling blind loops; they also showed a significant decrease in percentage of slow waves occupied by action potentials. Gnotobiotic rats with self-filling blind loops showed no alteration in myoelectric activity. These data indicate: (a) bacterial overgrowth is associated with a significant increase in percentage of slow waves occupied by action potentials and migrating action potential complex activity; (b) chloramphenicol significantly reduced both percentage of slow waves occupied by action potentials and migrating action potential complex activity; and (c

  5. Alteration of plant physiology by glyphosate and its by-product aminomethylphosphonic acid: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcelo P; Smedbol, Elise; Chalifour, Annie; Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Labrecque, Michel; Lepage, Laurent; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    It is generally claimed that glyphosate kills undesired plants by affecting the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) enzyme, disturbing the shikimate pathway. However, the mechanisms leading to plant death may also be related to secondary or indirect effects of glyphosate on plant physiology. Moreover, some plants can metabolize glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) or be exposed to AMPA from different environmental matrices. AMPA is a recognized phytotoxin, and its co-occurrence with glyphosate could modify the effects of glyphosate on plant physiology. The present review provides an overall picture of alterations of plant physiology caused by environmental exposure to glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA, and summarizes their effects on several physiological processes. It particularly focuses on photosynthesis, from photochemical events to C assimilation and translocation, as well as oxidative stress. The effects of glyphosate and AMPA on several plant physiological processes have been linked, with the aim of better understanding their phytotoxicity and glyphosate herbicidal effects.

  6. Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase lowers leaf respiration and alters photorespiration and plant growth in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaz, Tiago; Bagard, Matthieu; Pracharoenwattana, Itsara; Lindén, Pernilla; Lee, Chun Pong; Carroll, Adam J; Ströher, Elke; Smith, Steven M; Gardeström, Per; Millar, A Harvey

    2010-11-01

    Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) catalyzes a reversible NAD(+)-dependent-dehydrogenase reaction involved in central metabolism and redox homeostasis between organelle compartments. To explore the role of mitochondrial MDH (mMDH) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), knockout single and double mutants for the highly expressed mMDH1 and lower expressed mMDH2 isoforms were constructed and analyzed. A mmdh1mmdh2 mutant has no detectable mMDH activity but is viable, albeit small and slow growing. Quantitative proteome analysis of mitochondria shows changes in other mitochondrial NAD-linked dehydrogenases, indicating a reorganization of such enzymes in the mitochondrial matrix. The slow-growing mmdh1mmdh2 mutant has elevated leaf respiration rate in the dark and light, without loss of photosynthetic capacity, suggesting that mMDH normally uses NADH to reduce oxaloacetate to malate, which is then exported to the cytosol, rather than to drive mitochondrial respiration. Increased respiratory rate in leaves can account in part for the low net CO(2) assimilation and slow growth rate of mmdh1mmdh2. Loss of mMDH also affects photorespiration, as evidenced by a lower postillumination burst, alterations in CO(2) assimilation/intercellular CO(2) curves at low CO(2), and the light-dependent elevated concentration of photorespiratory metabolites. Complementation of mmdh1mmdh2 with an mMDH cDNA recovered mMDH activity, suppressed respiratory rate, ameliorated changes to photorespiration, and increased plant growth. A previously established inverse correlation between mMDH and ascorbate content in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) has been consolidated in Arabidopsis and may potentially be linked to decreased galactonolactone dehydrogenase content in mitochondria in the mutant. Overall, a central yet complex role for mMDH emerges in the partitioning of carbon and energy in leaves, providing new directions for bioengineering of plant growth rate and a new insight into the molecular mechanisms

  7. Virus Infection of Plants Alters Pollinator Preference: A Payback for Susceptible Hosts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Simon C; Jiang, Sanjie; Murphy, Alex M; Cunniffe, Nik J; Westwood, Jack H; Davey, Matthew P; Bruce, Toby J A; Caulfield, John C; Furzer, Oliver J; Reed, Alison; Robinson, Sophie I; Miller, Elizabeth; Davis, Christopher N; Pickett, John A; Whitney, Heather M; Glover, Beverley J; Carr, John P

    2016-08-01

    Plant volatiles play important roles in attraction of certain pollinators and in host location by herbivorous insects. Virus infection induces changes in plant volatile emission profiles, and this can make plants more attractive to insect herbivores, such as aphids, that act as viral vectors. However, it is unknown if virus-induced alterations in volatile production affect plant-pollinator interactions. We found that volatiles emitted by cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Arabidopsis thaliana plants altered the foraging behaviour of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). Virus-induced quantitative and qualitative changes in blends of volatile organic compounds emitted by tomato plants were identified by gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry. Experiments with a CMV mutant unable to express the 2b RNA silencing suppressor protein and with Arabidopsis silencing mutants implicate microRNAs in regulating emission of pollinator-perceivable volatiles. In tomato, CMV infection made plants emit volatiles attractive to bumblebees. Bumblebees pollinate tomato by 'buzzing' (sonicating) the flowers, which releases pollen and enhances self-fertilization and seed production as well as pollen export. Without buzz-pollination, CMV infection decreased seed yield, but when flowers of mock-inoculated and CMV-infected plants were buzz-pollinated, the increased seed yield for CMV-infected plants was similar to that for mock-inoculated plants. Increased pollinator preference can potentially increase plant reproductive success in two ways: i) as female parents, by increasing the probability that ovules are fertilized; ii) as male parents, by increasing pollen export. Mathematical modeling suggested that over a wide range of conditions in the wild, these increases to the number of offspring of infected susceptible plants resulting from increased pollinator preference could outweigh underlying strong selection pressures favoring pathogen resistance

  8. Herbivores alter the fitness benefits of a plant-rhizobium mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Katy D.; Lau, Jennifer A.

    2011-03-01

    Mutualisms are best understood from a community perspective, since third-party species have the potential to shift the costs and benefits in interspecific interactions. We manipulated plant genotypes, the presence of rhizobium mutualists, and the presence of a generalist herbivore and assessed the performance of all players in order to test whether antagonists might alter the fitness benefits of plant-rhizobium mutualism, and vice versa how mutualists might alter the fitness consequences of plant-herbivore antagonism. We found that plants in our experiment formed more associations with rhizobia (root nodules) in the presence of herbivores, thereby increasing the fitness benefits of mutualism for rhizobia. In contrast, the effects of rhizobia on herbivores were weak. Our data support a community-dependent view of these ecological interactions, and suggest that consideration of the aboveground herbivore community can inform ecological and evolutionary studies of legume-rhizobium interactions.

  9. Activated oxygen alters cerebral microvascular responses in newborn pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leffler, C.W.; Busiia, D.W.; Armstead, W.M.; Mirro, R.; Thelin, O. (Univ. of Tennessee, Memphis (United States))

    1990-02-26

    In piglets, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion blocks prostanoid dependent cerebral vasodilation to hypercapnia (CO{sub 2}) and hypotension but not prostanoid independent dilation to isoproterenol (Isu) or constriction to norepinephrine (NE). Ischemia/reperfusion increases activated-O{sub 2} production by piglet brains. Using cranial windows in piglets, the authors investigated the hypothesis that activated oxygen can block prostanoid dependent cerebral vasodilator responses to CO{sub 2} and hypotension without altering responses to Isu and NE. Exposure to an activated oxygen generating system of xanthine oxidase, hypoxanthine, and Fe that made about 3 times the activated-O{sub 2} on the brain surface as ischemia/reperfusion caused reversible pial arteriolar dilation. After exposure, pial arteriolar dilation was reduced to CO{sub 2} and hypotension but not to Isu. NE constrictor responses were also unaltered. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} + Fe caused constriction followed by reversible dilation. After exposure, pial arteriolar dilation in response to CO{sub 2} and hypotension was not altered. However, addition of xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Fe totally eliminated pial arteriolar dilator responses to CO{sub 2} and hypotension but did not decrease dilation caused by Isu or constriction caused by NE. The authors conclude that activated oxygen could produce the altered prostanoid dependent pial arteriolar responses observed following ischemia in piglets.

  10. Antibacterial activity of selected Egyptian ethnomedicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashait, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Medicinal plants have recently received the attention of the antimicrobial activity of plants and their metabolites due to the challenge of growing incidences of drug-resistant pathogens. The aims of this study were to determine the antibacterial activities of plant extracts used as ethnomedicinal in Egypt. Methodology and Results: Investigations were carried out to assess the antibacterial efficiency of 11 plant extracts used as ethnopharmacological among Egyptian native people against infectious diseases. Crude methanol, ethanol,chloroform, hexane, acetone and aqueous extract of plants were tested for antibacterial activity in vitro against ten bacterial isolates using the disc diffusion method test. Discs were impregnated with 2 mg/mL of different solvent extracts. Among all the crude extracts, the methanol extract showed the highest activity than other extracts. P. harmala and S. officinalis exhibited highest antibacterial activity against gram positive and negative bacteria while the remainingplants extracts showed less activity. All the plant extracts showed no significant effect against the Bordetella bronchisepta ATCC 4617 except the extracts of M. fragrans and L. sativum. E. coli is the most sensitive microorganism tested, with the lowest MIC value (0.5 mg/mL in the presence of the plant extract of P. harmala and S. officinalis.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Results obtained herein, may suggest that the ethnomedicinal Egyptian plants possess antimicrobial activity and therefore, they can be used in biotechnological fields as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industry.

  11. Microbiome interplay: plants alter microbial abundance and diversity within the built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnert, Alexander; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The built indoor microbiome has importance for human health. Residents leave their microbial fingerprint but nothing is known about the transfer from plants. Our hypothesis that indoor plants contribute substantially to the microbial abundance and diversity in the built environment was experimentally confirmed as proof of principle by analyzing the microbiome of the spider plant Chlorophytum comosum in relation to their surroundings. The abundance of Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota (fungi) increased on surrounding floor and wall surfaces within 6 months of plant isolation in a cleaned indoor environment, whereas the microbial abundance on plant leaves and indoor air remained stable. We observed a microbiome shift: the bacterial diversity on surfaces increased significantly but fungal diversity decreased. The majority of cells were intact at the time of samplings and thus most probably alive including diverse Archaea as yet unknown phyllosphere inhabitants. LEfSe and network analysis showed that most microbes were dispersed from plant leaves to the surrounding surfaces. This led to an increase of specific taxa including spore-forming fungi with potential allergic potential but also beneficial plant-associated bacteria, e.g., Paenibacillus. This study demonstrates for the first time that plants can alter the microbiome of a built environment, which supports the significance of plants and provides insights into the complex interplay of plants, microbiomes and human beings.

  12. Microbiome interplay: plants alter microbial abundance and diversity within the built environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eMahnert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The built indoor microbiome has importance for human health. Residents leave their microbial fingerprint but nothing is known about the transfer from plants. Our hypothesis that indoor plants contribute substantially to the microbial abundance and diversity in the built environment was experimentally confirmed as proof of principle by analyzing the microbiome of the spider plant Chlorophytum comosum in relation to their surroundings. The abundance of Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryota (fungi increased on surrounding floor and wall surfaces within six months of plant isolation in a cleaned indoor environment, whereas the microbial abundance on plant leaves and indoor air remained stable. We observed a microbiome shift: the bacterial diversity on surfaces increased significantly but fungal diversity decreased. The majority of cells were intact at the time of samplings and thus most probably alive including diverse Archaea as yet unknown phyllosphere inhabitants. LEfSe and network analysis showed that most microbes were dispersed from plant leaves to the surrounding surfaces. This led to an increase of specific taxa including spore-forming fungi with potential allergic potential but also beneficial plant-associated bacteria, e.g. Paenibacillus. This study demonstrates for the first time that plants can alter the microbiome of a built environment, which supports the significance of plants and provides insights into the complex interplay of plants, microbiomes and human beings.

  13. Stress activated MAPKs in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, W.

    2000-01-01

    Plants are exposed to a wide variety of extracellular stimuli and employ a broad set of signaling pathways to give the appropriate response. M itogen a ctivated p rotein k inases (MAPKs) play an important role in the signal transduction of yeast and animals and increasing

  14. Antimicrobial activity of some Iranian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of eight plant species which are endemic in Iran. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of eight Iranian traditional plants, including Hypericum scabrum, Myrtus communis, Pistachia atlantica, Arnebia euchroma, Salvia hydrangea, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis and Kelussia odoratissima, were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans by agar disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts showed a relatively high antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria and fungi. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of M. communis and T. daenensis. The MIC values for active extract and essential oil ranged between 0.039 and 10 mg/ml. It can be said that the extract and essential oil of some medicinal plants could be used as natural antimicrobial agents in food preservation. .

  15. In vitro antioxidant activities of Asteraceae Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaylakshmi, S; Nanjan, M J; Suresh, B

    2009-10-01

    Anaphalis neelgerriana DC and Cnicus wallichi DC belonging to the family Asteraceae (Compositae) are important medicinal plants indigenous to Nilgiris. Since the related species Anaphalis morrisonicola and Cnicus benedictus were reported for its anti cancer activities, the above mentioned plants were screened for Invitro antioxidant activity. In vitro antioxidant studies were carried out by DPPH, Nitric oxide and Hydrogen peroxide methods for the aerial part extracts of the plants. Different extracts were obtained from the aerial parts of the whole plant by successive solvent extraction and cold maceration process and subjected for Invitro antioxidant activity studies. Among the extracts tested, the ethyl acetate extract of Anaphalis neelgerriana DC and Cnicus wallchi DC showed significant anti oxidant activity in all the above methods. The potent ethyl acetate extract should be tested for anti oxidant activity in animal models.

  16. Experience of inundation or drought alters the responses of plants to subsequent water conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Shu; Callaway, Ragan M.; Zhou, Dao-Wei

    2017-01-01

    early drought. * Results indicate that early exposure to inundation or drought conditions alters how plants respond to later conditions and suggest that exposure to extreme events can induce physiological or morphological changes that improve tolerance for either extreme conditions later. This increased......The availability of water is often highly variable over the life of a plant in nature, and most plants experience episodic extremes in water scarcity and abundance. The importance of plant plasticity in coping with such experiences is widely recognized, but little is known about how plastic...... responses to current conditions are affected by prior environmental experiences. * Our objectives were to investigate the effects of early inundation or drought on the subsequent responses of plant species to the same, opposite or more favourable conditions. * To address these questions, we subjected four...

  17. Plants Have a Chance: Outdoor Educational Programmes Alter Students' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor educational programmes are generally believed to be a suitable alternative to conventional biology settings that improve participants' environmental attitudes and knowledge. Here we examine whether outdoor educational programmes focused solely on practical work with plants influence participants' knowledge of and attitudes towards plants.…

  18. Altering the activation mechanism in Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold-Jørgensen, Jakob; Vind, Jesper; Svendsen, Allan;

    2014-01-01

    It is shown by rational site-directed mutagenesis of the lid region in Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase that it is possible to generate lipase variants with attractive features, e.g., high lipase activity, fast activation at the lipid interface, ability to act on water-soluble substrates......, and enhanced calcium independence. The rational design was based on the lid residue composition in Aspergillus niger ferulic acid esterase (FAEA). Five constructs included lipase variants containing the full FAEA lid, a FAEA-like lid, an intermediate lid of FAEA and TlL character, and the entire lid region...... from Aspergillus terreus lipase (AtL). To investigate an altered activation mechanism for each variant compared to that of TlL, a combination of activity- and spectroscopic-based measurements were applied. The engineered variant with a lid from AtL displayed interfacial activation comparable...

  19. Nylon wool purification alters the activation of T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohler, Jillian E; Barnum, Scott R

    2009-02-01

    Purification of lymphocytes, particularly T cells, is commonly performed using nylon wool. This enrichment method selectively retains B cells and some myeloid cells allowing a significantly more pure T cell population to flow through a nylon wool column. T cells purified in this fashion are assumed to be unaltered and functionally naïve, however some studies have suggested aberrant in vitro T cell responses after nylon wool treatment. We found that nylon wool purification significantly altered T cell proliferation, expression of activation markers and production of cytokines. Our results suggest that nylon wool treatment modifies T cell activation responses and that caution should be used when choosing this purification method.

  20. Herbivores cause a rapid increase in hereditary symbiosis and alter plant community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Keith; Holah, Jenny; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2005-08-30

    Microbial symbioses are ubiquitous in nature. Hereditary symbionts warrant particular attention because of their direct effects on the evolutionary potential of their hosts. In plants, hereditary fungal endophytes can increase the competitive ability, drought tolerance, and herbivore resistance of their host, although it is unclear whether or how these ecological benefits may alter the dynamics of the endophyte symbiosis over time. Here, we demonstrate that herbivores alter the dynamics of a hereditary symbiont under field conditions. Also, we show that changes in symbiont frequency were accompanied by shifts in the overall structure of the plant community. Replicated 25-m2 plots were enriched with seed of the introduced grass, Lolium arundinaceum at an initial frequency of 50% infection by the systemic, seed-transmitted endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. Over 54 months, there was a significantly greater increase in endophyte-infection frequency in the presence of herbivores (30% increase) than where mammalian and insect herbivory were experimentally reduced by fencing and insecticide application (12% increase). Under ambient mammalian herbivory, the above-ground biomass of nonhost plant species was reduced compared with the mammal-exclusion treatment, and plant composition shifted toward greater relative biomass of infected, tall fescue grass. These results demonstrate that herbivores can drive plant-microbe dynamics and, in doing so, modify plant community structure directly and indirectly.

  1. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  2. Environmental noise alters gastric myoelectrical activity: Effect of age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James S Castle; Jin-Hong Xing; Mark R Warner; Mark A Korsten

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of age and acoustic stress on gastric myoelectrical activity (GMA) and autonomic nervous system function,METHODS: Twenty-one male subjects (age range 22-71years, mean 44 years) were recruited and exposed, in random order, to three auditory stimuli (Hospital noise,conversation babble and traffic noise) after a 20-min baseline. All periods lasted 20 min and were interspersed with a 10 min of recovery. GMA was obtained using a Synectics Microdigitrapper. Autonomic nerve function was assessed by monitoring blood pressure and heart rate using an automatic recording device.RESULTS: Dominant power tended to decrease with increase of age (P<0.05). The overall percentage of three cycle per minute (CPM) activity decreased during exposure to hospital noise (12.0%, P < 0.05), traffic noise (13.9%, P < 0.05), and conversation babble(7.1%). The subjects in the younger group (< 50 years)showed a consistent reduction in the percentage of 3CPM activity during hospital noise (22.9%, P < 0.05),traffic noise (19.0%, P < 0.05), and conversation babble(15.5%). These observations were accompanied by a significant increase in bradygastria: hospital noise (P< 0.05) and traffic noise (P < 0.05). In contrast, the subjects over 50 years of age did not exhibit a significant decrease in 3 CPM activity. Regardless of age, noise did not alter blood pressure or heart rate.CONCLUSION: GMA changes with age. Loud noise can alter GMA, especially in younger individuals. Our data indicate that even short-term exposure to noise may alter the contractility of the stomach.

  3. Ectopic KNOX Expression Affects Plant Development by Altering Tissue Cell Polarity and Identity[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebocho, Alexandra B.

    2016-01-01

    Plant development involves two polarity types: tissue cell (asymmetries within cells are coordinated across tissues) and regional (identities vary spatially across tissues) polarity. Both appear altered in the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Hooded mutant, in which ectopic expression of the KNOTTED1-like Homeobox (KNOX) gene, BKn3, causes inverted polarity of differentiated hairs and ectopic flowers, in addition to wing-shaped outgrowths. These lemma-specific effects allow the spatiotemporal analysis of events following ectopic BKn3 expression, determining the relationship between KNOXs, polarity, and shape. We show that tissue cell polarity, based on localization of the auxin transporter SISTER OF PINFORMED1 (SoPIN1), dynamically reorients as ectopic BKn3 expression increases. Concurrently, ectopic expression of the auxin importer LIKE AUX1 and boundary gene NO APICAL MERISTEM is activated. The polarity of hairs reflects SoPIN1 patterns, suggesting that tissue cell polarity underpins oriented cell differentiation. Wing cell files reveal an anisotropic growth pattern, and computational modeling shows how polarity guiding growth can account for this pattern and wing emergence. The inverted ectopic flower orientation does not correlate with SoPIN1, suggesting that this form of regional polarity is not controlled by tissue cell polarity. Overall, the results suggest that KNOXs trigger different morphogenetic effects through interplay between tissue cell polarity, identity, and growth. PMID:27553356

  4. Ectopic KNOX Expression Affects Plant Development by Altering Tissue Cell Polarity and Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Annis Elizabeth; Rebocho, Alexandra B; Coen, Enrico S

    2016-08-23

    Plant development involves two polarity types: tissue cell (asymmetries within cells are coordinated across tissues) and regional (identities vary spatially across tissues) polarity. Both appear altered in the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Hooded mutant, in which ectopic expression of the KNOTTED1-like Homeobox (KNOX) gene, BKn3, causes inverted polarity of differentiated hairs and ectopic flowers, in addition to wing-shaped outgrowths. These lemma-specific effects allow the spatiotemporal analysis of events following ectopic BKn3 expression, determining the relationship between KNOXs, polarity, and shape. We show that tissue cell polarity, based on localization of the auxin transporter SISTER OF PINFORMED1 (SoPIN1), dynamically reorients as ectopic BKn3 expression increases. Concurrently, ectopic expression of the auxin importer LIKE AUX1 and boundary gene NO APICAL MERISTEM is activated. The polarity of hairs reflects SoPIN1 patterns, suggesting that tissue cell polarity underpins oriented cell differentiation. Wing cell files reveal an anisotropic growth pattern, and computational modeling shows how polarity guiding growth can account for this pattern and wing emergence. The inverted ectopic flower orientation does not correlate with SoPIN1, suggesting that this form of regional polarity is not controlled by tissue cell polarity. Overall, the results suggest that KNOXs trigger different morphogenetic effects through interplay between tissue cell polarity, identity, and growth.

  5. Phloem-specific expression of a melon Aux/IAA in tomato plants alters auxin sensitivity and plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eGolan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Phloem sap contains a large repertoire of macromolecules in addition to sugars, amino acids, growth substances and ions. The transcription profile of melon phloem sap contains over 1,000 mRNA molecules, most of them associated with signal transduction, transcriptional control, and stress and defense responses. Heterografting experiments have established the long-distance trafficking of numerous mRNA molecules. Interestingly, several trafficking transcripts are involved in the auxin response, including two molecules coding for auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA. To further explore the biological role of the melon Aux/IAA transcript CmF-308 in the vascular tissue, a cassette containing the coding sequence of this gene under a phloem-specific promoter was introduced into tomato plants. The number of lateral roots was significantly higher in transgenic plants expressing CmF-308 under the AtSUC2 promoter than in controls. A similar effect on root development was obtained after transient expression of CmF-308 in source leaves of N. benthamiana plants. An auxin-response assay showed that CmF-308-transgenic roots are more sensitive to auxin than control roots. In addition to the altered root development, phloem-specific expression of CmF-308 resulted in shorter plants, a higher number of lateral shoots and delayed flowering, a phenotype resembling reduced apical dominance. In contrast to the root response, cotyledons of the transgenic plants were less sensitive to auxin than control cotyledons. The reduced auxin sensitivity in the shoot tissue was confirmed by lower relative expression of several Aux/IAA genes in leaves and an increase in the relative expression of a cytokinin-response regulator, TRR8/9b. The accumulated data suggest that expression of Aux/IAA in the phloem modifies auxin sensitivity in a tissue-specific manner, thereby altering plant development.

  6. Land-use history alters contemporary insect herbivore community composition and decouples plant-herbivore relationships.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Philip G. [University of Wisconsin; Orrock, John L. [University of Wisconsin

    2015-04-01

    1. Past land use can create altered soil conditions and plant communities that persist for decades, although the effects of these altered conditions on consumers are rarely investigated. 2. Using a large-scale field study at 36 sites in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) woodlands, we examined whether historic agricultural land use leads to differences in the abundance and community composition of insect herbivores (grasshoppers, families Acrididae and Tettigoniidae). 3. We measured the cover of six plant functional groups and several environmental variables to determine whether historic agricultural land use affects the relationships between plant cover or environmental conditions and grasshopper assemblages. 4. Land-use history had taxa-specific effects and interacted with herbaceous plant cover to alter grasshopper abundances, leading to significant changes in community composition. Abundance of most grasshopper taxa increased with herbaceous cover in woodlands with no history of agriculture, but there was no relationship in post-agricultural woodlands. We also found that grasshopper abundance was negatively correlated with leaf litter cover. Soil hardness was greater in post-agricultural sites (i.e. more compacted) and was associated with grasshopper community composition. Both herbaceous cover and leaf litter cover are influenced by fire frequency, suggesting a potential indirect role of fire on grasshopper assemblages. 5. Our results demonstrate that historic land use may create persistent differences in the composition of grasshopper assemblages, while contemporary disturbances (e.g. prescribed fire) may be important for determining the abundance of grasshoppers, largely through the effect of fire on plants and leaf litter. Therefore, our results suggest that changes in the contemporary management regimes (e.g. increasing prescribed fire) may not be sufficient to shift the structure of grasshopper communities in post-agricultural sites towards communities in

  7. Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

    2013-12-01

    Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children.

  8. Ketogenic diet alters dopaminergic activity in the mouse cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, William H; Adams, Ryan E; Wyss, Livia S

    2014-06-13

    The present study was conducted to determine if the ketogenic diet altered basal levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in mice. The catecholamines dopamine (DA) and norephinephrine (NE) and the indolamine serotonin (5HT) were quantified postmortem in six different brain regions of adult mice fed a ketogenic diet for 3 weeks. The dopamine metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) and the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5HIAA) were also measured. Tissue punches were collected bilaterally from the motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, nucleus accumbens, anterior caudate-putamen, posterior caudate-putamen and the midbrain. Dopaminergic activity, as measured by the dopamine metabolites to dopamine content ratio - ([DOPAC]+[HVA])/[DA] - was significantly increased in the motor and somatosensory cortex regions of mice fed the ketogenic diet when compared to those same areas in brains of mice fed a normal diet. These results indicate that the ketogenic diet alters the activity of the meso-cortical dopaminergic system, which may contribute to the diet's therapeutic effect in reducing epileptic seizure activity.

  9. Long-term variation in above and belowground plant inputs alters soil organic matter biogeochemistry at the molecular-level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, M. J.; Pisani, O.; Lin, L.; Lun, O.; Simpson, A.; Lajtha, K.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    The long-term fate of soil carbon reserves with global environmental change remains uncertain. Shifts in moisture, altered nutrient cycles, species composition, or rising temperatures may alter the proportions of above and belowground biomass entering soil. However, it is unclear how long-term changes in plant inputs may alter the composition of soil organic matter (SOM) and soil carbon storage. Advanced molecular techniques were used to assess SOM composition in mineral soil horizons (0-10 cm) after 20 years of Detrital Input and Removal Treatment (DIRT) at the Harvard Forest. SOM biomarkers (solvent extraction, base hydrolysis and cupric (II) oxide oxidation) and both solid-state and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to identify changes in SOM composition and stage of degradation. Microbial activity and community composition were assessed using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Doubling aboveground litter inputs decreased soil carbon content, increased the degradation of labile SOM and enhanced the sequestration of aliphatic compounds in soil. The exclusion of belowground inputs (No roots and No inputs) resulted in a decrease in root-derived components and enhanced the degradation of leaf-derived aliphatic structures (cutin). Cutin-derived SOM has been hypothesized to be recalcitrant but our results show that even this complex biopolymer is susceptible to degradation when inputs entering soil are altered. The PLFA data indicate that changes in soil microbial community structure favored the accelerated processing of specific SOM components with littler manipulation. These results collectively reveal that the quantity and quality of plant litter inputs alters the molecular-level composition of SOM and in some cases, enhances the degradation of recalcitrant SOM. Our study also suggests that increased litterfall is unlikely to enhance soil carbon storage over the long-term in temperate forests.

  10. Thalidomide combined with irradiation alters the activity of two proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Ece; Aydemir, Esra; Korcum, Aylin Fidan; Fişkın, Kayahan

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of thalidomide, a drug known for its anti‑angiogenic and antitumor properties, at its cytotoxic dose previously determined as 40 µg/ml (according to four cytotoxic test results). The effect of the drug alone and in combination with radiotherapy using Cobalt 60 (60Co) at 45 Gy on the enzymatic activity of substance‑P degrading A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)10 and neprilysin (NEP) was investigated in the mouse breast cancer cell lines 4T1 and 4T1 heart metastases post‑capsaicin (4THMpc). Thalidomide (40 µg/ml) exerted differing effects on the activities of ADAM10 and NEP enzymes. In 4T1 cells, 40 µg/ml thalidomide alone did not alter ADAM10 enzyme activity. 60Co irradiation at 45 Gy alone caused a 42% inhibition in ADAM10 activity, however, the inhibition increased to 89% when combined therapy was used. By contrast, in the 4THMpc cell line, 40 µg/ml thalidomide alone induced a 66.6% increase in ADAM10 enzyme activity. Radiotherapy alone and thalidomide with 60Co combined therapy caused a 33.3 and 40% inhibition of ADAM10 activity, respectively. In 4T1 cells, thalidomide alone caused a 40.9% increase in NEP activity. Radiation therapy alone or in combination with the drug caused a 40.7% increase in NEP activity. In more aggressive 4THMpc cells, thalidomide alone caused a 26.6% increase in NEP activity. Radiotherapy alone and combined therapy caused a 33.3 and 37% increase in enzyme activity, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate that thalidomide alone or in combination with radiotherapy exhibits significant cytotoxic effects on 4T1 and 4THMpc mouse breast cancer cell lines indicating that this drug affects the enzymatic activity of ADAM10 and NEP in vitro.

  11. Anti- Sporothrix spp. activity of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Bressan Waller

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.

  12. [Antimicrobial activity of Calendula L. plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radioza, S A; Iurchak, L D

    2007-01-01

    The sap of different organs of genus Calendula plant species has been studied for antimicrobial activity. The sap of racemes demonstrated the most expressed antimicrobial effect while that of the roots - the least one. Calendula species inhibited all tested pathogenic microorganisms, especially Pseudomonas syringae, P. fluorescens, Xanthomonas campestris, Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Calendula suffruticosa was the most active to all investigated microorganisms.

  13. Nylon Wool Purification Alters the Activation of T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohler, Jillian E.; Barnum, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    Purification of lymphocytes, particularly T cells, is commonly performed using nylon wool. This enrichment method selectively retains B cells and some myeloid cells allowing a significantly more pure T cell population to flow through a nylon wool column. T cells purified in this fashion are assumed to be unaltered and functionally naïve, however some studies have suggested aberrant in vitro T cell responses after nylon wool treatment. We found that nylon wool purification significantly altered T cell proliferation, expression of activation markers and production of cytokines. Our results suggest that nylon wool treatment modifies T cell activation responses and that caution should be used when choosing this purification method. PMID:18952296

  14. Rhodiola plants: Chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Mei Chiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhodiola is a genus of medicinal plants that originated in Asia and Europe and are used traditionally as adaptogens, antidepressants, and anti-inflammatory remedies. Rhodiola plants are rich in polyphenols, and salidroside and tyrosol are the primary bioactive marker compounds in the standardized extracts of Rhodiola rosea. This review article summarizes the bioactivities, including adaptogenic, antifatigue, antidepressant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinoception, and anticancer activities, and the modulation of immune function of Rhodiola plants and its two constituents, as well as their potential to prevent cardiovascular, neuronal, liver, and skin disorders.

  15. Low HDL cholesterol, aggression and altered central serotonergic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buydens-Branchey, L; Branchey, M; Hudson, J; Fergeson, P

    2000-03-01

    Many studies support a significant relation between low cholesterol levels and poor impulse, aggression and mood control. Evidence exists also for a causal link between low brain serotonin (5-HT) activity and these behaviors. Mechanisms linking cholesterol and hostile or self-destructive behavior are unknown, but it has been suggested that low cholesterol influences 5-HT function. This study was designed to explore the relationship between plasma cholesterol, measures of impulsivity and aggression, and indices of 5-HT function in personality disordered cocaine addicts. Thirty-eight hospitalized male patients (age 36.8+/-7.1) were assessed with the DSM-III-R, the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and the Brown-Goodwin Assessment for Life History of Aggression. Fasting basal cholesterol (total, LDL and HDL) was determined 2 weeks after cocaine discontinuation. On the same day 5-HT function was assessed by neuroendocrine (cortisol and prolactin) and psychological (NIMH and 'high' self-rating scales) responses following meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) challenges. Reduced neuroendocrine responses, 'high' feelings and increased 'activation-euphoria' following m-CPP have been interpreted as indicating 5-HT alterations in a variety of psychiatric conditions. Significantly lower levels of HDL cholesterol were found in patients who had a history of aggression (P=0.005). Lower levels of HDL cholesterol were also found to be significantly associated with more intense 'high' and 'activation-euphoria' responses as well as with blunted cortisol responses to m-CPP (P=0.033, P=0.025 and P=0.018, respectively). This study gives further support to existing evidence indicating that in some individuals, the probability of exhibiting impulsive and violent behaviors may be increased when cholesterol is low. It also suggests that low cholesterol and alterations in 5-HT activity may be causally related.

  16. Mechanistic Framework for Establishment, Maintenance, and Alteration of Cell Polarity in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Dhonukshe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell polarity establishment, maintenance, and alteration are central to the developmental and response programs of nearly all organisms and are often implicated in abnormalities ranging from patterning defects to cancer. By residing at the distinct plasma membrane domains polar cargoes mark the identities of those domains, and execute localized functions. Polar cargoes are recruited to the specialized membrane domains by directional secretion and/or directional endocytic recycling. In plants, auxin efflux carrier PIN proteins display polar localizations in various cell types and play major roles in directional cell-to-cell transport of signaling molecule auxin that is vital for plant patterning and response programs. Recent advanced microscopy studies applied to single cells in intact plants reveal subcellular PIN dynamics. They uncover the PIN polarity generation mechanism and identified important roles of AGC kinases for polar PIN localization. AGC kinase family members PINOID, WAG1, and WAG2, belonging to the AGC-3 subclass predominantly influence the polar localization of PINs. The emerging mechanism for AGC-3 kinases action suggests that kinases phosphorylate PINs mainly at the plasma membrane after initial symmetric PIN secretion for eventual PIN internalization and PIN sorting into distinct ARF-GEF-regulated polar recycling pathways. Thus phosphorylation status directs PIN translocation to different cell sides. Based on these findings a mechanistic framework evolves that suggests existence of cell side-specific recycling pathways in plants and implicates AGC3 kinases for differential PIN recruitment among them for eventual PIN polarity establishment, maintenance, and alteration.

  17. Cytotoxic Activity of Selected Nigerian Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sowemimo, A; Venter, M.; Baatjies, L; Koekemoer, T

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most prominent human diseases which has stimulated scientific and commercial interest in the discovery of new anticancer agents from natural sources. The current study investigates the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extracts of sixteen Nigerian plants used locally for the treatment of cancer using the MTT assay on the HeLa cell line. Sapium ellipticum leaves showed activity comparable to the reference compound Cisplatin and greater cytotoxic activity than Combretum panic...

  18. Elevated CO{sub 2} levels and herbivore damage alter host plant preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrell, J. [Lund Univ., Dept. of Animal Ecology, Lund (Sweden); Anderson, Peter, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Crop Sciences, Alnarp (SE)); Oleszek, W.; Stochmal, Anna [Inst. of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation, Dept. of Biochemistry, Pulawy (Poland); Agrell, Cecilia [Lund Univ., Dept. of Chemical Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Lund (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between the moth Spodoptera littoralis and two of its host plants, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) were examined, using plants grown under ambient (350 ppm) and elevated (700 ppm) CO{sub 2} conditions. To determine strength and effects of herbivore-induced responses assays were performed with both undamaged (control) and herbivore damaged plants. CO{sub 2} and damage effects on larval host plant preferences were determined through dual-choice bioassays. In addition, larvae were reared from hatching to pupation on experimental foliage to examine effects on larval growth and development. When undamaged plants were used S. littoralis larvae in consumed more cotton than alfalfa, and CO{sub 2} enrichment caused a reduction in the preference for cotton. With damaged plants larvae consumed equal amounts of the two plant species (ambient CO{sub 2} conditions), but CO{sub 2} enrichment strongly shifted preferences towards cotton, which was then consumed three times more than alfalfa. Complementary assays showed that elevated CO{sub 2} levels had no effect on the herbivore-induced responses of cotton, whereas those of alfalfa were significantly increased. Larval growth was highest for larvae fed undamaged cotton irrespectively of CO{sub 2} level, and lowest for larvae on damaged alfalfa from the high CO{sub 2} treatment. Development time increased on damaged cotton irrespectively of CO{sub 2} treatment, and on damaged alfalfa in the elevated CO{sub 2} treatment. (au) These results demonstrate that elevated CO2 levels can cause insect herbivores to alter host plant preferences, and that effects on herbivore-induced responses may be a key mechanism behind these processes. Furthermore, since the insects were shown to avoid foliage that reduced their physiological performance, our data suggest that behavioural host plant shifts result in partial escape from negative consequences of feeding on high CO2 foliage. Thus, CO2 enrichment can alter

  19. Anthropogenic noise alters bat activity levels and echolocation calls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie P. Bunkley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative impacts from anthropogenic noise are well documented for many wildlife taxa. Investigations of the effects of noise on bats however, have not been conducted outside of the laboratory. Bats that hunt arthropods rely on auditory information to forage. Part of this acoustic information can fall within the spectrum of anthropogenic noise, which can potentially interfere with signal reception and processing. Compressor stations associated with natural gas extraction produce broadband noise 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. With over half a million producing gas wells in the U.S. this infrastructure is a major source of noise pollution across the landscape. We conducted a ‘natural experiment’ in the second largest gas extraction field in the U.S. to investigate the potential effects of gas compressor station noise on the activity levels of the local bat assemblage. We used acoustic monitoring to compare the activity level (number of minutes in a night with a bat call of the bat assemblage at sites with compressor stations to sites lacking this infrastructure. We found that activity levels for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis were 40% lower at loud compressor sites compared to quieter well pads, whereas the activity levels of four other species (Myotis californicus, M. cillolabrum, M. lucifugus, Parastrellus hesperus were not affected by noise. Furthermore, our results reveal that the assemblage of bat species emitting low frequency (35 kHz echolocation did not exhibit altered activity levels in noise. Lower activity levels of Brazilian free-tailed bats at loud sites indicate a potential reduction in habitat for this species. Additionally, a comparison of echolocation search calls produced by free-tailed bats at sites with and without compressor stations reveal that this species modifies its echolocation search calls in noise—producing longer calls with a narrower bandwidth. Call alterations might affect prey

  20. The role of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, T Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Activated charcoal has a very fine network of pores with large inner surface area on which many substances can be adsorbed. Activated charcoal is often used in tissue culture to improve cell growth and development. It plays a critical role in micropropagation, orchid seed germination, somatic embryogenesis, anther culture, synthetic seed production, protoplast culture, rooting, stem elongation, bulb formation etc. The promotary effects of AC on morphogenesis may be mainly due to its irreversible adsorption of inhibitory compounds in the culture medium and substancially decreasing the toxic metabolites, phenolic exudation and brown exudate accumulation. In addition to this activated charcoal is involved in a number of stimulatory and inhibitory activities including the release of substances naturally present in AC which promote growth, alteration and darkening of culture media, and adsorption of vitamins, metal ions and plant growth regulators, including abscisic acid and gaseous ethylene. The effect of AC on growth regulator uptake is still unclear but some workers believe that AC may gradually release certain adsorbed products, such as nutrients and growth regulators which become available to plants. This review focuses on the various roles of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture and the recent developments in this area.

  1. Phytohormone profiles induced by trichoderma isolates correspond with their biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity on melon plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Pascual, Jose A; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2014-07-01

    The application of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol and plant growth-promoting capacities to plant substrates can help reduce the input of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. Some Trichoderma isolates can directly affect plant pathogens, but they also are known to influence the phytohormonal network of their host plant, thus leading to an improvement of plant growth and stress tolerance. In this study, we tested whether alterations in the phytohormone signature induced by different Trichoderma isolates correspond with their ability for biocontrol and growth promotion. Four Trichoderma isolates were collected from agricultural soils and were identified as the species Trichoderma harzianum (two isolates), Trichoderma ghanense, and Trichoderma hamatum. Their antagonistic activity against the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis was tested in vitro, and their plant growth-promoting and biocontrol activity against Fusarium wilt on melon plants was examined in vivo, and compared to that of the commercial strain T. harzianum T-22. Several growth- and defense-related phytohormones were analyzed in the shoots of plants that were root-colonized by the different Trichoderma isolates. An increase in auxin and a decrease in cytokinins and abscisic acid content were induced by the isolates that promoted the plant growth. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the relationship between the plant phenotypic and hormonal variables. PCA pointed to a strong association of auxin induction with plant growth stimulation by Trichoderma. Furthermore, the disease-protectant ability of the Trichoderma strains against F. oxysporum infection seems to be more related to their induced alterations in the content of the hormones abscisic acid, ethylene, and the cytokinin trans-zeatin riboside than to the in vitro antagonism activity against F. oxysporum.

  2. Biologically Active and Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

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    Carlos E. Salas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application.

  3. Climate change alters plant biogeography in Mediterranean prairies along the West Coast, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Bridgham, Scott D; Reynolds, Lorien L; Goklany, Maya E; Wilson, Hannah E; Little, Chelsea J; Ferguson, Aryana; Johnson, Bart R

    2016-02-01

    Projected changes in climate are expected to have widespread effects on plant community composition and diversity in coming decades. However, multisite, multifactor climate manipulation studies that have examined whether observed responses are regionally consistent and whether multiple climate perturbations are interdependent are rare. Using such an experiment, we quantified how warming and increased precipitation intensity affect the relative dominance of plant functional groups and diversity across a broad climate gradient of Mediterranean prairies. We implemented a fully factorial climate manipulation of warming (+2.5-3.0 °C) and increased wet-season precipitation (+20%) at three sites across a 520-km latitudinal gradient in the Pacific Northwest, USA. After seeding with a nearly identical mix of native species at all sites, we measured plant community composition (i.e., cover, richness, and diversity), temperature, and soil moisture for 3 years. Warming and the resultant drying of soils altered plant community composition, decreased native diversity, and increased total cover, with warmed northern communities becoming more similar to communities further south. In particular, after two full years of warming, annual cover increased and forb cover decreased at all sites mirroring the natural biogeographic pattern. This suggests that the extant climate gradient of increasing heat and drought severity is responsible for a large part of the observed biogeographic pattern of increasing annual invasion in US West Coast prairies as one moves further south. Additional precipitation during the rainy season did little to relieve drought stress and had minimal effects on plant community composition. Our results suggest that the projected increase in drought severity (i.e., hotter, drier summers) in Pacific Northwest prairies may lead to increased invasion by annuals and a loss of forbs, similar to what has been observed in central and southern California, resulting in

  4. Systems and synthetic biology approaches to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Udaya C; Yin, Hengfu; Yang, Xiaohan; Davison, Brian H

    2014-12-01

    Fine-tuning plant cell wall properties to render plant biomass more amenable to biofuel conversion is a colossal challenge. A deep knowledge of the biosynthesis and regulation of plant cell wall and a high-precision genome engineering toolset are the two essential pillars of efforts to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance. The past decade has seen a meteoric rise in use of transcriptomics and high-resolution imaging methods resulting in fresh insights into composition, structure, formation and deconstruction of plant cell walls. Subsequent gene manipulation approaches, however, commonly include ubiquitous mis-expression of a single candidate gene in a host that carries an intact copy of the native gene. The challenges posed by pleiotropic and unintended changes resulting from such an approach are moving the field towards synthetic biology approaches. Synthetic biology builds on a systems biology knowledge base and leverages high-precision tools for high-throughput assembly of multigene constructs and pathways, precision genome editing and site-specific gene stacking, silencing and/or removal. Here, we summarize the recent breakthroughs in biosynthesis and remodelling of major secondary cell wall components, assess the impediments in obtaining a systems-level understanding and explore the potential opportunities in leveraging synthetic biology approaches to reduce biomass recalcitrance.

  5. A Range-Expanding Shrub Species Alters Plant Phenological Response to Experimental Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Christopher W; Cleland, Elsa E

    2015-01-01

    Shifts in plant species phenology (the timing of life-history events such as flowering) have been observed worldwide in concert with rising global temperatures. While most species display earlier phenology with warming, there is large variation among, and even within, species in phenological sensitivity to rising temperatures. Other indirect effects of climate change, such as shifting species composition and altered species interactions, may also be contributing to shifting plant phenology. Here, we describe how experimental warming and the presence of a range-expanding species, sagebrush (Artemisia rothrockii), interact to influence the flowering phenology (day of first and peak flowering) and production (number of flowers) of an alpine cushion plant, Trifolium andersonii, in California's White Mountains. Both first flowering and peak flowering were strongly accelerated by warming, but not when sagebrush was present. Warming significantly increased flower production of T. andersonii, but less so in the presence of sagebrush. A shading treatment delayed phenology and lowered flower production, suggesting that shading may be the mechanism by which sagebrush presence delayed flowering of the understory species. This study demonstrates that species interactions can modify phenological responses to climate change, and suggests that indirect effects of rising temperatures arising from shifting species ranges and altered species interactions may even exceed the direct effects of rising temperatures on phenology.

  6. A Range-Expanding Shrub Species Alters Plant Phenological Response to Experimental Warming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Kopp

    Full Text Available Shifts in plant species phenology (the timing of life-history events such as flowering have been observed worldwide in concert with rising global temperatures. While most species display earlier phenology with warming, there is large variation among, and even within, species in phenological sensitivity to rising temperatures. Other indirect effects of climate change, such as shifting species composition and altered species interactions, may also be contributing to shifting plant phenology. Here, we describe how experimental warming and the presence of a range-expanding species, sagebrush (Artemisia rothrockii, interact to influence the flowering phenology (day of first and peak flowering and production (number of flowers of an alpine cushion plant, Trifolium andersonii, in California's White Mountains. Both first flowering and peak flowering were strongly accelerated by warming, but not when sagebrush was present. Warming significantly increased flower production of T. andersonii, but less so in the presence of sagebrush. A shading treatment delayed phenology and lowered flower production, suggesting that shading may be the mechanism by which sagebrush presence delayed flowering of the understory species. This study demonstrates that species interactions can modify phenological responses to climate change, and suggests that indirect effects of rising temperatures arising from shifting species ranges and altered species interactions may even exceed the direct effects of rising temperatures on phenology.

  7. Above–belowground herbivore interactions in mixed plant communities are influenced by altered precipitation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael William Ryalls

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Root- and shoot-feeding herbivores have the capacity to influence one another by modifying the chemistry of the shared host plant. This can alter rates of nutrient mineralisation and uptake by neighbouring plants and influence plant–plant competition, particularly in mixtures combining grasses and legumes. Root herbivory-induced exudation of nitrogen (N from legume roots, for example, may increase N acquisition by co-occurring grasses, with knock-on effects on grassland community composition. Little is known about how climate change may affect these interactions, but an important and timely question is how will grass–legume mixtures respond in a future with an increasing reliance on legume N mineralisation in terrestrial ecosystems. Using a model grass–legume mixture, this study investigated how simultaneous attack on lucerne (Medicago sativa by belowground weevils (Sitona discoideus and aboveground aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum affected a neighbouring grass (Phalaris aquatica when subjected to drought, ambient and elevated precipitation. Feeding on rhizobial nodules by weevil larvae enhanced soil water retention under ambient and elevated precipitation, but only when aphids were absent. While drought decreased nodulation and root N content in lucerne, grass root and shoot chemistry were unaffected by changes in precipitation. However, plant communities containing weevils but not aphids showed increased grass height and N concentrations, most likely associated with the transfer of N from weevil-attacked lucerne plants containing more nodules and higher root N concentrations compared with insect-free plants. Drought decreased aphid abundance by 54% but increased total and some specific amino acid concentrations (glycine, lysine, methionine, tyrosine, cysteine, histidine, arginine, aspartate and glutamate, suggesting that aphid declines were being driven by other facets of drought (e.g. reduced phloem hydraulics. The presence of weevil larvae

  8. Plant Species Richness and Nitrogen Deposition can Alter Microbial Assimilation of New Photosynthate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H.; Zak, D.; Reich, P.

    2009-12-01

    Microbial assimilation of recent photosynthate was analyzed in a 6-year-long field experiment to determine how plant species richness impacts microbial metabolism of new photosynthate, and how this may be modified by atmospheric N deposition. Our study was conducted at the BioCON (Biodiversity, CO2, and Nitrogen) FACE (Free-Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment) experiment located at the Cedar Creek Natural History area in Minnesota, USA. In this experiment, plant species richness, atmospheric N deposition, and atmospheric CO2 concentration were manipulated in concert. The depleted δ13C of fumigation CO2 enabled us to investigate the effect of plant species richness and atmospheric N deposition on the metabolism of soil microbial communities in the elevated CO2 treatment. We determined the δ13C of bacterial, actinobacterial, and fungal phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). In the elevated CO2 conditions of this study, the δ13C of bacterial PLFAs (i15:0, i16:0, 16:1ω7c, 16:1ω9c, 10Me16:0, and 10Me18:0) and the fungal PLFA 18:1ω9c was significantly lower in species-rich plant communities than in species-poor plant communities, indicating that microbial incorporation of new C increased with plant species richness. Despite an increase in plant production, total PLFA decreased under N deposition by 27%. Moreover, N deposition also decreased fungal relative abundance in species-rich plant communities. In our study, plant species richness directly increased microbial incorporation of new photosynthate, providing a mechanistic link between greater plant detritus production in species-rich plant communities and larger and more active soil microbial community.

  9. Pseudorabies virus infection alters neuronal activity and connectivity in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M McCarthy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-herpesviruses, including human herpes simplex virus 1 & 2, varicella zoster virus and the swine pseudorabies virus (PRV, infect the peripheral nervous system of their hosts. Symptoms of infection often include itching, numbness, or pain indicative of altered neurological function. To determine if there is an in vitro electrophysiological correlate to these characteristic in vivo symptoms, we infected cultured rat sympathetic neurons with well-characterized strains of PRV known to produce virulent or attenuated symptoms in animals. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were made at various times after infection. By 8 hours of infection with virulent PRV, action potential (AP firing rates increased substantially and were accompanied by hyperpolarized resting membrane potentials and spikelet-like events. Coincident with the increase in AP firing rate, adjacent neurons exhibited coupled firing events, first with AP-spikelets and later with near identical resting membrane potentials and AP firing. Small fusion pores between adjacent cell bodies formed early after infection as demonstrated by transfer of the low molecular weight dye, Lucifer Yellow. Later, larger pores formed as demonstrated by transfer of high molecular weight Texas red-dextran conjugates between infected cells. Further evidence for viral-induced fusion pores was obtained by infecting neurons with a viral mutant defective for glycoprotein B, a component of the viral membrane fusion complex. These infected neurons were essentially identical to mock infected neurons: no increased AP firing, no spikelet-like events, and no electrical or dye transfer. Infection with PRV Bartha, an attenuated circuit-tracing strain delayed, but did not eliminate the increased neuronal activity and coupling events. We suggest that formation of fusion pores between infected neurons results in electrical coupling and elevated firing rates, and that these processes may contribute to the altered neural

  10. Physical activity alters antioxidant status in exercising elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Anne-Sophie; Margaritis, Irène; Arnaud, Josiane; Faure, Henri; Roussel, Anne-Marie

    2006-07-01

    Nutritional adequacy and physical activity are two aspects of a health-promoting lifestyle. Not much is known about antioxidant nutrient requirements for exercising elderly (EE) subjects. The question of whether exercise training alters the status of antioxidant vitamins as well as trace elements in elderly subjects and fails to balance the age-related increase in oxidative stress is addressed in this study. There were 18 EE (68.1+/-3.1 years), 7 sedentary elderly (SE; 70.4+/-5.0 years), 17 exercising young (EY; 31.2+/-7.1 years) and 8 sedentary young (SY; 27.1+/-5.8 years) subjects who completed 7-day food and activity records. Each subject's blood was sampled on Day 8. A similar selenium (Se) status but a higher erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were found in EE subjects as compared with EY and SE subjects. Blood oxidized glutathione was higher and plasma total thiol was lower in EE subjects as compared with EY subjects. Mean vitamin C (167 vs. 106 mg/day), vitamin E (11.7 vs. 8.3 mg/day) and beta-carotene (4 vs. 2.4 mg/day) intakes were higher in EE subjects as compared with EY subjects. However, EE subjects exhibited the lowest plasma carotenoid concentrations, especially in beta-carotene, which was not related to intakes. Despite high intakes of antioxidant micronutrients, no adaptive mechanism able to counteract the increased oxidative stress in aging was found in EE subjects. Results on GSH-Px activity illustrate that the nature of the regulation of this biomarker of Se status is different in response to training and aging. These data also strongly suggest specific antioxidant requirements for athletes with advancing age, with a special attention to carotenoids.

  11. Plant-driven fungal weathering: Early stages of mineral alteration at the nanometer scale

    OpenAIRE

    S. Bonneville; M. M. Smits; A. Brown; J. Harrington; J. R. Leake; R. Brydson; Liane G. Benning

    2009-01-01

    Plant-driven fungal weathering is a major pathway of soil formation, yet the precise mechanism by which mycorrhiza alter minerals is poorly understood. Here we report the first direct in situ observations of the effects of a soil fungus on the surface of a mineral over which it grew in a controlled experiment. An ectomycorrhizal fungus was grown in symbiosis with a tree seedling so that individual hyphae expanded across the surface of a biotite flake over a period of three months. Ultramicros...

  12. Protease Inhibitors from Plants with Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonkyung Park

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial proteins (peptides are known to play important roles in the innate host defense mechanisms of most living organisms, including plants, insects, amphibians and mammals. They are also known to possess potent antibiotic activity against bacteria, fungi, and even certain viruses. Recently, the rapid emergence of microbial pathogens that are resistant to currently available antibiotics has triggered considerable interest in the isolation and investigation of the mode of action of antimicrobial proteins (peptides. Plants produce a variety of proteins (peptides that are involved in the defense against pathogens and invading organisms, including ribosome-inactivating proteins, lectins, protease inhibitors and antifungal peptides (proteins. Specially, the protease inhibitors can inhibit aspartic, serine and cysteine proteinases. Increased levels of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors correlated with the plants resistance to the pathogen. Usually, the purification of antimicrobial proteins (peptides with protease inhibitor activity was accomplished by salt-extraction, ultrafiltration and C18 reverse phase chromatography, successfully. We discuss the relation between antimicrobial and anti-protease activity in this review. Protease inhibitors from plants potently inhibited the growth of a variety of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains and are therefore excellent candidates for use as the lead compounds for the development of novel antimicrobial agents.

  13. Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Abu Ghdeib, S I

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P Inula viscosa, J. regia and P. lentiscus against T. mentagrophytes; and Asphodelus luteus, A. arvensis, C. spinosa, Clematis cirrhosa, I. viscosa, J. regia, P. lentiscus, Plumbago europea, Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T. violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14% of the extracts, respectively.

  14. ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF LEGUMINOSAE PLANTS

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    Noemi D. PAGUIGAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Ulcer is the most common gastrointestinal disturbance resulting from an inadequate gastric mucosal defense. Several drugs are available in the market to address the disease; however, these drugs are associated with unnecessary side effects. Objectives Previous research have confirmed the efficacy of plant extracts for possible treatment of the disease. This research aims to evaluate the anti-ulcer properties of medicinal plants. Methods Methanol extracts from the leaves of Intsia bijuga, Cynometra ramiflora, Tamarindus indica, Cassia javanica, Cassia fistula, Bauhini purpurea, Senna spectabilis, Senna siamea and Saraca thaipingensis were evaluated for their anti-ulcer activity using HCl-ethanol as ulcerogen. Results All extracts showed inhibitory activity with I. bijuga, T. indica, S. spectabilis and S. thaipingensis exhibiting more than 50% inhibition. S. thaipingensis showed the highest activity at 80%. S. spectabilis and S. thaipingensis were partitioned further into hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. The aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions of S. spectabilis showed significant increased in its activity while the hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of S. thaipingensis gave higher activity than its aqueous portions. Conclusions We conclude that plant extracts are potential sources of new anti-ulcer agents.

  15. Medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, Francesco; Russo, Rosa; Khan, Haroon; Mascolo, Nicola

    2016-06-01

    Medicinal plants have been the main remedy to treat various ailments for a long time and nowadays, many drugs have been developed from traditional medicine. This paper reviews some medicinal plants and their main constituents which possess anti-inflammatory activities useful for curing joint inflammation, inflammatory skin disorders, cardiovascular inflammation and other inflammatory diseases. Here, we provide a brief overview of quick and easy reading on the role of medicinal plants and their main constituents in these inflammatory diseases. We hope that this overview will shed some light on the function of these natural anti-inflammatory compounds and attract the interest of investigators aiming at the design of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions.

  16. Climate change alters leaf anatomy, but has no effects on volatile emissions from Arctic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollert, Michelle; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Valolahti, Hanna M; Rinnan, Riikka

    2015-10-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions are expected to change substantially because of the rapid advancement of climate change in the Arctic. BVOC emission changes can feed back both positively and negatively on climate warming. We investigated the effects of elevated temperature and shading on BVOC emissions from arctic plant species Empetrum hermaphroditum, Cassiope tetragona, Betula nana and Salix arctica. Measurements were performed in situ in long-term field experiments in subarctic and high Arctic using a dynamic enclosure system and collection of BVOCs into adsorbent cartridges analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In order to assess whether the treatments had resulted in anatomical adaptations, we additionally examined leaf anatomy using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Against expectations based on the known temperature and light-dependency of BVOC emissions, the emissions were barely affected by the treatments. In contrast, leaf anatomy of the studied plants was significantly altered in response to the treatments, and these responses appear to differ from species found at lower latitudes. We suggest that leaf anatomical acclimation may partially explain the lacking treatment effects on BVOC emissions at plant shoot-level. However, more studies are needed to unravel why BVOC emission responses in arctic plants differ from temperate species.

  17. Antisense repression of sucrose phosphate synthase in transgenic muskmelon alters plant growth and fruit development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hongmei; Ma, Leyuan; Zhao, Cong; Hao, Hui; Gong, Biao [College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an, Shandong 271018 (China); Yu, Xiyan, E-mail: yuxiyan@sdau.edu.cn [College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an, Shandong 271018 (China); Wang, Xiufeng, E-mail: xfwang@sdau.edu.cn [College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai' an, Shandong 271018 (China)

    2010-03-12

    To unravel the roles of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), we reduced its activity in transgenic muskmelon plants by an antisense approach. For this purpose, an 830 bp cDNA fragment of muskmelon sucrose phosphate synthase was expressed in antisense orientation behind the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus. The phenotype of the antisense plants clearly differed from that of control plants. The transgenic plant leaves were markedly smaller, and the plant height and stem diameter were obviously shorter and thinner. Transmission electron microscope observation revealed that the membrane degradation of chloroplast happened in transgenic leaves and the numbers of grana and grana lamella in the chloroplast were significantly less, suggesting that the slow growth and weaker phenotype of transgenic plants may be due to the damage of the chloroplast ultrastructure, which in turn results in the decrease of the net photosynthetic rate. The sucrose concentration and levels of sucrose phosphate synthase decreased in transgenic mature fruit, and the fruit size was smaller than the control fruit. Together, our results suggest that sucrose phosphate synthase may play an important role in regulating the muskmelon plant growth and fruit development.

  18. Anthropogenic halo disturbances alter landscape and plant richness: a ripple effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingliang Liu

    Full Text Available Although anthropogenic landscape fragmentation is often considered as the primary threat to biodiversity, other factors such as immediate human disturbances may also simultaneously threaten species persistence in various ways. In this paper, we introduce a conceptual framework applied to recreation landscapes (RLs, with an aim to provide insight into the composite influences of landscape alteration accompanying immediate human disturbances on plant richness dynamics. These impacts largely occur at patch-edges. They can not only alter patch-edge structure and environment, but also permeate into surrounding natural matrices/patches affecting species persistence-here we term these "Halo disturbance effects" (HDEs. We categorized species into groups based on seed or pollen dispersal mode (animal- vs. wind-dispersed as they can be associated with species richness dynamics. We evaluated the richness of the two groups and total species in our experimental landscapes by considering the distance from patch-edge, the size of RLs and the intensity of human use over a six-year period. Our results show that animal-dispersed species decreased considerably, whereas wind-dispersed species increased while their richness presented diverse dynamics at different distances from patch-edges. Our findings clearly demonstrate that anthropogenic HDEs produce ripple effects on plant, providing an experimental interpretation for the diverse responses of species to anthropogenic disturbances. This study highlights the importance of incorporating these composite threats into conservation and management strategies.

  19. Anthropogenic halo disturbances alter landscape and plant richness: a ripple effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingliang; Su, Jinbao; Chen, Jianwei; Cui, Guofa; Ma, Jianzhang

    2013-01-01

    Although anthropogenic landscape fragmentation is often considered as the primary threat to biodiversity, other factors such as immediate human disturbances may also simultaneously threaten species persistence in various ways. In this paper, we introduce a conceptual framework applied to recreation landscapes (RLs), with an aim to provide insight into the composite influences of landscape alteration accompanying immediate human disturbances on plant richness dynamics. These impacts largely occur at patch-edges. They can not only alter patch-edge structure and environment, but also permeate into surrounding natural matrices/patches affecting species persistence-here we term these "Halo disturbance effects" (HDEs). We categorized species into groups based on seed or pollen dispersal mode (animal- vs. wind-dispersed) as they can be associated with species richness dynamics. We evaluated the richness of the two groups and total species in our experimental landscapes by considering the distance from patch-edge, the size of RLs and the intensity of human use over a six-year period. Our results show that animal-dispersed species decreased considerably, whereas wind-dispersed species increased while their richness presented diverse dynamics at different distances from patch-edges. Our findings clearly demonstrate that anthropogenic HDEs produce ripple effects on plant, providing an experimental interpretation for the diverse responses of species to anthropogenic disturbances. This study highlights the importance of incorporating these composite threats into conservation and management strategies.

  20. Antibacterial activity of eight Brazilian annonaceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Jacqueline A; Pereira, Cássia R; Pimenta, Lúcia P S; Boaventura, Maria Amélia D; Silva, Luiz G F E

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen extracts, obtained from eight Brazilian plants of Annonaceae family, were screened for their antibacterial activity: Xylopia frutescens, X. aromatica, X. amazonica, X. benthamii, Annona ambotay, A. crassiflora, A. muricata and A. cherimolia. Amongst the investigated extracts, six showed antibacterial activity against at least one of the tested organisms at the concentration of 100 microg/mL. The most active extracts were those prepared from X. frutescens, X. amazonica, and A. ambotay. A phytochemical screening showed the presence of anonaceus acetogenins in some active extracts. Eleven diterpenoids were also tested for comparison purposes. Six were natural products, previously isolated from Xylopia sp. (kaurenoic, frutoic, xylopic, 15beta-hydroxy-kaurenoic and trachylobanic acids plus kaurenol) and five were derivatives of such compounds, obtained by esterification or reduction reactions. Trachylobanic acid showed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis and S. aureus.

  1. Altered Lignin Biosynthesis Improves Cellulosic Bioethanol Production in Transgenic Maize Plants Down-Regulated for Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvia Fornalé; Pere Puigdomènech; Joan Rigau; David Caparrós-Ruiz; Montserrat Capellades; Antonio Encina; Kan Wang; Sami Irar; Catherine Lapierre; Katia Ruel; Jean-Paul Joseleau; Jordi Berenguer

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase(CAD)is a key enzyme involved in the last step of monolignol biosynthesis.The effect of CAD down-regulation on lignin production was investigated through a transgenic approach in maize.Transgenic CAD-RNAi plants show a different degree of enzymatic reduction depending on the analyzed tissue and show alterations in cell wall composition.Cell walls of CAD-RNAi stems contain a lignin polymer with a slight reduction in the S-to-G ratio without affecting the total lignin content.In addition,these cell walls accumulate higher levels of cellulose and arabinoxylans.In contrast,cell walls of CAD-RNAi midribs present a reduction in the total lignin content and of cell wall polysaccharides.In vitro degradability assays showed that,although to a different extent,the changes induced by the repression of CAD activity produced midribs and stems more degradable than wild-type plants.CAD-RNAi plants grown in the field presented a wild-type phenotype and produced higher amounts of dry biomass.Cellulosic bioethanol assays revealed that CAD-RNAi biomass produced higher levels of ethanol compared to wild-type,making CAD a good target to improve both the nutritional and energetic values of maize lignocellulosic biomass.

  2. Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass Alters Soil Microbial Responses to Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kai; Yuan, Mengting M.; Xie, Jianping; Li, Dejun; Qin, Yujia; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Luo, Yiqi; Tiedje, James M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clipping (i.e., harvesting aboveground plant biomass) is common in agriculture and for bioenergy production. However, microbial responses to clipping in the context of climate warming are poorly understood. We investigated the interactive effects of grassland warming and clipping on soil properties and plant and microbial communities, in particular, on microbial functional genes. Clipping alone did not change the plant biomass production, but warming and clipping combined increased the C4 peak biomass by 47% and belowground net primary production by 110%. Clipping alone and in combination with warming decreased the soil carbon input from litter by 81% and 75%, respectively. With less carbon input, the abundances of genes involved in degrading relatively recalcitrant carbon increased by 38% to 137% in response to either clipping or the combined treatment, which could weaken long-term soil carbon stability and trigger positive feedback with respect to warming. Clipping alone also increased the abundance of genes for nitrogen fixation, mineralization, and denitrification by 32% to 39%. Such potentially stimulated nitrogen fixation could help compensate for the 20% decline in soil ammonium levels caused by clipping alone and could contribute to unchanged plant biomass levels. Moreover, clipping tended to interact antagonistically with warming, especially with respect to effects on nitrogen cycling genes, demonstrating that single-factor studies cannot predict multifactorial changes. These results revealed that clipping alone or in combination with warming altered soil and plant properties as well as the abundance and structure of soil microbial functional genes. Aboveground biomass removal for biofuel production needs to be reconsidered, as the long-term soil carbon stability may be weakened. PMID:27677789

  3. Annual Removal of Aboveground Plant Biomass Alters Soil Microbial Responses to Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xue

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Clipping (i.e., harvesting aboveground plant biomass is common in agriculture and for bioenergy production. However, microbial responses to clipping in the context of climate warming are poorly understood. We investigated the interactive effects of grassland warming and clipping on soil properties and plant and microbial communities, in particular, on microbial functional genes. Clipping alone did not change the plant biomass production, but warming and clipping combined increased the C4 peak biomass by 47% and belowground net primary production by 110%. Clipping alone and in combination with warming decreased the soil carbon input from litter by 81% and 75%, respectively. With less carbon input, the abundances of genes involved in degrading relatively recalcitrant carbon increased by 38% to 137% in response to either clipping or the combined treatment, which could weaken long-term soil carbon stability and trigger positive feedback with respect to warming. Clipping alone also increased the abundance of genes for nitrogen fixation, mineralization, and denitrification by 32% to 39%. Such potentially stimulated nitrogen fixation could help compensate for the 20% decline in soil ammonium levels caused by clipping alone and could contribute to unchanged plant biomass levels. Moreover, clipping tended to interact antagonistically with warming, especially with respect to effects on nitrogen cycling genes, demonstrating that single-factor studies cannot predict multifactorial changes. These results revealed that clipping alone or in combination with warming altered soil and plant properties as well as the abundance and structure of soil microbial functional genes. Aboveground biomass removal for biofuel production needs to be reconsidered, as the long-term soil carbon stability may be weakened.

  4. Cerium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles alter the nutritional value of soil cultivated soybean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Zhao, Lijuan; Diaz, Baltazar Corral; Ge, Yuan; Priester, John H; Holden, Patricia Ann; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine nutrient elements in soybean (Glycine max) plants cultivated in farm soil amended with nCeO2 at 0-1000 mg kg(-1) and nZnO at 0-500 mg kg(-1). Digested samples were analyzed by ICP-OES/MS. Compared to control, pods from nCeO2 at 1000 mg kg(-1) had significantly less Ca but more P and Cu, while pods from 100 mg kg(-1)nZnO had more Zn, Mn, and Cu. Plants treated with nZnO showed significant correlations among Zn, P, and S in pods with Zn in roots. Correlations among pod Zn/root Zn was r = 0.808 (p ≤ 0.01) and pod P/root P was r = 0.541 (p ≤ 0.05). The correlation among pod S/root S was r = -0.65 (p ≤ 0.01). While nCeO2 treatments exhibited significant correlations between pod Ca/root Ca (r = 0.645, p ≤ 0.05). The data suggest that nCeO2 and nZnO alter the nutritional value of soybean, which could affect the health of plants, humans, and animals.

  5. Verticillium dahliae Infects, Alters Plant Biomass, and Produces Inoculum on Rotation Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, D L; Johnson, D A

    2016-06-01

    Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae, reduces yields of potato and mint. Crop rotation is a potential management tactic for Verticillium wilt; however, the wide host range of V. dahliae may limit the effectiveness of this tactic. The hypothesis that rotation crops are infected by V. dahliae inoculum originating from potato and mint was tested by inoculation of mustards, grasses, and Austrian winter pea with eight isolates of V. dahliae. Inoculum density was estimated from plants and soil. Typical wilt symptoms were not observed in any rotation crop but plant biomass of some crops was reduced, not affected, or increased by infection of specific isolates. Each isolate was host-specific and infected a subset of the rotation crops tested but microsclerotia from at least one isolate were observed on each rotation crop. Some isolates were host-adapted and differentially altered plant biomass or produced differential amounts of inoculum on rotation crops like arugula and Austrian winter pea, which supported more inoculum of specific isolates than potato. Evidence of asymptomatic and symptomatic infection and differential inoculum formation of V. dahliae on rotation crops presented here will be useful in designing rotations for management of Verticillium wilt.

  6. Shifting phenology and abundance under experimental warming alters trophic relationships and plant reproductive capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinzhan; Reich, Peter B; Li, Guoyong; Sun, Shucun

    2011-06-01

    Phenological mismatches due to climate change may have important ecological consequences. In a three-year study, phenological shifts due to experimental warming markedly altered trophic relationships between plants and insect herbivores, causing a dramatic decline of reproductive capacity for one of the plant species. In a Tibetan meadow, the gentian (Gentiana formosa) typically flowers after the peak larva density of a noctuid moth (Melanchra pisi) that primarily feeds on a dominant forb (anemone, Anemone trullifolia var. linearis). However, artificial warming of approximately 1.5 degrees C advanced gentian flower phenology and anemone vegetative phenology by a week, but delayed moth larvae emergence by two weeks. The warming increased larval density 10-fold, but decreased anemone density by 30%. The phenological and density shifts under warmed conditions resulted in the insect larvae feeding substantially on the gentian flowers and ovules; there was approximately 100-fold more damage in warmed than in unwarmed chambers. This radically increased trophic connection reduced gentian plant reproduction and likely contributed to its reduced abundance in the warmed chambers.

  7. Soil-plant-microbial relations in hydrothermally altered soils of Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecker, S.W.; Stillings, L.L.; DeCrappeo, N.M.; Ippolito, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Soils developed on relict hydrothermally altered soils throughout the Western USA present unique opportunities to study the role of geology on above and belowground biotic activity and composition. Soil and vegetation samples were taken at three unaltered andesite and three hydrothermally altered (acid-sulfate) sites located in and around Lassen VolcanicNational Park in northeastern California. In addition, three different types of disturbed areas (clearcut, thinned, and pipeline) were sampled in acid-sulfate altered sites. Soils were sampled (0–15 cm) in mid-summer 2010 from both under-canopy and between-canopy areas within each of the sites. Soils were analyzed for numerous physical and chemical properties along with soil enzyme assays, C and N mineralization potential, microbial biomass-C and C-substrate utilization. Field vegetation measurements consisted of canopy cover by life form (tree, shrub, forb, and grass), tree and shrub density, and above-ground net primary productivity of the understory. Overall, parameters at the clearcut sites were more similar to the unaltered sites, while parameters at the thinned and pipeline sites were more similar to the altered sites. We employed principal components analysis (PCA) to develop two soil quality indices (SQI) to help quantify the differences among the sites: one based on the correlation between soil parameters and canopy cover, and the second based on six sub-indices. Soil quality indices developed in these systems could provide a means for monitoring and identifying key relations between the vegetation, soils, and microorganisms.

  8. Bacteriocins active against plant pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinter, Rhys; Milner, Joel; Walker, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Gram-negative phytopathogens cause significant losses in a diverse range of economically important crop plants. The effectiveness of traditional countermeasures, such as the breeding and introduction of resistant cultivars, is often limited by the dearth of available sources of genetic resistance. An alternative strategy to reduce loss to specific bacterial phytopathogens is to use narrow-spectrum protein antibiotics such as colicin-like bacteriocins as biocontrol agents. A number of colicin-like bacteriocins active against phytopathogenic bacteria have been described previously as have strategies for their application to biocontrol. In the present paper, we discuss these strategies and our own recent work on the identification and characterization of candidate bacteriocins and how these potent and selective antimicrobial agents can be effectively applied to the control of economically important plant disease.

  9. The Pleasures and the Pitfalls of Plant Science Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    2000-01-01

    Classroom plant activities have long been inexpensive, easy to do, and fun for students, and have become more central to biology teaching. Introduces some plant science activities and their pleasures and pitfalls. (ASK)

  10. Microbial degradation of plant leachate alters lignin phenols and trihalomethane precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Brian A.; Hernes, Peter J.; Saraceno, John Franco; Spencer, Robert G.M.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the importance of vascular plant-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in freshwater systems has been studied, the role of leached DOC as precursors of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during drinking water treatment is not well known. Here we measured the propensity of leachates from four crops and four aquatic macrophytes to form trihalomethanes (THMs)—a regulated class of DBPs—before and after 21 d of microbial degradation. We also measured lignin phenol content and specific UV absorbance (SUVA254) to test the assumption that aromatic compounds from vascular plants are resistant to microbial degradation and readily form DBPs. Leaching solubilized 9 to 26% of total plant carbon, which formed 1.93 to 6.72 mmol THM mol C-1 However, leachate DOC concentrations decreased by 85 to 92% over the 21-d incubation, with a concomitant decrease of 67 to 92% in total THM formation potential. Carbon-normalized THM yields in the residual DOC pool increased by 2.5 times on average, consistent with the preferential uptake of nonprecursor material. Lignin phenol concentrations decreased by 64 to 96% over 21 d, but a lack of correlation between lignin content and THM yields or SUVA254 suggested that lignin-derived compounds are not the source of increased THM precursor yields in the residual DOC pool. Our results indicate that microbial carbon utilization alters THM precursors in ecosystems with direct plant leaching, but more work is needed to identify the specific dissolved organic matter components with a greater propensity to form DBPs and affect watershed management, drinking water quality, and human health.

  11. Microbial degradation of plant leachate alters lignin phenols and trihalomethane precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Brian A; Hernes, Peter J; Saraceno, JohnFranco; Spencer, Robert G M; Bergamaschi, Brian A

    2010-01-01

    Although the importance of vascular plant-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in freshwater systems has been studied, the role of leached DOC as precursors of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during drinking water treatment is not well known. Here we measured the propensity of leachates from four crops and four aquatic macrophytes to form trihalomethanes (THMs)-a regulated class of DBPs-before and after 21 d of microbial degradation. We also measured lignin phenol content and specific UV absorbance (SUVA(254)) to test the assumption that aromatic compounds from vascular plants are resistant to microbial degradation and readily form DBPs. Leaching solubilized 9 to 26% of total plant carbon, which formed 1.93 to 6.72 mmol THM mol C(-1). However, leachate DOC concentrations decreased by 85 to 92% over the 21-d incubation, with a concomitant decrease of 67 to 92% in total THM formation potential. Carbon-normalized THM yields in the residual DOC pool increased by 2.5 times on average, consistent with the preferential uptake of nonprecursor material. Lignin phenol concentrations decreased by 64 to 96% over 21 d, but a lack of correlation between lignin content and THM yields or SUVA(254) suggested that lignin-derived compounds are not the source of increased THM precursor yields in the residual DOC pool. Our results indicate that microbial carbon utilization alters THM precursors in ecosystems with direct plant leaching, but more work is needed to identify the specific dissolved organic matter components with a greater propensity to form DBPs and affect watershed management, drinking water quality, and human health.

  12. Activated carbon addition affects soil pH and germination of six plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Nab, M.R.; Van Dam, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is widely used in ecological studies for neutralizing allelopathic compounds. However, it has been suggested that AC has direct effects on plants because it alters substrate parameters such as nutrient availability and pH. These side-effects of AC addition may interfere with al

  13. Activated carbon addition affects substrate pH and germination of six plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Nab, M.; Dam, van M.

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is widely used in ecological studies for neutralizing allelopathic compounds. However, it has been suggested that AC has direct effects on plants because it alters substrate parameters such as nutrient availability and pH. These side-effects of AC addition may interfere with al

  14. Constitutive Expression of Rice MicroRNA528 Alters Plant Development and Enhances Tolerance to Salinity Stress and Nitrogen Starvation in Creeping Bentgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuangrong; Li, Zhigang; Li, Dayong; Yuan, Ning; Hu, Qian; Luo, Hong

    2015-09-01

    MicroRNA528 (miR528) is a conserved monocot-specific small RNA that has the potential of mediating multiple stress responses. So far, however, experimental functional studies of miR528 are lacking. Here, we report that overexpression of a rice (Oryza sativa) miR528 (Osa-miR528) in transgenic creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) alters plant development and improves plant salt stress and nitrogen (N) deficiency tolerance. Morphologically, miR528-overexpressing transgenic plants display shortened internodes, increased tiller number, and upright growth. Improved salt stress resistance is associated with increased water retention, cell membrane integrity, chlorophyll content, capacity for maintaining potassium homeostasis, CATALASE activity, and reduced ASCORBIC ACID OXIDASE (AAO) activity; while enhanced tolerance to N deficiency is associated with increased biomass, total N accumulation and chlorophyll synthesis, nitrite reductase activity, and reduced AAO activity. In addition, AsAAO and COPPER ION BINDING PROTEIN1 are identified as two putative targets of miR528 in creeping bentgrass. Both of them respond to salinity and N starvation and are significantly down-regulated in miR528-overexpressing transgenics. Our data establish a key role that miR528 plays in modulating plant growth and development and in the plant response to salinity and N deficiency and indicate the potential of manipulating miR528 in improving plant abiotic stress resistance.

  15. Hydrologic alteration affects aquatic plant assemblages in an arid-land river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Mark; Hestmark, Bennett; Barkworth, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of long-term flow alteration on primary-producer assemblages. In 1962, Flaming Gorge Dam was constructed on the Green River. The Yampa River has remained an unregulated hydrologically variable river that joins the Green River 100 km downstream from Flaming Gorge Dam. In the 1960s before dam construction only sparse occurrences of two macroalgae, Cladophora and Chara, and no submerged vascular plants were recorded in the Green and Yampa rivers. In 2009–2010, aquatic plants were abundant and widespread in the Green River from the dam downstream to the confluence with the Yampa River. The assemblage consisted of six vascular species, Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum sibiricum, Nasturtium officinale,Potamogeton crispus, Potamogeton pectinatus, and Ranunculus aquatilis, the macroalgae Chara and Cladophora, and the bryophyte, Amblystegium riparium. In the Green River downstream from the Yampa River, and in the Yampa River, only sparse patches of Chara and Cladophora growing in the splash zone on boulders were collected. We attribute the observed changes in the Green River to an increase in water transparency and a reduction in suspended and bed-load sediment and high flow disturbances. The lack of hydrophyte colonization downstream from the confluence with the Yampa River has implications for understanding tributary amelioration of dam effects and for designing more natural flow-regime schedules downstream from large dams.

  16. Alteration of swelling clay minerals by acid activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steudel, A.; Batenburg, L.F.; Fischer, H.R.; Weidler, P.G.; Emmerich, K.

    2009-01-01

    The bulk material of six dioctahedral and two trioctahedral swellable clay minerals was leached in H2SO4 and HCl at concentrations of 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 M at 80 °C for several hours. Alteration of the clay mineral structures was dependent on the individual character of each mineral (chemical composit

  17. Altered Carbon Isotope Discrimination of C3 Plants Under Very High pCO2 Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, R. J.; Schubert, B.; Jahren, H.

    2009-12-01

    . We speculate that this decreased variability may reflect fundamentally altered patterns of net carbon uptake, which then affect net isotopic fractionation. A.H. Jahren, N.C. Arens and S.A. Harbeson, 2008. Prediction of atmospheric δ13CO2 using fossil plant tissues. Reviews of Geophysics, 46/2006RG0002. H. Poorter and E. Garnier, 1996. Plant growth analysis: an evaluation of experimental design and computational methods. Journal of Experimental Botany, 47/1343-1351.

  18. The Effects of Peatland Plant Functional Types and Altered Hydrology on Porewater Chemistry in a Northern Bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, A.; Kane, E. S.; Lilleskov, E. A.; Kolka, R. K.; Chimner, R. A.; Potvin, L. R.; Romanowicz, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Northern wetlands, peatlands in particular, have been shown to store around 30% of the world's soil carbon and thus play a significant role in the carbon cycle of our planet. Carbon accumulation in peatlands is the result of retarded decomposition due to low oxygen availability in these water-logged environments. Changes in our planet's climate cycles are altering peatland hydrology and vegetation communities, resulting in changes in their ability to sequester carbon through increases in peat carbon oxidation and mineralization. To date, the consequences of altered hydrology and changes in vegetation communities, and their interactive effects on carbon storage, are not well understood. We have initiated a research plan that assesses the varying roles that water table variation and vegetation communities have on extracellular enzyme activity and labile carbon availability in porewater from an ombrotrophic bog. We assessed the effects of plant functional group (ericaceous shrubs, sedges, and bryophytes) and water table position on biogeochemical processes. Specifically, we measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), enzyme activity, organic acids, anions and cations, spectral indexes of aromaticity, and phenolic content in addressing our hypotheses of responses to climate change drivers. Research on these components will evaluate the relative importance of biology, water table, and their interactive affects on the porewater quality of peatlands. We hypothesized that oxygen availability will strongly influence decomposition in these systems but that this response will largely be mediated by changes in plant community and the enzymes associated with root exudates and mycorrhizae. To date, our data confirm vegetation and water table related patterns. Acetate and propionate concentrations in the sedge-dominated communities dropped significantly with depth and drainage, relative to the control and ericaceous treatments, which likely reflects

  19. Inference of allelopathy is complicated by effects of activated carbon on plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jennifer A; Puliafico, Kenneth P; Kopshever, Joseph A; Steltzer, Heidi; Jarvis, Edward P; Schwarzländer, Mark; Strauss, Sharon Y; Hufbauer, Ruth A

    2008-01-01

    Allelopathy can play an important role in structuring plant communities, but allelopathic effects are often difficult to detect because many methods used to test for allelopathy can be confounded by experimental artifacts. The use of activated carbon, a technique for neutralizing allelopathic compounds, is now employed in tests for allelopathy; however, this technique also could produce large experimental artifacts. In three independent experiments, it was shown that adding activated carbon to potting media affected nutrient availability and plant growth. For most species tested, activated carbon increased plant biomass, even in the absence of the potentially allelopathic agent. The increased growth corresponded to increased plant nitrogen content, likely resulting from greater nitrogen availability. Activated carbon also affected nitrogen and other nutrient concentrations in soil media in the absence of plants. The observed effects of activated carbon on plant growth can confound its use to test for allelopathy. The detection of allelopathy relies on the difference between plant growth in medium with carbon and that in medium without carbon in the presence of the potentially allelopathic competitor; however, this difference may be biased if activated carbon alters soil nutrient availability and plant growth even in the absence of the focal allelopathic agent.

  20. Altered stream-flow regimes and invasive plant species: The Tamarix case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, J.C.; Lite, S.J.; Marler, R.; Paradzick, C.; Shafroth, P.B.; Shorrock, D.; White, J.M.; White, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To test the hypothesis that anthropogenic alteration of stream-flow regimes is a key driver of compositional shifts from native to introduced riparian plant species. Location: The arid south-western United States; 24 river reaches in the Gila and Lower Colorado drainage basins of Arizona. Methods: We compared the abundance of three dominant woody riparian taxa (native Populus fremontii and Salix gooddingii, and introduced Tamarix) between river reaches that varied in stream-flow permanence (perennial vs. intermittent), presence or absence of an upstream flow-regulating dam, and presence or absence of municipal effluent as a stream water source. Results: Populus and Salix were the dominant pioneer trees along the reaches with perennial flow and a natural flood regime. In contrast, Tamarix had high abundance (patch area and basal area) along reaches with intermittent stream flows (caused by natural and cultural factors), as well as those with dam-regulated flows. Main conclusions: Stream-flow regimes are strong determinants of riparian vegetation structure, and hydrological alterations can drive dominance shifts to introduced species that have an adaptive suite of traits. Deep alluvial groundwater on intermittent rivers favours the deep-rooted, stress-adapted Tamarix over the shallower-rooted and more competitive Populus and Salix. On flow-regulated rivers, shifts in flood timing favour the reproductively opportunistic Tamarix over Populus and Salix, both of which have narrow germination windows. The prevailing hydrological conditions thus favour a new dominant pioneer species in the riparian corridors of the American Southwest. These results reaffirm the importance of reinstating stream-flow regimes (inclusive of groundwater flows) for re-establishing the native pioneer trees as the dominant forest type. ?? 2007 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Historical agriculture alters the effects of fire on understory plant beta diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, W Brett; Orrock, John L; Collins, Cathy D; Brudvig, Lars A; Damschen, Ellen I; Veldman, Joseph W; Walker, Joan L

    2015-02-01

    Land-use legacies are known to shape the diversity and distribution of plant communities, but we lack an understanding of whether historical land use influences community responses to contemporary disturbances. Because human-modified landscapes often bear a history of multiple land-use activities, this contingency can challenge our understanding of land-use impacts on plant diversity. We address this contingency by evaluating how beta diversity (the spatial variability of species composition), an important component of regional biodiversity, is shaped by interactions between historical agriculture and prescribed fire, two prominent disturbances that are often coincident in terrestrial ecosystems. At three study locations spanning 450 km in the southeastern United States, we surveyed longleaf pine woodland understory plant communities across 232 remnant and post-agricultural sites with differing prescribed fire regimes. Our results demonstrate that agricultural legacies are a strong predictor of beta diversity, but the direction of this land-use effect differed among the three study locations. Further, although beta diversity increased with prescribed fire frequency at each study location, this effect was influenced by agricultural land-use history, such that positive fire effects were only documented among sites that lacked a history of agriculture at two of our three study locations. Our study not only highlights the role of historical agriculture in shaping beta diversity in a fire-maintained ecosystem but also illustrates how this effect can be contingent upon fire regime and geographic location. We suggest that interactions among historical and contemporary land-use activities may help to explain dissimilarities in plant communities among sites in human-dominated landscapes.

  2. Fluorescence activated cell sorting of plant protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargmann, Bastiaan O R; Birnbaum, Kenneth D

    2010-02-18

    High-resolution, cell type-specific analysis of gene expression greatly enhances understanding of developmental regulation and responses to environmental stimuli in any multicellular organism. In situ hybridization and reporter gene visualization can to a limited extent be used to this end but for high resolution quantitative RT-PCR or high-throughput transcriptome-wide analysis the isolation of RNA from particular cell types is requisite. Cellular dissociation of tissue expressing a fluorescent protein marker in a specific cell type and subsequent Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) makes it possible to collect sufficient amounts of material for RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis/amplification and microarray analysis. An extensive set of cell type-specific fluorescent reporter lines is available to the plant research community. In this case, two marker lines of the Arabidopsis thaliana root are used: P(SCR;)::GFP (endodermis and quiescent center) and P(WOX5;)::GFP (quiescent center). Large numbers (thousands) of seedlings are grown hydroponically or on agar plates and harvested to obtain enough root material for further analysis. Cellular dissociation of plant material is achieved by enzymatic digestion of the cell wall. This procedure makes use of high osmolarity-induced plasmolysis and commercially available cellulases, pectinases and hemicellulases to release protoplasts into solution. FACS of GFP-positive cells makes use of the visualization of the green versus the red emission spectra of protoplasts excited by a 488 nm laser. GFP-positive protoplasts can be distinguished by their increased ratio of green to red emission. Protoplasts are typically sorted directly into RNA extraction buffer and stored for further processing at a later time. This technique is revealed to be straightforward and practicable. Furthermore, it is shown that it can be used without difficulty to isolate sufficient numbers of cells for transcriptome analysis, even for very scarce

  3. Chronic exposure to a neonicotinoid pesticide alters the interactions between bumblebees and wild plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Dara A; Raine, Nigel E

    2016-07-01

    Insect pollinators are essential for both the production of a large proportion of world crops and the health of natural ecosystems. As important pollinators, bumblebees must learn to forage on flowers to feed both themselves and provision their colonies.Increased use of pesticides has caused concern over sublethal effects on bees, such as impacts on reproduction or learning ability. However, little is known about how sublethal exposure to field-realistic levels of pesticide might affect the ability of bees to visit and manipulate flowers.We observed the behaviour of individual bumblebees from colonies chronically exposed to a neonicotinoid pesticide (10 ppb thiamethoxam) or control solutions foraging for the first time on an array of morphologically complex wildflowers (Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium repens) in an outdoor flight arena.We found that more bees released from pesticide-treated colonies became foragers, and that they visited more L. corniculatus flowers than controls. Interestingly, bees exposed to pesticide collected pollen more often than controls, but control bees learnt to handle flowers efficiently after fewer learning visits than bees exposed to pesticide. There were also different initial floral preferences of our treatment groups; control bees visited a higher proportion of T. repens flowers, and bees exposed to pesticide were more likely to choose L. corniculatus on their first visit.Our results suggest that the foraging behaviour of bumblebees on real flowers can be altered by sublethal exposure to field-realistic levels of pesticide. This has implications for the foraging success and persistence of bumblebee colonies, but perhaps more importantly for the interactions between wild plants and flower-visiting insects and ability of bees to deliver the crucial pollination services to plants necessary for ecosystem functioning.

  4. Low concentration of silver nanoparticles not only enhances the activity of horseradish peroxidase but alter the structure also.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Zoheb; Adnan, Rohana; Ansari, Mohd Saquib

    2012-01-01

    Chemical synthesis of Ag-NPs was carried out using reduction method. The reduction mechanistic approach of silver ions was found to be a basic clue for the formation of the Ag-NPs. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR and TEM analysis. We had designed some experiments in support of our hypothesis, "low concentrations of novel nanoparticles (silver and gold) increases the activity of plant peroxidases and alter their structure also", we had used Ag-NPs and HRP as models. The immobilization/interaction experiment had demonstrated the specific concentration range of the Ag-NPs and within this range, an increase in HRP activity was reported. At 0.08 mM concentration of Ag-NPs, 50% increase in the activity yield was found. The U.V-vis spectra had demonstrated the increase in the absorbance of HRP within the reported concentration range (0.06-0.12 mM). Above and below this concentration range there was a decrease in the activity of HRP. The results that we had found from the fluorescence spectra were also in favor of our hypothesis. There was a maximum increase in ellipticity and α-helix contents in the presence of 0.08 mM concentration of Ag-NPs, demonstrated by circular dichroism (CD) spectra. Finally, incubation of a plant peroxidase, HRP with Ag-NPs, within the reported concentration range not only enhances the activity but also alter the structure.

  5. Ultrastructural Alteration of Maize Plants Infected with the Maize Rough Dwarf Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhao-hui; GUO Xing-qi; YE Bao-hua; GUO Yan-kui

    2002-01-01

    The ultrastruetural alteration of maize plants infected with the maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) was studied with transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that aggregates of virus particles, with a diameter of 60nm, were found in the root cell, and always distributed near the vacuole membrane. However, no such particles were checked in leaf cells. Moreover, no virus was observed in choroplasts,mitochondria nuclei, plasmodesmata or intercellular canal of all kinds of infected cells of maize, either.Structures of various organelles changed in the infected leaf and root cells of maize. An inward collapse and localized splitting of the tonoplast were observed, the chloropoast structure was destroyed by MRDV, and the number of destroyed or dysplasia chloroplast in leaf cells with serious symptoms was more than that in leaves without symptoms. The matrix of mitochondria in cells infected by MRDV decreased and some of them expanded and destructed. Nuclei was abnormal and the nuclear membrane was broken, In addition, the infected cells were characterized by a voluminous cytoplasm containing hypertrophied endoplasmic reticulum, with rich ribosome content and lots of starch grain.

  6. The effect of increased temperature and altered precipitation on plants in an arid ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertin, T. M.; Reed, S.; Belnap, J.

    2011-12-01

    Projected changes in climate are expected to strongly affect arid and semi-arid landscapes where plant communities are assumed to already experience high temperatures and low water availability. Here we investigated the effect of elevated temperature and altered precipitation regimes on plant physiology, community composition, phenology and growth on the Colorado Plateau. The ecosystem is dominated by the native perennial grasses Pleuraphis jamesii and Achnatherum hymenoides and the shrub Atriplex confertifolia and has well-formed biological soil crusts. The invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum is also present. In 2005, five blocks of four 2m by 2.5m plots were established, and within each block plots were randomly assigned to ambient or elevated temperature (soil surface temperature of +2°C above ambient) and ambient or elevated precipitation (1.5 mm precipitation pulses applied three times weekly during summer) in full-factorial. In 2009 the temperature treatment was increased to +4°C. Additionally, five new blocks were established with the plots randomly assigned ambient or elevated temperature (again, +2°C was used) and ambient or elevated precipitation (summertime large bi-weekly watering to counteract negative effects the lamps may have had on soil moisture) in full-factorial. Throughout 2010 and 2011 the phenological state of the dominate plant species was recorded weekly. At the end of May 2010 and 2011 biomass accumulation, reproductive output and vegetative cover were assessed. Additionally, diurnal foliar gas exchange, foliar fluorescence and xylem pressure potential were measured on the dominant plant species three times throughout the spring and summer of 2011. Elevated temperature had no effect on carbon fixation or foliar physiology of A. confertifolia or P. jamesii, though A. hymenoides carbon fixation was negatively affected by elevated temperature with the +4°C treatment causing a greater reduction in fixation than the +2°C treatment. The

  7. Water mediated alterations in gravity signal transform phytofilertation capability in hydroponic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogranjan; Singh Marabi, Rakesh; Satpute, Gyanesh Kumar; Mishra, Stuti

    2012-07-01

    An exorbitant sum of different synthetic molecules of chemicals including dyes and pigments are discharged into the environment, mainly via industrial effluents every year worldwide. The physical-chemical treatments for remediation viz adsorption, precipitation, ion exchange or filtration have proved to be disadvantageous because of high cost, low efficiency and inapplicability to a wide variety of dyes, or the formation of by-products and thereby creating waste disposal problems. Similarly the limited ability of micro-organisms to degrade xenobiotic especially sulphonoaromatic compounds, limits the efficiency and, therefore, the use of conventional wastewater treatment plants. In this context, the development of alternative biological treatments to eliminate these pollutants from industrial effluents is an important requirement. Plant metabolism, is extremely diverse and can be exploited to treat recalcitrant pollutants, not degradable by bacteria or fungi and can act as an important global sink for environmental pollutants. The presence of putative metabolites, in leaves of hydrophytes has been observed, indicating the transformation of several xenobiotics. A diverse range of the enzymes involved in the early stages of the detoxification process are closely associated with the redox biochemistry of the cell. The activities of enzymes such as glutathione transferases, peroxidases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and its multigenic family have implications with respect to the maintenance of redox homeostasis. Besides activating xenobiotics, cytochromes P450 is involved vitally in cell signaling for counteracting buoyant balance. Signal transduction cascades, including the role of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in responding to gravitational cues, appear to be affected by buoyancy as well. Gravitropism is the orientation of growth in response to gravity and involves the perception of the gravitational force in the columella cells of the root cap where the primary

  8. Amygdala kindling alters protein kinase C activity in dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S J; Desai, M A; Klann, E; Winder, D G; Sweatt, J D; Conn, P J

    1992-11-01

    Kindling is a use-dependent form of synaptic plasticity and a widely used model of epilepsy. Although kindling has been widely studied, the molecular mechanisms underlying induction of this phenomenon are not well understood. We determined the effect of amygdala kindling on protein kinase C (PKC) activity in various regions of rat brain. Kindling stimulation markedly elevated basal (Ca(2+)-independent) and Ca(2+)-stimulated phosphorylation of an endogenous PKC substrate (which we have termed P17) in homogenates of dentate gyrus, assayed 2 h after kindling stimulation. The increase in P17 phosphorylation appeared to be due at least in part to persistent PKC activation, as basal PKC activity assayed in vitro using an exogenous peptide substrate was increased in kindled dentate gyrus 2 h after the last kindling stimulation. A similar increase in basal PKC activity was observed in dentate gyrus 2 h after the first kindling stimulation. These results document a kindling-associated persistent PKC activation and suggest that the increased activity of PKC could play a role in the induction of the kindling effect.

  9. Cytotoxic activity of four Mexican medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Avila, Elisa; Espejo-Serna, Adolfo; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco; Velasco-Lezama, Rodolfo

    2009-01-01

    Ibervillea sonorae Greene, Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché, Tagetes lucida Cav and Justicia spicigera Scheltdd are Mexican native plants used in the treatment of different illnesses. The ethanolic extract of J. spicigera and T. lucida as well as aqueous extracts from I. sonorae, C. ficifolia, T. lucida and J. spicigera were investigated using sulforhodamine B assay. These extracts were assessed using two cell line: T47D (Human Breast cancer) and HeLa (Human cervix cancer). Colchicine was used as the positive control. Data are presented as the dose that inhibited 50% control growth (ED50). All of the assessed extracts were cytotoxic (ED50 < 20 microg/ml) against T47D cell line, meanwhile only the aqueous extract from T. lucida and the ethanolic extract from J. spicigera were cytotoxic to HeLa cell line. Ethanolic extract from J. spicigera presented the best cytotoxic effect. The cytotoxic activity of J. spicigera correlated with one of the popular uses, the treatment of cancer.

  10. Altered Error-Related Activity in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Kathrin; Wagner, Gerd; Schultz, Christoph; Schachtzabel, Claudia; Nenadic, Igor; Axer, Martina; Reichenbach, Jurgen R.; Sauer, Heinrich; Schlosser, Ralf G. M.

    2009-01-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) and executive cognitive control are core features of schizophrenia. However, findings regarding functional activation strengths are heterogeneous, partly due to differences in task demands and behavioral performance. Previous investigators proposed integrating these heterogeneous findings into a comprehensive model…

  11. Repression and activation by multiprotein complexes that alter chromatin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, R E; Bunker, C A; Imbalzano, A N

    1996-04-15

    Recent studies have provided strong evidence that macromolecular complexes are used in the cell to remodel chromatin structure during activation and to create an inaccessible structure during repression, Although there is not yet any rigorous demonstration that modification of chromatin structure plays a direct, causal role in either activation or repression, there is sufficient smoke to indicate the presence of a blazing inferno nearby. It is clear that complexes that remodel chromatin are tractable in vitro; hopefully this will allow the establishment of systems that provide a direct analysis of the role that remodeling might play in activation. These studies indicate that establishment of functional systems to corroborate the elegant genetic studies on repression might also be tractable. As the mechanistic effects of these complexes are sorted out, it will become important to understand how the complexes are regulated. In many of the instances discussed above, the genes whose products make up these complexes were identified in genetic screens for effects on developmental processes. This implies a regulation of the activity of these complexes in response to developmental cues and further implies that the work to fully understand these complexes will occupy a generation of scientists.

  12. Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Alter Cathepsin Activity In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speshock Janice

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanomaterials are being incorporated into many biological applications for use as therapeutics, sensors, or labels. Silver nanomaterials are being utilized for biological implants and wound dressings as an antiviral material, whereas gold nanomaterials are being used as biological labels or sensors due to their surface properties and biocompatibility. Cytotoxicity data of these materials are becoming more prevalent; however, little research has been performed to understand how the introduction of these materials into cells affects cellular processes. Here, we demonstrate the impact that silver and gold nanoparticles have on cathepsin activity in vitro. Cathepsins are important cellular proteases that are imperative for proper immune system function. We have selected to examine gold and silver nanoparticles due to the increased use of these materials in biological applications. This manuscript depicts how both of these types of nanomaterials affect cathepsin activity, which could impact the host's immune system and its ability to respond to pathogens. Cathepsin B activity decreases in a dose-dependent manner with all nanoparticles tested. Alternatively, the impact of nanoparticles on cathepsin L activity depends greatly on the type and size of the material.

  13. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of some Mexican medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bustos, E; Velazquez, C; Garibay-Escobar, A; García, Z; Plascencia-Jatomea, M; Cortez-Rocha, M O; Hernandez-Martínez, J; Robles-Zepeda, R E

    2009-12-01

    In Mexico about 4,000 plant species have some medicinal use. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of six Mexican medicinal plants against fungi and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methanolic extracts were prepared from the Mexican medicinal plants Amphypteringium adstrigens, Castella tortuosa, Coutarea latiflora, Ibervillea sonorae, Jatropha cuneata, and Selaginella lepidophylla. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the plants were determined by the broth microdilution method and the radial growth inhibition assay, respectively. All Mexican plants tested showed antimicrobial activity. Among the six plant extracts analyzed, J. cuneata showed the highest growth-inhibitory activity against fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (J. cuneata > A. adstrigens > C. latiflora > C. tortuosa > I. sonorae approximately S. lepidophylla). Shigella flexneri and Staphylococcus aureus were the most susceptible bacteria to plant extracts. Complete inhibition of S. flexneri growth was observed with J. cuneata methanolic extract at 90 microg/mL. This plant extract also showed the strongest antifungal activity against Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus niger. Our data suggest that the medicinal plants tested have important antimicrobial properties. This is the first report describing the antimicrobial activities of several of the Mexican medicinal plants used in this study.

  14. Long term effects on petrochemical activated sludge on plants and soil. Plant growth and metal absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, M.J.; Gianello, C. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Ribas, P.I.F.; Carvalho, E.B. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petroquimico do Sul. Dept. de Operacao e Manutencao

    1993-12-31

    An experiment to study the effects of several application rates of excess activated sludge on plants, soil and leached water was started in 1985. Sludge was applied for six years and increased plant growth due to its nitrogen and phosphorous contribution, even though the decomposition rate in soil is low. Plant zinc, cadmium and nickel content increased with sludge application, while liming decreased the amounts of these metals taken up by plants. 9 refs., 8 tabs.

  15. Cell cycle activation by plant parasitic nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverse, A.; Almeida Engler, de J.; Verhees, J.; Krol, van der S.; Helder, J.; Gheysen, G.

    2000-01-01

    Sedentary nematodes are important pests of crop plants. They are biotrophic parasites that can induce the (re)differentiation of either differentiated or undifferentiated plant cells into specialized feeding cells. This (re)differentiation includes the reactivation of the cell cycle in specific plan

  16. ALTERED ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF LYSOZYMES BOUND TO VARIOUSLY SULFATED CHITOSANS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-wei Wang; Lin Yuan; Tie-liang Zhao; He Huang; Hong Chen; Di Wu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of the variously sulfated chitosans on lysozyme activity and structure.It was shown that the specific enzymatic activity of lysozyme remained almost similar to the native protein after being bound to 6-O-sulfated chitosan (6S-chitosan) and 3,6-O-sulfated chitosan (3,6S-chitosan),but decreased greatly after being bound to 2-N-6-O-sulfated chitosan (2,6S-chitosan).Meanwhile,among these sulfated chitosans,2,6S-chitosan induced the greatest conformational change in lysozyme as indicated by the fluorescence spectra.These findings demonstrated that when sulfated chitosans of different structures bind to lysozyme,lysozyme undergoes conformational change of different magnitudes,which results in corresponding levels of lysozyme activity.Further study on the interaction of sulfated chitosans with lysozyme by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) suggested that their affinities might be determined by their molecular structures.

  17. BACE1 deficiency causes altered neuronal activity and neurodegeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xiangyou; Zhou, Xiangdong; He, Wanxia; Yang, Jun; Xiong, Wenchen; Wong, Philip; Wilson, Christopher G.; Yan, Riqiang

    2010-01-01

    BACE1 is required for the release of β–amyloid (Aβ) in vivo, and inhibition of BACE1 activity is targeted for reducing Aβ generation in Alzheimer's patients. In order to further our understanding of the safe use of BACE1 inhibitors in human patients, we aimed to study the physiological functions of BACE1 by characterizing BACE1–null mice. Here we report the finding of spontaneous behavioral seizures in BACE1–null mice. Electroencephalographic recordings revealed abnormal spike-wave discharges...

  18. Altered Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Vávrová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, an increase of oxidative stress could play an important role which is closely linked with insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and chronic inflammation. The aim of our study was to assess several parameters of the antioxidant status in MetS. Methods: 40 subjects with MetS and 40 age- and sex-matched volunteers without MetS were examined for activities of superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1, glutathione reductase (GR, paraoxonase1 (PON1, concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH, and conjugated dienes in low-density lipoprotein (CD-LDL. Results: Subjects with MetS had higher activities of CuZnSOD (p Conclusions: Our results implicated an increased oxidative stress in MetS and a decreased antioxidative defense that correlated with some laboratory (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and clinical (waist circumference, blood pressure components of MetS.

  19. Alterations in electrodermal activity and cardiac parasympathetic tone during hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekecs, Zoltán; Szekely, Anna; Varga, Katalin

    2016-02-01

    Exploring autonomic nervous system (ANS) changes during hypnosis is critical for understanding the nature and extent of the hypnotic phenomenon and for identifying the mechanisms underlying the effects of hypnosis in different medical conditions. To assess ANS changes during hypnosis, electrodermal activity and pulse rate variability (PRV) were measured in 121 young adults. Participants either received hypnotic induction (hypnosis condition) or listened to music (control condition), and both groups were exposed to test suggestions. Blocks of silence and experimental sound stimuli were presented at baseline, after induction, and after de-induction. Skin conductance level (SCL) and high frequency (HF) power of PRV measured at each phase were compared between groups. Hypnosis decreased SCL compared to the control condition; however, there were no group differences in HF power. Furthermore, hypnotic suggestibility did not moderate ANS changes in the hypnosis group. These findings indicate that hypnosis reduces tonic sympathetic nervous system activity, which might explain why hypnosis is effective in the treatment of disorders with strong sympathetic nervous system involvement, such as rheumatoid arthritis, hot flashes, hypertension, and chronic pain. Further studies with different control conditions are required to examine the specificity of the sympathetic effects of hypnosis.

  20. [Methods of hygromycin B phosphotransferase activity assay in transgenic plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Qin; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2004-07-01

    Hygromycin B phosphotransferase (HPT) is a widely used selectable marker protein of transgenic plant. Detection of its activity is critical to studies on the development of various transgenic plants, silence of inserted gene, marker-free system development and safety assessment of transgenic food. In this paper, several methods for detecting the activity of this enzyme were reviewed.

  1. Native New Zealand plants with inhibitory activity towards Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swift Simon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants have long been investigated as a source of antibiotics and other bioactives for the treatment of human disease. New Zealand contains a diverse and unique flora, however, few of its endemic plants have been used to treat tuberculosis. One plant, Laurelia novae-zelandiae, was reportedly used by indigenous Maori for the treatment of tubercular lesions. Methods Laurelia novae-zelandiae and 44 other native plants were tested for direct anti-bacterial activity. Plants were extracted with different solvents and extracts screened for inhibition of the surrogate species, Mycobacterium smegmatis. Active plant samples were then tested for bacteriostatic activity towards M. tuberculosis and other clinically-important species. Results Extracts of six native plants were active against M. smegmatis. Many of these were also inhibitory towards M. tuberculosis including Laurelia novae-zelandiae (Pukatea. M. excelsa (Pohutukawa was the only plant extract tested that was active against Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions Our data provide support for the traditional use of Pukatea in treating tuberculosis. In addition, our analyses indicate that other native plant species possess antibiotic activity.

  2. Short-term parasite-infection alters already the biomass, activity and functional diversity of soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Min; Jin, Ze-Xin; Hagedorn, Frank; Li, Mai-He

    2014-11-04

    Native parasitic plants may be used to infect and control invasive plants. We established microcosms with invasive Mikania micrantha and native Coix lacryma-jobi growing in mixture on native soils, with M. micrantha being infected by parasitic Cuscuta campestris at four intensity levels for seven weeks to estimate the top-down effects of plant parasitism on the biomass and functional diversity of soil microbial communities. Parasitism significantly decreased root biomass and altered soil microbial communities. Soil microbial biomass decreased, but soil respiration increased at the two higher infection levels, indicating a strong stimulation of soil microbial metabolic activity (+180%). Moreover, a Biolog assay showed that the infection resulted in a significant change in the functional diversity indices of soil microbial communities. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that microbial biomass declined significantly with decreasing root biomass, particularly of the invasive M. micrantha. Also, the functional diversity indices of soil microbial communities were positively correlated with soil microbial biomass. Therefore, the negative effects on the biomass, activity and functional diversity of soil microbial community by the seven week long plant parasitism was very likely caused by decreased root biomass and root exudation of the invasive M. micrantha.

  3. Biological activity of some Patagonian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadra, Pedro; Furrianca, María; Oyarzún, Alejandra; Yáñez, Erwin; Gallardo, Amalia; Fajardo, Víctor

    2005-12-01

    Citotoxicity (inhibition of cell division in fertilized eggs of Loxechinus albus) and general toxicity (using embryos of Artemia salina) of plants belonging to the genera Senecio, Deschampsia, Alstroemeria, Anarthrophyllum, Chloraea and Geranium were investigated.

  4. 4-Methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate (Erucin) from rocket plant dichotomously affects the activity of human immunocompetent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gründemann, Carsten; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Lamy, Evelyn; Hanschen, Franziska S; Huber, Roman

    2015-03-15

    Isothiocyanates (ITC) from the Brassicaceae plant family are regarded as promising for prevention and treatment of cancer. However, experimental settings consider their therapeutic action without taking into account the risk of unwanted effects on healthy tissues. In the present study we investigated the effects of Eruca sativa seed extract containing MTBITC (Erucin) and pure Erucin from rocket plant on healthy cells of the human immune system in vitro. Hereby, high doses of the plant extract as well as of Erucin inhibited cell viability of human lymphocytes via induction of apoptosis to comparable amounts. Non-toxic low concentrations of the plant extract and pure Erucin altered the expression of the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor but did not affect further T cell activation, proliferation and the release of the effector molecules interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-2 of T-lymphocytes. However, the activity of NK-cells was significantly reduced by non-toxic concentrations of the plant extract and pure Erucin. These results indicate that the plant extract and pure Erucin interfere with the function of human T lymphocytes and decreases the activity of NK-cells in comparable concentrations. Long-term clinical studies with ITC-enriched plant extracts from Brassicaceae should take this into account.

  5. Altered behavior in spotted hyenas associated with increased human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydston, Erin E.; Kapheim, Karen M.; Watts, Heather E.; Szykman, Micaela; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate how anthropogenic activity might affect large carnivores, we studied the behaviour of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) during two time periods. From 1996 to 1998, we documented the ecological correlates of space utilization patterns exhibited by adult female hyenas defending a territory at the edge of a wildlife reserve in Kenya. Hyenas preferred areas near dense vegetation but appeared to avoid areas containing the greatest abundance of prey, perhaps because these were also the areas of most intensive livestock grazing. We then compared hyena behaviour observed in 1996–98 with that observed several years earlier and found many differences. Female hyenas in 1996–98 were found farther from dens, but closer to dense vegetation and to the edges of their territory, than in 1988–90. Recent females also had larger home ranges, travelled farther between consecutive sightings, and were more nocturnal than in 1988–90. Finally, hyenas occurred in smaller groups in 1996–98 than in 1988–90. We also found several changes in hyena demography between periods. We next attempted to explain differences observed between time periods by testing predictions of hypotheses invoking prey abundance, climate, interactions with lions, tourism and livestock grazing. Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that increased reliance on the reserve for livestock grazing was responsible for observed changes. That behavioural changes were not associated with decreased hyena population density suggests the behavioural plasticity typical of this species may protect it from extinction.

  6. Varying responses of insect herbivores to altered plant chemistry under organic and conventional treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Joanna T; Stewart-Jones, Alex; Pope, Tom W; Wright, Denis J; Leather, Simon R; Hadley, Paul; Rossiter, John T; van Emden, Helmut F; Poppy, Guy M

    2010-03-07

    The hypothesis that plants supplied with organic fertilizers are better defended against insect herbivores than those supplied with synthetic fertilizers was tested over two field seasons. Organic and synthetic fertilizer treatments at two nitrogen concentrations were supplied to Brassica plants, and their effects on the abundance of herbivore species and plant chemistry were assessed. The organic treatments also differed in fertilizer type: a green manure was used for the low-nitrogen treatment, while the high-nitrogen treatment contained green and animal manures. Two aphid species showed different responses to fertilizers: the Brassica specialist Brevicoryne brassicae was more abundant on organically fertilized plants, while the generalist Myzus persicae had higher populations on synthetically fertilized plants. The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (a crucifer specialist) was more abundant on synthetically fertilized plants and preferred to oviposit on these plants. Glucosinolate concentrations were up to three times greater on plants grown in the organic treatments, while foliar nitrogen was maximized on plants under the higher of the synthetic fertilizer treatments. The varying response of herbivore species to these strong differences in plant chemistry demonstrates that hypotheses on defence in organically grown crops have over-simplified the response of phytophagous insects.

  7. Root exudate-induced alterations in Bacillus cereus cell wall contribute to root colonization and plant growth promotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnalee Dutta

    Full Text Available The outcome of an interaction between plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and plants may depend on the chemical composition of root exudates (REs. We report the colonization of tobacco, and not groundnut, roots by a non-rhizospheric Bacillus cereus (MTCC 430. There was a differential alteration in the cell wall components of B. cereus in response to the REs from tobacco and groundnut. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy revealed a split in amide I region of B. cereus cells exposed to tobacco-root exudates (TRE, compared to those exposed to groundnut-root exudates (GRE. In addition, changes in exopolysaccharides and lipid-packing were observed in B. cereus grown in TRE-amended minimal media that were not detectable in GRE-amended media. Cell-wall proteome analyses revealed upregulation of oxidative stress-related alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, and DNA-protecting protein chain (Dlp-2, in response to GRE and TRE, respectively. Metabolism-related enzymes like 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase and 2-methylcitrate dehydratase and a 60 kDa chaperonin were up-regulated in response to TRE and GRE. In response to B. cereus, the plant roots altered their exudate-chemodiversity with respect to carbohydrates, organic acids, alkanes, and polyols. TRE-induced changes in surface components of B. cereus may contribute to successful root colonization and subsequent plant growth promotion.

  8. ALTERATIONS IN CALCIUM ION ACTIVITY BY ELF AND RF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterations in calcium ion activity by ELF and RF electromagnetic fieldsIntroductionCalcium ions play many important roles in biological systems. For example, calcium ion activity can be used as an indicator of second-messenger signal-transduction processe...

  9. Transgenic tobacco revealing altered bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere during early plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreote, Fernando D; Mendes, Rodrigo; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Rossetto, Priscilla B; Labate, Carlos A; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline A; van Elsas, Jan Dirck; Azevedo, João L; Araújo, Welington L

    2008-05-01

    The rhizosphere constitutes a complex niche that may be exploited by a wide variety of bacteria. Bacterium-plant interactions in this niche can be influenced by factors such as the expression of heterologous genes in the plant. The objective of this work was to describe the bacterial communities associated with the rhizosphere and rhizoplane regions of tobacco plants, and to compare communities from transgenic tobacco lines (CAB1, CAB2 and TRP) with those found in wild-type (WT) plants. Samples were collected at two stages of plant development, the vegetative and flowering stages (1 and 3 months after germination). The diversity of the culturable microbial community was assessed by isolation and further characterization of isolates by amplified ribosomal RNA gene restriction analysis (ARDRA) and 16S rRNA sequencing. These analyses revealed the presence of fairly common rhizosphere organisms with the main groups Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacilli. Analysis of the total bacterial communities using PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) revealed that shifts in bacterial communities occurred during early plant development, but the reestablishment of original community structure was observed over time. The effects were smaller in rhizosphere than in rhizoplane samples, where selection of specific bacterial groups by the different plant lines was demonstrated. Clustering patterns and principal components analysis (PCA) were used to distinguish the plant lines according to the fingerprint of their associated bacterial communities. Bands differentially detected in plant lines were found to be affiliated with the genera Pantoea, Bacillus and Burkholderia in WT, CAB and TRP plants, respectively. The data revealed that, although rhizosphere/rhizoplane microbial communities can be affected by the cultivation of transgenic plants, soil resilience may be able to restore the original bacterial diversity after one cycle of plant

  10. Antiinflammatory activity of whole plant of Sonerila tinnnevelliensis Fischer (Melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Mohan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Sonerila tennevelliensis whole plant was extracted with ethanol and evaluated for antiinflammatory activity in rats using a carrageenan induced paw edema method. Ethanol extract exhibits potent antiinflammatory activity at 500mg/kg at 3hr administration. The study was compared with standard drug indomethacin (10mg/kg. Observed pharmacological activity in the present study provides scientific validation of ethnomedical uses of this plant in treating acute inflammation.

  11. Indirect effects of biocontrol of an invasive riparian plant (Tamarix) alters habitat and reduces herpetofauna abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, H.L.; Merritt, D.M.; Glenn, E.P.; Nagler, P.L.

    2014-01-01

    The biological control agent (tamarisk leaf beetle, Diorhabda spp.) is actively being used to defoliate exotic saltcedar or tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in riparian ecosystems in western USA. The Virgin River in Arizona and Nevada is a system where tamarisk leaf beetle populations are spreading. Saltcedar biocontrol, like other control methods, has the potential to affect non-target species. Because amphibians and reptiles respond to vegetation changes in habitat and forage in areas where beetles are active, herpetofauna are model taxa to investigate potential impacts of biocontrol defoliation. Our objectives related herpetofauna abundance to vegetation cover and indices (normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI; enhanced vegetation index, EVI) and timing of biocontrol defoliation. We captured herpetofauna and ground-dwelling arthropods in trap arrays and measured vegetation using remotely sensed images and on-the-ground measurements at 16–21 sites 2 years before (2009–2010) and 2 years following (2011–2012) biocontrol defoliation. Following defoliation, riparian stands (including stands mixed with native and exotic trees and stands of monotypic exotic saltcedar) had significantly lower NDVI and EVI values and fewer captures of marked lizards. Total captures of herpetofauna (toads, lizards, and snakes) were related to higher vegetation cover and sites with a lower proportion of saltcedar. Our results suggest that effects of biocontrol defoliation are likely to be site-specific and depend upon the proportion of native riparian trees established prior to biocontrol introduction and defoliation. The mechanisms by which habitat structure, microclimate, and ultimately vertebrate species are affected by exotic plant biocontrol riparian areas should be a focus of natural-resource managers.

  12. How does altered precipitation and annual grass invasion affect plant N uptake in a native semi-arid shrub community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, M.; Lipson, D.; Cleland, E. E.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is expected to alter precipitation patterns, which will change the timing and amount of plant resources. Precipitation patterns determine water and nitrogen (N) availability, because water stimulates microbial N turnover and N transport. In order for plants to utilize water and N, they must coincide with the phenology and meet physiological requirements of the plant. As resource supply shifts, differences in species' ability to acquire resources will affect plant community composition. Semiarid ecosystems, such as shrublands in Southern California, are particularly sensitive to shifts in precipitation because they are severely water limited. This study takes advantage of the altered phenology and resource demands presented by invasive annual grasses in a native semiarid shrubland. The goal is to understand how altered precipitation patterns affect plant N uptake. Rainfall levels were manipulated to 50% and 150% of ambient levels. It is expected that higher rainfall levels promote annual grass invasion because grasses have higher water and N requirements and begin to grow earlier in the season than shrubs. A 15N tracer was added with the first rain event and plant samples were collected regularly to track the movement of N into the plants. Net soil N accumulation was determined using resin bags. Invasive grasses altered the timing and amount of N uptake but amount of rainfall had less effect on N distribution. 15N was detected sooner and at higher level in grasses than shrubs. 24hours after the first rain event 15N was detectable in grasses, 15N accumulated rapidly and peaked 2 months earlier than shrubs. Shrub 15N levels remained at pre-rain event levels for the first 2 months and began to increase at the beginning of spring, peak mid-spring and decline as the shrubs entered summer dormancy. One year later 15N levels in annual grass litter remained high, while 15N levels in shrubs returned to initial background levels as a result of resorption. 15N

  13. Alterations in some oxidative parameters in susceptible and resistant wheat plants infected with Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Sergei; Miteva, Lyuba; Alexieva, Vera; Karjin, Hristo; Karanov, Emanuil

    2005-03-01

    We studied the systemic effects after infection of susceptible and resistant (expressing HSR) wheat plants with leaf rust (Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici) on the amount of hydrogen peroxide and activity of some ROS scavenging enzymes. Measurements were performed 7 and 21 days after inoculation. In susceptible cultivar (Sadovo 1), an inhibition of activity of catatase and GST was found. By contrast, in resistant cultivar (Kristal), the infection caused an activation of these enzymes. Moreover, it was established that cv. Kristal plants possess constitutive higher levels of hydrogen peroxide, as well as higher superoxide dismutase activity.

  14. Wastewater treatment plant effluent alters pituitary gland gonadotropin mRNA levels in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Louisa B; Schultz, Irvin R; da Silva, Denis A M; Ylitalo, Gina M; Ragsdale, Dave; Harris, Stephanie I; Bailey, Stephanie; Pepich, Barry V; Swanson, Penny

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) present in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents interfere with reproduction in fish, including altered gonad development and induction of vitellogenin (Vtg), a female-specific egg yolk protein precursor produced in the liver. As a result, studies have focused on the effects of EDC exposure on the gonad and liver. However, impacts of environmental EDC exposure at higher levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis are less well understood. The pituitary gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh) are involved in all aspects of gonad development and are subject to feedback from gonadal steroids making them a likely target of endocrine disruption. In this study, the effects of WWTP effluent exposure on pituitary gonadotropin mRNA expression were investigated to assess the utility of Lh beta-subunit (lhb) as a biomarker of estrogen exposure in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). First, a controlled 72-h exposure to 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and 17β-trenbolone (TREN) was performed to evaluate the response of juvenile coho salmon to EDC exposure. Second, juvenile coho salmon were exposed to 0, 20 or 100% effluent from eight WWTPs from the Puget Sound, WA region for 72h. Juvenile coho salmon exposed to 2 and 10ng EE2L(-1) had 17-fold and 215-fold higher lhb mRNA levels relative to control fish. Hepatic vtg mRNA levels were dramatically increased 6670-fold, but only in response to 10ng EE2L(-1) and Fsh beta-subunit (fshb) mRNA levels were not altered by any of the treatments. In the WWTP effluent exposures, lhb mRNA levels were significantly elevated in fish exposed to five of the WWTP effluents. In contrast, transcript levels of vtg were not affected by any of the WWTP effluent exposures. Mean levels of natural and synthetic estrogens in fish bile were consistent with pituitary lhb expression, suggesting that the observed lhb induction may be due to

  15. Determination Of Antioxidant Activities In Freshliver (Salvia Officinalis) Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Arıduru, Rana; Arabacı, Gülnur

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we determined the antioxidant activities of four different solvent fractions (ethanol, methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate) obtained from Freshliver plant leaves (Salvia officinalis) by employing two different assays such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocaltaeu method. The results showed that ethanolextract of freshliver plant exhibited the highest total phenolic contents (43.55 mg GAE/g extract), followed by methanol-extract of freshliver plant (23...

  16. Host plants indirectly influence plant virus transmission by altering gut cysteine protease activity of aphid vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luteoviridae), transmitted exclusively by aphids in a circulative manner. PLRV transmission efficiency was significantly reduced when a clonal lineage of M. persicae was reared on turnip as compared to the weed physalis, a transient effect caused by a host-switch response. A trend of higher PLRV tit...

  17. Transgenic tobacco revealing altered bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere during early plant development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreote, Fernando D.; Mendes, Rodrigo; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Rossetto, Priscilla B.; Labate, Carlos A.; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline A.; van Elsas, Jan Dirck; Azevedo, Joao L.; Araujo, Welington L.

    2008-01-01

    The rhizosphere constitutes a complex niche that may be exploited by a wide variety of bacteria. Bacterium-plant interactions in this niche can be influenced by factors such as the expression of heterologous genes in the plant. The objective of this work was to describe the bacterial communities ass

  18. Phytoplasmal infection derails genetically preprogrammed meristem fate and alters plant architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the life cycle of higher plants, it is the fate of meristem cells that determines the pattern of growth and development, and therefore plant morphotype and fertility. Floral transition, the turning point from vegetative growth to reproductive development, is achieved via genetically-programmed s...

  19. Spectral quality may be used to alter plant disease development in CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Brown, C. S.

    1994-11-01

    Plants were grown under light emitting diode (LED) arrays with different spectral qualities to determine the effects of light on the development of tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) in peppers and powdery mildew on cucumbers. One LED array supplied 100% of the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) at 660 nm, a second array supplied 90% of the PPF at 660 nm and 10% at 735 nm, and a third array supplied 98% of the PPF at 660 nm with 2% in the blue region (380-500 nm) supplied by blue fluorescent lamps. Control plants were grown under metal halide (MH) lamps. Pepper plants inoculated with ToMV and grown under 660 and 660/735 LED arrays showed marked increases in both the rate and the severity of symptoms as compared to inoculated plants grown under the MH lamp or 660/blue array. Pepper plants grown under the 660/blue array did not develop symptoms as rapidly as inoculated plants grown under the 660 or 660/735 arrays, but they did develop symptoms faster than inoculated plants grown under the MH lamp. The numbers of colonies of powdery mildew per leaf and the size of each colony were greatest on inoculated cucumber plants grown under the MH lamp.

  20. Altered sensorimotor activation patterns in idiopathic dystonia-an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Annemette; Herz, Damian M; Haagensen, Brian N;

    2016-01-01

    . Further, study size was usually small including different types of dystonia. Here we performed an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies in patients with primary dystonia to test for convergence of dystonia-related alterations in task-related activity....... Hum Brain Mapp 37:547-557, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  1. Anti-inflamatory activity of some Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenmozhi, V; Elango, V; Sadique, J

    1989-01-01

    The anti-inflamatory activity of some of the medicinal plants were assayed at a dose of 1000 mg/kg b.wt. in male albino rats using Carrageenin induced rat raw edema. Among the fifteen medicinal plants were found to be highly effective which are discussed in this paper.

  2. Fate of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in activated sludge plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmink, B.G.; Klapwijk, A.

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring data were collected in a pilot-scale municipal activated sludge plant to assess the fate of the C12-homologue of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS-C12). The pilot-plant was operated at influent LAS-C12 concentrations between 2 and 12 mg/l and at sludge retention times of 10 and 27 days<

  3. Plant Temperature for Sterile Alteration of a Temperature-Sensitive Genic Male Sterile Rice, Peiai64S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The forecast of sterile alteration for the temperature-sensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) line in two-line hybrid rice seed production was traditionally based on screen temperature determined by weather station. The article put forward a new approach based on plant temperature, which was more exact and direct than the traditional method. The result of the simulation of the self-seeded setting rate of a widely used TGMS line, Peiai64S, by several temperature parameters and durations, showed that the fertility was directly affected by the plant temperature at a height of 20 cm or the air temperature around it in three days duration. Using the stem temperature of three days at a height of 20 cm as the simulation parameter,the fertility of Peiai64S had the maximum, minimum and optimum temperatures as 22.8, 21.7 and 22.5℃, respectively,whereas 23.2, 21.5 and 21.8℃ when using the air temperature of three days around the height of 20 cm as the parameter.Such temperature indices can be used to conclude the sterile alteration of TGMS for safeguarding seed production of twoline hybrid rice. The article also established a statistic model to conclude plant temperature by water temperatures at inflow and outflow, and air temperature and cloudage from weather station.

  4. Alter ego representations in San Agustin monolithic sculptures: possible plant hallucinogenic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rios, Marlene Dobkin

    2009-12-01

    This article examines the evidence for plant hallucinogenic use (possibly Brugmansia, Brunfelsia chiricaspi, Desfontainia R., Anadenanthera peregrina, Banisteriopsis sps, Psychotropia viridis and Virola theidora) by the San Agustin culture, an extinct peoples who resided in the Magdelena River area of Colombia from the third century B.C. until the sixteenth century A.D. Based on thematic materials gathered from a cross-cultural survey of plant hallucinogens, the author examines themes in the monolithic sculptures of this culture in light of man-animal transformations and shamanic themes linked to plant hallucinogenic ingestion.

  5. ALTERATIONS TO PLBS AND PLANTLETS OF HYBRID CYMBIDIUM (ORCHIDACEAE IN RESPONSE TO PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A previous study examined, in detail, the morphological response of hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon ‘Day Light’ protocorm-like bodies (PLBs to 26 plant growth regulators (PGRs. In this study, flow cytometric analyses of the PLBs derived from several of these PGR treatments revealed changes in the ploidy of PLBs while the ploidy of plant leaves remained constant. The SPAD value of leaves of plants derived from PGR treatments changed significantly. The choice of PGR must be accompanied by careful scrutiny of the possible resulting changes to morphology and physiological parameters.

  6. Drought and root herbivory interact to alter the response of above-ground parasitoids to aphid infested plants and associated plant volatile signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tariq

    Full Text Available Multitrophic interactions are likely to be altered by climate change but there is little empirical evidence relating the responses of herbivores and parasitoids to abiotic factors. Here we investigated the effects of drought on an above/below-ground system comprising a generalist and a specialist aphid species (foliar herbivores, their parasitoids, and a dipteran species (root herbivore.We tested the hypotheses that: (1 high levels of drought stress and below-ground herbivory interact to reduce the performance of parasitoids developing in aphids; (2 drought stress and root herbivory change the profile of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs emitted by the host plant; (3 parasitoids avoid ovipositing in aphids feeding on plants under drought stress and root herbivory. We examined the effect of drought, with and without root herbivory, on the olfactory response of parasitoids (preference, plant volatile emissions, parasitism success (performance, and the effect of drought on root herbivory. Under drought, percentage parasitism of aphids was reduced by about 40-55% compared with well watered plants. There was a significant interaction between drought and root herbivory on the efficacy of the two parasitoid species, drought stress partially reversing the negative effect of root herbivory on percent parasitism. In the absence of drought, root herbivory significantly reduced the performance (e.g. fecundity of both parasitoid species developing in foliar herbivores. Plant emissions of VOCs were reduced by drought and root herbivores, and in olfactometer experiments parasitoids preferred the odour from well-watered plants compared with other treatments. The present work demonstrates that drought stress can change the outcome of interactions between herbivores feeding above- and below-ground and their parasitoids, mediated by changes in the chemical signals from plants to parasitoids. This provides a new insight into how the structure of terrestrial

  7. Active Mines and Mineral Plants in the US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mine plants and operations for commodities monitored by the Minerals Information Team of the USGS. Operations included are those considered active in 2003 and...

  8. The Medicinal Plant of Mimusops Elengi (Sapodaceae in Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannadhasan M.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The selected study area for this study is Pachaimalai Hills, situated in Eastern ghats of Tamil Nadu. This study was focussed on the antimicrobial activity of Mimosopselengi, one of the medicinal plant belongs to the family sapotaceae. It is a tropically distributed the highly medicinal plant. Antimicrobial activities and extracts of petroleum ether, Ethyl acetate and methanol were also found to be better with respect to inhibitory function against the two fungal species, Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus flavus. The study scientifically validates the use of plant in traditional and ethno medicine. Three solvents such as Petroleum ether, Ethyl acetate and Ethanol were used to take plant extract. These extracts were studied for antimicrobial activity against two gram positive bacterial strains such as Bacillus substilis andBacillus thuriengensis and two gram negative bacterial strains such as Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli. This study also extended to find antifungal activity against four fungal strains.

  9. Influenza matrix protein 2 alters CFTR expression and function through its ion channel activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londino, James D; Lazrak, Ahmed; Jurkuvenaite, Asta; Collawn, James F; Noah, James W; Matalon, Sadis

    2013-05-01

    The human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cyclic AMP-activated chloride (Cl(-)) channel in the lung epithelium that helps regulate the thickness and composition of the lung epithelial lining fluid. We investigated whether influenza M2 protein, a pH-activated proton (H(+)) channel that traffics to the plasma membrane of infected cells, altered CFTR expression and function. M2 decreased CFTR activity in 1) Xenopus oocytes injected with human CFTR, 2) epithelial cells (HEK-293) stably transfected with CFTR, and 3) human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o-) expressing native CFTR. This inhibition was partially reversed by an inhibitor of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. Next we investigated whether the M2 inhibition of CFTR activity was due to an increase of secretory organelle pH by M2. Incubation of Xenopus oocytes expressing CFTR with ammonium chloride or concanamycin A, two agents that alkalinize the secretory pathway, inhibited CFTR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of M2- and CFTR-expressing oocytes with the M2 ion channel inhibitor amantadine prevented the loss in CFTR expression and activity; in addition, M2 mutants, lacking the ability to transport H(+), did not alter CFTR activity in Xenopus oocytes and HEK cells. Expression of an M2 mutant retained in the endoplasmic reticulum also failed to alter CFTR activity. In summary, our data show that M2 decreases CFTR activity by increasing secretory organelle pH, which targets CFTR for destruction by the ubiquitin system. Alteration of CFTR activity has important consequences for fluid regulation and may potentially modify the immune response to viral infection.

  10. Belowground carbon allocation by trees drives seasonal patterns of extracellular enzyme activities by altering microbial community composition in a beech forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Christina; Koranda, Marianne; Kitzler, Barbara; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Schnecker, Jörg; Schweiger, Peter; Rasche, Frank; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Sessitsch, Angela; Richter, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    *Plant seasonal cycles alter carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) availability for soil microbes, which may affect microbial community composition and thus feed back on microbial decomposition of soil organic material and plant N availability. The temporal dynamics of these plant-soil interactions are, however, unclear. *Here, we experimentally manipulated the C and N availability in a beech forest through N fertilization or tree girdling and conducted a detailed analysis of the seasonal pattern of microbial community composition and decomposition processes over 2 yr. *We found a strong relationship between microbial community composition and enzyme activities over the seasonal course. Phenoloxidase and peroxidase activities were highest during late summer, whereas cellulase and protease peaked in late autumn. Girdling, and thus loss of mycorrhiza, resulted in an increase in soil organic matter-degrading enzymes and a decrease in cellulase and protease activity. *Temporal changes in enzyme activities suggest a switch of the main substrate for decomposition between summer (soil organic matter) and autumn (plant litter). Our results indicate that ectomycorrhizal fungi are possibly involved in autumn cellulase and protease activity. Our study shows that, through belowground C allocation, trees significantly alter soil microbial communities, which may affect seasonal patterns of decomposition processes.

  11. Carbon dioxide enrichment alters plant community structure and accelerates shrub growth in the shortgrass steppe

    OpenAIRE

    Jack A Morgan; Milchunas, Daniel G.; LeCain, Daniel R.; West, Mark; MOSIER, ARVIN R.

    2007-01-01

    A hypothesis has been advanced that the incursion of woody plants into world grasslands over the past two centuries has been driven in part by increasing carbon dioxide concentration, [CO2], in Earth's atmosphere. Unlike the warm season forage grasses they are displacing, woody plants have a photosynthetic metabolism and carbon allocation patterns that are responsive to CO2, and many have tap roots that are more effective than grasses for reaching deep soil water stores that can be enhanced u...

  12. Screening of immunomodulatory activity of total and protein extracts of some Moroccan medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoudi, Abdeljlil; Aarab, Lotfi; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2013-04-01

    Herbal and traditional medicines are being widely used in practice in many countries for their benefits of treating different ailments. A large number of plants in Morocco were used in folk medicine to treat immune-related disorders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of protein extracts (PEs) of 14 Moroccan medicinal plants. This activity was tested on the proliferation of immune cells. The prepared total and PEs of the plant samples were tested using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the splenocytes with or without stimulation by concanavalin-A (Con-A), a mitogenic agent used as positive control. The results of this study indicated different activity spectra. Three groups of activities were observed. The first group represented by Citrullus colocynthis, Urtica dioica, Elettaria cardamomum, Capparis spinosa and Piper cubeba showed a significant immunosuppressive activity. The second group that showed a significant immunostimulatory activity was represented by Aristolochia longa, Datura stramonium, Marrubium vulgare, Sinapis nigra, Delphynium staphysagria, Lepidium sativum, Ammi visnaga and Tetraclinis articulata. The rest of the plant extracts did not alter the proliferation induced by Con-A. This result was more important for the PE than for the total extract. In conclusion, this study revealed an interesting immunomodulating action of certain PEs, which could explain their traditional use. The results of this study may also have implications in therapeutic treatment of infections, such as prophylactic and adjuvant with cancer chemotherapy.

  13. Toxicity and mutagenic activity of some selected Nigerian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowemimo, A A; Fakoya, F A; Awopetu, I; Omobuwajo, O R; Adesanya, S A

    2007-09-25

    The toxicity and mutagenic potential of most African plants implicated in the management of cancer have not been investigated. The ethanolic extracts of selected Nigerian plants were subsequently studied using the brine shrimp lethality tests, inhibition of telomerase activity and induction of chromosomal aberrations in vivo in rat lymphocytes. Morinda lucida root bark, Nymphaea lotus whole plant and Garcinia kola root were active in the three test systems. Bryophyllum calycinum whole plant, Annona senegalensis root, Hymenocardia acida stem bark, Erythrophleum suaveolens leaves and Spondiathus preussii stem bark were toxic to brine shrimps and caused chromosomal damage in rat lymphocytes. Ficus exasperata leaves, Chrysophyllum albidum root bark and Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves were non-toxic to all the three test systems. Chenopodium ambrosioides whole plant was non-toxic to brine shrimps and rat lymphocyte chromosomes but showed inhibition in the conventional telomerase assay indicating a possible selectivity for human chromosomes. The result justified the use of the first eight plants and Chenopodium ambrosioides in the management of cancer in south west Nigeria although they appear to be non-selective and their mode of action may be different from plant to plant. All these plants except Chenopodium ambrosioides are also mutagenic and cytotoxic.

  14. Annual glyphosate treatments alter growth of unaffected bentgrass (Agrostis) weeds and plant community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Collin W; Auer, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    Herbicide resistance is becoming more common in weed ecotypes and crop species including turfgrasses, but current gaps in knowledge limit predictive ecological risk assessments and risk management plans. This project examined the effect of annual glyphosate applications on the vegetative growth and reproductive potential of two weedy bentgrasses, creeping bentgrass (CB) and redtop (RT), where the glyphosate resistance (GR) trait was mimicked by covering the bentgrass plants during glyphosate application. Five field plots were studied in habitats commonly inhabited by weedy bentgrasses including an agricultural hayfield, natural meadow, and wasteland. Results showed that annual glyphosate treatment improved bentgrass survivorship, vegetative growth, and reproductive potential compared with bentgrass in unsprayed subplots. In the second year of growth, RT plants had an 86-fold increase in flower number in glyphosate-treated subplots versus controls, while CB plants had a 20-fold increase. At the end of the three year study, plant community composition had changed in glyphosate-treated subplots in hayfield and meadow plots compared to controls. Soils in subplots receiving glyphosate had higher nitrate concentrations than controls. This is the first study to mimic the GR trait in bentgrass plants with the goal of quantifying bentgrass response to glyphosate selection pressure and understanding the impacts on surrounding plant communities.

  15. Annual glyphosate treatments alter growth of unaffected bentgrass (Agrostis weeds and plant community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin W Ahrens

    Full Text Available Herbicide resistance is becoming more common in weed ecotypes and crop species including turfgrasses, but current gaps in knowledge limit predictive ecological risk assessments and risk management plans. This project examined the effect of annual glyphosate applications on the vegetative growth and reproductive potential of two weedy bentgrasses, creeping bentgrass (CB and redtop (RT, where the glyphosate resistance (GR trait was mimicked by covering the bentgrass plants during glyphosate application. Five field plots were studied in habitats commonly inhabited by weedy bentgrasses including an agricultural hayfield, natural meadow, and wasteland. Results showed that annual glyphosate treatment improved bentgrass survivorship, vegetative growth, and reproductive potential compared with bentgrass in unsprayed subplots. In the second year of growth, RT plants had an 86-fold increase in flower number in glyphosate-treated subplots versus controls, while CB plants had a 20-fold increase. At the end of the three year study, plant community composition had changed in glyphosate-treated subplots in hayfield and meadow plots compared to controls. Soils in subplots receiving glyphosate had higher nitrate concentrations than controls. This is the first study to mimic the GR trait in bentgrass plants with the goal of quantifying bentgrass response to glyphosate selection pressure and understanding the impacts on surrounding plant communities.

  16. Coal mining activities change plant community structure due to air pollution and soil degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Bhanu; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Singh, Siddharth

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of coal mining activities on the community structures of woody and herbaceous plants. The response of individual plants of community to defilement caused by coal mining was also assessed. Air monitoring, soil physico-chemical and phytosociological analyses were carried around Jharia coalfield (JCF) and Raniganj coalfield. The importance value index of sensitive species minified and those of tolerant species enhanced with increasing pollution load and altered soil quality around coal mining areas. Although the species richness of woody and herbaceous plants decreased with higher pollution load, a large number of species acclimatized to the stress caused by the coal mining activities. Woody plant community at JCF was more affected by coal mining than herbaceous community. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that structure of herbaceous community was mainly driven by soil total organic carbon, soil nitrogen, whereas woody layer community was influenced by sulphur dioxide in ambient air, soil sulphate and soil phosphorus. The changes in species diversity observed at mining areas indicated an increase in the proportion of resistant herbs and grasses showing a tendency towards a definite selection strategy of ecosystem in response to air pollution and altered soil characteristics.

  17. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitencourt, C.S. [Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I. [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-03-02

    Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production.

  18. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

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    C.S. Bitencourt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3, propylthiouracil (PTU or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4 levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg. Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01. In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32% were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production.

  19. Altered activities of transcription factors and their related gene expression in cardiac tissues of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Y; Kashiwagi, A; Taki, H; Shinozaki, K; Maeno, Y; Kojima, H; Maegawa, H; Haneda, M; Hidaka, H; Yasuda, H; Horiike, K; Kikkawa, R

    1998-08-01

    Gene regulation in the cardiovascular tissues of diabetic subjects has been reported to be altered. To examine abnormal activities in transcription factors as a possible cause of this altered gene regulation, we studied the activity of two redox-sensitive transcription factors--nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activating protein-1 (AP-1)--and the change in the mRNA content of heme oxygenase-1, which is regulated by these transcription factors in the cardiac tissues of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Increased activity of NF-kappaB and AP-1 but not nuclear transcription-activating factor, as determined by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, was found in the hearts of 4-week diabetic rats. Glycemic control by a subcutaneous injection of insulin prevented these diabetes-induced changes in transcription factor activity. In accordance with these changes, the mRNA content of heme oxygenase-1 was increased fourfold in 4-week diabetic rats and threefold in 24-week diabetic rats as compared with control rats (P oxidative stress is involved in the activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1 in the cardiac tissues of diabetic rats, and that these abnormal activities of transcription factors could be associated with the altered gene regulation observed in the cardiovascular tissues of diabetic rats.

  20. Screening of Crude Plant Extracts with Anti-Obesity Activity

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    Changhyun Roh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global health problem. It is also known to be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we screened crude extracts from 400 plants to test their anti-obesity activity using porcine pancreatic lipase assay (PPL; triacylglycerol lipase, EC 3.1.1.3 in vitro activity. Among the 400 plants species examined, 44 extracts from plants, showed high anti-lipase activity using 2,4-dinitrophenylbutyrate as a substrate in porcine pancreatic lipase assay. Furthermore, 44 plant extracts were investigated for their inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Among these 44 extracts examined, crude extracts from 4 natural plant species were active. Salicis Radicis Cortex had the highest fat inhibitory activity, whereas Rubi Fructus, Corni Fructus, and Geranium nepalense exhibited fat inhibitory capacity higher than 30% at 100 μg/mL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting anti-obesity activity. These results suggest that four potent plant extracts might be of therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity.

  1. Anti-HIV activity of Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabde, Sudeep; Bodiwala, Hardik S; Karmase, Aniket; Deshpande, Preeti J; Kaur, Amandeep; Ahmed, Nafees; Chauthe, Siddheshwar K; Brahmbhatt, Keyur G; Phadke, Rasika U; Mitra, Debashis; Bhutani, Kamlesh Kumar; Singh, Inder Pal

    2011-07-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients face great socio-economic difficulties in obtaining treatment. There is an urgent need for new, safe, and cheap anti-HIV agents. Traditional medicinal plants are a valuable source of novel anti-HIV agents and may offer alternatives to expensive medicines in future. Various medicinal plants or plant-derived natural products have shown strong anti-HIV activity and are under various stages of clinical development in different parts of the world. The present study was directed towards assessment of anti-HIV activity of various extracts prepared from Indian medicinal plants. The plants were chosen on the basis of similarity of chemical constituents with reported anti-HIV compounds or on the basis of their traditional usage as immunomodulators. Different extracts were prepared by Soxhlet extraction and liquid-liquid partitioning. Ninety-two extracts were prepared from 23 plants. Anti-HIV activity was measured in a human CD4+ T-cell line, CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Nine extracts of 8 different plants significantly reduced viral production in CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Aegle marmelos, Argemone mexicana, Asparagus racemosus, Coleus forskohlii, and Rubia cordifolia demonstrated promising anti-HIV potential and were investigated for their active principles.

  2. Maturational alterations in constitutive activity of medial prefrontal cortex kappa-opioid receptors in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Sunil; Walker, Brendan M

    2015-11-01

    Opioid receptors can display spontaneous agonist-independent G-protein signaling (basal signaling/constitutive activity). While constitutive κ-opioid receptor (KOR) activity has been documented in vitro, it remains unknown if KORs are constitutively active in native systems. Using [(35) S] guanosine 5'-O-[gamma-thio] triphosphate coupling assay that measures receptor functional state, we identified the presence of medial prefrontal cortex KOR constitutive activity in young rats that declined with age. Furthermore, basal signaling showed an age-related decline and was insensitive to neutral opioid antagonist challenge. Collectively, the present data are first to demonstrate age-dependent alterations in the medial prefrontal cortex KOR constitutive activity in rats and changes in the constitutive activity of KORs can differentially impact KOR ligand efficacy. These data provide novel insights into the functional properties of the KOR system and warrant further consideration of KOR constitutive activity in normal and pathophysiological behavior. Opioid receptors exhibit agonist-independent constitutive activity; however, kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) constitutive activity has not been demonstrated in native systems. Our results confirm KOR constitutive activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that declines with age. With the ability to presynaptically inhibit multiple neurotransmitter systems in the mPFC, maturational or patho-logical alterations in constitutive activity could disrupt corticofugal glutamatergic pyramidal projection neurons mediating executive function. Regulation of KOR constitutive activity could serve as a therapeutic target to treat compromised executive function.

  3. Antibacterial activity of alimentary plants against Staphylococcus aureus growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, C; Anesini, C

    1994-01-01

    Alimentary plants were screened for antibacterial activity against a penicillin G resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Twenty-five samples of plant material corresponding to 21 species from 13 families were used. Both aqueous and ethanol extracts were obtained from them. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar-well diffusion method, using cephazolin as a standard antibiotic. Seventeen ethanol extracts were found active. Eugenia caryophyllata (clavo de olor*) flowers, Myristica fragans (nuez moscada*) seeds, Theobroma cacao (cacao*) seed bark, Triticum sp (trigo*) fruit, Zea mays (maíz*) fruit and Piper nigrum (pimienta*) ripe fruit produced some of the more active extracts (* = Argentine vulgar names).

  4. Stress Sensitivity of Correlation between POD and PPO Activities in Plants

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    NÉMETH, Zsolt István

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the leaf extracts of two plant species (Quercus robur L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L.,peroxidase (POD and polyphenol oxidase (PPO activities have been measured by the methods ofShannon et al (1966 and Flurkey and Jen (1978. The oxidative activities regarded as semi-empiricalbiochemical variables have distributions in the plant foliage and between them a linear correlation hasbeen observed. In this work the resultant oxidative activities of POD and PPO isoenzymes of plantfoliages, the measuring uncertainties of their values and their correlation are interpreted. For theeffects of cold shock and lack of illumination, significant alterations in the correlation have beenrevealed that are also reflected by the parameters of the regression. The correlation of POD and PPOhas been established to be stress sensitive by the application of covariance analysis (ANCOVA.

  5. Symbiotic fungi alter plant chemistry that discourages leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Catalina; Wcislo, William T; Van Bael, Sunshine A

    2013-04-01

    Fungal symbionts that live asymptomatically inside plant tissues (endophytes) can influence plant-insect interactions. Recent work has shown that damage by leaf-cutting ants, a major Neotropical defoliator, is reduced to almost half in plants with high densities of endophytes. We investigated changes in the phenotype of leaves that could influence ants' behavior to result in the reduction of foliar damage. We produced cucumber seedlings with high and low densities of one common endophyte species, Colletotrichum tropicale. We used the leaves in bioassays and to compare chemical and physical leaf characteristics important for ants' food selection. Ants cut about one-third more area of cucumber leaves with lower densities of endophytes and removed c. 20% more paper disks impregnated with the extracts of those leaves compared with leaves and disks from plants hosting the fungus. Colletotrichum tropicale colonization did not cause detectable changes in the composition of volatile compounds, cuticular waxes, nutrients or leaf toughness. Our study shows that endophytes changed leaf chemistry and suggests that compounds with relative low volatility released after leaf wounding are a major factor influencing foraging decisions by ants when choosing between plants with low or high endophyte loads.

  6. Antifungal activity of traditional medicinal plants from Tamil Nadu, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duraipandiyan V; Ignacimuthu S

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the antifungal activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 45 medicinal plants and to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration for each extract against human pathogenic fungi. Methods:A total of 45 medicinal plants were collected from different places of Tamil Nadu and identified. Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 45 medicinal plants were assessed for antifungal susceptibility using broth microdilution method. Two known antifungal agents were used as positive controls. Results: Most of the extracts inhibited more than four fungal strains. From the evaluation we found that ethyl acetate extracts inhibited large number of fungal growth. Hexane extracts also nearly showed the same level of inhibition against fungal growth. Methanol extracts showed the minimum antifungal activity. Among the 45 plants tested, broad spectrum antifungal activity was detected in Albizzia procera (A. procera), Atalantia monophylla, Asclepias curassavica, Azima tetracantha, Cassia fistula (C. fistula), Cinnomomum verum, Costus speciosus (C. speciosus), Nymphaea stellata, Osbeckia chinensis, Piper argyrophyllum, Punica granatum, Tinospora cordifolia and Toddalia asiatica (T. asiatica). Promising antifungal activity was seen in A. procera, C. speciosus, C. fistula and T. asiatica. Conclusions:It can be concluded that the plant species assayed possess antifungal properties. Further phytochemical research is needed to identify the active principles responsible for the antifungal effects of some of these medicinal plants.

  7. Carbon dioxide enrichment alters plant community structure and accelerates shrub growth in the shortgrass steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jack A; Milchunas, Daniel G; LeCain, Daniel R; West, Mark; Mosier, Arvin R

    2007-09-11

    A hypothesis has been advanced that the incursion of woody plants into world grasslands over the past two centuries has been driven in part by increasing carbon dioxide concentration, [CO(2)], in Earth's atmosphere. Unlike the warm season forage grasses they are displacing, woody plants have a photosynthetic metabolism and carbon allocation patterns that are responsive to CO(2), and many have tap roots that are more effective than grasses for reaching deep soil water stores that can be enhanced under elevated CO(2). However, this commonly cited hypothesis has little direct support from manipulative experimentation and competes with more traditional theories of shrub encroachment involving climate change, management, and fire. Here, we show that, although doubling [CO(2)] over the Colorado shortgrass steppe had little impact on plant species diversity, it resulted in an increasingly dissimilar plant community over the 5-year experiment compared with plots maintained at present-day [CO(2)]. Growth at the doubled [CO(2)] resulted in an approximately 40-fold increase in aboveground biomass and a 20-fold increase in plant cover of Artemisia frigida Willd, a common subshrub of some North American and Asian grasslands. This CO(2)-induced enhancement of plant growth, among the highest yet reported, provides evidence from a native grassland suggesting that rising atmospheric [CO(2)] may be contributing to the shrubland expansions of the past 200 years. Encroachment of shrubs into grasslands is an important problem facing rangeland managers and ranchers; this process replaces grasses, the preferred forage of domestic livestock, with species that are unsuitable for domestic livestock grazing.

  8. Fire alters ecosystem carbon and nutrients but not plant nutrient stoichiometry or composition in tropical savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Adam F A; Hedin, Lars O; Staver, A Carla; Govender, Navashni

    2015-05-01

    Fire and nutrients interact to influence the global distribution and dynamics of the savanna biome, but the results of these interactions are both complex and poorly known. A critical but unresolved question is whether short-term losses of carbon and nutrients caused by fire can trigger long-term and potentially compensatory responses in the nutrient stoichiometry of plants, or in the abundance of dinitrogen-fixing trees. There is disagreement in the literature about the potential role of fire on savanna nutrients, and, in turn, on plant stoichiometry and composition. A major limitation has been the lack of fire manipulations over time scales sufficiently long for these interactions to emerge. We use a 58-year, replicated, large-scale, fire manipulation experiment in Kruger National Park (South Africa) in savanna to quantify the effect of fire on (1) distributions of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus at the ecosystem scale; (2) carbon: nitrogen: phosphorus stoichiometry of above- and belowground tissues of plant species; and (3) abundance of plant functional groups including nitrogen fixers. Our results show dramatic effects of fire on the relative distribution of nutrients in soils, but that individual plant stoichiometry and plant community composition remained unexpectedly resilient. Moreover, measures of nutrients and carbon stable isotopes allowed us to discount the role of tree cover change in favor of the turnover of herbaceous biomass as the primary mechanism that mediates a transition from low to high 'soil carbon and nutrients in the absence of fire. We conclude that, in contrast to extra-tropical grasslands or closed-canopy forests, vegetation in the savanna biome may be uniquely adapted to nutrient losses caused by recurring fire.

  9. Climate change may alter breeding ground distributions of eastern migratory monarchs (Danaus plexippus via range expansion of Asclepias host plants.

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    Nathan P Lemoine

    Full Text Available Climate change can profoundly alter species' distributions due to changes in temperature, precipitation, or seasonality. Migratory monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus may be particularly susceptible to climate-driven changes in host plant abundance or reduced overwintering habitat. For example, climate change may significantly reduce the availability of overwintering habitat by restricting the amount of area with suitable microclimate conditions. However, potential effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations remain largely unknown, particularly with respect to their milkweed (Asclepias spp. host plants. Given that monarchs largely depend on the genus Asclepias as larval host plants, the effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations will most likely be mediated by climate change effects on Asclepias. Here, I used MaxEnt species distribution modeling to assess potential changes in Asclepias and monarch distributions under moderate and severe climate change scenarios. First, Asclepias distributions were projected to extend northward throughout much of Canada despite considerable variability in the environmental drivers of each individual species. Second, Asclepias distributions were an important predictor of current monarch distributions, indicating that monarchs may be constrained as much by the availability of Asclepias host plants as environmental variables per se. Accordingly, modeling future distributions of monarchs, and indeed any tightly coupled plant-insect system, should incorporate the effects of climate change on host plant distributions. Finally, MaxEnt predictions of Asclepias and monarch distributions were remarkably consistent among general circulation models. Nearly all models predicted that the current monarch summer breeding range will become slightly less suitable for Asclepias and monarchs in the future. Asclepias, and consequently monarchs, should therefore undergo expanded northern range limits in

  10. Climate change may alter breeding ground distributions of eastern migratory monarchs (Danaus plexippus) via range expansion of Asclepias host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Nathan P

    2015-01-01

    Climate change can profoundly alter species' distributions due to changes in temperature, precipitation, or seasonality. Migratory monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) may be particularly susceptible to climate-driven changes in host plant abundance or reduced overwintering habitat. For example, climate change may significantly reduce the availability of overwintering habitat by restricting the amount of area with suitable microclimate conditions. However, potential effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations remain largely unknown, particularly with respect to their milkweed (Asclepias spp.) host plants. Given that monarchs largely depend on the genus Asclepias as larval host plants, the effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations will most likely be mediated by climate change effects on Asclepias. Here, I used MaxEnt species distribution modeling to assess potential changes in Asclepias and monarch distributions under moderate and severe climate change scenarios. First, Asclepias distributions were projected to extend northward throughout much of Canada despite considerable variability in the environmental drivers of each individual species. Second, Asclepias distributions were an important predictor of current monarch distributions, indicating that monarchs may be constrained as much by the availability of Asclepias host plants as environmental variables per se. Accordingly, modeling future distributions of monarchs, and indeed any tightly coupled plant-insect system, should incorporate the effects of climate change on host plant distributions. Finally, MaxEnt predictions of Asclepias and monarch distributions were remarkably consistent among general circulation models. Nearly all models predicted that the current monarch summer breeding range will become slightly less suitable for Asclepias and monarchs in the future. Asclepias, and consequently monarchs, should therefore undergo expanded northern range limits in summer months

  11. Shrub invasion decreases diversity and alters community stability in northern Chihuahuan Desert plant communities.

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    Selene Báez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Global climate change is rapidly altering species range distributions and interactions within communities. As ranges expand, invading species change interactions in communities which may reduce stability, a mechanism known to affect biodiversity. In aridland ecosystems worldwide, the range of native shrubs is expanding as they invade and replace native grassland vegetation with significant consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. METHODOLOGY: We used two long-term data sets to determine the effects of shrub encroachment by Larrea tridentata on subdominant community composition and stability in formerly native perennial grassland dominated by Bouteloua eriopoda in New Mexico, USA. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results indicated that Larrea invasion decreased species richness during the last 100 years. We also found that over shorter temporal scales species-poor subdominant communities in areas invaded by Larrea were less stable (more variable in time compared to species rich communities in grass-dominated vegetation. Compositional stability increased as cover of Bouteloua increased and decreased as cover of Larrea increased. SIGNIFICANCE: Changes in community stability due to altered interspecific interactions may be one mechanism by which biodiversity declines in grasslands following shrub invasion. As global warming increases, shrub encroachment into native grasslands worldwide will continue to alter species interactions and community stability both of which may lead to a decline in biodiversity.

  12. Platelet Activation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Patients Is Not Altered with Cocaine Abuse.

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    Michelle Kiebala

    Full Text Available Recent work has indicated that platelets, which are anucleate blood cells, significantly contribute to inflammatory disorders. Importantly, platelets also likely contribute to various inflammatory secondary disorders that are increasingly associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV infection including neurological impairments and cardiovascular complications. Indeed, HIV infection is often associated with increased levels of platelet activators. Additionally, cocaine, a drug commonly abused by HIV-infected individuals, leads to increased platelet activation in humans. Considering that orchestrated signaling mechanisms are essential for platelet activation, and that nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB inhibitors can alter platelet function, the role of NF-κB signaling in platelet activation during HIV infection warrants further investigation. Here we tested the hypothesis that inhibitory kappa B kinase complex (IKK activation would be central for platelet activation induced by HIV and cocaine. Whole blood from HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals, with or without cocaine abuse was used to assess platelet activation via flow cytometry whereas IKK activation was analyzed by performing immunoblotting and in vitro kinase assays. We demonstrate that increased platelet activation in HIV patients, as measured by CD62P expression, is not altered with reported cocaine use. Furthermore, cocaine and HIV do not activate platelets in whole blood when treated ex vivo. Finally, HIV-induced platelet activation does not involve the NF-κB signaling intermediate, IKKβ. Platelet activation in HIV patients is not altered with cocaine abuse. These results support the notion that non-IKK targeting approaches will be better suited for the treatment of HIV-associated inflammatory disorders.

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of Five Medicinal Plants on Candida Albicans

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    Fatemeh Masomi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, drug resistance to human pathogenic fungi has been increased. Medicinal plants are one way to overcome antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal and inhibitory activity of five medicinal plants on the growth of Candida albicans. Methods: This study was done in the Microbiology Lab of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran in 2015. Five medicinal plants include: Trachyspermum ammi (seed, Teucrium polium (leaf, Piper nigrum (seed, Pistachia vera (skin, Camelia sinensis (leaf were collected. Collected plant materials were extracted by ethanol and methanol solvent with maceration method. Antifungal activity of the ethanolic and methanolic extracts was evaluated by paper disc diffusion and agar well diffusion methods. Besides, MIC and MBC of each extract was determined. Results: All plant extracts had sufficient inhibitory effect against C. albicans but the extracts of P. vera had the best inhibitory effect on C. albicans (ZOI: 40 mm. The lowest antifungal effect between these five plants related to Piper nigrum (ZOI: 13 mm. Besides, the P. vera extracts had the best MIC and MBC values (6.25 and 12.5 mg/ml. Conclusion: This study strongly evidence the maximum antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants against C. albicans that this inhibitory effect varies with the different solvent-extract form. A more comprehensive study need to identify the effective compounds that have these antifungal properties.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of mangrove plant (Lumnitzera littorea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahbudin Saad; Muhammad Taher; Deny Susanti; Haitham Qaralleh; Nurul Afifah Binti Abdul Rahim

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antimicrobial activities ofn-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the leaves ofLumnitzera littorea (L. littorea) against six human pathogenic microbes. Methods: The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion and microdilution methods.Results:The antimicrobial activities of the crude extracts were increased with increasing the concentration. It is clear thatn-hexane extract was the most effective extract. Additionally, Gram positiveBacillus cereus (B. cereus) appear to be the most sensitive strain whilePseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and the yeast strains (Candida albicans (C. albicans) andCryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans)) appear to be resistance to the tested concentrations since no inhibition zone was observed. The inhibition of microbial growth at concentration as low as0.04 mg/mL indicated the potent antimicrobial activity ofL. littorea extracts.Conclusions:The obtained results are considered sufficient for further study to isolate the compounds responsible for the activity and suggesting the possibility of finding potent antibacterial agents fromL. littorea extracts.

  15. Climate alters response of an endemic island plant to removal of invasive herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn, Mceachern A.; Thomson, D.M.; Chess, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    Islands experience higher rates of species extinction than mainland ecosystems, with biological invasions among the leading causes; they also serve as important model systems for testing ideas in basic and applied ecology. Invasive removal programs on islands are conservation efforts that can also be viewed as powerful manipulative experiments, but few data are available to evaluate their effects. We collected demographic and herbivore damage data for Castilleja mollis Pennell, an endangered plant endemic to Santa Rosa Island, California, over a 12-year period before, during, and after the implementation of control for introduced cattle, deer, and elk. We used these long-term data to explore mechanisms underlying herbivore effects, assess the results of herbivore reduction at the scales of both individual plants and populations, and determine how temporal variability in herbivory and plant demography influenced responses to herbivore removals. For individual plants, herbivore effects mediated by disturbance were greater than those of grazing. Deer and elk scraping of the ground substantially increased plant mortality and dormancy and reduced flowering and growth. Stem damage from browsing did not affect survivorship but significantly reduced plant growth and flower production. Herbivore control successfully lowered damage rates, which declined steeply between 1997 and 2000 and have remained relatively low. Castilleja mollis abundances rose sharply after 1997, suggesting a positive effect of herbivore control, but then began to decline steadily again after 2003. The recent decline appears to be driven by higher mean growing season temperatures; interestingly, not only reductions in scraping damage but a period of cooler conditions were significant in explaining increases in C. mollis populations between 1997 and 2002. Our results demonstrate strong effects of introduced herbivores on both plant demography and population dynamics and show that climate

  16. Reassessing the Potential Activities of Plant CGI-58 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Abdallah; Arhab, Yani; Bentebibel, Assia; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Noiriel, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58) is a widespread protein found in animals and plants. This protein has been shown to participate in lipolysis in mice and humans by activating Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the initial enzyme responsible for the triacylglycerol (TAG) catabolism cascade. Human mutation of CGI-58 is the cause of Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, an orphan disease characterized by a systemic accumulation of TAG which engenders tissue disorders. The CGI-58 protein has also been shown to participate in neutral lipid metabolism in plants and, in this case, a mutation again provokes TAG accumulation. Although its roles as an ATGL coactivator and in lipid metabolism are quite clear, the catalytic activity of CGI-58 is still in question. The acyltransferase activities of CGI-58 have been speculated about, reported or even dismissed and experimental evidence that CGI-58 expressed in E. coli possesses an unambiguous catalytic activity is still lacking. To address this problem, we developed a new set of plasmids and site-directed mutants to elucidate the in vivo effects of CGI-58 expression on lipid metabolism in E. coli. By analyzing the lipid composition in selected E. coli strains expressing CGI-58 proteins, and by reinvestigating enzymatic tests with adequate controls, we show here that recombinant plant CGI-58 has none of the proposed activities previously described. Recombinant plant and mouse CGI-58 both lack acyltransferase activity towards either lysophosphatidylglycerol or lysophosphatidic acid to form phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid and recombinant plant CGI-58 does not catalyze TAG or phospholipid hydrolysis. However, expression of recombinant plant CGI-58, but not mouse CGI-58, led to a decrease in phosphatidylglycerol in all strains of E. coli tested, and a mutation of the putative catalytic residues restored a wild-type phenotype. The potential activities of plant CGI-58 are subsequently discussed.

  17. Reassessing the Potential Activities of Plant CGI-58 Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Khatib

    Full Text Available Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58 is a widespread protein found in animals and plants. This protein has been shown to participate in lipolysis in mice and humans by activating Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, the initial enzyme responsible for the triacylglycerol (TAG catabolism cascade. Human mutation of CGI-58 is the cause of Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, an orphan disease characterized by a systemic accumulation of TAG which engenders tissue disorders. The CGI-58 protein has also been shown to participate in neutral lipid metabolism in plants and, in this case, a mutation again provokes TAG accumulation. Although its roles as an ATGL coactivator and in lipid metabolism are quite clear, the catalytic activity of CGI-58 is still in question. The acyltransferase activities of CGI-58 have been speculated about, reported or even dismissed and experimental evidence that CGI-58 expressed in E. coli possesses an unambiguous catalytic activity is still lacking. To address this problem, we developed a new set of plasmids and site-directed mutants to elucidate the in vivo effects of CGI-58 expression on lipid metabolism in E. coli. By analyzing the lipid composition in selected E. coli strains expressing CGI-58 proteins, and by reinvestigating enzymatic tests with adequate controls, we show here that recombinant plant CGI-58 has none of the proposed activities previously described. Recombinant plant and mouse CGI-58 both lack acyltransferase activity towards either lysophosphatidylglycerol or lysophosphatidic acid to form phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid and recombinant plant CGI-58 does not catalyze TAG or phospholipid hydrolysis. However, expression of recombinant plant CGI-58, but not mouse CGI-58, led to a decrease in phosphatidylglycerol in all strains of E. coli tested, and a mutation of the putative catalytic residues restored a wild-type phenotype. The potential activities of plant CGI-58 are subsequently discussed.

  18. Antitubercular activity and phytochemical screening of selected medicinal plants

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    Rajandeep Kaur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants offer a hope for developing alternate medicines for the treatment of Tuberculosis.. The present study was done to evaluate in vitro anti-tubercular activity of five medicinal plants viz., Syzygium aromaticum, Piper nigrum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Aegele marmelos and Lawsonia inermis. Solvent extracts of Syzygium aromaticum, Piper nigrum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Aegele marmelos and Lawsonia inermis were tested in vitro for their activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain using Microplate Alamar Blue Assay. Activity in MABA was evaluated by lowest concentration of sample that prevents color change to pink. Extracts of all the five plants Syzygium aromaticum, Piper nigrum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Aegele marmelos and Lawsonia inermis exhibited anti-tuberculosis activity, the proportion of inhibition of these plants extracts for M. tuberculosis H37Rv, inhibition was found to be 0.8µg/ml, 50µg/ml, 12.5µg/ml and 50µg/ml respectively. Our findings showed that all these plants exhibited activity against MDR isolates of H37Rv M. tuberculosis strain. Further studies aimed at isolation and identification of active substances from the extracts needs to be carried out

  19. A REVIEW ON HERBAL PLANTS SHOWING ANTIDEPRESSANT ACTIVITY

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    Talha Jawaid et al.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a heterogenous mood disorder that has been classified and treated in variety of ways. Although a number of synthetic drugs are being used as standard treatment for clinically depressed patient, they have adverse effects that can compromise the therapeutic treatment .Thus, it is worthwhile to look for antidepressant from plants with proven advantage and favorable benefit to risk ratio. A number of medicinal plants and medicine derived from these plants have shown antidepressant properties by virtue of combined effect of their medicinal constituents. The causes of depression are decreased brain levels of monoamines like noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin. Therefore, drugs restoring the reduced levels of these monoamines in the brain either by inhibiting monoamine oxidase or by inhibiting reuptake of these neurotransmitters might be fruitful in the treatment of depression. The present review is focused on the medicinal plants and plants based formulations having antidepressant activity in animal studies and in humans.

  20. Tricin from a malagasy connaraceous plant with potent antihistaminic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Hidenori; Mouri, Kyoko; Otsuka, Hideaki; Kasai, Ryoji; Yamasaki, Kazuo

    2003-09-01

    The bioassay-guided separation of a Malagasy plant, Agelaea pentagyna, led to the isolation of a flavonoid, tricin (1), with potent inhibitory activity toward exocytosis from antigen-stimulated rat leukemia basophils (RBL-2H3). The structure-activity relationships among structurally related natural and synthetic flavonoids are also discussed.

  1. Plant Pigment Identification: A Classroom and Outreach Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Kathleen C. A.; Odendaal, Antoinette Y.; Carlson, Erin E.

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a class of pigments responsible for the bright colors of many flowers, fruits, and vegetables typically resulting in shades of red, blue, and purple. Students were asked to perform an activity to enable them to identify which anthocyanin was present in one of several possible plant materials through a hands-on activity. Students…

  2. Abortifacient activity of a medicinal plant "moringa oleifera" in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, N; Nath, D; Shukla, S C; Dyal, R

    1988-01-01

    Dried powder of leaf extract of common Indian plant Moringa Oleifera of Moringaceae family was tested experimentally in albino rats in our laboratory for its antifertility activity. Cant per cent abortifacient activity was found when administered orally in aqueous solution at dose of 175 mg/kg body weight daily to Charles foster strain albino rats from days 5-10 post mated.

  3. Non-enzymatic Glycation of Almond Cystatin Leads to Conformational Changes and Altered Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Azad A; Sohail, Aamir; Bhat, Sheraz A; Rehman, Md T; Bano, Bilqees

    2015-01-01

    The non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and reducing sugars, known as glycation, leads to the formation of inter and intramolecular cross-links of proteins. Stable end products called as advanced Maillard products or advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have received tremendous attention since last decades. It was suggested that the formation of AGEs not only modify the conformation of proteins but also induces altered biological activity. In this study, cystatin purified from almond was incubated with three different sugars namely D-ribose, fructose and lactose to monitor the glycation process. Structural changes induced in cystatin on glycation were studied using UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, CD and FTIR techniques. Glycated cystatin was found to migrate slower on electrophoresis as compared to control cystatin. Biological activity data of glycated cystatin showed that D-ribose was most effective in inducing conformational changes with maximum altered activity.

  4. Cortisol's effects on hippocampal activation in depressed patients are related to alterations in memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Heather C; Jahn, Allison L; Davidson, Richard J; Kern, Simone; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Halverson, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    Many investigators have hypothesized that brain response to cortisol is altered in depression. However, neural activation in response to exogenously manipulated cortisol elevations has not yet been directly examined in depressed humans. Animal research shows that glucocorticoids have robust effects on hippocampal function, and can either enhance or suppress neuroplastic events in the hippocampus depending on a number of factors. We hypothesized that depressed individuals would show 1) altered hippocampal response to exogenous administration of cortisol, and 2) altered effects of cortisol on learning. In a repeated-measures design, 19 unmedicated depressed and 41 healthy individuals completed two fMRI scans. Fifteen mg oral hydrocortisone (i.e., cortisol) or placebo (order randomized and double-blind) was administered 1 h prior to encoding of emotional and neutral words during fMRI scans. Data analysis examined the effects of cortisol administration on 1) brain activation during encoding, and 2) subsequent free recall for words. Cortisol affected subsequent recall performance in depressed but not healthy individuals. We found alterations in hippocampal response to cortisol in depressed women, but not in depressed men (who showed altered response to cortisol in other regions, including subgenual prefrontal cortex). In both depressed men and women, cortisol's effects on hippocampal function were positively correlated with its effects on recall performance assessed days later. Our data provide evidence that in depressed compared to healthy women, cortisol's effects on hippocampal function are altered. Our data also show that in both depressed men and women, cortisol's effects on emotional memory formation and hippocampal function are related.

  5. Evidence for altered amygdala activation in schizophrenia in an adaptive emotion recognition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, Daniela; Lis, Stefanie; Zygrodnik, Karina; Sauer, Carina; Ulferts, Jens; Gallhofer, Bernd; Kirsch, Peter

    2014-03-30

    Deficits in social cognition seem to present an intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia, and are known to be associated with an altered amygdala response to faces. However, current results are heterogeneous with respect to whether this altered amygdala response in schizophrenia is hypoactive or hyperactive in nature. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate emotion-specific amygdala activation in schizophrenia using a novel adaptive emotion recognition paradigm. Participants comprised 11 schizophrenia outpatients and 16 healthy controls who viewed face stimuli expressing emotions of anger, fear, happiness, and disgust, as well as neutral expressions. The adaptive emotion recognition approach allows the assessment of group differences in both emotion recognition performance and associated neuronal activity while also ensuring a comparable number of correctly recognized emotions between groups. Schizophrenia participants were slower and had a negative bias in emotion recognition. In addition, they showed reduced differential activation during recognition of emotional compared with neutral expressions. Correlation analyses revealed an association of a negative bias with amygdala activation for neutral facial expressions that was specific to the patient group. We replicated previous findings of affected emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Furthermore, we demonstrated that altered amygdala activation in the patient group was associated with the occurrence of a negative bias. These results provide further evidence for impaired social cognition in schizophrenia and point to a central role of the amygdala in negative misperceptions of facial stimuli in schizophrenia.

  6. Insecticidal effects of Moroccan plant extracts on development, energy reserves and enzymatic activities of Plodia interpunctella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouayard, N.; Rharrabe, K.; Ghailani, N. N.; Jbilou, R.; Castanera, P.; Ortego, F.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of methanol extracts of ten plant species used in traditional medicine in Morocco (Peganum harmala, Ajuga iva, Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula stoechas, Lavandula dentata, Cistus ladanifer, Cistus salviaefolius, Cistus monspeliensis, Centaurium erythraea and Launaea arborescens) on Plodia interpunctella Hubner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae. Firstly, we studied the effects of the ingestion of these extracts at 500 ppm on post-embryonic development parameters. Most plant extracts provoked a notable decrease of larval weight 8 days after treatment (up to 33% weight loss with C. erythraea) and caused significant alterations on pupation (ranging from 5% to 85%) and adult emergence (below 2.5% with R. officinalis, C. erythraea and A. iva). The plant extracts that showed strongest effects on post-embryonic development were selected to test their effects on the following physiological parameters: larval reserve substances (at 500 ppm); and midgut activities of hydrolytic and detoxification enzymes (at 500, 750 and 1000 ppm). All treatments provoked a significant reduction of protein and carbon hydrate larval contents, the inhibition of proteases and {alpha}-amylase activities in a dose depended manner, and the induction of glutathione S-transferase and esterase (using MtB as substrate) activities, whereas the activity of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and esterases (using 1-NA as substrate) increase or decrease depending on the extract concentration and the plant analyzed. (Author) 65 refs.

  7. Insecticidal effects of Moroccan plant extracts on development, energy reserves and enzymatic activities of Plodia interpunctella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bouayad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effects of methanol extracts of ten plant species used in traditional medicine in Morocco (Peganum harmala, Ajuga iva, Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula stoechas, Lavandula dentata, Cistus ladanifer, Cistus salviaefolius, Cistus monspeliensis, Centaurium erythraea and Launaea arborescens on Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae. Firstly, we studied the effects of the ingestion of these extracts at 500 ppm on post-embryonic development parameters. Most plant extracts provoked a notable decrease of larval weight 8 days after treatment (up to 33% weight loss with C. erythraea and caused significant alterations on pupation (ranging from 5% to 85% and adult emergence (below 2.5% with R. officinalis, C. erythraea and A. iva. The plant extracts that showed strongest effects on post-embryonic development were selected to test their effects on the following physiological parameters: larval reserve substances (at 500 ppm; and midgut activities of hydrolytic and detoxification enzymes (at 500, 750 and 1000 ppm. All treatments provoked a significant reduction of protein and carbon hydrate larval contents, the inhibition of proteases and α-amylase activities in a dose depended manner, and the induction of glutathione S-transferase and esterase (using MtB as substrate activities, whereas the activity of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and esterases (using 1-NA as substrate increase or decrease depending on the extract concentration and the plant analyzed.

  8. Plant Cell Cultures as Source of Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Barbulova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The last decades witnessed a great demand of natural remedies. As a result, medicinal plants have been increasingly cultivated on a commercial scale, but the yield, the productive quality and the safety have not always been satisfactory. Plant cell cultures provide useful alternatives for the production of active ingredients for biomedical and cosmetic uses, since they represent standardized, contaminant-free and biosustainable systems, which allow the production of desired compounds on an industrial scale. Moreover, thanks to their totipotency, plant cells grown as liquid suspension cultures can be used as “biofactories” for the production of commercially interesting secondary metabolites, which are in many cases synthesized in low amounts in plant tissues and differentially distributed in the plant organs, such as roots, leaves, flowers or fruits. Although it is very widespread in the pharmaceutical industry, plant cell culture technology is not yet very common in the cosmetic field. The aim of the present review is to focus on the successful research accomplishments in the development of plant cell cultures for the production of active ingredients for cosmetic applications.

  9. Chitosan-induced antiviral activity and innate immunity in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriti, Marcello; Varoni, Elena Maria

    2015-02-01

    Immunity represents a trait common to all living organisms, and animals and plants share some similarities. Therefore, in susceptible host plants, complex defence machinery may be stimulated by elicitors. Among these, chitosan deserves particular attention because of its proved efficacy. This survey deals with the antiviral activity of chitosan, focusing on its perception by the plant cell and mechanism of action. Emphasis has been paid to benefits and limitations of this strategy in crop protection, as well as to the potential of chitosan as a promising agent in virus disease control.

  10. Dynamic regulation of Polycomb group activity during plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemer, Marian; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2012-11-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) complexes play important roles in phase transitions and cell fate determination in plants and animals, by epigenetically repressing sets of genes that promote either proliferation or differentiation. The continuous differentiation of new organs in plants, such as leaves or flowers, requires a highly dynamic PcG function, which can be induced, modulated, or repressed when necessary. In this review, we discuss the recent advance in understanding PcG function in plants and focus on the diverse molecular mechanisms that have been described to regulate and counteract PcG activity in Arabidopsis.

  11. Genetic and chemical reductions in protein phosphatase activity alter auxin transport, gravity response, and lateral root growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashotte, A. M.; DeLong, A.; Muday, G. K.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Auxin transport is required for important growth and developmental processes in plants, including gravity response and lateral root growth. Several lines of evidence suggest that reversible protein phosphorylation regulates auxin transport. Arabidopsis rcn1 mutant seedlings exhibit reduced protein phosphatase 2A activity and defects in differential cell elongation. Here we report that reduced phosphatase activity alters auxin transport and dependent physiological processes in the seedling root. Root basipetal transport was increased in rcn1 or phosphatase inhibitor-treated seedlings but showed normal sensitivity to the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Phosphatase inhibition reduced root gravity response and delayed the establishment of differential auxin-induced gene expression across a gravity-stimulated root tip. An NPA treatment that reduced basipetal transport in rcn1 and cantharidin-treated wild-type plants also restored a normal gravity response and asymmetric auxin-induced gene expression, indicating that increased basipetal auxin transport impedes gravitropism. Increased auxin transport in rcn1 or phosphatase inhibitor-treated seedlings did not require the AGR1/EIR1/PIN2/WAV6 or AUX1 gene products. In contrast to basipetal transport, root acropetal transport was normal in phosphatase-inhibited seedlings in the absence of NPA, although it showed reduced NPA sensitivity. Lateral root growth also exhibited reduced NPA sensitivity in rcn1 seedlings, consistent with acropetal transport controlling lateral root growth. These results support the role of protein phosphorylation in regulating auxin transport and suggest that the acropetal and basipetal auxin transport streams are differentially regulated.

  12. Biological activity of diterpenoids isolated from Anatolian Lamiaceae Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülaçtı Topçu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antibacterial, antifungal, antimycobacterial, cytotoxic, antitumor, cardiovascular, antifeedant, insecticidal, antileishmanial and some other single activities of diterpenoids and norditerpenoids isolated from Turkish Lamiaceae plants, are reviewed. The diterpenoids were isolated from species of Salvia, Sideritis, and Ballota species growing in Anatolia. Fifty abietanes, ten kaurenes, seven pimaranes, six labdanes with their biological activities were reported. While twenty five diterpenoids showed antibacterial activity, eight of which showed activity against fungi. The most cytotoxic one was found to be taxodione (44 isolated from species of Salvia. Antifeedant, insecticidal and insect repellent activity of kaurenes, antimycobacterial activity and cardioactivity of abietanes and norabietanes together with labdanes were also reported.

  13. Peroxidase activity in plant leaves exposed to gaseous HCl or ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endress, A.G.; Suarez, S.J.; Taylor, O.C.

    1980-01-01

    Previous studies of plants subjected to air pollutant stress indicated that increased total peroxidase (PRO) activity and/or altered PRO isozyme patterns are frequently induced. Phaseolus vulgaris var. UI 111 and Lycopersicon esculentum var. Heinz 1350 plants exposed to either gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) for 20 min or ozone (O/sub 3/) for 1 h were employed to determine if (1) total PRO activity increased following pollutant stress, (2) increased PRO activity was associated with non-necrotic injury, and (3) PRO isozyme patterns were altered after pollutant stress. Non-necrotic foliar macroscopic injury was dependent on pollutant concentration in the bean-O/sub 3/, tomato-O/sub 3/, and bean-HCl combinations, but not for the combination of tomato-HCl where there was little injury. Total PRO activity increased for all combinations. In only one (bean-O/sub 3/), however, was elevated PRO activity statistically related to pollutant concentration. In the others, only the post-exposure time interval was related to PRO activity. No differences of isozyme pattern were discerned between PRO samples obtained from tomato exposed to charcoal-filtered air and either O/sub 3/ or HCl. The PRO isozyme pattern of samples obtained from bean varied with imposed stress and sampling time. The results obtained indicate that PRO levels may be elevated by subjection to air pollutant stress and that PRO activity is sensitive to the internal physiological conditions of the plants. Its extreme sensitivity, however, precludes its use as a reliable indicator of pollutant stress.

  14. Antisense suppression of an acid invertase gene (MAI1) in muskmelon alters plant growth and fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiyan; Wang, Xiufeng; Zhang, Wenqian; Qian, Tingting; Tang, Guimin; Guo, Yankui; Zheng, Chengchao

    2008-01-01

    To unravel the roles of soluble acid invertase in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), its activity in transgenic muskmelon plants was reduced by an antisense approach. For this purpose, a 1038 bp cDNA fragment of muskmelon soluble acid invertase was expressed in antisense orientation behind the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus. The phenotype of the antisense plants clearly differed from that of control plants. The transgenic plant leaves were markedly smaller, and the stems were obviously thinner. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that degradation of the chloroplast membrane occurred in transgenic leaves and the number of grana in the chloroplast was significantly reduced, suggesting that the slow growth and weaker phenotype of the transgenic plants may be due to damage to the chloroplast ultrastructure, which in turn resulted in a decrease in net photosynthetic rate. The sucrose concentration increased and levels of acid invertase decreased in transgenic fruit, and the fruit size was 60% smaller than that of the control. In addition, transgenic fruit reached full-slip at 25 d after pollination (DAP), approximately 5 d before the control fruit (full-slip at 30 DAP), and this accelerated maturity correlated with a dramatic elevation of ethylene production at the later stages of fruit development. Together, these results suggest that soluble acid invertase not only plays an important role during muskmelon plant and fruit development but also controls the sucrose content in muskmelon fruit.

  15. Plant hydraulic responses to long-term dry season nitrogen deposition alter drought tolerance in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovaroff, Alexandria L; Santiago, Louis S; Vourlitis, George L; Grantz, David A; Allen, Michael F

    2016-07-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition represents a significant N input for many terrestrial ecosystems. N deposition can affect plants on scales ranging from photosynthesis to community composition, yet few studies have investigated how changes in N availability affect plant water relations. We tested the effects of N addition on plant water relations, hydraulic traits, functional traits, gas exchange, and leaf chemistry in a semi-arid ecosystem in Southern California using long-term experimental plots fertilized with N for over a decade. The dominant species were Artemisia california and Salvia mellifera at Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve and Adenostoma fasciculatum and Ceanothus greggii at Sky Oaks Field Station. All species, except Ceanothus, showed increased leaf N concentration, decreased foliar carbon to N ratio, and increased foliar N isotopic composition with fertilization, indicating that added N was taken up by study species, yet each species had a differing physiological response to long-term N addition. Dry season predawn water potentials were less negative with N addition for all species except Adenostoma, but there were no differences in midday water potentials, or wet season water potentials. Artemisia was particularly responsive, as N addition increased stem hydraulic conductivity, stomatal conductance, and leaf carbon isotopic composition, and decreased wood density. The alteration of water relations and drought resistance parameters with N addition in Artemisia, as well as Adenostoma, Ceanothus, and Salvia, indicate that N deposition can affect the ability of native Southern California shrubs to respond to drought.

  16. Proteolytic activity in some Patagonian plants from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeiros, Cynthia; López, Laura M I; Caffini, Néstor O; Natalucci, Claudia L

    2003-09-01

    Six Patagonian plants were screened for proteolytic activity: Colliguaja integerrima, Euphorbia collina, E. peplus and Stillingia patagonica (Euphorbiaceae), Philibertia gilliesii (Asclepiadaceae) and Grindelia chiloensis (Asteraceae). P. gilliesii extracts showed the highest specific activity, followed by S. patagonica and E. collina. Proteolytic activity was unnoticeable in the other three species studied. Inhibition assays revealed that P. gilliesii and S. patagonica extracts contain cysteine-type peptidases and that in E. collina serine-type peptidases are present.

  17. Screening of some Nigerian plants for molluscicidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kela, S L; Ogunsusi, R A; Ogbogu, V C; Nwude, N

    1989-01-01

    Methanolic (MEOH), evaporated crude water (ECW) and unevaporated crude water (UECW) extracts of 25 Nigerian plants, used for different medicinal and domestic purposes were screened for molluscacidal activity on laboratory-reared Lymnaea natalensis Krauss. Seven of the plants were not active; extracts from 18 (72 per cent) of the plants, some of which are renowned fish poisons, had molluscicidal activity. These were Acacia nilotica, Aristolochia albida, Balanites aegyptiaca, Blighia sapida, Boswellia dalzielii, Detarium microcarpum, Gnidia kraussiana, Kigelia africana, Nauclea latifolia, Opilia celtidefolia, Parkia clappertoniana, Polygonum limbatum, Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Sclerocarya birrea, Securidaca longipedunculata, Ximenia americana, Vetiveria nigritana and Ziziphus abyssinica. The LC50 of these extracts were determined. It is strongly recommended that the toxic effects of these extracts against fish, cercariae, snail eggs and mammals be further investigated so as to determine the right concentration, especially for use in fish ponds.

  18. Antibacterial activity of five Peruvian medicinal plants against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriela; Ulloa-Urizar; Miguel; Angel; Aguilar-Luis; María; del; Carmen; De; Lama-Odría; José; Camarena-Lizarzaburu; Juana; del; Valle; Mendoza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P. aeruginosa)in vitro to the ethanolic extracts obtained from five different Peruvian medicinal plants.Methods: The plants were chopped and soaked in absolute ethanol(1:2, w/v). The antibacterial activity of compounds against P. aeruginosa was evaluated using the cupplate agar diffusion method.Results: The extracts from Maytenus macrocarpa("Chuchuhuasi"), Dracontium loretense Krause("Jergon Sacha"), Tabebuia impetiginosa("Tahuari"), Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn(eucalyptus), Uncaria tomentosa("U?a de gato") exhibited favorable antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on the strains of P. aeruginosa tested demonstrated that Tabebuia impetiginosa and Maytenus macrocarpa possess higher antibacterial activity.Conclusions: The results of the present study scientifically validate the inhibitory capacity of the five medicinal plants attributed by their common use in folk medicine and contribute towards the development of new treatment options based on natural products.

  19. Antioxidant activity of the medicinal plant Enicostemma littorale Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Abirami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are the source for wide variety of natural antioxidants. In the study reported here, we have conducted a comparative study between the different parts of the plant Enicostemma littorale. The amount of total phenols and antioxidant enzymes Glutathione-S-Transferase, Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase and Peroxidase activities were evaluated and also the non-enzymatic antioxidants ascorbic acid, α- tocopherol and Glutathione activities were evaluated. The results showed that the antioxidant activities varied greatly among the different plant parts used in this study and some parts are rich in natural antioxidants especially the flowers of E. littorale. These results suggest that Enicostemma littorale have strong antioxidant potential. Further study is necessary for isolation and characterization of antioxidant agents, which can be used to treat various oxidative stress-related diseases.

  20. Antibacterial activity of ifve Peruvian medicinal plants against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriela Ulloa-Urizar; Miguel Angel Aguilar-Luis; Mara del Carmen De Lama-Odra; Jos Camarena-Lizarzaburu; Juana del Valle Mendoza

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) in vitro to the ethanolic extracts obtained from five different Peruvian medicinal plants. Methods:The plants were chopped and soaked in absolute ethanol (1:2, w/v). The antibacterial activity of compounds against P. aeruginosa was evaluated using the cup-plate agar diffusion method. Results:The extracts from Maytenus macrocarpa (“Chuchuhuasi”), Dracontium loretense Krause (“Jergon Sacha”), Tabebuia impetiginosa (“Tahuari”), Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (eucalyptus), Uncaria tomentosa (“Uña de gato”) exhibited favorable antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on the strains of P. aeruginosa tested demonstrated that Tabebuia impetiginosa and Maytenus macrocarpa possess higher antibacterial activity. Conclusions:The results of the present study scientifically validate the inhibitory capacity of the five medicinal plants attributed by their common use in folk medicine and contribute towards the development of new treatment options based on natural products.

  1. Oral insecticidal activity of plant-associated pseudomonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffner, Beat; Péchy-Tarr, Maria; Ryffel, Florian; Hoegger, Patrik; Obrist, Christian; Rindlisbacher, Alfred; Keel, Christoph; Maurhofer, Monika

    2013-03-01

    Biocontrol pseudomonads are most known to protect plants from fungal diseases and to increase plant yield, while intriguing aspects on insecticidal activity have been discovered only recently. Here, we demonstrate that Fit toxin producing pseudomonads, in contrast to a naturally Fit-deficient strain, exhibit potent oral activity against larvae of Spodoptera littoralis, Heliothis virescens and Plutella xylostella, all major insect pests of agricultural crops. Spraying plant leaves with suspensions containing only 1000 Pseudomonas cells per ml was sufficient to kill 70-80% of Spodoptera and Heliothis larvae. Monitoring survival kinetics and bacterial titres in parallel, we demonstrate that Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 and Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391, two bacteria harbouring the Fit gene cluster colonize and kill insects via oral infection. Using Fit mutants of CHA0 and PCL1391, we show that production of the Fit toxin contributes substantially to oral insecticidal activity. Furthermore, the global regulator GacA is required for full insecticidal activity. Our findings demonstrate the lethal oral activity of two root-colonizing pseudomonads so far known as potent antagonists of fungal plant pathogens. This adds insecticidal activity to the existing biocontrol repertoire of these bacteria and opens new perspectives for applications in crop pest control and in research on their ecological behaviour.

  2. Screening of Iranian plants for antifungal activity: Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Amin Gh.R

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 278 species from 37 families of native Iranian plants were screened for in vitro antifungal activity against 19 fungal strains. Initially, the crude extracts in concentration of 100 μg/ml were tested. Among 278 plant extracts, 201(71.27% of them showed antifungal activity against at least one fungal strain. A wide range of total extracts of different species were shown to have potentially noticeable antifungal effects. The outstanding species were: Mentha longifolia, Saliva multicaulis, Thymus transcaspicus, Zataria multiflora, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hulthemia persica, Heracleum persicum, Pimpinella anisum, Pragnos ferulacea, Pragnos uloptera, and Viola odorata.

  3. Savannah River Plant history plantwide activities, July 1954--December 1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1972-12-31

    This report recounts the yearly activities of the Savannah River Plant nonproduction agencies and is concerned mainly with Plant personnel and items of general interest. The ``History of Plantwide Activities`` is published as an accumulative document; at the end of each year a new writeup is added to the volume to bring it up to date. Writeups for 1955 and 1956 are based on the governmental fiscal year; those for 1957 and subsequent years are on a calendar year basis. The history of the period from prestartup through June 30, 1953, is presented in DPSP 53-368; the history from July 1953 through June 1954 is presented in DPSP 54-448.

  4. Antibacterial activity of some folklore medicinal plants from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goud, M Jaya Prakash; Komraiah, A; Rao, K Narasimha; Ragan, A; Raju, V S; Charya, M A Singara

    2008-06-18

    Antibacterial activity and phytochemical tests of eight whole plant methanol extracts belonging to family Euphorbiaceae were evaluated. In agar well diffusion assay the diameter of inhibition zones ranged from 3-13 mm. Phyllanthus emblica showed maximum activity of 13 mm. The MIC and MBC observed were 30-140 mcg/ml and 40-160 mcg/ml, respectively. P. piscatorum and P. emblica showed the lowest MIC (30 mcg/ml), P. emblica the lowest MBC (40 mcg/ml) and thus an effective inhibitor of the tested bacteria. Alkaloids, saponins and tannins were detected in 7 out of 8 tested plants.

  5. Altered cortical activation from the hand after facial Botulinum Toxin treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Haenzi, Sara; Stefanics, Gabor; Lanaras, Tatjana; Calcagni, Maurizio; Ghosh, Arko

    2014-01-01

    Plastic interactions between face and hand cortical tactile circuits occur after severe injuries that affect the hand such as in amputation or spinal cord injury. However, whether loss of facial movements alters the cortical circuits involved in processing tactile inputs from the hand remains unknown. In this prospective observational study we used electroencephalography (EEG) to measure cortical activity evoked by tactile stimulation of the hands before and after botulinum toxin-A-induced fa...

  6. Alteration and modulation of protein activity by varying post-translational modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David N.; Reed, David W.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Apel, William A.

    2016-07-12

    Embodiments of the invention include methods of altering the enzymatic activity or solubility of an extremophilic enzyme or post-translationally modifying a protein of interest via using isolated or partially purified glycosyltransferases and/or post-translational modification proteins, extracts of cells comprising glycosyltransferases and/or post-translational modification proteins, and/or in cells comprising one or more glycosyltransferases and/or post-translational modification proteins.

  7. Alteration in the phagocyte activity of crevicular leucocytes regarding diabetic patients with periodontal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Colchado Carhuavilca, Jorge R.; Departamento Académico Medico quirúrgico. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM. Lima Perú.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to find out the alterations in the phagocyte activity of crevicular leucocytes regarding to diabetic patients with periodontal disease. For that reason, 56 patients with periodontal disease were selected: 42 of them with a diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus - Type 2, and 14 patients without it (control group), from 35 to 74 years old. To performed the study, crevicular fluid of the mentioned patients was analyzed. By means of sequential washings the samples were...

  8. Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrovánková, Soňa; Mišurcová, Ladislava; Machů, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important.

  9. Transgenic apple plants overexpressing the Lc gene of maize show an altered growth habit and increased resistance to apple scab and fire blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachowsky, Henryk; Szankowski, Iris; Fischer, Thilo C; Richter, Klaus; Peil, Andreas; Höfer, Monika; Dörschel, Claudia; Schmoock, Sylvia; Gau, Achim E; Halbwirth, Heidrun; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2010-02-01

    Transgenic apple plants (Malus x domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox') overexpressing the Leaf Colour (Lc) gene from maize (Zea mays) exhibit strongly increased production of anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols (catechins, proanthocyanidins). Greenhouse plants investigated in this study exhibit altered phenotypes with regard to growth habit and resistance traits. Lc-transgenic plants show reduced size, transversal gravitropism of lateral shoots, reduced trichome development, and frequently reduced shoot diameter and abnormal leaf development with fused leaves. Such phenotypes seem to be in accordance with a direct or an indirect effect on polar-auxin-transport in the transgenic plants. Furthermore, leaves often develop necrotic lesions resembling hypersensitive response lesions. In tests, higher resistance against fire blight (caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora) and against scab (caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis) is observed. These phenotypes are discussed with respect to the underlying altered physiology of the Lc-transgenic plants. The results are expected to be considered in apple breeding strategies.

  10. Alterations in Neuronal Activity in Basal Ganglia-Thalamocortical Circuits in the Parkinsonian State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eGalvan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In patients with Parkinson’s disease and in animal models of this disorder, neurons in the basal ganglia and related regions in thalamus and cortex show changes that can be recorded by using electrophysiologic single-cell recording techniques, including altered firing rates and patterns, pathologic oscillatory activity and increased inter-neuronal synchronization. In addition, changes in synaptic potentials or in the joint spiking activities of populations of neurons can be monitored as alterations in local field potentials, electroencephalograms or electrocorticograms. Most of the mentioned electrophysiologic changes are probably related to the degeneration of diencephalic dopaminergic neurons, leading to dopamine loss in the striatum and other basal ganglia nuclei, although degeneration of non-dopaminergic cell groups may also have a role. The altered electrical activity of the basal ganglia and associated nuclei may contribute to some of the motor signs of the disease. We here review the current knowledge of the electrophysiologic changes at the single cell level, the level of local populations of neural elements, and the level of the entire basal ganglia-thalamocortical network in parkinsonism, and discuss the possible use of this information to optimize treatment approaches to Parkinson’s disease, such as deep brain stimulation therapy.

  11. Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Four Wild Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Ali Shad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of four wild plants, namely, Capparis decidua, Ficus carica, Syzygium cumini, and Ziziphus jujuba, are separately used as traditional dietary and remedial agents in remote areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The results of our study on these four plants revealed that the examined fruits were a valuable source of nutraceuticals and exhibited good level of antimicrobial activity. The fruits of these four investigated plants are promising source of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. These four plants' fruits are good sources of iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and chromium. It was also observed that these fruits are potential source of antioxidant agent and the possible reason could be that these samples had good amount of phytochemicals. Hence, the proper propagation, conservation, and chemical investigation are recommended so that these fruits should be incorporated for the eradication of food and health related problems.

  12. Evaluation of some medicinal plant extracts for antidiarrhoeal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Attia H; Mouneir, Samar M

    2005-06-01

    The antidiarrhoeal effect of seven plant extracts namely: the aerial parts of Euphorbia paralias L. (EP), Bidens bipinnata L. (BB), Cynachum acutum L. (CyAc), Diplotaxis acris (Forssk.) Boiss (DA), Convolvulus fatmensis (CF) and Schouwia thebaica Webb (ST) and the leaves of Plantago major L. (PM), was evaluated on castor oil-induced diarrhoea, gastrointestinal movement in rats (charcoal meal) and on the motility of duodenum isolated from freshly slaughtered rabbits. A significant antidiarrhoeal effect of the tested plant extracts against castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats was achieved by 200 and 400 mg/kg. The tested plant extracts decreased the gastrointestinal movement as indicated by the significantly (pmajor active constituents of the tested plants.

  13. Cytotoxic activity of Thai medicinal plants for cancer treatment

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    Chawaboon Dechsukum

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Thai medicinal plants as the ingredients of a Southern Thai traditional formula for cancer treatment were selected to test cytotoxicity activity against two types of human cancer cell lines ; large cell lung carcinoma (CORL-23 and prostate cancer cell lines (PC3 and one type of normal human cell line, fibroblast cells (10FS. SRB assay was used to test cytotoxic activity against all the cell types. Two of the extracts (water and ethanolic extracts procedures used were similar to those practised by Thai traditional doctors. One concentration (50 μg/ml of two different extracts was tested first against cell lines and the active plant extracts were diluted and tested for calculating IC50. The ethanolic extracts of six plants (Bridelia ovata, Curcuma zedoaria, Derris scandens, Dioscorea membranacea, Nardostachys jatamansi and Rhinacanthus nasutus showed cytotoxic activity (IC50< 30 μg/ml against lung and prostate cancer cell lines. Dioscorea membranacea roots showed the highest cytotoxic activity against lung cancer cell lines ( IC50= 4.6 μg/ml but it exhibited low cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer cell lines (IC50= 17.55 μg/ml and less cytotoxic activity against normal cell lines (IC50= 66.05 μg/ml. Curcuma zedoaria showed cytotoxic activity against COR L-23 and PC3 but less cytotoxic activity against 10FS (IC50 = 6.05, 17.84 and 55.50 μg/ml respectively Rhinacanthus nasutus root extract showed the highest cytotoxic activity against PC3 ( IC50 = 2.01 μg/ml and this extract also showed high activity against COR L-23 and 10FS (IC50=5.05 and 10.95 μg/ml respectively. The water extract of all plants exhibited no activity against all types of human cells. Two ethanolic plant extracts (Dioscorea membranacea and Curcuma zedoaria which showed specific activity against lung cancer cell lines and less cytotoxic activity against normal cells should be further investigated for active compounds against lung cancer cell.

  14. Hemin/G-quadruplex structure and activity alteration induced by magnesium cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosman, J; Juskowiak, B

    2016-04-01

    The influence of metal cations on G-quadruplex structure and peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme activity was investigated. Experiments revealed a significant role of magnesium ion, which in the presence of potassium cation influenced DNAzyme activity. This ability has been associated with alteration of G-quadruplex topology and consequently affinity to bind hemin molecule. It has been demonstrated that G-quadruplex based on PS2.M sequence under these conditions formed parallel topology, which exhibited lower activity than that observed in standard potassium-containing solution. On the other hand DNAzyme/magnesium ion system based on telomeric sequence, which did not undergo significant structural changes, exhibited higher peroxidase activity upon magnesium ion addition. In both cases, the stabilization effect of magnesium cations on G-quadruplex structure was observed. The mechanism of DNAzyme activity alteration by magnesium ion can be explained by its influence on the pKa value of DNAzyme. Magnesium ion decreased pKa for PS2.M based system but increased it for telomeric DNAzyme. Magnesium cation effect on G-quadruplex structure as well as DNAzyme activity is particularly important since this ion is one of the most common metal cations in biological samples.

  15. Alterations of prolyl endopeptidase activity in the plasma of children with autistic spectrum disorders

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    Avarseji Hassan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolyl Endopeptidase (PEP, EC 3.4.21.26, a cytosolic endopeptidase, hydrolyses peptide bonds on the carboxyl side of proline residue in proteins with a relatively small molecular weight. It has been shown that altered PEP activity is associated with various psychological diseases such as schizophrenia, mania and depression. Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD are neuropsychiatric and behavioural syndromes affecting social behaviours and communication development. They are classified as developmental disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that PEP activity is also associated with ASDs. Methods Fluorometric assay was used to measure PEP activity in EDTA plasma in children with ASD (n = 18 aged 4–12 years (mean ± SD: 7.9 ± 2.5. These results were then compared to PEP activity in a control group of non-ASD children (n = 15 aged 2–10 years (mean ± SD: 6.4 ± 2.2. Results An alteration in PEP activity was found in the children with ASD compared to the control group. There was much greater variation of PEP activity in the group of ASD children when compared to the controls (SD= 39.9 and SD 9.6, respectively. This variation was significant (p Conclusion Our preliminary finding suggests a role for PEP enzyme in the pathophysiology of autism but further research should be conducted to establish its role in the aetiology of psychiatric and neurological disorders, including autism and related spectrum disorders.

  16. [Occupational radiation exposures during maintenance activities at nuclear power plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imahori, A

    1987-11-01

    Occupational exposures at nuclear power plants occur mostly during maintenance activities rather than during routine reactor operation. In this paper, statistical summaries of occupational exposures during routine maintenance activities for the years 1982-84 at nuclear power plants in Japan are presented, including comparison of the exposure levels by reactor type and by plant age. Average annual collective doses per reactor for BWRs and PWRs are 7.30 man-Sv and 2.84 man-Sv, respectively, and 78% and 89% of annual doses are incurred during maintenance activities. Average annual outage days of BWRs and PWRs for routine maintenance are 102 d and 97 d. Annual collective doses per reactor, most of which occur during maintenance activities, usually increase with plant age. Higher collective doses are observed for routine maintenance performed on older reactors as compared to newer reactors, especially in BWRs. Collective doses accrued during respective routine maintenance activities have a significant correlation with duration of maintenance and number of workers involved in maintenance.

  17. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal]. E-mail: marcio.dionizio@gmail.com; picanco@ufv.br; guedes@ufv.br; mateusc3@yahoo.com.br; agronomiasilva@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  18. Soil disturbance alters plant community composition and decreases mycorrhizal carbon allocation in a sandy grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoor, Tim Krone; Mårtensson, Linda-Maria; Olsson, Pål Axel

    2011-11-01

    We have studied how disturbance by ploughing and rotavation affects the carbon (C) flow to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in a dry, semi-natural grassland. AM fungal biomass was estimated using the indicator neutral lipid fatty acid (NLFA) 16:1ω5, and saprotrophic fungal biomass using NLFA 18:2ω6,9. We labeled vegetation plots with (13)CO(2) and studied the C flow to the signature fatty acids as well as uptake and allocation in plants. We found that AM fungal biomass in roots and soil decreased with disturbance, while saprotrophic fungal biomass in soil was not influenced by disturbance. Rotavation decreased the (13)C enrichment in NLFA 16:1ω5 in soil, but (13)C enrichment in the AM fungal indicator NLFA 16:1ω5 in roots or soil was not influenced by any other disturbance. In roots, (13)C enrichment was consistently higher in NLFA 16:1ω5 than in crude root material. Grasses (mainly Festuca brevipila) decreased as a result of disturbance, while non-mycorrhizal annual forbs increased. This decreases the potential for mycorrhizal C sequestration and may have been the main reason for the reduced mycorrhizal C allocation found in disturbed plots. Disturbance decreased the soil ammonium content but did not change the pH, nitrate or phosphate availability. The overall effect of disturbance on C allocation was that more of the C in AM fungal mycelium was directed to the external phase. Furthermore, the functional identity of the plants seemed to play a minor role in the C cycle as no differences were seen between different groups, although annuals contained less AM fungi than the other groups.

  19. Altered lower leg muscle activation patterns in patients with cerebral palsy during cycling on an ergometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves-Pinto A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ana Alves-Pinto,1,* Tobias Blumenstein,1,* Varvara Turova,1 Renée Lampe1,2 1Research Unit of the Buhl-Strohmaier Foundation for Cerebral Palsy and Paediatric Neuroorthopaedics, Orthopaedic Department, Klinikum rechts der Isar, 2Markus Würth Professorship, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Cycling on a recumbent ergometer constitutes one of the most popular rehabilitation exercises in cerebral palsy (CP. However, no control is performed on how muscles are being used during training. Given that patients with CP present altered muscular activity patterns during cycling or walking, it is possible that an incorrect pattern of muscle activation is being promoted during rehabilitation cycling. This study investigated patterns of muscular activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer in patients with CP and whether those patterns are determined by the degree of spasticity and of mobility.Methods: Electromyographic (EMG recordings of lower leg muscle activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer were performed in 14 adult patients diagnosed with CP and five adult healthy participants. EMG recordings were done with an eight-channel EMG system built in the laboratory. The activity of the following muscles was recorded: Musculus rectus femoris, Musculus biceps femoris, Musculus tibialis anterior, and Musculus gastrocnemius. The degree of muscle spasticity and mobility was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale and the Gross Motor Function Classification System, respectively. Muscle activation patterns were described in terms of onset and duration of activation as well as duration of cocontractions.Results: Muscle activation in CP was characterized by earlier onsets, longer periods of activation, a higher occurrence of agonist–antagonist cocontractions, and a more variable cycling tempo in comparison to healthy participants. The degree of altered muscle activation

  20. Altered activation of the antagonist muscle during practice compromises motor learning in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Kwon, MinHyuk; Fox, Emily J.; Christou, Evangelos A.

    2014-01-01

    Aging impairs the activation of muscle; however, it remains unclear whether it contributes to deficits in motor learning in older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine whether altered activation of antagonistic muscles in older adults during practice inhibits their ability to transfer a motor task ipsilaterally. Twenty young (25.1 ± 3.9 yr; 10 men, 10 women) and twenty older adults (71.5 ± 4.8 yr; 10 men, 10 women) participated. Half of the subjects practiced 100 trials of a rapi...

  1. Heavy-ion radiation induces both activation of multiple endogenous transposable elements and alterations in DNA methylation in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Xishan; Xiaolin, Cui; Li, Xiang

    2012-07-01

    Space radiation represents a complex environmental condition in which several interacting factors such as electron, neutron, proton, heavy-ion are involved, which may provoke stress responses and jeopardize genome integrity. Given the inherent property of epigenetic modifications to respond to intrinsic aswell as external perturbations, it is conceivable that epigenetic markers like DNA methylation and transposition may undergo alterations in response to space radiation. Cytosine DNA methylation plays important roles in maintaining genome stability and controlling gene expression. A predominant means for Transposable elements (TEs) to cause genetic instability is via their transpositional activation. To find the detailed molecular characterization of the nature of genomic changes induced by space radiation, the seeds of rice were exposed to 0.02, 0.2, 1, 2 and 20 Gy dose of ^{12}C heavy-ion radiation, respectively. We found that extensive alteration in both DNA methylation and gene expression occurred in rice plants after different dose of heavy-ion radiation. Here we shown that heavy-ion radiation has induced transposition of mPing and Tos17 in rice, which belong to distinct classes including the miniature inverted terminal repeat TEs (MITEs) and long-terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, respectively. mPing and Tos17 mobility were found to correlate with cytosine methylation alteration detected by MSAP and genetic variation detected by AFLP. The result showed that at least in some cases transposition of TEs was associated with cytosine demethylation within the elements. Our results implicate that the heavy-ion radiation represents a potent mutagenic agent that can cause genomic instabilities by eliciting transposition of endogenous TEs in rice. Keywords: Heavy-ion radiation, DNA methylation, Transposable elements, mPing, Tos17

  2. Insights into Animal and Plant Lectins with Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Oliveira Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are multivalent proteins with the ability to recognize and bind diverse carbohydrate structures. The glyco -binding and diverse molecular structures observed in these protein classes make them a large and heterogeneous group with a wide range of biological activities in microorganisms, animals and plants. Lectins from plants and animals are commonly used in direct defense against pathogens and in immune regulation. This review focuses on sources of animal and plant lectins, describing their functional classification and tridimensional structures, relating these properties with biotechnological purposes, including antimicrobial activities. In summary, this work focuses on structural-functional elucidation of diverse lectin groups, shedding some light on host-pathogen interactions; it also examines their emergence as biotechnological tools through gene manipulation and development of new drugs.

  3. Lead stress effects on physiobiochemical activities of higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengar, Rakesh Singh; Gautam, Madhu; Sengar, Rajesh Singh; Garg, Sanjay Kumar; Sengar, Kalpana; Chaudhary, Reshu

    2008-01-01

    Lead is a metallic pollutant emanating from various environmental sources including industrial wastes, combustion of fossil fuels, and use of agrochemicals. Lead may exist in the atmosphere as dusts, fumes, mists, and vapors, and in soil as a mineral. Soils along roadsides are rich in lead because vehicles burn leaded gasoline, which contributes to environmental lead pollution. Other important sources of lead pollution are geological weathering, industrial processing of ores and minerals, leaching of lead from solid wastes, and animal and human excreta. Lead is nondegradable, readily enters the food chain, and can subsequently endanger human and animal health. Lead is one of the most important environment pollutants and deserves the increasing attention it has received in recent decades. The present effort was undertaken to review lead stress effects on the physiobiochemical activity of higher plants. Lead has gained considerable attention as a potent heavy metal pollutant because of growing anthropogenic pressure on the environment. Lead-contaminated soils show a sharp decline in crop productivity. Lead is absorbed by plants mainly through the root system and in minor amounts through the leaves. Within the plants, lead accumulates primarily in roots, but some is translocated to aerial plant parts. Soil pH, soil particle size, cation-exchange capacity, as well as root surface area, root exudation, and mycorrhizal transpiration rate affect the availability and uptake of lead by plants. Only a limited amount of lead is translocated from roots to other organs because there are natural plant barriers in the root endodermis. At lethal concentrations, this barrier is broken and lead may enter vascular tissues. Lead in plants may form deposits of various sizes, present mainly in intercellular spaces, cell walls, and vacuoles. Small deposits of this metal are also seen in the endoplasmic reticulum, dictyosome, and dictyosome-derived vesicles. After entering the cells, lead

  4. Screening of Australian plants for antimicrobial activity against Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurekci, Cemil; Bishop-Hurley, Sharon L; Vercoe, Philip E; Durmic, Zoey; Al Jassim, Rafat A M; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2012-02-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of acute enteritis in humans, with symptoms such as diarrhoea, fever and abdominal cramps. In this study, 115 extracts from 109 Australian plant species were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against two C. jejuni strains using an in vitro broth microdilution assay. Among the plants tested, 107 (93%) extracts showed activity at a concentration between 32 and 1024 µg/mL against at least one C. jejuni strain. Seventeen plant extracts were selected for further testing against another six C. jejuni strains, as well as Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Proteus mirabilis and Enterococcus faecalis. The extract from Eucalyptus occidentalis demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity, with an inhibitory concentration of 32 µg/mL against C. jejuni and B. cereus. This study has shown that extracts of selected Australian plants possess antimicrobial activity against C. jejuni and thus may have application in the control of this organism in live poultry and retail poultry products.

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Compounds Isolated from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Perez G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This review shows over 300 compounds isolated and identified from plants that previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. They have been classified in appropriate chemical groups and data are reported on their pharmacological effects, mechanisms of action, and other properties.

  6. Phytochemicals and Their Biological Activities of Plants in Tagetes L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li-wei; CHEN Juan; QI Huan-yang; SHI Yan-ping

    2012-01-01

    Tagetes L.,the genus in the family Asteraceae,consists of about 30 species spread in South and Middle America as well as Mexico.More than one hundred secondary metabolites have been obtained in phytochemical investigation on the species,some of which have potent biological activities.The advances in phytochemical studies and biological activities of the plants in Tagetes L.from 1925 to 2011 are summarized in this paper.

  7. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of extracts of Argentinian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenedetti, S; Muschietti, L; van Baren, C; Clavin, M; Broussalis, A; Martino, V; Houghton, P J; Warhurst, D; Steele, J

    2002-05-01

    Fifteen extracts from nine selected Argentine medicinal plants were tested for their antiplasmodial activity in vitro by assessing their ability to inhibit the uptake of [3H]-hypoxanthine into the Plasmodium falciparum K1 pyrimethamine/chloroquine resistant strain. The methanol extract of Satureja parvifolia showed good antiplasmodial activity (IC(50) 3 microg/ml). Inhibition of the growth of P. falciparum was also observed with aqueous extracts of Buddleja globosa and S. parvifolia.

  8. Dairy and plant based food intakes are associated with altered faecal microbiota in 2 to 3 year old Australian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Brown, P.; Morrison, M.; Krause, L.; Davies, P. S. W.

    2016-01-01

    The first 1000 days (conception to 24 months) is when gut microbiota composition and eating patterns are established, and a critical period influencing lifelong health. The aim of this study is to examine the associations between food intakes and microbiota composition at the end of this period. Diet was quantified for 37 well-nourished Australian children aged between 2 to 3 years by using a food frequency questionnaire and 24 hr recalls. Both dairy and plant-based (fruit, vegetables, soy, pulses and nuts) food intakes were associated with distinct microbiota profiles. Dairy intake was positively associated with the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio, and in particular Erysipelatoclostridium spp., but negatively associated with species richness and diversity. Vegetable intake was positively associated with the relative abundance of the Lachnospira genus, while soy, pulse and nut intake was positively associated with the relative abundance of bacteria related to Bacteroides xylanisolvens. Fruit intake, especially apples and pears, were negatively associated with the relative abundance of bacteria related to Ruminococcus gnavus. In this cohort of young children dairy and plant based food intakes were found to be associated with altered microbiota composition. Further exploration is needed to elucidate the effect of these dietary and microbial differences on host phenotype. PMID:27694811

  9. Plant 45S rDNA clusters are fragile sites and their instability is associated with epigenetic alterations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    Full Text Available Our previous study demonstrated that 45S ribosomal DNA (45S rDNA clusters were chromosome fragile sites expressed spontaneously in Lolium. In this study, fragile phenotypes of 45S rDNA were observed under aphidicolin (APH incubation in several plant species. Further actinomycin D (ActD treatment showed that transcriptional stress might interfere with chromatin packaging, resulting in 45S rDNA fragile expression. These data identified 45S rDNA sites as replication-dependent as well as transcription-dependent fragile sites in plants. In the presence of ActD, a dramatic switch to an open chromatin conformation and accumulated incomplete 5' end of the external transcribed spacer (5'ETS transcripts were observed, accompanied by decreased DNA methylation, decreased levels of histone H3, and increased histone acetylation and levels of H3K4me2, suggesting that these epigenetic alterations are associated with failure of 45S rDNA condensation. Furthermore, the finding that γ-H2AX was accumulated at 45S rDNA sites following ActD treatment suggested that the DNA damage signaling pathway was associated with the appearance of 45S rDNA fragile phenotypes. Our data provide a link between 45S rDNA transcription and chromatin-packaging defects and open the door for further identifying the molecular mechanism involved.

  10. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of selected medicinal plants from Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krimat Soumia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract extracts of selected Algerian medicinal plants. Methods: Antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated in terms of radical scavenging potential (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and β-carotene bleaching assay. Total phenolic contents and flavonoid contents were also measured. Antimicrobial activity of these plants was examined against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Results: The values of IC50 ranged from 4.30 μg/mL to 486.6 μg/mL for the DPPH method, while total antioxidant activity using β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay ranged from 17.03% to 86.13%. It was found that Pistacia lentiscus showed the highest antioxidant capacities using DPPH assay (IC50=4.30 μg/mL, while Populus trimula, Origanum glandulosum, Centaurea calcitrapa, Sysimbrium officinalis and Rhamnus alaternus showed the highest percent of total antioxidant activity in β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 3.96 to 259.65 mg GAE/g extract and from 1.13 to 26.84 mg QE/g extract, respectively. The most interesting antimicrobial activity was obtained from Sysimbrium officinalis, Rhamnus alaternus, Origanum glandulosum, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halipensis and Centaurea calcitrapa. Conclusions: The results indicated that the plants tested may be potential sources for isolation of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Northwestern Mexican plants against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Zepeda, Ramón E; Velázquez-Contreras, Carlos A; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Gálvez-Ruiz, Juan C; Ruiz-Bustos, Eduardo

    2011-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the major etiologic agent of such gastric disorders as chronic active gastritis and gastric carcinoma. Over the past few years, the appearance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has led to the development of better treatments, such as the use of natural products. This study evaluated the anti-H. pylori activity of 17 Mexican plants used mainly in the northwestern part of Mexico (Sonora) for the empirical treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The anti-H. pylori activity of methanolic extracts of the plants was determined by using the broth microdilution method. The 50% minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from less than 200 to 400 μg/mL for Castella tortuosa, Amphipterygium adstringens, Ibervillea sonorae, Pscalium decompositum, Krameria erecta, Selaginella lepidophylla, Pimpinella anisum, Marrubium vulgare, Ambrosia confertiflora, and Couterea latiflora and were greater than 800 μg/mL for Byophyllum pinnatum, Tecoma stans linnaeus, Kohleria deppena, Jatropha cuneata, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Taxodium macronatum. Only Equisetum gigantum showed no activity against H. pylori. This study suggests the important role that these plants may have in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders caused by H. pylori. The findings set the groundwork for further characterization and elucidation of the active compounds responsible for such activity.

  12. HPTLC Analysis, Antioxidant and Antigout Activity of Indian Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    The HPTLC analysis, antioxidant, and antigout activity of Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Vitex negundo, Plumbago zeylanica, Butea monosperma and Tephrosia purpurea extracts were investigated. The chemical fingerprinting were carried out by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP radical scavenging assays, and antiogout activity by cow milk xanthine oxidase. The HPTLC fingerprint qualitatively revealed predominant amount of flavonoids. The TEAC values ranged from 45.80 to 140 µM trolox/100 g dry weight for ABTS, from 85 to 430 µM trolox/ 100 g dw DPPH, and 185 to 560 µM trolox/100 g dw for FRAP respectively. Plants used in this study was found to inhibit the toxicity, as seen from the decreased LPO and increased GSH, SOD and CAT levels. The total phenolic and flavonoid content ranged from 10.21 to 28.17 and 5.80 to 10.1 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 gdw respectively. The plant extracts demonstrated significant xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity at 100 g/mL and revealed an inhibition greater than 50 % and IC50 values below the standard. This effect was almost similar to the activity of allopurinol (Standard drug) against xanthine oxidase (90.2 ± 0.4 %). These plant root extract will be subjected for further extensive studies to isolate and identify their active constituents which are useful for against inflammation and gout.

  13. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of selected medicinal plants from Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krimat Soumia; Dob Tahar; Lamari Lynda; Boumeridja Saida; Chelghoum Chabane; Metidji Hafidha

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract extracts of selected Algerian medicinal plants. Methods:Antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated in terms of radical scavenging potential (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and β-carotene bleaching assay. Total phenolic contents and flavonoid contents were also measured. Antimicrobial activity of these plants was examined against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Results:The values of IC50 ranged from 4.30 μg/mL to 486.6 μg/mL for the DPPH method, while total antioxidant activity using β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay ranged from 17.03%to 86.13%. It was found that Pistacia lentiscus showed the highest antioxidant capacities using DPPH assay (IC50=4.30 μg/mL), while Populus trimula, Origanum glandulosum, Centaurea calcitrapa, Sysimbrium officinalis and Rhamnus alaternus showed the highest percent of total antioxidant activity inβ-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 3.96 to 259.65 mg GAE/g extract and from 1.13 to 26.84 mg QE/g extract, respectively. The most interesting antimicrobial activity was obtained from Sysimbrium officinalis, Rhamnus alaternus, Origanum glandulosum, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halipensis and Centaurea calcitrapa. Conclusions:The results indicated that the plants tested may be potential sources for isolation of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.

  14. Altered cortical activation from the hand after facial botulinum toxin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenzi, Sara; Stefanics, Gabor; Lanaras, Tatjana; Calcagni, Maurizio; Ghosh, Arko

    2014-01-01

    Plastic interactions between face and hand cortical tactile circuits occur after severe injuries that affect the hand such as in amputation or spinal cord injury. However, whether loss of facial movements alters the cortical circuits involved in processing tactile inputs from the hand remains unknown. In this prospective observational study we used electroencephalography (EEG) to measure cortical activity evoked by tactile stimulation of the hands before and after botulinum toxin-A-induced facial paralysis. We found a reduction in the tactile event-related potentials (ERPs) 6 weeks after the treatment. This suggests that the limited paralysis of facial muscles induced during cosmetic interventions designed to smooth lines and wrinkles on the face is sufficient to alter the cortical processing of tactile inputs from the hand.

  15. Complete denture base assessments using holograms: dimensional alterations after different activation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dughir, Ciprian; Popovschi, Ana Maria; Cojocariu, Andreea Codruta; Topala, Florin Ionel; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Sinescu, Cosmin; de Sabata, Aldo; Duma, Virgil-Florin

    2016-03-01

    Holography is a well-developed method with a large range of applications, including dentistry. This study uses holographic methods for the study of total dental prosthesis. The issue is that the transformation of wax denture base in polymethylacrylate causes dimensional alterations and retractions in the final dental constructs. These could cause the failure of the stability of the complete denture in the oral cavity. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine and to compare using holography, total prosthesis obtained using three different manufacturing methods: pressing, injection, and polymerization. Each of the three types of dentures thus produced were recorded over the previously wax complete base holographic plates. The dimensional alterations that appear after using the different activation methods were thus determined. The most significant modification was remarked in the custom press technology, while the smallest variations were detected in the injection alternative.

  16. PPF1 May Suppress Plant Senescence via Activating TFL1 in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Yong Wang; Qing Li; Ke-Ming Cui; Yu-Xian Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Senescence, a sequence of biochemical and physiological events, constitutes the final stage of development In higher plants and is modulated by a variety of environmental factors and intemal factors. PPF1 possesses an important biological function in plant development by controlling the Ca2+ storage capacity within chloroplasts. Here we show that the expression of PPF1 might play a pivotal role in negatively regulating plant senescence as revealed by the regulation of overexpression and suppression of PPF1 on plant development. Moreover, TFL1, a key regulator in the floral repression pathway, was screened out as one of the downstream targets for PPF1 in the senescence-signaling pathway. Investigation of the senescence-related phenotypes in PPF1(-) tfl1-1 and PPF1(+) tfl1-1 double mutants confirmed and further highlighted the relation of PPF1 with TFL1 in tranegenic plants. The activation of TFL1 expression by PPF1 defines an important pathway possibly essential for the negative regulation of plant senescence in transgenic Arabidopsis.

  17. An activated form of UFO alters leaf development and produces ectopic floral and inflorescence meristems.

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    Eddy Risseeuw

    Full Text Available Plants are unique in their ability to continuously produce new meristems and organ primordia. In Arabidopsis, the transcription factor LEAFY (LFY functions as a master regulator of a gene network that is important for floral meristem and organ specification. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO is a co-activator of LEAFY and is required for proper activation of APETALA3 in the floral meristem during the specification of stamens and petals. The ufo mutants display defects in other parts of the flower and the inflorescence, suggestive of additional roles. Here we show that the normal determinacy of the developing Arabidopsis leaves is affected by the expression of a gain-of-function UFO fusion protein with the VP16 transcriptional activator domain. In these lines, the rosette and cauline leaf primordia exhibit reiterated serration, and upon flowering produce ectopic meristems that develop into flowers, bract leaves and inflorescences. These striking phenotypes reveal that developing leaves maintain the competency to initiate flower and inflorescence programs. Furthermore, the gain-of-function phenotypes are dependent on LFY and the SEPALLATA (SEP MADS-box transcription factors, indicative of their functional interactions with UFO. The findings of this study also suggest that UFO promotes the establishment of the lateral meristems and primordia in the peripheral zone of the apical and floral meristems by enhancing the activity of LFY. These novel phenotypes along with the mutant phenotypes of UFO orthologs in other plant species suggest a broader function for UFO in plants.

  18. An activated form of UFO alters leaf development and produces ectopic floral and inflorescence meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risseeuw, Eddy; Venglat, Prakash; Xiang, Daoquan; Komendant, Kristina; Daskalchuk, Tim; Babic, Vivijan; Crosby, William; Datla, Raju

    2013-01-01

    Plants are unique in their ability to continuously produce new meristems and organ primordia. In Arabidopsis, the transcription factor LEAFY (LFY) functions as a master regulator of a gene network that is important for floral meristem and organ specification. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) is a co-activator of LEAFY and is required for proper activation of APETALA3 in the floral meristem during the specification of stamens and petals. The ufo mutants display defects in other parts of the flower and the inflorescence, suggestive of additional roles. Here we show that the normal determinacy of the developing Arabidopsis leaves is affected by the expression of a gain-of-function UFO fusion protein with the VP16 transcriptional activator domain. In these lines, the rosette and cauline leaf primordia exhibit reiterated serration, and upon flowering produce ectopic meristems that develop into flowers, bract leaves and inflorescences. These striking phenotypes reveal that developing leaves maintain the competency to initiate flower and inflorescence programs. Furthermore, the gain-of-function phenotypes are dependent on LFY and the SEPALLATA (SEP) MADS-box transcription factors, indicative of their functional interactions with UFO. The findings of this study also suggest that UFO promotes the establishment of the lateral meristems and primordia in the peripheral zone of the apical and floral meristems by enhancing the activity of LFY. These novel phenotypes along with the mutant phenotypes of UFO orthologs in other plant species suggest a broader function for UFO in plants.

  19. Loss of plant biodiversity eliminates stimulatory effect of elevated CO2 on earthworm activity in grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, John A; Zaller, Johann G; Hofer, Gabriela; Schmid, Bernhard; Körner, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Earthworms are among the world's most important ecosystem engineers because of their effects on soil fertility and plant productivity. Their dependence on plants for carbon, however, means that any changes in plant community structure or function caused by rising atmospheric CO2 or loss of plant species diversity could affect earthworm activity, which may feed back on plant communities. Production of surface casts measured during three consecutive years in field experimental plots (n = 24, 1.2 m(2)) planted with local calcareous grassland species that varied in plant species richness (diversity levels: high, 31 species; medium, 12; low, 5) and were exposed to ambient (356 μl CO2 l(-1)) or elevated (600 μl CO2 l(-1)) CO2 was only consistently stimulated in high diversity plots exposed to elevated CO2 (+120 %, 31 spp: 603 ± 52 under ambient CO2 vs. 1,325 ± 204 g cast dwt. m(-2) year(-1) under elevated CO2 in 1996; +77 %, 940 ± 44 vs. 1,663 ± 204 g cast dwt. m(-2) year(-1) in 1998). Reductions in plant diversity had little effect on cast production in ecosystems maintained at ambient CO2, but the stimulatory effect of elevated CO2 on cast production disappeared when plant species diversity was decreased to 12 and 5 species. High diversity plots were also the only communities that included plant species that an earlier field study showed to be among the most responsive to elevated CO2 and to be most preferred by earthworms to deposit casts near. Further, the +87 % CO2-induced increase in cast production measured over the 3 years corresponded to a parallel increase in cumulative total nitrogen of 5.7 g N m(-2) and would help explain the large stimulation of aboveground plant biomass production observed in high-diversity communities under elevated CO2. The results of this study demonstrate how the loss of plant species from communities can alter responses of major soil heterotrophs and consequently ecosystem biogeochemistry.

  20. Altered muscular activation during prone hip extension in women with and without low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arab Amir M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altered movement pattern has been associated with the development of low back pain (LBP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the activity pattern of the ipsilateral erector spinae (IES and contralateral erectorspinae (CES, gluteus maximus (GM and hamstring (HAM muscles during prone hip extension (PHE test in women with and without LBP. A cross-sectional non-experimental design was used. Methods Convenience sample of 20 female participated in the study. Subjects were categorized into two groups: with LBP (n = 10 and without LBP (n = 10. The electromyography (EMG signal amplitude of the tested muscles during PHE (normalized to maximum voluntary electrical activity (MVE was measured in the dominant lower extremity in all subjects. Results Statistical analysis revealed greater normalized EMG signal amplitude in women with LBP compared to non-LBP women. There was significant difference in EMG activity of the IES (P = 0.03 and CES (P = 0.03 between two groups. However, no significant difference was found in EMG signals of the GM (P = 0.11 and HAM (P = 0.14 among two groups. Conclusion The findings of this study demonstrated altered activation pattern of the lumbo-pelvic muscles during PHE in the women with chronic LBP. This information is important for investigators using PHE as either an evaluation tool or a rehabilitation exercise.

  1. Imidacloprid induced alterations in enzyme activities and energy reserves of the land snail, Helix aspersa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, M A; Mohamed, M S

    2013-09-01

    The in vivo sublethal toxic effects (0.2 and 0.6 LD50) of topically applied imidacloprid on biochemical biomarkers in the land snail, Helix aspersa was examined. Biochemical perturbations were assessed by measuring the three enzymatic (Acetylcholinesterase, AChE; catalase, CAT and glutathione-S-transferase, GST) activities and three energy reserves (protein, glycogen and lipids) in the snails. Snail samples were taken from each sublethal dose and control groups at 1, 3 and 7 days after treatment. The results revealed that there were overall decrease in AChE activity as well as depletion of lipids and glycogen contents in the imidacloprid-treated snails compared to control groups. The CAT and GST activities of treated snails with the sublethal doses of imidacloprid were significantly higher than those of untreated controls along the three times of exposure. Moreover, an increase in the level of total proteins was observed in animals treated with 0.6 LD50 imidacloprid compared to control groups. The alterations in all tested biochemical perturbations were most pronounced with the 0.6 LD50 than 0.2 LD50. This study suggests that alterations of the enzyme activities and energy reserves in this species that could be useful as biomarkers of imidacloprid exposure in the evaluation of terrestrial impacts of this insecticide.

  2. NLRP3 INFLAMMASOME ACTIVATION CONTRIBUTES TO LONG-TERM BEHAVIORAL ALTERATIONS IN MICE INJECTED WITH LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, WEI; CAO, FENG-SHENG; FENG, JUN; CHEN, HUA-WENG; WAN, JIE-RU; LU, QING; WANG, JIAN

    2017-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) might affect the central nervous system by causing neuroinflammation, which subsequently leads to brain damage and dysfunction. In this study, we evaluated the role of nod-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in long-term behavioral alterations of 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice injected intraperitoneally with LPS (5 mg/kg). At different time points after injection, we assessed locomotor function with a 24-point neurologic deficit scoring system and the rotarod test; assessed recognition memory with the novel object recognition test; and assessed emotional abnormality (anhedonia and behavioral despair) with the tail suspension test, forced swim test, and sucrose preference test. We also assessed protein expression of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC), and caspase-1 p10 in hippocampus by Western blotting; measured levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and IL-10 in hippocampus; measured TNFα and IL-1β in serum by ELISA; and evaluated microglial activity in hippocampus by Iba1 immunofluorescence. We found that LPS-injected mice displayed long-term depression-like behaviors and recognition memory deficit; elevated expression of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 p10; increased levels of IL-1β, IL-18, and TNFα; decreased levels of IL-10; and increased microglial activation. These effects were blocked by the NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor Ac-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-chloromethylketone. The results demonstrate proof of concept that NLRP3 inflammasome activation contributes to long-term behavioral alterations in LPS-exposed mice, probably through enhanced inflammation, and that NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition might alleviate peripheral and brain inflammation and thereby ameliorate long-term behavioral alterations in LPS-exposed mice. PMID:27923741

  3. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PLANT EXTRACT S AGAINST FUSARIUM SOLANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. BHARADWAJ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extracts of twenty plants were screened for their antifungal activity Fusarium solani, causal organism if Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS of Soybean (Glycine max wilt diseases, soft rot of potato. The maximum inhibitory effect was shown by leaf extracts of Camellia sinensis (67.17%, root extracts of Asparagus racemosus (54.43%. Some of the other plants showed moderate to intermediate inhibition against the mycelium growth of test fungi whcih varied in the following range Callistemon lanceolatus> Agegle marmelos> Azadirachta> Acacia catechu> Aloevera.

  4. Determination Of Antioxidant Activities In Freshliver (Salvia Officinalis) Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Rana Arıduru; Gülnur Arabacı

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we determined the antioxidant activities of four different solvent fractions obtained from Freshliver plant leaves (Salvia officinalis) by employing two different assays such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocaltaeu method. The results showed that ethanol-extract of freshliver plant exhibited the highest total phenolic contents mg GAE/g extract; 43,55, methanol-extract of 23.62, ethyl acetate extract 18.29, and acetone extract 11.58. All the extracti...

  5. Influence of aerogenic contamination on phytoncide activity of woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Volodarez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to determine variations of antimicrobial activity of the volatile organic compounds from leaves of woody plants, which are growing on the areas with the different air pollution degree in the south-east of Ukraine. The research objects were Aesculus hippocastanum L., Betula pendula Roth, Salix alba L., Picea pungens Engelm. in Donetsk, Ukraine, and 6 species (Betula pendula Roth, Fraxinus excelsior L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Populus nigra L., Tilia cordata Mill., Picea pungens Engelm. in Kramatorsk, Ukraine. Samples were collected in Donetsk every month during 2012 and 2013 years on four sample areas. Three research areas border with Donetsk Metallurgical Plant PSC, heavy traffic road and Kalinin coal mine, that feature such pollutants as CO2, SO2, NO2, and marsh gas. The fourth research area is the recreation zone (Donetsk Culture and Leisure Park near Donbass Arena stadium. The control area is located in the Donetsk Botanical Garden. The leaves from trees in Kramatorsk were collected in July and August 2013 on the sample area. The research area borders with Novokramatorsk Machine-building Plant JSC, which also features CO2, SO2, NO2 and other pollutants. The control area is located in the Jubilejnyi park. The research proves that antimicrobial activity of the volatile organic compounds from leaves of species under studyis sensitive to the impact of pollutants. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of leaves B. pendula, S. alba, F. excelsior, R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra increases under the influence of pollutants from metallurgical plants and traffic exhausts. The antimicrobial ability of A. hippocastanum, T. cordata and P. pungens enhances in the areas with the cleaner air. These species are not gas-resistant species. Consequently, gas-resistant species feature the higher antimicrobial activity in the conditions of contamination. The other benefit of this study consists in monitoring of the seasonal

  6. Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Delarmelina, Camila

    2005-02-28

    Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol.

  7. Low level of selenium increases the efficacy of 24-epibrassinolide through altered physiological and biochemical traits of Brassica juncea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Fatima Salva; Yusuf, Mohammad; Khan, Tanveer A; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted to provide an insight into the effect of Se (through soil) induced changes in Brassica juncea plants in the presence and absence of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL; foliar). The Se treatments showed dual response, 10 μM of Se significantly increased growth, water relations, photosynthetic attributes along with carbonic anhydrase activity whereas its higher concentrations proved inhibitory in concentration dependent manner. The follow-up application of EBL to the Se stressed plants improved growth, water relations, photosynthesis and simultaneously enhanced the various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase with the excess accumulation of proline. In addition to this, 10 μM Se increases the efficacy of 10(-8) M of EBL and both in combination showed maximum increase for the growth and photosynthetic traits of plants. On the other hand, the elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the Se-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, water relations and photosynthesis.

  8. In vitro effects of Thai medicinal plants on human lymphocyte activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranee Chavalittumrong

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the effects of Cleistocalyx nervosum var paniala, Gynostemma pentaphyllum, Gynura procumbens, Houttuynia cordata, Hyptis suaveolens, Portulaca grandiflora, Phytolacca americana and Tradescantia spathacea on lymphocyte proliferation and the effects of C. nervosum, G. pentaphyllum, H. suaveolens and P. grandiflora on natural killer (NK cells activity. All of the extracts significantly stimulated human lymphocyte proliferative responses at various concentrations depending on each extract. The extracts of C. nervosum and H. suaveolens were significantly enhanced NK cells activity while those of G. pentaphyllum and P. grandiflora did not alter NK cells function. Our results suggested that the extracts of those plants have stimulating activity on human lymphocytes and could be clinically useful for modulating immune functions of the body.

  9. Altered architecture and enhanced drought tolerance in rice via the down-regulation of indole-3-acetic acid by TLD1/OsGH3.13 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng-Wei; Li, Chen-Hui; Cao, Jia; Zhang, Yong-Cun; Zhang, Su-Qiao; Xia, Yu-Feng; Sun, Da-Ye; Sun, Ying

    2009-12-01

    Plant architecture is determined by genetic and developmental programs as well as by environmental factors. Sessile plants have evolved a subtle adaptive mechanism that allows them to alter their growth and development during periods of stress. Phytohormones play a central role in this process; however, the molecules responsible for integrating growth- and stress-related signals are unknown. Here, we report a gain-of-function rice (Oryza sativa) mutant, tld1-D, characterized by (and named for) an increased number of tillers, enlarged leaf angles, and dwarfism. TLD1 is a rice GH3.13 gene that encodes indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetase, which is suppressed in aboveground tissues under normal conditions but which is dramatically induced by drought stress. The activation of TLD1 reduced the IAA maxima at the lamina joint, shoot base, and nodes, resulting in subsequent alterations in plant architecture and tissue patterning but enhancing drought tolerance. Accordingly, the decreased level of free IAA in tld1-D due to the conjugation of IAA with amino acids greatly facilitated the accumulation of late-embryogenesis abundant mRNA compared with the wild type. The direct regulation of such drought-inducible genes by changes in the concentration of IAA provides a model for changes in plant architecture via the process of drought adaptation, which occurs frequently in nature.

  10. Mutations in the catalytic loop HRD motif alter the activity and function of Drosophila Src64.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C Strong

    Full Text Available The catalytic loop HRD motif is found in most protein kinases and these amino acids are predicted to perform functions in catalysis, transition to, and stabilization of the active conformation of the kinase domain. We have identified mutations in a Drosophila src gene, src64, that alter the three HRD amino acids. We have analyzed the mutants for both biochemical activity and biological function during development. Mutation of the aspartate to asparagine eliminates biological function in cytoskeletal processes and severely reduces fertility, supporting the amino acid's critical role in enzymatic activity. The arginine to cysteine mutation has little to no effect on kinase activity or cytoskeletal reorganization, suggesting that the HRD arginine may not be critical for coordinating phosphotyrosine in the active conformation. The histidine to leucine mutant retains some kinase activity and biological function, suggesting that this amino acid may have a biochemical function in the active kinase that is independent of its side chain hydrogen bonding interactions in the active site. We also describe the phenotypic effects of other mutations in the SH2 and tyrosine kinase domains of src64, and we compare them to the phenotypic effects of the src64 null allele.

  11. Radical scavenging, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Caatinga plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Juceni P; Meira, Marilena; David, Jorge M; Brandão, Hugo N; Branco, Alexsandro; de Fátima Agra, M; Barbosa, M Regina V; de Queiroz, Luciano P; Giulietti, Ana M

    2007-04-01

    Extracts of 32 plants from the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid region called Caatinga were evaluated through DPPH radical scavenging assay, beta-carotene bleaching, and brine shrimp lethality tests (BST). Among the extracts studied Byrsonima cf. gardneriana, Mascagnia coriacea, Cordia globosa, Diodia apiculata and Hypenia salzmannii showed the highest activities in DPPH radical scavenging test. In the beta-carotene bleaching test the highest activities were observed for Passiflora cincinnata, Chamaecrista repens, B. cf. gardneriana, Rollinia leptopetala, Serjania glabrata, Diospyros gaultheriifolia, C. globosa, Mimosa ophtalmocentra, M. coriacea and Lippia cf. microphylla. In contrast, R. leptopetala, Zornia cf. brasiliensis and Leonotis nepetifolia were the most active species in the BST.

  12. Pharmacological activities of Solanum melongena Linn. (Brinjal plant

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    Mitali Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solanum melongena Linn. is a herbaceous plant, with coarsely lobed leaves, white to purple flowers, fruit is berry and are grown mainly for food and medicinal purposes. The plant contains flavonoids, tropane, glycoalkaloids, arginine, lanosterol, gramisterol, aspartic acid as important constituents. The plant is reported to have analgesic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiasthmatic, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, antiplatelet, intraocular pressure reducing, CNS depressant and anaphylactic reaction inhibitory activities. Traditional herbal medicine existed before the application of modern scientific method to health care and even today majority of the world population depends on herbal health care practices. This review gives an overview mainly on the medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological actions of Solanum melongena.

  13. Administration of memantine and imipramine alters mitochondrial respiratory chain and creatine kinase activities in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Stringari, Roberto B; Rezin, Gislaine T; Fraga, Daiane B; Daufenbach, Juliana F; Scaini, Giselli; Benedet, Joana; Rochi, Natália; Streck, Emílio L; Quevedo, João

    2012-04-01

    Several studies have appointed for a role of glutamatergic system and/or mitochondrial function in major depression. In the present study, we evaluated the creatine kinase and mitochondrial respiratory chain activities after acute and chronic treatments with memantine (N-methyl-D: -aspartate receptor antagonist) and imipramine (tricyclic antidepressant) in rats. To this aim, rats were acutely or chronically treated for 14 days once a day with saline, memantine (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and imipramine (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg). After acute or chronic treatments, we evaluated mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (I, II, II-III and IV) and creatine kinase activities in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Our results showed that both acute and chronic treatments with memantine or imipramine altered respiratory chain complexes and creatine kinase activities in rat brain; however, these alterations were different with relation to protocols (acute or chronic), complex, dose and brain area. Finally, these findings further support the hypothesis that the effects of imipramine and memantine could be involve mitochondrial function modulation.

  14. Altered spontaneous neural activity in the occipital face area reflects behavioral deficits in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanfang; Li, Jingguang; Liu, Xiqin; Song, Yiying; Wang, Ruosi; Yang, Zetian; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) exhibit severe difficulties in recognizing faces and to a lesser extent, also exhibit difficulties in recognizing non-face objects. We used fMRI to investigate whether these behavioral deficits could be accounted for by altered spontaneous neural activity. Two aspects of spontaneous neural activity were measured: the intensity of neural activity in a voxel indexed by the fractional amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF), and the connectivity of a voxel to neighboring voxels indexed by regional homogeneity (ReHo). Compared with normal adults, both the fALFF and ReHo values within the right occipital face area (rOFA) were significantly reduced in DP subjects. Follow-up studies on the normal adults revealed that these two measures indicated further functional division of labor within the rOFA. The fALFF in the rOFA was positively correlated with behavioral performance in recognition of non-face objects, whereas ReHo in the rOFA was positively correlated with processing of faces. When considered together, the altered fALFF and ReHo within the same region (rOFA) may account for the comorbid deficits in both face and object recognition in DPs, whereas the functional division of labor in these two measures helps to explain the relative independency of deficits in face recognition and object recognition in DP.

  15. Antibacterial activity of caffeine against plant pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledz, Wojciech; Los, Emilia; Paczek, Agnieszka; Rischka, Jacek; Motyka, Agata; Zoledowska, Sabina; Piosik, Jacek; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of a plant secondary metabolite - caffeine. Caffeine is present in over 100 plant species. Antibacterial activity of caffeine was examined against the following plant-pathogenic bacteria: Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsol), Clavibacter michiganesis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms), Dickeya solani (Dsol), Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba), Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), and Xanthomonas campestris subsp. campestris (Xcc). MIC and MBC values ranged from 5 to 20 mM and from 43 to 100 mM, respectively. Caffeine increased the bacterial generation time of all tested species and caused changes in cell morphology. The influence of caffeine on the synthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins was investigated in cultures of plant pathogenic bacteria with labelled precursors: [(3)H]thymidine, [(3)H]uridine or (14)C leucine, respectively. RNA biosynthesis was more affected than DNA or protein biosynthesis in bacterial cells treated with caffeine. Treatment of Pba with caffeine for 336 h did not induce resistance to this compound. Caffeine application reduced disease symptoms caused by Dsol on chicory leaves, potato slices, and whole potato tubers. The data presented indicate caffeine as a potential tool for the control of diseases caused by plant-pathogenic bacteria, especially under storage conditions.

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Aqueous Plant Extracts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Mohammed Buzayan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a serious health problem in many regions of the world, and the development of resistance to antibiotics by this microbe created the need for new drugs to replace those which have lost effectiveness. This study assesses the medicinal anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties of natural products obtained from plants collected from Eastern Libya. In this study aqueous extracts of nine different plants were assayed for their Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibitory activity using the BACTEC MGIT960 susceptibility test method. The aqueous extracts of Ceratonia siliqua L, Helichrysum stoechas (L. Moench and Thymus algeriensis did not show any activity against M. tuberculosis in different concentrations. The aqueous extract of Marrubium vulgare L. from Syria showed high activity against M. tuberculosis. Marrubium alysson L., Marrubium vulgare L., Pistacia lentiscus L, Quercus coccifera L, Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffm. & Link, showed varying degrees of activity against M. tuberculosis. The results of this study show that aqueous extracts from six different medicinal plants have different effects against M. tuberculosis in vitro.

  17. Alterations in Daytime and Nighttime Activity in Piglets after Focal and Diffuse Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Emily; Badder, Carlie; Sullivan, Sarah; Smith, Colin; Propert, Kathleen; Margulies, Susan S

    2016-04-15

    We have developed and implemented a noninvasive, objective neurofunctional assessment for evaluating the sustained effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in piglets with both diffuse and focal injury types. Derived from commercial actigraphy methods in humans, this assessment continuously monitors the day/night activity of piglets using close-fitting jackets equipped with tri-axial accelerometers to monitor movements of the thorax. Acceleration metrics were correlated (N = 7 naïve piglets) with video images to define values associated with a range of activities, from recumbancy (rest) to running. Both focal (N = 8) and diffuse brain injury (N = 9) produced alterations in activity that were significant 4 days post-TBI. Compared to shams (N = 6) who acclimated to the animal facility 4 days after an anesthesia experience by blurring the distinction between day and night activity, post-TBI time-matched animals had larger fractions of inactive periods during the daytime than nighttime, and larger fractions of active time in the night were spent in high activity (e.g., constant walking, intermittent running) than during the day. These persistent disturbances in rest and activity are similar to those observed in human adults and children post-TBI, establishing actigraphy as a translational metric, used in both humans and large animals, for assessment of injury severity, progressions, and intervention.

  18. Screening of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amal Bakr Shori

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder characterized by abnormaly increased plasma glucose levels. Postprandial hyperglycemia plays an essential role in development of type-2 diabetes. Inhibitors of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes (such as α-glucosidase and α-amylase) offer an effective strategy to regulate/prevent hyperglycemia by controling starch breakdown. Natural α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors, as wel as antioxidants from plant-based sources, offer a source of dietary ingredients that affect human physiological function in order to treat diabetes. Several research studies have investigated the effectiveness of plant-based inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, as wel as their antioxidant activity. The aim of this review is to summarize the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of several medicinal plants around the world. Half inhibitory concentration (IC50,for enzyme suppression) and half effective concentration (EC50, for antioxidant activity) values of less than 500 μg/mL were deifned as the most potent plant-based inhibitors (in vitro) and are expected to provide interesting candidates for herbal treatment of diabetes, as foods, supplements, or reifned drugs.

  19. In plant activation: an inducible, hyperexpression platform for recombinant protein production in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, Benjamin; Mortimer, Cara L; Kato, Maiko; James, Tess A; Harding, Robert M; Dale, James L

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we describe a novel protein production platform that provides both activation and amplification of transgene expression in planta. The In Plant Activation (INPACT) system is based on the replication machinery of tobacco yellow dwarf mastrevirus (TYDV) and is essentially transient gene expression from a stably transformed plant, thus combining the advantages of both means of expression. The INPACT cassette is uniquely arranged such that the gene of interest is split and only reconstituted in the presence of the TYDV-encoded Rep/RepA proteins. Rep/RepA expression is placed under the control of the AlcA:AlcR gene switch, which is responsive to trace levels of ethanol. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Samsun) plants containing an INPACT cassette encoding the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter had negligible background expression but accumulated very high GUS levels (up to 10% total soluble protein) throughout the plant, within 3 d of a 1% ethanol application. The GUS reporter was replaced with a gene encoding a lethal ribonuclease, barnase, demonstrating that the INPACT system provides exquisite control of transgene expression and can be adapted to potentially toxic or inhibitory compounds. The INPACT gene expression platform is scalable, not host-limited, and has been used to express both a therapeutic and an industrial protein.

  20. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of plants from northeast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Pérez-López, Luis Alejandro; López-Arroyo, Joel; Alanís-Garza, Blanca Alicia; Waksman de Torres, Noemí

    2011-01-01

    Traditional medicine has a key role in health care worldwide. Obtaining scientific information about the efficacy and safety of the plants from our region is one of the goals of our research group. In this report, 17 plants were selected and collected in different localities from northeast Mexico. The dried plants were separated into leaves, flowers, fruit, stems, roots and bark. Each part was extracted with methanol, and 39 crude extracts were prepared. The extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity using three Gram-negative bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii), three Gram-positive bacterial strains (Enterococcus faecalis and two Staphylococcus aureus strains), and seven clinically isolated yeasts (Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata); their antioxidant activity was tested using a DPPH free radical assay. No activity against Gram-negative bacteria was observed with any extract up to the maximum concentration tested, 1000 μg ml(-1). We report here for the first time activity of Ceanothus coeruleus against S. aureus (flowers, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 125 μg ml(-1)), C. glabrata (MICs 31.25 μg ml(-1)) and C. parapsilosis (MICs between 31.25 and 125 μg ml(-1)); Chrysanctinia mexicana against C. glabrata (MICs 31.25 μg ml(-1)); Colubrina greggii against E. faecalis (MICs 250 μg ml(-1)) and Cordia boissieri against C. glabrata (MIC 125 μg ml(-1)). Furthermore, this is the first report about antioxidant activity of extracts from Ceanothus coeruleus, Chrysanctinia mexicana, Colubrina greggii and Cyperus alternifolius. Some correlation could exist between antioxidant activity and antiyeast activity against yeasts in the species Ceanothus coeruleus, Schinus molle, Colubrina greggii and Cordia boissieri.

  1. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Plants from Northeast of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Salazar-Aranda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicine has a key role in health care worldwide. Obtaining scientific information about the efficacy and safety of the plants from our region is one of the goals of our research group. In this report, 17 plants were selected and collected in different localities from northeast Mexico. The dried plants were separated into leaves, flowers, fruit, stems, roots and bark. Each part was extracted with methanol, and 39 crude extracts were prepared. The extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity using three Gram-negative bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii, three Gram-positive bacterial strains (Enterococcus faecalis and two Staphylococcus aureus strains, and seven clinically isolated yeasts (Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata; their antioxidant activity was tested using a DPPH free radical assay. No activity against Gram-negative bacteria was observed with any extract up to the maximum concentration tested, 1000 μg ml−1. We report here for the first time activity of Ceanothus coeruleus against S. aureus (flowers, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC 125 μg ml−1, C. glabrata (MICs 31.25 μg ml−1 and C. parapsilosis (MICs between 31.25 and 125 μg ml−1; Chrysanctinia mexicana against C. glabrata (MICs 31.25 μg ml−1; Colubrina greggii against E. faecalis (MICs 250 μg ml−1 and Cordia boissieri against C. glabrata (MIC 125 μg ml−1. Furthermore, this is the first report about antioxidant activity of extracts from Ceanothus coeruleus, Chrysanctinia mexicana, Colubrina greggii and Cyperus alternifolius. Some correlation could exist between antioxidant activity and antiyeast activity against yeasts in the species Ceanothus coeruleus, Schinus molle, Colubrina greggii and Cordia boissieri.

  2. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method against three species of Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807, Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and two Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus thuringiensis CCM 19, Stapylococcus aureus subsp. aureus CCM 2461. Results showed that plants with adaptogenic effect are rich for biologically active substances. The highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was determined in the sample of Eleuterococcus senticosus (3.15 mg TEAC – Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per g of sample and by phosphomolybdenum method in the sample of Codonopsis pilosulae (188.79 mg TEAC per g of sample. In the sample of Panax ginseng was measured the highest content of total polyphenols (8.10 mg GAE – galic acid equivalent per g of sample and flavonoids (3.41 μg QE – quercetin equivalent per g of sample. All samples also showed strong antimicrobial activity with the best results in Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera in particular for species Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807. The analyzed species of plant with high value of biological activity can be used more in the future, not only in food, but also in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.

  3. Altered differentiation and paracrine stimulation of mammary epithelial cell proliferation by conditionally activated Smoothened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visbal, Adriana P; LaMarca, Heather L; Villanueva, Hugo; Toneff, Michael J; Li, Yi; Rosen, Jeffrey M; Lewis, Michael T

    2011-04-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling network is critical for patterning and organogenesis in mammals, and has been implicated in a variety of cancers. Smoothened (Smo), the gene encoding the principal signal transducer, is overexpressed frequently in breast cancer, and constitutive activation in MMTV-SmoM2 transgenic mice caused alterations in mammary gland morphology, increased proliferation, and changes in stem/progenitor cell number. Both in transgenic mice and in clinical specimens, proliferative cells did not usually express detectable Smo, suggesting the hypothesis that Smo functioned in a non-cell autonomous manner to stimulate proliferation. Here, we employed a genetically tagged mouse model carrying a Cre-recombinase-dependent conditional allele of constitutively active Smo (SmoM2) to test this hypothesis. MMTV-Cre- or adenoviral-Cre-mediated SmoM2 expression in the luminal epithelium, but not in the myoepithelium, was required for the hyper-proliferative phenotypes. High levels of proliferation were observed in cells adjacent or in close-proximity to Smo expressing cells demonstrating that SmoM2 expressing cells were stimulating proliferation via a paracrine or juxtacrine mechanism. In contrast, Smo expression altered luminal cell differentiation in a cell-autonomous manner. SmoM2 expressing cells, purified by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) via the genetic fluorescent tag, expressed high levels of Ptch2, Gli1, Gli2, Jag2 and Dll-1, and lower levels of Notch4 and Hes6, in comparison to wildtype cells. These studies provide insight into the mechanism of Smo activation in the mammary gland and its possible roles in breast tumorigenesis. In addition, these results also have potential implications for the interpretation of proliferative phenotypes commonly observed in other organs as a consequence of hedgehog signaling activation.

  4. Altered activity of heme biosynthesis pathway enzymes in individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Zavala, A.; Del Razo, L.M.; Garcia-Vargas, G.G.; Aguilar, C.; Borja, V.H.; Albores, A.; Cebrian, M.E. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico (Mexico). Dept. de Farmacologia y Toxicologica

    1999-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the activities of some enzymes of the heme biosynthesis pathway and their relationship with the profile of urinary porphyrin excretion in individuals exposed chronically to arsenic (As) via drinking water in Region Lagunera, Mexico. We selected 17 individuals from each village studied: Benito Juarez, which has current exposure to 0.3 mg As/l; Santa Ana, where individuals have been exposed for more than 35 years to 0.4 mg As/l, but due to changes in the water supply (in 1992) exposure was reduced to its current level (0.1 mg As/l), and Nazareno, with 0.014 mg As/l. Average arsenic concentrations in urine were 2058, 398, and 88 {mu}g As/g creatinine, respectively. The more evident alterations in heme metabolism observed in the highly exposed individuals were: (1) small but significant increases in porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D) and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) activities in peripheral blood erythrocytes; (2) increases in the urinary excretion of total porphyrins, mainly due to coproporphyrin III (COPROIII) and uroporphyrin III (UROIII); and (3) increases in the COPRO/URO and COPROIII/COPROI ratios. No significant changes were observed in uroporphyrinogen III synthetase (UROIII-S) activity. The direct relationships between enzyme activities and urinary porphyrins, suggest that the increased porphyrin excretion was related to PBG-D, whereas the increased URO-D activity would enhance coproporphyrin synthesis and excretion at the expense of uroporphyrin. None of the human studies available have reported the marked porphyric response and enzyme inhibition observed in rodents. In conclusion, chronic As exposure alters human heme metabolism; however the severity of the effects appears to depend on characteristics of exposure not yet fully characterized. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 20 refs.

  5. Altered activity of heme biosynthesis pathway enzymes in individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Zavala, A; Del Razo, L M; García-Vargas, G G; Aguilar, C; Borja, V H; Albores, A; Cebrián, M E

    1999-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the activities of some enzymes of the heme biosynthesis pathway and their relationship with the profile of urinary porphyrin excretion in individuals exposed chronically to arsenic (As) via drinking water in Region Lagunera, Mexico. We selected 17 individuals from each village studied: Benito Juarez, which has current exposure to 0.3 mg As/l; Santa Ana, where individuals have been exposed for more than 35 years to 0.4 mg As/l, but due to changes in the water supply (in 1992) exposure was reduced to its current level (0.1 mg As/l), and Nazareno, with 0.014 mg As/l. Average arsenic concentrations in urine were 2058, 398, and 88 microg As/g creatinine, respectively. The more evident alterations in heme metabolism observed in the highly exposed individuals were: (1) small but significant increases in porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D) and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) activities in peripheral blood erythrocytes; (2) increases in the urinary excretion of total porphyrins, mainly due to coproporphyrin III (COPROIII) and uroporphyrin III (UROIII); and (3) increases in the COPRO/URO and COPROIII/COPROI ratios. No significant changes were observed in uroporphyrinogen III synthetase (UROIII-S) activity. The direct relationships between enzyme activities and urinary porphyrins, suggest that the increased porphyrin excretion was related to PBG-D, whereas the increased URO-D activity would enhance coproporphyrin synthesis and excretion at the expense of uroporphyrin. None of the human studies available have reported the marked porphyric response and enzyme inhibition observed in rodents. In conclusion, chronic As exposure alters human heme metabolism; however the severity of the effects appears to depend on characteristics of exposure not yet fully characterized.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against sexually transmitted pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Nutan; Kulkarni, Sangeeta; Mane, Arati; Kulkarni, Roshan; Palshetker, Aparna; Singh, Kamalinder; Joshi, Swati; Risbud, Arun; Kulkarni, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using vaginal or rectal microbicide-based intervention is one of the strategies for prevention of HIV infection. Herbal products have been used for treating STIs traditionally. Herein, we present in vitro activity of 10 plant extracts and their 34 fractions against three sexually transmitted/reproductive tract pathogens - Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus ducreyi and Candida albicans. The plant parts were selected; the extracts/fractions were prepared and screened by disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory and minimum cidal concentrations were determined. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of selected extracts/fractions showing activity was performed. Of the extracts/fractions tested, three inhibited C. albicans, ten inhibited N. gonorrhoeae and five inhibited H. ducreyi growth. Our study demonstrated that Terminalia paniculata Roth. extracts/fractions inhibited growth of all three organisms. The ethyl acetate fraction of Syzygium cumini Linn. and Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng. extracts was found to inhibit N. gonorrhoeae at lowest concentrations.

  7. Larvicidal activity of some Cerrado plant extracts against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, A M S; De Paula, J E; Degallier, N; Molez, J E; Espindola, L S

    2006-06-01

    One hundred ninety hexanic and ethanolic extract from 27 plant species from the Cerrado biome of Brazil were tested for larvicidal activity against 3rd-stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 500 microg/ml. Fourteen extracts from 7 species showed activity (>65% mortality) against the larvae. Of these Dugeutia furfuracea, Piptocarpha rotundifolia, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua, Serjania lethalis, and Xylopia aromatica were active at 56.6, 162.31, 232.4, 285.76, and 384.37 microg/ml, respectively. Annona crassiflora and Cybistax antisyphilitica showed activity at 23.06 and 27.61 microg/ml. The larvicidal properties of these species are described for the first time, and may prove to be promising in active chemical compound isolation.

  8. In vitro antitrypanosomal activity of plant terpenes against Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoguro, Kazuhiko; Iwatsuki, Masato; Ishiyama, Aki; Namatame, Miyuki; Nishihara-Tukashima, Aki; Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Omura, Satoshi; Yamada, Haruki

    2011-11-01

    During the course of screening to discover antitrypanosomal compounds, 24 known plant terpenes (6 sesquiterpenes, 14 sesquiterpene lactones and 4 diterpenes) were evaluated for in vitro antitrypanosomal activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Among them, 22 terpenes exhibited antitrypanosomal activity. In particular, α-eudesmol, hinesol, nardosinone and 4-peroxy-1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-α-santonin all exhibited selective and potent antitrypanosomal activities in vitro. Detailed here in an in vitro antitrypanosomal properties and cytotoxicities of the 24 terpenes compared with two therapeutic antitrypanosomal drugs (eflornithine and suramin). This finding represents the first report of promising trypanocidal activity of these terpenes. Present results also provide some valuable insight with regard to structure-activity relationships and the possible mode of action of the compounds.

  9. Antileishmanial and trypanocidal activity of Brazilian Cerrado plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Laundry de Mesquita

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The side effects and the emerging resistance to the available drugs against leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis led to the urgent need for new therapeutic agents against these diseases. Thirty one extracts of thirteen medicinal plants from the Brazilian Cerrado were therefore evaluated in vitro for their antiprotozoal activity against promastigotes of Leishmania donovani, and amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. Among the selected plants, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua was the most active against both L. donovani and T. cruzi. Fifteen extracts were active against promastigotes of L. donovani with concentrations inhibiting 50% of parasite growth (IC50 between 0.1-10 µg/ml, particularly those of Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae, Himatanthus obovatus (Apocynaceae, Guarea kunthiana (Meliaceae, Cupania vernalis (Sapindaceae, and Serjania lethalis (Sapindaceae. With regard to amastigotes of T. cruzi, extracts of A. crassiflora, Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae, and C. sylvestris var. lingua were active with IC50 values between 0.3-10 µg/ml. Bioassay fractionations of the more active extracts are under progress to identify the active antiparasite compounds.

  10. Antileishmanial and trypanocidal activity of Brazilian Cerrado plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Mariana Laundry de; Desrivot, Julie; Bories, Christian; Fournet, Alain; Paula, José Elias de; Grellier, Philippe; Espindola, Laila Salmen

    2005-11-01

    The side effects and the emerging resistance to the available drugs against leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis led to the urgent need for new therapeutic agents against these diseases. Thirty one extracts of thirteen medicinal plants from the Brazilian Cerrado were therefore evaluated in vitro for their antiprotozoal activity against promastigotes of Leishmania donovani, and amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. Among the selected plants, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua was the most active against both L. donovani and T. cruzi. Fifteen extracts were active against promastigotes of L. donovani with concentrations inhibiting 50% of parasite growth (IC50) between 0.1-10 microg/ml, particularly those of Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae), Himatanthus obovatus (Apocynaceae), Guarea kunthiana (Meliaceae), Cupania vernalis (Sapindaceae), and Serjania lethalis (Sapindaceae). With regard to amastigotes of T. cruzi, extracts of A. crassiflora, Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae), and C. sylvestris var. lingua were active with IC50 values between 0.3-10 microg/ml. Bioassay fractionations of the more active extracts are under progress to identify the active antiparasite compounds.

  11. Does interspecific competition alter effects of early season ozone exposure on plants from wet grasslands? Results of a three-year experiment in open-top chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Franzaring, J.; Brouwer, G.; Metselaar, K.; Dueck, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    Chronic effects of ozone on wet grassland species early in the growing season might be altered by interspecific competition. Individual plants of Holcus lanatus, Lychnis flos-cuculi, Molinia caerulea and Plantago lanceolata were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Agrostis capillaris. M

  12. Deep brain stimulation during early adolescence prevents microglial alterations in a model of maternal immune activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Ravit; Dong, Le; Del-Valle-Anton, Lucia; Guneykaya, Dilansu; Voget, Mareike; Edemann-Callesen, Henriette; Schweibold, Regina; Djodari-Irani, Anais; Goetz, Thomas; Ewing, Samuel; Kettenmann, Helmut; Wolf, Susanne A; Winter, Christine

    2016-12-07

    In recent years schizophrenia has been recognized as a neurodevelopmental disorder likely involving a perinatal insult progressively affecting brain development. The poly I:C maternal immune activation (MIA) rodent model is considered as a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Using this model we and others demonstrated the association between neuroinflammation in the form of altered microglia and a schizophrenia-like endophenotype. Therapeutic intervention using the anti-inflammatory drug minocycline affected altered microglia activation and was successful in the adult offspring. However, less is known about the effect of preventive therapeutic strategies on microglia properties. Previously we found that deep brain stimulation of the medial prefrontal cortex applied pre-symptomatically to adolescence MIA rats prevented the manifestation of behavioral and structural deficits in adult rats. We here studied the effects of deep brain stimulation during adolescence on microglia properties in adulthood. We found that in the hippocampus and nucleus accumbens, but not in the medial prefrontal cortex, microglial density and soma size were increased in MIA rats. Pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA was unchanged in all brain areas before and after implantation and stimulation. Stimulation of either the medial prefrontal cortex or the nucleus accumbens normalized microglia density and soma size in main projection areas including the hippocampus and in the area around the electrode implantation. We conclude that in parallel to an alleviation of the symptoms in the rat MIA model, deep brain stimulation has the potential to prevent the neuroinflammatory component in this disease.

  13. Anthelmintic activity of some Mediterranean browse plants against parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolaraki, F; Sotiraki, S; Stefanakis, A; Skampardonis, V; Volanis, M; Hoste, H

    2010-04-01

    The anthelmintic properties of tannin-rich plants are being explored as an alternative to chemical drugs. Most data have been acquired on legume forages, but only few on browse plants. The present study aimed to (i) screen the in vitro effects of extracts from 7 Mediterranean plants on Haemonchus contortus, (ii) verify the role of tannins using an inhibitor, polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP) and (iii) verify the in vivo effects of extracts from 4 plants. Significant inhibition was shown in vitro using a larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay for all extracts except that from Olea europaea var. koroneiki. After adding PVPP, the LMI values were restored to control levels for all plants except Pistacia lentiscus and Ceratonia siliqua, confirming a role for tannins in the activity. In the in vivo experiment, 48 lambs composed 6 groups, depending on diet. On Day 0, groups G1-G5 received H. contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae and G6 remained uninfected. The various diets were distributed from Days 14 to 45: P. lentiscus (G1), Quercus coccifera (G2), C. siliqua (G3), Onobrychis viciifolia (G4), or Medicago sativa for the 2 control groups (G5, G6). Egg excretion, packed cell volumes (PCVs) and inorganic phosphate were measured weekly throughout the entire experimental period. At slaughter, the worms were enumerated and their fecundity assessed. Consumption of the 4 browser plants did not provoke differences in pathophysiological measurements but there were significant decreases in egg excretion, mainly explained by significant decreases in worm fecundity for both species, without any statistical difference in worm numbers.

  14. Stat1 activation attenuates IL-6 induced Stat3 activity but does not alter apoptosis sensitivity in multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimberg Lina Y

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple myeloma (MM is at present an incurable malignancy, characterized by apoptosis-resistant tumor cells. Interferon (IFN treatment sensitizes MM cells to Fas-induced apoptosis and is associated with an increased activation of Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat1. The role of Stat1 in MM has not been elucidated, but Stat1 has in several studies been ascribed a pro-apoptotic role. Conversely, IL-6 induction of Stat3 is known to confer resistance to apoptosis in MM. Methods To delineate the role of Stat1 in IFN mediated sensitization to apoptosis, sub-lines of the U-266-1970 MM cell line with a stable expression of the active mutant Stat1C were utilized. The influence of Stat1C constitutive transcriptional activation on endogenous Stat3 expression and activation, and the expression of apoptosis-related genes were analyzed. To determine whether Stat1 alone would be an important determinant in sensitizing MM cells to apoptosis, the U-266-1970-Stat1C cell line and control cells were exposed to high throughput compound screening (HTS. Results To explore the role of Stat1 in IFN mediated apoptosis sensitization of MM, we established sublines of the MM cell line U-266-1970 constitutively expressing the active mutant Stat1C. We found that constitutive nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of Stat1 was associated with an attenuation of IL-6-induced Stat3 activation and up-regulation of mRNA for the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein family genes Harakiri, the short form of Mcl-1 and Noxa. However, Stat1 activation alone was not sufficient to sensitize cells to Fas-induced apoptosis. In a screening of > 3000 compounds including bortezomib, dexamethasone, etoposide, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, geldanamycin (17-AAG, doxorubicin and thalidomide, we found that the drug response and IC50 in cells constitutively expressing active Stat1 was mainly unaltered. Conclusion We conclude that Stat1 alters IL-6

  15. Vitamin D3 alters microglia immune activation by an IL-10 dependent SOCS3 mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boontanrart, Mandy; Hall, Samuel D; Spanier, Justin A; Hayes, Colleen E; Olson, Julie K

    2016-03-15

    Microglia become activated immune cells during infection or disease in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the mechanisms that downregulate activated microglia to prevent immune-mediated damage are not completely understood. Vitamin D3 has been suggested to have immunomodulatory affects, and high levels of vitamin D3 have been correlated with a decreased risk for developing some neurological diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated the synthesis of active vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, within the CNS, but its cellular source and neuroprotective actions remain unknown. Therefore, we wanted to determine whether microglia can respond to vitamin D3 and whether vitamin D3 alters immune activation of microglia. We have previously shown that microglia become activated by IFNγ or LPS or by infection with virus to express pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and effector molecules. In this study, activated microglia increased the expression of the vitamin D receptor and Cyp27b1, which encodes the enzyme for converting vitamin D3 into its active form, thereby enhancing their responsiveness to vitamin D3. Most importantly, the activated microglia exposed to vitamin D3 had reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-12, and TNFα, and increased expression of IL-10. The reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines was dependent on IL-10 induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3). Therefore, vitamin D3 increases the expression of IL-10 creating a feedback loop via SOCS3 that downregulates the pro-inflammatory immune response by activated microglia which would likewise prevent immune mediated damage in the CNS.

  16. Functional genomics of bio-energy plants and related patent activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Ye; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2013-04-01

    With dwindling fossil oil resources and increased economic growth of many developing countries due to globalization, energy driven from an alternative source such as bio-energy in a sustainable fashion is the need of the hour. However, production of energy from biological source is relatively expensive due to low starch and sugar contents of bioenergy plants leading to lower oil yield and reduced quality along with lower conversion efficiency of feedstock. In this context genetic improvement of bio-energy plants offers a viable solution. In this manuscript, we reviewed the current status of functional genomics studies and related patent activities in bio-energy plants. Currently, genomes of considerable bio-energy plants have been sequenced or are in progress and also large amount of expression sequence tags (EST) or cDNA sequences are available from them. These studies provide fundamental data for more reliable genome annotation and as a result, several genomes have been annotated in a genome-wide level. In addition to this effort, various mutagenesis tools have also been employed to develop mutant populations for characterization of genes that are involved in bioenergy quantitative traits. With the progress made on functional genomics of important bio-energy plants, more patents were filed with a significant number of them focusing on genes and DNA sequences which may involve in improvement of bio-energy traits including higher yield and quality of starch, sugar and oil. We also believe that these studies will lead to the generation of genetically altered plants with improved tolerance to various abiotic and biotic stresses.

  17. Screening of Uruguayan plants for deterrent activity against insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Lucía; González-Coloma, Azucena; González, Andrés; Díaz, Martina; Santos, Estela; Alonso-Paz, Eduardo; Bassagoda, María Julia; Rossini, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the anti-insectan activity of extracts from different vegetative parts of ten plant species native to Uruguay. The selected plants belong to five families: Bignoniaceae: Clytostoma callistegioides, Dolichandra cynanchoides, Macfadyena unguis-cati; Sapindaceae: Dodonaea viscosa, Allophylus edulis, Serjania meridionalis; Lamiaceae: Salvia procurrens, Salvia guaranitica; Solanaceae: Lycium cestroides; and Phytolaccaceae: Phytolacca dioica. The extracts were evaluated in independent bioassays against four insect pests and one beneficial insect. Aphid settling inhibition was evaluated with a grass specialist, Rhopalosiphum padi, and a feeding generalist, Myzus persicae (both Hemiptera: Aphididae). Antifeedant activity was tested with adults of the specialist Epilachna paenulata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and larvae of the generalist Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Finally, contact toxicity was assessed with honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Strong settling inhibition (SI) activity (expressed as %SI, where 100% means complete inhibition by the extract) was found only for the twig extracts of A. edulis (Sapindaceae) against M. persicae (% SI = 77 +/- 4). Antifeedant activity (expressed as % of feeding reduction (FR), where 100% means no consumption on extract-treated diet) against E. paenulata was significant for the leaf extracts of L. cestroides (Solanaceae) (% FR = 100 +/- 0) as well as of all Bignoniaceae and Sapindaceae species. No extracts were active against S. littoralis larvae, and most of them were innocuous to honey bees, with the exception of L. cestroides and S. meridionalis leaf extracts.

  18. Regulation and activity of secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) is altered in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Megan; Bauer, Rebecca N; Letang, Blanche D; Brighton, Luisa; Thompson, Elizabeth; Simmen, Rosalia C M; Bonner, James; Jaspers, Ilona

    2014-02-01

    A hallmark of cigarette smoking is a shift in the protease/antiprotease balance, in favor of protease activity. However, it has recently been shown that smokers have increased expression of a key antiprotease, secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI), yet the mechanisms involved in SLPI transcriptional regulation and functional activity of SLPI remain unclear. We examined SLPI mRNA and protein secretion in differentiated nasal epithelial cells (NECs) and nasal lavage fluid (NLF) from nonsmokers and smokers and demonstrated that SLPI expression is increased in NECs and NLF from smokers. Transcriptional regulation of SLPI expression was confirmed using SLPI promoter reporter assays followed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. The role of STAT1 in regulating SLPI expression was further elucidated using WT and stat1(-/-) mice. Our data demonstrate that STAT1 regulates SLPI transcription in epithelial cells and slpi protein in the lungs of mice. Additionally, we reveal that NECs from smokers have increased STAT1 mRNA/protein expression. Finally, we demonstrate that SLPI contained in the nasal mucosa of smokers is proteolytically cleaved but retains functional activity against neutrophil elastase. These results demonstrate that smoking enhances expression of SLPI in NECs in vitro and in vivo, and that this response is regulated by STAT1. In addition, despite posttranslational cleavage of SLPI, antiprotease activity against neutrophil elastase is enhanced in smokers. Together, our findings show that SLPI regulation and activity is altered in the nasal mucosa of smokers, which could have broad implications in the context of respiratory inflammation and infection.

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Ammania baccifera (L.) Whole plant extract in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subash vijayakumar; Ramaiyan Dhanapal; I Sarathchandran; A Saravana Kumar; JVijaya Ratna

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of whole plant of Ammania baccifera, Linn (EEAB). Methods: To investigate in rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced erythrocyte damage. Simultaneous intraperitoneal administration of the crude extracts (600 or 800 mg/kg body weight/day) with carbon tetrachloride (1ml/kg of body weight) to rats for alternate days of two weeks protected the loss of functional integrity and membrane lipid alteration in red blood cells induced by oxidative stress. Results: EEAB inhibited the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in the plasma as well as maintained the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. The extracts further had the ability to decrease the membrane fluidity induced by carbon tetrachloride. Conclusion:It can therefore be suggested that the whole plant of Ammania baccifera, Linn possess an erythrocyte protective activity against drug induced oxidative stress. These findings also provide a rationale for further studies on isolation of active principles and its pharmacological evaluation.

  20. A Review on Medicinal Plants with Anti-Ulcer Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh A. M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A peptic ulcer is erosion in a segment of the gastro intestinal mucosa. It may typically in the stomach (gastric ulcer or first few centimeters of duodenum (duodenal ulcer that penetrates through the muscularis mucosae. Contrary to popular belief, ulcer is not only caused by spicy food but also most commonly due to an infection of Helicobacter Pylori and long term use of medications. Standard treatment is a combination of drugs including antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitors. Literature suggests that number of synthetic drugs are used in the management of peptic ulcers but elicit several adverse effects. Therefore Indian herbal plants stand out as being exceptional for its ethnic, ethobotanical and ethno-pharmaceutical use. In this review attempts have been made to know about some plants which may be used in treatment or prevention of peptic ulcers. Various plants like Excoecaria agallocha, Mentha arvensis, Utleria salicifolia, Emblica officinalis etc. proved active in antiulcer therapy. This combination of traditional and modern knowledge can produced better antiulcer drugs with fewer side effects. The medicinal plants are available in India and other countries, recent technologies advances have renewal interest in natural product in drug discovery.

  1. [Peculicidal activity of plant essential oils and their based preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The peculicidal activity of eight plant essential oils in 75% isopropyl alcohol was in vitro investigated. Of them, the substances that were most active against lice were tea tree (Melaleuca), eucalyptus, neem, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils; KT50 was not more than 3 minutes on average; KT95 was 4 minutes. After evaporating the solvent, only five (tea tree, cassia, clove, anise (Anisum vulgare), and Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) oils) of the eight test botanical substances were active against lice. At the same time, KT50 and KT95 showed 1.5-5-fold increases. Citronella and anise oils had incomplete ovicidal activity. Since the lice were permethrin-resistant, the efficacy of preparations based on essential oils was much higher than permethrin.

  2. Antiviral activities of medicinal plants of southern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R S; Hudson, J B; Manandhar, N P; Towers, G H

    1996-08-01

    In a screening of plants used traditionally in Nepal to treat diseases that could be caused by viruses, twenty-one methanol extracts from twenty species were quantitatively assayed for activity against three mammalian viruses: herpes simplex virus, Sindbis virus and poliovirus. Assays were performed in ultraviolet (UV)-A or visible light, as well as dark, and cytotoxicity was also noted. Impressive antiviral activities were exhibited by species of Bauhinia (Fabaceae), Carissa (Apocynaceae), Milletia (Fabaceae), Mallotus (Fabaceae), Rumex (Polygonaceae), Streblus (Moraceae), Terminalia (Combretaceae) and Tridax (Asteraceae). The Carissa extract was the most active, showing activity against all three viruses at a concentration of 12 micrograms/ml. Many of the other extracts showed partial inactivation of one or more test viruses.

  3. Antiurease activity of plants growing in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hřibová, Petra; Khazneh, Elian; Žemlička, Milan; Švajdlenka, Emil; Ghoneim, Mohammed M; Elokely, Khaled M; Ross, Samir A

    2014-01-01

    The antiurease activity of the aqueous extracts of 42 plants growing in the Czech Republic was investigated. A phenol-hypochlorite reaction was used for the determination of ammonia produced by urease. The inhibitory activity of the extracts at a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL varied from 17.8% to 80.0%. Extracts from six Potentilla species expressed inhibitory activity against jack bean urease. They were further investigated for their phenolic constituents and the major compounds were subjected to molecular docking. The results revealed that both jack bean urease and Helicobacter pylori urease were inhibited by quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside-6″-gallate (1), myricetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (2), tiliroside (3) and B-type procyanidin (4). The antiurease activity of the investigated Potentilla species is probably due to the presence of complex phenolic constituents such as flavonoid glycosides and catechin dimers.

  4. Antiviral Activity of Some Plants Used in Nepalese Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajbhandari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace strigilosa, Asparagus filicinus, Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata and Verbascum thapsus exhibited strong anti-influenza viral activity. Only the extracts of A. rivularis and B. ciliata demonstrated remarkable activity against both viruses.

  5. Anti-bacterial activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; de Souza Luna, Josiane; dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; de Andrade, Maria Cristina Caño; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Genet, Jean-Pierre; Marquez, Béatrice; Neuville, Luc; Moreau, Nicole

    2006-04-21

    Extracts from various organs of 25 plants of Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed with respect to their anti-bacterial activities against Escherichia coli, a susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus and two resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus harbouring the efflux pumps NorA and MsrA. Amongst the 49 extracts studied, 14 presented anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, including the ethanolic extracts from the rhizome of Jatropha elliptica, from the stem barks of Schinus terebinthifolius and Erythrina mulungu, from the stems and leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis and Serjania lethalis, and from the stem bark and leaves of Lafoensia pacari. The classes of compounds present in the active extracts were determined as a preliminary step towards their bioactivity-guided separation. No extracts were active against Escherichia coli.

  6. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activity of selected medicinal plant extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguta, Joseph M.; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K.; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G.A.; Otchere, Isaac; Kissi-Twum, Abena

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains an ongoing threat to human health. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally to treat tuberculosis in Ghana. The current study was designed to investigate the antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts from five selected medicinal plants. Material and methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) was used for antimycobacterial studies while the CellTiter 96® AQueous Assay, which is composed of solutions of a novel tetrazolium compound [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS] and an electron coupling reagent (phenazine methosulfate) PMS, was used for cytotoxic studies. Correlation coefficients were used to compare the activity of crude extracts against nonpathogenic strains and the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis. Results Results of the MIC determinations indicated that all the crude extracts were active on all the three tested mycobacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration values as low as 156.3 µg/mL against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra (ATCC® 25,177™) were recorded from the leaves of Solanum torvum Sw. (Solanaceae). Cytotoxicity of the extracts varied, and the leaves from S. torvum had the most promising selectivity index. Activity against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra was the best predictor of activity against pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis (correlation coefficient=0.8). Conclusion The overall results of the present study provide supportive data on the use of some medicinal plants for tuberculosis treatment. The leaves of Solanum torvum are a potential source of anti-TB natural products and deserve further investigations to develop novel anti-TB agents against sensitive and drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. PMID:26875647

  7. Complex effects of fertilization on plant and herbivore performance in the presence of a plant competitor and activated carbon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Mahdavi-Arab

    Full Text Available Plant-herbivore interactions are influenced by host plant quality which in turn is affected by plant growth conditions. Competition is the major biotic and nutrient availability a major abiotic component of a plant's growth environment. Yet, surprisingly few studies have investigated impacts of competition and nutrient availability on herbivore performance and reciprocal herbivore effects on plants. We studied growth of the specialist aphid, Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria, and its host plant tansy, Tanacetum vulgare, under experimental addition of inorganic and organic fertilizer crossed with competition by goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Because of evidence that competition by goldenrod is mediated by allelopathic compounds, we also added a treatment with activated carbon. Results showed that fertilization increased, and competition with goldenrod decreased, plant biomass, but this was likely mediated by resource competition. There was no evidence from the activated carbon treatment that allelopathy played a role which instead had a fertilizing effect. Aphid performance increased with higher plant biomass and depended on plant growth conditions, with fertilization and AC increasing, and plant competition decreasing aphid numbers. Feedbacks of aphids on plant performance interacted with plant growth conditions in complex ways depending on the relative magnitude of the effects on plant biomass and aphid numbers. In the basic fertilization treatment, tansy plants profited from increased nutrient availability by accumulating more biomass than they lost due to an increased number of aphids under fertilization. When adding additional fertilizer, aphid numbers increased so high that tansy plants suffered and showed reduced biomass compared with controls without aphids. Thus, the ecological cost of an infestation with aphids depends on the balance of effects of growth conditions on plant and herbivore performance. These results emphasize the importance

  8. Complex effects of fertilization on plant and herbivore performance in the presence of a plant competitor and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi-Arab, Nafiseh; Meyer, Sebastian T; Mehrparvar, Mohsen; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2014-01-01

    Plant-herbivore interactions are influenced by host plant quality which in turn is affected by plant growth conditions. Competition is the major biotic and nutrient availability a major abiotic component of a plant's growth environment. Yet, surprisingly few studies have investigated impacts of competition and nutrient availability on herbivore performance and reciprocal herbivore effects on plants. We studied growth of the specialist aphid, Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria, and its host plant tansy, Tanacetum vulgare, under experimental addition of inorganic and organic fertilizer crossed with competition by goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Because of evidence that competition by goldenrod is mediated by allelopathic compounds, we also added a treatment with activated carbon. Results showed that fertilization increased, and competition with goldenrod decreased, plant biomass, but this was likely mediated by resource competition. There was no evidence from the activated carbon treatment that allelopathy played a role which instead had a fertilizing effect. Aphid performance increased with higher plant biomass and depended on plant growth conditions, with fertilization and AC increasing, and plant competition decreasing aphid numbers. Feedbacks of aphids on plant performance interacted with plant growth conditions in complex ways depending on the relative magnitude of the effects on plant biomass and aphid numbers. In the basic fertilization treatment, tansy plants profited from increased nutrient availability by accumulating more biomass than they lost due to an increased number of aphids under fertilization. When adding additional fertilizer, aphid numbers increased so high that tansy plants suffered and showed reduced biomass compared with controls without aphids. Thus, the ecological cost of an infestation with aphids depends on the balance of effects of growth conditions on plant and herbivore performance. These results emphasize the importance to investigate both

  9. Altered activity of the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala during acquisition and extinction of an active avoidance task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xilu eJiao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Altered medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and amygdala function is associated with anxiety-related disorders. While the mPFC-amygdala pathway has a clear role in fear conditioning, these structures are also involved in active avoidance. Given that avoidance perseveration represents a core symptom of anxiety disorders, the neural substrate of avoidance, especially its extinction, requires better understanding. The present study was designed to investigate the activity of mPFC and amygdala neurons during acquisition and extinction of lever-press avoidance in rats. In particular, neural activity was examined in the mPFC, intercalated cell clusters (ITCs, lateral (LA, basal (BA and central (CeA amygdala, at various time points during acquisition and extinction, using induction of the immediate early gene product, c-Fos. Neural activity was greater in the mPFC, LA, BA, and ITC during the extinction phase as compared to the acquisition phase. In contrast, the CeA was the only region that was more activated during acquisition than during extinction. Our results indicate that elevated activity in the mPFC, BA, LA and ITCs, and reduced CeA activity is associated with extinction of active avoidance. Moreover, inhibitory neurons are activated differently in the mPFC and BA during early and late phase of acquisition and extinction, suggesting their dynamic involvement in the development of avoidance response. Together, these data start to identify the key brain regions important in active avoidance behavior, areas that could be associated with avoidance perseveration in anxiety disorders.

  10. The alterations in biochemical signaling of hippocampal network activity in the autism brain The alterations in biochemical signaling of hippocampal network activity in the autism brain The alterations in biochemical signaling of hippocampal network activity in the autism brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田允; 黄继云; 王锐; 陶蓉蓉; 卢应梅; 廖美华; 陆楠楠; 李静; 芦博; 韩峰

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impaired social interaction and communication. However, the role of synaptic dysfunction during development of autism remains unclear. In the present study, we address the alterations of biochemical signaling in hippocampal network following induction of the autism in experimental animals. Here, the an- imal disease model and DNA array being used to investigate the differences in transcriptome or- ganization between autistic and normal brain by gene co--expression network analysis.

  11. Psychoneuroendocrine immunology: perception of stress can alter body temperature and natural killer cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, R N; Solvason, H B; Hsueh, C M; Rogers, C F; Demissie, S; Hiramoto, N S; Gauthier, D K; Lorden, J F; Ghanta, V K

    1999-01-01

    Psychoimmunology has been credited with using the mind as a way to alter immunity. The problem with this concept is that many of the current psychoimmunology techniques in use are aimed at alleviating stress effects on the immune system rather than at direct augmentation of immunity by the brain. Studies in animals provide a model that permits us to approach the difficulties associated with gaining an understanding of the CNS-immune system connection. A particular advantage of using animals over humans is that psychological and social contributions play a less prominent role for animals than for human subjects, since the animals are all inbred and reared under identical controlled conditions. If the insightful information provided by animal studies is correct, then psychotherapy for the treatment of diseases might be made more effective if some aspect of this knowledge is included in the design of the treatment. We emphasize conditioning as a regimen and an acceptable way to train the brain to remember an output pathway to raise immunity. We propose that a specific drug or perception (mild stress, represented by rotation, total body heating or handling) could substitute and kindle the same output pathway without the need for conditioning. If this view is correct, then instead of using conditioning, it may be possible to use an antigen to activate desired immune cells, and substitute a drug or an external environmental sensory stimulus (perception) to energize the output pathway to these cells. Alternatively, monitoring alterations of body temperature in response to a drug or perception might allow us to follow how effectively the brain is performing in altering immunity. Studies with animals suggest that there are alternative ways to use the mind to raise natural or acquired immunity in man.

  12. Plants from Brazilian Cerrado with potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Monteiro Souza

    Full Text Available The increased amount of melanin leads to skin disorders such as age spots, freckles, melasma and malignant melanoma. Tyrosinase is known to be the key enzyme in melanin production. Plants and their extracts are inexpensive and rich resources of active compounds that can be utilized to inhibit tyrosinase as well as can be used for the treatment of dermatological disorders associated with melanin hyperpigmentation. Using in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory activity assay, extracts from 13 plant species from Brazilian Cerrado were evaluated. The results showed that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts presented potent in vitro tyrosinase inhibition compared to positive control kojic acid. Ethanol extract of Eugenia dysenterica leaves showed significant (p<0.05 tyrosinase inhibitory activity exhibiting the IC₅₀ value of 11.88 µg/mL, compared to kojic acid (IC₅₀ value of 13.14 µg/mL. Pouteria torta aqueous extract leaves also showed significant inhibitory activity with IC₅₀ value of 30.01 µg/mL. These results indicate that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts and their isolated constituents are promising agents for skin-whitening or antimelanogenesis formulations.

  13. Altered default mode network activity in patient with anxiety disorders: An fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Xiaohu [Imaging Department of Tong Ji Hospital of Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200065 (China) and Bio-X lab, Department of Physics, Zhe Jiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)], E-mail: xhzhao999@263.net; Wang Peijun [Imaging Department of Tong Ji Hospital of Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200065 (China)], E-mail: tongjipjwang@vip.sina.com; Li Chunbo [Department of Psychiatry, Tong Ji Hospital of Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200065 (China)], E-mail: licb@mail.tongji.edu.cn; Hu Zhenghui [Department of Electrical and Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: eezhhu@ust.hk; Xi Qian [Imaging Department of Tong Ji Hospital of Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200065 (China)], E-mail: 96125007@sina.com.cn; Wu Wenyuan [Department of Psychiatry, Tong Ji Hospital of Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200065 (China)], E-mail: wuwy@mail.tongji.edu.cn; Tang Xiaowei [Bio-X lab, Department of Physics, Zhe Jiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)], E-mail: tangxw@zju.edu.cn

    2007-09-15

    Anxiety disorder, a common mental disorder in our clinical practice, is characterized by unprovoked anxiety. Medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), which closely involved in emotional processing, are critical regions in the default mode network. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether default mode network activity is altered in patients with anxiety disorder. Ten anxiety patients and 10 healthy controls underwent fMRI while listening to emotionally neutral words alternating with rest (Experiment 1) and threat-related words alternating with emotionally neutral words (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, regions of deactivation were observed in patients and controls. In Experiment 2, regions of deactivation were observed only in patients. The observed deactivation patterns in the two experiments, which included MPFC, PCC, and inferior parietal cortex, were similar and consistent with the default model network. Less deactivation in MPFC and greater deactivation in PCC were observed for patients group comparing to controls in Experiment 1. Our observations suggest that the default model network is altered in anxiety patients and dysfunction in MPFC and PCC may play an important role in anxiety psychopathology.

  14. Acanthus ilicifolius plant extract prevents DNA alterations in a transplantable Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing murine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the chemopreventive efficacy of the Indian medicinal plant Acanthus ilicifolius L Acanthaceae in a transplantable Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing murine model.METHODS: Male Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups: Group A was the untreated normal control; Group B was the EAC control mice group that received serial, intraperitoneal (ip) inoculations of rapidly proliferating 2 × 105 viable EAC cells in 0.2 mL of sterile phosphate buffered saline; Group C was the plant extract-treated group that received the aqueous leaf extract (ALE) of the plant at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight by single ip injections, once daily for 10, 20 and 30 consecutive days following tumour inoculation (ALE control); and Group D was the EAC + ALE-treatment group. The chemopreventive potential of the ALE was evaluated in a murine model by studying various biological parameters and genotoxic markers,such as tumour cell count, mean survival of the animals,haematological indices, hepatocellular histology,immunohistochemical expression of liver metallothionein (MT) protein, sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and DNA alterations.RESULTS: Treatment of the EAC-bearing mice with the ALE significantly (P < 0.001) reduced viable tumour cell count by 68.34% (228.7 × 106 ± 0.53) when compared to EAC control mice (72.4 × 106 ± 0.49), and restored body and organ weights almost to the normal values.ALE administration also increased (P < 0.001) mean survival of the hosts from 35 ± 3.46 d in EAC control mice to 83 ± 2.69 d in EAC + ALE-treated mice.Haematological indices also showed marked improvement with administration of ALE in EAC-bearing animals. There was a significant increase in RBC count (P < 0.001),hemoglobin percent (P < 0.001), and haematocrit value (P < 0.001) from 4.3 ± 0.12, 6.4 ± 0.93, and 17.63 ± 0.72 respectively in EAC control mice to 7.1 ± 0.13, 12.1 ±0.77, and 30.23 ± 0.57 respectively in EAC + ALE-treated group, along with

  15. Activation of secretion and surface alteration of cytolytic T-lymphocytes interacting with target cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykovskaya, S N; Shevelev, A A; Kupriyanova, T A

    1988-01-01

    Cells obtained in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) and memory cells adsorbed on the surface of target cells (TC) were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy depending on the time of interaction with TC. Three types of lymphocytes were revealed: type I - cells of spherical shape with a smooth surface or an insignificant amount of microvilli; predominantly small and medium-sized lymphocytes contacting TC with non significant involvement of their surface or by several microvilli; type II - oval or round-shaped lymphocytes evenly covered with microvilli with considerably enlarged region of contact; type III cells - predominantly large lymphocytes and lymphoblasts flattened (spread) on TC, with multiple microvilli, ridge-like projections, and ruffles on their surface. TEM revealed activation of the secretory apparatus in the cytoplasm of such lymphocytes. With increased time of interaction, type III cells increase in number (from 8.6% after 10 min to 90.2% after 60 min of incubation). Memory cells show no morphologic signs of secretion in correlation with the absence of lysis of TC on which they are adsorbed. The surface of the lymphocytes adsorbed on the substrate with poly-L-lysin is not noticeably altered. It is suggested that 3 morphological types of lymphocytes correspond to 3 stages of secretion activation. Lymphocyte contact with TC surface is evidently a specific stimulus for activating secretory apparatus of CTL. SEM can be used for quantitation of activated lymphocytes.

  16. Guanidination of notexin alters its membrane-damaging activity in response to sphingomyelin and cholesterol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pei-Hsiu Kao; Yi-Ling Chiou; Shinne-Ren Lin; Long-Sen Chang

    2010-12-01

    To elucidate the contribution of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity of notexin to its ability to perturb membranes, comparative studies on the interaction of notexin and guanidinated notexin (Gu-notexin) with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC), EYPC/egg yolk sphingomyelin (EYSM) and EYPC/EYSM/cholesterol vesicles were conducted. EYSM notably reduced the membrane-damaging activity of notexin against EYPC vesicles, but had an insignificant influence on that of Gu-notexin. Unlike the effects noted with notexin, inactivation of PLA2 activity by EDTA led to a reduction in the ability of Gu-notexin to induce EYPC/EYSM vesicle leakage and to increase Gu-notexin-induced membrane permeability of EYPC/EYSM/cholesterol vesicles. The geometrical arrangement of notexin and Gu-notexin in contact with either EYPC/EYSM vesicles or EYPC/EYSM/cholesterol vesicles differed. Moreover, global conformation of notexin and Gu-notexin differed in either Ca2+-bound or metal-free states. These results indicate that notexin and Gu-notexin could induce membrane permeability without the involvement of PLA2 activity, and suggest that guanidination alters the membrane-bound mode of notexin on damaging phospholipid vesicles containing sphingomyelin and cholesterol.

  17. Fluvoxamine alters the activity of energy metabolism enzymes in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela K. Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Several studies support the hypothesis that metabolism impairment is involved in the pathophysiology of depression and that some antidepressants act by modulating brain energy metabolism. Thus, we evaluated the activity of Krebs cycle enzymes, the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and creatine kinase in the brain of rats subjected to prolonged administration of fluvoxamine. Methods: Wistar rats received daily administration of fluvoxamine in saline (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg for 14 days. Twelve hours after the last administration, rats were killed by decapitation and the prefrontal cortex, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum were rapidly isolated. Results: The activities of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV were decreased after prolonged administration of fluvoxamine in rats. However, the activities of complex II, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase were increased. Conclusions: Alterations in activity of energy metabolism enzymes were observed in most brain areas analyzed. Thus, we suggest that the decrease in citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV can be related to adverse effects of pharmacotherapy, but long-term molecular adaptations cannot be ruled out. In addition, we demonstrated that these changes varied according to brain structure or biochemical analysis and were not dose-dependent.

  18. Functional insights into modulation of BKCa channel activity to alter myometrial contractility

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    Ramón A Lorca

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The large-conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ channel (BKCa is an important regulator of membrane excitability in a wide variety of cells and tissues. In myometrial smooth muscle, activation of BKCa plays essential roles in buffering contractility to maintain uterine quiescence during pregnancy and in the transition to a more contractile state at the onset of labor. Multiple mechanisms of modulation have been described to alter BKCa channel activity, expression, and cellular localization. In the myometrium, BKCa is regulated by alternative splicing, protein targeting to the plasma membrane, compartmentation in membrane microdomains, and posttranslational modifications. In addition, interaction with auxiliary proteins (i.e., β1- and β2-subunits, association with G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathways, such as those activated by adrenergic and oxytocin receptors, and hormonal regulation provide further mechanisms of variable modulation of BKCa channel function in myometrial smooth muscle. Here, we provide an overview of these mechanisms of BKCa channel modulation and provide a context for them in relation to myometrial function.

  19. Altered activation of the antagonist muscle during practice compromises motor learning in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Kwon, MinHyuk; Fox, Emily J; Christou, Evangelos A

    2014-08-15

    Aging impairs the activation of muscle; however, it remains unclear whether it contributes to deficits in motor learning in older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine whether altered activation of antagonistic muscles in older adults during practice inhibits their ability to transfer a motor task ipsilaterally. Twenty young (25.1 ± 3.9 yr; 10 men, 10 women) and twenty older adults (71.5 ± 4.8 yr; 10 men, 10 women) participated. Half of the subjects practiced 100 trials of a rapid goal-directed task with ankle dorsiflexion and were tested 1 day later with elbow flexion (transfer). The rest did not perform any ankle practice and only performed the task with elbow flexion. The goal-directed task consisted of rapid movement (180 ms) to match a spatiotemporal target. For each limb, we recorded the EMG burst activity of the primary agonist and antagonist muscles. The rate of improvement during task acquisition (practice) was similar for young and older adults (P > 0.3). In contrast, only young adults were able to transfer the task to the upper limb. Specifically, young adults who practiced ankle dorsiflexion exhibited ∼30% (P movement error and ∼60% (P adults who received equal practice and young adults who did not receive any ankle dorsiflexion practice. These results provide novel evidence that the deficient motor learning in older adults may be related to a differential activation of the antagonist muscle, which compromises their ability to acquire the task during practice.

  20. Acrylamide alters glycogen content and enzyme activities in the liver of juvenile rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Renata; Rajkovic, Vesna; Koledin, Ivana; Matavulj, Milica

    2015-10-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is spontaneously formed in carbohydrate-rich food during high-temperature processing. It is neurotoxic and potentially cancer causing chemical. Its harmful effects on the liver, especially in a young organism, are still to be elucidated. The study aimed to examine main liver histology, its glycogen content and enzyme activities in juvenile rats treated with 25 or 50mg/kg bw of AA for 3 weeks. Liver samples were fixed in formalin, routinely processed for paraffin embedding, sectioning and histochemical staining. Examination of haematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections showed an increase in the volume of hepatocytes, their nuclei and cytoplasm in both AA-treated groups compared to the control. In Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-stained sections in low-dose group was noticed glycogen reduction, while in high-dose group was present its accumulation compared to the control, respectively. Serum analysis showed increased activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and decreased activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in both AA-treated groups, while the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was increased in low-dose, but decreased in high-dose group compared to the control, respectively. Present results suggest a prominent hepatotoxic potential of AA which might alter the microstructural features and functional status in hepatocytes of immature liver.

  1. In vitro activity of Amazon plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis

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    Adriana Lígia de Castilho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies analyzing 2,200 plant extracts indicated anti-enterococcal activity in 25 extracts obtained from Brazilian forests' plants. In the present study, these extracts were subjected to microdilution broth assay (MDBA and disk diffusion assay (DDA using planktonic Enterococcus faecalis ATCC® 29212TM and were submitted to phytochemical analysis in TLC and HPLC. Three extracts obtained from Ipomoea alba (MIC < 40 µg/mL, Diclinanona calycina (MIC < 40 µg/mL and Moronobea coccinea (40 < MIC < 80 µg/mL; MBC = 80 µg/mL showed significant bactericidal activity in the MDBA and four extracts obtained from I. alba (14.04 ± 0.55 mm diameter S. globulifera (14.43 ± 0.33 mm and 12.18 ± 0.28 mm diameter and Connarus ruber var. ruber (13.13 ± 0.18 mm diameter were active in DDA. Residues H2O obtained from Psidium densicomum (mean of 16.78 mm diameter and from Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum (mean of 15.97 mm diameter have shown an improved antibacterial activity after fractionation if compared to that obtained from the respective crude extracts. Antioxidant activity was observed in some residues of the active extracts. TLC analysis showed that phenolic compounds are likely to be found in active extracts. Three molecules were isolated from S. globulifera and were identified by 13C NMR lupeol, α-amyrin and 3β-hydroxyglutin-5-ene. The present chemical and biological findings suggest that these extracts are a potential source of new anti-Enterococcus compounds to be introduced in endodontic therapy.

  2. Antifungal activity of plant extracts with potential to control plant pathogens in pineapple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Diana Cerqueira Sales; Helber Barcellos Costa; Jose Aires Ventura; Debora Dummer Meira

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of extracts, resins, oils and mother tinctures from plants against the filamentous fungi Fusarium guttiforme (F. guttiforme) and Chalara paradoxa, and to evaluate the control of the pineapple fusariosis in situ using mother tinctures. Methods: The screening of the antifungal potential of 131 extract forms from 63 plant species was performed in vitro by using plate-hole method. To control pineapple fusar-iosis in situ, preventive and post-infection treatments were performed on detached pineapple leaves of cv. P´erola (susceptible). Results: The quantitative study indicated that among the 49 mother tincture samples analyzed, 46% were effective against F. guttiforme and 29% for the Chalara paradoxa. The natural plant extracts, mother tincture of Glycyrrhiza glabra (MTGG1), mother tincture of Myroxylon balsamum (MTBT2), mother tincture of Aloe vera (MTAV3), mother tincture of Allium sativum (MTAS4), resin of Protium heptaphyllum (RESAM5) and crude extracts of Rhizophora mangle (CEMV6), exhibited an antifungal activity against F. guttiforme. In the preventive treatment against pineapple fusariosis, MTAV3, MTAS4 and MTGG1 were statistically similar to the treatment with tebuconazol fungicide. The curative treatments with MTAV3, MTAS4, MTGG1 and MTBT2 presented similar activity to fungicide (P Conclusions: The findings of the present study concluded that mother tinctures can effectively control phytopathogens. The mother tincture extract of Myroxylon balsamum showed antifungal activity and was used here for the first time for inhibition of phyto-pathogenic fungi. This study paves the way for the development of bioactive natural products with phytosanitary applications, with the added benefits of an environmentally safe and economically viable product.

  3. Antifungal activity of plant extracts with potential to control plant pathogens in pineapple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Diana Cerqueira Sales; Helber Barcellos Costa; Patrícia Machado Bueno Fernandes; José Aires Ventura; Debora Dummer Meira

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of extracts,resins,oils and mother tinctures from plants against the filamentous fungi Fusarium guttiforme(F.guttiforme)and Chalara paradoxa,and to evaluate the control of the pineapple fusariosis in situ using mother tinctures.Methods:The screening of the antifungal potential of 131 extract forms from 63 plant species was performed in vitro by using plate-hole method.To control pineapple fusariosis in situ,preventive and post-infection treatments were performed on detached pineapple leaves of cv.Perola(susceptible).Results:The quantitative study indicated that among the 49 mother tincture samples analyzed,46% were effective against F.guttiforme and 29% for the Chalara paradoxa.The natural plant extracts,mother tincture of Glycyrrhiza glabra(MTGG1),mother tincture of Myroxylon balsamum(MTBT2),mother tincture of Aloe vera(MTAV3),mother tincture of Allium sativum(MTAS4),resin of Protium heptaphyllum(RESAM5) and crude extracts of Rhizophora mangle(CEMV6),exhibited an antifungal activity against F.guttiforme.In the preventive treatment against pineapple fusariosis,MTAV3,MTAS4 and MTGG1 were statistically similar to the treatment with tebuconazol fungicide.The curative treatments with MTAV3,MTAS4,MTGG1 and MTBT2 presented similar activity to fungicide(P < 0.05).Conclusions:The findings of the present study concluded that mother tinctures can effectively control phytopathogens.The mother tincture extract of Myroxylon balsamum showed antifungal activity and was used here for the first time for inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi.This study paves the way for the development of bioactive natural products with phytosanitary applications,with the added benefits of an environmentally safe and economically viable product.

  4. Whole Blood Activation Results in Altered T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production Profiles by Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2001-01-01

    An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry, a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a whole-blood activation culture has been described. In this study, whole blood activation was compared to traditional PBMC activation and the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells, T cell subsets and monocytes was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: For T cell cytokine assessment (IFNg/IL-10 and IL-21/L-4) following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a Significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture and (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. Four-color analysiS was used to allow assessment of cytokine production by specific T cell subsets. It was found that IFNgamma production was significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were Significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines (IL-1a/IL-12 and TNFa/IL-10) in conjunction with CD14. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFa. equally well in both culture systems, however monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated in whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and TNFa producing

  5. In vitro cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Middle West plant extracts

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    Talal Suleiman Mahmoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic activity of eight plant extracts, native from the Mid-West of Brazil comprising Cerrado, Pantanal and semideciduous forest, was evaluated for MDA-MB-435, SF-295, and HCT-8 cancer cell strains. A single 100 µg.mL-1 dose of each extract was employed with 72 h of incubation for all tests. Doxorubicin (1 µg.mL-1 was used as the positive control and the MTT method was used to detect the activity. Cytotoxicity of distinct polarities was observed in thirty extracts (46%, from different parts of the following species: Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo, Bignoniaceae, Tapirira guianensis Aubl., Anacardiaceae, Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão, Anacardiaceae, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, Gomphrena elegans Mart., Amaranthaceae, Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng., Arecaceae, Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, and Annona dioica A. St.-Hil., Annonaceae. Extracts of at least two tested cell strains were considered to be highly active since their inhibition rate was over 75%.

  6. NF-Y activates genes of metabolic pathways altered in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, Paolo; Chiaramonte, Maria Luisa; Lorenzo, Mariangela; Hartley, John A; Hochhauser, Daniel; Gnesutta, Nerina; Mantovani, Roberto; Imbriano, Carol; Dolfini, Diletta

    2016-01-12

    The trimeric transcription factor NF-Y binds to the CCAAT box, an element enriched in promoters of genes overexpressed in tumors. Previous studies on the NF-Y regulome identified the general term metabolism as significantly enriched. We dissect here in detail the targeting of metabolic genes by integrating analysis of NF-Y genomic binding and profilings after inactivation of NF-Y subunits in different cell types. NF-Y controls de novo biosynthetic pathways of lipids, teaming up with the master SREBPs regulators. It activates glycolytic genes, but, surprisingly, is neutral or represses mitochondrial respiratory genes. NF-Y targets the SOCG (Serine, One Carbon, Glycine) and Glutamine pathways, as well as genes involved in the biosynthesis of polyamines and purines. Specific cancer-driving nodes are generally under NF-Y control. Altogether, these data delineate a coherent strategy to promote expression of metabolic genes fuelling anaerobic energy production and other anabolic pathways commonly altered in cancer cells.

  7. Groundwater Availability Alters Soil-plant Nutrient Cycling in a Stand of Invasive, N-fixing Phreatophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, B. D.; Miyazawa, Y.; Hughes, F.; Ostertag, R.; Kettwich, S. K.; MacKenzie, R.; Dulaiova, H.; Waters, C. A.; Bishop, J.; Giambelluca, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    N-fixing phreatophytic trees are common in arid and semi-arid regions worldwide, and can play significant roles in modifying hydrology and soil-plant nutrient cycling where they are present. In light of reductions in groundwater levels in many arid regions we estimated annual transpiration rates at a stand level, and alterations to C, N and P accretion in soils as a function of groundwater depth in a ca.120 year old stand of Prosopis pallida along an elevation gradient in coastal leeward Hawaii. We measured sapflow and stand level sapwood area to quantify transpiration, and calculated groundwater transpiration rates using P. pallida stem water δ18O values. By measuring soil resistivity, we were able to compare the volume of groundwater transpired by these trees to groundwater depth across the stand. We examined nutrient deposition and accretion in soils in lowland areas of the stand with accessible shallow groundwater, compared to upland areas with no groundwater access, as indicated by stem water δ18O values. Resistivity results suggested that groundwater was at a height close to sea level throughout the stand. Transpiration was around 1900 m3 ha-1 year-1 in the areas of the stand closest to the sea (where groundwater was at around 1-4 m below ground level) and decreased to around a tenth of that volume where groundwater was not accessible. Litterfall rates over the course of the year studied were 17 times greater at lowland sites, but this litterfall contributed ca. 24 times the N, and 35 times the P of upland sites. Thus, groundwater access contributed to the total mass of nitrogen and phosphorus deposited in the form of litter through higher litter quantity and quality. Total N content of soils was 4.7 times greater and inorganic N pools were eight times higher at lowland plots. These results suggest that groundwater depth can have strong effects on soil-plant nutrient cycling, so that reductions in the availability of shallow groundwater are likely to impact

  8. A Background of a Volatile Plant Compound Alters Neural and Behavioral Responses to the Sex Pheromone Blend in a Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Fabienne; Rouyar, Angéla; Deisig, Nina; Bourgeois, Thomas; Limousin, Denis; Wycke, Marie-Anne; Anton, Sylvia; Renou, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Recognition of intra-specific olfactory signals within a complex environment of plant-related volatiles is crucial for reproduction in male moths. Sex pheromone information is detected by specific olfactory receptor neurons (Phe-ORNs), highly abundant on the male antenna. The information is then transmitted to the pheromone processing macroglomerular complex (MGC) within the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe, where it is processed by local interneurons and projection neurons. Ultimately a behavioral response, orientation toward the pheromone source, is elicited. Volatile plant compounds (VPCs) are detected by other functional types of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) projecting in another area of the antennal lobe. However, Phe-ORNs also respond to some VPCs. Female-produced sex pheromones are emitted within a rich environment of VPCs, some of which have been shown to interfere with the detection and processing of sex pheromone information. As interference between the different odor sources might depend on the spatial and temporal features of the two types of stimuli, we investigated here behavioral and neuronal responses to a brief sex pheromone blend pulse in a VPC background as compared to a control background in the male noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon. We observed male orientation behavior in a wind tunnel and recorded responses of Phe-ORNs and MGC neurons to a brief sex pheromone pulse within a background of individual VPCs. We also recorded the global input signal to the MGC using in vivo calcium imaging with the same stimulation protocol. We found that VPCs eliciting a response in Phe-ORNs and MGC neurons masked responses to the pheromone and decreased the contrast between background odor and the sex pheromone at both levels, whereas α-pinene did not interfere with first order processing. The calcium signal produced in response to a VPC background was tonic, lasting longer than the VPC stimulus duration, and masked entirely the pheromone response

  9. Altered activation patterns by triceps surae stretch reflex pathways in acute and chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigon, Alain; Johnson, Michael D; Heckman, C J

    2011-10-01

    Spinal reflexes are modified by spinal cord injury (SCI) due the loss of excitatory inputs from supraspinal structures and changes within the spinal cord. The stretch reflex is one of the simplest pathways of the central nervous system and was used presently to evaluate how inputs from primary and secondary muscle spindles interact with spinal circuits before and after spinal transection (i.e., spinalization) in 12 adult decerebrate cats. Seven cats were spinalized and allowed to recover for 1 mo (i.e., chronic spinal state), whereas 5 cats were evaluated before (i.e., intact state) and after acute spinalization (i.e., acute spinal state). Stretch reflexes were evoked by stretching the left triceps surae (TS) muscles. The force evoked by TS muscles was recorded along with the activity of several hindlimb muscles. Stretch reflexes were abolished in the acute spinal state due to an inability to activate TS muscles, such as soleus (Sol) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG). In chronic spinal cats, reflex force had partly recovered but Sol and LG activity remained considerably depressed, despite the fact that injecting clonidine could recruit these muscles during locomotor-like activity. In contrast, other muscles not recruited in the intact state, most notably semitendinosus and sartorius, were strongly activated by stretching TS muscles in chronic spinal cats. Therefore, stretch reflex pathways from TS muscles to multiple hindlimb muscles undergo functional reorganization following spinalization, both acute and chronic. Altered activation patterns by stretch reflex pathways could explain some sensorimotor deficits observed during locomotion and postural corrections after SCI.

  10. Caatinga plants: Natural and semi-synthetic compounds potentially active against Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Patrícia de Brum; Silva, Nícolas Luiz Feijó; da Silva, Gloria Narjara Santos; Silva, Denise Brentan; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gnoatto, Simone Cristina Baggio; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; Macedo, Alexandre José; Bastida, Jaume; Tasca, Tiana

    2016-05-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes trichomoniasis; the most common but overlooked non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. The treatment is based at 5'-nitroimidazoles, however, failure are related to resistance of T. vaginalis to chemotherapy. Caatinga is a uniquely Brazilian region representing a biome with type desert vegetation and plants present diverse biological activity, however, with few studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity against T. vaginalis of different plants from Caatinga and identify the compounds responsible by the activity. A bioguided fractionation of Manilkara rufula was performed and four major compounds were identified: caproate of α-amyrin (1b), acetate of β-amyrin (2a), caproate of β-amyrin (2b), and acetate of lupeol (3a). In addition, six derivatives of α-amyrin (1), β-amyrin (2) and lupeol (3) were synthesized and tested against the parasite. Ursolic acid (5) reduced about 98% of parasite viability after 2h of incubation and drastic ultrastructural alterations were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, 5 presented high cytotoxicity to HMVII and HeLa cell line and low cytotoxicity against Vero line at 50 μM (MIC against the parasite). Metronidazole effect against T. vaginalis resistant isolate was improved when in association with 5.

  11. Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna eŚlusarczyk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence suggest that the dysregulation of the immune system is an important factor in the development of depression. Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system and a key player in innate immunity of the brain. We hypothesized that prenatal stress (an animal model of depression as a priming factor could affect microglial cells and might lead to depressive-like disturbances in adult male rat offspring. We investigated the behavioral changes (sucrose preference test, Porsolt test, the expression of C1q and CD40 mRNA and the level of microglia (Iba1 positive in 3 month old control and prenatally stressed male offspring rats. In addition, we characterized the morphological and biochemical parameters of potentially harmful (NO, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNF-α, CCL2, CXCL12, CCR2, CXCR4 and beneficial (IGF-1, BDNF phenotypes in cultures of microglia obtained from the cortices of 1-2 days old control and prenatally stressed pups. The adult prenatally stressed rats showed behavioral (anhedonic- and depression-like disturbances, enhanced expression of microglial activation markers and an increased number of Iba1-immunopositive cells in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The morphology of glia was altered in cultures from prenatally stressed rats, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Moreover, in these cultures, we observed enhanced expression of CD40 and MHC II and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-6. Prenatal stress significantly up-regulated levels of the chemokines CCL2, CXCL12 and altered expression of their receptors, CCR2 and CXCR4 while IGF-1 production was suppressed in cultures of microglia from prenatally stressed rats.Our results suggest that prenatal stress may lead to excessive microglia activation and contribute to the behavioral changes observed in depression in adulthood.

  12. Phenolic Constituents of Medicinal Plants with Activity against Trypanosoma brucei

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    Ya Nan Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs affect over one billion people all over the world. These diseases are classified as neglected because they impact populations in areas with poor financial conditions and hence do not attract sufficient research investment. Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT or sleeping sickness, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei, is one of the NTDs. The current therapeutic interventions for T. brucei infections often have toxic side effects or require hospitalization so that they are not available in the rural environments where HAT occurs. Furthermore, parasite resistance is increasing, so that there is an urgent need to identify novel lead compounds against this infection. Recognizing the wide structural diversity of natural products, we desired to explore and identify novel antitrypanosomal chemotypes from a collection of natural products obtained from plants. In this study, 440 pure compounds from various medicinal plants were tested against T. brucei by in a screening using whole cell in vitro assays. As the result, twenty-two phenolic compounds exhibited potent activity against cultures of T. brucei. Among them, eight compounds—4, 7, 11, 14, 15, 18, 20, and 21—showed inhibitory activity against T. brucei, with IC50 values below 5 µM, ranging from 0.52 to 4.70 μM. Based on these results, we attempt to establish some general trends with respect to structure-activity relationships, which indicate that further investigation and optimization of these derivatives might enable the preparation of potentially useful compounds for treating HAT.

  13. Exogenous Alpha-Synuclein Alters Pre- and Post-Synaptic Activity by Fragmenting Lipid Rafts

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    Marco Emanuele

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-synuclein (αSyn interferes with multiple steps of synaptic activity at pre-and post-synaptic terminals, however the mechanism/s by which αSyn alters neurotransmitter release and synaptic potentiation is unclear. By atomic force microscopy we show that human αSyn, when incubated with reconstituted membrane bilayer, induces lipid rafts' fragmentation. As a consequence, ion channels and receptors are displaced from lipid rafts with consequent changes in their activity. The enhanced calcium entry leads to acute mobilization of synaptic vesicles, and exhaustion of neurotransmission at later stages. At the post-synaptic terminal, an acute increase in glutamatergic transmission, with increased density of PSD-95 puncta, is followed by disruption of the interaction between N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR and PSD-95 with ensuing decrease of long term potentiation. While cholesterol loading prevents the acute effect of αSyn at the presynapse; inhibition of casein kinase 2, which appears activated by reduction of cholesterol, restores the correct localization and clustering of NMDARs.

  14. Activating Akt1 mutations alter DNA double strand break repair and radiosensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeck, S.; Al-Refae, K.; Riffkin, H.; Wiel, G.; Handrick, R.; Klein, D.; Iliakis, G.; Jendrossek, V.

    2017-01-01

    The survival kinase Akt has clinical relevance to radioresistance. However, its contributions to the DNA damage response, DNA double strand break (DSB) repair and apoptosis remain poorly defined and often contradictory. We used a genetic approach to explore the consequences of genetic alterations of Akt1 for the cellular radiation response. While two activation-associated mutants with prominent nuclear access, the phospho-mimicking Akt1-TDSD and the clinically relevant PH-domain mutation Akt1-E17K, accelerated DSB repair and improved survival of irradiated Tramp-C1 murine prostate cancer cells and Akt1-knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts in vitro, the classical constitutively active membrane-targeted myrAkt1 mutant had the opposite effects. Interestingly, DNA-PKcs directly phosphorylated Akt1 at S473 in an in vitro kinase assay but not vice-versa. Pharmacological inhibition of DNA-PKcs or Akt restored radiosensitivity in tumour cells expressing Akt1-E17K or Akt1-TDSD. In conclusion, Akt1-mediated radioresistance depends on its activation state and nuclear localization and is accessible to pharmacologic inhibition. PMID:28209968

  15. Interleukin-15 modulates adipose tissue by altering mitochondrial mass and activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole G Barra

    Full Text Available Interleukin-15 (IL-15 is an immunomodulatory cytokine that affects body mass regulation independent of lymphocytes; however, the underlying mechanism(s involved remains unknown. In an effort to investigate these mechanisms, we performed metabolic cage studies, assessed intestinal bacterial diversity and macronutrient absorption, and examined adipose mitochondrial activity in cultured adipocytes and in lean IL-15 transgenic (IL-15tg, overweight IL-15 deficient (IL-15-/-, and control C57Bl/6 (B6 mice. Here we show that differences in body weight are not the result of differential activity level, food intake, or respiratory exchange ratio. Although intestinal microbiota differences between obese and lean individuals are known to impact macronutrient absorption, differing gut bacteria profiles in these murine strains does not translate to differences in body weight in colonized germ free animals and macronutrient absorption. Due to its contribution to body weight variation, we examined mitochondrial factors and found that IL-15 treatment in cultured adipocytes resulted in increased mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased lipid deposition. Lastly, IL-15tg mice have significantly elevated mitochondrial activity and mass in adipose tissue compared to B6 and IL-15-/- mice. Altogether, these results suggest that IL-15 is involved in adipose tissue regulation and linked to altered mitochondrial function.

  16. Lidocaine alters the input resistance and evokes neural activity in crayfish sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keceli, M B; Purali, N

    2007-03-01

    Lidocaine, a use-dependent Na(+) channel blocker, paradoxically evokes neural activation in the slowly adapting stretch receptor organ of crayfish at 5-10 mmol/l concentration. For elucidating the underlying mechanisms of this paradoxical effect, a series of conventional electrophysiological experiments were performed in the stretch receptor neurons of crayfish. In the presence of tetrodotoxin, lidocaine did not evoke impulse activity, however, a slowly developing and dose-dependent depolarization occurred in both the rapidly and slowly adapting stretch receptors. Similar effects were observed by perfusion of equivalent concentrations of benzocaine but not of procaine or prilocaine. Lidocaine did not evoke neural activity in the rapidly adapting neuron which fires action potential(s) in response to rapid changes in membrane potential. Slowly developing mode of the depolarization indicated the reason why only depolarization but not action potential responses were observed in the rapidly adapting neuron. The depolarizing effect of lidocaine was independent from any ionic channel or exchanger system. However, lidocaine and benzocaine but not procaine and prilocaine evoked a dose-dependent alteration in the input resistance of the neuron. It was proposed that the principal mechanism of the effect could stem from a change in the physical properties of the neuronal membrane.

  17. Ablation of p120-Catenin Altering the Activity of Small GTPase in Human Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan LIU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective p120-catenin (p120ctn, a member of the Armadillo gene family, has emerged as an important modulator of small GTPase activities. Therefore, it plays novel roles in tumor malignant phenotype, such as invasion and metastasis, whose mechanism are not well clarified yet. The aim of this study is to explore the roles of p120ctn on the regulation of small GTP family members in lung cancer and the effects to lung cancer invasions andmetastasis. Methods After p120ctn was knocked down by siRNA, in vivo and in vitro analysis was applied to investigate the role and possible mechanism of p120ctn in lung cancer, such as Western Blot, pull-down analysis, and nude mice models. Results p120ctn depletion inactivated RhoA, with the the activity of Cdc42 and Rac1 increased, the invasiveness of lung cancer cells was promoted both in vitro and in vivo . Conclusion p120ctn gene knockdown enhances the metastasis of lung cancer cells, probably by altering expression of small GTPase, such as inactivation of RhoA and activation of Cdc42/Rac1.

  18. Exogenous Alpha-Synuclein Alters Pre- and Post-Synaptic Activity by Fragmenting Lipid Rafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Marco; Esposito, Alessandro; Camerini, Serena; Antonucci, Flavia; Ferrara, Silvia; Seghezza, Silvia; Catelani, Tiziano; Crescenzi, Marco; Marotta, Roberto; Canale, Claudio; Matteoli, Michela; Menna, Elisabetta; Chieregatti, Evelina

    2016-05-01

    Alpha-synuclein (αSyn) interferes with multiple steps of synaptic activity at pre-and post-synaptic terminals, however the mechanism/s by which αSyn alters neurotransmitter release and synaptic potentiation is unclear. By atomic force microscopy we show that human αSyn, when incubated with reconstituted membrane bilayer, induces lipid rafts' fragmentation. As a consequence, ion channels and receptors are displaced from lipid rafts with consequent changes in their activity. The enhanced calcium entry leads to acute mobilization of synaptic vesicles, and exhaustion of neurotransmission at later stages. At the post-synaptic terminal, an acute increase in glutamatergic transmission, with increased density of PSD-95 puncta, is followed by disruption of the interaction between N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and PSD-95 with ensuing decrease of long term potentiation. While cholesterol loading prevents the acute effect of αSyn at the presynapse; inhibition of casein kinase 2, which appears activated by reduction of cholesterol, restores the correct localization and clustering of NMDARs.

  19. Production of trichodiene by Trichoderma harzianum alters the perception of this biocontrol strain by plants and antagonized fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmierca, Mónica G; McCormick, Susan P; Cardoza, Rosa E; Alexander, Nancy J; Monte, Enrique; Gutiérrez, Santiago

    2015-08-01

    Trichothecenes are phytotoxic sesquiterpenic mycotoxins that can act as virulence factors in plant diseases. Harzianum A (HA) is a non-phytotoxic trichothecene produced by Trichoderma arundinaceum. The first step in HA biosynthesis is the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to trichodiene (TD), a volatile organic compound (VOC), catalysed by a sesquiterpene synthase encoded by the tri5 gene. Expression of tri5 in the biocontrol strain Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413 resulted in production of TD in parallel with a reduction of ergosterol biosynthesis and an unexpected increase in the level of squalene. Transformants expressing tri5 displayed low chitinase activity and induced expression of Botrytis cinerea BOT genes, although their total antagonistic potential against phytopathogenic fungi was not reduced. VOCs released by the tri5-transformant induced expression of tomato defence genes related to salicylic acid (SA), and TD itself strongly induced the expression of SA-responsive genes and reduced the development of lateral roots. Together, these results suggest that TD acts as a signalling VOC in the interactions of Trichoderma with plants and other microorganisms by modulating the perception of this fungus to a given environment. Moreover, the TD ability to induce systemic defences indicates that complex trichothecene structures may not be necessary for inducing such responses.

  20. Ultra-highly diluted plant extracts of Hydrastis canadensis and Marsdenia condurango induce epigenetic modifications and alter gene expression profiles in HeLa cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santu Kumar Saha; Sourav Roy; Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Methylation-specific epigenetic process and gene expression profiles of HeLa cel s treated with ultra-high dilutions (HDs) of two plant extracts, Hydrastis canadensis (HC-30) and Marsdenia condurango (Condu-30), diluted 1060 times, were analyzed against placebo 30C (Pl-30) for alterations in gene profiles linked to epigenetic modifications. METHODS: Separate groups of cel s were subjected to treatment of Condu-30, HC-30, and Pl-30 prepared by serial dilutions and succussions. Global microarray data recorded on Affymetrix platform, using 25-mer probes were provided by iLifeDiscoveries, India. Slides were scanned with 3000 7G microarray scanner and raw data sets were extracted from Cel (raw intensity) files. Analyses of global microarray data profile, differential gene expression, fold change and clusters were made using GeneSpring GX12.5 software and standard normalization procedure. Before microarray study, concentration of RNA (ng/μL), RIN value and rRNA ratio for al the samples were analysed by Agilant Bioanalyzer 2100. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative RT-PCR were done for analyzing SMAD-4 expression. Fluorescence-activated cel sorting study was further made to elucidate fate of cel s at divisional stages. Methylation-specific restriction enzyme assay was conducted for ascertaining methylation status of DNA at specific sites. RESULTS: HDs of HC-30 and Condu-30 differential y altered methylation in specific regions of DNA and expression profiles of certain genes linked to carcinogenesis, as compared to Pl-30. Two separate cut sites were found in genomic DNA of untreated and placebo-treated HeLa cel s when digested with McrBC, compared to a single cut observed in Condu-30-treated genomic DNA. SMAD-4 gene expression validated the expression pattern observed in microarray profile. Methylation-specific restriction enzyme assay elucidated differential epigenetic modifications in drug-treated and control cel s

  1. Optimization of the coke-oven activated sludge plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raizer Neto, Ernesto [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Colin, Francois [Institut de Recherches Hydrologiques, 54 - Nancy (France); Prost, Christian [Laboratoire de Sciences de Genie Chimique, Nancy (France)

    1993-12-31

    In the coke-oven activated sludge plants one of the greatest problems of malfunction is due to inffluent variability. The composition and, or, concentration variations of the inffluent substrate, which can cause an unstable system, are function of the pollutant load. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the kinetic biodegradation of the coke-oven effluent represents the limiting factor to develop an effective biological treatment. This work describes a computational model of the biological treatment which was elaborated and validated from continuous pilot scale experiments and calibrated by comparing its predictions to the pilot experiment`s results. 12 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Field Trip Guide to Serpentinite, Silica-Carbonate Alteration, and Related Hydrothermal Activity in the Clear Lake Region, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser Goff; George Guthrie

    1999-06-01

    This guide is designed to familiarize scientists with the geology, structure, alteration, and fluids typical of California serpentinites for purposes of carbon dioxide sequestration (Lackner et al., 1995). Goff et al. (1997) and Goff and Lackner (1998) describe the geology and geochemistry of some of the serpentinites from this area. Mechanisms of silica-carbonate alteration were outlined by Barnes et al. (1973). Donnelly-Nolan et al. (1993) most recently reviewed relations between regional hydrothermal alteration and Quarternary volcanic activity. Stanley et al. (1998) summarized geophysical characteristics of the region.

  3. Elimination of Rubisco alters the regulation of nitrogenase activity and increases hydrogen production in Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Di; Zhang, Yaoping [State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Welch, Emily; Roberts, Gary P. [Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Li, Jilun [State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Nitrogenase not only reduces atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia, but also reduces protons to hydrogen (H{sub 2}). The nitrogenase system is the primary means of H{sub 2} production under photosynthetic and nitrogen-limiting conditions in many photosynthetic bacteria, including Rhodospirillum rubrum. The efficiency of this biological H{sub 2} production largely depends on the nitrogenase enzyme and the availability of ATP and electrons in the cell. Previous studies showed that blockage of the CO{sub 2} fixation pathway in R. rubrum induced nitrogenase activity even in the presence of ammonium, presumably to remove excess reductant in the cell. We report here the re-characterization of cbbM mutants in R. rubrum to study the effect of Rubisco on H{sub 2} production. Our newly constructed cbbM mutants grew poorly in malate medium under anaerobic conditions. However, the introduction of constitutively active NifA (NifA*), the transcriptional activator of the nitrogen fixation (nif) genes, allows cbbM mutants to dissipate the excess reductant through the nitrogenase system and improves their growth. Interestingly, we found that the deletion of cbbM alters the posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase activity, resulting in partially active nitrogenase in the presence of ammonium. The combination of mutations in nifA, draT and cbbM greatly increased H{sub 2} production of R. rubrum, especially in the presence of excess of ammonium. Furthermore, these mutants are able to produce H{sub 2} over a much longer time frame than the wild type, increasing the potential of these recombinant strains for the biological production of H{sub 2}. (author)

  4. Altered frontocingulate activation during aversive interoceptive processing in young adults transitioning to problem stimulant use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lorraine Stewart

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Problems associated with stimulant use have been linked to frontocingulate, insular, and thalamic dysfunction during decision-making and alterations in interoceptive processing. However, little is known about how interoception and decision-making interact and contribute to dysfunctions that promote the transition from recreational drug use to abuse or dependence. Here, we investigate brain activation in response to reward, punishment, and uncertainty during an aversive interoceptive challenge in current and former stimulant (cocaine and amphetamine users using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Young adults previously identified as recreational users (n=184 were followed up three years later. Of these, 18 individuals progressed to problem stimulant use (PSU, whereas 15 desisted stimulant use (DSU. PSU, DSU, and 14 healthy comparison subjects (CTL performed a two-choice prediction task at three fixed error rates (20%=reward, 50%=uncertainty, 80%=punishment during which they anticipated and experienced episodes of inspiratory breathing load. Although groups did not differ in insula activation or subjective breathing load ratings, PSU exhibited lower right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and bilateral anterior cingulate (ACC activation than DSU and CTL during aversive interoceptive processing as well as lower right IFG in response to decision making involving uncertainty. However, PSU exhibited greater bilateral IFG activation than DSU and CTL while making choices within the context of punishing feedback, and both PSU and DSU showed lower thalamic activation during breathing load than CTL. Findings suggest that frontocingulate attenuation, reflecting reduced resources devoted to goal maintenance and action selection in the presence of uncertainty and interoceptive perturbations, may be a biomarker for susceptibility to problem stimulant use.

  5. Antitumor and Antiviral Activity of Colombian Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betancur-Galvis LA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of nine species of plants traditionally used in Colombia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential antitumor (cytotoxicity and antiherpetic activity. MTT (Tetrazolium blue and Neutral Red colorimetric assays were used to evaluate the reduction of viability of cell cultures in presence and absence of the extracts. MTT was also used to evaluate the effects of the extracts on the lytic activity of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50 and the 50% inhibitory concentration of the viral effect (EC50 for each extract were calculated by linear regression analysis. Extracts from Annona muricata, A. cherimolia and Rollinia membranacea, known for their cytotoxicity were used as positive controls. Likewise, acyclovir and heparin were used as positive controls of antiherpetic activity. Methanolic extract from Annona sp. on HEp-2 cells presented a CC50 value at 72 hr of 49.6x103mg/ml. Neither of the other extracts examined showed a significant cytotoxicity. The aqueous extract from Beta vulgaris, the ethanol extract from Callisia grasilis and the methanol extract Annona sp. showed some antiherpetic activity with acceptable therapeutic indexes (the ratio of CC50 to EC50. These species are good candidates for further activity-monitored fractionation to identify active principles.

  6. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacimuthu Savarimuthu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 21 plant essential oils against six bacterial species. Methods: The selected essential oils were screened against four gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and two gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at four different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20 using disc diffusion method. The MIC of the active essential oils were tested using two fold agar dilution method at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 25.6 mg/ml. Results: Out of 21 essential oils tested, 19 oils showed antibacterial activity against one or more strains. Cinnamon, clove, geranium, lemon, lime, orange and rosemary oils exhibited significant inhibitory effect. Cinnamon oil showed promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, whereas aniseed, eucalyptus and camphor oils were least active against the tested bacteria. In general, B. subtilis was the most susceptible. On the other hand, K. pneumoniae exhibited low degree of sensitivity. Conclusion: Majority of the oils showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains. However Cinnamon, clove and lime oils were found to be inhibiting both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Cinnamon oil can be a good source of antibacterial agents.

  7. Cortisol’s effects on hippocampal activation in depressed patients are related to alterations in memory formation

    OpenAIRE

    Abercrombie, Heather C.; Jahn, Allison L.; Davidson, Richard J.; Kern, Simone; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Halverson, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    Many investigators have hypothesized that brain response to cortisol is altered in depression. However, neural activation in response to exogenously manipulated cortisol elevations has not yet been directly examined in depressed humans. Animal research shows that glucocorticoids have robust effects on hippocampal function, and can either enhance or suppress neuroplastic events in the hippocampus depending on a number of factors. We hypothesized that depressed individuals would show 1) altered...

  8. Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of plants used in Western Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maha; Abdulrahman; Alamin; Ahmed; Ibrahim; Yagi; Sakina; Mohamed; Yagi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the traditional antidiabetic uses of some indigenous Sudanese plants on streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats. Methods: Diabetic rats were treated with a 400 mg/kg dose of aqueous extracts of five plant species orally for 2 h(acute) or 14 days(chronic). In acute model blood glucose levels were monitored at specific intervals. In the chronic model blood samples were collected from overnight fasted diabetic rats on day 15 to estimate blood glucose level. And the body weight, serum lipid profile and activities of liver and kidney enzymes were measured. Histopathological observations of liver sections were also studied.Results: In the case of acute treatment, aqueous extracts of Tinospora bakis(T. bakis), Nauclea latifolia(N. latifolia) and Randia nilotica(R. nilotica) at 400 mg/kg significantly lowered(P < 0.05) blood glucose levels in diabetic rats whereas, chronic treatment of diabetic rats with 400 mg/kg of T. bakis, N. latifolia, R. nilotica and Mitragyna inremis proved to have significant(P < 0.05) antihyperglycemic effect and have the capacity to correct the metabolic disturbances associated with diabetes. Histopathological studies showed that the aqueous extracts of these four plants reinforced the healing of liver. However, Striga hermonthica aqueous extract did not exert any antihyperglycemic effect to diabetic rats. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that T. bakis, N. latifolia, R. nilotica and Mitragyna inremis have therapeutic value in diabetes and related complications and thus supporting the traditional uses of these plants in Sudanese traditional medicine.

  9. Alteration of phospholipase D activity in the rat tissues by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, M. S. [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Cho, Y. J. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Choi, M. U. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Natural Sciences

    1997-09-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidic acid (PA) and choline. Recently, PLD has been drawing much attentions and considered to be associated with cancer process since it is involved in cellular signal transduction. In this experiment, oleate-PLD activities were measured in various tissues of the living rats after whole body irradiation. The reaction mixture for the PLD assay contained 0.1{mu}Ci 1,2-di[1-{sup 14}C]palmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, 0.5mM phosphatidylcholine, 5mM sodium oleate, 0.2% taurodeoxycholate, 50mM HEPES buffer(pH 6.5), 10mM CaCl{sub 2}, and 25mM KF. phosphatidic acid, the reaction product, was separated by TLC and its radioactivity was measured with a scintillation counter. The whole body irradiation was given to the female Wistar rats via Cobalt 60 Teletherapy with field size of 10cm x 10cm and an exposure of 2.7Gy per minute to the total doses of 10Gy and 25Gy. Among the tissues examined, PLD activity in lung was the highest one and was followed by kidney, skeletal muscle, brain, spleen, bone marrow, thymus, and liver. Upon irradiation, alteration of PLD activity was observed in thymus, spleen, lung, and bone marrow. Especially PLD activities of the spleen and thymus revealed the highest sensitivity toward {gamma}-ray with more than two times amplification in their activities. In contrast, the PLD activity of bone marrow appears to be reduced to nearly 30%. Irradiation effect was hardly detected in liver which showed the lowest PLD activity. The PLD activities affected most sensitively by the whole-body irradiation seem to be associated with organs involved in immunity and hematopoiesis. This observation strongly indicates that the PLD is closely related to the physiological function of these organs. Furthermore, radiation stress could offer an important means to explore the phenomena covering from cell proliferation to cell death on these organs. (author).

  10. Active current control in wind power plants during grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Phillip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro;

    2010-01-01

    , wind turbines usually have solutions that enable the turbines to control the generation of reactive power during faults. This paper addresses the importance of using an optimal injection of active current during faults in order to fulfil these grid codes. This is of relevant importance for severe......Modern wind power plants are required and designed to ride through faults in electrical networks, subject to fault clearing. Wind turbine fault current contribution is required from most countries with a high amount of wind power penetration. In order to comply with such grid code requirements...... faults, causing low voltages at the point of common coupling. As a consequence, a new wind turbine current controller for operation during faults is proposed. It is shown that to achieve the maximum transfer of reactive current at the point of common coupling, a strategy for optimal setting of the active...

  11. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Alberto P; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Brutus, Alexandre; Segonzac, Cécile; Roy, Sonali; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Oh, Man-Ho; Sklenar, Jan; Derbyshire, Paul; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Malinovsky, Frederikke Gro; Monaghan, Jacqueline; Menke, Frank L; Huber, Steven C; He, Sheng Yang; Zipfel, Cyril

    2014-03-28

    Innate immunity relies on the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) located on the host cell's surface. Many plant PRRs are kinases. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis receptor kinase EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), which perceives the elf18 peptide derived from bacterial elongation factor Tu, is activated upon ligand binding by phosphorylation on its tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation of a single tyrosine residue, Y836, is required for activation of EFR and downstream immunity to the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. A tyrosine phosphatase, HopAO1, secreted by P. syringae, reduces EFR phosphorylation and prevents subsequent immune responses. Thus, host and pathogen compete to take control of PRR tyrosine phosphorylation used to initiate antibacterial immunity.

  12. Reproductive experience alters neural and behavioural responses to acute oestrogen receptor α activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, E M; Casey, K; Carini, L M; Bridges, R S

    2013-12-01

    demonstrate that reproductive experience alters the behavioural response to acute ERα activation. Moreover, the findings suggest that central regulation of the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis is modified as a consequence of reproductive experience.

  13. Lingual muscle activity across sleep-wake states in rats with surgically altered upper airway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma eRukhadze

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients have increased upper airway muscle activity, including such lingual muscles as the genioglossus (GG, geniohyoid (GH and hyoglossus (HG. This adaptation partially protects their upper airway against obstructions. Rodents are used to study the central neural control of sleep and breathing but they do not naturally exhibit OSA. We investigated whether, in chronically instrumented, behaving rats, disconnecting the GH and HG muscles from the hyoid (H apparatus would result in a compensatory increase of other upper airway muscle activity (EMG and/or other signs of upper airway instability. We first determined that, in intact rats, lingual (GG and intrinsic muscles maintained stable activity levels when quantified based on 2 h-long recordings conducted on days 6 through 22 after instrumentation. We then studied 5 rats in which the tendons connecting the GH and HG muscles to the H apparatus were experimentally severed. When quantified across all recording days, lingual EMG during SWS was modestly but significantly increased in rats with surgically altered upper airway (8.6% ±0.7(SE vs. 6.2% ±0.7 of the mean during wakefulness; p=0.012. Respiratory modulation of lingual EMG occurred mainly during SWS and was similarly infrequent in both groups, and the incidence of sighs and central apneas also was similar. Thus, a weakened action of selected lingual muscles did not produce sleep-disordered breathing but resulted in a relatively elevated activity in other lingual muscles during SWS. These results encourage more extensive surgical manipulations with the aim to obtain a rodent model with collapsible upper airway.

  14. Assessment of endotoxin activity in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizani, Mokhtar; Dhahbi, Mahmoud; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2009-07-01

    Endotoxic material, commonly associated to biological reactions, is thought to be one of the most important constituents in water. This has become a very important topic because of the common interest in microbial products governed by the possible shift to water reuse for drinking purposes. In this light, this study was conducted to provide an assessment of endotoxic activity in reclaimed wastewater. A bacterial endotoxin test (LAL test) was applied to water samples from several wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Sapporo, Japan keeping in view the seasonal variation. Samples were taken from several points in WWTP (influent, effluent, return sludge, advanced treatment effluent). The findings of this study indicated that wastewater shows high endotoxin activity. The value of Endotoxin (Endo) to COD ratio in the effluent is usually higher than that of the influent. Moreover, it is found that wastewater contains initially endotoxic active material. Some of those chemicals are biodegradable and but most of them are non-biodegradable. Batch scale activated sludge studies were undertaken to understand the origin of endotoxic active material in the effluent. This study showed that those chemicals are mainly produced during biological reactions, more precisely during decay process. Moreover, raw wastewater (RWW) contains high amounts of organic matter having endotoxicity which remains in the effluent.

  15. Antiplasmodial activity of the ethnobotanical plant Cassia fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Mary H; Lategan, Carmen; Graziose, Rocky; Smith, Peter J; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2012-10-01

    In our ongoing investigation of new compounds with activity against malaria parasites, we tested the in vitro antiplasmodial activity of fractions and purified compounds from Cassia fistula L., a plant traditionally used by native populations of Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Brazil to treat malaria or symptoms associated with this disease. Crude extracts from leaves, bark and fruits were tested for their antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (D10), where leaf extracts showed the highest activity. The chloroform extract of the leaves was further bioassay-guided fractionated using a combination of centrifugal partition chromatography and flash column chromatography. Three main antiplasmodial principles, phytol (1) (IC50 18.9 +/- 0.60 microM), lutein (2) (IC50 12.5 +/- 0.35 microM), and di-lineolylgalactopyranosyl-glycerol (DLGG) (IC50 5.8 +/- 0.27 microM) (3), were isolated and identified using spectroscopic methods. When the three active principles were tested for their cytotoxicity using a Chinese Hamster Ovarian (CHO) cell line, compound 3 showed very weak toxicity (IC50 75.9 +/- 0.28 microM), while the other two compounds were nontoxic, even at the highest concentration tested. The study provides evidence to support the use of Cassia fistula as an antimalarial remedy and describes the antiplasmodial constituents from the leaves.

  16. ALTERATIONS IN THE ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN THE BRAIN OF ALBINO MICE EXPOSED TO ACEPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SIVA PRASAD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acephate (AP, a widely available organophosphorus (OP insecticide, has low mammalian toxicity and isconsidered non-phytotoxic on many crop plants and therefore it is preferred in agricultural crops. In plants andinsects, AP is metabolized extensively to methamidophos (MP, a more potent OP insecticide. The limitedmammalian metabolism of AP to MP has been studied in laboratory rat models and suggests that initial formationof MP from AP may inhibit further formation. Hence in the present investigation we have studied the effect of anAP in cholinergic mechanisms in the different regions of brain. For the present study the male mice were exposedto 1/10th LD50 of AP via oral gavage (i.e. 40.5mg/kg body weight. Our results indicate a steady decline of AChEactivity in all the regions of the brain of Acephate exposed animals. As expected an increase in ACh activity wasnoticed in all the regions of the AP exposed animals. We suggest that cholinergic system is seriously affected bythe intoxication of Acephate and the effect was more effective in 30 days when compared to 10 days

  17. Paracetamol Supplementation Does Not Alter The Antitumor Activity and Lung Toxicity of Bleomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada M. Suddek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bleomycin (BLM is well known by its antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. However, pulmonary fibrosis has been considered the dose limiting toxicity of the drug. Hyperpyrexia following injection of BLM was reported thus, paracetamol is sometimes administered with BLM as antipyretic drug. Actually, paracetamol was found to interfere with cytotoxicity of some drugs. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of paracetamol administration on the antitumor and lung toxicity of BLM. The antitumor activity was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC cells. Paracetamol did not alter the antitumor effect of BLM in vitro or in vivo. The lung toxicity of BLM was evidenced by decrease in the body weight, increase in the lung/body weight ratio, decrease in the response of pulmonary arterial rings to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT and increase in the contractility of tracheal smooth muscles induced by acetylcholine (ACh. The toxicity was also confirmed biochemically by marked increases in hydroxyproline and lipid peroxidation in rat lung and the decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH level. Pretreatment with paracetamol did not significantly change lipid peroxidation, GSH level, percent survival of rats or the response of pulmonary arterial rings and tracheal smooth muscles to 5-HT and ACh respectively. The results of the present study indicated that paracetamol neither modified the antitumor effect of BLM nor changed drug-induced lung toxicity.

  18. The impact of initiation: Early onset marijuana smokers demonstrate altered Stroop performance and brain activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Sagar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana (MJ use is on the rise, particularly among teens and emerging adults. This poses serious public health concern, given the potential deleterious effects of MJ on the developing brain. We examined 50 chronic MJ smokers divided into early onset (regular MJ use prior to age 16; n = 24 and late onset (age 16 or later; n = 26, and 34 healthy control participants (HCs. All completed a modified Stroop Color Word Test during fMRI. Results demonstrated that MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance on the Interference subtest of the Stroop, as well as altered patterns of activation in the cingulate cortex relative to HCs. Further, early onset MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance relative to both HCs and late onset smokers. Additionally, earlier age of MJ onset as well as increased frequency and magnitude (grams/week of MJ use were predictive of poorer Stroop performance. fMRI results revealed that while late onset smokers demonstrated a more similar pattern of activation to the control group, a different pattern was evident in the early onset group. These findings underscore the importance of assessing age of onset and patterns of MJ use and support the need for widespread education and intervention efforts among youth.

  19. Altering the interfacial activation mechanism of a lipase by solid-phase selective chemical modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gallego, Fernando; Abian, Olga; Guisán, Jose Manuel

    2012-09-04

    This study presents a combined protein immobilization, directed mutagenesis, and site-selective chemical modification approach, which was used to create a hyperactivated semisynthetic variant of BTL2. Various alkane chains were tethered at three different positions in order to mimic the lipase interfacial activation exogenously triggered by detergents. Optimum results were obtained when a dodecane chain was introduced at position 320 by solid-phase site-selective chemical modification. The resulting semisynthetic variant showed a 2.5-fold higher activity than the wild-type nonmodified variant in aqueous conditions. Remarkably, this is the maximum hyperactivation ever observed for BTL2 in the presence of detergents such as Triton X-100. We present evidence to suggest that the endogenous dodecane chain hyperactivates the enzyme in a similar fashion as an exogenous detergent molecule. In this way, we also observe a faster irreversible enzyme inhibition and an altered detergent sensitivity profile promoted by the site-selective chemical modification. These findings are also supported by fluorescence studies, which reveal that the structural conformation changes of the semisynthetic variant are different to those of the wild type, an effect that is more pronounced in the presence of detergent. Finally, the optimal immobilized semisynthetic variant was successfully applied to the selective synthesis of oxiran-2-yl butyrate. Significantly, this biocatalyst is 12-fold more efficient than the immobilized wild-type enzyme, producing the S-enantiomer with higher enantiospecificity (ee = 92%).

  20. Altered protoxin activation by midgut enzymes from a Bacillus thuringiensis resistant strain of Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppert, B; Kramer, K J; Johnson, D E; MacIntosh, S C; McGaughey, W H

    1994-02-15

    Processing of Bacillus thuringiensis protoxins to toxins by midgut proteinases from a strain of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hubner), resistant to B. thuringiensis subspecies entomocidus (HD-198) was slower than that by midgut proteinases from the susceptible parent strain or a strain resistant to B. thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki (HD-1, Dipel). Midgut extracts from entomocidus-resistant insects exhibited five-fold lower activity toward the synthetic substrate alpha-N-benzoyl-DL-arginine rho-nitroanilide than extracts from susceptible or kurstaki-resistant insects. Midgut enzymes from susceptible or kurstaki-resistant insects converted the 133 kDa CryIA(c) protoxin to 61-63 kDa proteins, while incubations with entomocidus-resistant enzymes resulted in predominantly products of intermediate size, even with increased amounts of midgut extract. The 61-63 kDa proteins were only produced by entomocidus-resistant midgut extracts after long term incubations with the protoxin. The data suggest that altered protoxin activation by midgut proteinases is involved in some types of insect resistance to B. thuringiensis.

  1. Altered regional and circuit resting-state activity associated with unilateral hearing loss.

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    Xingchao Wang

    Full Text Available The deprivation of sensory input after hearing damage results in functional reorganization of the brain including cross-modal plasticity in the sensory cortex and changes in cognitive processing. However, it remains unclear whether partial deprivation from unilateral auditory loss (UHL would similarly affect the neural circuitry of cognitive processes in addition to the functional organization of sensory cortex. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate intrinsic activity in 34 participants with UHL from acoustic neuroma in comparison with 22 matched normal controls. In sensory regions, we found decreased regional homogeneity (ReHo in the bilateral calcarine cortices in UHL. However, there was an increase of ReHo in the right anterior insular cortex (rAI, the key node of cognitive control network (CCN and multimodal sensory integration, as well as in the left parahippocampal cortex (lPHC, a key node in the default mode network (DMN. Moreover, seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis showed an enhanced relationship between rAI and several key regions of the DMN. Meanwhile, lPHC showed more negative relationship with components in the CCN and greater positive relationship in the DMN. Such reorganizations of functional connectivity within the DMN and between the DMN and CCN were confirmed by a graph theory analysis. These results suggest that unilateral sensory input damage not only alters the activity of the sensory areas but also reshapes the regional and circuit functional organization of the cognitive control network.

  2. Structure-Function Relations of Strigolactone Analogs: Activity as Plant Hormones and Plant Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maja Cohen; Cristina Prandi; Ernesto G. Occhiato; Silvia Tabasso; Smadar Wininger; Nathalie Resnick; Yosef Steinberger

    2013-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) have several functions as signaling molecules in their interactions with symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and the parasitic weeds Orobanche and Striga.SLs are also a new class of plant hormone regulating plant development.In all three organisms,a specific and sensitive receptor-mediated perception system is suggested.By comparing the activity of synthetic SL analogs on Arabidopsis root-hair elongation,Orobanche aegyptiaca seed germination,and hyphal branching of the AM fungus Glomus intraradices,we found that each of the tested organisms differs in its response to the various examined synthetic SL analogs.Structure-function relations of the SL analogs suggest substitutions on the A-ring as the cause of this variation.Moreover,the description of competitive antagonistic analogs suggests that the A-ring of SL can affect not only affinity to the receptor,but also the molecule's ability to activate it.The results support the conclusion that Arabidopsis,Orobanche,and AM fungi possess variations in receptor sensitivity to SL analogs,probably due to variation in SL receptors among the different species.

  3. A blend of essential plant oils used as an additive to alter silage fermentation or used as a feed additive for lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, L; Williams, P; Schmidt, R J; Hu, W

    2008-12-01

    A blend of essential plant oils was evaluated for its effects on silage fermentation and animal performance. In the first experiment, the blend of essential oils was mixed with freshly chopped whole-plant corn to achieve a concentration of 0, 40, or 80 mg of active product per kilogram of fresh forage weight. Whole-plant corn was also mixed with a buffered propionic acid-based product at 0.2% of fresh forage weight. The blend of essential oils did not affect the populations of yeasts, molds, lactic acid bacteria, or enterobacteria; the fermentation end products; or the aerobic stability of the corn silage. Addition of the buffered propionic acid additive moderately reduced the production of acids during fermentation and resulted in a small reduction in the numbers of yeasts after ensiling, but did not affect aerobic stability. In a second experiment, 30 Holstein cows (4 primiparous and 26 multiparous) averaging 118 +/- 70 d in milk and producing 38 +/- 16 kg of milk/d were fed a total mixed ration, once daily, that consisted of (on a DM basis) 25% corn silage, 15% alfalfa silage, 10% alfalfa hay, and 50% concentrate. One-half of the cows were fed a blend of essential oils that was mixed directly into their total mixed ration to provide 1.2 g/cow per d for 9 wk. Cows fed the essential oils ate 1.9 kg more dry matter/d and produced 2.7 kg more 3.5% fat-corrected milk/d than did cows fed the control diet. The percentages of milk fat and protein, the somatic cell count numbers, and the concentrations of milk urea nitrogen were unaffected by treatment. Feed efficiency, change in body weight, and change in body condition scoring were also similar between treatments. After 12 h of incubation, the addition of a moderate dose and a high dose of essential oils to in vitro ruminal fermentations had no effect on the concentration of total VFA compared with the control treatment. However, they decreased the molar proportions of acetic, butyric, and valeric acids and increased

  4. Is There a Temperate Bias in Our Understanding of How Climate Change Will Alter Plant-Herbivore Interactions? A Meta-analysis of Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundim, Fabiane M; Bruna, Emilio M

    2016-09-01

    Climate change can drive major shifts in community composition and interactions between resident species. However, the magnitude of these changes depends on the type of interactions and the biome in which they take place. We review the existing conceptual framework for how climate change will influence tropical plant-herbivore interactions and formalize a similar framework for the temperate zone. We then conduct the first biome-specific tests of how plant-herbivore interactions change in response to climate-driven changes in temperature, precipitation, ambient CO2, and ozone. We used quantitative meta-analysis to compare predicted and observed changes in experimental studies. Empirical studies were heavily biased toward temperate systems, so testing predicted changes in tropical plant-herbivore interactions was virtually impossible. Furthermore, most studies investigated the effects of CO2 with limited plant and herbivore species. Irrespective of location, most studies manipulated only one climate change factor despite the fact that different factors can act in synergy to alter responses of plants and herbivores. Finally, studies of belowground plant-herbivore interactions were also rare; those conducted suggest that climate change could have major effects on belowground subsystems. Our results suggest that there is a disconnection between the growing literature proposing how climate change will influence plant-herbivore interactions and the studies testing these predictions. General conclusions will also be hampered without better integration of above- and belowground systems, assessing the effects of multiple climate change factors simultaneously, and using greater diversity of species in experiments.

  5. Hibiscus sabdariffa extractivities on cadmium-mediated alterations of human U937 cell viability and activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tebekeme Okoko; Diepreye Ere

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of the anthocyanin-rich extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa) calyx on the viability of cadmium-treated U937 cells and cadmium-mediated activation of U937-derived macrophages. Methods:The macrophage cell line U937 was treated with cadmium (0.1μmol/L) and later incubated with the anthocyanin-rich extract and cell viability was assessed via trypan blue staining. In the other experiment, the U937 cells were transformed to the macrophage form by treatment with phorbol 12, myristate 13, and acetate and incubated with cadmium (10μmol/L). The anthocyanin-rich extract was added to the cells later and subsequently, the supernatant of each cell culture was analysed for the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), nitric oxide, and catalase activity as indices for the activation of macrophages. Results:It revealed that the anthocynanin-rich extract significantly (P <0.05) increased the viability of the cells which was suppressed by cadmium when compared to quercetin dihydrate. The extract also reduced the cadmium-mediated production of the markers of macrophage-activation when compared to quercetin dihydrate. In both experiments, the activity of the extract was concentration-dependent (P <0.05). Conclusion:The findings show that H. sabdariffa possesses significant immunoprotective effect. These corroborate the immense reported antioxidant and medicinal potential of the calyces of the plant which could be exploited for pharmacological and neutraceutical advantages.

  6. Activated Ras alters lens and corneal development through induction of distinct downstream targets

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    Reneker Lixing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian Ras genes regulate diverse cellular processes including proliferation and differentiation and are frequently mutated in human cancers. Tumor development in response to Ras activation varies between different tissues and the molecular basis for these variations are poorly understood. The murine lens and cornea have a common embryonic origin and arise from adjacent regions of the surface ectoderm. Activation of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF signaling pathway induces the corneal epithelial cells to proliferate and the lens epithelial cells to exit the cell cycle. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the differential responses of these two related tissues have not been defined. We have generated transgenic mice that express a constitutively active version of human H-Ras in their lenses and corneas. Results Ras transgenic lenses and corneal epithelial cells showed increased proliferation with concomitant increases in cyclin D1 and D2 expression. This initial increase in proliferation is sustained in the cornea but not in the lens epithelial cells. Coincidentally, cdk inhibitors p27Kip1 and p57Kip2 were upregulated in the Ras transgenic lenses but not in the corneas. Phospho-Erk1 and Erk2 levels were elevated in the lens but not in the cornea and Spry 1 and Spry 2, negative regulators of Ras-Raf-Erk signaling, were upregulated more in the corneal than in the lens epithelial cells. Both lens and corneal differentiation programs were sensitive to Ras activation. Ras transgenic embryos showed a distinctive alteration in the architecture of the lens pit. Ras activation, though sufficient for upregulation of Prox1, a transcription factor critical for cell cycle exit and initiation of fiber differentiation, is not sufficient for induction of terminal fiber differentiation. Expression of Keratin 12, a marker of corneal epithelial differentiation, was reduced in the Ras transgenic corneas. Conclusions Collectively, these

  7. Frequency of climbing behavior as a predictor of altered motor activity in rat forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Cíntia; De Lima, Thereza C M; Carobrez, Antonio de Pádua; Lino-de-Oliveira, Cilene

    2008-11-14

    Previous work has shown that the frequency of climbing behavior in rats submitted to the forced swimming test (FST) correlated to the section's crosses in the open field test, which suggest it might be taken as a predictor of motor activity in rat FST. To investigate this proposal, the frequency, duration, as well as the ratio duration/frequency for each behavior expressed in the FST (immobility, swimming and climbing) were compared in animals treated with a motor stimulant, caffeine (CAF), and the antidepressant, clomipramine (CLM). Male Wistar rats were submitted to 15min of forced swimming (pre-test) and 24h later received saline (SAL, 1ml/kg, i.p.) or CAF (6.5mg/kg, i.p.) 30min prior a 5-min session (test) of FST. To validate experimental procedures, an additional group of rats received three injections of SAL (1ml/kg, i.p.) or clomipramine (CLM, 10mg/kg, i.p.) between the pre-test and test sessions. The results of the present study showed that both drugs, CLM and CAF, significantly reduced the duration of immobility and significantly increased the duration of swimming. In addition, CAF significantly decreased the ratio of immobility, and CLM significantly increased the ratio of swimming and climbing. Moreover, CLM significantly increased the duration of climbing but only CAF increased the frequency of climbing. Thus, it seems that the frequency of climbing could be a predictor of altered motor activity scored directly in the FST. Further, we believe that this parameter could be useful for fast and reliable discrimination between antidepressant drugs and stimulants of motor activity.

  8. The time course of altered brain activity during 7-day simulated microgravity

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    Yang eLiao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microgravity causes multiple changes in physical and mental levels in humans, which can induce performance deficiency among astronauts. Studying the variations in brain activity that occur during microgravity would help astronauts to deal with these changes. In the current study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI was used to observe the variations in brain activity during a 7-day head down tilt (HDT bed rest, which is a common and reliable model for simulated microgravity. The amplitudes of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF of twenty subjects were recorded pre-head down tilt (pre-HDT, during a bed rest period (HDT0, and then each day in the HDT period (HDT1–HDT7. One-way analysis of variance of the ALFF values over these 8 days was used to test the variation across time period (P<0.05, corrected. Compared to HDT0, subjects presented lower ALFF values in the posterior cingulate cortex and higher ALFF values in the anterior cingulate cortex during the HDT period, which may partially account for the lack of cognitive flexibility and alterations in autonomic nervous system seen among astronauts in microgravity. Additionally, the observed improvement in function in CPL during the HDT period may play a compensatory role to the functional decline in the paracentral lobule to sustain normal levels of fine motor control for astronauts in a microgravity environment. Above all, those floating brain activities during 7 days of simulated microgravity may indicate that the brain self-adapts to help astronauts adjust to the multiple negative stressors encountered in a microgravity environment.

  9. Regulation of calpain activity in rat brain with altered Ca2+ homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averna, Monica; Stifanese, Roberto; De Tullio, Roberta; Passalacqua, Mario; Defranchi, Enrico; Salamino, Franca; Melloni, Edon; Pontremoli, Sandro

    2007-01-26

    Activation of calpain occurs as an early event in correlation with an increase in [Ca2+]i induced in rat brain upon treatment with a high salt diet for a prolonged period of time. The resulting sequential events have been monitored in the brain of normal and hypertensive rats of the Milan strain, diverging for a constitutive alteration in the level of [Ca2+]i found to be present in nerve cells of hypertensive animals. After 2 weeks of treatment, the levels of the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase and of native calpastatin are profoundly decreased. These degradative processes, more pronounced in the brain of hypertensive rats, are progressively and efficiently compensated in the brain of both rat strains by different incoming mechanisms. Along with calpastatin degradation, 15-kDa still-active inhibitory fragments are accumulated, capable of efficiently replacing the loss of native inhibitor molecules. A partial return to a more efficient control of Ca2+ homeostasis occurs in parallel, assured by an early increase in the expression of Ca2+-ATPase and of calpastatin, both producing, after 12 weeks of a high salt (sodium) diet, the restoration of almost original levels of the Ca2+ pump and of significant amounts of native inhibitor molecules. Thus, conservative calpastatin fragmentation, associated with an increased expression of Ca2+-ATPase and of the calpain natural inhibitor, has been demonstrated to occur in vivo in rat brain. This represents a sequential adaptive response capable of overcoming the effects of calpain activation induced by a moderate long term elevation of [Ca2+]i.

  10. In vitro antimicrobial activity of mangrove plant Sonneratia alba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahbudin Saad; Muhammad Taher; Deny Susanti; Haitham Qaralleh; Anis Fadhlina Izyani Bt Awang

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antimicrobial property of mangrove plant Sonneratia alba (S. alba). Methods: The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion and microdilution methods against six microorganisms. Soxhlet apparatus was used for extraction with a series of solvents, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol in sequence of increasing polarity. Results:Methanol extract appeared to be the most effective extract while n-hexane extract showed no activity. The antimicrobial activities were observed against the gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Bacillus cereus (B. cereus), the gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and the yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans appeared to be not sensitive to the concentrations tested since no inhibition zone was observed. E. coli (17.5 mm) appeared to be the most sensitive strain followed by S. aureus (12.5 mm) and B. cereus (12.5 mm). Conclusions:From this study, it can be concluded that S. alba exhibits antimicrobial activities against certain microorganisms.

  11. Molecular alterations in skeletal muscle in rheumatoid arthritis are related to disease activity, physical inactivity, and disability

    OpenAIRE

    Huffman, Kim M.; Jessee, Ryan; Andonian, Brian; Davis, Brittany N.; Narowski, Rachel; Huebner, Janet L; Kraus, Virginia B.; McCracken, Julie; Gilmore, Brian F.; Tune, K. Noelle; Campbell, Milton; Koves, Timothy R.; Muoio, Deborah M.; Hubal, Monica J.; Kraus, William E.

    2017-01-01

    Background To identify molecular alterations in skeletal muscle in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that may contribute to ongoing disability in RA. Methods Persons with seropositive or erosive RA (n = 51) and control subjects matched for age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity (n = 51) underwent assessment of disease activity, disability, pain, physical activity and thigh muscle biopsies. Muscle tissue was used for measurement of pro-inflammatory markers, transcriptomics, an...

  12. Altered expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor in high-risk soft tissue sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, M S; Ponticelli, F; Azzoni, E; Gamberi, G; Pazzaglia, L; Chiechi, A; Conti, A; Spessotto, P; Scapolan, M; Pignotti, E; Bacchini, P; Picci, P

    2007-09-01

    In recent years, classification of soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) has improved with cytogenetic analyses, but their clinical behavior is still not easily predictable. The aim of this study was to detect alterations in the urokinase-type plasminogen system, involved in tumor growth and invasion, by comparing mRNA levels of its components with those of paired normal tissues, and relating them with patient clinical course. Real-time PCR was performed on human STS cell lines and tissues from highly malignant STS, including leiomyosarcomas and malignant fibrous histiocytomas, to evaluate the expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), uPA receptor (uPAR) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Immunohistochemistry of gene products was also performed. Median mRNA values of all genes studied were higher in tumors than in paired normal tissues. In agreement with data on STS cell lines, significant up-regulation for uPA and PAI-1 genes compared to reference values was seen. Moreover, different levels of expression were related to histotype and metastatic phenotype. There was accordance between uPA mRNA and protein expression, while immunodetection of PAI-1 product was weak and scattered. Clearly, the controversial role of PAI-1 protein requires further biological analyses, but evident involvement of uPA/PAI-1 gene overexpression in STS malignancy may highlight a molecular defect useful in discriminating STS high-risk patients.

  13. Antioxidative activities and active compounds of extracts from Catalpa plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongyu; Hu, Gege; Dong, Juane; Wei, Qin; Shao, Hongbo; Lei, Ming

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen the Catalpa plant with high antioxidant activity and confirm the corresponding active fractions from Catalpa ovata G. Don, C. fargesii Bur., and C. bungei C. A. Mey., total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions of Catalpa plant leaves were determined. The determined total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. Those compounds with antioxidant activity were isolated with silica gel column chromatography and ODS column chromatography. Our results showed that the total flavonoid content in C. bungei C. A. Mey. (30.07 mg/g · DW) was the highest, followed by those in C. fargesii Bur. (25.55 mg/g · DW) and C. ovata G. Don (24.96 mg/g · DW). According to the determination results of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in 3 clones of leaves of C. bungei C. A. Mey., the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in crude extracts from C. bungei C. A. Mey. 6 (CA6) leaves were the highest. Moreover, the results showed that the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction in ethanol crude extracts in CA6 leaves were the highest, followed by n-butanol, petroleum ether (PE), and water fractions. Two flavonoid compounds with antioxidant activity were firstly isolated based on EA fraction. The two compounds were luteolin (1) and apigenin (2), respectively.

  14. Antioxidative Activities and Active Compounds of Extracts from Catalpa Plant Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to screen the Catalpa plant with high antioxidant activity and confirm the corresponding active fractions from Catalpa ovata G. Don, C. fargesii Bur., and C. bungei C. A. Mey., total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions of Catalpa plant leaves were determined. The determined total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. Those compounds with antioxidant activity were isolated with silica gel column chromatography and ODS column chromatography. Our results showed that the total flavonoid content in C. bungei C. A. Mey. (30.07 mg/g·DW was the highest, followed by those in C. fargesii Bur. (25.55 mg/g·DW and C. ovata G. Don (24.96 mg/g·DW. According to the determination results of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in 3 clones of leaves of C. bungei C. A. Mey., the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in crude extracts from C. bungei C. A. Mey. 6 (CA6 leaves were the highest. Moreover, the results showed that the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate (EA fraction in ethanol crude extracts in CA6 leaves were the highest, followed by n-butanol, petroleum ether (PE, and water fractions. Two flavonoid compounds with antioxidant activity were firstly isolated based on EA fraction. The two compounds were luteolin (1 and apigenin (2, respectively.

  15. DYNAMICS OF LEAF PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY DURING ONTOGENY OF HEMP PLANTS, IN RELATION TO SEXUAL PHENOTYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Truta

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available During vegetation of female and male hemp plants (Cannabis sativa L., five quantitative determinations of peroxidase activities were made (40 days, 55 days, 70 days, 85 days, 105 days. Peroxidase activity presented some differences in hemp plants, between females and males, during their vegetation cycle. In female plants, before anthesis were registered peaks of peroxidase activities. The blossoming of male plants was coincident with the increase of catalitic action of peroxidase. Generally, the male plants displayed greater levels of peroxidasic activity.

  16. A Review on Antiulcer Activity of Few Indian Medicinal Plants

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    G. Vimala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcer is a common gastrointestinal disorder which is seen among many people. It is basically an inflamed break in the skin or the mucus membrane lining the alimentary tract. Ulceration occurs when there is a disturbance of the normal equilibrium caused by either enhanced aggression or diminished mucosal resistance. It may be due to the regular usage of drugs, irregular food habits, stress, and so forth. Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ulcers depends on the presence of acid and peptic activity in gastric juice plus a breakdown in mucosal defenses. A number of synthetic drugs are available to treat ulcers. But these drugs are expensive and are likely to produce more side effects when compared to herbal medicines. The literature revealed that many medicinal plants and polyherbal formulations are used for the treatment of ulcer by various ayurvedic doctors and traditional medicinal practitioners. The ideal aims of treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer, and delay ulcer recurrence. In this review attempts have been made to know about some medicinal plants which may be used in ayurvedic as well as modern science for the treatment or prevention of peptic ulcer.

  17. Screening of estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kang, Se Chan; Kim, Kug Chan; Choung, Eui Su; Zee, Ok Pyo

    2008-01-01

    The medicinal plant extracts commercially used in Asia were screened for their estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in a recombinant yeast system featuring both a human estrogen receptor (ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Pueraria lobata (flower) had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 7.75×10(-3); RP of 17β-estradiol=1), followed by Amomum xanthioides (1.25×10(-3)). Next potent were a group consisting of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Zingiber officinale, Rheum undulatum, Curcuma aromatica, Eriobotrya japonica, Sophora flavescens, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Polygonum multiflorum, and Pueraria lobata (root) (ranging from 9.5×10(-4) to 1.0×10(-4)). Least potent were Prunus persica, Lycoppus lucidus, and Adenophora stricta (ranging from 9.0×10(-5) to 8.0×10(-5)). The extracts exerting antiestrogenic effects, Cinnamomum cassia and Prunus persica, had relative potencies of 1.14×10(-3) and 7.4×10(-4), respectively (RP of tamoxifen=1). The solvent fractions from selected estrogenic or antiestrogenic herbs had higher estrogenic relative potencies, with their RP ranging from 9.3×10(-1) to 2.7×10(-4) and from 8.2×10(-1) to 9.1×10(-3), respectively. These results support previous reports on the efficacy of Oriental medicinal plants used or not used as phytoestrogens for hormone replacement therapy.

  18. NF-Y activates genes of metabolic pathways altered in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, Paolo; Chiaramonte, Maria Luisa; Lorenzo, Mariangela; Hartley, John A.; Hochhauser, Daniel; Gnesutta, Nerina; Mantovani, Roberto; Imbriano, Carol; Dolfini, Diletta

    2016-01-01

    The trimeric transcription factor NF-Y binds to the CCAAT box, an element enriched in promoters of genes overexpressed in tumors. Previous studies on the NF-Y regulome identified the general term metabolism as significantly enriched. We dissect here in detail the targeting of metabolic genes by integrating analysis of NF-Y genomic binding and profilings after inactivation of NF-Y subunits in different cell types. NF-Y controls de novo biosynthetic pathways of lipids, teaming up with the master SREBPs regulators. It activates glycolytic genes, but, surprisingly, is neutral or represses mitochondrial respiratory genes. NF-Y targets the SOCG (Serine, One Carbon, Glycine) and Glutamine pathways, as well as genes involved in the biosynthesis of polyamines and purines. Specific cancer-driving nodes are generally under NF-Y control. Altogether, these data delineate a coherent strategy to promote expression of metabolic genes fuelling anaerobic energy production and other anabolic pathways commonly altered in cancer cells. PMID:26646448

  19. Mild blast events alter anxiety, memory, and neural activity patterns in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kun; Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z

    2013-01-01

    There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder.

  20. Mild blast events alter anxiety, memory, and neural activity patterns in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Xie

    Full Text Available There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder.

  1. Activity and High-Order Effective Connectivity Alterations in Sanfilippo C Patient-Specific Neuronal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Canals

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC technology has been successfully used to recapitulate phenotypic traits of several human diseases in vitro. Patient-specific iPSC-based disease models are also expected to reveal early functional phenotypes, although this remains to be proved. Here, we generated iPSC lines from two patients with Sanfilippo type C syndrome, a lysosomal storage disorder with inheritable progressive neurodegeneration. Mature neurons obtained from patient-specific iPSC lines recapitulated the main known phenotypes of the disease, not present in genetically corrected patient-specific iPSC-derived cultures. Moreover, neuronal networks organized in vitro from mature patient-derived neurons showed early defects in neuronal activity, network-wide degradation, and altered effective connectivity. Our findings establish the importance of iPSC-based technology to identify early functional phenotypes, which can in turn shed light on the pathological mechanisms occurring in Sanfilippo syndrome. This technology also has the potential to provide valuable readouts to screen compounds, which can prevent the onset of neurodegeneration.

  2. Alteration of transcriptional networks in the entorhinal cortex after maternal immune activation and adolescent cannabinoid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins, Sharon L; Zavitsanou, Katerina; Walker, Frederick Rohan; Cairns, Murray J

    2016-08-01

    Maternal immune activation (MIA) and adolescent cannabinoid exposure (ACE) have both been identified as major environmental risk factors for schizophrenia. We examined the effects of these two risk factors alone, and in combination, on gene expression during late adolescence. Pregnant rats were exposed to the viral infection mimic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C) on gestational day (GD) 15. Adolescent offspring received daily injections of the cannabinoid HU210 for 14days starting on postnatal day (PND) 35. Gene expression was examined in the left entorhinal cortex (EC) using mRNA microarrays. We found prenatal treatment with poly I:C alone, or HU210 alone, produced relatively minor changes in gene expression. However, following combined treatments, offspring displayed significant changes in transcription. This dramatic and persistent alteration of transcriptional networks enriched with genes involved in neurotransmission, cellular signalling and schizophrenia, was associated with a corresponding perturbation in the expression of small non-coding microRNA (miRNA). These results suggest that a combination of environmental exposures during development leads to significant genomic remodeling that disrupts maturation of the EC and its associated circuitry with important implications as the potential antecedents of memory and learning deficits in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  3. A rare myelin protein zero (MPZ variant alters enhancer activity in vitro and in vivo.

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    Anthony Antonellis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myelin protein zero (MPZ is a critical structural component of myelin in the peripheral nervous system. The MPZ gene is regulated, in part, by the transcription factors SOX10 and EGR2. Mutations in MPZ, SOX10, and EGR2 have been implicated in demyelinating peripheral neuropathies, suggesting that components of this transcriptional network are candidates for harboring disease-causing mutations (or otherwise functional variants that affect MPZ expression. METHODOLOGY: We utilized a combination of multi-species sequence comparisons, transcription factor-binding site predictions, targeted human DNA re-sequencing, and in vitro and in vivo enhancer assays to study human non-coding MPZ variants. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our efforts revealed a variant within the first intron of MPZ that resides within a previously described SOX10 binding site is associated with decreased enhancer activity, and alters binding of nuclear proteins. Additionally, the genomic segment harboring this variant directs tissue-relevant reporter gene expression in zebrafish. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first reported MPZ variant within a cis-acting transcriptional regulatory element. While we were unable to implicate this variant in disease onset, our data suggests that similar non-coding sequences should be screened for mutations in patients with neurological disease. Furthermore, our multi-faceted approach for examining the functional significance of non-coding variants can be readily generalized to study other loci important for myelin structure and function.

  4. Maternal High Fat Diet Alters Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Catalytic Activity in Adult Male Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Chantal A.; Hedges, Christopher P.; Segovia, Stephanie A.; Markworth, James F.; Durainayagam, Brenan R.; Gray, Clint; Zhang, Xiaoyuan D.; Barnett, Matthew P. G.; Vickers, Mark H.; Hickey, Anthony J. R.; Reynolds, Clare M.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    A maternal high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy can lead to metabolic compromise, such as insulin resistance in adult offspring. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is one mechanism contributing to metabolic impairments in insulin resistant states. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in metabolically compromised offspring born to HF-fed dams. Sprague-Dawley dams were randomly assigned to receive a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat) or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and during lactation. From weaning, all male offspring received a standard chow diet and soleus muscle was collected at day 150. Expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) were downregulated in HF offspring. Furthermore, genes encoding the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) respiratory complex subunits were suppressed in HF offspring. Moreover, protein expression of the complex I subunit, NDUFB8, was downregulated in HF offspring (36%), which was paralleled by decreased maximal catalytic linked activity of complex I and III (40%). Together, these results indicate that exposure to a maternal HF diet during development may elicit lifelong mitochondrial alterations in offspring skeletal muscle. PMID:27917127

  5. Activity and High-Order Effective Connectivity Alterations in Sanfilippo C Patient-Specific Neuronal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Isaac; Soriano, Jordi; Orlandi, Javier G.; Torrent, Roger; Richaud-Patin, Yvonne; Jiménez-Delgado, Senda; Merlin, Simone; Follenzi, Antonia; Consiglio, Antonella; Vilageliu, Lluïsa; Grinberg, Daniel; Raya, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has been successfully used to recapitulate phenotypic traits of several human diseases in vitro. Patient-specific iPSC-based disease models are also expected to reveal early functional phenotypes, although this remains to be proved. Here, we generated iPSC lines from two patients with Sanfilippo type C syndrome, a lysosomal storage disorder with inheritable progressive neurodegeneration. Mature neurons obtained from patient-specific iPSC lines recapitulated the main known phenotypes of the disease, not present in genetically corrected patient-specific iPSC-derived cultures. Moreover, neuronal networks organized in vitro from mature patient-derived neurons showed early defects in neuronal activity, network-wide degradation, and altered effective connectivity. Our findings establish the importance of iPSC-based technology to identify early functional phenotypes, which can in turn shed light on the pathological mechanisms occurring in Sanfilippo syndrome. This technology also has the potential to provide valuable readouts to screen compounds, which can prevent the onset of neurodegeneration. PMID:26411903

  6. Activity and High-Order Effective Connectivity Alterations in Sanfilippo C Patient-Specific Neuronal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Isaac; Soriano, Jordi; Orlandi, Javier G; Torrent, Roger; Richaud-Patin, Yvonne; Jiménez-Delgado, Senda; Merlin, Simone; Follenzi, Antonia; Consiglio, Antonella; Vilageliu, Lluïsa; Grinberg, Daniel; Raya, Angel

    2015-10-13

    Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has been successfully used to recapitulate phenotypic traits of several human diseases in vitro. Patient-specific iPSC-based disease models are also expected to reveal early functional phenotypes, although this remains to be proved. Here, we generated iPSC lines from two patients with Sanfilippo type C syndrome, a lysosomal storage disorder with inheritable progressive neurodegeneration. Mature neurons obtained from patient-specific iPSC lines recapitulated the main known phenotypes of the disease, not present in genetically corrected patient-specific iPSC-derived cultures. Moreover, neuronal networks organized in vitro from mature patient-derived neurons showed early defects in neuronal activity, network-wide degradation, and altered effective connectivity. Our findings establish the importance of iPSC-based technology to identify early functional phenotypes, which can in turn shed light on the pathological mechanisms occurring in Sanfilippo syndrome. This technology also has the potential to provide valuable readouts to screen compounds, which can prevent the onset of neurodegeneration.

  7. Screening of antimutagenicity via antioxidant activity in Cuban medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A; Visozo, A; Piloto, J; García, A; Rodríguez, C A; Rivero, R

    2003-08-01

    The reducing activity on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, z.rad;OH radical scavenging potential, in vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of mutagenicity induced by ter-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) in Escherichia coli were sequentially screened in 45 species of plants used with medicinal purposes in Cuba, in a search for antioxidant agents which protect DNA against oxidative stress.Five species, e.g. Tamarindus indica L., Lippia alba L., Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr, Rheedia aristata Griseb. and Curcuma longa L. displayed IC(50)essential oil of Pimenta dioica, also inhibited oxidative mutagenesis by TBH in Escherichia coli, at concentrations ranging from 150 to 400 micro g/plate.

  8. Nerve growth factor alters the sensitivity of rat masseter muscle mechanoreceptors to NMDA receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hayes; Dong, Xu-Dong; Cairns, Brian E

    2014-11-01

    Intramuscular injection of nerve growth factor (NGF) into rat masseter muscle induces a local mechanical sensitization that is greater in female than in male rats. The duration of NGF-induced sensitization in male and female rats was associated with an increase in peripheral N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression by masseter muscle afferent fibers that began 3 days postinjection. Here, we investigated the functional consequences of increased NMDA expression on the response properties of masseter muscle mechanoreceptors. In vivo extracellular single-unit electrophysiological recordings of trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating the masseter muscle were performed in anesthetized rats 3 days after NGF injection (25 μg/ml, 10 μl) into the masseter muscle. Mechanical activation threshold was assessed before and after intramuscular injection of NMDA. NMDA injection induced mechanical sensitization in both sexes that was increased significantly following NGF injection in the male rats but not in the female rats. However, in female but not male rats, further examination found that preadministration of NGF induced a greater sensitization in slow Aδ-fibers (2-7 m/s) than fast Aδ-fibers (7-12 m/s). This suggests that preadministration of NGF had a different effect on slowly conducting mechanoreceptors in the female rats compared with the male rats. Although previous studies have found an association between estrogenic tone and NMDA activity, no correlation was observed between NMDA-evoked mechanical sensitization and plasma estrogen level. This study suggests NGF alters NMDA-induced mechanical sensitization in the peripheral endings of masseter mechanoreceptors in a sexually dimorphic manner.

  9. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of polyphenols from ethnomedicinal plants of Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karou, D.; Dicko, M.H.; Simpore, J.; Traore, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Polyphenols from four medicinal plants of Burkina Faso, Combretum micranthum, Khaya senegalensis, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Sida acuta, were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria. The medicinal plants displayed different polyphenols contents and anti

  10. Molecular analysis of plant architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana using activation tagging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalfun Junior, A.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Arabidopsisthaliana, activation tagging, T-DNA, transposon, mutants, enhancer, DNA methylation, plant architecture, development, forward/reverse genetics, lateral organs, flower, vascular tissue, HLH, transmembrane, transcription factorsPlant development is one of the mos

  11. Auxin Transport and Ribosome Biogenesis Mutant/Reporter Lines to Study Plant Cell Growth and Proliferation under Altered Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, Miguel A.; Manzano, Ana I.; van Loon, Jack JWA.; Saez-Vasquez, Julio; Carnero-Diaz, Eugenie; Herranz, Raul; Medina, F. J.

    2013-02-01

    We tested different Arabidopsis thaliana strains to check their availability for space use in the International Space Station (ISS). We used mutants and reporter gene strains affecting factors of cell proliferation and cell growth, to check variations induced by an altered gravity vector. Seedlings were grown either in a Random Positioning Machine (RPM), under simulated microgravity (μg), or in a Large Diameter Centrifuge (LDC), under hypergravity (2g). A combination of the two devices (μgRPM+LDC) was also used. Under all gravity alterations, seedling roots were longer than in control 1g conditions, while the levels of the nucleolar protein nucleolin were depleted. Alterations in the pattern of expression of PIN2, an auxin transporter, and of cyclin B1, a cell cycle regulator, were shown. All these alterations are compatible with previous space data, so the use of these strains will be useful in the next experiments in ISS, under real microgravity.

  12. The presence of a below-ground neighbour alters within-plant seed size distribution in Phaseolus vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, B.; During, H.J.; Vermeulen, P.J.; Anten, N.P.R.

    2014-01-01

    * Background and Aims Considerable variation in seed size commonly exists within plants, and is believed to be favoured under natural selection. This study aims to examine the extent to which seed size distribution depends on the presence of competing neighbour plants. * Methods Phaseolus vulgaris p

  13. Alteration in membrane protein, antioxidant status and hexokinase activity in erythrocytes of CCl4- induced cirrhotic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Doustimotlagh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that hepatocyte membrane composition changes in patients with cholestasis and cirrhosis. These alterations that are because of intracellular oxidative stress are supposed to be reflected in erythrocyte membrane. The aim of this study was to investigate the modification of erythrocyte membrane along with hexokinase and antioxidant enzymes during development of cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 in male Wistar rats. The test groups were: baseline, cholestatic, early cirrhotic and advanced cirrhotic along with an equal number of sham-control animals. The erythrocyte membrane modifications (protein sulfhydryl, protein carbonyl, and lipid peroxidation, as well as NO metabolites, were assessed. Activities of GPX, CAT, SOD and HK were also measured. Protein sulfhydryl content of the erythrocyte membrane (after 2, 6 and 10 weeks of injection had significant progressive decrease. In contrast, protein carbonyls were remarkably increased 2 weeks after injection but significantly decreased after 6 weeks and returned to normal levels after 10 weeks. No significant difference in erythrocyte HK activity or MDA content was observed. Test groups showed significantly lower erythrocyte GPx activity after six weeks and CAT and SOD activities along with NO metabolites content after two weeks (P<0.05. This study indicates that the progression of cirrhosis is accompanied by alterations in antioxidant enzyme and decreased NO metabolites. Protein carbonyl alteration occurs in the early stages of cirrhosis while protein sulfhydryl alterations have a progressive decrease in advanced cirrhosis.

  14. Removal of visual feedback alters muscle activity and reduces force variability during constant isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baweja, Harsimran S; Patel, Bhavini K; Martinkewiz, Julie D; Vu, Julie; Christou, Evangelos A

    2009-07-01

    feedback amplifies force error, it can reduce force variability during constant isometric contractions due to an altered activation of the primary agonist muscle most likely at moderate force levels in young adults.

  15. Pharmacological activities of Solanum melongena Linn. (Brinjal plant)

    OpenAIRE

    Mitali Das; Nilotpal Barua

    2013-01-01

    Solanum melongena Linn. is a herbaceous plant, with coarsely lobed leaves, white to purple flowers, fruit is berry and are grown mainly for food and medicinal purposes. The plant contains flavonoids, tropane, glycoalkaloids, arginine, lanosterol, gramisterol, aspartic acid as important constituents. The plant is reported to have analgesic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiasthmatic, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, antiplatelet, intraocular pressure reducing, CNS depressant and ana...

  16. Larvicidal activity of plant extracts on Aedes Aegypti L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anitha Rajasekaran; Geethapriya Duraikannan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal activity of plant extracts on Aedes aegypti. Methods:Petroleum ether, Chloroform and aqueous extracts obtained from Acalypha indica, Aerva lanata,Boerhaavia diffusa, Commelina benghalensis, Gompherna sps, Datura stramonium, Euphorpia hirta, Cynodon dactylon, Lantana camara and Tridax procumbens were used for larvicidal activity at concentration of 1000μg/ml and the mortality rate was calculated after 24 and 48hrs . The LC50 for the extracts were also estimated after 24 hrs. Results: The petroleum ether extract ofLantana camara, Tridax procumbens and Datura stramonium showed 100% mortality after 48hrs of incubation. Tridax procumbens petroleum ether extract had the least LC50 of 219 μg/ml followed by Lantana and Datura with 251and 288 μg/ml respectively. A combination of petroleum ether extracts of Aerva lanata and Cynodon dactylon, Boerhaavia diffusa and Commelina benghalensis exhibited 100% mortality of larvae. Formulation-1 inhibited the metamorphosis of the larvae by retaining 60% in its larval stage. Petroleum ether extracts of Lantana, Tridax, Datura and a combination of extracts were effective larvicide. The formulations proved to be effective in inhibiting the metamorphosis. Alkaloids and flavonoids were present in datura petroleum ether extract . Conclusions: Either the crude extracts of Datura stramonium, Lantana camara and Tridax procumbens or its phytochemicals can be used as effective vector control agents individually or in combination.

  17. Bacterial Diversity of Active Sludge in Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xin; Ma, Mingchao; Li, Jun; Lu, Anhuai; Zhong, Zuoshen

    A bacterial 16S rDNA gene clone library was constructed to analyze the bacterial diversity of active sludge in Gaobeidian Wastewater Treatment Plant, Beijing. The results indicated that the bacterial diversity of active sludge was very high, and the clones could be divided into 5 different groups. The dominant bacterial community was proteobacteria, which accounted for 76.7%. The dominant succession of bacterial community were as follows: the β-proteobacteria (39.8%), the uncultured bacteria (22.33%), the γ-proteobacteria (20.15%), the α-proteobacteria (6.79%), and the σ-proteobacteria (4.85%). Nitrosomonas-like and Nitrospira-like bacteria, such as Nitrosomonas sp. (1.94%) and uncultured Nitrospirae bacterium (11.65%) were also detected, which have played important roles in ammonia and nitrite oxidisers in the system. However, they were only a little amount because of their slow growth and less competitive advantage than heterotrophic bacteria. Denitrifying bacteria like Thauera sp. was at a high percentage, which implies a strong denitrification ability; Roseomonas sp. was also detected in the clone library, which could be related to the degradation of organophosphorus pesticide.

  18. Altered gut microbiota and activity in a murine model of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; Wopereis, Harm; Ramadan, Mohamed; van Eijndthoven, Tiemen; Lambert, Jolanda; Knol, Jan; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Oozeer, Raish

    2014-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders with evidence of genetic predisposition. Intestinal disturbances are reported in ASD patients and compositional changes in gut microbiota are described. However, the role of microbiota in brain disorders is poorly documented. Here, we used a murine model of ASD to investigate the relation between gut microbiota and autism-like behaviour. Using next generation sequencing technology, microbiota composition was investigated in mice in utero exposed to valproic acid (VPA). Moreover, levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactic acid in caecal content were determined. Our data demonstrate a transgenerational impact of in utero VPA exposure on gut microbiota in the offspring. Prenatal VPA exposure affected operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to genera within the main phyla of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and the order of Desulfovibrionales, corroborating human ASD studies. In addition, OTUs assigned to genera of Alistipes, Enterorhabdus, Mollicutes and Erysipelotrichalis were especially associated with male VPA-exposed offspring. The microbial differences of VPA in utero-exposed males deviated from those observed in females and was (i) positively associated with increased levels of caecal butyrate as well as ileal neutrophil infiltration and (ii) inversely associated with intestinal levels of serotonin and social behaviour scores. These findings show that autism-like behaviour and its intestinal phenotype is associated with altered microbial colonization and activity in a murine model for ASD, with preponderance in male offspring. These results open new avenues in the scientific trajectory of managing neurodevelopmental disorders by gut microbiome modulation.

  19. Blockade of glutamatergic transmission in the primate basolateral amygdala suppresses active behavior without altering social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcelli, Patrick A; Wellman, Laurie L; Malkova, Ludise

    2017-04-01

    The amygdala is an integrator of affective processing, and a key component of a network regulating social behavior. While decades of lesion studies in nonhuman primates have shown alterations in social interactions after amygdala damage, acute manipulations of the amygdala in primates have been underexplored. We recently reported (Wellman, Forcelli, Aguilar, & Malkova, 2016) that acute pharmacological inhibition of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) or the central nucleus of the amygdala increased affiliative social interactions in experimental dyads of macaques; this was achieved through microinjection of a GABA-A receptor agonist. Prior studies in rodents have shown similar effects achieved by blocking NMDA receptors or AMPA receptors within the BLA. Here, we sought to determine the role of these receptor systems in the primate BLA in the context of social behavior. In familiar dyads, we microinjected the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (AP7) or the AMPA receptor antagonist 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX) and observed behaviors and social interactions in the immediate postinjection period. In striking contrast with our prior report using GABA agonists, and in contrast with prior reports in rodents using glutamate antagonists, we found that neither NMDA nor AMPA blockade increase social interaction. Both treatments, however, were associated with decreases in locomotion and manipulation and increases in passive behavior. These data suggest that local blockade of glutamatergic neurotransmission in BLA is not the functional equivalent of local activation of GABAergic signaling, and raise interesting questions regarding the functional microcircuitry of the nonhuman primate amygdala in the context of social behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis of the Asian Herbal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljinnyam, N.; Jugder, B.; Norov, N.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Ostrovnaya, T. M.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2011-06-01

    Asian medicinal herbs Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) are widely used in folk and Ayurvedic medicine for healing and preventing some diseases. The modern medical science has proved that the Chrysanthemum (Spiraea aquilegifolia Pall.) possesses the following functions: reducing blood press, dispelling cancer cell, coronary artery's expanding and bacteriostating and Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus Santalinus) is recommended against headache, toothache, skin diseases, vomiting and sometimes it is taken for treatment of diabetes. Species of Chrysanthemums were collected in the north-eastern and central Mongolia, and the Red Sandalwood powder was imported from India. Samples of Chrysanthemums (branches, flowers and leaves) (0.5 g) and red sandalwood powder (0.5 g) were subjected to the multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 reactor, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) JINR, Dubna. A total of 41 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Hf, Ta, W, Sb, Au, Hg, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Th, U, Lu) were determined. For the first time such a large group of elements was determined in the herbal plants used in Mongolia. The quality control of the analytical results was provided by using certified reference material Bowen Cabbage. The results obtained are compared to the "Reference plant» data (B. Markert, 1992) and interpreted in terms of excess of such elements as Se, Cr, Ca, Fe, Ni, Mo, and rare earth elements.

  1. Melanogenesis and antityrosinase activity of selected South african plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapunya, Manyatja Brenda; Nikolova, Roumiana Vassileva; Lall, Namrita

    2012-01-01

    Melanin is the pigment that is responsible for the colour of eyes, hair, and skin in humans. Tyrosinase is known to be the key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Overactivity of this enzyme leads to dermatological disorders such as age spots, melanoma and sites of actinic damage. Ten plants belonging to four families (Asphodelaceae, Anacardiaceae, Oleaceae, and Rutaceae) were investigated for their effect on tyrosinase using both L-tyrosine and L-DOPA as substrates. Ethanol leaf extracts (500 μg/mL) of Aloe ferox, Aloe aculeata, Aloe pretoriensis, and Aloe sessiliflora showed 60%, 31%, 17%, and 13% inhibition of tyrosinase activity respectively, when L-tyrosine was used as a substrate. Harpephyllum caffrum (leaves) at a concentration of 500 μg/mL had an inhibitory effect of 70% on tyrosinase when L-DOPA was used as a substrate. The IC(50) of Harpephyllum caffrum (leaves and bark) were found to be 51 ± 0.002 and 40 ± 0.035 μg/mL, respectively. Following the results obtained from the tyrosinase assay, extracts from Harpephyllum caffrum were selected for further testing on their effect on melanin production and their cytotoxicity on melanocytes in vitro. The IC(50) of both extracts was found to be 6.25 μg/mL for melanocyte cells. Bark extract of Harpephyllum caffrum showed 26% reduction in melanin content of melanocyte cells at a concentration of 6.25 μg/mL. The leaf extract of this plant showed some toxicity on melanocyte cells. Therefore, the bark extract of Harpephyllum caffrum could be considered as an antityrosinase agent for dermatological disorders such as age spots and melasoma.

  2. Melanogenesis and Antityrosinase Activity of Selected South African Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manyatja Brenda Mapunya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanin is the pigment that is responsible for the colour of eyes, hair, and skin in humans. Tyrosinase is known to be the key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Overactivity of this enzyme leads to dermatological disorders such as age spots, melanoma and sites of actinic damage. Ten plants belonging to four families (Asphodelaceae, Anacardiaceae, Oleaceae, and Rutaceae were investigated for their effect on tyrosinase using both L-tyrosine and L-DOPA as substrates. Ethanol leaf extracts (500 μg/mL of Aloe ferox, Aloe aculeata, Aloe pretoriensis, and Aloe sessiliflora showed 60%, 31%, 17%, and 13% inhibition of tyrosinase activity respectively, when L-tyrosine was used as a substrate. Harpephyllum caffrum (leaves at a concentration of 500 μg/mL had an inhibitory effect of 70% on tyrosinase when L-DOPA was used as a substrate. The IC50 of Harpephyllum caffrum (leaves and bark were found to be 51±0.002 and 40±0.035 μg/mL, respectively. Following the results obtained from the tyrosinase assay, extracts from Harpephyllum caffrum were selected for further testing on their effect on melanin production and their cytotoxicity on melanocytes in vitro. The IC50 of both extracts was found to be 6.25 μg/mL for melanocyte cells. Bark extract of Harpephyllum caffrum showed 26% reduction in melanin content of melanocyte cells at a concentration of 6.25 μg/mL. The leaf extract of this plant showed some toxicity on melanocyte cells. Therefore, the bark extract of Harpephyllum caffrum could be considered as an antityrosinase agent for dermatological disorders such as age spots and melasoma.

  3. Fate of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in activated sludge plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmink, H; Klapwijk, Bram

    2004-02-01

    Monitoring data were collected in a pilot-scale municipal activated sludge plant to assess the fate of the C12-homologue of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS-C12). The pilot-plant was operated at influent LAS-C12 concentrations between 2 and 12 mg l(-1) and at sludge retention times of 10 and 27 days. Effluent and waste sludge concentrations varied between 5 and 10 microg l(-1) and between 37 and 69 microg g(-1) VSS, respectively. In the sludge samples only 2-8% was present as dissolved LAS-C12, whereas the remaining 92-98% was found to be adsorbed to the sludge. In spite of this high degree of sorption, more than 99% of the LAS-C12 load was removed by biodegradation, showing that not only the soluble fraction but also the adsorbed fraction of LAS-C12 is readily available for biodegradation. Sorption and biodegradation of LAS-C12 were also investigated separately. Sorption was an extremely fast and reversible process and could be described by a linear isotherm with a partition coefficient of 3.2 l g(-1) volatile suspended solids. From the results of biodegradation kinetic tests it was concluded that primary biodegradation of LAS-C12 cannot be described by a (growth) Monod model, but a secondary utilisation model should be used instead. The apparent affinity of the sludge to biodegrade LAS-C12 increased when the sludge was loaded with higher influent concentrations of LAS-C12.

  4. Methoxychlor induces atresia by altering Bcl2 factors and inducing caspase activity in mouse ovarian antral follicles in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S; Karman, Bethany N; Wang, Wei; Gupta, Rupesh K; Flaws, Jodi A

    2012-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide widely used in many countries against various species of insects that attack crops and domestic animals. MXC reduces fertility by increasing atresia (death) of antral follicles in vivo. MXC also induces atresia of antral follicles after 96 h in vitro. The current work tested the hypothesis that MXC induces morphological atresia at early time points (24 and 48 h) by altering pro-apoptotic (Bax, Bok, Casp3, and caspase activity) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl2 and Bcl-xL) factors in the follicles. The results indicate that at 24 h, MXC increased Bcl-xL and Bax mRNA levels and increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl2. At 48-96 h, MXC induced morphological atresia. At 24-96 h, MXC increased caspase activities. These data suggest that MXC may induce atresia by altering Bcl2 factors and inducing caspase activities in antral follicles.

  5. Overexpression of INCREASED CAMBIAL ACTIVITY, a putative methyltransferase, increases cambial activity and plant growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyunsook Kim; Mikiko Kojima; Daeseok Choi; Soyoung Park; Minami Matsui; Hitoshi Sakakibara; Ildoo Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Cambial activity is a prerequisite for secondary growth in plants; however, regulatory factors control ing the activity of the secondary meristem in radial growth remain elusive. Here, we identified INCREASED CAMBIAL ACTIVITY (ICA), a gene encoding a putative pectin methyltransferase, which could function as a modulator for the meristematic activity of fascicular and interfascicular cambium in Arabidopsis. An overexpressing transgenic line, 35S::ICA, showed accelerated stem elongation and radial thickening, resulting in increased accumulation of biomass, and increased levels of cytokinins (CKs) and gibberel ins (GAs). Expression of genes encoding pectin methylesterases involved in pectin modification together with pectin methyltransferases was highly induced in 35S::ICA, which might contribute to an increase of methanol emission as a byproduct in 35S::ICA. Methanol treatment induced the expression of GA-or CK-responsive genes and stimulated plant growth. Overal , we propose that ectopic expression of ICA increases cambial activity by regulating CK and GA homeostasis, and methanol emission, eventual y leading to stem elongation and radial growth in the inflorescence stem.

  6. Intrinsic brain activity in altered states of consciousness: how conscious is the default mode of brain function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boly, M; Phillips, C; Tshibanda, L; Vanhaudenhuyse, A; Schabus, M; Dang-Vu, T T; Moonen, G; Hustinx, R; Maquet, P; Laureys, S

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity has recently received increasing interest in the neuroimaging community. However, the value of resting-state studies to a better understanding of brain-behavior relationships has been challenged. That altered states of consciousness are a privileged way to study the relationships between spontaneous brain activity and behavior is proposed, and common resting-state brain activity features observed in various states of altered consciousness are reviewed. Early positron emission tomography studies showed that states of extremely low or high brain activity are often associated with unconsciousness. However, this relationship is not absolute, and the precise link between global brain metabolism and awareness remains yet difficult to assert. In contrast, voxel-based analyses identified a systematic impairment of associative frontoparieto-cingulate areas in altered states of consciousness, such as sleep, anesthesia, coma, vegetative state, epileptic loss of consciousness, and somnambulism. In parallel, recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have identified structured patterns of slow neuronal oscillations in the resting human brain. Similar coherent blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) systemwide patterns can also be found, in particular in the default-mode network, in several states of unconsciousness, such as coma, anesthesia, and slow-wave sleep. The latter results suggest that slow coherent spontaneous BOLD fluctuations cannot be exclusively a reflection of conscious mental activity, but may reflect default brain connectivity shaping brain areas of most likely interactions in a way that transcends levels of consciousness, and whose functional significance remains largely in the dark.

  7. Fate of xenobiotic compounds and plants activity in reed bed sludge treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xijuan; Pauli, Udo; Rehfus, Stefan

    different plants: bulrush (Typha), reed (Phragmites australis) and reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) were planted into 12 containers with a size of 1m Х 1m X 1m which were builded with 20cm gravel and 50cm sludge to study the plants activity in sludge degradation process, 4 containers were left...

  8. Transcriptomes reveal alterations in gravity impact circadian clocks and activate mechanotransduction pathways with adaptation through epigenetic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Theresa; Patel, Osman V; Plaut, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of alterations in gravity on mammalian transcriptomes. Here, we describe the impact of spaceflight on mammary transcriptome of late pregnant rats and the effect of hypergravity exposure on mammary, liver, and adipose transcriptomes in late pregnancy and at the onset of lactation. RNA was isolated from mammary collected on pregnancy day 20 from rats exposed to spaceflight from days 11 to 20 of gestation. To measure the impact of hypergravity on mammary, liver, and adipose transcriptomes we isolated RNA from tissues collected on P20 and lactation day 1 from rats exposed to hypergravity beginning on pregnancy day 9. Gene expression was measured with Affymetrix GeneChips. Microarray analysis of variance revealed alterations in gravity affected the expression of genes that regulate circadian clocks and activate mechanotransduction pathways. Changes in these systems may explain global gene expression changes in immune response, metabolism, and cell proliferation. Expression of genes that modify chromatin structure and methylation was affected, suggesting adaptation to gravity alterations may proceed through epigenetic change. Altered gravity experiments offer insights into the role of forces omnipresent on Earth that shape genomes in heritable ways. Our study is the first to analyze the impact of alterations in gravity on transcriptomes of pregnant and lactating mammals. Findings provide insight into systems that sense gravity and the way in which they affect phenotype, as well as the possibility of sustaining life beyond Earth's orbit.

  9. Physical activity prevents alterations in mitochondrial ultrastructure and glucometabolic parameters in a high-sugar diet model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorato-Sampaio, Kinulpe; Rossoni Júnior, Joamyr Victor; Andrade Leal, Diego; Pinto, Angélica Barbosa G.; Kappes-Becker, Lenice; Evangelista, Elisio Alberto; Guerra-Sá, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Endurance exercise is a remarkable intervention for the treatment of many diseases. Mitochondrial changes on skeletal muscle are likely important for many of the benefits provided by exercise. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects that a regular physical activity (swimming without workload) has on mitochondrial morphological alterations and glucometabolic parameters induced by a high-sugar diet (HSD). Weaned male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet or a HSD (68% carbohydrate) were subjected to 60 minutes of regular physical activity by swimming (without workload) for four- (20 sessions) or eight-week (40 sessions) periods. After training, animals were euthanized and the sera, adipose tissues, and skeletal muscles were collected for further analysis. The HSD increased body weight after an 8-week period; it also increased the fat pads and the adipose index, resulting in glucose intolerance and insulin resistance (IR). Transmission electron microscopy showed an increase in alterations of mitochondrial ultrastructure in the gastrocnemius muscle, as well as a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and an increase in protein carbonylation. Regular physical activity partially reverted these alterations in rats fed a HSD, preventing mitochondrial morphological alterations and IR. Moreover, we observed a decrease in Pgc1α expression (qPCR analysis) in STD-EXE group and a less pronounced reduction in HSD-EXE group after an 8-week period. Thus, regular physical activity (swimming without workload) in rats fed a HSD can prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and IR, highlighting the crucial role for physical activity on metabolic homeostasis. PMID:28199417

  10. The Increasing Impact of Activity-Based Protein Profiling in Plant Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Kyoko; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2016-03-01

    The active proteome dictates plant physiology. Yet, active proteins are difficult to predict based on transcript or protein levels, because protein activities are regulated post-translationally in their microenvironments. Over the past 10 years, activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is increasingly used in plant science. ABPP monitors the activities of hundreds of plant proteins using tagged chemical probes that react with the active site of proteins in a mechanism-dependent manner. Since labeling is covalent and irreversible, labeled proteins can be detected and identified on protein gels and by mass spectrometry using tagged fluorophores and/or biotin. Here, we discuss general concepts, approaches and practical considerations of ABPP, before we summarize the discoveries made using 40 validated probes representing 14 chemotypes that can monitor the active state of >4,500 plant proteins. These discoveries and new opportunities indicate that this emerging functional proteomic technology is a powerful discovery tool that will have an increasing impact on plant science.

  11. Expression activity of the CpTI gene in transgenic rice plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Plant harboured protease inhibitor is a part of the natural plant defense system against insect predation. Plants transformed with foreign plant protease inhibitor genes can enhance resistance to insect pests. So far, at least 20 kinds of plants, including tobacco, rice, tomato, cotton et al., have been transformed with various plant protease inhibitor genes. We have transformed rice with CpTI (cowpea trypsin inhibitor) gene. To assess the range and stability of expression of the CpTI gene, CpTI protein activities were determined in various tissues and at different development stages of transgenic inbred lines.

  12. Mercury modulates selenium activity via altering its accumulation and speciation in garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiating; Hu, Yi; Gao, Yuxi; Li, Yufeng; Li, Bai; Dong, Yuanxing; Chai, Zhifang

    2013-06-01

    Combined pollution of selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) has been known in Wanshan district (Guizhou Province, China). A better understanding of how Se and Hg interact in plants and the phytotoxicity thereof will provide clues about how to avoid or mitigate adverse effects of Se/Hg on local agriculture. In this study, the biological activity of Se has been investigated in garlic with or without Hg exposure. Se alone can promote garlic growth at low levels (1 mg L(-1)). The promotive effect of Se in garlic can be enhanced by low Hg exposure (<0.1 mg L(-1)). When both Se and Hg are at high levels, there is a general antagonistic effect between these two elements in terms of phytotoxicity. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) data suggest that Se is mainly concentrated in garlic roots, compared to the leaves and the bulbs. Se uptake by garlic in low Se medium (<0.1 mg L(-1)) can be significantly enhanced as Hg exposure levels increase (P < 0.05), while it can be inhibited by Hg when Se exposure levels exceed 1 mg L(-1). The synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) mapping further shows that Se is mainly concentrated in the stele of the roots, bulbs and the veins of the leaves, and Se accumulation in garlic can be reduced by Hg. The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) study indicates that Se is mainly formed in C-Se-C form in garlic. Hg can decrease the content of inorganic Se mainly in SeO3(2-) form in garlic while increasing the content of organic Se mainly in C-Se-C form (MeSeCys and its derivatives). Hg-mediated changes in Se species along with reduced Se accumulation in garlic may account for the protective effect of Hg against Se phytotoxicity.

  13. Design criteria -- Reactor plant modifications for increased production and 100-C Area Alterations (Sections A and B) CG-558. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, M.H.

    1954-08-10

    This document defines the basic criteria to be used in the preparation of detailed design for Project CG-558, Reactor Plant Modification for Increased Production and for Project CG-600, 100-C Area Alterations. It has been determined that the most economical method of increasing plutonium production within the next five years is by the modernization and improvement of the 100-B, 100-C, 100-D, 100-DR, 100-F, and 100-H reactor plants. These reactors are currently incapable of operating at their maximum potential power levels because of a limited availability of process cooling water. As a result of this programs, it is estimated that 1650-2350 megawatts of total additional production will be achieved. The purpose of this document is to set forth the design for certain modifications and additions to Hanford reactors and their supporting facilities as required to obtain higher power levels and improve the safety of reactor operation.

  14. Magnesium-induced alterations in the photosynthetic performance and resistance of rice plants infected with Bipolaris oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiler Ribas Moreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brown spot (BS, caused by the fungus Bipolaris oryzae, is one of the most important diseases contracted by rice. We investigated the effect of magnesium (Mg on the development of BS, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, and the effects of disease development on the photosynthetic performance of rice (Oryza sativa L. plants (cv. Metica-1 grown in nutrient solutions containing 0.25 or 4.0 mM of Mg. Assessments of BS severity, leaf Mg and pigment concentrations (total chlorophylls and carotenoids, were carried out at 120 h after inoculation, in addition to gas exchange parameters,. Higher leaf concentration of Mg was observed in plants supplied with 4.0 mM Mg than in those supplied with 0.25 mM. The increase in leaf Mg was accompanied by a decrease in BS severity, higher concentration of total chlorophyll and better photosynthetic performance. Plants supplied with 4.0 mM Mg had higher average values for carbon assimilation, stomatal conductance and internal leaf CO2 concentration when compared with plants supplied with 0.25 mM Mg. Conversely, the concentration of carotenoids was lower in plants supplied with the higher Mg rate. These results suggest that Mg suppresses disease severity and preserves photosynthetic performance by allowing for better stomatal conductance and, consequently, greater availability of CO2 at the carboxylation sites.

  15. Rapid modulation of ultraviolet shielding in plants is influenced by solar ultraviolet radiation and linked to alterations in flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Paul W; Tobler, Mark A; Keefover-Ring, Ken; Flint, Stephan D; Barkley, Anne E; Ryel, Ronald J; Lindroth, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (flavonoids and related phenylpropanoids) and the resultant decrease in epidermal UV transmittance (TUV ) are primary protective mechanisms employed by plants against potentially damaging solar UV radiation and are critical components of the overall acclimation response of plants to changing solar UV environments. Whether plants can adjust this UV sunscreen protection in response to rapid changes in UV, as occurs on a diurnal basis, is largely unexplored. Here, we use a combination of approaches to demonstrate that plants can modulate their UV-screening properties within minutes to hours, and these changes are driven, in part, by UV radiation. For the cultivated species Abelmoschus esculentus, large (30-50%) and reversible changes in TUV occurred on a diurnal basis, and these adjustments were associated with changes in the concentrations of whole-leaf UV-absorbing compounds and several quercetin glycosides. Similar results were found for two other species (Vicia faba and Solanum lycopersicum), but no such changes were detected in Zea mays. These findings reveal a much more dynamic UV-protection mechanism than previously recognized, raise important questions concerning the costs and benefits of UV-protection strategies in plants and have practical implications for employing UV to enhance crop vigor and quality in controlled environments.

  16. Chilling- and Freezing-Induced Alterations in Cytosine Methylation and Its Association with the Cold Tolerance of an Alpine Subnival Plant, Chorispora bungeana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Song

    Full Text Available Chilling (0-18°C and freezing (<0°C are two distinct types of cold stresses. Epigenetic regulation can play an important role in plant adaptation to abiotic stresses. However, it is not yet clear whether and how epigenetic modification (i.e., DNA methylation mediates the adaptation to cold stresses in nature (e.g., in alpine regions. Especially, whether the adaptation to chilling and freezing is involved in differential epigenetic regulations in plants is largely unknown. Chorispora bungeana is an alpine subnival plant that is distributed in the freeze-thaw tundra in Asia, where chilling and freezing frequently fluctuate daily (24 h. To disentangle how C. bungeana copes with these intricate cold stresses through epigenetic modifications, plants of C. bungeana were treated at 4°C (chilling and -4°C (freezing over five periods of time (0-24 h. Methylation-sensitive amplified fragment-length polymorphism markers were used to investigate the variation in DNA methylation of C. bungeana in response to chilling and freezing. It was found that the alterations in DNA methylation of C. bungeana largely occurred over the period of chilling and freezing. Moreover, chilling and freezing appeared to gradually induce distinct DNA methylation variations, as the treatment went on (e.g., after 12 h. Forty-three cold-induced polymorphic fragments were randomly selected and further analyzed, and three of the cloned fragments were homologous to genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase, UDP-glucosyltransferase and polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein. These candidate genes verified the existence of different expressive patterns between chilling and freezing. Our results showed that C. bungeana responded to cold stresses rapidly through the alterations of DNA methylation, and that chilling and freezing induced different DNA methylation changes. Therefore, we conclude that epigenetic modifications can potentially serve as a rapid and flexible mechanism for C. bungeana

  17. Induction of AMPK activity corrects early pathophysiological alterations in the subtotal nephrectomy model of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satriano, Joseph; Sharma, Kumar; Blantz, Roland C; Deng, Aihua

    2013-09-01

    The rat kidney ablation and infarction (A/I) model of subtotal or 5/6th nephrectomy is the most commonly studied model of nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD). The A/I kidney at 1 wk exhibits reductions in kidney function, as determined by glomerular filtration rate, and diminished metabolic efficiency as determined by oxygen consumption per sodium transport (QO2/TNa). As renoprotective AMPK activity is affected by metabolic changes and cellular stress, we evaluated AMPK activity in this model system. We show that these early pathophysiological changes are accompanied by a paradoxical decrease in AMPK activity. Over time, these kidney parameters progressively worsen with extensive kidney structural, functional, metabolic, and fibrotic changes observed at 4 wk after A/I. We show that induction of AMPK activity with either metformin or 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide increases AMPK activity in this model and also corrects kidney metabolic inefficiency, improves kidney function, and ameliorates kidney fibrosis and structural alterations. We conclude that AMPK activity is reduced in the subtotal nephrectomy model of nondiabetic CKD, that altered regulation of AMPK is coincident with the progression of disease parameters, and that restoration of AMPK activity can suppress the progressive loss of function characteristic of this model. We propose that induction of AMPK activity may prove an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of nondiabetic CKD.

  18. Exposure to forced swim stress alters local circuit activity and plasticity in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarom, Orli; Maroun, Mouna; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown that, depending on its severity and context, stress can affect neural plasticity. Most related studies focused on synaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation (LTP) of principle cells. However, evidence suggests that following high-frequency stimulation, which induces LTP in principal cells, modifications also take place at the level of complex interactions with interneurons within the dentate gyrus, that is, at the local circuit level. So far, the possible effects of stress on local circuit activity and plasticity were not studied. Therefore, we set out to examine the possible alterations in local circuit activity and plasticity following exposure to stress. Local circuit activity and plasticity were measured by using frequency dependant inhibition (FDI) and commissural modulation protocols following exposure to a 15 minute-forced swim trial. Exposure to stress did not alter FDI. The application of theta-burst stimulation (TBS) reduced FDI in both control and stressed rats, but this type of plasticity was greater in stressed rats. Commissural-induced inhibition was significantly higher in stressed rats both before and after applying theta-burst stimulation. These findings indicate that the exposure to acute stress affects aspects of local circuit activity and plasticity in the dentate gyrus. It is possible that these alterations underlie some of the behavioral consequences of the stress experience.

  19. Exposure to Forced Swim Stress Alters Local Circuit Activity and Plasticity in the Dentate Gyrus of the Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orli Yarom

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that, depending on its severity and context, stress can affect neural plasticity. Most related studies focused on synaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation (LTP of principle cells. However, evidence suggests that following high-frequency stimulation, which induces LTP in principal cells, modifications also take place at the level of complex interactions with interneurons within the dentate gyrus, that is, at the local circuit level. So far, the possible effects of stress on local circuit activity and plasticity were not studied. Therefore, we set out to examine the possible alterations in local circuit activity and plasticity following exposure to stress. Local circuit activity and plasticity were measured by using frequency dependant inhibition (FDI and commissural modulation protocols following exposure to a 15 minute-forced swim trial. Exposure to stress did not alter FDI. The application of theta-burst stimulation (TBS reduced FDI in both control and stressed rats, but this type of plasticity was greater in stressed rats. Commissural-induced inhibition was significantly higher in stressed rats both before and after applying theta-burst stimulation. These findings indicate that the exposure to acute stress affects aspects of local circuit activity and plasticity in the dentate gyrus. It is possible that these alterations underlie some of the behavioral consequences of the stress experience.

  20. Mayaro virus infection alters glucose metabolism in cultured cells through activation of the enzyme 6-phosphofructo 1-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bacha, Tatiana; Menezes, Maíra M T; Azevedo e Silva, Melissa C; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Da Poian, Andrea T

    2004-11-01

    Although it is well established that cellular transformation with tumor virus leads to changes on glucose metabolism, the effects of cell infection by non-transforming virus are far to be completely elucidated. In this study, we report the first evidence that cultured Vero cells infected with the alphavirus Mayaro show several alterations on glucose metabolism. Infected cells presented a two fold increase on glucose consumption, accompanied by an increment in lactate production. This increase in glycolytic flux was also demonstrated by a significant increase on the activity of 6-phosphofructo 1-kinase, one of the regulatory enzymes of glycolysis. Analysis of the kinetic parameters revealed that the regulation of 6-phosphofructo 1-kinase is altered in infected cells, presenting an increase in Vmax along with a decrease in Km for fructose-6-phosphate. Another fact contributing to an increase in enzyme activity was the decrease in ATP levels observed in infected cells. Additionally, the levels of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, a potent activator of this enzyme, was significantly reduced in infected cells. These observations suggest that the increase in PFK activity may be a compensatory cellular response to the viral-induced metabolic alterations that could lead to an impairment of the glycolytic flux and energy production.

  1. Benchmarking procedure for full-scale activated sludge plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abusam, A.; Keesman, K.J.; Spanjers, H.; Straten, van G.

    2004-01-01

    To enhance development and acceptance of new control strategies, a standard simulation benchmarking methodology to evaluate the performance of wastewater treatment plants has recently been proposed. The proposed methodology is, however, for a typical plant and that works under typical loading and en

  2. Alteration of non-swelling clay minerals and magadiite by acid activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steudel, A.; Batenburg, L.F.; Fischer, H.R.; Weidler, P.G.; Emmerich, K.

    2009-01-01

    The bulk material of three kaolins, a sepiolite, an illite and one magadiite were treated with 1, 5 and 10 M H2SO4 at 80 °C for several hours. The alteration of the non-swelling clay mineral structures was controlled by the individual character of each mineral (chemical composition and initial parti

  3. Antimicrobial activity of 20 plants used in folkloric medicine in the Palestinian area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Yaghmour, R M; Faidi, Y R; Salem, K; Al-Nuri, M A

    1998-04-01

    Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of 20 Palestinian plant species used in folk medicine were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against five bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and one yeast (Candida albicans). The plants showed 90% of antimicrobial activity, with significant difference in activity between the different plants. The most antimicrobially active plants were Phagnalon rupestre and Micromeria nervosa, whereas, the least active plant was Ziziphus spina-christi. Only ten of the tested plant extracts were active against C. albicans, with the most active from M. nervosa and Inula viscosa and the least active from Ruscus aculeatus. Of all extracts the ethanolic extract of M. nervosa was the most active, whereas, the aqueous extract of Phagnalon rupestre was the most active of all aqueous extracts tested. The ethanolic extracts (70%) showed activity against both Gram positive and negative bacteria and 40% of these extracts showed anticandidal activity, whereas, 50% of the aqueous extracts showed antibacterial activity and 20% of these extracts showed anticandidal activity.

  4. ENO2 activity is required for the development and reproductive success of plants, and is feedback-repressed by AtMBP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremina, Marina; Rozhon, Wilfried; Yang, Saiqi; Poppenberger, Brigitte

    2015-03-01

    Enolases are key glycolytic enzymes that are highly conserved in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, and are among the most abundant cytosolic proteins. In this study we provide evidence that activity of the enolase ENO2 is essential for the growth and development of plants. We show that Arabidopsis plants with compromised ENO2 function, which were generated by mutating the LOS2/ENO2 locus, have severe cellular defects, including reduced cell size and defective cell differentiation with restricted lignification. At the tissue and organ level LOS2/ENO2-deficient plants are characterized by the reduced growth of shoots and roots, altered vascular development and defective secondary growth of stems, impaired floral organogenesis and defective male gametophyte function, resulting in embryo lethality as well as delayed senescence. These phenotypes correlate with reduced lignin and increased salicylic acid contents as well as altered fatty acid and soluble sugar composition. In addition to an enolase the LOS2/ENO2 locus encodes the transcription factor AtMBP-1, and here we reveal that this bifunctionality serves to maintain the homeostasis of ENO2 activity. In summary, we show that in plants enolase function is required for the formation of chorismate-dependent secondary metabolites, and that this activity is feedback-inhibited by AtMBP-1 to enable the normal development and reproductive success of plants.

  5. Simulated acid rain alters litter decomposition and enhances the allelopathic potential of the invasive plant Wedelia trilobata (Creeping Daisy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species and acid rain cause global environmental problems. Limited information exists, however, concerning the effects of acid rain on the invasiveness of these plants. For example, creeping daisy, an invasive exotic allelopathic weed, has caused great damage in southern China where acid ra...

  6. Anti hyperlipidemic activity of Tephrosia purpurea plant extracts in poloxomer 407 induced hyperlipidemic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pankti P. Dalwadi; Pragnesh Patani

    2014-01-01

    Aim & Objective: Screening Of Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Tephrosia purpurea Plant Extracts.   Material & Method: Screening of antihyperlipidemic was done by using Tephrosia purpurea Leaves, Stem and Whole plant (except Leaves) extracts. Part extracts used for antihyperlipidemic activity were stem (500 mg/kg), leaves (400mg/kg) and whole plant extracts except leaves at the dose of (300mg/kg, 600mg/kg).Hyperlipidemia was administered in experimental animals using Poloxomer 407 by in...

  7. In vitro antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants traditionally used in Vietnam against human pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Thuy Thu; Kim, Hyungrok; Tran, Vu Khac; Le Dang, Quang; Nguyen, Hoa Thi; Kim, Hun; Kim, In Seon; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Background Medicinal plants are widely used for the treatment of different infectious diseases. Infectious diseases caused by bacteria have a large impact on public health. This study aimed to determine the in vitro antibacterial activity of the medicinal plants traditionally used in Vietnam against the bacterial strains associated with infectious diseases. Methods Methanol extracts of twelve Vietnamese medicinal plants were tested for their antibacterial activity against five bacterial speci...

  8. Tomato plants overexpressing cryptochrome 2 reveal altered expression of energy and stress-related gene products in response to diurnal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Loredana; Carbone, Fabrizio; Bianco, Linda; Giuliano, Giovanni; Facella, Paolo; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2012-05-01

    In order to sense and respond to the fluctuating light conditions, higher plants possess several families of photoreceptors, such as phytochromes (PHYs), cryptochromes (CRYs) and phototropins. CRYs are responsible for photomorphogenesis and play a role in circadian, developmental and adaptive growth regulation of plants. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), CRY2 controls vegetative development, flowering time, fruit antioxidant content as well as the diurnal transcription of several other photoreceptor genes. We applied large-scale molecular approaches to identify altered transcripts and proteins in tomato wild-type (WT) versus a CRY2 overexpressing transgenic genotype, under a diurnal rhythm. Our results showed that tomato CRY2 profoundly affects both gene and protein expression in response to daily light cycle. Particularly altered molecular pathways are related to biotic/abiotic stress, photosynthesis, including components of the light and dark reactions and of starch and sucrose biosynthesis, as well as to secondary metabolism, such as phenylpropanoid, phenolic and flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthesis pathways. One of the most interesting results is the coordinated up-regulation, in the transgenic genotype, of a consistent number of transcripts and proteins involved in photorespiration and photosynthesis. It is conceivable that light modulates the energetic metabolism of tomato through a fine CRY2-mediated transcriptional control.

  9. Phospholipase D activation correlates with microtubule reorganization in living plant cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.B. Dhonukshe; A.M. Laxalt; J. Goedhart; Th.W.J. Gadella; T. Munnik

    2003-01-01

    A phospholipase D (PLD) was shown recently to decorate microtubules in plant cells. Therefore, we used tobacco BY-2 cells expressing the microtubule reporter GFP-MAP4 to test whether PLD activation affects the organization of plant microtubules. Within 30 min of adding n-butanol, a potent activator

  10. Antifungal compounds from turmeric and nutmeg with activity against plant pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antifungal activity of twenty-two common spices was evaluated against plant pathogens using direct-bioautography coupled Colletotrichum bioassays. Turmeric, nutmeg, ginger, clove, oregano, cinnamon, anise, fennel, basil, black cumin, and black pepper showed antifungal activity against the plant ...

  11. [Content and distribution of active components in cultivated and wild Taxus chinensis var. mairei plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shao-Shuai; Sun, Qi-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Tian, Sheng-Ni; Bo, Pei-Lei

    2012-10-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is an endemic and endangered plant species in China. The resources of T. chinensis var. mairei have been excessively exploited due to its anti-cancer potential, accordingly, the extant T. chinensis var. mairei population is decreasing. In this paper, ultrasonic extraction and HPLC were adopted to determine the contents of active components paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine in cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants, with the content distribution of these components in different parts of the plants having grown for different years and at different slope aspects investigated. There existed obvious differences in the contents of these active components between cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants. The paclitaxel content in the wild plants was about 0.78 times more than that in the cultivated plants, whereas the 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine contents were slishtly higher in the cultivated plants. The differences in the three active components contents between different parts and tree canopies of the plants were notable, being higher in barks and upper tree canopies. Four-year old plants had comparatively higher contents of paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine (0.08, 0.91 and 0.32 mg x g(-1), respectively), and the plants growing at sunny slope had higher contents of the three active components, with significant differences in the paclitaxel and 7-xylosyltaxol contents and unapparent difference in the cephalomannine content of the plants at shady slope. It was suggested that the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants were closely related to the sunshine conditions. To appropriately increase the sunshine during the artificial cultivation of T. chinensis var. mairei would be beneficial to the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants.

  12. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts from Mexican medicinal plants and purified coumarins and xanthones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaka, Kakuko; Abe, Fumiko; Nagayama, Ariaki; Okabe, Hikaru; Lozada-Pérez, Lucio; López-Villafranco, Edith; Muñiz, Elizabeth Estrada; Aguilar, Abigail; Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo

    2005-02-28

    Thirty-two extracts from 22 Mexican medicinal plants of 15 different families were assayed to determine their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Seventeen plants showed antibacterial activity, while five plants showed no activity against both bacteria. All of the extracts showed higher activity against Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant) than against Escherichia coli, except one. Among the plants examined, Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. (Burseraceae), Haematoxylum brasiletto H. Karst. (Fabaceae), Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae), and Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae) were highly active against Staphylococcus aureus. Coumarins (mammea A/BA and mammea A/AA) and xanthones, namely jacareubin and 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxy-2-(3,3-dimethylallyl) xanthone, were isolated as the principle compounds from the last two plants.

  13. The biochemical mechanisms of the plant activation of promutagenic aromatic amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, E.D.; Verdier, M.M.; Plewa, M.J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Using specific monooxygenase and oxidase inhibitors in a plant cell/microbe coincubation assay, the biochemical mechanisms of the plant activation of two aromatic amines were compared. The biological endpoints included mutation induction, inhibition of mutagenicity, viability of the plant cells (activating system), and viability of the microbial cells. The activation of m-phenylenediamine by TX1 cells was mediated by enzyme systems that were inhibited by diethyldithiocarbamate, potassium cyanide, methimazole, (+)-catechin or acetaminophen. The inhibition by metyrapone was attended by toxicity in the plant cells. These data implicate a TX1 cell peroxidase and a FAD-dependent monoxygenase in the plant activation of m-phenylenediamine. The TX1 cell activation of 2-aminofluorene was inhibited by diethyldithiocarbamate, 7,8-benzoflavone, acetaminophen or (+)-catechin.

  14. MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH POTENTIAL ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narah Merina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been the beacon of therapeutic sources for curing diseases from times immemorial. Medicinal plants with their isolated lead molecules are also used as an alternative medicine for treating neoplastic cells. Neoplastic cells are the anomalous proliferation of cells in the body which cause cancer. Diverse efficient compounds derived from natural products have been isolated as anticancer agents. These chemical compounds are formulated with a view to create effective drugs against cancer. Some of the lead molecules isolated from different medicinal plants are already in use to treat cancer and chemotherapeutic side effects. These potential and successful anticancer molecules include Vincristine, Vinblastin, Taxol, Camptothecin and Podophyllotoxin. This paper deals with the selective medicinal plants having anticancer properties which could be further designed to produce cancer curing drugs.

  15. Antibacterial activity of five Peruvian medicinal plants against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ulloa-Urizar

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study scientifically validate the inhibitory capacity of the five medicinal plants attributed by their common use in folk medicine and contribute towards the development of new treatment options based on natural products.

  16. Design and construction of an in-plant activation cassette for transgene expression and recombinant protein production in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, Benjamin; Mortimer, Cara L; Kato, Maiko; James, Tess A; Harding, Robert M; Dale, James L

    2014-05-01

    Virus-based transgene expression systems have become particularly valuable for recombinant protein production in plants. The dual-module in-plant activation (INPACT) expression platform consists of a uniquely designed split-gene cassette incorporating the cis replication elements of Tobacco yellow dwarf geminivirus (TYDV) and an ethanol-inducible activation cassette encoding the TYDV Rep and RepA replication-associated proteins. The INPACT system is essentially tailored for recombinant protein production in stably transformed plants and provides both inducible and high-level transient transgene expression with the potential to be adapted to diverse crop species. The construction of a novel split-gene cassette, the inducible nature of the system and the ability to amplify transgene expression via rolling-circle replication differentiates this system from other DNA- and RNA-based virus vector systems used for stable or transient recombinant protein production in plants. Here we provide a detailed protocol describing the design and construction of a split-gene INPACT cassette, and we highlight factors that may influence optimal activation and amplification of gene expression in transgenic plants. By using Nicotiana tabacum, the protocol takes 6-9 months to complete, and recombinant proteins expressed using INPACT can accumulate to up to 10% of the leaf total soluble protein.

  17. The Activity of Major Faults and the Hydrothermal Alteration Zone at Tianchi Volcano of Changbaishan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Mingjun; Gu Menglin; Sun Zhenguo; Wei Haiquan; Jin Bolu

    2004-01-01

    It is found by field investigation that the near horizontal top surface of the brown or brick-red hydrothermal alteration zone varies obviously in elevation at different sections of the same layer on the caldera's inner wall of Tianchi, with that at the north section near the Tianwen Peak about 110 m higher than that at the south near the Jiangjun Peak in Korea. The top surface of the hydrothermal alteration zone can be taken as key horizon to tectonic movement. The difference indicates that the total uplift height of the NW wall of the Liudaogou-TianchiJingfengshan fault, the principal fault trending NE at Tianchi, is bigger than that of the SE wall ever since the occurrence of hydrothermal alteration. This also explains why the topography in the northwest side of Tianchi is steeper and with more developed river system than in the southeast. The uplifting of the northeastern wall is bigger than that of the southwest along the principal NW-trend fault, namely, the Baishanzhen-Tianchi-Jince fault. It is observed from characters of hydrothermal alteration and the palaeoresiduum, that the recent vertical movement rate along the principal NE-trend fault is larger than that of the principal NW-trend fault. The two faults intersect at Tianchi, dividing the volcano into 4 blocks, with the uplift magnitudes decreasing successively in the order of the north, the west, the east and the south block. The biggest uplift of the north block corresponds well to the shallow magma batch in the north of Tianchi observed by DSS and telluric electromagnetic sounding, and etc.and they may be related with the causes.

  18. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN CALLUS CULTURES AND IN VITRO REGENERATED PLANTS OF ARTEMISIA NILAGIRICA (CLARKE PAMP.- AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. BALIARSINGH 1* , L. SAMANTA 2 AND S. S. MOHANTY 3

    2015-01-01

    dichlorophenoxyacetic  acid  (2,4-D  with  1.0  mg/L  Kinetin  (Kin  yielded maximum  callogenic  response.  Shoot  organogenesis  in  callus  cultures  was most favoured in MS containing 2.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and 0.5 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid (IAA. In vitro regenerated plantlets, emerged from culture medium, were acclimatized and the survival rate of ex vitro plants after soil transplantation  was 80-83% with  no apparent  phenotypic variations. The antioxidant  potential  of  natural  (in  vivo  plants,  callus  tissues  and  in  vitro regenerated plants before and after field transplantation (ex vitro plants were compared. DPPH scavenging activity was the highest in aqueous extracts of 10 week-old ex vitro plants than  other  sources.  Superoxide  anion  and  nitric  oxide  radical  scavenging  activity  was  the  highest  in ethanolic  extracts  of  10 week-old  ex  vitro  plants  where  as  the  hydroxyl  radical  was  the  maximum  in  6 week-old in vivo plants. Lipid peroxidation was neither observed in calli nor in regenerated plants of A. nilagirica.

  19. Medicinal plants with potential anti-arthritic activity:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjusha Choudhary

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This review clearly indicates that list of medicinal plants presented in this review might be useful to researchers as well as practioners. This review can be useful for preliminary screening of potential anti- arthritis plants. Further toxicity profile given in the review can be useful for the researchers for finding the safe dose. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 147-179

  20. C3 and C4 plant responses to increased temperatures and altered monsoonal precipitation in a cool desert on the Colorado Plateau, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertin, Timothy M.; Reed, Sasha C.; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Dryland ecosystems represent >40 % of the terrestrial landscape and support over two billion people; consequently, it is vital to understand how drylands will respond to climatic change. However, while arid and semiarid ecosystems commonly experience extremely hot and dry conditions, our understanding of how further temperature increases or altered precipitation will affect dryland plant communities remains poor. To address this question, we assessed plant physiology and growth at a long-term (7-year) climate experiment on the Colorado Plateau, USA, where the community is a mix of shallow-rooted C3 and C4 grasses and deep-rooted C4 shrubs. The experiment maintained elevated-temperature treatments (+2 or +4 °C) in combination with altered summer monsoonal precipitation (+small frequent precipitation events or +large infrequent events). Increased temperature negatively affected photosynthesis and growth of the C3 and C4 grasses, but effects varied in their timing: +4 °C treatments negatively affected the C3 grass early in the growing season of both years, while the negative effects of temperature on the C4 grass were seen in the +2 and +4 °C treatments, but only during the late growing season of the drier year. Increased summer precipitation did not affect photosynthesis or biomass for any species, either in the year the precipitation was applied or the following year. Although previous research suggests dryland plants, and C4 grasses in particular, may respond positively to elevated temperature, our findings from a cool desert show marked declines in C3 and C4 photosynthesis and growth, with temperature effects dependent on the degree of warming and growing-season precipitation.

  1. C₃ and C₄ plant responses to increased temperatures and altered monsoonal precipitation in a cool desert on the Colorado Plateau, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertin, Timothy M; Reed, Sasha C; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-04-01

    Dryland ecosystems represent >40% of the terrestrial landscape and support over two billion people; consequently, it is vital to understand how drylands will respond to climatic change. However, while arid and semiarid ecosystems commonly experience extremely hot and dry conditions, our understanding of how further temperature increases or altered precipitation will affect dryland plant communities remains poor. To address this question, we assessed plant physiology and growth at a long-term (7-year) climate experiment on the Colorado Plateau, USA, where the community is a mix of shallow-rooted C3 and C4 grasses and deep-rooted C4 shrubs. The experiment maintained elevated-temperature treatments (+2 or +4 °C) in combination with altered summer monsoonal precipitation (+small frequent precipitation events or +large infrequent events). Increased temperature negatively affected photosynthesis and growth of the C3 and C4 grasses, but effects varied in their timing: +4 °C treatments negatively affected the C3 grass early in the growing season of both years, while the negative effects of temperature on the C4 grass were seen in the +2 and +4 °C treatments, but only during the late growing season of the drier year. Increased summer precipitation did not affect photosynthesis or biomass for any species, either in the year the precipitation was applied or the following year. Although previous research suggests dryland plants, and C4 grasses in particular, may respond positively to elevated temperature, our findings from a cool desert show marked declines in C3 and C4 photosynthesis and growth, with temperature effects dependent on the degree of warming and growing-season precipitation.

  2. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and treated wastewater on water relations and leaf structure alterations of Viburnum tinus L. plants during both saline and recovery periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Bellot, María José; Nortes, Pedro Antonio; Ortuño, María Fernanda; Romero, Cristina; Fernández-García, Nieves; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays, irrigation with low quality water is becoming an alternative to satisfy the needs of crops. However, some plant species have to deal with high salinity of reclaimed water, by adapting their physiological behaviour during both saline and recovery periods and developing morphological changes in their leaves. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could also be a suitable option to mitigate the negative effects of this kind of water, although the effectiveness of plant-AMF association is influenced by many factors. In this work, during forty weeks, the combined effect of Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum and two types of water: control, C, EC<0.9 dS m(-1) and reclaimed water, RW (with EC: 4 dS m(-1) during a first saline period and EC: 6 dS m(-1) during a second saline period) was evaluated for laurustinus plants (Viburnum tinus L.) transplanted in soil. This was followed by a recovery period of eight weeks, when all the plants were irrigated in the control irrigation conditions. Seasonal and daily changes in stem water potential (Ψstem), stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthesis (Pn) and leaf internal CO2 concentration (Ci) of laurustinus plants were evaluated. Leaf structure alterations, nutrient imbalance, height and leaf hydraulic conductivity (Kleaf) were also determined. Due to the high difficulty of absorbing water from the soil, RW plants showed a high volumetric water content (θv) in soil. The stem water potential and the stomatal conductance (gs) values were reduced in RW plants throughout the second saline period. These decreases were also found during the day. Leaf Ca(2+)/Na(+) and K(+)/Na(+) ratios diminished in RW plants respect to the C plants due to the Na(+) accumulation, although height and chlorophyll content values did not show statistical differences. Leaves from RW plants showed a significantly thicker mesophyll than Control leaves as a consequence of high EC. The area of palisade parenchyma (PP) increased while the

  3. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of selected plant extracts by rapid XTT colorimetry and bacterial enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bakri, Amal G; Afifi, Fatma U

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of indigenous Jordanian plant extracts, dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide, using the rapid XTT assay and viable count methods. XTT rapid assay was used for the initial screening of antimicrobial activity for the plant extracts. Antimicrobial activity of potentially active plant extracts was further assessed using the "viable plate count" method. Four degrees of antimicrobial activity (high, moderate, weak and inactive) against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively, were recorded. The plant extracts of Hypericum triquetrifolium, Ballota undulata, Ruta chalepensis, Ononis natrix, Paronychia argentea and Marrubium vulgare had shown promising antimicrobial activity. This study showed that while both XTT and viable count methods are comparable when estimating the overall antimicrobial activity of experimental substances, there is no strong linear correlation between the two methods.

  4. The invasive spider mite Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae) alters community composition and host-plant use of native relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut, Francisco; Garzón-Luque, Eva; Pekas, Apostolos

    2013-07-01

    The tomato spider mite Tetranychus evansi Baker and Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a worldwide pest of solanaceous crops that has recently invaded many parts of the world. In the present study we examined the ecological impact of its arrival in the Mediterranean region. The spider mite and phytoseiid mite assemblages in various crop and non-crop plants in three areas of Valencia (Spain) were studied a few months before and 10 years after the invasion of T. evansi. According to rarefaction analyses, the invasion of T. evansi did not affect neither the total number of species in the mite community examined (spider mite and phytoseiid species) nor the number of species when the two communities were examined separately. However, after the invasion, the absolute and relative abundance of the native Tetranychus species was significantly reduced. Before the invasion, T. urticae and T. turkestani were the most abundant spider mites, accounting for 62.9 and 22.8 % of the specimens. After the invasion, T. evansi became the most abundant species, representing 60 % of the total spider mites recorded, whereas the abundance of T. urticae was significantly reduced (23 %). This reduction took place principally on non-crop plants, where native species were replaced by the invader. Null model analyses provided evidence for competition structuring the spider mite community on non-crop plants after the invasion of T. evansi. Resistance to acaricides, the absence of efficient native natural enemies, manipulation of the plant defenses and the web type produced by T. evansi are discussed as possible causes for the competitive displacement.

  5. Ribonuclease activity of buckwheat plant (Fagopyrum esculentum) cultivars with different sensitivities to buckwheat burn virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindarovska, Y R; Guzyk, O I; Yuzvenko, L V; Demchenko, O A; Didenko, L F; Grynevych, O I; Spivak, M Ya

    2014-01-01

    Ribonucleases (RNases) are present in base-level amounts in intact plants, but this level is able to increase greatly under stress conditions. The possible cause for such an increase is protection against plant RNA-virus attack. Buckwheat burn virus (BBV) is a highly virulent pathogen that belongs to Rhabdoviridae family. In our study, we have analyzed the correlation between RNase activity and resistance of different buckwheat cultivars to BBV infection. Two cultivars, Kara-Dag and Roksolana, with different sensitivities to BBV have been used. Kara-Dag is a cultivar with medium sensitivity to virus and Roksolana is a tolerant cultivar. It has been shown that the base level of RNase activity in Roksolana cultivar was in most cases higher than the corresponding parameter in Kara-Dag cultivar. Both infected and uninfected plants of Roksolana cultivar demonstrated high RNase activity during two weeks. Whereas infected plants of Kara-Dag cultivar demonstrated unstable levels of RNase activity. Significant decline in RNase activity was detected on the 7th day post infection with subsequent gradual increase in RNase activity. Decline of the RNase activity during the first week could promote the virus replication and therefore more successful infection of upper leaves of plants. Unstable levels of RNase activity in infected buckwheat plants may be explained by insufficiency of virus-resistant mechanisms that determines the medium sensitivity of the cultivar to BBV. Thus, plants of buckwheat cultivar having less sensitivity to virus, displayed in general higher RNase activity.

  6. In vitro assessment of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of six edible plants from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaraki, Reza; Nateghi, Ashraf; Ahmady-Asbchin, Salman

    2013-06-01

    The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of six edible plants were evaluated. The active constituents of the edible plants were extracted using boiling water or 80% methanol. Results demonstrated that extraction of antioxidants by boiling water was more efficient. Lycium depressum and Berula angustifolia had the highest antioxidant activities and, therefore, could be rich sources of natural antioxidants. The antibacterial activities of the extracts were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Entrococcus faecalis and Proteus mirabilis. Further research is needed to isolate, characterize, and identify the bioactive compounds present in these plants.

  7. Expression of ZmGA20ox cDNA alters plant morphology and increases biomass production of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Phat T; De Tar, Joann R; Lee, Hyeyoung; Folta, Michelle K; Zhang, Zhanyuan J

    2016-07-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is considered a model herbaceous energy crop for the USA, for its adaptation to marginal land, low rainfall and nutrient-deficient soils; however, its low biomass yield is one of several constraints, and this might be rectified by modulating plant growth regulator levels. In this study, we have determined whether the expression of the Zea mays gibberellin 20-oxidase (ZmGA20ox) cDNA in switchgrass will improve biomass production. The ZmGA20ox gene was placed under the control of constitutive CaMV35S promoter with a strong TMV omega enhancer, and introduced into switchgrass via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transgene integration and expression levels of ZmGA20ox in T0 plants were analysed using Southern blot and qRT-PCR. Under glasshouse conditions, selected transgenic plants exhibited longer leaves, internodes and tillers, which resulted in twofold increased biomass. These phenotypic alterations correlated with the levels of transgene expression and the particular gibberellin content. Expression of ZmGA20ox also affected the expression of genes coding for key enzymes in lignin biosynthesis. Our results suggest that the employment of ectopic ZmGA20ox and selection for natural variants with high level expression of endogenous GA20ox are appropriate approaches to increase biomass production of switchgrass and other monocot biofuel crops.

  8. Alterations in plasma dipeptidyl peptidase IV enzyme activity in depression and schizophrenia: effects of antidepressants and antipsychotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, M; De Meester, I; Scharpe, S; Desnyder, R; Ranjan, R; Meltzer, H Y

    1996-01-01

    Recently, our laboratory reported that the activity of dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP IV) was significantly lower in the peripheral blood of major depressed patients than in normal controls. The present study examines plasma DPP IV activity in 43 major depressed and 13 schizophrenic subjects versus 21 normal controls and the effects of antidepressants and antipsychotic drugs on plasma DPP IV activity. DPP IV activity was significantly lower in major depressed subjects than in normal controls and schizophrenic subjects. There was a trend towards higher DPP IV activity in schizophrenic patients than in normal controls. There were no significant effects of antidepressants or neuroleptics on plasma DPP IV activity in depressed and schizophrenic patients, respectively. There were no significant relationships between plasma DPP IV activity and plasma cortisol or immune-inflammatory markers, such as serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) or soluble IL-2 receptor. A significant and positive correlation was found between plasma DPP IV and prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) enzyme activity in the study group as a whole and in schizophrenic subjects. The results support the hypothesis that lower and higher plasma DPP IV activities are trait markers of major depression and schizophrenia, respectively. It is concluded that alterations in the enzyme activity of peptidases, such as DPP IV and PEP, play a role in the pathophysiology of major depression and schizophrenia.

  9. Nuclear material safeguards for enrichments plants: Part 4, Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant: Diversion scenarios and IAEA safeguards activities: Safeguards training course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This publication is Part 4 of a safeguards training course in Nuclear Material Safeguards for enrichment plants. This part of the course deals with diversion scenarios and safeguards activities at gas centrifuge enrichment plants.

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and active ingredients of medicinal plants: current research status and prospectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Chen, Bao-Dong; Hao, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Ji-Yong; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yang, Guang; Cui, Xiu-Ming; Yang, Li; Wu, Zhao-Xiang; Chen, Mei-Lan; Zhang, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Medicinal plants have been used world-wide for thousands of years and are widely recognized as having high healing but minor toxic side effects. The scarcity and increasing demand for medicinal plants and their products have promoted the development of artificial cultivation of medicinal plants. Currently, one of the prominent issues in medicinal cultivation systems is the unstable quality of the products. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) affects secondary metabolism and the production of active ingredients of medicinal plants and thus influence the quality of herbal medicines. In this review, we have assembled, analyzed, and summarized the effects of AM symbioses on secondary metabolites of medicinal plants. We conclude that symbiosis of AM is conducive to favorable characteristics of medicinal plants, by improving the production and accumulation of important active ingredients of medicinal plants such as terpenes, phenols, and alkaloids, optimizing the composition of different active ingredients in medicinal plants and ultimately improving the quality of herbal materials. We are convinced that the AM symbiosis will benefit the cultivation of medicinal plants and improve the total yield and quality of herbal materials. Through this review, we hope to draw attention to the status and prospects of, and arouse more interest in, the research field of medicinal plants and mycorrhiza.

  11. Altered expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor in high-risk soft tissue sarcomas

    OpenAIRE

    Benassi, M S; Ponticelli, F.; Azzoni, E.; Gamberi, G.; Pazzaglia, L.; Chiechi, A.; Conti, A; Spessotto, P.; Scapolan, M; Pignotti, E; P Bacchini; Picci, P.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, classification of soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) has improved with cytogenetic analyses, but their clinical behavior is still not easily predictable. The aim of this study was to detect alterations in the urokinase-type plasminogen system, involved in tumor growth and invasion, by comparing mRNA levels of its components with those of paired normal tissues, and relating them with patient clinical course. Real-time PCR was performed on human STS cell lines a...

  12. Effects of grassland alteration from mowing and fire on bird activity at a Colorado airfield

    OpenAIRE

    Carragher, Kara A.; Clawges, Rick M.; Bunn, Rick L.; Pigage, Helen K.; Pigage, Jon C.

    2012-01-01

    Grass management has been used for many years at airports in an attempt to reduce numbers of birds and other wildlife and the collisions with aircraft associated with them. We evaluated the impacts of grassland alteration by mowing and fi re on the abundance, diversity, and frequency of birds using 1 control and 2 experimental grass plots from 2009 to 2010 on a U.S. Army airfield in Colorado located in short-grass prairie. Density of breeding birds was highest in the mowed plot. Numbers of bi...

  13. Anti-tumour activity of a novel coumarin-chalcone hybrid is mediated through intrinsic apoptotic pathway by inducing PUMA and altering Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neetu; Sarkar, Jayanta; Sashidhara, Koneni V; Ali, Shakir; Sinha, Sudhir

    2014-06-01

    Coumarins and chalcones are secondary plant metabolites which have shown an array of pharmacological properties including anti-tumour activity. We have previously reported on the synthesis and anti-proliferative activity of a series of novel coumarin-chalcone hybrids. Now we report on the in vivo efficacy as well as mechanism of action of the most potent molecule of the series, S009-131. Oral administration of this molecule resulted in regression of tumours induced by HeLa cell xenografts in nod SCID mice. The molecule inhibited proliferation of cervical cancer cells (HeLa and C33A) by inducing apoptosis and arresting cell cycle at G2/M phase. Apoptosis was induced through induction of caspase-dependent intrinsic pathway and alterations in the cellular levels of Bcl-2 family proteins. The mitochondrial transmembrane potential got highly depleted in S009-131 treated cells due to an increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and intracellular ROS. The molecule induced release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and activation of initiator caspase-9 and executioner caspases-3/7. Tumour suppressor protein p53 and its transcriptional target PUMA were up regulated, suggesting their role in mediating the cell death. These results suggest that S009-131 is a potent candidate for the chemotherapy of cervical carcinoma.

  14. An invasive plant promotes its arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses and competitiveness through its secondary metabolites: indirect evidence from activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongge; Tang, Jianjun; Leng, Dong; Hu, Shuijin; Yong, Jean W H; Chen, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites released by invasive plants can increase their competitive ability by affecting native plants, herbivores, and pathogens at the invaded land. Whether these secondary metabolites affect the invasive plant itself, directly or indirectly through microorganisms, however, has not been well documented. Here we tested whether activated carbon (AC), a well-known absorbent for secondary metabolites, affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses and competitive ability in an invasive plant. We conducted three experiments (experiments 1-3) with the invasive forb Solidago canadensis and the native Kummerowia striata. Experiment 1 determined whether AC altered soil properties, levels of the main secondary metabolites in the soil, plant growth, and AMF communities associated with S. canadensis and K. striata. Experiment 2 determined whether AC affected colonization of S. canadensis by five AMF, which were added to sterilized soil. Experiment 3 determined the competitive ability of S. canadensis in the presence and absence of AMF and AC. In experiment 1, AC greatly decreased the concentrations of the main secondary metabolites in soil, and the changes in concentrations were closely related with the changes of AMF in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 2, AC inhibited the AMF Glomus versiforme and G. geosporum but promoted G. mosseae and G. diaphanum in the soil and also in S. canadensis roots. In experiment 3, AC reduced S. canadensis competitive ability in the presence but not in the absence of AMF. Our results provided indirect evidence that the secondary metabolites (which can be absorbed by AC) of the invasive plant S. canadensis may promote S. canadensis competitiveness by enhancing its own AMF symbionts.

  15. THE ANTIFUNGAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF TWO PLANTS FROM ASTEMCEAE

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have found that, Chlysanthemum coronarium has shownantifungal and antibacterial activity, but Inula viscosa didn't show any antifungalor antibacterial activity.Key words: Chrysanthemum coronarium; Inula viscosa; antifungal andantibacterial activities.

  16. Anticancer activities against cholangiocarcinoma, toxicity and pharmacological activities of Thai medicinal plants in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plengsuriyakarn Tullayakorn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemotherapy of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA, a devastating cancer with increasing worldwide incidence and mortality rates, is largely ineffective. The discovery and development of effective chemotherapeutics is urgently needed. Methods/Design The study aimed at evaluating anticancer activities, toxicity, and pharmacological activities of the curcumin compound (CUR, the crude ethanolic extracts of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger: ZO and Atractylodes lancea thung. DC (Khod-Kha-Mao: AL, fruits of Piper chaba Hunt. (De-Plee: PC, and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai formulation (a mixture of parts of 18 Thai medicinal plants: PPF were investigated in animal models. Anti-cholangiocarcinoma (anti-CCA was assessed using CCA-xenograft nude mouse model. The antihypertensive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and anti-ulcer activities and effects on motor coordination were investigated using Rota-rod test, CODA tail-cuff system, writhing and hot plate tests, carrageenan-induced paw edema test, brewer's yeast test, and alcohol-induced gastric ulcer test, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity tests were performed according to the OECD guideline for testing of chemicals with modification. Results Promising anticancer activity against CCA in nude mouse xenograft model was shown for the ethanolic extract of AL at all oral dose levels (1000, 3000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight as well as the extracts of ZO, PPF, and CUR compound at the highest dose level (5000, 4000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight, respectively. PC produced no significant anti-CCA activity. Results from acute and subacute toxicity tests both in mice and rats indicate safety profiles of all the test materials in a broad range of dose levels. No significant toxicity except stomach irritation and general CNS depressant signs were observed. Investigation of pharmacological activities of the test materials revealed promising anti-inflammatory (ZO, PPF, and AL, analgesic (CUR and

  17. In Absence of the Cellular Prion Protein, Alterations in Copper Metabolism and Copper-Dependent Oxidase Activity Affect Iron Distribution.

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    Gasperini, Lisa; Meneghetti, Elisa; Legname, Giuseppe; Benetti, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Essential elements as copper and iron modulate a wide range of physiological functions. Their metabolism is strictly regulated by cellular pathways, since dysregulation of metal homeostasis is responsible for many detrimental effects. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and prion diseases are characterized by alterations of metal ions. These neurodegenerative maladies involve proteins that bind metals and mediate their metabolism through not well-defined mechanisms. Prion protein, for instance, interacts with divalent cations via multiple metal-binding sites and it modulates several metal-dependent physiological functions, such as S-nitrosylation of NMDA receptors. In this work we focused on the effect of prion protein absence on copper and iron metabolism during development and adulthood. In particular, we investigated copper and iron functional values in serum and several organs such as liver, spleen, total brain and isolated hippocampus. Our results show that iron content is diminished in prion protein-null mouse serum, while it accumulates in liver and spleen. Our data suggest that these alterations can be due to impairments in copper-dependent cerulopalsmin activity which is known to affect iron mobilization. In prion protein-null mouse total brain and hippocampus, metal ion content shows a fluctuating trend, suggesting the presence of homeostatic compensatory mechanisms. However, copper and iron functional values are likely altered also in these two organs, as indicated by the modulation of metal-binding protein expression levels. Altogether, these results reveal that the absence of the cellular prion protein impairs copper metabolism and copper-dependent oxidase activity, with ensuing alteration of iron mobilization from cellular storage compartments.

  18. Impaired APP activity and altered Tau splicing in embryonic stem cell-derived astrocytes obtained from an APPsw transgenic minipig

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    Vanessa J. Hall

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of familial juvenile onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD often fail to produce diverse pathological features of the disease by modification of single gene mutations that are responsible for the disease. They can hence be poor models for testing and development of novel drugs. Here, we analyze in vitro-produced stem cells and their derivatives from a large mammalian model of the disease created by overexpression of a single mutant human gene (APPsw. We produced hemizygous and homozygous radial glial-like cells following culture and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs isolated from embryos obtained from mated hemizygous minipigs. These cells were confirmed to co-express varying neural markers, including NES, GFAP and BLBP, typical of type one radial glial cells (RGs from the subgranular zone. These cells had altered expression of CCND1 and NOTCH1 and decreased expression of several ribosomal RNA genes. We found that these cells were able to differentiate into astrocytes upon directed differentiation. The astrocytes produced had decreased α- and β-secretase activity, increased γ-secretase activity and altered splicing of tau. This indicates novel aspects of early onset mechanisms related to cell renewal and function in familial AD astrocytes. These outcomes also highlight that radial glia could be a potentially useful population of cells for drug discovery, and that altered APP expression and altered tau phosphorylation can be detected in an in vitro model of the disease. Finally, it might be possible to use large mammal models to model familial AD by insertion of only a single mutation.

  19. In Absence of the Cellular Prion Protein, Alterations in Copper Metabolism and Copper-Dependent Oxidase Activity Affect Iron Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, Lisa; Meneghetti, Elisa; Legname, Giuseppe; Benetti, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Essential elements as copper and iron modulate a wide range of physiological functions. Their metabolism is strictly regulated by cellular pathways, since dysregulation of metal homeostasis is responsible for many detrimental effects. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and prion diseases are characterized by alterations of metal ions. These neurodegenerative maladies involve proteins that bind metals and mediate their metabolism through not well-defined mechanisms. Prion protein, for instance, interacts with divalent cations via multiple metal-binding sites and it modulates several metal-dependent physiological functions, such as S-nitrosylation of NMDA receptors. In this work we focused on the effect of prion protein absence on copper and iron metabolism during development and adulthood. In particular, we investigated copper and iron functional values in serum and several organs such as liver, spleen, total brain and isolated hippocampus. Our results show that iron content is diminished in prion protein-null mouse serum, while it accumulates in liver and spleen. Our data suggest that these alterations can be due to impairments in copper-dependent cerulopalsmin activity which is known to affect iron mobilization. In prion protein-null mouse total brain and hippocampus, metal ion content shows a fluctuating trend, suggesting the presence of homeostatic compensatory mechanisms. However, copper and iron functional values are likely altered also in these two organs, as indicated by the modulation of metal-binding protein expression levels. Altogether, these results reveal that the absence of the cellular prion protein impairs copper metabolism and copper-dependent oxidase activity, with ensuing alteration of iron mobilization from cellular storage compartments. PMID:27729845

  20. Maternal diet-induced obesity alters mitochondrial activity and redox status in mouse oocytes and zygotes.

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    Natalia Igosheva

    Full Text Available The negative impact of obesity on reproductive success is well documented but the stages at which development of the conceptus is compromised and the mechanisms responsible for the developmental failure still remain unclear. Recent findings suggest that mitochondria may be a contributing factor. However to date no studies have directly addressed the consequences of maternal obesity on mitochondria in early embryogenesis.Using an established murine model of maternal diet induced obesity and a live cell dynamic fluorescence imaging techniques coupled with molecular biology we have investigated the underlying mechanisms of obesity-induced reduced fertility. Our study is the first to show that maternal obesity prior to conception is associated with altered mitochondria in mouse oocytes and zygotes. Specifically, maternal diet-induced obesity in mice led to an increase in mitochondrial potential, mitochondrial DNA content and biogenesis. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS was raised while glutathione was depleted and the redox state became more oxidised, suggestive of oxidative stress. These altered mitochondrial properties were associated with significant developmental impairment as shown by the increased number of obese mothers who failed to support blastocyst formation compared to lean dams. We propose that compromised oocyte and early embryo mitochondrial metabolism, resulting from excessive nutrient exposure prior to and during conception, may underlie poor reproductive outcomes frequently reported in obese women.

  1. Notch Pathway Is Activated via Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations and Is a Therapeutic Target in Clear Cell Renal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Tushar D; Zou, Yiyu; Huang, Shizheng; Park, Jihwan; Palmer, Matthew B; Hu, Caroline; Li, Weijuan; Shenoy, Niraj; Giricz, Orsolya; Choudhary, Gaurav; Yu, Yiting; Ko, Yi-An; Izquierdo, María C; Park, Ae Seo Deok; Vallumsetla, Nishanth; Laurence, Remi; Lopez, Robert; Suzuki, Masako; Pullman, James; Kaner, Justin; Gartrell, Benjamin; Hakimi, A Ari; Greally, John M; Patel, Bharvin; Benhadji, Karim; Pradhan, Kith; Verma, Amit; Susztak, Katalin

    2017-01-20

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) is an incurable malignancy in advanced stages and needs newer therapeutic targets. Transcriptomic analysis of CCRCCs and matched microdissected renal tubular controls revealed overexpression of NOTCH ligands and receptors in tumor tissues. Examination of the TCGA RNA-seq data set also revealed widespread activation of NOTCH pathway in a large cohort of CCRCC samples. Samples with NOTCH pathway activation were also clinically distinct and were associated with better overall survival. Parallel DNA methylation and copy number analysis demonstrated that both genetic and epigenetic alterations led to NOTCH pathway activation in CCRCC. NOTCH ligand JAGGED1 was overexpressed and associated with loss of CpG methylation of H3K4me1-associated enhancer regions. JAGGED2 was also overexpressed and associated with gene amplification in distinct CCRCC samples. Transgenic expression of intracellular NOTCH1 in mice with tubule-specific deletion of VHL led to dysplastic hyperproliferation of tubular epithelial cells, confirming the procarcinogenic role of NOTCH in vivo Alteration of cell cycle pathways was seen in murine renal tubular cells with NOTCH overexpression, and molecular similarity to human tumors was observed, demonstrating that human CCRCC recapitulates features and gene expression changes observed in mice with transgenic overexpression of the Notch intracellular domain. Treatment with the γ-secretase inhibitor LY3039478 led to inhibition of CCRCC cells in vitro and in vivo In summary, these data reveal the mechanistic basis of NOTCH pathway activation in CCRCC and demonstrate this pathway to a potential therapeutic target.

  2. Anti-pseudomona and Anti-bacilli Activity of Some Medicinal Plants of Iran

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    Gholam Hosein Shahidi Bonjar

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of plants in treatment of burns, dermatophytes, and infectious diseases is common in traditional medicine of Iran. Based on ethno pharmacological and taxonomic information, antibacterial activities of methanol extracts of some medicinal plants of Iran were determined by In Vitro bioassays using agar diffusion-method against standard strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus and B. pumilis at 20 mg/ml. From 180 plant species of 72 families, 78 species (43.3% in 42 families (58.3% showed antibacterial activities against B. cereus (88.4%, B. subtilis (39.7%, B. pumilis (37.1%, P. fluorescens (37.1% and P. aeruginos (10.2%. The most active plant families were Apiaceae, Compositae and Labiatae with 9, 8 and 7 active plant species respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the active plants were determined using two fold serial dilutions. Most active plant against Bacilli was Myrtus communis L. with MIC of 1.87 mg/ml. For Pseudomonas species, Dianthus caryophyllus L. and Terminalia chebula (Gaertner Retz. were more active with the MIC of 0.46 mg/ml for P. fluorescens and of 1.87 mg/ml for P. aeruginosa respectively.

  3. β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine exposure alters defense against oxidative stress in aquatic plants Lomariopsis lineata, Fontinalis antipyretica, Riccia fluitans and Taxiphyllum barbieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Funke, Marc Sebastian; Peuthert, Anja; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2013-02-01

    Four different aquatic plants, the Pteridophyte Lomariopsis lineata and the Bryophytes Fontinalis antipyretica, Riccia fluitans and Taxiphyllum barbieri, were tested for their capacity to absorb the neurotoxin β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) from water and thus their possible applicability in a "Green Liver System". After exposure to 10 and 100 μg L(-1) BMAA for 1, 3, 7 and 14 days exposure concentration of medium and tissue were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The amount removed by the plants within only 1 day was equal to the biological degradation of 14 days. Comparing the "BMAA-removal" capacity of the 4 tested aquatic plants R. fluitans, L. lineata and T. barbieri turned out to be most effective in cleaning the water from this cyanobacterial toxin by up to 97% within 14 days. Activity of the antioxidant enzymes peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), as well as biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) was compared between exposed and control plants to determine possible harmful effects induced by BMAA. Whereas the Bryophytes displayed increased POD activity and subsequent adaptation when exposed to the lower concentration, as well as partly inhibited antioxidant response at the higher applied BMAA concentration, the Pteridophyte L. lineata reacted with increased POD activity during the whole experiment and increased GST activity after longer exposure for 14 days. To give a recommendation of the suitability of an aquatic plant to be used for sustainable phytoremediation of contaminated water, testing of removal capacity of specific contaminants as well as studying general physiological parameters giving hint on survivability in such environments has to be combined.

  4. Mechanism of Growth Enhancement of Plants Induced by Active Species in Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Ono, Reoto; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2015-09-01

    Plant growth enhances when seeds are irradiated by plasma. However the mechanism of the growth enhancement by plasma has not been clarified. In this study, growth enhancement of plants using various active species and variation of plant cells are investigated. RF plasma is generated under conditions where pressure is 60 Pa and input electrical power is 60 W. Irradiation period varies from 0 (control) to 75 min. Air plasma shows maximum growth of plants with irradiation period of 60 min on the other hand, oxygen plasma shows the maximum growth with irradiation period of 15 min. From change of gaseous species and pressure dependence, growth enhancing factor is expected to be active oxygen species produced in plasma. According to gene expression analysis of Arabidopsis, there are two speculated mechanism of plant growth enhancement. The first is acceleration of cell cycle by gene expressions of photosynthesis and glycolytic pathway, and the second is increase of cell size via plant hormone production.

  5. Plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity: from folklore to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlender, Marcelo; Kapulnik, Yoram; Koltai, Hinanit

    2015-01-01

    Plants have had an essential role in the folklore of ancient cultures. In addition to the use as food and spices, plants have also been utilized as medicines for over 5000 years. It is estimated that 70-95% of the population in developing countries continues to use traditional medicines even today. A new trend, that involved the isolation of plant active compounds begun during the early nineteenth century. This trend led to the discovery of different active compounds that are derived from plants. In the last decades, more and more new materials derived from plants have been authorized and subscribed as medicines, including those with anti-cancer activity. Cancer is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The number of new cases is expected to rise by about 70% over the next two decades. Thus, there is a real need for new efficient anti-cancer drugs with reduced side effects, and plants are a promising source for such entities. Here we focus on some plant-derived substances exhibiting anti-cancer and chemoprevention activity, their mode of action and bioavailability. These include paclitaxel, curcumin, and cannabinoids. In addition, development and use of their synthetic analogs, and those of strigolactones, are discussed. Also discussed are commercial considerations and future prospects for development of plant derived substances with anti-cancer activity.

  6. Evaluation of Antileishmanial Activity of Selected Brazilian Plants and Identification of the Active Principles

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    Valdir Cechinel Filho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds from some selected Brazilian medicinal plants against strains of promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and L. brasiliensis in vitro. The cell viability was determined, comparing the results with reference standards. The dichloromethane fractions of the roots, stems, and leaves of Allamanda schottii showed IC50 values between 14.0 and 2.0 μg/mL. Plumericin was the main active compound, with IC50 of 0.3 and 0.04 μg/mL against the two species of Leishmania analyzed. The hexane extract of Eugenia umbelliflora fruits showed IC50 of 14.3 and 5.7 μg/mL against L. amazonensis and L. brasiliensis, respectively. The methanolic extracts of the seeds of Garcinia achachairu and guttiferone A presented IC50 values of 35.9 and 10.4 μg/mL, against L. amazonensis, respectively. The ethanolic extracts of the stem barks of Rapanea ferruginea and the isolated compound, myrsinoic acid B, presented activity against L. brasiliensis with IC50 of 24.1 and 6.1 μg/mL. Chloroform fraction of Solanum sisymbriifolium exhibited IC50 of 33.8 and 20.5 μg/mL, and cilistol A was the main active principle, with IC50 of 6.6 and 3.1 μg/mL against L. amazonensis and L. brasiliensis, respectively. It is concluded that the analyzed plants are promising as new and effective antiparasitic agents.

  7. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

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    Majid Asadi-Samani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver. In this review, we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine, with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CC14 agent. In this study, online databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013. Search terms consisted of medicinal plants, traditional medicine, folk medicine, hepatoprotective, Iran, liver, therapeutic uses, compounds, antioxidant, CC14, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic, hepatitis, alone or in combination. Allium hirtifolium Boiss., Apium graveolens L., Cynara scolymus, Berberis vulgaris L., Calendula officinalis, Nigella sativa L., Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon porrifolius, Prangos ferulacea L., Allium sativum, Marrubium vulgare, Ammi majus L., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Prunus armeniaca L. are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents, silymarin, β-sitosterol, betalain, neoandrographolide, phyllanthin, andrographolide, curcumin, picroside, hypophyllanthin, kutkoside, and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties. Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future, the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  8. POSSIBILITY OF PLANTS ACTIVE PARTS USAGE FOR ONCOLOGICAL DISEASES TREATMENT

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    T. S. Goncharova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an implementation of plant drugs for oncological diseases treatment. It focuses on multicomponent combination herbal medicinal preparation, its therapeutic action, and supposed efficiency during its implementation with basic therapy for oncological disease.

  9. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of whole plant extracts Torilis leptophylla L

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    Saeed Naima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to screen various solvent extracts of whole plant of Torilis leptophylla to display potent antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in order to find possible sources for future novel antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical formulations. Material and methods A detailed study was performed on the antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of whole plant of Torilis leptophylla (TLM and its derived fractions {n-hexane (TLH, chloroform (TLC ethyl acetate (TLE n-butanol (TLB and residual aqueous fraction (TLA} by in vitro chemical analyses and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced hepatic injuries (lipid peroxidation and glutathione contents in male Sprague-Dawley rat. The total yield, total phenolic (TPC and total flavonoid contents (TFC of all the fractions were also determined. TLM was also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening test for various constituents. Results The total phenolic contents (TPC (121.9±3.1 mg GAE/g extract of TLM while total flavonoid contents (TFC of TLE (60.9 ±2.2 mg RTE/g extract were found significantly higher as compared to other solvent fractions. Phytochemical screening of TLM revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, phlobatannins, tannins and terpenoids. The EC50 values based on the DPPH (41.0±1 μg/ml, ABTS (10.0±0.9 μg/ml and phosphomolybdate (10.7±2 μg/ml for TLB, hydroxyl radicals (8.0±1 μg/ml for TLC, superoxide radicals (57.0±0.3 μg/ml for TLM and hydrogen peroxide radicals (68.0±2 μg/ml for TLE were generally lower showing potential antioxidant properties. A significant but marginal positive correlation was found between TPC and EC50 values for DPPH, hydroxyl, phosphomolybdate and ABTS, whereas another weak and positive correlation was determined between TFC and EC50 values for superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals. Results of in vivo

  10. Supplemental feeding for ecotourism reverses diel activity and alters movement patterns and spatial distribution of the southern stingray, Dasyatis americana.

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    Mark J Corcoran

    Full Text Available Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS, Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world's most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (p<0.05 smaller 24 hour activity spaces compared to wild conspecifics, staying in close proximity to the ecotourism site; Fed stingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively. Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing

  11. Intracellular activities related to in vitro hippocampal sharp waves are altered in CA3 pyramidal neurons of aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi-Chameh, H; Peng, J; Wu, C; Zhang, L

    2014-09-26

    Pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA3 area interconnect intensively via recurrent axonal collaterals, and such CA3-to-CA3 recurrent circuitry plays important roles in the generation of hippocampal network activities. In particular, the CA3 circuitry is able to generate spontaneous sharp waves (SPWs) when examined in vitro. These in vitro SPWs are thought to result from the network activity of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons as SPW-correlating intracellular activities are featured with strong IPSPs in pyramidal neurons and EPSPs or spikes in GABAergic interneurons. In view of accumulating evidence indicating a decrease in subgroups of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons in aged animals, we test the hypothesis that the intracellular activities related to in vitro SPWs are altered in CA3 pyramidal neurons of aged mice. Hippocampal slices were prepared from adult and aged C57 black mice (ages 3-6 and 24-28months respectively). Population and single-cell activities were examined via extracellular and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. CA3 SPW frequencies were not significantly different between the slices of adult and aged mice but SPW-correlating intracellular activities featured weaker IPSC components in aged CA3 pyramidal neurons compared to adult neurons. It was unlikely that this latter phenomenon was due to general impairments of GABAergic synapses in the aged CA3 circuitry as evoked IPSC responses and pharmacologically isolated IPSCs were observed in aged CA3 pyramidal neurons. In addition, aged CA3 pyramidal neurons displayed more positive resting potentials and had a higher propensity of burst firing than adult neurons. We postulate that alterations of GABAergic network activity may explain the reduced IPCS contributions to in vitro SPWs in aged CA3 pyramidal neurons. Overall, our present observations are supportive of the notion that excitability of hippocampal CA3 circuitry is increased in aged mice.

  12. Supramammillary serotonin reduction alters place learning and concomitant hippocampal, septal, and supramammillar theta activity in a Morris water maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, J. Jesús; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Blanca E.; López-Vázquez, Miguel Á.; Olvera-Cortés, María E.

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal theta activity is related to spatial information processing, and high-frequency theta activity, in particular, has been linked to efficient spatial memory performance. Theta activity is regulated by the synchronizing ascending system (SAS), which includes mesencephalic and diencephalic relays. The supramamillary nucleus (SUMn) is located between the reticularis pontis oralis and the medial septum (MS), in close relation with the posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PHn), all of which are part of this ascending system. It has been proposed that the SUMn plays a role in the modulation of hippocampal theta-frequency; this could occur through direct connections between the SUMn and the hippocampus or through the influence of the SUMn on the MS. Serotonergic raphe neurons prominently innervate the hippocampus and several components of the SAS, including the SUMn. Serotonin desynchronizes hippocampal theta activity, and it has been proposed that serotonin may regulate learning through the modulation of hippocampal synchrony. In agreement with this hypothesis, serotonin depletion in the SUMn/PHn results in deficient spatial learning and alterations in CA1 theta activity-related learning in a Morris water maze. Because it has been reported that SUMn inactivation with lidocaine impairs the consolidation of reference memory, we asked whether changes in hippocampal theta activity related to learning would occur through serotonin depletion in the SUMn, together with deficiencies in memory. We infused 5,7-DHT bilaterally into the SUMn in rats and evaluated place learning in the standard Morris water maze task. Hippocampal (CA1 and dentate gyrus), septal and SUMn EEG were recorded during training of the test. The EEG power in each region and the coherence between the different regions were evaluated. Serotonin depletion in the SUMn induced deficient spatial learning and altered the expression of hippocampal high-frequency theta activity. These results provide evidence in

  13. Molecular Characterization and Analysis of Antimicrobial Activity of Endophytic Fungi From Medicinal Plants in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Gashgari, Rukaia; Gherbawy, Youssuf; Ameen, Fuad; Alsharari, Salam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endophytic fungi, which have been reported in numerous plant species, are important components of the forest community and contribute significantly to the diversity of natural ecosystems. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate and characterize, at the molecular level, the diversity and antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi from medicinal plants in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Fungi growing on plant segments were isolated and identified based on morphologica...

  14. Screening of Korean Medicinal Plant Extracts for α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Sancheti,Shruti; Sancheti,Sandesh; LEE, Seung-Hun; Lee, Jae-Eun; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2011-01-01

    Glycosidases are the enzymes involved in various biochemical processes related to metabolic disorders and diseases. Therefore, much effort has been focused on searching novel pharmacotherapy for the treatment of these ailments from medicinal plants due to higher safety margins. To pursue these efforts, the present study was performed to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of thirty Korean medicinal plant extracts. Among the plants studied, Euonymus sachalinensis, Rhododendron sch...

  15. Biological screening of some Turkish medicinal plant extracts for antimicrobial and toxicity activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, A U; Usta, C

    2008-01-20

    Screening of antibacterial activity and toxicity of 22 aqueous plant extracts from 17 Turkish plants was conducted. Antibacterial activity was performed with six bacteria including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Extracts of Tussilago farfara leaves, Helichyrsum plicatum flowers, Solanum dulcamara aerial parts and Urtica dioica leaves gave the best inhibitory activity against S. pyogenes, S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Of the 22 plant extracts, 20 extracts displayed toxicity (LC50 was radish seed bioassay, two different determinations (root length and seed germination) were performed with a comparison between two concentrations (50,000 mg L(-1) and 10,000 mg L(-1)). At low concentration (10,000 mg L(-1)), S. dulcamara aerial parts and Primula vulgaris leaf extracts were observed to inhibit the root length more than the other plant extracts. Also, the most inhibitive plant extract for seed germination was obtained with S. dulcamara aerial parts.

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation Study of Active Power Control in Wind Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Paul; Aho, Jake; Gebraad, Pieter; Pao, Lucy; Zhang, Yingchen

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an analysis performed on a wind plant's ability to provide active power control services using a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics-based wind plant simulator. This approach allows examination of the impact on wind turbine wake interactions within a wind plant on performance of the wind plant controller. The paper investigates several control methods for improving performance in waked conditions. One method uses wind plant wake controls, an active field of research in which wind turbine control systems are coordinated to account for their wakes, to improve the overall performance. Results demonstrate the challenge of providing active power control in waked conditions but also the potential methods for improving this performance.

  17. Trypanocidal constituents in plants 5. Evaluation of some Mexican plants for their trypanocidal activity and active constituents in the seeds of Persea americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Fumiko; Nagafuji, Shinya; Okawa, Masafumi; Kinjo, Junei; Akahane, Hiroshige; Ogura, Tetsuya; Martinez-Alfaro, Miguel Angel; Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo

    2005-07-01

    Crude extracts of Mexican medicinal plants were screened for trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, which is the etiological agent for Chagas' disease, one of the most serious protozoan diseases in Latin America. There were 71 kinds of methanolic and other organic extracts from 65 plants, which were newly examined by a preliminary screening test to observe immobilization of epimastigotes and trypomastigotes of T. cruzi in vitro. The MeOH extract of seeds of Persea americana (avocado) showed moderate activity against epimastigotes. In order to identify the principal compounds for the activity, the MeOH extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation. From the active fractions, six 1,2,4-trihydroxyheptadecane derivatives and two 1,2,4-trihydroxynonadecane derivatives including a new one were isolated. These compounds showed moderate activity against epimastigotes and trypomastigotes.

  18. Altered apoplastic ascorbate redox state in tobacco plants via ascorbate oxidase overexpression results in delayed dark-induced senescence in detached leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulos, Vasileios; Kanellis, Angelos K

    2013-12-01

    Ascorbate oxidase (AO) is an apoplastic enzyme that uses oxygen to catalyse the oxidation of ascorbate (AA) to dehydroascorbate (DHA) via the unstable radical monodehydroascorbate (MDHA). Here, we report that transgenic tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) with an in vivo lowered apoplastic AA redox state through increased AO expression demonstrate signs of delayed dark-induced senescence compared with wild-type plants, as shown by chlorophyll loss assay. In situ localization of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) suggests that, although transgenic plants have higher constitutive levels of H2O2 under normal growth conditions, imposed dark-induced senescence results in smaller induction levels of H2O2, an observation which correlates with increased antioxidant enzyme activities and an induction in the expression of AA recycling genes compared with that in wild-type plants. Our current findings, combined with previous studies which showed the contribution of AO in the regulation of AA redox state, suggest that the reduction in AA redox state in the leaf apoplast of these transgenic plants results in an increase in the endogenous levels of H2O2, which provides a form of 'acquired tolerance' to oxidative stress imposed by dark-induced senescence.

  19. Antibacterial Activity of Twenty Iranian Plant Extracts Against Clinical Isolates of Helicobacter pylori

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    Farahnaz Nariman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sDue to increasing emergence of drug-resistance in Helicobacter pylori isolates, traditional plants arepotentially valuable sources of novel anti-H. pylori agents. In this research, anti-H. pylori activity of theorganic extracts of twenty native Iranian plants was determined against ten clinical isolates of H. pylori.Materials and MethodsDisc diffusion was used to determine the biological activity of 20 plant extracts as well as 8 antibioticscommonly used to treat H. pylori infections. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were also measured by tubeand agar dilution methods for the biologically active plant extracts.ResultsOf the twenty plant extracts analyzed, sixteen exhibited good anti-H. pylori activity, using disc diffusion.The ten most active extracts were Carum bulbocastanum, Carum carvi, Mentha longifolia, Saliva limbata,Saliva sclarea, Ziziphora clinopodioides, Thymus caramanicus, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Xanthium brasilicumand Trachyspermum copticum. Minimum inhibitory concentrations measured for the 10 biologically activeplant extracts were within the range of 31.25 to 500 μg/ml.ConclusionAmong the ten plant extracts effective against H. pylori clinical isolates, Carum carvi, Xanthium brasilicumand Trachyspermum copticum showed the highest activity.Keywords: Anti-Helicobacter pylori, Iranian plants, Organic extracts

  20. Antinociceptive, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antipyretic Activity of Mangrove Plants: A Mini Review

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    J. A. Shilpi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove plants are specialised plants that grow in the tidal coasts of tropic and subtropic regions of the world. Their unique ecology and traditional medicinal uses of mangrove plants have attracted the attention of researchers over the years, and as a result, reports on biological activity of mangrove plants have increased significantly in recent years. This review has been set out to compile and appraise the results on antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of mangrove plants. While the Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, and PubMed were the starting points to gather information, other pieces of relevant published literature were also adequately explored for this purpose. A total of 29 reports on 17 plant species have been found to report such activities. While 19 reports were on the biological activity of the crude extracts, 10 reports identified the active compound(s of various chemical classes of natural products including terpenes, steroids, and flavonoids. This review finds that antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity appears to be widespread in mangrove plants.

  1. The latex sap of the 'Old World Plant' Lagenaria siceraria with potent lectin activity mitigates neoplastic malignancy targeting neovasculature and cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneshwaran, V; Thirusangu, Prabhu; Madhusudana, S; Krishna, V; Pramod, Siddanakoppalu N; Prabhakar, B T

    2016-10-01

    Lifestyle and dietary modifications have contributed much to somatic genetic alteration which has concomitantly led to increase in malignant diseases. Henceforth, plant based and dietary interventions to mitigate and impede oncogenic transformation are in great demand. We investigated the latex sap (LSL) of the dietary Lagenaria siceraria vegetable, the first domesticated plant species with the potent lectin activity for its functional role against the tumor progression and its mechanism. LSL has markedly stimulated proliferation of lymphocytes and displayed strong cytotoxic activity against cancer both in-vitro and in-vivo. The tumor regression was paralleled with drastic reduction in tumoral neovasculature as evidenced from angiogenic parameters and abrogated related gene expressions. LSL has also triggered apoptotic signaling cascade in cancer cells through activation of caspase-3 mediated activation of endonuclease and inducing apoptotic cellular events. Collectively our study provides tangible evidences that latex sap from L. siceraria with immunopotentiating ability significantly regresses the tumor progression by targeting angiogenesis and inducing cell death.

  2. Silicon Promotes Adventitious Shoot Regeneration and Enhances Salinity Tolerance of Ajuga multiflora Bunge by Altering Activity of Antioxidant Enzyme

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    Iyyakkannu Sivanesan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of Si concentration on shoot regeneration and salinity tolerance of Ajuga multiflora. Addition of Si to the shoot induction medium significantly increased the frequency of shoot induction. The average number of shoots regenerated per explant decreased on the medium containing NaCl alone, while there was less decrease when the shoot induction medium was supplemented with both NaCl and Si. The shoot induction percentage increased linearly with increasing concentration of Si in the NaCl containing medium. Addition of Si to the shoot induction medium significantly increased SOD, POD, APX, and CAT activity in regenerated shoot buds as compared with the control. The inclusion of Si to the NaCl containing medium significantly increased the SOD activity in leaves and roots, while it decreased POD, APX, and CAT activity in both organs. Scanning electron microscopic analysis showed that