WorldWideScience

Sample records for activity aerobic capacity

  1. Improving aerobic capacity through active videogames: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz de Brito-Gomes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe rate of peak workload improvement between different types of Active Video Games (AVG in young sedentary adults was investigated. Aerobic capacity improvement after a 6-week intervention between AVG types was also compared. Twenty participants, after baseline assessments, were randomized into one of three parallel groups: structured AVG (n= 6, unstructured AVG (n= 7 and a control group (n= 7. Participants played their respective AVG 3 times a week for 6-weeks (30 minutes-session. The control group maintained normal activities. Both structured and unstructured AVG improved peak workload after four weeks but only the structured group maintained this improvement through week five and six. Aerobic capacity improved in the unstructured (Pre: 36.0 ± 5.2ml.kg.min-¹,Post: 39.7 ± 4.9ml.kg.min-¹, p = .038 and structured AVG (Pre: 39.0 ± 5.9ml.kg.min-¹,Post: 47.8 ± 4.3ml.kg.min-¹, p = .006 groups. Structured AVG provide greater health benefits to aerobic capacity and peak workload in young sedentary but otherwise healthy males relative to unstructured AVG.

  2. Aerobic capacity and its correlates in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Lin-Fen; Wei, James Cheng-Chung; Lee, Hsin-Yi; Chuang, Chih-Cheng; Jiang, Jiunn-Song; Chang, Kae-Chwen

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate aerobic capacity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and determine possible relationships between aerobic capacity, pulmonary function, and disease-related variables. Forty-two patients with AS and 42 healthy controls were recruited in the study. Descriptive data, disease-related variables (grip strength, lumbosacral mobility, occiput-to-wall distance, chest expansion, finger-to-floor distance, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global Score, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and hemoglobin), and chest and thoracic spine x-rays were collected in each patient with AS. All subjects took standard pulmonary function and exercise tolerance tests, and forced vital capacity (FVC) and aerobic capacity were recorded. Both aerobic capacity and FVC in patients with AS were significantly lower than those in normal subjects (P aerobic capacity. There was significant correlation between aerobic capacity, vital capacity, chest expansion, Schober's test, cervical range of motion, and BASFI in patients with AS. Neither aerobic capacity nor vital capacity correlated with disease duration, ESR, CRP, and hemoglobin. Significantly reduced aerobic capacity and FVC were observed in patients with AS, and there was significant correlation between aerobic capacity, vital capacity, chest expansion, and BASFI. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Physical Activity, Aerobic Capacity, and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Healthy Men and in Men with Coronary Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron-Skarbek, Anna; Kostka, Joanna; Nowak, Dariusz; Drygas, Wojciech; Jegier, Anna; Kostka, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of the study was to assess total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of blood serum in relation with habitual leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and aerobic capacity in a group of 90 men with coronary heart disease (CHD) aged 34.8–77.0 years and in 90 age-matched peers without CHD. Methods. Two spectrophotometric methods were applied to assess TAC: Ferric Reducing Ability of Serum (TAC-FRAS) and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (TAC-DPPH) tests. Aerobic capacity was expressed as physical working capacity at 85% of the maximal heart rate (PWC85%HRmax). Results. CHD patients had higher values of TACFRAS (1.37 ± 0.28 versus 1.27 ± 0.23 mmol FeCl2·L−1; P < 0.05) but there were no group differences for TAC-DPPH and for uric acid (UA). Negative correlation was found between LTPA (also when calculated per kg of body mass) and TAC-DPPH in CHD patients. In CHD patients, TAC-FRAS and UA were lower in subjects with higher aerobic capacity expressed as PWC85%HRmax/kg. Those associations were not found in healthy men. Conclusions. We conclude that TAC of blood serum is moderately adversely related to LTPA and aerobic capacity in patients with CHD. UA, as the main determinant of serum TAC, may be partially responsible for those associations. PMID:26451234

  4. Physical Activity, Aerobic Capacity, and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Healthy Men and in Men with Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gawron-Skarbek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of the study was to assess total antioxidant capacity (TAC of blood serum in relation with habitual leisure time physical activity (LTPA and aerobic capacity in a group of 90 men with coronary heart disease (CHD aged 34.8–77.0 years and in 90 age-matched peers without CHD. Methods. Two spectrophotometric methods were applied to assess TAC: Ferric Reducing Ability of Serum (TAC-FRAS and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (TAC-DPPH tests. Aerobic capacity was expressed as physical working capacity at 85% of the maximal heart rate (PWC85%HRmax. Results. CHD patients had higher values of TACFRAS (1.37±0.28 versus 1.27±0.23 mmol FeCl2·L−1; P<0.05 but there were no group differences for TAC-DPPH and for uric acid (UA. Negative correlation was found between LTPA (also when calculated per kg of body mass and TAC-DPPH in CHD patients. In CHD patients, TAC-FRAS and UA were lower in subjects with higher aerobic capacity expressed as PWC85%HRmax/kg. Those associations were not found in healthy men. Conclusions. We conclude that TAC of blood serum is moderately adversely related to LTPA and aerobic capacity in patients with CHD. UA, as the main determinant of serum TAC, may be partially responsible for those associations.

  5. Inherent aerobic capacity-dependent differences in breast carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Henry J; Jones, Lee W; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Neil, Elizabeth S; McGinley, John N

    2017-09-01

    Although regular physical activity is associated with improvement in aerobic capacity and lower breast cancer risk, there are heritable sets of traits that affect improvement in aerobic capacity in response to physical activity. Although aerobic capacity segregates risk for a number of chronic diseases, the effect of the heritable component on cancer risk has not been evaluated. Therefore, we investigated breast carcinogenesis in rodent models of heritable fitness in the absence of induced physical activity. Female offspring of N:NIH rats selectively bred for low (LIAC) or high (HIAC) inherent aerobic capacity were injected intraperitoneally with 1-methyl-1-nitrosurea (70 mg/kg body wt). At study termination 33 weeks post-carcinogen, cancer incidence (14.0 versus 47.3%; P < 0.001) and multiplicity (0.18 versus 0.85 cancers per rat; P < 0.0001) were significantly decreased in HIAC versus LIAC rats, respectively. HIAC had smaller visceral and subcutaneous body fat depots than LIAC and activity of two proteins that regulated the mammalian target of rapamycin, protein kinase B (Akt), and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase were suppressed and activated, respectively, in HIAC. Although many factors distinguish between HIAC and LIAC, it appears that the protective effect of HIAC against breast carcinogenesis is mediated, at least in part, via alterations in core metabolic signaling pathways deregulated in the majority of human breast cancers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Intrinsic aerobic capacity sets a divide for aging and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Lauren Gerard; Kemi, Ole J; Qi, Nathan; Leng, Sean X; Bijma, Piter; Gilligan, Lori J; Wilkinson, John E; Wisløff, Helene; Høydal, Morten A; Rolim, Natale; Abadir, Peter M; van Grevenhof, Elizabeth M; Smith, Godfrey L; Burant, Charles F; Ellingsen, Oyvind; Britton, Steven L; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2011-10-28

    Low aerobic exercise capacity is a powerful predictor of premature morbidity and mortality for healthy adults as well as those with cardiovascular disease. For aged populations, poor performance on treadmill or extended walking tests indicates closer proximity to future health declines. Together, these findings suggest a fundamental connection between aerobic capacity and longevity. Through artificial selective breeding, we developed an animal model system to prospectively test the association between aerobic exercise capacity and survivability (aerobic hypothesis). Laboratory rats of widely diverse genetic backgrounds (N:NIH stock) were selectively bred for low or high intrinsic (inborn) treadmill running capacity. Cohorts of male and female rats from generations 14, 15, and 17 of selection were followed for survivability and assessed for age-related declines in cardiovascular fitness including maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), myocardial function, endurance performance, and change in body mass. Median lifespan for low exercise capacity rats was 28% to 45% shorter than high capacity rats (hazard ratio, 0.06; PPhysical activity levels, energy expenditure (Vo(2)), and lean body mass were all better sustained with age in rats bred for high aerobic capacity. These data obtained from a contrasting heterogeneous model system provide strong evidence that genetic segregation for aerobic exercise capacity can be linked with longevity and are useful for deeper mechanistic exploration of aging.

  7. Aerobic capacity mediates susceptibility for the transition from steatosis to steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, E Matthew; McCoin, Colin S; Allen, Julie A; Gastecki, Michelle L; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Fletcher, Justin A; Fu, Xiarong; Ding, Wen-Xing; Burgess, Shawn C; Rector, R Scott; Thyfault, John P

    2017-07-15

    ) activation compared to HCR rats. Further, LCR rats had greater WD-induced decreases in complete FAO and mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Intrinsic aerobic capacity had no impact on WD-induced hepatic steatosis; however, rats bred for low aerobic capacity developed greater hepatic inflammation, which was associated with reduced hepatic mitochondrial FAO and respiratory capacity and increased accumulation of cholesterol esters. These results confirm epidemiological reports that aerobic capacity impacts progression of liver disease and suggest that these effects are mediated through alterations in hepatic mitochondrial function. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  8. Impaired aerobic work capacity in insulin dependent diabetics with increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Richter, Erik; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    1988-01-01

    To assess whether decreased aerobic work capacity was associated with albuminuria in insulin dependent diabetics aerobic capacity was measured in three groups of 10 patients matched for age, sex, duration of diabetes, and degree of physical activity. Group 1 comprised 10 patients with normal...... were not explained by differences in metabolic control or the degree of autonomic neuropathy. Thus the insulin dependent diabetics with only slightly increased urinary albumin excretion had an appreciably impaired aerobic work capacity which could not be explained by autonomic neuropathy...... or the duration of diabetes. Whether the reduced capacity is due to widespread microangiopathy or another pathological process affecting the myocardium remains to be established....

  9. The effect of angiotensin converting enzyme genotype on aerobic capacity following high intensity interval training

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, N; Baker, M.D; Higgins, T; Cobbold, C

    2014-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Physical activity can reduce T2DM and CVD risk, and increase aerobic capacity, a significant predictor of all-cause mortality and morbidity. High intensity interval training (HIIT) produces similar improvements in aerobic capacity to continuous moderate exercise (CME). Different genotypes of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) have been implicated in improving aerobic capacity and theref...

  10. Aerobic capacity related to cardiac size in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Wollmer, P; Karlsson, M

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base.......Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base....

  11. Aerobic Capacities of Early College High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loflin, Jerry W.

    2014-01-01

    The Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI) was introduced in 2002. Since 2002, limited data, especially student physical activity data, have been published pertaining to the ECHSI. The purpose of this study was to examine the aerobic capacities of early college students and compare them to state and national averages. Early college students…

  12. Does Aerobic Exercise Influence Intrinsic Brain Activity? An Aerobic Exercise Intervention among Healthy Old Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Flodin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that aerobic exercise could reduce age related decline in cognition and brain functioning. Here we investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on intrinsic brain activity. Sixty sedentary healthy males and females (64–78 years were randomized into either an aerobic exercise group or an active control group. Both groups recieved supervised training, 3 days a week for 6 months. Multimodal brain imaging data was acquired before and after the intervention, including 10 min of resting state brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI and arterial spin labeling (ASL. Additionally, a comprehensive battery of cognitive tasks assessing, e.g., executive function and episodic memory was administered. Both the aerobic and the control group improved in aerobic capacity (VO2-peak over 6 months, but a significant group by time interaction confirmed that the aerobic group improved more. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not observe any significant group by time interactions with regard to any measure of intrinsic activity. To further probe putative relationships between fitness and brain activity, we performed post hoc analyses disregarding group belongings. At baseline, VO2-peak was negativly related to BOLD-signal fluctuations (BOLDSTD in mid temporal areas. Over 6 months, improvements in aerobic capacity were associated with decreased connectivity between left hippocampus and contralateral precentral gyrus, and positively to connectivity between right mid-temporal areas and frontal and parietal regions. Independent component analysis identified a VO2-related increase in coupling between the default mode network and left orbitofrontal cortex, as well as a decreased connectivity between the sensorimotor network and thalamus. Extensive exploratory data analyses of global efficiency, connectome wide multivariate pattern analysis (connectome-MVPA, as well as ASL, did not reveal any relationships between aerobic fitness

  13. Aerobic capacity explains physical functioning and participation in patients with multiple sclerosis-related fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Rosalie Driehuis; Lizanne Eva van den Akker; Vincent de Groot; Heleen Beckerman

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether aerobic capacity explains the level of self-reported physical activity, physical functioning, and participation and autonomy in daily living in persons with multiple sclerosis-related fatigue. Design: A cross-sectional study. Patients: Sixty-two participants with multiple sclerosis-related fatigue. Methods: Aerobic capacity was measured with a leg ergometer and was expressed as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, in ...

  14. Lower aerobic capacity was associated with abnormal intramuscular energetics in patients with metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Takashi; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Okita, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Lower aerobic capacity is a strong and independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that skeletal muscle dysfunction could contribute to the lower aerobic capacity in MetS patients. The incremental exercise tests with cycle ergometer were performed in 12 male patients with MetS with no habitual exercise and 11 age-, sex- and activity-matched control subjects to assess the aerobic capacity. We performed 31 phosphorus-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to assess the high-energy phosphate metabolism in skeletal muscle during aerobic exercise. Proton-MRS was also performed to measure intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content. Peak oxygen uptake (peak VO 2 ; 34.1±6.2 vs. 41.4±8.4 ml kg -1 min -1 , P -1 min -1 , P 2 (r=-0.64) and AT (r=-0.60), respectively. IMCL content was threefold higher in MetS and was inversely correlated with peak VO 2 (r=-0.47) and AT (r=-0.52), respectively. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between IMCL content and PCr loss (r=0.64). These results suggested that lean-body aerobic capacity in MetS patients was lower compared with activity-matched healthy subjects, which might be due to the reduced intramuscular fatty acid oxidative metabolism. (author)

  15. Impaired aerobic work capacity in insulin dependent diabetics with increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Richter, E A; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1988-01-01

    To assess whether decreased aerobic work capacity was associated with albuminuria in insulin dependent diabetics aerobic capacity was measured in three groups of 10 patients matched for age, sex, duration of diabetes, and degree of physical activity. Group 1 comprised 10 patients with normal...... urinary albumin excretion (less than 30 mg/24 h), group 2 comprised 10 with incipient diabetic nephropathy (urinary albumin excretion 30-300 mg/24 h, and group 3 comprised 10 with clinical diabetic nephropathy (urinary albumin excretion greater than 300 mg/24 h). Ten non-diabetic subjects matched for sex...... were not explained by differences in metabolic control or the degree of autonomic neuropathy. Thus the insulin dependent diabetics with only slightly increased urinary albumin excretion had an appreciably impaired aerobic work capacity which could not be explained by autonomic neuropathy...

  16. Differences in the Aerobic Capacity of Flight Muscles between Butterfly Populations and Species with Dissimilar Flight Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhamäki, Virve; Wolfram, Joy; Jokitalo, Eija; Hanski, Ilkka; Dahlhoff, Elizabeth P.

    2014-01-01

    Habitat loss and climate change are rapidly converting natural habitats and thereby increasing the significance of dispersal capacity for vulnerable species. Flight is necessary for dispersal in many insects, and differences in dispersal capacity may reflect dissimilarities in flight muscle aerobic capacity. In a large metapopulation of the Glanville fritillary butterfly in the Åland Islands in Finland, adults disperse frequently between small local populations. Individuals found in newly established populations have higher flight metabolic rates and field-measured dispersal distances than butterflies in old populations. To assess possible differences in flight muscle aerobic capacity among Glanville fritillary populations, enzyme activities and tissue concentrations of the mitochondrial protein Cytochrome-c Oxidase (CytOx) were measured and compared with four other species of Nymphalid butterflies. Flight muscle structure and mitochondrial density were also examined in the Glanville fritillary and a long-distance migrant, the red admiral. Glanville fritillaries from new populations had significantly higher aerobic capacities than individuals from old populations. Comparing the different species, strong-flying butterfly species had higher flight muscle CytOx content and enzymatic activity than short-distance fliers, and mitochondria were larger and more numerous in the flight muscle of the red admiral than the Glanville fritillary. These results suggest that superior dispersal capacity of butterflies in new populations of the Glanville fritillary is due in part to greater aerobic capacity, though this species has a low aerobic capacity in general when compared with known strong fliers. Low aerobic capacity may limit dispersal ability of the Glanville fritillary. PMID:24416122

  17. Effects of exercise on functional aerobic capacity in adults with fibromyalgia syndrome: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hermoso, Antonio; Saavedra, Jose M; Escalante, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia present a reduced capacity of upper and lower limb physical performance and affect their independence in performing everyday activities. The purpose of the present systematic review was to summarize evidence for the effectiveness and structure of exercise programs on functional aerobic capacity in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Keyword searches were made of seven databases. The systematic review was limited to English language studies of people with FM that evaluated the effects of exercise programs on functional aerobic capacity (6-minute walk test). The criteria for inclusion were satisfied by 12 randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies. The main cumulative evidence indicates that the programs based on aerobic exercise alone and on aquatic exercises have large (effect size = 0.85) and moderate (effect size = 0.44) effects. Aerobic and aquatic exercises at the proper intensity favour the increased functional aerobic capacity of fibromyalgia patients; however, most works do not adequately detail the intensity of the exercises. Moderate intensity exercise (aerobic and aquatic exercise) performed at least two times per week and 30-60 minutes a day is effective for increasing functional aerobic capacity, favouring the daily activities of daily living in this population.

  18. Aerobic Capacity as An Indicator in Different Kinds of Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Ranković

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Physical capacity of athletes is an important element of success in sports achievements. Aerobic capacity has been accepted as its major component. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max has been regarded by majority of authors as the best indicator of aerobic capacity of an organism, and at the same time, the best indicator of an athlete’s physical capacity. The aim of the investigation was to analyze the aerobic capacity as an indicator of physical capacity of athletes, differences in their aerobic capacity with regard to the kind of sport they are practicing, as well as the differences obtained when compared to physically inactive subjects. The investigation included the determination of absolute and relative VO2max in the total of 66 male examinees. The examinees were divided into two groups of active athletes (football players (n=22 and volleyball players (n=18 of different profiles, while the third group of non-athletes served as control group. Maximal oxygen uptake was determined by performing the Astrand 6 minute cycle test. Peak values of VO2 max were recorded in the group of football players (4,25±0,27 l/min, and they were statistically significantly higher (p<0,001 compared to other examined groups. In the group of volleyball players the oxygen uptake was 3,95±0,18 l/min, while statistically significantly lower values were reported in the group of non-athletes compared to the groups of athletes (p<0,01. A similar ratio of VO2 max values was also shown by the analysis of values expressed in relative units. Our results showed that peak values of VO2 max were obtained in football players, and that football as a sport requires higher degree of endurance compared to volleyball. Having considered the morphological and functional changes which are the consequence of the training process, it can be concluded that VO2 max values are statistically significantly higher in the groups of athletes compared to the group of non-athletes.

  19. A Study on Special Characteristics of Sports Aerobics Competitor : The Capacity of Aerobic Power and Isokinetic Strength of Knee Joint

    OpenAIRE

    菊地, はるひ; 佐々木, 浩子

    2004-01-01

    Sports Aerobics is the competitive sports including the complex aerobic step combination and difficulty elements. The competition time is 1 minute and 45±5 seconds. Sports Aerobics requires mainly anaerobic energy for competitive performance. But also it is very important to get the high capacity of aerobic power for performing the perfect execution. In this study, we tried to find out the characteristics for aerobic capacity and leg muscle strength in Sports Aerobics world champions (2 males...

  20. Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and hookah smokers after 12 weeks intermittent training. ... All subjects performed 30 min of interval exercise (2 min of work followed by 1 min of rest) three times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity estimated at 70% of the subject's maximum aerobic capacity ...

  1. The Longitudinal Impact of NFL PLAY 60 Programming on Youth Aerobic Capacity and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J; Russell, Daniel W; Allums-Featherston, Kelly; Candelaria, Norma

    2017-03-01

    The NFL PLAY 60 campaign has actively promoted physical activity and healthy eating in youth through programs such as the PLAY 60 Challenge and Fuel Up to PLAY 60. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of NFL PLAY 60 programming on longitudinal trajectories of youth aerobic capacity and BMI. Data were from the NFL PLAY 60 FitnessGram Partnership Project, a large participatory research project designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among Kindergarten through 12th grade children and adolescents. The programming was led by teachers in school settings across 32 NFL franchise markets. A range of 50,000-100,000 students from 497 schools completed FitnessGram assessments annually starting in 2011 and continuing through 2015. The analysis was conducted in 2015. Adoption of NFL PLAY 60 programming was encouraged but not required and the program implementation was evaluated each year. The adoption was evaluated through self-reported annual survey. School assessments of aerobic capacity and BMI were evaluated using FitnessGram standards to calculate the percentage of students meeting the Healthy Fitness Zone for each test. Growth curve modeling was used to estimate the longitudinal trajectories. About 19% of schools were classified as programming schools. Annual improvements in aerobic capacity were significantly greater in schools that participated in the programs for both girls (3.0%, p<0.01) and boys (2.9%, p<0.01) compared with non-programming schools. The annual improvements in BMI Healthy Fitness Zone achievement were also higher in girls (1.3%, p<0.05) and in boys (1.2%, p<0.05) from schools that participated in the programs versus non-participating schools. Schools that implemented the programs for the entire 4-year period tended to have better improvements in aerobic capacity than schools enrolled for only 2 or 3 years (p<0.05). The results of these longitudinal analyses support the utility of the NFL PLAY 60 physical activity

  2. The role of postural control in the association between aerobic capacity and walking capacity in chronic stroke: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outermans, Jacqueline C; van de Port, Ingrid; Kwakkel, Gert; Visser-Meily, Johanna M; Wittink, Harriet

    2018-03-12

    Reports on the association between aerobic capacity and walking capacity in people after stroke show disparate results. To determine (1) if the predictive validity of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) for walking capacity post stroke is different from that of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and (2) if postural control, hemiplegic lower extremity muscle strength, age and gender distort the association between aerobic capacity and walking capacity. Cross-sectional study. General community in Utrecht, the Netherlands. Community-dwelling people more than three months after stroke. Measurement of aerobic capacity were performed with cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and differentiated between the achievement of VO2peak or VO2max. Measurement of walking capacity with the Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT), postural control with the Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA) and hemiplegic lower extremity muscle strength with the Motricity Index (MI-LE). Fifty-one out of 62 eligible participants, aged 64.7 (±12.5) years were included. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed a nonsignificant difference between the predictive validities of VO2max (N = 22, β = 0.56; 95%CI 0.12 - 0.97) and VO2peak (N = 29, β = 0.72; 95%CI 0.38 - 0.92). Multiple regression analysis of the pooled sample showed a significant decrease in the β value of VO2peak (21.6%) for the 6MWT when adding the POMA as a covariate in the association model. VO2peak remained significantly related to 6MWT after correcting for the POMA (β = 0.56 (95%CI 0.39 - 0.75)) CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest similar predictive validity of aerobic capacity for walking capacity in participants achieving VO2max compared to those only achieving VO2peak. Postural control confounds the association between aerobic capacity and walking capacity. Aerobic capacity remains a valid predictor of walking capacity. Aerobic capacity is an important factor associated with walking capacity after stroke. However, to understand this

  3. Exercise therapy improves aerobic capacity of inpatients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerling, Arno; von Bohlen, Anne; Kück, Momme; Tegtbur, Uwe; Grams, Lena; Haufe, Sven; Gützlaff, Elke; Kahl, Kai G

    2016-06-01

    Unipolar depression is one of the most common diseases worldwide and is associated with a higher cardiovascular risk partly due to reduced aerobic capacity. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine whether a structured aerobic training program can improve aerobic capacity in inpatients with MDD (major depressive disorder). Overall, 25 patients (13 women, 12 men) diagnosed with MDD were included in the study. Parameters of aerobic capacity, such as maximum performance, maximum oxygen consumption, and VAT (ventilatory anaerobic threshold), were assessed on a bicycle ergometer before and 6 weeks after a training period (three times per week for 45 min on two endurance machines). In addition, a constant load test was carried out at 50% of the maximum performance prior to and after the training period. The performance data were compared with 25 healthy controls matched for sex, age, and body mass index before and after the training period. Compared to controls, patients with MDD had significantly lower aerobic capacity. After training, there was a significant improvement in their performance data. A significant difference remained only for VAT between patients with MDD and healthy controls. With regard to the coincidence of MDD with cardiovascular and cardiometabolic disorders, a structured supervised exercise program carried out during hospitalization is a useful supplement for patients with MDD.

  4. The Paroxetine Effect on Exercise Performance Depends on the Aerobic Capacity of Exercising Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Teixeira-Coelho, João Paulo Uendeles-Pinto, Ana Cláudia Alves Serafim, Samuel Penna Wanner, Márcio de Matos Coelho, Danusa Dias Soares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of aerobic capacity on the activation of the central serotonergic system and exercise fatigue in young men that ingested a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and were then subjected to moderate-intensity physical exercise. The maximal oxygen consumption of sixteen volunteers was measured during an incremental test. The volunteers were divided into two groups: subjects with higher (HAC and lower (LAC aerobic capacities. The volunteers were subjected to four experimental trials in which they ingested either placebo or paroxetine (10, 20 or 40 mg and, 4.5 h later, cycled at 60% of their maximal power output until reaching fatigue. None of the three paroxetine doses influenced the total exercise time in the LAC group. However, for the HAC group, the time to fatigue in the 20 mg paroxetine condition was 15% less than that in the placebo condition (76.3 ± 5.1 min vs. 90.0 ± 7.9 min; p < 0.05. The time to fatigue was higher in the HAC group than in the LAC group for all treatments. Our results provide additional evidence that aerobic capacity modulates the activity of the serotonergic system. However, contrary to what would be expected considering previous reports, the activation of the serotonergic system in exercising subjects in the HAC group was not less than that in the LAC group.

  5. Effects of of habitats and pesticides on aerobic capacity and survival of soil fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, G; Sharma, B M

    2005-06-01

    Faunal health is largely dependent on their soil environment and available litter quality. So the effects of different soil habitats and pesticides on citrate synthase (CS) activity of soil fauna and its population were studied. The soil animals were collected from different pedoecosystems for habitat study. Whereas Vigna radiata based system was selected for pesticidal observations. The field was divided into five equal plots for control and treatment of gamma-BHC, quinalphos, carbaryl and cypermethrin. Soil fauna was collected by quadrat method and extracted by Tullgren funnel. Individuals of a species having similar sizes were collected for the estimation of CS activity. They were homogenized and fractions were obtained by differential centrifugation. The activity of CS was assayed spectrophotometrically. Citrate synthase (CS) activity of beetle (Rasphytus fregi), woodlouse (Porcellio laevis) and centipede (Scolopendra morsitans) varied significantly with respect to changes in different soil habitats. Though the CS activity of R. fregi, P. laevis, and S. morsitans differed among themselves but the highest activity of CS in these animals was in V. radiata and lowest in A. nilotica based pedoecosystem. The aerobic capacity of centipede was maximum followed by woodlouse and beetle. The treatment of gamma-BHC, quinalphos, carbaryl and cypermethrin significantly reduced the CS activity of these animals. Gamma-BHC showed maximum reduction in CS activity indicating highly toxic effect of organochlorine on aerobic metabolism of soil fauna. However, minimum reduction was observed in response to carbaryl (in beetle) or cypermethrin (in woodlouse/centipede) leading to impairment of aerobic capacity. The differences in pesticide effects might be assigned to the differences in chemical nature of pesticides and their interactions with below-ground fauna. Treatment of gamma-BHC and quinalphos reduced the population of Acari, Coleoptera, Collembola, other arthropods as well as

  6. [Aerobic capacity, weight status and self-concept in schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez Casas, Arancha; Rodríguez García, Pedro Luis; Rosa Guillamón, Andrés; García-Cantó, Eliseo; Pérez Soto, Juan José; Tárraga López, Pedro; Tárraga Marcos, Loreto

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between self-concept, aerobic capacity and weight status in schoolchildren. Relational descriptive design in which was assessed the weight status and aerobic capacity of 256 schoolchildren among 8-11 years. Aerobic capacity (low vs high) and the body mass index (normal-weight vs overweight-obesity) were categorized using standard criteria. The self-concept was assessed through the Piers Harris self-concept scale for children. Schoolchildren with normal-weight and high fitness level showed better levels of conductual self-concept (P=.030), physical (Pself-concept (P=.002). The schoolchildren with normal-weight show higher levels of conductual self-concpt (P=.016), intellectual (P=.050), physical (Pself-concept (P=.001). The schoolchildren with a higher fitness level showed better conductual self-concept (P=.024), physical (P=.004), lack of anxiety (P=.011), social (P=.024), and global (P=.003). The results of the study strengthen the importance to transmit to the educative community the knowledge of the relationship between the variables analyzed aiming to improve the schoolchildren self-concept. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Aerobic Capacity on Thrombin-Induced Hydrocephalus and White Matter Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wei; Gao, Feng; Zheng, Mingzhe; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Keep, Richard F; Xi, Guohua; Hua, Ya

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that intracerebral hemorrhage-induced brain injury is less in rats bred for high aerobic capacity (high capacity runners; HCR) compared with those bred for low aerobic capacity (low capacity runners; LCRs). Thrombin, an essential component in the coagulation cascade, is produced after cerebral hemorrhage. Intraventricular injection of thrombin causes significant hydrocephalus and white matter damage. In the present study, we examined the effect of exercise capacity on thrombin-induced hydrocephalus and white matter damage. Mid-aged (13-month-old) female LCRs (n = 13) and HCRs (n = 12) rats were used in this study. Rats received an intraventricular injection of thrombin (3 U, 50 μl). All rats underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 24 h and were then euthanized for brain histology and Western blot. The mortalities were 20 % in LCRs and 33 % in HCRs after thrombin injection (p > 0.05). No rats died after saline injection. Intraventricular thrombin injection resulted in hydrocephalus and periventricular white matter damage as determined on MRI. In LCR rats, thrombin induced significant ventricle enlargement (23.0 ± 2.3 vs12.8 ± 1.9 mm(3) in LCR saline group; p hydrocephalus in rats with low aerobic capacity. A differential effect of thrombin may contribute to differences in the effects of cerebral hemorrhage with aerobic capacity.

  8. Aerobic exercise capacity in post-polio syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, E.L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to expand the body of knowledge on the diminished aerobic capacity of individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS). The studies described in this thesis were based on the assumption that, besides a reduced muscle mass, deconditioning contributes to the severely diminished

  9. Effect of aerobic capacity on Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) tolerance in females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Fortney, Suzanne M.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation determined whether a relationship exists in females between: (1) aerobic capacity and Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP); and (2) aerobic capacity and change in LBNP tolerance induced by bed rest. Nine females, age 27-47 (34.6 plus or minus 6.0 (Mean plus or minus SD)), completed a treadmill-graded exercise test to establish aerobic capacity. A presyncopal-limited LBNP test was performed prior to and after 13 days of bed rest at a 6 deg head-down tilt. LBNP tolerance was quantified as: (1) the absolute level of negative pressure (NP) tolerated for greater than or equal to 60 sec; and (2) Luft's Cumulative Stress Index (CSI). Aerobic capacity was 33.3 plus or minus 5.0 mL/kg/min and ranged from 25.7 to 38.7. Bed rest was associated with a decrease in NP tolerance (-9.04 1.6 kPa(-67.8 plus or minus 12.0 mmHg) versus -7.7 1.1 kPa(-57.8 plus or minus 8.33 mmHg); p = 0.028) and in CSI (99.4 27.4 kPa min(745.7 plus or minus 205.4 mmHg min) versus 77.0 16.9 kPa min (577.3 plus or minus mmHg min); p = 0.008). The correlation between aerobic capacity and absolute NP or CSI pre-bed rest did not differ significantly from zero (r = -0.56, p = 0.11 for NP; and r = -0.52, p = 0.16 for CSI). Also, no significant correlation was observed between aerobic and pre- to post-rest change for absolute NP tolerance (r = -0.35, p = 0.35) or CSI (r = -0.32, p = 0.40). Therefore, a significant relationship does not exist between aerobic capacity and orthostatic function or change in orthostatic function induced by bed rest.

  10. Aerobic capacity and its relationship with parameters of health-related fitness in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Rosa Guillamón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between aerobic capacity and other parameters determining fitness in primary school. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study, 298 schoolchildren (139 males and 159 females aged 8-12. Body composition (weight and height and physical fitness (capacity, motor aerobic and musculoskeletal was assessed by ALPHA-Fitness battery. Aerobic capacity and body mass index (under/normal-weight and overweight/obesity were categorized using standard criteria. The variable motor / muscle overall capacity was calculated, and the maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max was indirectly estimated.  Results: The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA found that men have better values in the test 4x10m (p <0.001, longitudinal jump (p <0.001, Course-Navette (p <0.001 and in VO2max (p <0.001. The ANOVA test showed that schoolchildren with better aerobic capacity have lower weight and body mass index (p <0.001 for both, better performance in the test longitudinal jump (p <0.001 and better overall motor / muscle capacity, and increased VO2max (p <0.001 for both. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that schoolchildren with healthy cardiorespiratory fitness had better physical fitness and are more likely to have healthy anthropometric parameters.

  11. Validity of Submaximal Cycle Ergometry for Estimating Aerobic Capacity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myhre, Loren

    1998-01-01

    ... that allows early selection of the most appropriate test work load. A computerized version makes it possible for non-trained personnel to safely administer this test for estimating aerobic capacity...

  12. Systematic analysis of adaptations in aerobic capacity and submaximal energy metabolism provides a unique insight into determinants of human aerobic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Niels B J; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dimitru; Fredriksson, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    It has not been established which physiological processes contribute to endurance training-related changes (Delta) in aerobic performance. For example, the relationship between intramuscular metabolic responses at the intensity used during training and improved human functional capacity has...... not been examined in a longitudinal study. In the present study we hypothesized that improvements in aerobic capacity (Vo(2max)) and metabolic control would combine equally to explain enhanced aerobic performance. Twenty-four sedentary males (24 +/- 2 yr; 1.81 +/- 0.08 m; 76.6 +/- 11.3 kg) undertook...... unrelated to the change in aerobic performance. The maximal parameters DeltaVe(max) and DeltaVeq(max) (DeltaVe/Vo(2max)) accounted for 64% of the variance in DeltaVo(2max) (P

  13. FES-assisted Cycling Improves Aerobic Capacity and Locomotor Function Postcerebrovascular Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Stacey E; Vanderwerker, Catherine J; Embry, Aaron E; Newton, Jennifer H; Lee, Samuel C K; Gregory, Chris M

    2018-03-01

    After a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) aerobic deconditioning contributes to diminished physical function. Functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted cycling is a promising exercise paradigm designed to target both aerobic capacity and locomotor function. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effects of an FES-assisted cycling intervention on aerobic capacity and locomotor function in individuals post-CVA. Eleven individuals with chronic (>6 months) post-CVA hemiparesis completed an 8-wk (three times per week; 24 sessions) progressive FES-assisted cycling intervention. V˙O2peak, self-selected, and fastest comfortable walking speeds, gait, and pedaling symmetry, 6-min walk test (6MWT), balance, dynamic gait movements, and health status were measured at baseline and posttraining. Functional electrical stimulation-assisted cycling significantly improved V˙O2peak (12%, P = 0.006), self-selected walking speed (SSWS, 0.05 ± 0.1 m·s, P = 0.04), Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale score (12.75 ± 17.4, P = 0.04), Berg Balance Scale score (3.91 ± 4.2, P = 0.016), Dynamic Gait Index score (1.64 ± 1.4, P = 0.016), and Stroke Impact Scale participation/role domain score (12.74 ± 16.7, P = 0.027). Additionally, pedal symmetry, represented by the paretic limb contribution to pedaling (paretic pedaling ratio [PPR]) significantly improved (10.09% ± 9.0%, P = 0.016). Although step length symmetry (paretic step ratio [PSR]) did improve, these changes were not statistically significant (-0.05% ± 0.1%, P = 0.09). Exploratory correlations showed moderate association between change in SSWS and 6-min walk test (r = 0.74), and moderate/strong negative association between change in PPR and PSR. These results support FES-assisted cycling as a means to improve both aerobic capacity and locomotor function. Improvements in SSWS, balance, dynamic walking movements, and participation in familial and societal roles are important targets for rehabilitation of individuals

  14. Aerobic capacity and peak power output of elite quadriplegic games players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goosey‐Tolfrey, V; Castle, P; Webborn, N

    2006-01-01

    Background Participation in wheelchair sports such as tennis and rugby enables people with quadriplegia to compete both individually and as a team at the highest level. Both sports are dominated by frequent, intermittent, short term power demands superimposed on a background of aerobic activity. Objective To gain physiological profiles of highly trained British quadriplegic athletes, and to examine the relation between aerobic and sprint capacity. Methods Eight male quadriplegic athletes performed an arm crank exercise using an ergometer fitted with a Schoberer Rad Messtechnik (SRM) powermeter. The sprint test consisted of three maximum‐effort sprints of five seconds duration against a resistance of 2%, 3%, and 4% of body mass. The highest power output obtained was recorded (PPO). Peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2peak), peak heart rate (HRpeak), and maximal power output (POaer) were determined. Results Mean POaer was 67.7 (16.2) W, mean V̇o2peak was 0.96 (0.17) litres/min, and HRpeak was 134 (19) beats/min for the group. There was high variability among subjects. Peak power over the five second sprint for the group was 220 (62) W. There was a significant correlation between V̇o2peak (litres/min) and POaer (W) (r  =  0.74, p<0.05). Conclusions These British quadriplegic athletes have relatively high aerobic fitness when compared with the available literature. Moreover, the anaerobic capacity of these athletes appeared to be relatively high compared with paraplegic participants. PMID:16611721

  15. The role of work ability in the relationship between aerobic capacity and sick leave: A mediation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijk, J.E.; Proper, K.I.; Stralen, M.M. van; Wijngaard, P.; Mechelen, W. van; Beek, A.J. van der

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine: (1) the relationships between aerobic capacity, work ability and sick leave; (2) the potential mediating effect of work ability in the relationship between aerobic capacity and sick leave; and (3) the influence of age on these relationships. Methods: Information on aerobic

  16. Is back pain during childhood or adolescence associated with muscle strength, muscle endurance or aerobic capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lardon, Arnaud; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Le Scanff, Christine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Back pain is a common condition during childhood and adolescence. The causes of back pain are largely unknown but it seems plausible that some physical factors such as back muscle strength, back muscle endurance and aerobic capacity may play a role in its development, in particular...... aerobic capacity and back pain is not clear. CONCLUSIONS: High back muscle endurance in extension appears protective of back pain in youngsters, but the roles of high back muscle strength in extension and aerobic capacity are less clear....

  17. Lung volumes related to physical activity, physical fitness, aerobic capacity and body mass index in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailova A.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced lung volumes were associated with lower aerobic fitness, lower physical fitness and lower amount of weekly physical activity. Healthier body mass index was associated with higher aerobic fitness (relative VO2max in both female and male.

  18. Aerobic capacity in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO(2peak) (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level

  19. The Benefits of Exercise Training on Aerobic Capacity in Patients with Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, Danilo Marcelo Leite; Rocco, Enéas Antônio

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is defined as an inability of the ventricles to optimally accept blood from atria with blunted end- diastolic volume response by limiting the stroke volume and cardiac output. The HEpEF prevalence is higher in elderly and women and may be associated to hypertension, diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation. Severe exercise intolerance, manifested by dyspnea and fatigue during physical effort is the important chronic symptom in HFpEF patients, in which is the major determinant of their reduced quality of life. In this sense, several studies demonstrated reduced aerobic capacity in terms of lower peak oxygen consumption (peak VO 2 ) in patients with HFpEF. In addition, the lower aerobic capacity observed in HFpEF may be due to impaired both convective and diffusive O 2 transport (i.e. reduced cardiac output and arteriovenous oxygen difference, respectively).Exercise training program can help restore physiological function in order to increase aerobic capacity and improve the quality of life in HFpEF patients. Therefore, the primary purpose of this chapter was to clarify the physiological mechanisms associated with reduced aerobic capacity in HFpEF patients. Secondly, special focus was devoted to show how aerobic exercise training can improve aerobic capacity and quality of life in HFpEF patients.

  20. Aerobic capacity explains physical functioning and participation in patients with multiple sclerosis-related fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosalie Driehuis, Emma; van den Akker, Lizanne Eva; de Groot, Vincent; Beckerman, Heleen

    2018-02-13

    To investigate whether aerobic capacity explains the level of self-reported physical activity, physical functioning, and participation and autonomy in daily living in persons with multiple sclerosis-related fatigue. A cross-sectional study. Sixty-two participants with multiple sclerosis-related fatigue. Aerobic capacity was measured with a leg ergometer and was expressed as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, in ml/kg/min). Physical activity was measured with the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD), physical functioning with the Short Form 36 - physical functioning (SF36-pf), and participation and autonomy in daily living with the Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire (IPA). Multiple regression analyses were performed, adjusted for potential confounders (gender, age, body mass index, educational level, and employment status). Mean maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was 23.9 ml/kg/min (standard deviation (SD) 6.3 ml/kg/min). There was no significant relationship between VO2max and physical activity (PASIPD): β = 0.320, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = -0.109 to 0.749, R2 = 10.8%. Higher VO2max correlated with better physical functioning (SF36-pf): β = 1.527, 95% CI = 0.820-2.234, R2 = 25.9%, and was significantly related to IPA domains "autonomy indoors" (β = -0.043, 95% CI = -0.067 to -0.020, R2 = 20.6%), "autonomy outdoors" (β = -0.037, 95% CI = -0.062 to -0.012, R2 = 18.2%) and "social life and relationships" (β=-0.033, 95% CI = -0.060 to -0.007, R2 = 21.3%). Maximum aerobic capacity was severely reduced in persons with multiple sclerosis-related fatigue. This partly explains the limited physical functioning and restrictions in participation and autonomy indoors, outdoors and in social life and relationships in these persons.

  1. Aerobic capacity explains physical functioning and participation in patients with multiple sclerosis-related fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Rosalie Driehuis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether aerobic capacity explains the level of self-reported physical activity, physical functioning, and participation and autonomy in daily living in persons with multiple sclerosis-related fatigue. Design: A cross-sectional study. Patients: Sixty-two participants with multiple sclerosis-related fatigue. Methods: Aerobic capacity was measured with a leg ergometer and was expressed as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, in ml/kg/min. Physical activity was measured with the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD, physical functioning with the Short Form 36 – physical functioning (SF36-pf, and participation and autonomy in daily living with the Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire (IPA. Multiple regression analyses were performed, adjusted for potential confounders (gender, age, body mass index, educational level, and employment status. Results: Mean maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max was 23.9 ml/kg/min (standard deviation (SD 6.3 ml/kg/min. There was no significant relationship between VO2max and physical activity (PASIPD: β = 0.320, 95% confidence interval (95% CI = –0.109 to 0.749, R2 = 10.8%. Higher VO2max correlated with better physical functioning (SF36-pf: β = 1.527, 95% CI = 0.820–2.234, R2 = 25.9%, and was significantly related to IPA domains “autonomy indoors” (β = –0.043, 95% CI = –0.067 to –0.020, R2 = 20.6%, “autonomy outdoors” (β = –0.037, 95% CI = –0.062 to –0.012, R2 = 18.2% and “social life and relationships” (β=–0.033, 95% CI = –0.060 to –0.007, R2 = 21.3%. Conclusion: Maximum aerobic capacity was severely reduced in persons with multiple sclerosis-related fatigue. This partly explains the limited physical functioning and restrictions in participation and autonomy indoors, outdoors and in social life and relationships in these persons.

  2. Aerobic Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study described the aerobic capacity [VO[subscript 2peak] (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level II and 336 typically developing…

  3. Assessment of Maximum Aerobic Capacity and Anaerobic Threshold of Elite Ballet Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyon, Matthew A; Allen, Nick; Cloak, Ross; Beck, Sarah; Davies, Paul; Clarke, Frances

    2016-09-01

    An athlete's cardiorespiratory profile, maximal aerobic capacity, and anaerobic threshold is affected by training regimen and competition demands. The present study aimed to ascertain whether there are company rank differences in maximal aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold in elite classical ballet dancers. Seventy-four volunteers (M 34, F 40) were recruited from two full-time professional classical ballet companies. All participants completed a continuous incremental treadmill protocol with a 1-km/hr speed increase at the end of each 1-min stage until termination criteria had been achieved (e.g., voluntary cessation, respiratory exchange ratio ballet companies are probably due to the different rehearsal and performance demands.

  4. Intrinsic Aerobic Capacity Sets a Divide for Aging and Longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, G.; Kemi, O.J.; Qi, N.; Leng, S.X.; Bijma, P.; Gilligan, L.J.; Wilkinson, J.E.; Grevenhof, van E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Low aerobic exercise capacity is a powerful predictor of premature morbidity and mortality for healthy adults as well as those with cardiovascular disease. For aged populations, poor performance on treadmill or extended walking tests indicates closer proximity to future health declines.

  5. Aerobic capacity of adults with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Gawlik

    2016-12-01

    1. A large sample of the study population (30% female, 46,3% male showed very low levels of aerobic capacity. 2. Our investigations did not demonstrate a relationship between physical fitness and age or the degree of intellectual disability. Gender turned out to be a differentiating factor but only for the absolute PWC170 and VO2max. 3. The level of physical fitness was significantly related to somatic parameters including body mass, waist and hips circumference, percentage of body fat, BMI and WHR.

  6. The effects of a pilates-aerobic program on maximum exercise capacity of adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Mikalački

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Physical exercise such as the Pilates method offers clinical benefits on the aging process. Likewise, physiologic parameters may be improved through aerobic exercise. Methods: In order to compare the differences of a Pilates-Aerobic intervention program on physiologic parameters such as the maximum heart rate (HRmax, relative maximal oxygen consumption (relative VO2max and absolute (absolute VOmax, maximum heart rate during maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max-HRmax, maximum minute volume (VE and forced vital capacity (FVC, a total of 64 adult women (active group = 48.1 ± 6.7 years; control group = 47.2 ± 7.4 years participated in the study. The physiological parameters, the maximal speed and total duration of test were measured by maximum exercise capacity testing through Bruce protocol. The HRmax was calculated by a cardio-ergometric software. Pulmonary function tests, maximal speed and total time during the physical test were performed in a treadmill (Medisoft, model 870c. Likewise, the spirometry analyzed the impact on oxygen uptake parameters, including FVC and VE. Results: The VO2max (relative and absolute, VE (all, P<0.001, VO2max-HRmax (P<0.05 and maximal speed of treadmill test (P<0.001 showed significant difference in the active group after a physical exercise interventional program. Conclusion: The present study indicates that the Pilates exercises through a continuous training program might significantly improve the cardiovascular system. Hence, mixing strength and aerobic exercises into a training program is considered the optimal mechanism for healthy aging.

  7. Combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training improves cardiovascular function and physical working capacity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-Bin; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Bing; Yao, Yong-Jie; Wang, Yong-Chun; Wu, Yan-Hong; Liang, Wen-Bin; Sun, Xi-Qing

    2010-12-01

    Musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning occurring in long-term spaceflight gives rise to the needs to develop new strategies to counteract these adverse effects. Short-arm centrifuge combined with ergometer has been proposed as a strategy to counteract adverse effects of microgravity. This study sought to investigate whether the combination of short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training have advantages over short-arm centrifuge or aerobic exercise training alone. One week training was conducted by 24 healthy men. They were randomly divided into 3 groups: (1) short-arm centrifuge training, (2) aerobic exercise training, 40 W, and (3) combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training. Before and after training, the cardiac pump function represented by stroke volume, cardiac output, left ventricular ejection time, and total peripheral resistance was evaluated. Variability of heart rate and systolic blood pressure were determined by spectral analysis. Physical working capacity was surveyed by near maximal physical working capacity test. The 1-week combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training remarkably ameliorated the cardiac pump function and enhanced vasomotor sympathetic nerve modulation and improved physical working capacity by 10.9% (Pcentrifuge nor the aerobic exercise group showed improvements in these functions. These results demonstrate that combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training has advantages over short-arm centrifuge or aerobic exercise training alone in influencing several physiologically important cardiovascular functions in humans. The combination of short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise offers a promising countermeasure to microgravity.

  8. The association of muscle strength, aerobic capacity and swim time performance in young, competitive swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Peter; Knudsen, Hans Kromann; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    The association of muscle strength, aerobic capacity and swim time performance in young, competitive swimmers Introduction Swim time performance is affected by physiological factors such as muscle strength and power of the upper and lower extremities as well as aerobic capacity (Smith et al., 2002......). The association between these factors and swim time performance may plausibly identify some of the determinants for performance enhancement in swimming (Smith et al., 2002). In order to detail the individual training programme, reference values are needed. The aims of this study were firstly to determine...... the association between muscle strength and power, aerobic capacity and 100 m freestyle time (FT) in young, competitive swimmers, and secondly to determine reference values for these physiological factors. Methods In total, 119 competitive swimmers aged 11-15 years were assessed with Grip Strength (GS), Vertical...

  9. Maximum Aerobic Capacity of Underground Coal Miners in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnadeep Saha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Miners fitness test was assessed in terms of determination of maximum aerobic capacity by an indirect method following a standard step test protocol before going down to mine by taking into consideration of heart rates (Telemetric recording and oxygen consumption of the subjects (Oxylog-II during exercise at different working rates. Maximal heart rate was derived as 220−age. Coal miners reported a maximum aerobic capacity within a range of 35–38.3 mL/kg/min. It also revealed that oldest miners (50–59 yrs had a lowest maximal oxygen uptake (34.2±3.38 mL/kg/min compared to (42.4±2.03 mL/kg/min compared to (42.4±2.03 mL/kg/min the youngest group (20–29 yrs. It was found to be negatively correlated with age (r=−0.55 and −0.33 for younger and older groups respectively and directly associated with the body weight of the subjects (r=0.57 – 0.68, P≤0.001. Carriers showed maximum cardio respiratory capacity compared to other miners. Indian miners VO2max was found to be lower both compared to their abroad mining counterparts and various other non-mining occupational working groups in India.

  10. Effects of overweight and leisure-time activities on aerobic fitness in urban and rural adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarwani, Sulayma; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Al-Abri, Mohammed; Jaju, Deepali; Hassan, Mohammed O

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effects of overweight and leisure-time activities on maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2)max) in urban and rural Omani adolescents. A total of 529 (245 males, 284 females) adolescents, aged 15-16 years were randomly selected from segregated urban and rural schools. Maximal aerobic capacity was estimated using the multistage 20-meter shuttle-run test. The body mass index (BMI) of urban boys and girls was significantly higher than that of rural boys and girls. Urban boys and girls spent significantly less weekly hours on sports activities and significantly more weekly hours on TV/computer games than their rural counterpart. Urban boys and girls achieved significantly less VO(2)max than rural boys and girls (44.2 and 33.0 vs. 48.3 and 38.6 mL/kg/min, respectively). Maximal aerobic capacity was negatively correlated with BMI in urban boys. Overweight and inactivity had significant negative effects on cardiorespiratory fitness in urban boys and girls as compared to their rural counterparts. Weight gain in adolescence requires early intervention.

  11. Effects of high intensity training and continuous endurance training on aerobic capacity and body composition in recreationally active runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottenrott, Kuno; Ludyga, Sebastian; Schulze, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training) on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17) or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17) for a 12 week-intervention period. WE weekly completed 2 h 30 min of continuous endurance running composed of 2 sessions on the weekend. In contrast, AW performed 4 30 min sessions of high intensity training and an additional 30 min endurance run weekly, always after work. During an exhaustive treadmill test aerobic power was measured and heart rate was continuously recorded. Body composition was assessed using bio-impedance. Following the intervention period all subjects took part in a half-marathon. AW significantly improved peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) from 36.8 ± 4.5 to 43.6 ± 6.5 [mL.min(-1).kg(-1)], velocity at lactate threshold (VLT) from 9.7 ± 2.2 to 11.7 ± 1.8 [km.h(-1)] and visceral fat from 5.6 ± 2.2 to 4.7 ± 1.9 In WE VO2 peak signifi-cantly increased from 38.8 ± 5.0 to 41.5 ± 6.0 [mL.min(-1).kg(-1)], VLT from 9.9 ± 1.3 to 11.2 ± 1.7 [km.h(-1)] and visceral fat was reduced from 5.7 ± 2.1 to 5.4 ± 1.9 (p marathon with no significant differences in performance (p = 0.63). Short, intensive endurance training sessions of about 30 min are effective in improving aerobic fitness in recreationally active runners. Key pointsContinuous endurance training and high intensity training lead to significant improvements of aerobic capacity and body compositionBoth training methods enable recreationally active runners to finish a half-marathonHigh intensity training is favorable to improve VO2 peak.

  12. Aerobic exercise capacity at long-term follow-up after paediatric allogeneic haematopoietic SCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, S; Uhlving, H H; Buchvald, F

    2014-01-01

    Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), a measure of aerobic exercise capacity, predicts mortality and morbidity in healthy and diseased individuals. Our aim was to determine VO2peak years after paediatric allogeneic haematopoietic SCT (HSCT) and to identify associations with baseline patient and donor...... type or GvHD were found. Although causes for reduced VO2peak may be multiple, our findings stress the need to focus on physical activity post HSCT to prevent lifestyle diseases and improve quality of life....

  13. The effects of cigarette smoking on aerobic and anaerobic capacity and heart rate variability among female university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee CL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chia-Lun Lee,1 Wen-Dien Chang21Physical Education Section for General Education, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2Department of Sports Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, TaiwanAim: In this study, the effects of cigarette smoking on maximal aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity, and heart rate variability among female university students were investigated.Materials and methods: Twelve smokers and 21 nonsmokers participated in this study. All participants performed an intermittent sprint test (IST and a 20 m shuttle run test to measure their anaerobic capacity and maximal aerobic capacity. The IST was comprised of 6 × 10-second sprints with a 60-second active recovery between each sprint. Heart rate variability was recorded while the participants were in a supine position 20 minutes before and 30 minutes after the IST.Results: The total work, peak power, and heart rate of the smokers and nonsmokers did not differ significantly. However, the smokers’ average power declined significantly during sprints 4 to 6 (smokers versus nonsmokers, respectively: 95% confidence interval =6.2–7.2 joule/kg versus 6.8–7.6 joule/kg; P<0.05, and their fatigue index increased (smokers versus nonsmokers, respectively: 35.8% ± 2.3% versus 24.5% ± 1.76%; P<0.05 during the IST. The maximal oxygen uptake of nonsmokers was significantly higher than that of the smokers (P<0.05. The standard deviation of the normal to normal intervals and the root mean square successive difference did not differ significantly between nonsmokers and smokers. However, the nonsmokers exhibited a significantly higher normalized high frequency (HF, and significantly lower normalized low frequency (LF, LF/HF ratio, and natural logarithm of the LF/HF when compared with those of the smokers (P<0.05.Conclusion: Smoking may increase female smokers’ exercise fatigue and decrease their average performance during an IST, while reducing their maximal aerobic

  14. Estimation of Aerobic Capacity and Determination of Its Associated Factors among Male Workers of Industrial Sector of Shiraz City, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rajaei Fard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   In order to physiologically fit the job to the worker’s capability, maximum aerobic capacity (VO2-max is used. This study was conducted to estimate VO2-max and determine its associated factors among workers of industrial sector of Shiraz city.   Methods  In this cross-sectional study, 500 healthy male workers employed in Shiraz city industries participated voluntarily. Subjects’ aerobic capacity was assessed by ergocycle test according to Astrand protocol for 6 minutes. A questionnaire consisted of two parts covering demographic, anthropometric and physiological characteristics was used as data collecting tool.   Results    Mean and standard deviation of age of workers was 32.01 and 7.66 years, respectively. Worker’s aerobic capacity was estimated to be 2.69±0.263 1.min-1 . The results showed that there was association between VO2-max and age, weight and BMI while no association was found between VO2-max and height. Also, statistical analysis revealed association between VO2-max and smoking and exercise per week (P<0.05. Nature of work , shift working, job satisfaction and fatigue had no association with aerobic capacity. Based on the results, regression equations were developed for estimation of aerobic capacity.  Conclusion  Aerobic capacity had association with age, weight, BMI, exercise and smoking.  

  15. Level of physical activity and aerobic capacity associate with quality of life in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Volpato

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is more than seizures and includes a high risk of comorbidities and psychological disorders, leading to poor quality of life (QOL. Earlier studies have showed a sedentary lifestyle in people with epilepsy (PWE, which could contribute to poorer health and psychological problems. The purpose of the present study was to compare habits of physical activity (PA, aerobic capacity, and QOL between PWE and healthy controls in order to identify the necessity of intervention of habits and information on physical exercise (PE and to better understand the importance of PE for PWE. The study included 38 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and 20 normal controls. Both groups answered the WHOQOL-Bref, which assesses the level of QOL, and IPAQ to evaluate the level of PA. In addition, they were submitted to a treadmill maximal cardiopulmonary effort test to identify physical capacity. The continuous variables were compared between groups by t-test and a general linear model, and the frequencies were compared by Chi-Square test through SPSS software. There was no difference in the level of PA between groups by questionnaire evaluation. However, there were significant differences in overall QOL, physical health, and level of PA in relation to work and physical capacity between groups; controls demonstrated better scores than PWE. Controls presented better physical capacity than PWE by cardiopulmonary effort test. According to intra-group analyses, PWE who were physically active had better QOL than inactive PWE. The study concluded that questionnaires about PE may not be the best instrument of evaluation, as demonstrated by the discrepancy of results compared to the validated objective cardiopulmonary evaluation of level of PA and physical capacity in this study.

  16. Aerobic capacity influences the spatial position of individuals within fish schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Killen, Shaun S.; Marras, Stefano; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    the rear of schools. These trailing fish required fewer tail beats to swim at the same speed as individuals at the front of schools, indicating that posterior positions provide hydrodynamic benefits that reduce swimming costs. Conversely, fish with high aerobic capacity can withstand increased drag......The schooling behaviour of fish is of great biological importance, playing a crucial role in the foraging and predator avoidance of numerous species. The extent to which physiological performance traits affect the spatial positioning of individual fish within schools is completely unknown. Schools...... of juvenile mullet Liza aurata were filmed at three swim speeds in a swim tunnel, with one focal fish from each school then also measured for standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximal metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope (AS) and maximum aerobic swim speed. At faster speeds, fish with lower MMR and AS swam near...

  17. Six weeks' aerobic retraining after two weeks' immobilization restores leg lean mass and aerobic capacity but does not fully rehabilitate leg strenght in young and older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Gram, Martin; Wiuff, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of aerobic retraining as rehabilitation after short-term leg immobilization on leg strength, leg work capacity, leg lean mass, leg muscle fibre type composition and leg capillary supply, in young and older men. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Seventeen young (23 ± 1 years...... immobilization had marked effects on leg strength, and work capacity and 6 weeks' retraining was sufficient to increase, but not completely rehabilitate, muscle strength, and to rehabilitate aerobic work capacity and leg lean mass (in the young men)....

  18. Aerobic Capacity and Anaerobic Power Levels of the University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to analyze aerobic capacity and anaerobic power levels of the university students. Total forty university students who is department physical education and department business (age means; 21.15±1.46 years for male and age means; 20.55±1.79 years for female in department physical education), volunteered to participate in this…

  19. Sprint interval and moderate-intensity cycling training differentially affect adiposity and aerobic capacity in overweight young-adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Simon; Fedewa, Michael V; Hathaway, Elizabeth D; Schmidt, Michael D; Evans, Ellen M

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of sprint interval training (SIT) and moderate-intensity continuous cycle training (MICT), with equal estimated energy expenditure during training on body composition and aerobic capacity. Body composition measured via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and aerobic capacity were assessed following 6 weeks of training in previously inactive overweight/obese young women (n = 52; age, 20.4 ± 1.5 years; body mass index, 30.3 ± 4.5 kg·m -2 , 67.3% white). Training was performed in a group-exercise format that mimicked cycling classes offered by commercial fitness facilities, and included 3 weekly sessions of either 30-s "all-out" sprints followed by 4 min of active recovery (SIT), or continuous cycling at 60%-70% heart rate reserve to expend a similar amount of energy. Participants were randomized to SIT or MICT, attended a similar number of sessions (15.0 ± 1.5 sessions vs. 15.8 ± 1.9 sessions, P = 0.097) and expended a similar amount of energy (541.8 ± 104.6 kJ·session -1 vs. 553.5 ± 138.1 kJ·session -1 , P = 0.250). Without significant changes in body mass (P > 0.05), greater relative reductions occurred in SIT than in MICT in total fat mass (3.6% ± 5.6% vs. 0.6% ± 3.9%, P = 0.007), and android fat mass (6.6% ± 6.9% vs. 0.7% ± 6.5%, P = 0.002). Aerobic capacity (mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ) increased significantly following both interventions (P interval cycling reduces adiposity and increases aerobic capacity more than continuous moderate-intensity cycling of equal estimated energy expenditure in overweight/obese young women.

  20. Cardiorespiratory fitness of asthmatic children and validation of predicted aerobic capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Angermann, Marie; Larsson, Benny

    2009-01-01

    : To compare aerobic capacity between asthmatic children and controls, to estimate the agreement between PAC and MAC and observe for trend of PAC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The design was prospective, 4 years (PAC) and cross-sectional (MAC and VO(2peak)). Non-parametric Wilcoxon rank sums were applied...

  1. Effects of aerobic interval training versus continuous moderate exercise programme on aerobic and anaerobic capacity, somatic features and blood lipid profile in collegate females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzystof Mazurek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Regular physical activity has many positive health benefits, including reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases and some cancers, as well as improving the quality of life. objectives. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of 8-week aerobic interval cycle exercise training (AIT compared to continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity, somatic features and lipid profile. material and methods. The research was conducted in 88 volunteers aged 19.5±0.6 years, who were randomized to three groups of organized physical activity (OPA, who exercised 3 times per week in 47 min sessions: (I AIT (n=24 comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active rest pedalling with intensity 65%–75% HRmax, (II CME (n=22 corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax, (III regular collegiate physical education classes of programmed exercises (CON; n=42. Before and after OPA anthropometrics, aero- and anaerobic capacity and lipid profile indices were measured. results. In AIT, a significantly greater decrease of waist circumference and WHR was noted when compared to CON, and a significantly greater reduction of sum of skinfolds than in CON and CME. Improvement in relative and absolute VO2max (L/min and ml/kg/min was significantly higher in AIT than CON. Work output and peak power output in the anaerobic test improved significantly in AIT, CME and CON, but independently of training type. OPA was effective only in reducing triglyceride concentrations in CME and CON groups, without interaction effects in relation to training type. conclusion. It was found that 8 weeks of OPA was beneficial in improving somatic and aerobic capacity indices, but AIT resulted in the greatest improvement in somatic indices (waist circumference, WHR, sum of skinfolds and in VO[sub]2[/sub]max, compared to CME and CON programmes.

  2. Survey the effect of aerobic exercise on aerobic capacity in patients with coronary artery disease (cad)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyani, M. N.; Ebadi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Increased aerobic exercise capacity appears to reduce both all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality. Physical exercise to improve maximal oxygen consumption (VO/sub 2max/) is thus strongly recommended, however evidence regarding the most efficient training intensity for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is still lacking. The purpose of this randomized study was to assess the effects of aerobic exercise for increasing VO/sub 2max/ in stable CAD-patients. Thirty stable CAD-patients were randomized to supervised walking 30 min three times a week for 10 weeks. Before and after training VO/sub 2max/ was predicted from Bruce treadmill test. Before training VO/sub 2max/ was 35.2+-4.32 ml/kg/min and after training the mean VO/sub 2max/ was 43.1+-3.4 ml/kg/min. This difference was significant (p<0.05). Aerobic exercise is effective for increasing VO/sub 2max/ in stable CAD-patients. As VO/sub 2max/ seems to reflect a continuum between health and cardiovascular disease and death, the present data may be useful in designing effective training programmes for improved health in the future. (author)

  3. Aerobic Capacity, Activity Levels and Daily Energy Expenditure in Male and Female Adolescents of the Kenyan Nandi Sub-Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander R Gibson

    Full Text Available The relative importance of genetic and socio-cultural influences contributing to the success of east Africans in endurance athletics remains unknown in part because the pre-training phenotype of this population remains incompletely assessed. Here cardiopulmonary fitness, physical activity levels, distance travelled to school and daily energy expenditure in 15 habitually active male (13.9±1.6 years and 15 habitually active female (13.9±1.2 adolescents from a rural Nandi primary school are assessed. Aerobic capacity ([Formula: see text] was evaluated during two maximal discontinuous incremental exercise tests; physical activity using accelerometry combined with a global positioning system; and energy expenditure using the doubly labelled water method. The [Formula: see text] of the male and female adolescents were 73.9±5.7 ml(. kg(-1. min(-1 and 61.5±6.3 ml(. kg(-1. min(-1, respectively. Total time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous physical activities per day was 406±63 min (50% of total monitored time, 244±56 min (30%, 75±18 min (9% and 82±30 min (10%. Average total daily distance travelled to and from school was 7.5±3.0 km (0.8-13.4 km. Mean daily energy expenditure, activity-induced energy expenditure and physical activity level was 12.2±3.4 MJ(. day(-1, 5.4±3.0 MJ(. day(-1 and 2.2±0.6. 70.6% of the variation in [Formula: see text] was explained by sex (partial R(2 = 54.7% and body mass index (partial R(2 = 15.9%. Energy expenditure and physical activity variables did not predict variation in [Formula: see text] once sex had been accounted for. The highly active and energy-demanding lifestyle of rural Kenyan adolescents may account for their exceptional aerobic fitness and collectively prime them for later training and athletic success.

  4. Interval and continuous exercise enhances aerobic capacity and hemodynamic function in CHF rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro B. Nunes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of continuous versus interval aerobic exercise training on hemodynamic parameters, cardiac remodeling, and maximal exercise capacity (MEC in chronic heart failure (CHF rats.METHOD: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were subjected to myocardial infarction (MI surgery. Five weeks post MI, the animals were assigned to one of three groups: sedentary group (CHF-Sed, n=8, aerobic continuous training group (CHF-ACT, n=8, and aerobic interval training group (CHF-AIT, n=8. Treadmill training was performed five times a week for 8 weeks (ACT: 50 min/day at 15 m/min and AIT: 40 min/day with 8 min of warm-up at 10 m/min and exercise at 15 m/min 4×4 min interspersed with 4×4 min at 23 m/min. MEC was evaluated pre and post exercise program.RESULTS: Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, left ventricular mass/body mass ratio (LVM:BM, and total collagen volume fraction were lower in the trained groups compared with the sedentary group, but no difference was found between the trained groups. Systolic ventricular pressure (SVP and maximum positive derivative of LV pressure (+dP/dtmax were higher in the trained groups, but CHF-ACT showed higher +dP/dtmax compared to CHF-AIT. Both training regimens were able to increase MEC. However, the aerobic interval training was superior for improving MEC.CONCLUSION: Aerobic training is an important intervention to improve cardiac function and remodeling and physical capacity in CHF rats. Interval training is a potential strategy to maximize the results, but exercise type and intensity are still topics to be explored.

  5. METRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME TESTS FOR EVALUATION OF AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC CAPACITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Stojiljković

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at cheking the metric characteristics of some specific functional tests often used in practice for the evaluation of aerobic and anaerobic capacities and muscular capabilities. Keeping track of the changes and behavior of the functional abilities was performed on the basis of several repeated measurements of the same test on a sample consisting of 110 examinees, Students of the nursing school “Dr Milenko Hadzic” iz Nis, 17 years of age (± 6 months, regularly attending the classes of physical education.Two measuring instruments were tested: MARGARIA TEST and HARVARD STEP TEST.The reliability of said tests was evaluated on the basis of five successive measurements using Spearman-Brown method, based on determining of the value of the coefficients of determination of all measurements and of the main component h1.The outcome revealed high reliability of the results of most of the measurements and of the first main component H1, so that the acquired results were 91.2% for the MARGARIA TEST (anaerobic capacity and 93.4% for5 the HARVARD STEP TEST (aerobic capacity.

  6. L-Arginine Affects Aerobic Capacity and Muscle Metabolism in MELAS (Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-Like Episodes Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance H Rodan

    Full Text Available To study the effects of L-arginine (L-Arg on total body aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism as assessed by (31Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((31P-MRS in patients with MELAS (Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy with Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes syndrome.We performed a case control study in 3 MELAS siblings (m.3243A>G tRNA(leu(UUR in MTTL1 gene with different % blood mutant mtDNA to evaluate total body maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2peak using graded cycle ergometry and muscle metabolism using 31P-MRS. We then ran a clinical trial pilot study in MELAS sibs to assess response of these parameters to single dose and a 6-week steady-state trial of oral L-Arginine.At baseline (no L-Arg, MELAS had lower serum Arg (p = 0.001. On 3(1P-MRS muscle at rest, MELAS subjects had increased phosphocreatine (PCr (p = 0.05, decreased ATP (p = 0.018, and decreased intracellular Mg(2+ (p = 0.0002 when compared to matched controls. With L-arginine therapy, the following trends were noted in MELAS siblings on cycle ergometry: (1 increase in mean % maximum work at anaerobic threshold (AT (2 increase in % maximum heart rate at AT (3 small increase in VO(2peak. On (31P-MRS the following mean trends were noted: (1 A blunted decrease in pH after exercise (less acidosis (2 increase in Pi/PCr ratio (ADP suggesting increased work capacity (3 a faster half time of PCr recovery (marker of mitochondrial activity following 5 minutes of moderate intensity exercise (4 increase in torque.These results suggest an improvement in aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism in MELAS subjects in response to supplementation with L-Arg. Intramyocellular hypomagnesemia is a novel finding that warrants further study.Class III evidence that L-arginine improves aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism in MELAS subjects.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01603446.

  7. L-Arginine Affects Aerobic Capacity and Muscle Metabolism in MELAS (Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-Like Episodes) Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodan, Lance H; Wells, Greg D; Banks, Laura; Thompson, Sara; Schneiderman, Jane E; Tein, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of L-arginine (L-Arg) on total body aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism as assessed by (31)Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) in patients with MELAS (Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy with Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes) syndrome. We performed a case control study in 3 MELAS siblings (m.3243A>G tRNA(leu(UUR)) in MTTL1 gene) with different % blood mutant mtDNA to evaluate total body maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2peak)) using graded cycle ergometry and muscle metabolism using 31P-MRS. We then ran a clinical trial pilot study in MELAS sibs to assess response of these parameters to single dose and a 6-week steady-state trial of oral L-Arginine. At baseline (no L-Arg), MELAS had lower serum Arg (p = 0.001). On 3(1)P-MRS muscle at rest, MELAS subjects had increased phosphocreatine (PCr) (p = 0.05), decreased ATP (p = 0.018), and decreased intracellular Mg(2+) (p = 0.0002) when compared to matched controls. With L-arginine therapy, the following trends were noted in MELAS siblings on cycle ergometry: (1) increase in mean % maximum work at anaerobic threshold (AT) (2) increase in % maximum heart rate at AT (3) small increase in VO(2peak). On (31)P-MRS the following mean trends were noted: (1) A blunted decrease in pH after exercise (less acidosis) (2) increase in Pi/PCr ratio (ADP) suggesting increased work capacity (3) a faster half time of PCr recovery (marker of mitochondrial activity) following 5 minutes of moderate intensity exercise (4) increase in torque. These results suggest an improvement in aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism in MELAS subjects in response to supplementation with L-Arg. Intramyocellular hypomagnesemia is a novel finding that warrants further study. Class III evidence that L-arginine improves aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism in MELAS subjects. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01603446.

  8. Effect of small sided handball game on aerobic capacity and repeated sprint ability of male handball players

    OpenAIRE

    CHITTIBABU, Balasubramanian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of four and eight weeks small-sided handball game on aerobic capacity and repeated sprint ability of male handball players. Sixteen (16) male university handball players volunteered to act as subjects and were randomly assigned to small-sided handball game group (SSHG) and control group (CG).  Small-sided handball game was administered three days in a week for eight weeks. Subjects were measured on aerobic capacity, total sprint time and ...

  9. Impact of error self-perception of aerobic capacity in the safety and efficacy of the lifeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Jose A; Nistal, Paloma; Méndez, David; Abelairas-Gomez, Cristian; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The strong physical demands that are required of lifeguards during rescues also require an accurate self-perception of one's fitness level to be able to regulate the intensity of effort. The aim of this study was to determine the real aerobic capacity (RAC) and to compare it with two self-reported measurements: subjective appraisal of aerobic capacity (SAAC) and appraisal of physical exercise (APE). Fifty-two professional lifeguards were included in the study. For an objective assessment of RAC, the lifeguards' maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) values were measured during treadmill stress tests. A fitness assessment questionnaire was used to obtain the SAAC and APE values. We found a statistically significant association between the APE and RAC variables in the contingency analysis (p self-perception error of true aerobic capacity could lead to premature fatigue during a rescue, endangering both the lifeguard's life and the life of the victim. These data may help lifeguards and beach managers to become aware of the need to know lifeguards' true physical conditions through testing and structured training programs.

  10. Comparison Of Different Methods For The Swimming Aerobic Capacity Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelarigo, Jailton Gregório; Fernandes, Ricardo Jorge; Ribeiro, João; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio; Greco, Camila Coelho; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2017-02-23

    This study compared velocity (v) and bioenergetical factors using different methods applied for the swimming aerobic capacity evaluation. Ten elite female swimmers (17.6 ± 1.9 yrs., 1.70 ± 0.05 m and 61.3 ± 5.8 kg) performed an intermittent incremental velocity protocol until voluntary exhaustion to determine the v associated to the individual anaerobic threshold (IAnT), ventilatory threshold (VT), heart rate threshold (HRT), lactate threshold fixed in 3.5 mmol.L (LT3.5) and maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). Two-to-three 30 min submaximal constant tests for the v assessment at maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). The v, gas exchange, heart rate and blood lactate concentration variables were monitored in all tests. The values of all parameters at the v corresponding to MLSS, IAnT, VT and HRT were similar (p 0.400), except for carbon dioxide (V[Combining Dot Above]CO2) that was higher for MLSS compared to VT (p higher when compared to other methods for v and bioenergetical factors. It is suggested that IAnT, VT and HRT methods are better predictors of the intensity corresponding to the commonly accepted gold-standard method (i.e. MLSS) for the aerobic capacity evaluation compared to LT3.5.

  11. [Impact of exercise on the body composition and aerobic capacity of elderly with obesity through three models of intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Jose Antonio; Del Valle, Miguel; Nistal, Paloma; Méndez, David; Abelairas-Gómez, Cristian; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto

    2014-12-17

    The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of aerobic exercise on body composition and aerobic capacity of a sample of older, sedentary adults with obesity rates by three different models of intervention (recommendation, prescription at home and monitoring). A total of 76 older adults with a mean age 67.1+/-1.2 years, sedentary, with a BMI> 30 kg/ m2 were randomized in to four groups: Control (CON) recommendation (REC), prescription home (PRES) and monitoring in a sports center (MON). The same program of aerobic exercise for groups of home and sports center for 24 weeks, 3 days a week was developed. It was determined before and after the intervention BMI, Waist- Hip-index (ICC), the% fat ( Σ folds) and aerobic capacity (T6M) throughout the sample. MON and PRES groups showed significant improvements in the ICC, Σ folds and T 6M variables, not the case in BMI. However the MON group presented significant differences from group PRES between-group analysis (p exercise programs in adults with obesity methodology. However the exercise prescription at home since early intervention is an important approach for people with physical and/ or psychological reasons such as obesity cannot access the sports centers to participate in activities led by a monitor. Unknowns of aerobic exercise are cleared in the home that are of great impact for social policies regarding the health of the elderly population. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. The high aerobic capacity of a small, marsupial rat-kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata) is matched by the mitochondrial and capillary morphology of its skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Koa N; Dawson, Terence J

    2012-09-15

    We examined the structure-function relationships that underlie the aerobic capacities of marsupial mammals that hop. Marsupials have relatively low basal metabolic rates (BMR) and historically were seen as 'low energy' mammals. However, the red kangaroo, Macropus rufus (family Macropodidae), has aerobic capacities equivalent to athletic placentals. It has an extreme aerobic scope (fAS) and its large locomotor muscles feature high mitochondrial and capillary volumes. M. rufus belongs to a modern group of kangaroos and its high fAS is not general for marsupials. However, other hopping marsupials may have elevated aerobic capacities. Bettongia penicillata, a rat-kangaroo (family Potoroidae), is a small (1 kg), active hopper whose fAS is somewhat elevated. We examined the oxygen delivery system in its muscles to ascertain links with hopping. An elevated fAS of 23 provided a relatively high maximal aerobic oxygen consumption ( ) in B. penicillata; associated with this is a skeletal muscle mass of 44% of body mass. Ten muscles were sampled to estimate the total mitochondrial and capillary volume of the locomotor muscles. Values in B. penicillata were similar to those in M. rufus and in athletic placentals. This small hopper had high muscle mitochondrial volume densities (7.1-11.9%) and both a large total capillary volume (6 ml kg(-1) body mass) and total capillary erythrocyte volume (3.2 ml kg(-1)). Apparently, a considerable aerobic capacity is required to achieve the benefits of the extended stride in fast hopping. Of note, the ratio of to total muscle mitochondrial volume in B. penicillata was 4.9 ml O(2) min(-1) ml(-1). Similar values occur in M. rufus and also placental mammals generally, not only athletic species. If such relationships occur in other marsupials, a fundamental structure-function relationship for oxygen delivery to muscles likely originated with or before the earliest mammals.

  13. Water-based aerobic and combined training in elderly women: Effects on functional capacity and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mariana Ribeiro; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Portella, Elisa Gouvêa; Nunes, Gabriela Neves; Martin, Daniela Gomez; Pinto, Stephanie Santana

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of two water-based training programs (aerobic and combined) and a non-periodized physical activity program on functional capacity and quality of life (QoL) of elderly women. Forty-one elderly female volunteers (65 ± 4 years) were divided into three groups: aerobic training group (WBA, n = 13), combined training (sequence: resistance/aerobic; WBC; n = 11) and a control group of non-periodized physical activity program (CG, n = 9). The participants performed the water-based trainings twice a week for 12 weeks. The resistance training sets were performed at maximal effort and the aerobic training was performed in the percentage of the heart rate corresponding to the anaerobic threshold (85-110%) determined in an aquatic progressive test. Assessments of QoL perception (WHOQOL-BREF) and functional tests 30-Second Chair Stand, 6-Minute Walk and 8-Foot Up-and-go were performed before and after training. The data were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE), and Bonferroni post-hoc test (α = 0.05). In CG, QoL perception in the physical domain decreased (12 ± 10%) and there was no difference in the other domains. On the other hand, QoL perception was significantly increased in the water-based training groups after the training period in the physical (WBC: 13 ± 16%), psychological (WBA: 9 ± 16%; WBC: 10 ± 11%), social relationships (WBA: 19 ± 42%; WBC: 16 ± 21%) and environmental (WBA: 10 ± 17%; WBC: 16 ± 28%) domains and overall QoL (WBA: 17 ± 22%). No significant difference was observed in the physical domain for WBA and in the overall for WBC. Significant improvements were observed for all groups in the functional tests 30-Second Chair Stand (WBA: 32 ± 11%; WBC: 24 ± 14%; CG: 20 ± 9), 6-Minute Walk (WBA: 10 ± 7%; WBC: 7 ± 6%; CG: 7 ± 5%) and 8-Foot Up-and-go (WBA: 11 ± 5%; WBC: 10 ± 9%; CG: 10 ± 6

  14. Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and hookah smokers after 12 weeks intermittent training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdessalem Koubaa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulmonary function is compromised in most smokers. Yet it is unknown whether exercise training improves pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers and whether these smokers respond in a similar way as do non-smokers. Aim: To evaluate the effects of an interval exercise training program on pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers. Methods: Twelve cigarette smokers, 10 hookah smokers, and 11 non-smokers participated in our exercise program. All subjects performed 30 min of interval exercise (2 min of work followed by 1 min of rest three times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity estimated at 70% of the subject's maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max. Pulmonary function was measured using spirometry, and maximum aerobic capacity was assessed by maximal exercise testing on a treadmill before the beginning and at the end of the exercise training program. Results: As expected, prior to the exercise intervention, the cigarette and hookah smokers had significantly lower pulmonary function than the non-smokers. The 12-week exercise training program did not significantly affect lung function as assessed by spirometry in the non-smoker group. However, it significantly increased both forced expiratory volume in 1 second and peak expiratory flow (PEF in the cigarette smoker group, and PEF in the hookah smoker group. Our training program had its most notable impact on the cardiopulmonary system of smokers. In the non-smoker and cigarette smoker groups, the training program significantly improved VO2max (4.4 and 4.7%, respectively, v VO2max (6.7 and 5.6%, respectively, and the recovery index (7.9 and 10.5%, respectively. Conclusions: After 12 weeks of interval training program, the increase of VO2max and the decrease of recovery index and resting heart rate in the smoking subjects indicated better exercise tolerance. Although the intermittent training program altered pulmonary function only

  15. Acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge degrading benzene derivatives and co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene by benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizong; Yang, Qi; Bai, Zhiyong; Wang, Shidong; Wang, Yeyao; Nowak, Karolina M

    2015-01-01

    The acclimation of aerobic-activated sludge for degradation of benzene derivatives was investigated in batch experiments. Phenol, benzoic acid, toluene, aniline and chlorobenzene were concurrently added to five different bioreactors which contained the aerobic-activated sludge. After the acclimation process ended, the acclimated phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic-activated sludge were used to explore the co-metabolic degradation activities of trichloroethylene (TCE). Monod equation was employed to simulate the kinetics of co-metabolic degradation of TCE by benzene derivative-grown sludge. At the end of experiments, the mixed microbial communities grown under different conditions were identified. The results showed that the acclimation periods of microorganisms for different benzene derivatives varied. The maximum degradation rates of TCE for phenol-, benzoic acid-, toluene-, aniline- and chlorobenzene-grown aerobic sludge were 0.020, 0.017, 0.016, 0.0089 and 0.0047 mg g SS(-1) h(-1), respectively. The kinetic of TCE degradation in the absence of benzene derivative followed Monod equation well. Also, eight phyla were observed in the acclimated benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge. Each of benzene derivative-grown aerobic sludge had different microbial community composition. This study can hopefully add new knowledge to the area of TCE co-metabolic by mixed microbial communities, and further the understanding on the function and applicability of aerobic-activated sludge.

  16. The effects of altitude/hypoxic training on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity in elite athletes - a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun-Young; Hwang, Hyejung; Park, Jonghoon; Lee, Seongno; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-03-31

    This study was designed as a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing effectiveness of altitude/hypoxic training (experimental) versus sea-level training (control) on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity of elite athletes in Korea. Databases (Research Information Service System, Korean studies Information Service System, National Assembly Library) were for randomized controlled trials comparing altitude/hypoxic training versus sea-level training in elite athletes. Studies published in Korea up to December 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Oxygen delivery capacity of the blood was quantified by red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), erythropoietin (EPO); and aerobic exercise capacity was quantified by maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). RBC, Hb, Hct, VO2max represented heterogeneity and compared post-intervention between altitude/hypoxic training and sea-level training in elite athletes by a random effect model meta-analysis. EPO represented homogeneity and meta-analysis performed by a fixed effect model. Eight independent studies with 156 elite athletes (experimental: n = 82, control: n = 74) were included in the metaanalysis. RBC (4.499×10(5) cell/ul, 95 % CI: 2.469 to 6.529), Hb (5.447 g/dl, 95 % CI: 3.028 to 7.866), Hct (3.639 %, 95 % CI: 1.687 to 5.591), EPO (0.711 mU/mL, 95% CI: 0.282 to 1.140), VO2max (1.637 ml/kg/min, 95% CI: 0.599 to 1.400) showed significantly greater increase following altitude/hypoxic training, as compared with sea-level training. For elite athletes in Korea, altitude/ hypoxic training appears more effective than sea-level training for improvement of oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity.

  17. Activated Sludge and Aerobic Biofilm Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Activated Sludge and Aerobic Biofilm Reactors is the fifth volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment. The first part of the book is devoted to the activated sludge process, covering the removal of organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus.A detailed analysis of the biological reactor (aeration tank) and the final sedimentation tanks is provided. The second part of the book covers aerobic biofilm reactors, especially trickling filters, rotating biological contractors and submerged ae...

  18. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia in mild to moderate progressive chronic renal failure and its association with aerobic work capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eidemak, I; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Kanstrup, I L

    1995-01-01

    Tissue sensitivity to insulin and aerobic work capacity was measured in patients with mild to moderate progressive chronic renal failure. Twenty-nine non-diabetic patients with a glomerular filtration rate of 25 ml.min-1.1.73 m-2 (11-43) (median, range) and 15 sex, age, and body mass index matched.......02) (M/I ratio 1.77 +/- 0.71 vs 2.57 +/- 0.70 (mg/(kgBW.min) per pmol/l.100, p aerobic work capacity was significantly lower in the patients than in the control subjects (24 +/- 8 vs 32 +/- 11 ml O2/(kg body weight.min), p .../I ratio in both groups. In conclusion, not only patients with end-stage chronic renal failure but also those with mild to moderate progressive chronic renal failure are insulin resistant and hyperinsulinaemic. The tissue sensitivity to insulin is correlated to the maximal aerobic work capacity suggesting...

  19. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Sira M.; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p temperature compared to rats born with low exercise capacity and disease risk. Voluntary running allowed HCRs to maintain high body temperature during aging, which suggests that high PA level was crucial in maintaining the high body temperature of HCRs. PMID:27504097

  20. Does Aerobic Exercise Influence Intrinsic Brain Activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flodin, Pär; Jonasson, Lars S; Riklund, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    exercise group or an active control group. Both groups recieved supervised training, 3 days a week for 6 months. Multimodal brain imaging data was acquired before and after the intervention, including 10 min of resting state brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and arterial spin labeling......Previous studies have indicated that aerobic exercise could reduce age related decline in cognition and brain functioning. Here we investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on intrinsic brain activity. Sixty sedentary healthy males and females (64-78 years) were randomized into either an aerobic...... group improved more. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not observe any significant group by time interactions with regard to any measure of intrinsic activity. To further probe putative relationships between fitness and brain activity, we performed post hoc analyses disregarding group belongings...

  1. Caffeine stimulates voluntary wheel running in mice without increasing aerobic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claghorn, Gerald C; Thompson, Zoe; Wi, Kristianna; Van, Lindsay; Garland, Theodore

    2017-03-01

    The "energy drink" Red Bull and the "sports drink" Gatorade are often marketed to athletes, with claims that they cause performance gains. However, both are high in sugars, and also consumed by non-athletes. Few studies have addressed the effects of these drinks or their biologically active components in rodent exercise models. We used three experiments to test effects on both voluntary exercise behavior and maximal aerobic capacity in lines of mice known to differ in "athletic" traits. Mice from four replicate High Runner (HR) lines have been selectively bred for voluntary running on wheels, and run approximately three times as many revolutions per day as do mice from four non-selected Control (C) lines. HR mice also have higher endurance and maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) during forced treadmill exercise. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that Gatorade or Red Bull might cause or allow mice to increase their voluntary wheel running. On days 5 and 6 of 6days of wheel access, as is used to select breeders, HR mice ran 3.3-fold more than C, and females ran 1.2-fold more than males, with no linetype by sex interaction. On day 7, mice were administered Gatorade, Red Bull or tap water. During the subsequent 19-hour period, Gatorade had no statistical effect on running, but Red Bull significantly increased distance run by both sexes and in both HR and C lines. The increase in distance run caused by Red Bull was attributable to time spent running, not an increase in mean (or maximum) speed. As previous studies have found that sucrose alone does not generally increase wheel running, we tested two other active ingredients in Red Bull, caffeine and taurine, in Experiment 2. With a similar testing protocol, caffeine alone and caffeine+taurine increased running by about half the magnitude of Red Bull. In Experiment 3, we tested the hypothesis that Red Bull or caffeine alone can increase physiological performance ability during aerobic exercise, measured as VO 2

  2. Assessment of the 2,4 km run as a predictor of aerobic capacity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-15

    Sep 15, 1990 ... V02max. This relationship established, the question of whether or not the 2,4 km run time could be used as a reliable predictor of aerobic capacity in national servicemen was addressed. The objects of this study were thus: (1) to establish a regression equation that expressed the relationship between.

  3. The effects of altitude/hypoxic training on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity in elite athletes – a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun-young; Hwang, Hyejung; Park, Jonghoon; Lee, Seongno; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was designed as a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing effectiveness of altitude/hypoxic training (experimental) versus sea-level training (control) on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity of elite athletes in Korea. [Methods] Databases (Research Information Service System, Korean studies Information Service System, National Assembly Library) were for randomized controlled trials comparing altitude/hypoxic training versus sea-level training in elite athletes. Studies published in Korea up to December 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Oxygen delivery capacity of the blood was quantified by red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), erythropoietin (EPO); and aerobic exercise capacity was quantified by maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). RBC, Hb, Hct, VO2max represented heterogeneity and compared post-intervention between altitude/hypoxic training and sea-level training in elite athletes by a random effect model meta-analysis. EPO represented homogeneity and meta-analysis performed by a fixed effect model. Eight independent studies with 156 elite athletes (experimental: n = 82, control: n = 74) were included in the metaanalysis. [Results] RBC (4.499×105 cell/ul, 95 % CI: 2.469 to 6.529), Hb (5.447 g/dl, 95 % CI: 3.028 to 7.866), Hct (3.639 %, 95 % CI: 1.687 to 5.591), EPO (0.711 mU/mL, 95% CI: 0.282 to 1.140), VO2max (1.637 ml/kg/min, 95% CI: 0.599 to 1.400) showed significantly greater increase following altitude/hypoxic training, as compared with sea-level training. [Conclusion] For elite athletes in Korea, altitude/ hypoxic training appears more effective than sea-level training for improvement of oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity. PMID:27298808

  4. Reduced anaerobic and aerobic performance in children with primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Senem; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Cakmak, Aslihan; Emiralioglu, Nagehan; Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Saglam, Melda; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Ozcelik, Hayriye Ugur; Sonbahar-Ulu, Hazal; Bozdemir-Ozel, Cemile; Kiper, Nural; Arikan, Hulya

    2018-05-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) restricts lifestyle and increases morbidity. The aim of the study was to investigate anaerobic and aerobic performance in children with PCD and their healthy counterparts. Thirty-one children with PCD and 29 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were studied. Pulmonary function, hand grip strength (HGS), quadriceps strength (QMS), physical activity, anaerobic capacity (muscle power sprint test), and aerobic performance (modified shuttle walk test (MSWT)) were determined. Pulmonary function, HGS, QMS, mean anaerobic power (MAP), and MSWT distance in PCD were significantly lower than those of healthy subjects (p aerobic performance is impaired in PCD from the early stages. Age determines anaerobic performance. Gender is the determinant of aerobic performance. Whether skeletal muscle characteristics and sex-related changes in body composition affect anaerobic and aerobic capacity in PCD children warrants further study. What is Known: • Exercise performance is determined by anaerobic and aerobic power. • Few studies have shown that PCD patients have lower aerobic performance which is associated with impaired lung function. What is New: • The present research indicated that both anaerobic and aerobic exercise capacity determined using field testing is impaired in PCD from the early stages. • Anaerobic capacity was found to be independently associated with age in PCD. Higher aerobic performance is independently associated with male gender.

  5. The association of muscle strength, aerobic capacity and swim time performance in young, competitive swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Peter; Kromann Knudsen, Hans; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    Swim time performance is affected by physiological factors such as muscle strength and power of the upper and lower extremities as well as aerobic capacity (Smith et al., 2002). The association between these factors and swim time performance may plausibly identify some of the determinants...... for performance enhancement in swimming (Smith et al., 2002). In order to detail the individual training programme, reference values are needed. The aims of this study were firstly to determine the association between muscle strength and power, aerobic capacity and 100 m freestyle time (FT) in young, competitive...... swimmers, and secondly to determine reference values for these physiological factors. Methods In total, 119 competitive swimmers aged 11-15 years were assessed with Grip Strength (GS), Vertical Jump (VJ) and an intermittent running test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake, the Andersen Test (AT). Swim time...

  6. Effects of new sports tennis type exercise on aerobic capacity, follicle stimulating hormone and N-terminal telopeptide in the postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Jae; Lee, Ha-Yan; Cho, Hye-Young; Park, Yun-Jin; Moon, Hyung-Hoon; Lee, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Ki; Kim, Myung-Ki

    2014-04-01

    Menopause is characterized by rapid decreases in bone mineral density, aerobic fitness, muscle strength, and balance. In the present study, we investigated the effects of new sports tennis type exercise on aerobic capacity, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and N-terminal telopeptide (NTX) in the postmenopausal women. Subjects were consisted of 20 postmenopausal women, who had not menstruated for at least 1 yr and had follicle-stimulating hormone levels > 35 mIU/L, estradiol levelssports tennis type exercise group (n= 10). New sports tennis type exercise was consisted of warm up (10 min), new sports tennis type exercise (40 min), cool down (10 min) 3 days a per week for 12 weeks. The aerobic capacities were increased by 12 weeks new sports tennis type exercise. New sports tennis type exercise significantly increased FSH and NTx levels, indicating biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption. These findings indicate that 12 weeks of new sports tennis type exercise can be effective in prevention of bone loss and enhancement of aerobic capacity in postmenopausal women.

  7. Estimated Aerobic Capacity Changes in Adolescents with Obesity Following High Intensity Interval Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke E. Starkoff

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vigorous aerobic exercise may improve aerobic capacity (VO2max and cardiometabolic profiles in adolescents with obesity, independent of changes to weight. Our aim was to assess changes in estimated VO2max in obese adolescents following a 6-week exercise program of varying intensities. Adolescents with obesity were recruited from an American mid-west children’s hospital and randomized into moderate exercise (MOD or high intensity interval exercise (HIIE groups for a 6-week exercise intervention, consisting of cycle ergometry for 40 minutes, 3 days per week. Heart rate was measured every two minutes during each exercise session.  Estimated VO2max measured via Åstrand cycle test, body composition, and physical activity (PA enjoyment evaluated via questionnaire were assessed pre/post-intervention. Twenty-seven adolescents (age 14.7±1.5; 17 female, 10 male completed the intervention. Estimated VO2max increased only in the HIIE group (20.0±5.7 to 22.7±6.5 ml/kg/min, p=0.015. The HIIE group also demonstrated increased PA enjoyment, which was correlated with average heart rate achieved during the intervention (r=0.55; p=0.043. Six weeks of HIIE elicited improvements to estimated VO2max in adolescents with obesity. Furthermore, those exercising at higher heart rates demonstrated greater PA enjoyment, implicating enjoyment as an important determinant of VO2max, specifically following higher intensity activities.

  8. Assessing effects of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on phosphorus sorption and retention capacity of water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Ian W; Grant, Cameron D; Murray, Robert S

    2011-03-01

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are the by-products of drinking water clarification processes, whereby chemical flocculants such as alum or ferric chloride are added to raw water to remove suspended clay particles, organic matter and other materials and impurities. Previous studies have identified a strong phosphorus (P) fixing capacity of WTRs which has led to experimentation with their use as P-sorbing materials for controlling P discharges from agricultural and forestry land. However, the P-fixing capacity of WTRs and its capacity to retain sorbed P under anaerobic conditions have yet to be fully demonstrated, which is an issue that must be addressed for WTR field applications. This study therefore examined the capacity of WTRs to retain sorbed P and sorb further additional P from aqueous solution under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. An innovative, low cost apparatus was constructed and successfully used to rapidly establish anoxic conditions in anaerobic treatments. The results showed that even in treatments with initial solution P concentrations set at 100 mg l(-1), soluble reactive P concentrations rapidly fell to negligible levels (due to sorption by WTRs), while total P (i.e. dissolved + particulate and colloidal P) was less than 3 mg l(-1). This equated to an added P retention rate of >98% regardless of anaerobic or aerobic status, indicating that WTRs are able to sorb and retain P in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of the 2,4 km run as a predictor of aerobic capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the 2,4 km run time test is routinely used in military training programmes as an indicator of aerobic capacity and its possible improvement, an attempt was made to: (i) establish a regression equation of V02max V. 2,4 km run time in a group of 20 young military volunteers; and (ii) determine whether this equation could ...

  10. IMPACT OF 10 SESSIONS OF WHOLE BODY CRYOSTIMULATION ON AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC CAPACITY AND ON SELECTED BLOOD COUNT PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Dybek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The systemic effect of low temperature suggests that sessions in a cryogenic chamber might improve athletes’ capacity as a standard element of training. Therefore the authors decided to evaluate the impact of 10 sessions of whole body cryostimulation (WBCT on aerobic and anaerobic efficiency as well as on selected blood count parameters. The study group included 32 volunteers – 16 women and 16 men. The volunteers underwent 10 sessions of WBCT in a cryogenic chamber. Blood samples (RBC, WBC, PLT, HGB, HCT were taken, and aerobic and anaerobic efficiency and lactate concentration in capillary blood were measured before the first session and one day after the last one. No significant differences were observed in values of aerobic capacity after 10 sessions of WBCT. There was a rising trend in men and a declining trend in women. The lactate concentration did not differ significantly before and after WBCT. A slight rise in aerobic and anaerobic threshold was observed in men, while in women the values slightly fell. The Wingate test showed no significant differences in results before and after cryostimulation. Only the TOBT was significantly shorter in men (6.12±1.49 vs 3.79±1.14 s. The WBCT sessions resulted in a significant rise of the haematological parameters both in women and men, excluding HCT, which showed a statistically insignificant rise. Ten sessions of whole body cryostimulation did not affect aerobic or anaerobic capacity in the tested group, although it improved the blood count parameters.

  11. Is the Veterans Specific Activity Questionnaire Valid to Assess Older Adults Aerobic Fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Bastone, Alessandra; de Souza Moreira, Bruno; Teixeira, Claudine Patrícia; Dias, João Marcos Domingues; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic fitness in older adults is related to health status, incident disability, nursing home admission, and all-cause mortality. The most accurate quantification of aerobic fitness, expressed as peak oxygen consumption in mL·kg·min, is the cardiorespiratory exercise test; however, it is not feasible in all settings and might offer risk to patients. The Veterans Specific Activity Questionnaire (VSAQ) is a 13-item self-administered symptom questionnaire that estimates aerobic fitness expressed in metabolic equivalents (METs) and has been validated to cardiovascular patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the VSAQ in older adults without specific health conditions. A methodological study with a cross-sectional design was conducted with 28 older adults (66-86 years). The VSAQ was administered on 3 occasions by 2 evaluators. Aerobic capacity in METs as measured by the VSAQ was compared with the METs found in an incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) performed with a portable metabolic measurement system and with accelerometer data. The validity of the VSAQ was found to be moderate-to-good when compared with the METs and distance measured by the ISWT and with the moderate activity per day and steps per day obtained by accelerometry. The Bland-Altman graph analysis showed no values outside the limits of agreement, suggesting good precision between the METs estimated by questionnaire and the METs measured by the ISWT. Also, the intrarater and interrater reliabilities of the instrument were good. The results showed that the VSAQ is a valuable tool to assess the aerobic fitness of older adults.

  12. Aerobic Physical Activity and the Leadership of Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, Kari

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore if there was a connection between regular aerobic physical activity and the stress and energy levels of principals as they reported it. To begin the research, the current aerobic physical activity level of principals was discovered. Additionally, the energy and stress levels of the principals who do engage…

  13. Partitioning of Respiration in an Animal-Algal Symbiosis: Implications for Different Aerobic Capacity Between Symbiodinium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas David Hawkins

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses are ecologically important and the subject of much investigation. However, our understanding of critical aspects of symbiosis physiology, such as the partitioning of total respiration between the host and symbiont, remains incomplete. Specifically, we know little about how the relationship between host and symbiont respiration varies between different holobionts (host-symbiont combinations. We applied molecular and biochemical techniques to investigate aerobic respiratory capacity in naturally symbiotic Exaiptasia pallida sea anemones, alongside animals infected with either homologous ITS2-type A4 Symbiodinium or a heterologous isolate of Symbiodinium minutum (ITS2-type B1. In naturally symbiotic anemones, host, symbiont, and total holobiont mitochondrial citrate synthase (CS enzyme activity, but not host mitochondrial copy number, were reliable predictors of holobiont respiration. There was a positive association between symbiont density and host CS specific activity (mg protein-1, and a negative correlation between host- and symbiont CS specific activities. Notably, partitioning of total CS activity between host and symbiont in this natural E. pallida population was significantly different to the host/symbiont biomass ratio. In re-infected anemones, we found significant between-holobiont differences in the CS specific activity of the algal symbionts. Furthermore, the relationship between the partitioning of total CS activity and the host/symbiont biomass ratio differed between holobionts. These data have broad implications for our understanding of cnidarian-algal symbiosis. Specifically, the long-held assumption of equivalency between symbiont/host biomass and respiration ratios can result in significant overestimation of symbiont respiration and potentially erroneous conclusions regarding the percentage of carbon translocated to the host. The interspecific variability in symbiont aerobic capacity provides

  14. [Study of aerobic capacity in chronic hemodialized patients: effect of L-carnitine supplementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Alejandro; Torres, Rubén; Sanhueza, María Eugenia; Elgueta, Leticia; Segovia, Erico; Cano, Marcelo

    2008-04-05

    Chronic hemodialyzed patients have a low level of aerobic capacity, caused by the pathologies concomitant to renal insufficiency, according with a low level of physical activity. One of the factors that would contribute to this level of aerobic capacity is the L-carnitine deficit on skeletal muscle. However, the value of the supplementation of L-carnitine to improve the physical fitness has been controversial. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the administration of L-carnitine on VO2 max in hemodialyzed patients. A group of 21 patients (20-50 years old) on a program of chronic hemodialysis was studied. During 12 weeks, 13 of them received L-carnitine, 7 men and 6 women, 38.8 (9.5) years old; BMI 24.2 (2.1) Kg/m2; 8 of them received placebo, 4 men and 4 women, 35.8 (11.4) years old; BMI 24.5 (5.8) Kg/m2. There was an increase in VO2 peak on L-carnitine group from 16.3 (2.8) mL x Kg(-1) x min(-1) to 19.5 (3.3) mL x Kg(-1) x min(-1), and the same was seen in the placebo group (increase in VO2 peak from 14.8 (3.8) mL x Kg(-1) x min(-1) to 18.9 (4.8) mL x Kg(-1) x min(-1)). The L-carnitine and placebo groups did not show statistical differences at the end of this study (all values above p > 0.05). In this group of patients, the intravenous supplementation of L-carnitine during 12 weeks did not have an impact on the improvement of the VO2 peak.

  15. Effects of Detraining on Anthropometry, Aerobic Capacity and Functional Ability in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, P. H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Structured exercise has shown to improve parameters of functional fitness in adults with Down syndrome (DS). However, few, if any, continue to exercise after exercise intervention studies. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of detraining on anthropometry, aerobic capacity and functional ability of…

  16. Short-term water-based aerobic training promotes improvements in aerobic conditioning parameters of mature women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rochelle Rocha; Reichert, Thais; Coconcelli, Leandro; Simmer, Nicole Monticelli; Bagatini, Natália Carvalho; Buttelli, Adriana Cristine Koch; Bracht, Cláudia Gomes; Stein, Ricardo; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2017-08-01

    Aging is accompanied by a decrease in aerobic capacity. Therefore, physical training has been recommended to soften the effects of advancement age. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a short-term water-based aerobic training on resting heart rate (HR rest ), heart rate corresponding to anaerobic threshold (HR AT ), peak heart rate (HR peak ), percentage value of HR AT in relation to HR peak and test duration (TD) of mature women. Twenty-two women (65.91 ± 4.83 years) were submitted to a five-week water-based interval aerobic training. Aerobic capacity parameters were evaluated through an aquatic incremental test. After training, there was an increase in TD (16%) and HR AT percentage in relation to HR peak (4.68%), and a reduction of HR rest (9%). It is concluded that a water-based aerobic interval training prescribed through HR AT of only five weeks is able to promote improvements in aerobic capacity of mature women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of muscle strength, sprint power and aerobic capacity in adults with and without cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Sonja; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Bessems, Paul J. C.; Lamberts, Marcel L.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    Objective: To compare: (i) muscle strength, sprint power and maximal aerobic capacity; and (ii) the correlations between these variables in adults with and without cerebral palsy. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: Twenty adults with and 24 without cerebral palsy. Methods: Isometric and

  18. Comparison of muscle strength, sprint power and aerobic capacity in adults with and without cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, S.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Bessems, P.J.C.; Lamberts, M.L.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Janssen, T.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare: (i) muscle strength, sprint power and maximal aerobic capacity; and (ii) the correlations between these variables in adults with and without cerebral palsy. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: Twenty adults with and 24 without cerebral palsy. Methods: Isometric and

  19. Aerobic Activity Preferences among Older Canadians: A Time Use Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinney, Jamie E L

    2013-12-01

    Numerous health benefits are associated with a physically active population. This study sought to discover the aerobic activity preferences among older Canadians. Four cycles of nationally representative time use data were fused with energy expenditure information to determine both participation rates and time spent in the 10 most frequently reported aerobic activities. Aerobic activity preferences are dominated by domestic chores (15% to 30% participation for about two hours per day), recreational walking (15% to 30% participation for about one hour per day), and active transportation (generally less than 5% participation for less than 30 minutes per day). Although there have been several changes in older Canadians’ revealed preferences for aerobic activities over the past three decades, the prevalence of domestic chores points towards the importance of policies that support older Canadians remaining in their homes, whereas the popularity of walking suggests that “walkability” needs to be considered in neighbourhood design.

  20. Feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise to assess and influence aerobic capacity early after stroke: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Oliver; Schindelholz, Matthias; Bichsel, Lukas; Schuster, Corina; de Bie, Rob A; de Bruin, Eling D; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2014-07-01

    The majority of post-stroke individuals suffer from low exercise capacity as a secondary reaction to immobility. The aim of this study was to prove the concept of feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (RATE) to assess aerobic capacity and guide cardiovascular exercise in severely impaired individuals early after stroke. Subjects underwent constant load and incremental exercise testing using a human-in-the-loop feedback system within a robotics-assisted exoskeleton (Lokomat, Hocoma AG, CH). Inclusion criteria were: stroke onset ≤8 weeks, stable medical condition, non-ambulatory status, moderate motor control of the lower limbs and appropriate cognitive function. Outcome measures included oxygen uptake kinetics, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), gas exchange threshold (GET), peak heart rate (HRpeak), peak work rate (Ppeak) and accuracy of reaching target work rate (P-RMSE). Three subjects (18-42 d post-stroke) were included. Oxygen uptake kinetics during constant load ranged from 42.0 to 60.2 s. Incremental exercise testing showed: VO2peak range 19.7-28.8 ml/min/kg, GET range 11.6-12.7 ml/min/kg, and HRpeak range 115-161 bpm. Ppeak range was 55.2-110.9 W and P-RMSE range was 3.8-7.5 W. The concept of feedback-controlled RATE for assessment of aerobic capacity and guidance of cardiovascular exercise is feasible. Further research is warranted to validate the method on a larger scale. Aerobic capacity is seriously reduced in post-stroke individuals as a secondary reaction to immobility. Robotics-assisted walking devices may have substantial clinical relevance regarding assessment and improvement of aerobic capacity early after stroke. Feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise represents a new concept for cardiovascular assessment and intervention protocols for severely impaired individuals.

  1. Metabolic syndrome in people with a long-standing spinal cord injury: associations with physical activity and capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Sonja; Adriaansen, Jacinthe J; Tepper, Marga; Snoek, Govert J; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Post, Marcel W M

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated (i) the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in people with a long-standing spinal cord injury (SCI); (ii) whether personal or lesion characteristics are determinants of the MetS; and (iii) the association with physical activity or peak aerobic capacity on the MetS. In a cross-sectional study, persons with SCI (N = 223; time since injury of ≥10 years) were tested. The individual components of the MetS were assessed together with the physical activity measured by the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD), while peak aerobic capacity was tested during a graded wheelchair exercise test on a treadmill. Thirty-nine percent of the participants had MetS. In a multivariate logistic regression analyses and after performing a backward regression analysis, only age and education were significant determinants of the MetS. A 10-year increase in age leads to a 1.5 times more chance to have the MetS. Furthermore, people with a low education will multiply the relative risk of MetS compared with people with high education by almost 2. With and without correcting for confounders, no significant relationship was found between PASIPD or peak aerobic capacity and the MetS. It can be concluded that the prevalence of the MetS is high (39%) in people with a long-standing SCI but is comparable to the general Dutch population. Older people and those with a lower education level are most at risk for the MetS. Physical activity and peak aerobic fitness were not related to the MetS in this group with a long-standing SCI.

  2. The aerobic activity of metronidazole against anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dione, Niokhor; Khelaifia, Saber; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Raoult, Didier

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the aerobic growth of strictly anaerobic bacteria was demonstrated using antioxidants. Metronidazole is frequently used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria; however, to date its antibacterial activity was only tested in anaerobic conditions. Here we aerobically tested using antioxidants the in vitro activities of metronidazole, gentamicin, doxycycline and imipenem against 10 common anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. In vitro susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by Etest. Aerobic culture of the bacteria was performed at 37°C using Schaedler agar medium supplemented with 1mg/mL ascorbic acid and 0.1mg/mL glutathione; the pH was adjusted to 7.2 by 10M KOH. Growth of anaerobic bacteria cultured aerobically using antioxidants was inhibited by metronidazole after 72h of incubation at 37°C, with a mean inhibition diameter of 37.76mm and an MIC of 1μg/mL; however, strains remained non-sensitive to gentamicin. No growth inhibition of aerobic bacteria was observed after 24h of incubation at 37°C with metronidazole; however, inhibition was observed with doxycycline and imipenem used as controls. These results indicate that bacterial sensitivity to metronidazole is not related to the oxygen tension but is a result of the sensitivity of the micro-organism. In future, both culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing of strictly anaerobic bacteria will be performed in an aerobic atmosphere using antioxidants in clinical microbiology laboratories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  3. Weight-to-height ratio and aerobic capacity in 15-year-old male taekwondo martial artists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliszczuk, Tatiana; Jankowska, Ewa; Poliszczuk, Dmytro

    2013-01-01

    Martial arts are growing in popularity throughout the whole world. Their beneficial influence on physical development and fitness is noteworthy. Martial arts are an attractive form of physical recreation, constitute a perfect means for combating stress, and have a positive effect on general health, including during rehabilitation. The aim of this study is to assess physical development and aerobic capacity in boys who practice taekwondo and to determine the relationships between results of a fitness test and particular parameters of physical development. Study participants comparised 51 boys aged 15 years who practiced taekwondo (with training experience ranging from 1 to 6 years). Volkov´s modification of the Harvard Step Test was used to assess body height and body mass. BMI was also calculated. Centile charts were used to assess weight-to-height ratio and the level of measured parameters. BMI was analyzed according to the Cole classification system. Dispersion was calculated using a coefficient of variation. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between selected parameters was also calculated. Most study participants had normal BMI, but 30% showed overweight and 13% showed underweight or emaciation. Weight-to-height ratio differed significantly from the norm in 33% of the boys when compared to centile charts. All participants had average aerobic capacity. However, when weight-to-height ratio was compared to the results of the Harvard Step Test, boys with normal body proportions performed much better in the test than boys with abnormal body mass (p<0.05). Study participants showed abnormal weight-to-height ratio mainly in terms of overweight. The boys had greater body height and body mass compared to the general Polish population. Aerobic capacity differed considerably between participants.

  4. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Foster, Courtney V. Farland, Flavia Guidotti, Michelle Harbin, Brianna Roberts, Jeff Schuette, Andrew Tuuri, Scott T. Doberstein, John P. Porcari

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ...

  5. Long-term aerobic exercise increases redox-active iron through nitric oxide in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Xiao, De-Sheng

    2014-01-30

    Adult hippocampus is highly vulnerable to iron-induced oxidative stress. Aerobic exercise has been proposed to reduce oxidative stress but the findings in the hippocampus are conflicting. This study aimed to observe the changes of redox-active iron and concomitant regulation of cellular iron homeostasis in the hippocampus by aerobic exercise, and possible regulatory effect of nitric oxide (NO). A randomized controlled study was designed in the rats with swimming exercise treatment (for 3 months) and/or an unselective inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) (L-NAME) treatment. The results from the bleomycin-detectable iron assay showed additional redox-active iron in the hippocampus by exercise treatment. The results from nonheme iron content assay, combined with the redox-active iron content, showed increased storage iron content by exercise treatment. NOx (nitrate plus nitrite) assay showed increased NOx content by exercise treatment. The results from the Western blot assay showed decreased ferroportin expression, no changes of TfR1 and DMT1 expressions, increased IRP1 and IRP2 expression, increased expressions of eNOS and nNOS rather than iNOS. In these effects of exercise treatment, the increased redox-active iron content, storage iron content, IRP1 and IRP2 expressions were completely reversed by L-NAME treatment, and decreased ferroportin expression was in part reversed by L-NAME. L-NAME treatment completely inhibited increased NOx and both eNOS and nNOS expression in the hippocampus. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise could increase the redox-active iron in the hippocampus, indicating an increase in the capacity to generate hydroxyl radicals through the Fenton reactions, and aerobic exercise-induced iron accumulation in the hippocampus might mainly result from the role of the endogenous NO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching on the functional exercise capacity and thoracoabdominal kinematics in patients with COPD: a randomized and controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada JT

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Juliano T Wada,1 Erickson Borges-Santos,1 Desiderio Cano Porras,1 Denise M Paisani,1 Alberto Cukier,2 Adriana C Lunardi,1 Celso RF Carvalho1 1Department of Physical Therapy, 2Department of Cardiopneumology, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Background: Patients with COPD present a major recruitment of the inspiratory muscles, predisposing to chest incoordination, increasing the degree of dyspnea and impairing their exercise capacity. Stretching techniques could decrease the respiratory muscle activity and improve their contractile capacity; however, the systemic effects of stretching remain unknown.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching on functional exercise capacity and thoracoabdominal kinematics in patients with COPD.Design: This study was a randomized and controlled trial.Participants: A total of 30 patients were allocated to a treatment group (TG or a control group (CG; n=15, each group.Intervention: The TG was engaged in respiratory muscle stretching and the CG in upper and lower limb muscle stretching. Both groups performed 24 sessions (twice a week, 12 weeks of aerobic training.Evaluations: Functional exercise capacity (6-minute walk test, thoracoabdominal kinematics (optoelectronic plethysmography, and respiratory muscle activity (surface electromyography were evaluated during exercise. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the groups at a significance level of 5%.Results: After the intervention, the TG showed improved abdominal (ABD contribution, compartmental volume, mobility, and functional exercise capacity with decreased dyspnea when compared with the CG (P<0.01. The TG also showed a decreased respiratory muscle effort required to obtain the same pulmonary volume compared to the CG (P<0.001.Conclusion: Our results suggest that aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching increases the functional

  7. Aerobic exercise deconditioning and countermeasures during bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M C; Moore, Alan D; Everett, Meghan E; Stenger, Michael B; Platts, Steven H

    2010-01-01

    Bed rest is a well-accepted model for spaceflight in which the physiologic adaptations, particularly in the cardiovascular system, are studied and potential countermeasures can be tested. Bed rest without countermeasures results in reduced aerobic capacity and altered submaximal exercise responses. Aerobic endurance and factors which may impact prolonged exercise, however, have not been well studied. The initial loss of aerobic capacity is rapid, occurring in parallel with the loss of plasma volume. Thereafter, the reduction in maximal aerobic capacity proceeds more slowly and is influenced by central and peripheral adaptation. Exercise capacity can be maintained during bed rest and may be improved during recovery with appropriate countermeasures. Plasma volume restoration, resistive exercise, orthostatic stress, aerobic exercise, and aerobic exercise plus orthostatic stress all have been tested with varying levels of success. However, the optimal combination of elements-exercise modality, intensity, duration, muscle groups exercised and frequency of aerobic exercise, orthostatic stress, and supplementary resistive or anaerobic exercise training-has not been systematically evaluated. Currently, frequent (at least 3 days per week) bouts of intense exercise (interval-style and near maximal) with orthostatic stress appears to be the most efficacious method to protect aerobic capacity during bed rest. Further refinement of protocols and countermeasure hardware may be necessary to insure the success of countermeasures in the unique environment of space.

  8. Effects of a high-intensity intermittent training program on aerobic capacity and lipid profile in trained subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouerghi N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nejmeddine Ouerghi,1,2 Marwa Khammassi,1 Sami Boukorraa,1 Moncef Feki,2 Naziha Kaabachi,2 Anissa Bouassida,1,3 1Research Unit, Sportive Performance and Physical Rehabilitation, High Institute of Sports and Physical Education of Kef, University of Jendouba, Kef, Tunisia, 2Laboratory of Biochemistry, Rabta Hospital, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, El Manar University, Tunis, 3Physiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine Ibn el Jazzar, Sousse, Tunisia Background: Data regarding the effect of training on plasma lipids are controversial. Most studies have addressed continuous or long intermittent training programs. The present study evaluated the effect of short-short high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT on aerobic capacity and plasma lipids in soccer players. Methods: The study included 24 male subjects aged 21–26 years, divided into three groups: experimental group 1 (EG1, n=8 comprising soccer players who exercised in addition to regular short-short HIIT twice a week for 12 weeks; experimental group 2 (EG2, n=8 comprising soccer players who exercised in a regular football training program; and a control group (CG, n=8 comprising untrained subjects who did not practice regular physical activity. Maximal aerobic velocity and maximal oxygen uptake along with plasma lipids were measured before and after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of the respective training program. Results: Compared with basal values, maximal oxygen uptake had significantly increased in EG1 (from 53.3±4.0 mL/min/kg to 54.8±3.0 mL/min/kg at 6 weeks [P<0.05] and to 57.0±3.2 mL/min/kg at 12 weeks [P<0.001]. Maximal oxygen uptake was increased only after 12 weeks in EG2 (from 52.8±2.7 mL/min/kg to 54.2±2.6 mL/min/kg, [P<0.05], but remain unchanged in CG. After 12 weeks of training, maximal oxygen uptake was significantly higher in EG1 than in EG2 (P<0.05. During training, no significant changes in plasma lipids occurred. However, after 12 weeks, total and low-density lipoprotein

  9. Responses to LBNP in men with varying profiles of strength and aerobic capacity: Implications for flight crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Mathes, Karen L.; Lasley, Mary L.; Tomaselli, Clare Marie; Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe

    1993-01-01

    Hemodynamic and hormonal responses to lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) were examined in 24 healthy men to test the hypothesis that responsiveness of reflex control of blood pressure during orthostatic stress is associated with strength and/or aerobic capacity. Subjects underwent treadmill tests to determine peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2) and isokinetic dynamo meter tests to determine leg strength. Based on predetermined criteria, the subjects were classified into one of four fitness profiles of six subjects each matched for age, height, and weight: (1) low strength/low aerobic fitness; (2) low strength/high aerobic fitness; (3) high strength/low aerobic fitness; and (4) high strength/high aerobic fitness. Following 90 min of 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT), each subject underwent graded LBNP through -50 mmHg or presyncope, with maximal duration 15 min. All groups exhibited typical hemodynamic, hormonal, and fluid shift responses during LBNP, with no intergroup differences except for catecholamines. Seven subjects, distributed among the four fitness profiles, became presyncopal. Subjects who showed greatest reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during LBNP had greater elevations in vasopressin and lesser increases in heart rate and peripheral resistance. Peak VO2 nor leg strength were correlated with fall in MAP or with syncopal episodes. We conclude that neither aerobic nor strength fitness characteristics are good predictors of responses to LBNP stress.

  10. Efficacy of a Ventilatory Training Mask to Improve Anaerobic and Aerobic Capacity in Reserve Officers' Training Corps Cadets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, John H; Monaghan, Taylor P; Schnaiter, Jessica A; Jacobson, Bert H; Pope, Zachary K

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a ventilatory training mask to improve anaerobic and aerobic fitness in reserve officers' training corps (ROTC) cadets. Seventeen ROTC cadets from a Midwest university completed pre- and postassessments consisting of anthropometry, a 30-second Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT), and a maximal aerobic capacity test (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). A 6-week intervention training period was used during which time participants completed their mandatory physical training (PT) sessions. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (MASK; n = 9) or the control group (CON; n = 8). The ventilatory training masks were adjusted to simulate an altitude of 2,750 m. There was no significant effect (p ≤ 0.05) between groups on fatigue index, anaerobic capacity, peak power, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, or time to exhaustion. These results suggest that the use of the ventilatory training mask during mandatory PT did not elicit superior aerobic or anaerobic adaptations in ROTC cadets. Therefore, it is recommended that more established simulated altitude training methods be used when incorporating intermittent hypoxic training.

  11. Intraspecific correlations of basal and maximal metabolic rates in birds and the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David L; Thomas, Nathan E; Liknes, Eric T; Cooper, Sheldon J

    2012-01-01

    The underlying assumption of the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy is that basal (BMR) and maximal aerobic metabolic rates are phenotypically linked. However, because BMR is largely a function of central organs whereas maximal metabolic output is largely a function of skeletal muscles, the mechanistic underpinnings for their linkage are not obvious. Interspecific studies in birds generally support a phenotypic correlation between BMR and maximal metabolic output. If the aerobic capacity model is valid, these phenotypic correlations should also extend to intraspecific comparisons. We measured BMR, M(sum) (maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and MMR (maximum exercise metabolic rate in a hop-flutter chamber) in winter for dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis; M(sum) and MMR only), and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus; BMR and M(sum) only) and examined correlations among these variables. We also measured BMR and M(sum) in individual house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in both summer, winter and spring. For both raw metabolic rates and residuals from allometric regressions, BMR was not significantly correlated with either M(sum) or MMR in juncos. Moreover, no significant correlation between M(sum) and MMR or their mass-independent residuals occurred for juncos or goldfinches. Raw BMR and M(sum) were significantly positively correlated for black-capped chickadees and house sparrows, but mass-independent residuals of BMR and M(sum) were not. These data suggest that central organ and exercise organ metabolic levels are not inextricably linked and that muscular capacities for exercise and shivering do not necessarily vary in tandem in individual birds. Why intraspecific and interspecific avian studies show differing results and the significance of these differences to the aerobic capacity model are unknown, and resolution of these questions will require additional studies of potential mechanistic

  12. Intraspecific correlations of basal and maximal metabolic rates in birds and the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Swanson

    Full Text Available The underlying assumption of the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy is that basal (BMR and maximal aerobic metabolic rates are phenotypically linked. However, because BMR is largely a function of central organs whereas maximal metabolic output is largely a function of skeletal muscles, the mechanistic underpinnings for their linkage are not obvious. Interspecific studies in birds generally support a phenotypic correlation between BMR and maximal metabolic output. If the aerobic capacity model is valid, these phenotypic correlations should also extend to intraspecific comparisons. We measured BMR, M(sum (maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate and MMR (maximum exercise metabolic rate in a hop-flutter chamber in winter for dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis, American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis; M(sum and MMR only, and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus; BMR and M(sum only and examined correlations among these variables. We also measured BMR and M(sum in individual house sparrows (Passer domesticus in both summer, winter and spring. For both raw metabolic rates and residuals from allometric regressions, BMR was not significantly correlated with either M(sum or MMR in juncos. Moreover, no significant correlation between M(sum and MMR or their mass-independent residuals occurred for juncos or goldfinches. Raw BMR and M(sum were significantly positively correlated for black-capped chickadees and house sparrows, but mass-independent residuals of BMR and M(sum were not. These data suggest that central organ and exercise organ metabolic levels are not inextricably linked and that muscular capacities for exercise and shivering do not necessarily vary in tandem in individual birds. Why intraspecific and interspecific avian studies show differing results and the significance of these differences to the aerobic capacity model are unknown, and resolution of these questions will require additional studies of potential

  13. Can Supplementation of Vitamin D Improve Aerobic Capacity in Well Trained Youth Soccer Players?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jastrzębska Maria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is no clear evidence that vitamin D effectively improves physical capacity in high-level athletes. The aim of this study was to confirm that vitamin D supplementation of soccer players during eight-week high-intensity training would have a significant effect on their aerobic capacity. The subjects were divided into two groups: the experimental one that was supplemented with vitamin D (SG, n = 20, and the placebo group (PG, n = 16, not supplemented with vitamin D. All the players were subjected to the same soccer training described as High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT. The data of the vitamin D level, PWC170, lactate threshold (LT were collected just before and after the intervention. A significant increase in vitamin D concentration (119% was observed in the supplemented group, while the non-supplemented group showed a decrease of 8.4%. The studied subjects improved VO2max results by 20% in the SG, and by 13% in the PG. The improvement in velocity at the LT was similar in both groups. Results of this study show that vitamin D can have a positive, though moderate, effect on aerobic performance in players subjected to high-intensity training in the form of small-sided games for 8 weeks.

  14. The Effect of Colostrum along with Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise on Lipid Peroxidation and Total Antioxidant Capacity of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mogharnasi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The consumption of food supplements in order to eliminate oxidative damages induced by exercise are common among athletes. Previous studies have shown that bovine colostrum has antioxidant properties, but no study has ever been done to evaluate its effectiveness on Oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. The aim of study was to investigate the effects of bovine colostrum along with aerobic and anaerobic exercise on Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in male Wistar rats.   Methods: In the present experimental study, 48 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (control, colostrum supplement, aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, colostrum supplements and aerobic exercise, colostrum supplements and anaerobic exercise. Colostrum group received daily for ten weeks dosing 300 mg /kg bovine colostrum powder orally. Exercising groups worked out three times a week for a period of 10 weeks on a custom-made treadmill for rodents. Blood samples were taken before and 24 hours after the last exercise session on an empty stomach. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, One Way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey at α<0.05.   Results: The plasma levels of oxidative stress index (MDA in all groups except colostrum supplement and anaerobic exercise compared with the control group was significantly reduced (p<0.05. The antioxidant capacity in all groups except anaerobic exercise group compared with the control group was significant increased (p<0.05.   Conclusions: The results indicated that colostrum supplementation with ten weeks of aerobic exercise had better effect on the control of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity compared to anaerobic exercise.    

  15. Extracting aerobic system dynamics during unsupervised activities of daily living using wearable sensor machine learning models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Thomas; Amelard, Robert; Wong, Alexander; Hughson, Richard L

    2018-02-01

    Physical activity levels are related through algorithms to the energetic demand, with no information regarding the integrity of the multiple physiological systems involved in the energetic supply. Longitudinal analysis of the oxygen uptake (V̇o 2 ) by wearable sensors in realistic settings might permit development of a practical tool for the study of the longitudinal aerobic system dynamics (i.e., V̇o 2 kinetics). This study evaluated aerobic system dynamics based on predicted V̇o 2 data obtained from wearable sensors during unsupervised activities of daily living (μADL). Thirteen healthy men performed a laboratory-controlled moderate exercise protocol and were monitored for ≈6 h/day for 4 days (μADL data). Variables derived from hip accelerometer (ACC HIP ), heart rate monitor, and respiratory bands during μADL were extracted and processed by a validated random forest regression model to predict V̇o 2 . The aerobic system analysis was based on the frequency-domain analysis of ACC HIP and predicted V̇o 2 data obtained during μADL. Optimal samples for frequency domain analysis (constrained to ≤0.01 Hz) were selected when ACC HIP was higher than 0.05 g at a given frequency (i.e., participants were active). The temporal characteristics of predicted V̇o 2 data during μADL correlated with the temporal characteristics of measured V̇o 2 data during laboratory-controlled protocol ([Formula: see text] = 0.82, P system dynamics can be investigated during unsupervised activities of daily living by wearable sensors. Although speculative, these algorithms have the potential to be incorporated into wearable systems for early detection of changes in health status in realistic environments by detecting changes in aerobic response dynamics. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The early detection of subclinical aerobic system impairments might be indicative of impaired physiological reserves that impact the capacity for physical activity. This study is the first to use wearable

  16. Sorption and release of organics by primary, anaerobic, and aerobic activated sludge mixed with raw municipal wastewater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Modin

    Full Text Available New activated sludge processes that utilize sorption as a major mechanism for organics removal are being developed to maximize energy recovery from wastewater organics, or as enhanced primary treatment technologies. To model and optimize sorption-based activated sludge processes, further knowledge about sorption of organics onto sludge is needed. This study compared primary-, anaerobic-, and aerobic activated sludge as sorbents, determined sorption capacity and kinetics, and investigated some characteristics of the organics being sorbed. Batch sorption assays were carried out without aeration at a mixing velocity of 200 rpm. Only aerobic activated sludge showed net sorption of organics. Sorption of dissolved organics occurred by a near-instantaneous sorption event followed by a slower process that obeyed 1st order kinetics. Sorption of particulates also followed 1st order kinetics but there was no instantaneous sorption event; instead there was a release of particles upon mixing. The 5-min sorption capacity of activated sludge was 6.5±10.8 mg total organic carbon (TOC per g volatile suspend solids (VSS for particulate organics and 5.0±4.7 mgTOC/gVSS for dissolved organics. The observed instantaneous sorption appeared to be mainly due to organics larger than 20 kDa in size being sorbed, although molecules with a size of about 200 Da with strong UV absorbance at 215-230 nm were also rapidly removed.

  17. Inhibiting aerobic glycolysis suppresses renal interstitial fibroblast activation and renal fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hao; Jiang, Lei; Xu, Jing; Bai, Feng; Zhou, Yang; Yuan, Qi; Luo, Jing; Zen, Ke; Yang, Junwei

    2017-09-01

    Chronic kidney diseases generally lead to renal fibrosis. Despite great progress having been made in identifying molecular mediators of fibrosis, the mechanism that governs renal fibrosis remains unclear, and so far no effective therapeutic antifibrosis strategy is available. Here we demonstrated that a switch of metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect) in renal fibroblasts was the primary feature of fibroblast activation during renal fibrosis and that suppressing renal fibroblast aerobic glycolysis could significantly reduce renal fibrosis. Both gene and protein assay showed that the expression of glycolysis enzymes was upregulated in mouse kidneys with unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) surgery or in transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-treated renal interstitial fibroblasts. Aerobic glycolysis flux, indicated by glucose uptake and lactate production, was increased in mouse kidney with UUO nephropathy or TGF-β1-treated renal interstitial fibroblasts and positively correlated with fibrosis process. In line with this, we found that increasing aerobic glycolysis can remarkably induce myofibroblast activation while aerobic glycolysis inhibitors shikonin and 2-deoxyglucose attenuate UUO-induced mouse renal fibrosis and TGF-β1-stimulated myofibroblast activation. Furthermore, mechanistic study indicated that shikonin inhibits renal aerobic glycolysis via reducing phosphorylation of pyruvate kinase type M2, a rate-limiting glycolytic enzyme associated with cell reliance on aerobic glycolysis. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate the critical role of aerobic glycolysis in renal fibrosis and support treatment with aerobic glycolysis inhibitors as a potential antifibrotic strategy. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Aerobic Capacity, Physical Activity and Metabolic Risk Factors in Firefighters Compared with Police Officers and Sedentary Clerks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischik, Roman; Foshag, Peter; Strauß, Markus; Littwitz, Henning; Garg, Pankaj; Dworrak, Birgit; Horlitz, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between the physical work environment and physiological performance measures, physical activity levels and metabolic parameters among German civil servants. A main focus in this study was to examine the group differences rather than measuring the absolute values in an occupational group. We prospectively examined 198 male German civil servants (97 firefighters [FFs], 55 police officers [POs] and 46 sedentary clerks [SCs]). For each parameter, the groups were compared using a linear regression adjusted for age. The 97 FFs showed a similar maximal aerobic power (VO2max l/min) of 3.17±0.44 l/min compared with the POs, who had a maximal aerobic power of 3.13±0.62 l/min (estimated difference, POs vs. FFs: 0.05, CI: -0.12-0.23, p=0.553). The maximal aerobic power of the FFs was slightly higher than that of the SCs, who had a maximal aerobic power of 2.85±0.52 l/min (-0.21, CI: -0.39-0.04, p=0.018 vs. FFs). The average physical activity (in metabolic equivalents [METS]/week) of the FFs was 3953±2688, whereas those of the POs was 2838±2872 (vs. FFs: -985, CI: -1941-30, p = 0.043) and of the SCs 2212±2293 (vs. FFs: -1598.8, CI: -2477-721, p = 0.000; vs. POs: -613.6, CI: -1617.4–390.3, p = 0.229), respectively [corrected]. For the FFs, the average body fat percentage was 17.7%±6.2, whereas it was 21.4%±5.6 for the POs (vs. FFs: 2.75, CI: 0.92-4.59, p=0.004) and 20.8%±6.5 for the SCs (vs. FFs: 1.98, CI: -0.28-4.25, p=0.086; vs. POs: -0.77, CI: 3.15-1.61, p=0.523). The average waist circumference was 89.8 cm±10.0 for the FFs, 97.8 cm±12.4 (5.63, CI: 2.10-9.15, p=0.002) for the POs, and 97.3±11.7 (vs. FFs: -4.89, CI: 1.24-8.55, p=0.009; vs. POs: -0.73, CI: -5.21-3.74, p=0.747) for the SCs. The FFs showed significantly higher physical activity levels compared with the SCs. The PO group had the highest cardiovascular risk of all of the groups because it included more participants with metabolic syndrome; furthermore, the POs had

  19. Aerobic Capacity, Physical Activity and Metabolic Risk Factors in Firefighters Compared with Police Officers and Sedentary Clerks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Leischik

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between the physical work environment and physiological performance measures, physical activity levels and metabolic parameters among German civil servants. A main focus in this study was to examine the group differences rather than measuring the absolute values in an occupational group.We prospectively examined 198 male German civil servants (97 firefighters [FFs], 55 police officers [POs] and 46 sedentary clerks [SCs]. For each parameter, the groups were compared using a linear regression adjusted for age.The 97 FFs showed a similar maximal aerobic power (VO2max l/min of 3.17±0.44 l/min compared with the POs, who had a maximal aerobic power of 3.13±0.62 l/min (estimated difference, POs vs. FFs: 0.05, CI: -0.12-0.23, p=0.553. The maximal aerobic power of the FFs was slightly higher than that of the SCs, who had a maximal aerobic power of 2.85±0.52 l/min (-0.21, CI: -0.39-0.04, p=0.018 vs. FFs. The average physical activity (in metabolic equivalents [METS]/week of the FFs was 3953±2688, whereas those of the POs was 2838±2872 (vs. FFs: -985, CI: -1941-30, p = 0.043 and of the SCs 2212±2293 (vs. FFs: -1598.8, CI: -2477-721, p = 0.000; vs. POs: -613.6, CI: -1617.4–390.3, p = 0.229, respectively [corrected]. For the FFs, the average body fat percentage was 17.7%±6.2, whereas it was 21.4%±5.6 for the POs (vs. FFs: 2.75, CI: 0.92-4.59, p=0.004 and 20.8%±6.5 for the SCs (vs. FFs: 1.98, CI: -0.28-4.25, p=0.086; vs. POs: -0.77, CI: 3.15-1.61, p=0.523. The average waist circumference was 89.8 cm±10.0 for the FFs, 97.8 cm±12.4 (5.63, CI: 2.10-9.15, p=0.002 for the POs, and 97.3±11.7 (vs. FFs: -4.89, CI: 1.24-8.55, p=0.009; vs. POs: -0.73, CI: -5.21-3.74, p=0.747 for the SCs.The FFs showed significantly higher physical activity levels compared with the SCs. The PO group had the highest cardiovascular risk of all of the groups because it included more participants with metabolic syndrome; furthermore, the POs

  20. Analysis of Reaction Times and Aerobic Capacities of Soccer Players According to Their Playing Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Cengiz; Karakoc, Onder; Taskin, Mine; Dural, Murat

    2016-01-01

    70 soccer players in Gaziantep amateur league voluntarily participated in this study, (average of their ages 19,17±1,34years, average of their heights 181,28±5,06 cm, average of their body weights 76,75±4,43 kg and average of their sports experiences 3,78±0,95 years) to analyze visual and auditory reaction times and aerobic capacities of amateur…

  1. Aerobic characteristics of red kangaroo skeletal muscles: is a high aerobic capacity matched by muscle mitochondrial and capillary morphology as in placental mammals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Terence J; Mifsud, Brock; Raad, Matthew C; Webster, Koa N

    2004-07-01

    Marsupials and placentals together comprise the Theria, the advanced mammals, but they have had long independent evolutionary histories, with the last common ancestor occurring more than 125 million years ago. Although in the past the marsupials were considered to be metabolically 'primitive', the red kangaroo Macropus rufus has been reported to have an aerobic capacity (VO2max) comparable to that of the most 'athletic' of placentals such as dogs. However, kangaroos travel at moderate speeds with lower relative cost than quadrupedal placentals. Given the long independent evolution of the two therian groups, and their unusual locomotor energetics, do kangaroos achieve their high aerobic capacity using the same structural and functional mechanisms used by (athletic) placentals? Red kangaroo skeletal muscle morphometry matched closely the general aerobic characteristics of placental mammals. The relationship between total mitochondrial volume in skeletal muscle and VO2max during exercise was identical to that in quadrupedal placentals, and differed from that in bipedal humans. As for placentals generally, red kangaroo mitochondrial oxygen consumption at VO2max was 4.7 ml O2 min(-1) ml(-1) of mitochondria. Also, the inner mitochondrial membrane densities were 35.8 +/- 0.7 m2 ml(-1) of mitochondria, which is the same as for placental mammals, and the same pattern of similarity was seen for capillary densities and volumes. The overall data for kangaroos was equivalent to that seen in athletic placentals such as dogs and pronghorns. Total skeletal muscle mass was high, being around 50% of body mass, and was concentrated around the pelvis and lower back. The majority of the muscles sampled had relatively high mitochondrial volume densities, in the range 8.8-10.6% in the major locomotor muscles. Again, capillary densities and capillary blood volumes followed the pattern seen for mitochondria. Our results indicate that the red kangaroo, despite its locomotion and extreme

  2. Acute exercise and aerobic fitness influence selective attention during visual search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Tom; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Successful goal directed behavior relies on a human attention system that is flexible and able to adapt to different conditions of physiological stress. However, the effects of physical activity on multiple aspects of selective attention and whether these effects are mediated by aerobic capacity, remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a prolonged bout of physical activity on visual search performance and perceptual distraction. Two groups of participants completed a hybrid visual search flanker/response competition task in an initial baseline session and then at 17-min intervals over a 2 h 16 min test period. Participants assigned to the exercise group engaged in steady-state aerobic exercise between completing blocks of the visual task, whereas participants assigned to the control group rested in between blocks. The key result was a correlation between individual differences in aerobic capacity and visual search performance, such that those individuals that were more fit performed the search task more quickly. Critically, this relationship only emerged in the exercise group after the physical activity had begun. The relationship was not present in either group at baseline and never emerged in the control group during the test period, suggesting that under these task demands, aerobic capacity may be an important determinant of visual search performance under physical stress. The results enhance current understanding about the relationship between exercise and cognition, and also inform current models of selective attention. PMID:25426094

  3. Acute exercise and aerobic fitness influence selective attention during visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Tom; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Successful goal directed behavior relies on a human attention system that is flexible and able to adapt to different conditions of physiological stress. However, the effects of physical activity on multiple aspects of selective attention and whether these effects are mediated by aerobic capacity, remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a prolonged bout of physical activity on visual search performance and perceptual distraction. Two groups of participants completed a hybrid visual search flanker/response competition task in an initial baseline session and then at 17-min intervals over a 2 h 16 min test period. Participants assigned to the exercise group engaged in steady-state aerobic exercise between completing blocks of the visual task, whereas participants assigned to the control group rested in between blocks. The key result was a correlation between individual differences in aerobic capacity and visual search performance, such that those individuals that were more fit performed the search task more quickly. Critically, this relationship only emerged in the exercise group after the physical activity had begun. The relationship was not present in either group at baseline and never emerged in the control group during the test period, suggesting that under these task demands, aerobic capacity may be an important determinant of visual search performance under physical stress. The results enhance current understanding about the relationship between exercise and cognition, and also inform current models of selective attention.

  4. Acute exercise and aerobic fitness influence selective attention during visual search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom eBullock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful goal directed behavior relies on a human attention system that is flexible and able to adapt to different conditions of physiological stress. However, the effects of physical activity on multiple aspects of selective attention and whether these effects are mediated by aerobic capacity, remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a prolonged bout of physical activity on visual search performance and perceptual distraction. Two groups of participants completed a hybrid visual search flanker/response competition task in an initial baseline session and then at 17-minute intervals over a 2 hour 16 minute test period. Participants assigned to the exercise group engaged in steady-state aerobic exercise between completing blocks of the visual task, whereas participants assigned to the control group rested in between blocks. The key result was a correlation between individual differences in aerobic capacity and visual search performance, such that those individuals that were more fit performed the search task more quickly. Critically, this relationship only emerged in the exercise group after the physical activity had begun. The relationship was not present in either group at baseline and never emerged in the control group during the test period, suggesting that under these task demands, aerobic capacity may be an important determinant of visual search performance under physical stress. The results enhance current understanding about the relationship between exercise and cognition, and also inform current models of selective attention.

  5. Resistance training and aerobic training improve muscle strength and aerobic capacity in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markvardsen, Lars H; Overgaard, Kristian; Heje, Karen; Sindrup, Søren H; Christiansen, Ingelise; Vissing, John; Andersen, Henning

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Eighteen CIDP patients treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin performed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and 12 weeks of resistance exercise after a run-in period of 12 weeks without exercise. Three times weekly the participants performed aerobic exercise on an ergometer bike or resistance exercise with unilateral training of knee and elbow flexion/extension. Primary outcomes were maximal oxygen consumption velocity (VO 2 -max) and maximal combined isokinetic muscle strength (cIKS) of knee and elbow flexion/extension. VO 2 -max and muscle strength were unchanged during run-in (-4.9% ± 10.3%, P = 0.80 and -3.7% ± 10.1%, P = 0.17, respectively). Aerobic exercise increased VO 2 -max by 11.0% ± 14.7% (P = 0.02). Resistance exercise resulted in an increase of 13.8% ± 16.0% (P = 0.0004) in cIKS. Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training improve fitness and strength in CIDP patients. Muscle Nerve 57: 70-76, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Visual Impairment does not Limit Training Effects in Development of Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity in Tandem Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malwina Kamelska Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the differences in the effects of 7-month training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity in tandem cycling athletes with and without visual impairment. In this study, Polish elite (n=13 and sub-elite (n=13 visually impaired (VI (n=13; 40.8 ±12.8 years and properly sighted (PS (n=13; 36.7 ±12.2 years tandem-cycling athletes participated voluntarily in 7-month routine training. The following pre-/post-training measurements were conducted on separate days: maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max was estimated with age correction using the Physical Working Capacity test on a bicycle ergometer according to the Astrand-Ryhming method. Maximal power output (Pmax was evaluated using the Quebec test on a bicycle ergometer. At baseline, VO2max (47.8 ±14.1 vs 42.0 ±8.3 ml/kg/min, respectively and Pmax (11.5 ±1.5 vs 11.5 ±1.0 W/kg did not differ significantly between PS and VI cyclists. However, differences in aerobic capacity were considered as clinically significant. Two-way ANOVA revealed that after 7 month training, there were statistically significant increases in VO2max (p=0.003 and Pmax (p=0.009 among VI (VO2max, +9.1%; Pmax, +6.3% and PS (VO2max, +9.1%; Pmax, +11.7% cyclists, however, no time x visual impairment interaction effect was found (VO2max, p=0.467; Pmax, p=0.364. After training, VO2max (p=0.03, but not Pmax (p=0.13, was significantly greater in elite compared to sub-elite tandem cyclists. VI and PS tandem cyclists showed similar rates of improvement in VO2max and Pmax after 7-month training. VO2max was a significant determinant of success in tandem cycling. This is one of the first studies providing reference values for aerobic and anaerobic capacity in visually impaired cyclists.

  7. The effects of an exercise training program on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in Tunisian obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofien Regaieg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of children obesity is rising alarmingly in both developed and developing countries. Developing effective exercise programs is a strategy for decreasing this prevalence and limiting obesity-associated long-term comorbidities. Objectives: To determine whether a 16-week training program; in addition to the school physical education and without dietary intervention; could have beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity of obese children. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight obese children (16 boys, 12 girls; aged 12-14 years were enrolled and were divided into either the exercise group (EG, n = 14 or the control group (CG, n = 14. EG participated in a 16-week aerobic exercises (four 60-min sessions per week at 70-85% of HRmax (maximum heart rate, in addition to the school physical education. Fat-Free Mass (FFM and Fat Mass (FM were assessed with bioelectrical impedance equipment. To assess aerobic capacity, maximal metabolic equivalent of task (METmax and maximal workload (Wmax were estimated with an electronically braked cycle ergometer (type Ergoline 500® . Results: At baseline, there were no differences between the two groups. After the training program, only the EG showed significant reduction in BMI (body mass index and waist circumference compared with the baseline values (P < 0.001. Exercise training significantly decreased FM only in the EG. A significant increase in FFM was seen in both groups; more marked in the EG. There was a significant increase in METmax (P < 0.05 and Wmax (P = 0.02 in the EG, and no significant changes in these parameters were seen in the CG. HRmax significantly decreased only in the EG (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This training program has beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in obese children. Our intervention has the advantage of providing a sustainable and reproducible school and community approach for the management of children obesity.

  8. Small-sided game training improves aerobic capacity and technical skills in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delextrat, A; Martinez, A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 2 training interventions based on small-sided games (SGG) and high-intensity interval training (HIT) on physical and technical performance of male junior basketball players. A secondary objective was to investigate if these effects were similar in starting and bench players. 18 players participated in a pre-testing session, 6-weeks intervention period and a post-testing session. Pre- and post-sessions involved assessments of aerobic fitness, repeated sprint ability (RSA), defensive and offensive agility, upper and lower body power, shooting and passing skills. Mixed-design analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni corrected pairwise comparisons examined the effects of time and type of intervention on physical and technical performances. The main results showed that both interventions resulted in similar improvements in aerobic capacity (+3.4% vs. +4.1%), with greater improvements in bench players compared to starting players (+7.1% vs. +1.1%, Pbasketball players during the season. However, when RSA is targeted, more specific training seems necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Effects of aerobic activity on serum IgG concentration in male physical education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshadi Arshadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic activity on Serum IgG concentration. Consequently, 10 male physical education students with age ranging from 21 to 24 years old and mean body mass index 22.22 kg m2 volunteered to participate in this study. Aerobic activity was performed on bicycle ergometer for 30 minutes at intensity of 70 to 75 percent of maximum heart rate. Blood samples were obtained from subjects before and after aerobic activity. Changes in serum IgG concentration in pre-test and post-test were analyzed by dependent t-test using spss software. The results showed that aerobic activity not significantly effect on Serum IgG concentration (p=0.357. This study concludes that sub maximal aerobic activity does not affect on serum IgG concentration and there is no concern for athletes and coaches that sub maximal aerobic activity can impair immune function.

  10. Estudo longitudinal do equilíbrio postural e da capacidade aeróbica de idosos independentes Balance and aerobic capacity of independent elderly: a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna A. Lima

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a variação da capacidade aeróbica e do equilíbrio postural em idosos independentes por um período de três anos. MÉTODOS: A capacidade aeróbica dos voluntários foi avaliada por meio do Teste de Caminhada de 6 minutos (TC6; o equilíbrio postural, por meio da Escala de Equilíbrio de Berg (EEB; o número de quedas foi registrado por autorrelato e o nível de atividade física, pelo Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física (IPAQ - versão longa. As avaliações realizadas em 2008 foram comparadas às realizadas em 2005. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença na pontuação da EEB e no número de quedas dos idosos avaliados (p>0,05. Houve diminuição da distância percorrida entre as duas avaliações, sendo que os voluntários percorreram 52,46±8,4 metros a menos na segunda avaliação. O IPAQ evidenciou aumento de indivíduos considerados ativos na segunda avaliação (83,3%. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo demonstrou que o equilíbrio postural, avaliado pela EEB, não se alterou nos idosos independentes e ativos no período de três anos. Nesse mesmo momento, observou-se uma redução da distância percorrida, avaliada pelo TC6.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the variation in aerobic capacity and postural balance of independents elderly for a period of three years. METHODS: The aerobic capacity of the volunteers was assessed using a six minutes walk test (6MWT, the postural balance was assessed using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS, the number of falls was self-reported and physical activity level was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ - long version. Evaluations undertaken in 2008 were compared to those performed in 2005. RESULTS: There were no differences in balance and number of falls between 2008 and 2005 (p>0.05. There was a decrease in aerobic capacity over time of 52.46±8.4 meters walked. The IPAQ showed an increase in physical activity on the second evaluation (83.3%. CONCLUSION: The

  11. Durations and domains of daily aerobic activity: evidence from the 2010 Canadian time-use survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Hugh; Spinney J, E L; Scott, Darren

    2014-07-01

    This study employs national time-diary data to evaluate how much aerobic activity Canadians engage in on a daily basis, how that activity is apportioned by activity domain, and how subgroups within the population vary in their aerobic attainment. The study employs time-use data from the 2010 General Social Survey of Canada, for 15,390 respondents aged 15 and older. To estimate effort levels, the authors harmonized survey codes with those in the Compendium of Physical Activities. Aerobic activity was defined as moderate or vigorous effort at 3.5 Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) or higher. Among the 4 activity domains, aerobic participation is highest in leisure activities, followed by chores, paid work, and active transportation (AT). Only a minority (42%) of respondents recorded at least 20 mins/day of aerobic activity. Aerobic totals were particularly low for women and those in poor or fair health, and low for students, 15- to 24-year-olds, and those residing in Quebec, Ontario, and larger cities. The majority of Canadian adults are failing to meet recommended aerobic activity levels. However, there is considerable opportunity to increase aerobic participation for some groups, particularly women and young adults, especially in the leisure and AT domains.

  12. Yacht type and crew-specific differences in anthropometric, aerobic capacity, and muscle strength parameters among international Olympic class sailors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Larsson, Benny; Magnusson, S Peter; Aagaard, Per

    2007-08-01

    Physical fitness and muscular strength are important performance factors for Olympic class sailors, but the physical demands vary greatly between yacht classes, and limited information is available regarding the physical demands for the different crew positions. In the present paper, strength and aerobic capacity data from elite Olympic sailors are presented and compared with previous findings. Furthermore, a system for classification of Olympic class sailors is suggested. Peak aerobic capacity (peak oxygen uptake, VO(2peak)) and maximal isometric and isokinetic muscle strength of the knee extensors and flexors were assessed, together with the hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio (H/Q ratio). Peak aerobic capacity (ml O(2) . min(-1) . kg(-2/3)) was as follows: males - static hikers (n = 5) 215, s = 7; dynamic hikers (n = 8) 252, s = 17; trapezing helmsmen (n = 6) 234, s = 15; trapezing crew (n = 10) 239, s = 16; females - dynamic hikers (n = 6) 194, s = 16; trapezing crew (n = 2) 200, s = 13. Strength data for hikers, presented as peak moments (normalized to body weight) obtained during eccentric, isometric, and concentric contraction (Nm . kg(-1)) respectively were as follows: males - quadriceps: 3.66 (s = 0.68), 3.97 (s = 0.66), 1.82 (s = 0.34); hamstrings: 1.93 (s = 0.22), 1.38 (s = 0.41), 1.05 (s = 0.21); females - quadriceps: 3.84 (s = 0.71), 3.81 (s = 0.58), 1.60 (s = 0.28); hamstrings: 1.75 (s = 0.23), 1.10 (s = 0.16), 0.84 (s = 0.13). The peak moment based H/Q ratios for slow eccentric and concentric contractions were 0.42 (s = 0.11) and 0.39 (s = 0.04) for males and 0.43 (s = 0.06) and 0.39 (s = 0.04) for females respectively. Elite Olympic class sailors demonstrated high VO(2peak) values comparable to those observed in other non-endurance sports. The strength data revealed very high quadriceps strength for hikers, which is likely a result of the high muscle forces encountered during sailing, and a low H/Q ratio. To ensure optimal knee joint stabilization

  13. Tissue advanced glycation end products are associated with diastolic function and aerobic exercise capacity in diabetic heart failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, Suzan; Hartog, Jasper W. L.; Hummel, Yoran M.; van Ruijven, Marieke H. I.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Voors, Adriaan A.

    Aims Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are increased in patients with diabetes and are associated with diastolic dysfunction through the formation of collagen crosslinks in the heart. The association among AGEs, diastolic function, and aerobic capacity in heart failure (HF) patients with and

  14. Aerobic training in persons who have recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, M; Mathiesen, P R; Vissing, J

    2013-01-01

    A recent study has shown that 36 persons who had recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) have on average an 18% decrease in maximal oxygen uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-week aerobic training program in this group, and assess whether aerobic training...... can normalize aerobic capacity to the expected level for age and gender. The patients participating in the study, one male and nine females (16-42years of age), were in remission from JDM, defined as no clinical or biochemical evidence of disease activity and no medical treatment for 1year...

  15. Impairment of metabolic capacities in copper and cadmium contaminated wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couture, Patrice; Rajender Kumar, Puja

    2003-01-01

    This study examined variations in resting oxygen consumption rate (ROCR), post-exercise oxygen consumption rate, relative scope for activity (RSA), liver and muscle aerobic and anaerobic capacities (using citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogenase, respectively, as indicators), and tissue biosynthetic capacities (using nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) as an indicator), in wild yellow perch from four lakes varying in copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) contamination. Liver Cu and Cd concentrations largely reflected environmental contamination and were positively correlated with liver protein concentrations and NDPK activities. Our results suggest that metal contamination leads to an upregulation of liver protein metabolism, presumably at least in part for the purpose of metal detoxification. In contrast, muscle NDPK activities decreased with increasing liver Cd concentrations and NDPK activities. There was a 25% decrease in ROCR for a doubling of liver Cu concentrations and a 42% decrease in RSA for a doubling of liver Cd concentrations in the range studied. Cu contamination was also associated with lower muscle CS activities. Our results support previous findings of impaired aerobic capacities in the muscle of metal-contaminated fish, and demonstrate that this impairment is also reflected in aerobic capacities of whole fish. The evidence presented suggests that mitochondria may be primary targets for inhibition by Cu, and that Cd may reduce gill respiratory capacity. Muscle aerobic and anaerobic capacities were inversely related. This work indicates that metal exposure of wild yellow perch leads to a wide range of disturbances in metabolic capacities

  16. Benefits of aerobic exercise after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potempa, K; Braun, L T; Tinknell, T; Popovich, J

    1996-05-01

    The debilitating loss of function after a stroke has both primary and secondary effects on sensorimotor function. Primary effects include paresis, paralysis, spasticity, and sensory-perceptual dysfunction due to upper motor neuron damage. Secondary effects, contractures and disuse muscle atrophy, are also debilitating. This paper presents theoretical and empirical benefits of aerobic exercise after stroke, issues relevant to measuring peak capacity, exercise training protocols, and the clinical use of aerobic exercise in this patient population. A stroke, and resulting hemiparesis, produces physiological changes in muscle fibres and muscle metabolism during exercise. These changes, along with comorbid cardiovascular disease, must be considered when exercising stroke patients. While few studies have measured peak exercise capacity in hemiparetic populations, it has been consistently observed in these studies that stroke patients have a lower functional capacity than healthy populations. Hemiparetic patients have low peak exercise responses probably due to a reduced number of motor units available for recruitment during dynamic exercise, the reduced oxidative capacity of paretic muscle, and decreased overall endurance. Consequently, traditional methods to predict aerobic capacity are not appropriate for use with stroke patients. Endurance exercise training is increasingly recognised as an important component in rehabilitation. An average improvement in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) of 13.3% in stroke patients who participated in a 10-week aerobic exercise training programme has been reported compared with controls. This study underscored the potential benefits of aerobic exercise training in stroke patients. In this paper, advantages and disadvantages of exercise modalities are discussed in relation to stroke patients. Recommendations are presented to maximise physical performance and minimise potential cardiac risks during exercise.

  17. The relationship of aerobic capacity, anaerobic peak power and experience to performance in CrossFit exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellar, D; Hatchett, A; Judge, L W; Breaux, M E; Marcus, L

    2015-11-01

    CrossFit is becoming increasingly popular as a method to increase fitness and as a competitive sport in both the Unites States and Europe. However, little research on this mode of exercise has been performed to date. The purpose of the present investigation involving experienced CrossFit athletes and naïve healthy young men was to investigate the relationship of aerobic capacity and anaerobic power to performance in two representative CrossFit workouts: the first workout was 12 minutes in duration, and the second was based on the total time to complete the prescribed exercise. The participants were 32 healthy adult males, who were either naïve to CrossFit exercise or had competed in CrossFit competitions. Linear regression was undertaken to predict performance on the first workout (time) with age, group (naïve or CrossFit athlete), VO2max and anaerobic power, which were all significant predictors (p CrossFit experience as a significant predictor (p CrossFit competition is a key component of performance in CrossFit workouts which are representative of those performed in CrossFit, and that, in at least one these workouts, aerobic capacity and anaerobic power are associated with success.

  18. Using the Nintendo Wii Fit and body weight support to improve aerobic capacity, balance, gait ability, and fear of falling: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol A; Hayes, Dawn M; Dye, Kelli; Johnson, Courtney; Meyers, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Lower limb amputation in older adults has a significant impact on balance, gait, and cardiovascular fitness, resulting in diminished community participation. The purpose of this case study was to describe the effects of a balance training program utilizing the Nintendo Wii™ Fit (Nintendo of America, Inc, Redmond, Washington) balance board and body-weight supported gait training on aerobic capacity, balance, gait, and fear of falling in two persons with transfemoral amputation. Participant A, a 62 year-old male 32 months post traumatic transfemoral amputation, reported fear of falling and restrictions in community activity. Participant B, a 58 year-old male 9 years post transfemoral amputation, reported limited energy and balance deficits during advanced gait activities. 6-weeks, 2 supervised sessions per week included 20 minutes of Nintendo™ Wii Fit Balance gaming and 20 minutes of gait training using Body Weight Support. Measures included oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), economy of movement, dynamic balance (Biodex platform system), Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale, and spatial-temporal parameters of gait (GAITRite). Both participants demonstrated improvement in dynamic balance, balance confidence, economy of movement, and spatial-temporal parameters of gait. Participant A reduced the need for an assistive device during community ambulation. Participant B improved his aerobic capacity, indicated by an increase in OUES. This case study illustrated that the use of Nintendo Wii™ Fit training and Body Weight Support were effective interventions to achieve functional goals for improving balance confidence, reducing use of assistive devices, and increasing energy efficiency when ambulating with a transfemoral prosthesis.

  19. Feasibility and reliability of measuring strength, sprint power, and aerobic capacity in athletes and non-athletes with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Sonja; Janssen, Thomas W. J.; Evers, Marijn; Van der Luijt, Pieter; Nienhuys, Kirsten N. G.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    Aim The aim of this study was to analyse the feasibility and reliability of the tests used to determine muscle strength, sprint power, and aerobic capacity in athletes and non-athletes with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods Twenty individuals with spastic CP (four females, 16 males; age range 1849y;

  20. Differences in neighborhood social cohesion and aerobic physical activity by Latino subgroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenda Murillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has examined the role of neighborhood social cohesion in physical activity outcomes; however, less is known about this relationship across Latino subgroups. The purpose of our study was to examine the association between neighborhood social cohesion and aerobic leisure-time physical activity (LTPA among Latino adults and to determine whether these associations differ by Latino subgroup. We used cross-sectional 2013–2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS data on Latinos originating from 5 countries/regions (i.e., Latinos of Puerto Rican, Mexican/Mexican-American, Cuban/Cuban-American, Dominican and Central or South American origin aged ≥18 years (n=11,126. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between self-reported neighborhood social cohesion and meeting aerobic LTPA guidelines. Models were adjusted for age, sex, education, and acculturation. We also investigated whether associations varied by Latino subgroup. In adjusted models for all Latino adults, compared with those reporting low social cohesion, individuals who reported high social cohesion (Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.33; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.17–1.52 were significantly more likely to meet the aerobic physical activity guideline. When stratified by Latino subgroups, among Mexican/Mexicans-Americans (OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.16, 1.66 and Cuban/Cuban Americans (OR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.97 high social cohesion was associated with meeting the aerobic activity guideline. Among Dominicans, those who reported medium social cohesion (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.93 were less likely to meet the aerobic activity guideline. When examining aerobic physical activity outcomes in the Latino population, the role of neighborhood social cohesion and the variability among Latino subgroups should be considered. Keywords: Neighborhood social cohesion, Physical activity, Latinos, subgroups

  1. Condition of esthetic component of motive activity in aerobic gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Todorova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to prove condition of esthetic component of motive activity of sportsmen in aerobic gymnastics at various stages of sports preparation. Material & Methods: analysis of video records, method of expert assessment, methods of mathematical statistics. Results: the level of criteria of esthetic component ("musicality", "dancing", "illustrative expressiveness", and "emotional expressiveness" with use of the offered rating scale is determined. Conclusions: indicators of motive activities of sportsmen for aerobic gymnastics are defined at various stages of sports preparation.

  2. Metabolic syndrome in people with a long-standing spinal cord injury : associations with physical activity and capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Sonja; Adriaansen, Jacinthe J.; Tepper, Marga; Snoek, Govert J.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Post, Marcel W. M.

    This study investigated (i) the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in people with a long-standing spinal cord injury (SCI); (ii) whether personal or lesion characteristics are determinants of the MetS; and (iii) the association with physical activity or peak aerobic capacity on the MetS. In

  3. The effects of periodic interruptions of physical activities on the physical capacities of adult active women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Patrícia; Wanderley, Fabio da Silva; Rebelatto, José Rubens

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity programs adapted to the elderly have been proposed with the purpose of minimizing the alterations provoked by aging. These programs usually present break periods of more than 30 days, at least once a year. The aim of this study was to verify if 30-day interruptions cause alterations in the acquisition of physical capacities for senescent women. The study was longitudinal in design, 125 senescent women completed a physical activity program consisting of stretching, aerobic resistance, strength, power and resistance exercises; coordination, agility and flexibility activities; respiratory and relaxation exercises during almost 2 years. Two periods were selected, containing four evaluations with two activities' interruption periods in between the measurements. The main outcome measures were manual pressing strength, flexibility, dynamic balance and physical conditioning (VO2max). During the program there was an increasing tendency for the muscular strength and the VO2max. A significant improvement in flexibility was noted (pprogram, the dynamic balance showed significant difference (pactivities in both studied periods were not enough to significantly alter the values of physical capacities of senescent active women.

  4. Effects of a hydrotherapy programme on symbolic and complexity dynamics of heart rate variability and aerobic capacity in fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamunér, Antonio Roberto; Andrade, Carolina P; Forti, Meire; Marchi, Andrea; Milan, Juliana; Avila, Mariana Arias; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Porta, Alberto; Silva, Ester

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of a hydrotherapy programme on aerobic capacity and linear and non-linear dynamics of heart rate variability (HRV) in women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). 20 women with FMS and 20 healthy controls (HC) took part in the study. The FMS group was evaluated at baseline and after a 16-week hydrotherapy programme. All participants underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a cycle ergometer and RR intervals recording in supine and standing positions. The HRV was analysed by linear and non-linear methods. The current level of pain, the tender points, the pressure pain threshold and the impact of FMS on quality of life were assessed. The FMS patients presented higher cardiac sympathetic modulation, lower vagal modulation and lower complexity of HRV in supine position than the HC. Only the HC decreased the complexity indices of HRV during orthostatic stimulus. After a 16-week hydrotherapy programme, the FMS patients increased aerobic capacity, decreased cardiac sympathetic modulation and increased vagal modulation and complexity dynamics of HRV in supine. The FMS patients also improved their cardiac autonomic adjustments to the orthostatic stimulus. Associations between improvements in non-linear dynamics of HRV and improvements in pain and in the impact of FMS on quality of life were found. A 16-week hydrotherapy programme proved to be effective in ameliorating symptoms, aerobic functional capacity and cardiac autonomic control in FMS patients. Improvements in the non-linear dynamics of HRV were related to improvements in pain and in the impact of FMS on quality of life.

  5. Effect of a balance-training programme on postural balance, aerobic capacity and frequency of falls in women with osteoporosis: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibolya Miko

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of a 12-month complex balance-training programme on static and dynamic postural balance, aerobic capacity and frequency of falls in women with established osteoporosis. Design: Randomized controlled trial in which the intervention group was assigned a 12-month exercise programme (3 times a week for 30 min and the control group had no intervention. Subjects: A total of 100 osteoporotic women with at least one previous fracture. Methods: Performance-based Timed Up and Go (TUG, Berg Balance Scale (BBS and stabilometric platform tests were used to evaluate balance. Aerobic capacity was measured by bicycle ergometry. Frequency of falls was assessed using a falls diary. Results: After 1 year, there was a statistically significant difference between the improvement achieved in the intervention and control groups on the performance-based TUG, BBS and stabilometric platform tests (p < 0.05. Mean metabolic equivalent (MET value decreased in the intervention group, from 4.91 to 3.82 (a significant difference from the change achieved in the control group; p = 0.05. Relative risk of falls was 0.534 at 1 year (p = 0.17. Conclusion: The 12-month balance-training programme significantly improved postural balance and increased aerobic capacity in women with established osteoporosis.

  6. Aerobic Capacity in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeskov-Christensen, Martin; Heine, Martin; Kwakkel, Gert; Dalgas, Ulrik

    Background Aerobic capacity (VO2max) is a strong health and performance predictor and is regarded as a key physiological measure in the healthy population and in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). However, no studies have tried to synthesize the existing knowledge regarding VO2max in PwMS.

  7. Feasibility and reliability of measuring strength, sprint power, and aerobic capacity in athletes and non-athletes with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, S.; Janssen, T.W.J.; Evers, M.; Van der Luijt, P.; Nienhuys, K.N.G.; Dallmeijer, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to analyse the feasibility and reliability of the tests used to determine muscle strength, sprint power, and aerobic capacity in athletes and non-athletes with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods Twenty individuals with spastic CP (four females, 16 males; age range 18-49y;

  8. Temperature effects on aerobic scope and cardiac performance of European perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Denise Lyager; Overgaard, Johannes; Wang, Tobias; Gesser, Hans; Malte, Hans

    2017-08-01

    Several recent studies have highlighted how impaired cardiac performance at high temperatures and in hypoxia may compromise the capacity for oxygen transport. Thus, at high temperatures impaired cardiac capacity is proposed to reduce oxygen transport to a degree that lowers aerobic scope and compromises thermal tolerance (the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis). To investigate this hypothesis, we measured aerobic and cardiac performance of a eurythermal freshwater teleost, the European perch (Perca fluviatilis). Rates of oxygen consumption were measured during rest and activity at temperatures between 5°C and 27°C, and we evaluated cardiac function by in vivo measurements of heart rate and in vitro studies to determine contractility of myocardial strips. Aerobic scope increased progressively from 5°C to 21°C, after which it levelled off. Heart rate showed a similar response. We found little difference between resting and active heart rate at high temperature suggesting that increased cardiac scope during activity is primarily related to changes in stroke volume. To examine the effects of temperature on cardiac capacity, we measured isometric force development in electrically paced myocardial preparations during different combinations of temperature, pacing frequency, oxygenation and adrenergic stimulation. The force-frequency product increased markedly upon adrenergic stimulation at 21 and 27°C (with higher effects at 21°C) and the cardiac preparations were highly sensitive to hypoxia. These findings suggest that at (critically) high temperatures, cardiac output may diminish due to a decreased effect of adrenergic stimulation and that this effect may be further exacerbated if the heart becomes hypoxic. Hence cardiac limitations may contribute to the inability to increase aerobic scope at high temperatures in the European perch (Perca fluviatilis). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative analysis of the 1-mile run test evaluation formulae: assessment of aerobic capacity in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayihan, Gürhan; Özkan, Ali; Köklü, Yusuf; Eyuboğlu, Ender; Akça, Firat; Koz, Mitat; Ersöz, Gülfem

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare values of aerobic performance in the 1-mile run test (1-MRT) using different formulae. Aerobic capacities of 351 male volunteers working for the Turkish National Police within the age range of 20-23 years were evaluated by the 1-MRT and the 20-metre shuttle run (20-MST). VO2max values were estimated by the prediction equations developed by George et al. (1993), Cureton et al. (1995) and Kline et al. (1987) for the 1-MRT and by Leger and Lambert (1982) for the 20-MST. The difference between the results of the different formulae was significant (p = 0.000). The correlation coefficient between the estimated VO2max using Cureton's equation, George's equation, Kline's equation and the 20-MST were 0.691 (p compares the use of 3 different formulae to estimate VO2max from 1-mile run/walk performance in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years for the first time and reports the most accurate formula to use when evaluating aerobic capacities of large numbers of healthy individuals.

  10. The association between aerobic fitness and physical activity in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Lund; Moeller, Niels Christian; Korsholm, Lars

    2010-01-01

    of physical activity. This study investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between aerobic fitness and physical activity in a representative sample of 9 and 15-year-old children (n = 1260 cross-sectional, n = 153 longitudinal). The specific goal was to improve past studies using...... an objective method of activity assessment and taking into account a number of major sources of error. Data came from the Danish part of the European youth heart study, 1997-2003. The cross-sectional results generally showed a weak to moderate association between aerobic fitness and physical activity......The link between aerobic fitness and physical activity in children has been studied in a number of earlier studies and the results have generally shown weak to moderate correlations. This overall finding has been widely questioned partly because of the difficulty in obtaining valid estimates...

  11. The effect of aerobic exercise training on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and postprandial metabolic response in juvenile qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Ming; Yu, Li-Juan; Wang, Chuan; Zeng, Ling-Qing; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2013-09-01

    Continual swimming exercise usually promotes growth in fish at a moderate water velocity. We hypothesized that the improvement in growth in exercise-trained fish may be accompanied by increases in digestive enzyme activity, respiratory capacity and, hence, postprandial metabolism. Juvenile qingbo fish (Spinibarbus sinensis) were subjected to aerobic training for 8weeks at a water velocity of control (3cms(-1)), 1, 2 and 4 body length (bl)s(-1) at a constant temperature of 25°C. The feed intake (FI), food conversion rate (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR), whole-body composition, trypsin and lipase activities, maximal oxygen consumption (M˙O2max) and postprandial M˙O2 response were measured at the end of the training period. Aerobic exercise training induced a significant increase in FI compared with the control group, while the FCR of the 4bls(-1) group was significantly lower than for the other three groups (PFI after long-term training; (3) and aerobic exercise training boosted the activity of digestive enzymes and maximum digestive metabolism, which could favor fast digestion and growth in juvenile S. sinensis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Does an Exercise Intervention Improving Aerobic Capacity Among Construction Workers Also Improve Musculoskeletal Pain, Work Ability, Productivity, Perceived Physical Exertion, and Sick Leave?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Bibi; Holtermann, Andreas; Bültmann, Ute

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To investigate whether an exercise intervention shown to increase aerobic capacity, would also lead to less musculoskeletal pain; improved work ability, productivity, and perceived physical exertion; and less sick leave. METHODS:: Sixty-seven construction workers were randomized...... into an exercise group training 3 × 20 minutes per week and a control group. Questionnaires and text messages were completed before and after the 12-week intervention. RESULTS:: No significant changes were found in musculoskeletal pain, work ability, productivity, perceived physical exertion, and sick leave...... with the intervention. Questionnaires and text messages provided similar results of pain and work ability. CONCLUSIONS:: Although the intervention improved aerobic capacity, it was not successful in improving musculoskeletal pain and other work-related factors. A detectable improvement presumably requires a more...

  13. Triad of physical activity, aerobic fitness and obesity in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffart, Laurien M; Roebroeck, Marij E; Rol, Mathilde; Stam, Henk J; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J G

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensively and objectively assess physical activity, aerobic fitness and body fat in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele and to investigate their relationships. Cross-sectional study. Fifty-one persons (26 males) with myelomeningocele aged 21.1 (standard deviation) 4.5) years. Physical activity was measured with an accelerometry-based activity monitor. Aerobic fitness was defined as the maximum oxygen uptake during the last minute of a maximal exercise test. Body fat was assessed using sum of 4 skin-folds and body mass index. Correlations were studied using multiple regression analyses. Thirty-nine percent of the participants were inactive and another 37% were extremely inactive. Aerobic fitness was 42% lower than normative values and 35% were obese. Ambulatory status was related to daily physical activity (beta = 0.541), aerobic fitness (beta = 0.397) and body fat (beta = -0.243). Gender was related to aerobic fitness (beta = -0.529) and body fat (beta = 0.610). Physical activity was related to aerobic fitness in non-ambulatory persons with myelomeningocele (beta = 0.398), but not in ambulatory persons. Adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele were physically inactive, had poor aerobic fitness and high body fat. Differences exist between subgroups regarding gender and ambulatory status.

  14. Effects of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Supplementation on Creatine Kinase, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Oxidative Stress Markers, and Aerobic Capacity in Semi-Professional Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carlos V da Silva; Silva, Alexandre S; de Oliveira, Caio V C; Massa, Nayara M L; de Sousa, Yasmim R F; da Costa, Whyara K A; Silva, Ayice C; Delatorre, Plínio; Carvalho, Rhayane; Braga, Valdir de Andrade; Magnani, Marciane

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional intervention with antioxidants rich foods has been considered a strategy to minimize the effects of overtraining in athletes. This experimental, randomized, and placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of consumption of sesame ( Sesamum indicum L.) on muscle damage markers, oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and aerobic performance in male semi-professional soccer players. Twenty athletes were randomly assigned to groups that received 40 g (two tablespoons) per day of sesame or a placebo during 28 days of regular training (exposed to routine training that includes loads of heavy training in the final half of the season). Before and after intervention, creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and aerobic capacity were evaluated. Before intervention, a physiologic imbalance was noted in both groups related to CK and LDH levels. Sesame intake caused a reduction of CK (19%, p < 0.05), LDH (37%, p < 0.05), MDA (55%, p < 0.05) and hs-CRP (53%, p < 0.05) and increased SOD (14%, p < 0.05), vitamin A (25%, p < 0.05), and vitamin E (65%, p < 0.05) in the experimental group. These phenomena were accompanied by increased aerobic capacity (17%, p < 0.05). The placebo group showed an increase in CK (5%, p < 0.05) and no significant change in LDH, SOD or vitamin A. MDA levels decreased (21%, p < 0.05) and vitamin E increased (14%, p < 0.05) in the placebo group, but to a much lesser extent than in the experimental group. These results show that sesame consumption may reduce muscle damage and oxidative stress while improving the aerobic capacity in soccer players.

  15. Biodegradation of triclosan and formation of methyl-triclosan in activated sludge under aerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xijuan; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Furgal, Karolina

    2011-01-01

    of triclosan- methyl was investigated in activated sludge from a standard activated sludge WWTP equipped with enhanced biological phosphorus removal. The removal was found to occur mainly under aerobic conditions while under anoxic (nitrate reducing) and anaerobic conditions rather low removal rates were...... determined. In a laboratory-scale activated sludge reactor 75% of the triclosan was removed under aerobic conditions within 150 h, while no removal was observed under anaerobic or anoxic conditions. One percent of the triclosan was converted to triclosan-methyl under aerobic conditions, less under anoxic...

  16. A Shift in the Thermoregulatory Curve as a Result of Selection for High Activity-Related Aerobic Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Stawski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the “aerobic capacity model,” endothermy in birds and mammals evolved as a result of natural selection favoring increased persistent locomotor activity, fuelled by aerobic metabolism. However, this also increased energy expenditure even during rest, with the lowest metabolic rates occurring in the thermoneutral zone (TNZ and increasing at ambient temperatures (Ta below and above this range, depicted by the thermoregulatory curve. In our experimental evolution system, four lines of bank voles (Myodes glareolus have been selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism and four unselected lines have been maintained as a control. In addition to a 50% higher rate of oxygen consumption during swimming, the selected lines have also evolved a 7.3% higher mass-adjusted basal metabolic rate. Therefore, we asked whether voles from selected lines would also display a shift in the thermoregulatory curve and an increased body temperature (Tb during exposure to high Ta. To test these hypotheses we measured the RMR and Tb of selected and control voles at Ta from 10 to 34°C. As expected, RMR within and around the TNZ was higher in selected lines. Further, the Tb of selected lines within the TNZ was greater than the Tb of control lines, particularly at the maximum measured Ta of 34°C, suggesting that selected voles are more prone to hyperthermia. Interestingly, our results revealed that while the slope of the thermoregulatory curve below the lower critical temperature (LCT is significantly lower in the selected lines, the LCT (26.1°C does not differ. Importantly, selected voles also evolved a higher maximum thermogenesis, but thermal conductance did not increase. As a consequence, the minimum tolerated temperature, calculated from an extrapolation of the thermoregulatory curve, is 8.4°C lower in selected (−28.6°C than in control lines (−20.2°C. Thus, selection for high aerobic exercise performance, even though operating under

  17. A Shift in the Thermoregulatory Curve as a Result of Selection for High Activity-Related Aerobic Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Clare; Koteja, Paweł; Sadowska, Edyta T

    2017-01-01

    According to the "aerobic capacity model," endothermy in birds and mammals evolved as a result of natural selection favoring increased persistent locomotor activity, fuelled by aerobic metabolism. However, this also increased energy expenditure even during rest, with the lowest metabolic rates occurring in the thermoneutral zone (TNZ) and increasing at ambient temperatures (T a ) below and above this range, depicted by the thermoregulatory curve. In our experimental evolution system, four lines of bank voles ( Myodes glareolus ) have been selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism and four unselected lines have been maintained as a control. In addition to a 50% higher rate of oxygen consumption during swimming, the selected lines have also evolved a 7.3% higher mass-adjusted basal metabolic rate. Therefore, we asked whether voles from selected lines would also display a shift in the thermoregulatory curve and an increased body temperature (T b ) during exposure to high T a . To test these hypotheses we measured the RMR and T b of selected and control voles at T a from 10 to 34°C. As expected, RMR within and around the TNZ was higher in selected lines. Further, the T b of selected lines within the TNZ was greater than the T b of control lines, particularly at the maximum measured T a of 34°C, suggesting that selected voles are more prone to hyperthermia. Interestingly, our results revealed that while the slope of the thermoregulatory curve below the lower critical temperature (LCT) is significantly lower in the selected lines, the LCT (26.1°C) does not differ. Importantly, selected voles also evolved a higher maximum thermogenesis, but thermal conductance did not increase. As a consequence, the minimum tolerated temperature, calculated from an extrapolation of the thermoregulatory curve, is 8.4°C lower in selected (-28.6°C) than in control lines (-20.2°C). Thus, selection for high aerobic exercise performance, even though operating under thermally

  18. Effects of a short-term exercise training program on aerobic fitness, fatigue, health perception and activity level of subjects with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, S; Kesselring, J

    2002-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients of an inpatient rehabilitation program have been randomly assigned to an exercise training (MS-ET) or nontraining group (MS-NI). Before and after 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training, a graded maximal exercise test with measurement of gas exchange and a lung function test was administered to all 26 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Activity level, fatigue and health perception were measured by means of questionnaires. Twenty-six healthy persons served as control group and were matched in respect of age, gender and activity level. Training intervention consisted of 5x30 min sessions per week of bicycle exercise with individualised intensity. Compared with baseline, the MS training group demonstrated a significant rightward placement of the aerobic threshold (AT) (VO2+13%; work rate [WR])+11%), an improvement of health perception (vitality+46%; social interaction+36%), an increase of activity level (+17%) and a tendency to less fatigue. No changes were observed for the MS-NI group and the control groups. Maximal aerobic capacity and lung function were not changed by either training or nontraining in all four groups. Overall compliance to the training program was quite low (65%), whereas incidence of symptom exacerbation by physical activity has been lower than expected (6%).

  19. Microbial fuel cells with highly active aerobic biocathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Edward M.; Popescu, Dorin; Curtis, Tom; Head, Ian M.; Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen H.

    2016-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, platinum and other non-platinum chemical catalysts used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are unsustainable due to their high cost and long-term degradation. Aerobic biocathodes, which use microorganisms as the biocatalysts for cathode ORR, are a good alternative to chemical catalysts. In the current work, high-performing aerobic biocathodes with an onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl were enriched from activated sludge in electrochemical half-cells poised at -0.1 and + 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Gammaproteobacteria, distantly related to any known cultivated gammaproteobacterial lineage, were identified as dominant in these working electrode biofilms (23.3-44.3% of reads in 16S rRNA gene Ion Torrent libraries), and were in very low abundance in non-polarised control working electrode biofilms (0.5-0.7%). These Gammaproteobacteria were therefore most likely responsible for the high activity of biologically catalysed ORR. In MFC tests, a high-performing aerobic biocathode increased peak power 9-fold from 7 to 62 μW cm-2 in comparison to an unmodified carbon cathode, which was similar to peak power with a platinum-doped cathode at 70 μW cm-2.

  20. Gut microbiota are linked to increased susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in low aerobic capacity rats fed an acute high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor aerobic fitness is linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increased all-cause mortality. We previously found that low capacity running (LCR) rats fed acute high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 3 days resulted in positive energy balance and increased hepatic steatosis compared with...

  1. [Phosphate-solubilizing activity of aerobic methylobacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonova, N V; Kaparullina, E N; Doronina, N V; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing activity was found in 14 strains of plant-associated aerobic methylobacteria belonging to the genera Methylophilus, Methylobacillus, Methylovorus, Methylopila, Methylobacterium, Delftia, and Ancyclobacter. The growth of methylobacteria on medium with methanol as the carbon and energy source and insoluble tricalcium phosphate as the phosphorus source was accompanied by a decrease in pH due to the accumulation of up to 7 mM formic acid as a methanol oxidation intermediate and by release of 120-280 μM phosphate ions, which can be used by both bacteria and plants. Phosphate-solubilizing activity is a newly revealed role of methylobacteria in phytosymbiosis.

  2. EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING AND CONTINUOUS ENDURANCE TRAINING ON AEROBIC CAPACITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuno Hottenrott

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17 or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17 for a 12 week-intervention period. WE weekly completed 2 h 30 min of continuous endurance running composed of 2 sessions on the weekend. In contrast, AW performed 4 30 min sessions of high intensity training and an additional 30 min endurance run weekly, always after work. During an exhaustive treadmill test aerobic power was measured and heart rate was continuously recorded. Body composition was assessed using bio-impedance. Following the intervention period all subjects took part in a half-marathon. AW significantly improved peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak from 36.8 ± 4.5 to 43.6 ± 6.5 [mL.min-1.kg-1], velocity at lactate threshold (VLT from 9.7 ± 2.2 to 11.7 ± 1.8 [km.h-1] and visceral fat from 5.6 ± 2.2 to 4.7 ± 1.9 In WE VO2 peak signifi-cantly increased from 38.8 ± 5.0 to 41.5 ± 6.0 [mL.min-1.kg-1], VLT from 9.9 ± 1.3 to 11.2 ± 1.7 [km.h-1] and visceral fat was reduced from 5.7 ± 2.1 to 5.4 ± 1.9 (p < 0.01. Only the improvements of VO2 peak were significantly greater in AW compared with WE (pre/post group interaction: F=15.4, p = 0.01, η2 = 0.36. Both groups completed a half marathon with no significant differences in performance (p = 0.63. Short, intensive endurance training sessions of about 30 min are effective in improving aerobic fitness in recreationally active runners

  3. Nitrogen use efficiency evaluation of aerobic rice under field capacity water potential using 15N isotopic tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, Ahmad Nazrul Abd; Rahim, Sahibin Abd; Rahim, Khairuddin Abdul; Harun, Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency use of the nitrogen fertilizer on aerobic rice varieties MR219-4 and MR219-9 which were grown aerobically under field capacity water potential at the controlled environment area or shield house. Direct 15 N isotope tracer method was used in this study, whereby the 15 N isotope was utilized as a tracer for nitrogen nutrient uptake. 15 N isotope presence in the samples is determined by using emission spectrometer analysis and percentage of total nitrogen is determined by using Kjeldahl method. 15 N atom access value contained in the sample will be used in determining the effectiveness of the use of nitrogen in fertilizers through the specific calculation formulas. In this work, the data several data of nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff), total nitrogen, nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency was obtained

  4. Evaluating dispersal potential of an invasive fish by the use of aerobic scope and osmoregulation capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane W.; Deurs, Mikael van; Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt

    2017-01-01

    factors such as presence of predators, competitors, and parasites. Early prediction of dispersal potential and future 'area of impact' is challenging, but also a great asset in taking appropriate management actions. Aerobic scope (AS) in fish has been linked to various fitness-related parameters, and may...... waters is unknown to date. We show that AS in round goby is reduced by 30% and blood plasma osmolality increased (indicating reduced capacity for osmoregulation) at salinities approaching oceanic conditions, following slow ramping (5 PSU per week) and subsequent long-term acclimation to salinities...

  5. Evaluating death and activity decay of Anammox bacteria during anaerobic and aerobic starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qilin; Song, Kang; Hao, Xiaodi; Wei, Jing; Pijuan, Maite; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Zhao, Huijun

    2018-06-01

    The decreased activity (i.e. decay) of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) bacteria during starvation can be attributed to death (i.e. decrease in the amount of viable bacteria) and activity decay (i.e. decrease in the specific activity of viable bacteria). Although they are crucial for the operation of the Anammox process, they have never been comprehensively investigated. This study for the first time experimentally assessed death and activity decay of the Anammox bacteria during 84 days' starvation stress based on ammonium removal rate, Live/Dead staining and fluorescence in-situ hybridization. The anaerobic and aerobic decay rates of Anammox bacteria were determined as 0.015 ± 0.001 d -1 and 0.028 ± 0.001 d -1 , respectively, indicating Anammox bacteria would lose their activity more quickly in the aerobic starvation than in the anaerobic starvation. The anaerobic and aerobic death rates of Anammox bacteria were measured at 0.011 ± 0.001 d -1 and 0.025 ± 0.001 d -1 , respectively, while their anaerobic and aerobic activity decay rates were determined at 0.004 ± 0.001 d -1 and 0.003 ± 0.001 d -1 , respectively. Further analysis revealed that death accounted for 73 ± 4% and 89 ± 5% of the decreased activity of Anammox bacteria during anaerobic and aerobic starvations, and activity decay was only responsible for 27 ± 4% and 11 ± 5% of the decreased Anammox activity, respectively, over the same starvation periods. These deeply shed light on the response of Anammox bacteria to the starvation stress, which would facilitate operation and optimization of the Anammox process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anthropometry, somatotypes, and aerobic power in ballet, contemporary dance, and dancesport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liiv, Helena; Wyon, Matthew A; Jürimäe, Toivo; Saar, Meeli; Mäestu, Jarek; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2013-12-01

    This study compared anthropometric variables, somatotypes, and aerobic capacity between three groups of dancers: classical ballet dancers (M 33, F 56), contemporary dancers (M 28, F 109), and dancesport dancers (M 30, F 30). The assumption was that different functional requirements should produce differences in the anthropometric and aerobic capacity variables among the three groups. Anthropometric data for body mass index (BMI) and somatotypes were measured. Body fat percentage was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Maximal oxygen consumption and aerobic power were measured during an incremental treadmill test until exhaustion. Dancesport athletes were taller compared with same gender contemporary dancers (pballet dancers had a lower body mass and BMI compared with their contemporary dance and dancesport equivalents (pballet counterparts, while dancesport dancers are taller and heavier, less muscular, with slightly greater adioposity compared to the classical ballet dancers. Ballet dancers had the lowest body fat percentage, weight, and BMI values. Dancesport dancers had greater aerobic capacity than the ballet dancers. Based on this study, we conclude that dancers in these three styles differ in some aspects of anthropometric variables, somatotypes, and aerobic capacity, but we cannot say is it because of the training or selection or both.

  7. Dosing method of physical activity in aerobics classes for students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.I. Beliak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : reasons for the method of dosing of physical activity in aerobics classes for students. The basis of the method is the evaluation of the metabolic cost of funds used in them. Material : experiment involved the assessment of the pulse response of students to load complexes classical and step aerobics (n = 47, age 20-23 years. In complexes used various factors regulating the intensity: perform combinations of basic steps, involvement of movements with his hands, holding in hands dumbbells weighing 1kg increase in the rate of musical accompaniment, varying heights step platform. Results . on the basis of the relationship between heart rate and oxygen consumption was determined by the energy cost of each admission control load intensity. This indicator has been used to justify the intensity and duration of multiplicity aerobics. Figure correspond to the level of physical condition and motor activity deficits students. Conclusions : the estimated component of this method of dosing load makes it convenient for use in automated computer programs. Also it can be easily modified to dispense load other types of recreational fitness.

  8. Accelerometer-measured daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake ([Vdot]O(2PEAK)) is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. While a positive relationship between daily physical activity and aerobic fitness has been established in adults, the relationship appears less clear in children and adolescents...

  9. Aerobic endurance capacity affects spatial memory and SIRT1 is a potent modulator of 8-oxoguanine repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarga, L; Hart, N; Koch, L G; Britton, S L; Hajas, G; Boldogh, I; Ba, X; Radak, Z

    2013-11-12

    Regular exercise promotes brain function via a wide range of adaptive responses, including the increased expression of antioxidant and oxidative DNA damage-repairing systems. Accumulation of oxidized DNA base lesions and strand breaks is etiologically linked to for example aging processes and age-associated diseases. Here we tested whether exercise training has an impact on brain function, extent of neurogenesis, and expression of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 (Ogg1) and SIRT1 (silent mating-type information regulation 2 homolog). To do so, we utilized strains of rats with low- and high-running capacity (LCR and HCR) and examined learning and memory, DNA synthesis, expression, and post-translational modification of Ogg1 hippocampal cells. Our results showed that rats with higher aerobic/running capacity had better spatial memory, and expressed less Ogg1, when compared to LCR rats. Furthermore, exercise increased SIRT1 expression and decreased acetylated Ogg1 (AcOgg1) levels, a post-translational modification important for efficient repair of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG). Our data on cell cultures revealed that nicotinamide, a SIRT1-specific inhibitor, caused the greatest increase in the acetylation of Ogg1, a finding further supported by our other observations that silencing SIRT1 also markedly increased the levels of AcOgg1. These findings imply that high-running capacity is associated with increased hippocampal function, and SIRT1 level/activity and inversely correlates with AcOgg1 levels and thereby the repair of genomic 8-oxoG. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The relationship of aerobic capacity, anaerobic peak power and experience to performance in in CrossFit exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Bellar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available CrossFit is becoming increasingly popular as a method to increase fitness and as a competitive sport in both the Unites States and Europe. However, little research on this mode of exercise has been performed to date. The purpose of the present investigation involving experienced CrossFit athletes and naïve healthy young men was to investigate the relationship of aerobic capacity and anaerobic power to performance in two representative CrossFit workouts: the first workout was 12 minutes in duration, and the second was based on the total time to complete the prescribed exercise. The participants were 32 healthy adult males, who were either naïve to CrossFit exercise or had competed in CrossFit competitions. Linear regression was undertaken to predict performance on the first workout (time with age, group (naïve or CrossFit athlete, VO 2 max and anaerobic power, which were all significant predictors (p<0.05 in the model. The second workout (repetitions, when examined similarly using regression, only resulted in CrossFit experience as a significant predictor (p<0.05. The results of the study suggest that a history of participation in CrossFit competition is a key component of performance in CrossFit workouts which are representative of those performed in CrossFit, and that, in at least one these workouts, aerobic capacity and anaerobic power are associated with success.

  11. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2014-09-01

    High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; paltitude training (paltitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training.

  12. Aerobic glycolysis during brain activation: adrenergic regulation and influence of norepinephrine on astrocytic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienel, Gerald A; Cruz, Nancy F

    2016-07-01

    Aerobic glycolysis occurs during brain activation and is characterized by preferential up-regulation of glucose utilization compared with oxygen consumption even though oxygen level and delivery are adequate. Aerobic glycolysis is a widespread phenomenon that underlies energetics of diverse brain activities, such as alerting, sensory processing, cognition, memory, and pathophysiological conditions, but specific cellular functions fulfilled by aerobic glycolysis are poorly understood. Evaluation of evidence derived from different disciplines reveals that aerobic glycolysis is a complex, regulated phenomenon that is prevented by propranolol, a non-specific β-adrenoceptor antagonist. The metabolic pathways that contribute to excess utilization of glucose compared with oxygen include glycolysis, the pentose phosphate shunt pathway, the malate-aspartate shuttle, and astrocytic glycogen turnover. Increased lactate production by unidentified cells, and lactate dispersal from activated cells and lactate release from the brain, both facilitated by astrocytes, are major factors underlying aerobic glycolysis in subjects with low blood lactate levels. Astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttling with local oxidation is minor. Blockade of aerobic glycolysis by propranolol implicates adrenergic regulatory processes including adrenal release of epinephrine, signaling to brain via the vagus nerve, and increased norepinephrine release from the locus coeruleus. Norepinephrine has a powerful influence on astrocytic metabolism and glycogen turnover that can stimulate carbohydrate utilization more than oxygen consumption, whereas β-receptor blockade 're-balances' the stoichiometry of oxygen-glucose or -carbohydrate metabolism by suppressing glucose and glycogen utilization more than oxygen consumption. This conceptual framework may be helpful for design of future studies to elucidate functional roles of preferential non-oxidative glucose utilization and glycogen turnover during brain

  13. Is high-intensity interval training more effective on improving cardiometabolic risk and aerobic capacity than other forms of exercise in overweight and obese youth? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hermoso, A; Cerrillo-Urbina, A J; Herrera-Valenzuela, T; Cristi-Montero, C; Saavedra, J M; Martínez-Vizcaíno, V

    2016-06-01

    The scientific interest in high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has greatly increased during recent years. The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effectiveness of HIIT interventions on cardio-metabolic risk factors and aerobic capacity in overweight and obese youth, in comparison with other forms of exercise. A computerized search was made using seven databases. The analysis was restricted to studies that examined the effect of HIIT interventions on cardio-metabolic and/or aerobic capacity in pediatric obesity (6-17 years old). Nine studies using HIIT interventions were selected (n = 274). Standarized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The DerSimonian-Laird approach was used. HIIT interventions (4-12 week duration) produced larger decreases in systolic blood pressure (SMD = 0.39; -3.63 mmHg) and greater increases in maximum oxygen uptake (SMD = 0.59; 1.92 ml/kg/min) than other forms of exercise. Also, type of comparison exercise group and duration of study were moderators. HIIT could be considered a more effective and time-efficient intervention for improving blood pressure and aerobic capacity levels in obese youth in comparison to other types of exercise. © 2016 World Obesity. © 2016 World Obesity.

  14. Human skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, U F; Rasmussen, H N

    2000-04-01

    Under aerobic work, the oxygen consumption and major ATP production occur in the mitochondria and it is therefore a relevant question whether the in vivo rates can be accounted for by mitochondrial capacities measured in vitro. Mitochondria were isolated from human quadriceps muscle biopsies in yields of approximately 45%. The tissue content of total creatine, mitochondrial protein and different cytochromes was estimated. A number of activities were measured in functional assays of the mitochondria: pyruvate, ketoglutarate, glutamate and succinate dehydrogenases, palmitoyl-carnitine respiration, cytochrome oxidase, the respiratory chain and the ATP synthesis. The activities involved in carbohydrate oxidation could account for in vivo oxygen uptakes of 15-16 mmol O2 min-1 kg-1 or slightly above the value measured at maximal work rates in the knee-extensor model of Saltin and co-workers, i.e. without limitation from the cardiac output. This probably indicates that the maximal oxygen consumption of the muscle is limited by the mitochondrial capacities. The in vitro activities of fatty acid oxidation corresponded to only 39% of those of carbohydrate oxidation. The maximal rate of free energy production from aerobic metabolism of glycogen was calculated from the mitochondrial activities and estimates of the DeltaG or ATP hydrolysis and the efficiency of the actin-myosin reaction. The resultant value was 20 W kg-1 or approximately 70% of the maximal in vivo work rates of which 10-20% probably are sustained by the anaerobic ATP production. The lack of aerobic in vitro ATP synthesis might reflect termination of some critical interplay between cytoplasm and mitochondria.

  15. The relationship between sustained attention and aerobic fitness in a group of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciria, Luis F; Perakakis, Pandelis; Luque-Casado, Antonio; Morato, Cristina; Sanabria, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    A growing set of studies has shown a positive relationship between aerobic fitness and a broad array of cognitive functions. However, few studies have focused on sustained attention, which has been considered a fundamental cognitive process that underlies most everyday activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of aerobic fitness as a key factor in sustained attention capacities in young adults. Forty-four young adults (18-23 years) were divided into two groups as a function of the level of aerobic fitness (high-fit and low-fit). Participants completed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) and an oddball task where they had to detect infrequent targets presented among frequent non-targets. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed faster responses for the high-fit group than for the low-fit group in the PVT, replicating previous accounts. In the oddball task, the high-fit group maintained their accuracy (ACC) rate of target detection over time, while the low-fit group suffered a significant decline of response ACC throughout the task. Importantly, the results show that the greater sustained attention capacity of high-fit young adults is not specific to a reaction time (RT) sustained attention task like the PVT, but it is also evident in an ACC oddball task. In sum, the present findings point to the important role of aerobic fitness on sustained attention capacities in young adults.

  16. Objectively measured daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate by direct measurement the cross-sectional relationship between accelerometer-measured physical activity and peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak): ml x min(-1) x kg(-1)), in a population-based cohort of young children, since such data are scarce. The study...... analyses indicated that the various physical activity variables explained between 2 and 8% of the variance in VO(2peak) in boys. In this population-based cohort, most daily activity variables were positively related to aerobic fitness in boys, whereas less clear relationships were observed in girls. Our...... finding that physical activity was only uniformly related to aerobic fitness in boys partly contradicts previous studies in older children and adolescents....

  17. COMPARISON OF NORMALIZED MAXIMUM AEROBIC CAPACITY AND BODY COMPOSITION OF SUMO WRESTLERS TO ATHLETES IN COMBAT AND OTHER SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Beekley

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Sumo wrestling is unique in combat sport, and in all of sport. We examined the maximum aerobic capacity and body composition of sumo wrestlers and compared them to untrained controls. We also compared "aerobic muscle quality", meaning VO2max normalized to predicted skeletal muscle mass (SMM (VO2max /SMM, between sumo wrestlers and controls and among previously published data for male athletes from combat, aerobic, and power sports. Sumo wrestlers, compared to untrained controls, had greater (p < 0.05 body mass (mean ± SD; 117.0 ± 4.9 vs. 56.1 ± 9.8 kg, percent fat (24.0 ± 1.4 vs. 13.3 ± 4.5, fat-free mass (88.9 ± 4.2 vs. 48.4 �� 6.8 kg, predicted SMM (48.2 ± 2.9 vs. 20.6 ± 4.7 kg and absolute VO2max (3.6 ± 1.3 vs. 2.5 ± 0.7 L·min-1. Mean VO2max /SMM (ml·kg SMM-1·min-1 was significantly different (p < 0.05 among aerobic athletes (164.8 ± 18.3, combat athletes (which was not different from untrained controls; 131.4 ± 9.3 and 128.6 ± 13.6, respectively, power athletes (96.5 ± 5.3, and sumo wrestlers (71.4 ± 5.3. There was a strong negative correlation (r = - 0.75 between percent body fat and VO2max /SMM (p < 0.05. We conclude that sumo wrestlers have some of the largest percent body fat and fat-free mass and the lowest "aerobic muscle quality" (VO2max /SMM, both in combat sport and compared to aerobic and power sport athletes. Additionally, it appears from analysis of the relationship between SMM and absolute VO2max for all sports that there is a "ceiling" at which increases in SMM do not result in additional increases in absolute VO2max

  18. Feasibility and Validity of a Graded One-Legged Cycle Exercise Test to Determine Peak Aerobic Capacity in Older People With a Lower-Limb Amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezenberg, Daphne; de Haan, Arnold; van der Woude, Lucas H.; Houdijk, Han

    Background. Information concerning exercise tolerance and aerobic capacity is imperative for generating effective and safe exercise programs. However, for older people with a lower-limb amputation, a standard exercise test is not available. Objective. The primary aim of the present study was to

  19. Feasibility and Validity of a Graded One-Legged Cycle Exercise Test to Determine Peak Aerobic Capacity in Older People With a Lower-Limb Amputation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezenberg, D.; de Haan, A.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Houdijk, J.H.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Information concerning exercise tolerance and aerobic capacity is imperative for generating effective and safe exercise programs. However, for older people with a lower-limb amputation, a standard exercise test is not available. Objective. The primary aim of the present study was to

  20. Feasibility and Validity of a Graded One-Legged Cycle Exercise Test to Determine Peak Aerobic Capacity in Older People With a Lower-Limb Amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezenberg, D.; de Haan, A.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Houdijk, J.H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Information concerning exercise tolerance and aerobic capacity is imperative for generating effective and safe exercise programs. However, for older people with a lower-limb amputation, a standard exercise test is not available. Objective. The primary aim of the present study was to

  1. Degradation of typical N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors and its formation potential in anoxic-aerobic (AO) activated sludge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Li, Yongmei; He, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is an emerging disinfection byproduct. Removal of its potential precursors is considered as an effective method to control NDMA. In this study, four typical NDMA precursors (dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA), dimethylformamide (DMFA) and dimethylaminobenzene (DMAB)) were selected, and their removal capacities by activated sludge were investigated. Batch experiments indicated that removal of NDMA precursors was better under aerobic condition than anoxic condition; and their specific degradation rates follow the order of DMA > TMA > DMFA > DMAB. In anoxic-aerobic (AO) activated sludge system, the optimal hydraulic retention time and sludge retention time were 10 h and 20 d, respectively, for the removal of both NDMA precursors (four selected NDMA precursors and NDMA formation potential (NDMA FP)) and nutrients. Our results also suggested that there was a positive correlation between NDMA FP and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in wastewater. The removal efficiency of NDMA FP was in the range of 46.8-72.5% in the four surveyed wastewater treatment plants except the one which adopted chemically enhanced primary process. The results revealed that the AO system had the advantage of removing NDMA FP. Our results are helpful for the knowledge of the removals of NDMA precursors during activated sludge treatment processes.

  2. Nitrogen use efficiency evaluation of aerobic rice under field capacity water potential using {sup 15}N isotopic tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahid, Ahmad Nazrul Abd, E-mail: a-nazrul@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my [Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahim, Sahibin Abd, E-mail: haiyan@ukm.edu.my [Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahim, Khairuddin Abdul; Harun, Abdul Rahim [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency use of the nitrogen fertilizer on aerobic rice varieties MR219-4 and MR219-9 which were grown aerobically under field capacity water potential at the controlled environment area or shield house. Direct {sup 15}N isotope tracer method was used in this study, whereby the {sup 15}N isotope was utilized as a tracer for nitrogen nutrient uptake. {sup 15}N isotope presence in the samples is determined by using emission spectrometer analysis and percentage of total nitrogen is determined by using Kjeldahl method. {sup 15}N atom access value contained in the sample will be used in determining the effectiveness of the use of nitrogen in fertilizers through the specific calculation formulas. In this work, the data several data of nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff), total nitrogen, nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency was obtained.

  3. Active video games: the mediating effect of aerobic fitness on body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Ralph; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Jull, Andrew; Prapavessis, Harry; Foley, Louise S; Jiang, Yannan

    2012-05-03

    Increased understanding of why and how physical activity impacts on health outcomes is needed to increase the effectiveness of physical activity interventions. A recent randomized controlled trial of an active video game (PlayStation EyeToy™) intervention showed a statistically significant treatment effect on the primary outcome, change from baseline in body mass index (BMI), which favored the intervention group at 24 weeks. In this short paper we evaluate the mediating effects of the secondary outcomes. To identify mediators of the effect of an active video games intervention on body composition. Data from a two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial of an active video game intervention (n = 322) were analyzed. The primary outcome was change from baseline in BMI. A priori secondary outcomes were considered as potential mediators of the intervention on BMI, including aerobic fitness (VO2Max), time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and food snacking at 24 weeks. Only aerobic fitness at 24 weeks met the conditions for mediation, and was a significant mediator of BMI. Playing active video games can have a positive effect on body composition in overweight or obese children and this effect is most likely mediated through improved aerobic fitness. Future trials should examine other potential mediators related to this type of intervention. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Website: http://www.anzctr.org.au. Study ID number: ACTRN12607000632493.

  4. Impact of solid retention time and nitrification capacity on the ability of activated sludge to remove pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Ledin, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Removal of five acidic pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac and clofibric acid) by activated sludge from five municipal activated sludge treatment processes, with various sludge ages and nitrification capacities, was assessed through batch experiments. The increase...... in aerobic sludge age from 1-3 to 7 days seemed to be critical for the removal of naproxen and ketoprofen, with markedly higher rates of removal at sludge ages of 7 days or more. No removal was shown for diclofenac and clofibric acid, while high rates were observed for ibuprofen in all investigated sludges...

  5. Nordic Walking Can Be Incorporated in the Exercise Prescription to Increase Aerobic Capacity, Strength, and Quality of Life for Elderly: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullo, Valentina; Gobbo, Stefano; Vendramin, Barbara; Duregon, Federica; Cugusi, Lucia; Di Blasio, Andrea; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Zaccaria, Marco; Bergamin, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize and analyze the effects of Nordic Walking on physical fitness, body composition, and quality of life in the elderly. Keyword "Nordic Walking" associated with "elderly" AND/OR "aging" AND/OR "old subjects" AND/OR "aged" AND/OR "older adults" were used in the online database MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus. Only studies written in English language and published in peer-reviewed journals were considered. A meta-analysis was performed and effect sizes calculated. Fifteen studies were identified; age of participants ranged from 60 to 92 years old. Comparing with a sedentary group, effect sizes showed that Nordic Walking was able to improve dynamic balance (0.30), functional balance (0.62), muscle strength of upper (0.66) and lower limbs (0.43), aerobic capacity (0.92), cardiovascular outcomes (0.23), body composition (0.30), and lipid profile (0.67). It seemed that Nordic Walking had a negative effect on static balance (-0.72). Comparing with a walking (alone) training, effect sizes showed that Nordic Walking improved the dynamic balance (0.30), flexibility of the lower body (0.47), and quality of life (0.53). Walking training was more effective in improving aerobic capacity (-0.21). Comparing Nordic Walking with resistance training, effect sizes showed that Nordic Walking improved dynamic balance (0.33), muscle strength of the lower body (0.39), aerobic capacity (0.75), flexibility of the upper body (0.41), and the quality of life (0.93). Nordic Walking can be considered as a safe and accessible form of aerobic exercise for the elderly population, able to improve cardiovascular outcomes, muscle strength, balance ability, and quality of life.

  6. Effects of Low Versus Moderate Glycemic Index Diets on Aerobic Capacity in Endurance Runners: Three-Week Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Durkalec-Michalski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The glycemic index (GI of ingested carbohydrates may influence substrate oxidation during exercise and athletic performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of low- and moderate-GI three-week diets on aerobic capacity and endurance performance in runners. We conducted a randomized crossover feeding study of matched diets differing only in GI (low vs. moderate in 21 endurance-trained runners. Each participant consumed both, low- (LGI and moderate-GI (MGI high-carbohydrate (~60% and nutrient-balanced diets for three weeks each. At the beginning and end of each diet, participants had their aerobic capacity and body composition measured and performed a 12-min running test. After LGI, time to exhaustion during incremental cycling test (ICT and distance covered in the 12-min run were significantly increased. The MGI diet led to an increase in maximal oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O2max, but no performance benefits were found after the MGI diet. The LGI and MGI diets improved time and workload at gas exchange threshold (GET during ICT. The results indicate that a three-week high-carbohydrate LGI diet resulted in a small but significant improvement in athletic performance in endurance runners. Observed increase in V ˙ O2max on MGI diet did not affect performance.

  7. Sialidase activity in aerobic vaginitis is equal to levels during bacterial vaginosis

    OpenAIRE

    Marconi, C.; Donders, G.G.G.; Bellen, G.; Brown, D.R.; Parada, C.M.G.L.; Silva, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate levels of proinflammatory cytokines and sialidase activity in aerobic vaginitis (AV) in relation to normal vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Study design: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 682 consecutive non-pregnant women attending the gynecology service were assessed and 408 women were included. Vaginal rinsing samples were collected from 223 women with microscopic finding of BV (n = 98), aerobic vaginitis (n = 25) and normal flora (n = 100). Sample...

  8. Screening identification of aerobic denitrification bacteria with high soil desalinization capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, H.; Chen, H.; Jin, H.; Qian, Y.; Zhang, K.

    2017-08-01

    In order to study the mechanism of bacteria used in the saline soil remediation process, the aerobic denitrification bacteria were isolated from an agricultural greenhouse soil in a farm in East China’s Zhejiang Province. The identification, nitrogen reducing characteristics and the denitrification effect of bacteria from different soils at various locations were investigated. The results showed that the NO3- removal rate was 91% with bacteria from the greenhouse soil under aerobic conditions in 52 h, and the bacteria were identified as Gram-positive Castellaniella denitrification bacteria.

  9. The relationship between sustained attention and aerobic fitness in a group of young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Ciria

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background A growing set of studies has shown a positive relationship between aerobic fitness and a broad array of cognitive functions. However, few studies have focused on sustained attention, which has been considered a fundamental cognitive process that underlies most everyday activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of aerobic fitness as a key factor in sustained attention capacities in young adults. Methods Forty-four young adults (18–23 years were divided into two groups as a function of the level of aerobic fitness (high-fit and low-fit. Participants completed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT and an oddball task where they had to detect infrequent targets presented among frequent non-targets. Results The analysis of variance (ANOVA showed faster responses for the high-fit group than for the low-fit group in the PVT, replicating previous accounts. In the oddball task, the high-fit group maintained their accuracy (ACC rate of target detection over time, while the low-fit group suffered a significant decline of response ACC throughout the task. Discussion Importantly, the results show that the greater sustained attention capacity of high-fit young adults is not specific to a reaction time (RT sustained attention task like the PVT, but it is also evident in an ACC oddball task. In sum, the present findings point to the important role of aerobic fitness on sustained attention capacities in young adults.

  10. Enhancement mechanisms of short-time aerobic digestion for waste activated sludge in the presence of cocoamidopropyl betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Siqing; Zhou, Yun; Eustance, Everett; Zhang, Zhiqiang

    2017-10-18

    Cocoamidopropyl betaine (CAPB), which is a biodegradable ampholytic surfactant, has recently been found to dramatically enhance the aerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) in short-time aerobic digestion (STAD) systems. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms in which CAPB enhances WAS aerobic digestion performance. Results showed that CAPB could dramatically enhance the solubilization of soluble proteins (PN), polysaccharides (PS), nucleic acids (NA) and humic-like substances (HS) in the STAD system within the initial 2 h. Then PN, PS and NA gradually decreased, while HS showed only minor decease. In addition, CAPB increased the proportion of low MW fractions (biodegradable. Specific oxygen uptake rates and dehydrogenase enzyme activity results indicated that CAPB markedly improved the aerobic microorganism activities. Microbial community analyses and principle coordinate analyses (PCoA) revealed that CAPB increased the proportion of some functional microorganisms, including Proteobacteria, Planctomycetales, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas. The changes driven by CAPB could explain the enhanced performance of the STAD system for WAS aerobic treatment.

  11. Active video games: the mediating effect of aerobic fitness on body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddison Ralph

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased understanding of why and how physical activity impacts on health outcomes is needed to increase the effectiveness of physical activity interventions. A recent randomized controlled trial of an active video game (PlayStation EyeToy™ intervention showed a statistically significant treatment effect on the primary outcome, change from baseline in body mass index (BMI, which favored the intervention group at 24 weeks. In this short paper we evaluate the mediating effects of the secondary outcomes. Objective To identify mediators of the effect of an active video games intervention on body composition. Methods Data from a two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial of an active video game intervention (n = 322 were analyzed. The primary outcome was change from baseline in BMI. A priori secondary outcomes were considered as potential mediators of the intervention on BMI, including aerobic fitness (VO2Max, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and food snacking at 24 weeks. Results Only aerobic fitness at 24 weeks met the conditions for mediation, and was a significant mediator of BMI. Conclusion Playing active video games can have a positive effect on body composition in overweight or obese children and this effect is most likely mediated through improved aerobic fitness. Future trials should examine other potential mediators related to this type of intervention. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Website: http://www.anzctr.org.au Study ID number: ACTRN12607000632493

  12. Aerobic Capacity Following Long Duration International Spaces Station (ISS) Missions: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alan D.; Lee, S.M.C.; Everett, M.E.; Guined, J.R.; Knudsen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) is reduced immediately following space flights lasting 6%. WRmax also decreased on R+1/2 compared to preflight (Pre: 245+/-69, R+1/2: 210+/-45 W). On R+10, VO2max was 2.86+/-0.62 L(dot)/min, with 2 subjects still demonstrating a loss of > 6% from preflight. WRmax on R+10 was 240+/-49 W. HRmax did not change from pre to post-flight. Conclusions: These preliminary results, from the first 5 of 12 planned subjects of an ongoing ISS study, suggest that the majority of astronauts will experience a decrease in VO2max after long-duration space-flight. Interestingly, the two astronauts with the highest preflight VO2max had the greatest loss on R+1/2, and the astronaut with the lowest preflight VO2max increased by 13%. Thus, maintenance of VO2max may be more difficult in astronauts who have a high aerobic capacity, perhaps requiring more intense in-flight exercise countermeasure prescriptions.

  13. Logistic Risk Model for the Unique Effects of Inherent Aerobic Capacity on (+)G(sub z) Tolerance Before and After Simulated Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David A.; Convertino, Victor A.; Goldwater, Danielle J.; Sandler, Harold

    1987-01-01

    Small sample size (n less than 1O) and inappropriate analysis of multivariate data have hindered previous attempts to describe which physiologic and demographic variables are most important in determining how long humans can tolerate acceleration. Data from previous centrifuge studies conducted at NASA/Ames Research Center, utilizing a 7-14 d bed rest protocol to simulate weightlessness, were included in the current investigation. After review, data on 25 women and 22 men were available for analysis. Study variables included gender, age, weight, height, percent body fat, resting heart rate, mean arterial pressure, Vo(sub 2)max and plasma volume. Since the dependent variable was time to greyout (failure), two contemporary biostatistical modeling procedures (proportional hazard and logistic discriminant function) were used to estimate risk, given a particular subject's profile. After adjusting for pro-bed-rest tolerance time, none of the profile variables remained in the risk equation for post-bed-rest tolerance greyout. However, prior to bed rest, risk of greyout could be predicted with 91% accuracy. All of the profile variables except weight, MAP, and those related to inherent aerobic capacity (Vo(sub 2)max, percent body fat, resting heart rate) entered the risk equation for pro-bed-rest greyout. A cross-validation using 24 new subjects indicated a very stable model for risk prediction, accurate within 5% of the original equation. The result for the inherent fitness variables is significant in that a consensus as to whether an increased aerobic capacity is beneficial or detrimental has not been satisfactorily established. We conclude that tolerance to +Gz acceleration before and after simulated weightlessness is independent of inherent aerobic fitness.

  14. Settling properties of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) and aerobic granular sludge molasses (AGSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Saad, Azlina; Aini Dahalan, Farrah; Ibrahim, Naimah; Yasina Yusuf, Sara; Aqlima Ahmad, Siti; Khalil, Khalilah Abdul

    2018-03-01

    Aerobic granulation technology is applied to treat domestic and industrial wastewater. The Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) cultivated has strong properties that appears to be denser and compact in physiological structure compared to the conventional activated sludge. It offers rapid settling for solid:liquid separation in wastewater treatment. Aerobic granules were developed using sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with intermittent aerobic - anaerobic mode with 8 cycles in 24 hr. This study examined the settling velocity performance of cultivated aerobic granular sludge (AGS) and aerobic granular sludge molasses (AGSM). The elemental composition in both AGS and AGSM were determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The results showed that AGSM has higher settling velocity 30.5 m/h compared to AGS.

  15. Basal blood parameters of horses subjected to aerobic activity fed with lipidic concentrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia de Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The feeding diets were evaluated containing low and high levels of soybean oil for horses athletes subjected to two protocols of aerobic training on the response of basal blood biochemical parameters. Four horses were used in latin square design with treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted levels of 5 and 15% oil concentrates and two aerobic training, 40' and 60' minutes. Plasmatic parameters were monitored, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, glucose (GLU and lactate (LAC, during basal metabolism. The TG, TC, GLU and LAC from horses at rest were not affected (P> 0.05 neither of diet and physical activity, 0.21, 3.79, 4.18, 0.93 mmol L-1, respectively. It can be concluded that offer concentrate with high content of soybean oil to athletic horses in aerobic activities can be performed without altering the blood biochemical profile of basal metabolism.

  16. Exergy Analysis of the Musculoskeletal System Efficiency during Aerobic and Anaerobic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Marques Spanghero

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The first and second laws of thermodynamics were applied to the human body in order to evaluate the quality of the energy conversion during muscle activity. Such an implementation represents an important issue in the exergy analysis of the body, because there is a difficulty in the literature in evaluating the performed power in some activities. Hence, to have the performed work as an input in the exergy model, two types of exercises were evaluated: weight lifting and aerobic exercise on a stationary bicycle. To this aim, we performed a study of the aerobic and anaerobic reactions in the muscle cells, aiming at predicting the metabolic efficiency and muscle efficiency during exercises. Physiological data such as oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, skin and internal temperatures and performed power were measured. Results indicated that the exergy efficiency was around 4% in the weight lifting, whereas it could reach values as high as 30% for aerobic exercises. It has been shown that the stationary bicycle is a more adequate test for first correlations between exergy and performance indices.

  17. Comparison of the effects of weight loss from a high-protein versus standard-protein energy-restricted diet on strength and aerobic capacity in overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wycherley, Thomas P; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2013-02-01

    To compare the effects of two low-fat, hypoenergetic diets differing in carbohydrate-to-protein ratio, on strength and aerobic capacity measures in overweight and obese men. In a parallel design, 56 men (age, 45.5 ± 8.7 years; BMI, 33.6 ± 3.9 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to a low-fat, energy-restricted diet (7,000 kJ/day) with either high protein (HP: protein/carbohydrate/fat % energy, 35:40:25) or standard protein (SP, 17:58:25). Body weight, body composition, muscle strength and aerobic capacity were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Forty-two participants completed the study (HP, n = 21; SP, n = 21). Both groups experienced similar reductions in body weight (HP, -10.7 ± 5.3 kg [-9.8%]; SP, -8.7 ± 3.5 kg [-8.4%]) and fat-free mass (HP, -2.8 ± 3.6 kg; SP, -3.2 ± 2.7 kg; P 0.14 time × group interaction). There was a trend for a greater reduction in fat mass in the HP diet group, (-7.7 ± 4.3 kg [-21.2%] vs. -5.4 ± 3.3 kg [-15.1%]; P diet effect (P ≤ 0.23 time × group interaction). In overweight and obese men, both a HP and SP diet reduced body weight and improved body composition with similar effects on strength and aerobic capacity.

  18. Resistance training and aerobic training improve muscle strength and aerobic capacity in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, Lars H; Overgaard, Kristian; Heje, Karen

    2018-01-01

    after a run-in period of 12 weeks without exercise. Three times weekly the participants performed aerobic exercise on an ergometer bike or resistance exercise with unilateral training of knee and elbow flexion/extension. Primary outcomes were maximal oxygen consumption velocity (VO2 -max) and maximal...

  19. Optimizing a Treadmill Ramp Protocol to Evaluate Aerobic Capacity of Hemiparetic Poststroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Wendell L; Montenegro, Rafael A; Monteiro, Walace D; de Almeida Freire, Raul; Massaferri, Renato; Farinatti, Paulo

    2018-03-01

    Bernardes, WL, Montenegro, RA, Monteiro, WD, de Almeida Freire, R, Massaferri, R, and Farinatti, P. Optimizing a treadmill ramp protocol to evaluate aerobic capacity of hemiparetic poststroke patients. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 876-884, 2018-A correct assessment of cardiopulmonary capacity is important for aerobic training within motor rehabilitation of poststroke hemiparetic patients (PSHPs). However, specific cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) for these patients are scarce. We proposed adaptations in a protocol originally developed for PSHPs by Ovando et al. (CPET1). We hypothesized that our adapted protocol (CPET2) would improve the original test, by preventing early fatigue and increasing patients' peak performance. Eleven PSHPs (52 ± 14 years, 10 men) performed both protocols. CPET2 integrated changes in final speed (100-120% vs. 140% maximal speed in 10-m walking test), treadmill inclination (final inclination of 5 vs. 10%), and estimated test duration (10 vs. 8 minutes) to smooth the rate of workload increment of CPET1. Peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) (20.3 ± 6.1 vs. 18.6 ± 5.0 ml·kg·min; p = 0.04), V[Combining Dot Above]O2 at gas exchange transition (V[Combining Dot Above]O2-GET) (11.5 ± 2.9 vs. 9.8 ± 2.0 ml·kg·min; p = 0.04), and time to exhaustion (10 ± 3 vs. 6 ± 2 minutes; p higher in CPET2 than in CPET1. Slopes and intercepts of regressions describing relationships between V[Combining Dot Above]O2 vs. workload, heart rate vs. workload, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2 vs. heart rate were similar between CPETs. However, standard errors of estimates obtained for regressions between heart rate vs. workload (3.0 ± 1.3 vs. 3.8 ± 1.0 b·min; p = 0.004) and V[Combining Dot Above]O2 vs. heart rate (6.0 ± 2.1 vs. 4.8 ± 2.4 ml·kg·min; p = 0.05) were lower in CPET2 than in CPET1. In conclusion, the present adaptations in Ovando's CPET protocol increased exercise tolerance of PSHPs, eliciting higher V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak

  20. Aerobic capacity of Peruvian Quechua: a test of the developmental adaptation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyamu, Melisa; Rivera-Chira, María; Brutsaert, Tom D

    2015-03-01

    High altitude natives are reported to have outstanding work capacity in spite of the challenge of oxygen transport and delivery in hypoxia. To evaluate the developmental effect of lifelong exposure to hypoxia on aerobic capacity, VO2peak was measured on two groups of Peruvian Quechua subjects (18-35 years), who differed in their developmental exposure to altitude. Male and female volunteers were recruited in Lima, Peru (150 m), and were divided in two groups, based on their developmental exposure to hypoxia, those: a) Born at sea-level individuals (BSL), with no developmental exposure to hypoxia (n = 34) and b) Born at high-altitude individuals (BHA) with full developmental exposure to hypoxia (n = 32), but who migrated to sea-level as adults (>16-years-old). Tests were conducted both in normoxia (BP = 750 mm Hg) and normobaric hypoxia at sea-level (BP = 750 mm Hg, FiO2  = 0.12, equivalent to 4,449 m), after a 2-month training period (in order to control for initial differences in physical fitness) at sea-level. BHA had a significantly higher VO2peak at hypoxia (40.31 ± 1.0 ml/min/kg) as compared to BSL (35.78 ± 0.96 ml/min/kg, P = 0.001), adjusting for sex. The decrease of VO2peak at HA relative to SL (ΔVO2peak ) was not different between groups, controlling for baseline levels (VO2peak at sea-level) and sex (BHA = 0.35 ± 0.04 l/min, BSL = 0.44 ± 0.04 l/min; P = 0.12). Forced vital capacity (controlling for height) and the residuals of VO2peak (controlling for weight) had a significant association in the BHA group only (r = 0.155; P = 0.031). In sum, results indicate that developmental exposure to altitude constitutes an important factor to determine superior exercise performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Aerobic training alone or combined with strength training affects fitness in elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burich, Rasmus; Teljigović, Sanel; Boyle, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate if combined strength and aerobic training can enhance aerobic capacity in the elderly to a similar extent as aerobic training alone when training duration is matched. METHODS: Elderly men and women (age 63.2 ± 4.7) were randomized into two intervention groups: an aerobic...... on the general health dimension on the SF-36 health survey improved more than AG's score. CONCLUSION: Elderly can substitute a part of their aerobic training with strength training and still improve VO2max to a clinically significant degree when strength training is performed with large muscle groups...

  2. The effects of high intensity interval training in normobaric hypoxia on aerobic capacity in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Miłosz; Zając, Adam; Maszczyk, Adam; Roczniok, Robert; Poprzęcki, Stanisław; Garbaciak, Wiesław; Zając, Tomasz

    2013-12-18

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of 3-week high intensity interval training in normobaric hypoxia (IHT) on aerobic capacity in basketball players. Twelve male well trained basketball players, randomly divided into a hypoxia (H) group (n=6; age: 22±1.6 years; VO2max: 52.6±3.9 ml/kg/min; body height - BH: 188.8±6.1 cm; body mass - BM: 83.9±7.2 kg; % of body fat - FAT%: 11.2±3.1%), and a control (C) group (n=6; age: 22±2.4 years; VO2max: 53.0±5.2 ml/kg/min; BH: 194.3 ± 6.6 cm; BM: 99.9±11.1 kg; FAT% 11.0±2.8 %) took part in the study. The training program applied during the study was the same for both groups, but with different environmental conditions during the selected interval training sessions. For 3 weeks, all subjects performed three high intensity interval training sessions per week. During the interval training sessions, the H group trained in a normobaric hypoxic chamber at a simulated altitude of 2500 m, while the group C performed interval training sessions under normoxia conditions also inside the chamber. Each interval running training sessions consisted of four to five 4 min bouts at 90% of VO2max velocity determined in hypoxia (vVO2max-hyp) for the H group and 90% of velocity at VO2max determined in normoxia for the group C. The statistical post-hoc analysis showed that the training in hypoxia caused a significant (ptraining in normoxia caused an increase (ptraining protocol with high intensity intervals (4 to 5 × 4 min bouts at 90% of vVO2max-hyp) is an effective training means for improving aerobic capacity at sea level in basketball players.

  3. Low aerobic fitness in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: aerobic fitness is considered one of the most important components of health-related physical fitness, with low levels related to increased risk of premature death from all causes, especially cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: to identify the characteristics of adolescents at higher risk of low levels of aerobic fitness. METHODS: the study included 696 adolescents 15-17 years of age enrolled in public high schools of Florianópolis, southern Brazil. This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Aerobic fitness was measured using the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test mCAFT. Sociodemographic gender, age, school grade, paternal and maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, and anthropometric variables body weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, sexual maturation, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and eating habits were collected. RESULTS: it was found that 31.5% of adolescents had low aerobic fitness levels, being higher in boys 49.2% compared to girls 20.6%. Moreover, girls with sedentary behavior, overweight and high body fat percentage were the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness. In males, the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness were those whose parents studied more than eight years, those with low levels of physical activity, and those with inadequate nutrition and excessive body fat. CONCLUSION: low aerobic fitness levels were present in one third of adolescents and was more prevalent in boys. Lifestyle changes, including replacement of sedentary behaviors by physical and sport activities , may assist in improving the aerobic fitness of Brazilian adolescents.

  4. Continuous Aerobic Training in Individualized Intensity Avoids Spontaneous Physical Activity Decline and Improves MCT1 Expression in Oxidative Muscle of Swimming Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scariot, Pedro P M; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia de Barros; Torsoni, Adriana S; Dos Reis, Ivan G M; Beck, Wladimir R; Gobatto, Claudio A

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic training has been shown to affect the lactate transport of skeletal muscle, there is no information concerning the effect of continuous aerobic training on spontaneous physical activity (SPA). Because every movement in daily life (i.e., SPA) is generated by skeletal muscle, we think that it is possible that an improvement of SPA could affect the physiological properties of muscle with regard to lactate transport. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of continuous aerobic training in individualized intensity on SPA of rats and their gene expressions of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) 1 and 4 in soleus (oxidative) and white gastrocnemius (glycolytic) muscles. We also analyzed the effect of continuous aerobic training on aerobic and anaerobic parameters using the lactate minimum test (LMT). Sixty-day-old rats were randomly divided into three groups: a baseline group in which rats were evaluated prior to initiation of the study; a control group (Co) in which rats were kept without any treatment during 12 weeks; and a chronic exercise group (Tr) in which rats swam for 40 min/day, 5 days/week at 80% of anaerobic threshold during 12 weeks. After the experimental period, SPA of rats was measured using a gravimetric method. Rats had their expression of MCTs determined by RT-PCR analysis. In essence, aerobic training is effective in maintaining SPA, but did not prevent the decline of aerobic capacity and anaerobic performance, leading us to propose that the decline of SPA is not fully attributed to a deterioration of physical properties. Changes in SPA were concomitant with changes in MCT1 expression in the soleus muscle of trained rats, suggestive of an additional adaptive response toward increased lactate clearance. This result is in line with our observation showing a better equilibrium on lactate production-remotion during the continuous exercise (LMT). We propose an approach to combat the decline of SPA of rats in their home

  5. Weight training, aerobic physical activities, and long-term waist circumference change in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekary, Rania A; Grøntved, Anders; Despres, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Findings on weight training and waist circumference (WC) change are controversial. This study examined prospectively whether weight training, moderate to vigorous aerobic activity (MVAA), and replacement of one activity for another were associated with favorable changes in WC and body ...

  6. Regular Aerobic Training Combined with Range of Motion Exercises in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Doğru Apti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the effects of regular aerobic training combined with range of motion (ROM exercises on aerobic capacity, quality of life, and function in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Methods. Thirty patients with JIA and 20 healthy age-matched controls (mean age ± SD, 11.3 ± 2.4 versus 11.0 ± 2.3, resp.; P>0.05 were included. All patients performed aerobic walking (4 days a week for 8 weeks and active and passive ROM exercises of involved joints. All patients completed the childhood health assessment questionnaire (CHAQ and the child health questionnaire. ROM measurements of joints were performed by using universal goniometer. Aerobic capacity was determined by measuring peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak during an incremental treadmill test. Results. Peak oxygen uptake and exercise duration were significantly lower in JIA group than in controls (32.5 ± 6.6 versus 35.9 ± 5.8 and 13.9 ± 1.9 versus 15.0 ± 2.0, resp.; P<0.05 for both. Eight-week combined exercise program significantly improved exercise parameters of JIA patients (baseline versus postexercise VO2peak and exercise duration, 32.5 ± 6.6 to 35.3 ± 7.9 and 13.9 ± 1.9 to 16.3 ± 2.2, resp.; P<0.001 for both. Exercise intervention significantly improved CHAQ scores in JIA patients (0.77 ± 0.61 to 0.20 ± 0.28, P<0.001. Conclusion. We suggest that regular aerobic exercise combined with ROM exercises may be an important part of treatment in patients with JIA.

  7. Low-intensity aerobic exercise training: inhibition of skeletal muscle atrophy in high-fat-diet-induced ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jin; Lee, Won Jun

    2017-09-30

    Postmenopausal women are highly susceptible to diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, or skeletal muscle atrophy and many people recognize the need for regular physical activity. Aerobic exercise training is known to improve the oxidative capacity and insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscles. This study aimed to investigate the role of low-intensity aerobic exercise training on skeletal muscle protein degradation or synthesis in the plantaris muscles of high-fat-fed ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomized female rats were divided into two groups: a high-fat diet-sedentary group (HFD), and a high-fat diet-aerobic exercise group (HFD+EX). The exercise group exercised aerobically on a treadmill 5 days/week for 8 weeks. The rats progressively ran 30 min/day at 15 m/min, up to 40 min/day at 18 m/min, 0% slope, in the last 4 weeks. Although aerobic exercise led to significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation at Thr172, phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) substrate Thr389 S6K1 level did not decrease. Additionally, even though Akt activity did not increase at Ser473, the atrogin-1 level significantly decreased in the exercise group compared to the non-exercise group. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that high-fat-induced TSC2 protein expression was eliminated in response to aerobic exercise. These results suggest that aerobic exercise can inhibit skeletal muscle protein degradation, but it cannot increase protein synthesis in the plantaris muscle of high-fat-fed ovariectomized rats. Our findings have implications in understanding skeletal muscle mass maintenance with low intensity aerobic exercise in post-menopausal women. ©2017 The Korean Society for Exercise Nutrition

  8. Effect of an educational intervention to promote intradialysis aerobic exercises on the functional state of hemodialysis patients from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Cabrera-Pivaral

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health education search to influence on persons’ attitude for to improve your health by mean of healthy habits promotion. In patients with hemodialysis your functional capacity usually is diminished for physical inactivity. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a health education intervention for aerobic exercise’s promotion on the functional capacity in hemodialysis patients from Mexico. Methods: Quasi-experimental study beforeafter with control group in Hospital Medical Care Units of the Mexican Institute of Social Security, Jalisco’s Delegation, with a universe of 26 patients with hemodialysis purposively sampled, 14 in Group “A” (experimental and 12 in Group “B” (control. It included variables: age, gender and functional capacity. The intervention consisted of directed dialogue on biopsychosocial factors of renal disease, functional capacity and nutrition, with accompaniment in aerobic exercises of 30 minutes/week for 20 weeks. It evaluated functional capacity with Delta Test and it compared means before and after with Student’s T (p ≤ 0,05. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between age and gender of patients in the “A” and “B” Groups. Mean functional capacity before and after: Group “A” 14 ± 5 vs 8 ± 4 (p < 0,001, Group “B” 16 ± 4 vs 17 ± 5 (p = 0,405. Conclusions: The health education influenced favorably on the physical activity of patients with hemodialysis and improved your functional capacity. To implement aerobic exercise programs during hemodialysis sessions it advisable.

  9. Cognitive Deficit in Heart Failure and the Benefits of Aerobic Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luíza de Medeiros Rêgo

    Full Text Available Abstract Heart Failure is a clinical syndrome prevalent throughout the world and a major contribution to mortality of cardiac patients in Brazil. In addition, this pathology is strongly related to cerebral dysfunction, with a high prevalence of cognitive impairment. Many mechanisms may be related to cognitive loss, such as cerebral hypoperfusion, atrophy and loss of gray matter of the brain, and dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. The literature is clear regarding the benefits of aerobic physical activity in healthy populations in the modulation of the autonomic nervous system and in brain functions. Studies have shown that in the population of patients with heart failure, exercise is associated with an improvement in cognitive function, as well as in cardiac autonomic regulation. However, little emphasis has been given to the mechanisms by which aerobic physical activity can benefit brain functioning, the autonomic nervous system and result in better cognitive performance, particularly in patients with heart failure. Therefore, the present work presents the ways in which brain areas responsible for cognition also act in the modulation of the autonomic nervous system, and emphasizes its importance for the understanding of cognitive impairment in relation to the pathophysiology of heart failure. It is also described the way in which aerobic physical activity can promote benefits when it is integrated into the therapy, associated to a better prognosis of the clinical picture of these patients.

  10. Effect of aerobic exercise training on fatigue and physical activity in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Ali A; Chin, Lisa M K; Keyser, Randall E; Kennedy, Michelle; Nathan, Steven D; Woolstenhulme, Joshua G; Connors, Gerilynn; Chan, Leighton

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of an exercise intervention for decreasing fatigue severity and increasing physical activity in individuals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). A small, phase 2 randomized clinical trial of the effect of aerobic exercise training on fatigue severity and physical activity in patients with idiopathic or PAH associated with other conditions was conducted. Twenty-four patients with PAH (24 female; age: 54.4 ± 10.4 years; BMI: 30.8 ± 7.2 kg/m(2)) participated in the study. A convenience sample was recruited in which 9% (28 of 303) of screened patients were enrolled. The project was carried out in a clinical pulmonary rehabilitation clinic during existing pulmonary rehabilitation program sessions. Patients with PH were randomized into a 10-week program that consisted of patient education only or patient education plus an aerobic exercise-training regimen. Both groups received 20 lectures, two per week over the 10-weeks, on topics related to PAH and its management. The aerobic exercise training consisted of 24-30 sessions of treadmill walking for 30-45 min per session at an intensity of 70-80% of heart rate reserve, three days per week over the 10 weeks. After 10-weeks of intervention, patients receiving aerobic exercise training plus education reported routinely engaging in higher levels of physical activity (p decrease in fatigue severity (p = 0.03). Patients in the education only group did not report changes in fatigue severity or participation in physical activity. The 10-week aerobic exercise training intervention resulted in increased physical activity and decreased fatigue in individuals with PAH. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00678821. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sialidase activity in aerobic vaginitis is equal to levels during bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, C; Donders, G G G; Bellen, G; Brown, D R; Parada, C M G L; Silva, M G

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate levels of proinflammatory cytokines and sialidase activity in aerobic vaginitis (AV) in relation to normal vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis (BV). In this cross-sectional study, a total of 682 consecutive non-pregnant women attending the gynecology service were assessed and 408 women were included. Vaginal rinsing samples were collected from 223 women with microscopic finding of BV (n=98), aerobic vaginitis (n=25) and normal flora (n=100). Samples were tested for interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and sialidase activity. Compared to women with normal flora, vaginal levels of IL-1β were highly increased in both BV and AV (pvaginal IL-6 was detected in AV (pvaginal flora types can be harmful to the maintenance of a healthy vaginal environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluating dispersal potential of an invasive fish by the use of aerobic scope and osmoregulation capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane W.; Deurs, Mikael van; Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt

    2017-01-01

    factors such as presence of predators, competitors, and parasites. Early prediction of dispersal potential and future 'area of impact' is challenging, but also a great asset in taking appropriate management actions. Aerobic scope (AS) in fish has been linked to various fitness-related parameters, and may...... waters is unknown to date. We show that AS in round goby is reduced by 30% and blood plasma osmolality increased (indicating reduced capacity for osmoregulation) at salinities approaching oceanic conditions, following slow ramping (5 PSU per week) and subsequent long-term acclimation to salinities...... ranging between 0 and 30 PSU (8 days at final treatment salinities before blood plasma osmolality measurements, 12-20 additional days before respirometry). Survival was also reduced at the highest salinities yet a significant proportion (61%) of the fish survived at 30 PSU. Reduced physiological...

  13. Effect of Combined Exercise Versus Aerobic-Only Training on Skeletal Muscle Lipid Metabolism in a Rodent Model of Type1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotzert, Michelle S; McDonald, Matthew W; Murray, Michael R; Nickels, J Zachary; Noble, Earl G; Melling, C W James

    2017-12-04

    Abnormal skeletal muscle lipid metabolism is associated with insulin resistance in people with type 1 diabetes. Although lipid metabolism is restored with aerobic exercise training, the risk for postexercise hypoglycemia is increased with this modality. Integrating resistance and aerobic exercise is associated with reduced hypoglycemic risk; however, the effects of this exercise modality on lipid metabolism and insulin resistance remain unknown. We compared the effects of combined (aerobic + resistance) versus aerobic exercise training on oxidative capacity and muscle lipid metabolism in a rat model of type 1 diabetes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (C), sedentary control + diabetes (CD), diabetes + high-intensity aerobic exercise (DAE) and diabetes + combined aerobic and resistance exercise (DARE). Following diabetes induction (20 mg/kg streptozotocin over five days), DAE rats ran for 12 weeks (5 days/week for 1 hour) on a motorized treadmill (27 m/min at a 6-degree grade), and DARE rats alternated daily between running and incremental weighted ladder climbing. After training, DAE showed reduced muscle CD36 protein content and lipid content compared to CD (p≤0.05). DAE rats also had significantly increased citrate synthase (CS) activity compared to CD (p≤0.05). DARE rats showed reduced CD36 protein content compared to CD and increased CS activity compared to CD and DAE rats (p≤0.05). DARE rats demonstrated increased skeletal muscle lipid staining, elevated lipin-1 protein content and insulin sensitivity (p≤0.05). Integration of aerobic and resistance exercise may exert a synergistic effect, producing adaptations characteristic of the "athlete's paradox," including increased capacity to store and oxidize lipids. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. III. The importance of physical activity and aerobic fitness for cognitive control and memory in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J; Kramer, Arthur F

    2014-12-01

    In this chapter, we review literature that examines the association among physical activity, aerobic fitness, cognition, and the brain in elementary school children (ages 7-10 years). Specifically, physical activity and higher levels of aerobic fitness in children have been found to benefit brain structure, brain function, cognition, and school achievement. For example, higher fit children have larger brain volumes in the basal ganglia and hippocampus, which relate to superior performance on tasks of cognitive control and memory, respectively, when compared to their lower fit peers. Higher fit children also show superior brain function during tasks of cognitive control, better scores on tests of academic achievement, and higher performance on a real-world street crossing task, compared to lower fit and less active children. The cross-sectional findings are strengthened by a few randomized, controlled trials, which demonstrate that children randomly assigned to a physical activity intervention group show greater brain and cognitive benefits compared to a control group. Because these findings suggest that the developing brain is plastic and sensitive to lifestyle factors, we also discuss typical structural and functional brain maturation in children to provide context in which to interpret the effects of physical activity and aerobic fitness on the developing brain. This research is important because children are becoming increasingly sedentary, physically inactive, and unfit. An important goal of this review is to emphasize the importance of physical activity and aerobic fitness for the cognitive and brain health of today's youth. © 2014 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Chronic aerobic exercise training attenuates aortic stiffening and endothelial dysfunction through preserving aortic mitochondrial function in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qi; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Ma, Yan-Ping; Liu, Jian-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Ze

    2014-08-01

    Aging leads to large vessel arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction, which are important determinants of cardiovascular risk. The aim of present work was to assess the effects of chronic aerobic exercise training on aortic stiffening and endothelial dysfunction in aged rats and investigate the underlying mechanism about mitochondrial function. Chronic aerobic exercise training attenuated aortic stiffening with age marked by reduced collagen concentration, increased elastin concentration and reduced pulse wave velocity (PWV), and prevented aging-related endothelial dysfunction marked by improved endothelium-mediated vascular relaxation of aortas in response to acetylcholine. Chronic aerobic exercise training abated oxidative stress and nitrosative stress in aortas of aged rats. More importantly, we found that chronic aerobic exercise training in old rats preserved aortic mitochondrial function marked by reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and mitochondrial swelling, increased ATP formation and mitochondrial DNA content, and restored activities of complexes I and III and electron-coupling capacity between complexes I and III and between complexes II and III. In addition, it was found that chronic aerobic exercise training in old rats enhanced protein expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2), prohibitin (PHB) and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in aortas. In conclusion, chronic aerobic exercise training preserved mitochondrial function in aortas, which, at least in part, explained the aorta-protecting effects of exercise training in aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Four birds with one stone? Reparative, neuroplastic, cardiorespiratory, and metabolic benefits of aerobic exercise poststroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploughman, Michelle; Kelly, Liam P

    2016-12-01

    Converging evidence from animal models of stroke and clinical trials suggests that aerobic exercise has effects across multiple targets. The subacute phase is characterized by a period of heightened neuroplasticity when aerobic exercise has the potential to optimize recovery. In animals, low intensity aerobic exercise shrinks lesion size and reduces cell death and inflammation, beginning 24 h poststroke. Also in animals, aerobic exercise upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor near the lesion and improves learning. In terms of neuroplastic effects, clinical trial results are less convincing and have only examined effects in chronic stroke. Stroke patients demonstrate cardiorespiratory fitness levels below the threshold required to carry out daily activities. This may contribute to a 'neurorehabilitation ceiling' that limits capacity to practice at a high enough frequency and intensity to promote recovery. Aerobic exercise when delivered 2-5 days per week at moderate to high intensity beginning as early as 5 days poststroke improves cardiorespiratory fitness, dyslipidemia, and glucose tolerance. Based on the evidence discussed and applying principles of periodization commonly used to prepare athletes for competition, we have created a model of aerobic training in subacute stroke in which training is delivered in density blocks (duration × intensity) matched to recovery phases.

  17. The effect of thermal acclimation on aerobic scope and critical swimming speed in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvas, Malthe; Folkedal, Ole; Imsland, Albert; Oppedal, Frode

    2017-08-01

    The Atlantic salmon is extensively studied owing to conservation concerns and its economic importance in aquaculture. However, a thorough report of their aerobic capacity throughout their entire thermal niche has not been described. In this study, Atlantic salmon (∼450 g) were acclimated for 4 weeks at 3, 8, 13, 18 or 23°C, and then tested in a large Brett-type swimming respirometer in groups of 10 per trial. Both standard metabolic rate and active metabolic rate continued to increase with temperature, which resulted in an aerobic scope that also increased with temperature, but was statistically similar between 13, 18 and 23°C. The critical swimming speed peaked at 18°C (93.1±1.2 cm s -1 ), and decreased significantly at the extreme temperatures to 74.8±0.5 and 84.8±1.6 cm s -1 at 3 and 23°C, respectively. At 23°C, the accumulated mortality reached 20% over 4 weeks, while no fish died during acclimation at colder temperatures. Furthermore, fish at 23°C had poor appetite and lower condition factor despite still having a high aerobic scope, suggesting that oxygen uptake was not the limiting factor in the upper thermal niche boundary. In conclusion, Atlantic salmon were able to maintain a high aerobic capacity and good swimming capabilities throughout the entire thermal interval tested, thus demonstrating a high level of flexibility in respiratory capacity towards different temperature exposures. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Leisure-time aerobic physical activity, muscle-strengthening activity and mortality risks among US adults: the NHANES linked mortality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guixiang; Li, Chaoyang; Ford, Earl S; Fulton, Janet E; Carlson, Susan A; Okoro, Catherine A; Wen, Xiao Jun; Balluz, Lina S

    2014-02-01

    Regular physical activity elicits multiple health benefits in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. We examined the mortality risks associated with levels of leisure-time aerobic physical activity and muscle-strengthening activity based on the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans among US adults. We analysed data from the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with linked mortality data obtained through 2006. Cox proportional HRs with 95% CIs were estimated to assess risks for all-causes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality associated with aerobic physical activity and muscle-strengthening activity. Of 10 535 participants, 665 died (233 deaths from CVD) during an average of 4.8-year follow-up. Compared with participants who were physically inactive, the adjusted HR for all-cause mortality was 0.64 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.79) among those who were physically active (engaging in ≥150 min/week of the equivalent moderate-intensity physical activity) and 0.72 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.97) among those who were insufficiently active (engaging in >0 to benefits among insufficiently active adults.

  19. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T; Porcari, John P

    2015-12-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. There were significant (p Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults. Key pointsSteady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained studentsMild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state trainingHIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval trainingEnjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program.

  20. Management of aerobic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempera, Gianna; Furneri, Pio Maria

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis is a new nonclassifiable pathology that is neither specific vaginitis nor bacterial vaginosis. The diversity of this microbiological peculiarity could also explain several therapeutic failures when patients were treated for infections identified as bacterial vaginosis. The diagnosis 'aerobic vaginitis' is essentially based on microscopic examinations using a phase-contrast microscope (at ×400 magnification). The therapeutic choice for 'aerobic vaginitis' should take into consideration an antibiotic characterized by an intrinsic activity against the majority of bacteria of fecal origin, bactericidal effect and poor/absent interference with the vaginal microbiota. Regarding the therapy for aerobic vaginitis when antimicrobial agents are prescribed, not only the antimicrobial spectrum but also the presumed ecological disturbance on the anaerobic and aerobic vaginal and rectal microbiota should be taken into a consideration. Because of their very low impact on the vaginal microbiota, kanamycin or quinolones are to be considered a good choice for therapy. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Effects of Cognitive Training with and without Aerobic Exercise on Cognitively-Demanding Everyday Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Binder, Ellen F.; Bugg, Julie M.; Waldum, Emily R.; Dufault, Carolyn; Meyer, Amanda; Johanning, Jennifer; Zheng, Jie; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Kudelka, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential benefits of a novel cognitive training protocol and an aerobic exercise intervention, both individually and in concert, on older adults’ performances in laboratory simulations of select real-world tasks. The cognitive training focused on a range of cognitive processes, including attentional coordination, prospective memory, and retrospective-memory retrieval, processes that are likely involved in many everyday tasks, and that decline with age. Primary outcome measures were three laboratory tasks that simulated everyday activities: Cooking Breakfast, Virtual Week, and Memory for Health Information. Two months of cognitive training improved older adults’ performance on prospective memory tasks embedded in Virtual Week. Cognitive training, either alone or in combination with six months of aerobic exercise, did not significantly improve Cooking Breakfast or Memory for Health Information. Although gains in aerobic power were comparable to previous reports, aerobic exercise did not produce improvements for the primary outcome measures. Discussion focuses on the possibility that cognitive training programs that include explicit strategy instruction and varied practice contexts may confer gains to older adults for performance on cognitively challenging everyday tasks. PMID:25244489

  2. Effect of intermittent normobaric hypoxia on aerobic capacity and cognitive function in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schega, Lutz; Peter, Beate; Brigadski, Tanja; Leßmann, Volkmar; Isermann, Berend; Hamacher, Dennis; Törpel, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Physical exercise, especially aerobic training, improves physical performance and cognitive function of older people. Furthermore, it has been speculated that age-associated deteriorations in physical performance and cognitive function could be counteracted through exposures to passive intermittent normobaric hypoxia (IH). Thus, the present investigation aimed at investigating the effect of passive IH combined with subsequent aerobic training on hematological parameters and aerobic physical performance (V˙O 2max ) as well as peripheral levels of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cognitive function. Randomized controlled trial in a repeated measure design. 34 older participants were randomly assigned to an intervention group (IG) or control group (CG). While IG was supplied with passive IH for 90min, CG breathed ambient air. Subsequently, both groups underwent 30min of aerobic training three times per week for four consecutive weeks. Aerobic physical performance and cognitive function was tested with spiroergometry and the Stroop test. Blood samples were taken to measure hematological parameters and the peripheral serum BDNF-level. We found increases in the values of hematological parameters, the time to exhaustion in the load test and an augmented and sustainable improvement in cognitive function within the IG of the older people only. However, in both groups, the V˙O 2max and serum BDNF-level did not increase. Based on these results, hypoxic training seems to be beneficial to enhance hematological parameters, physical performance and cognitive function in older people. The current hypoxic-dose was not able to enhance the serum BDNF-level or V˙O 2max . Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Aerobic composting of waste activated sludge: Kinetic analysis for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Y.; Kawase, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In order to examine the optimal design and operating parameters, kinetics for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption in composting of waste activated sludge were quantitatively examined. A series of experiments was conducted to discuss the optimal operating parameters for aerobic composting of waste activated sludge obtained from Kawagoe City Wastewater Treatment Plant (Saitama, Japan) using 4 and 20 L laboratory scale bioreactors. Aeration rate, compositions of compost mixture and height of compost pile were investigated as main design and operating parameters. The optimal aerobic composting of waste activated sludge was found at the aeration rate of 2.0 L/min/kg (initial composting mixture dry weight). A compost pile up to 0.5 m could be operated effectively. A simple model for composting of waste activated sludge in a composting reactor was developed by assuming that a solid phase of compost mixture is well mixed and the kinetics for microbiological reaction is represented by a Monod-type equation. The model predictions could fit the experimental data for decomposition of waste activated sludge with an average deviation of 2.14%. Oxygen consumption during composting was also examined using a simplified model in which the oxygen consumption was represented by a Monod-type equation and the axial distribution of oxygen concentration in the composting pile was described by a plug-flow model. The predictions could satisfactorily simulate the experiment results for the average maximum oxygen consumption rate during aerobic composting with an average deviation of 7.4%

  4. Continuous Aerobic Training in Individualized Intensity Avoids Spontaneous Physical Activity Decline and Improves MCT1 Expression in Oxidative Muscle of Swimming Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Menezes Scariot

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although aerobic training has been shown to affect the lactate transport of skeletal muscle, there is no information concerning the effect of continuous aerobic training on spontaneous physical activity (SPA. Because every movement in daily life (i.e. SPA is generated by skeletal muscle, we think that it is possible that an improvement of SPA could affect the physiological properties of muscle with regard to lactate transport. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of continuous aerobic training in individualized intensity on SPA of rats and their gene expressions of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT 1 and 4 in soleus (oxidative and white gastrocnemius (glycolytic muscles. We also analyzed the effect of continuous aerobic training on aerobic and anaerobic parameters using the lactate minimum test (LMT. 60-day-old rats were randomly divided into three groups: a baseline group in which rats were evaluated prior to initiation of the study; a control group (Co in which rats were kept without any treatment during 12 weeks; and a chronic exercise group (Tr in which rats swam for 40min/day, 5 days/week at 80% of anaerobic threshold during 12 weeks. After the experimental period, SPA of rats was measured using a gravimetric method. Rats had their expression of MCTs determined by RT-PCR analysis. In essence, aerobic training is effective in maintaining SPA, but did not prevent the decline of aerobic capacity and anaerobic performance, leading us to propose that the decline of SPA is not fully attributed to a deterioration of physical properties. Changes in SPA were concomitant with changes in MCT1 expression in the soleus muscle of trained rats, suggestive of an additional adaptive response toward increased lactate clearance. This result is in line with our observation showing a better equilibrium on lactate production-remotion during the continuous exercise (LMT. We propose an approach to combat the decline of SPA of rats in their

  5. Does aerobic exercise increase 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure among workers with high occupational physical activity? - A RCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krause, Niklas; Clays, Els

    2017-01-01

    .9–3.8). Cleaners with high aerobic workload exhibited particularly high 24-hour ABP increases: systolic 6.0 mm Hg (95% CI 2.4–9.6), and diastolic 3.8 mm Hg (95% CI 1.3–6.4). CONCLUSION Aerobic exercise increased 24-hour ABP among cleaners. This adverse effect raises questions about the safety and intended benefits......OBJECTIVE High occupational physical activity (OPA) increases cardiovascular risk and aerobic exercise has been recommended for reducing this risk. This paper investigates the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) among cleaners with high OPA....... METHODS Hundred and sixteen cleaners between 18 and 65 years were randomized. During the 4-month intervention period, the aerobic exercise group (AE) (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (2 × 30 minutes/week), while the reference group (REF) (n = 59) attended lectures. Between-group differences...

  6. Does Aerobic Exercise Increase 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Among Workers With High Occupational Physical Activity? - A RCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Krause, Niklas; Clays, Els

    2017-01-01

    .9–3.8). Cleaners with high aerobic workload exhibited particularly high 24-hour ABP increases: systolic 6.0 mm Hg (95% CI 2.4–9.6), and diastolic 3.8 mm Hg (95% CI 1.3–6.4). CONCLUSION Aerobic exercise increased 24-hour ABP among cleaners. This adverse effect raises questions about the safety and intended benefits......OBJECTIVE High occupational physical activity (OPA) increases cardiovascular risk and aerobic exercise has been recommended for reducing this risk. This paper investigates the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) among cleaners with high OPA....... METHODS Hundred and sixteen cleaners between 18 and 65 years were randomized. During the 4-month intervention period, the aerobic exercise group (AE) (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (2 × 30 minutes/week), while the reference group (REF) (n = 59) attended lectures. Between-group differences...

  7. The Influence of Various Types of Water Gymnastics Upon the Exercise Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    BADAU, Dana; BADAU, Adela

    2015-01-01

    Between the components of the physiological capacity and the practice degree of the physical exercise is a direct interrelation, which is influenced by a number of factors, out of which deployment environment with its features has a leading role. Determining the relationship between the effort capacity by heart rate changes during recovery after exercise, determining the body aerobic resistance level, as a result of the entertaining and recreational activities, specifically, pe...

  8. [Lipid and metabolic profiles in adolescents are affected more by physical fitness than physical activity (AVENA study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Artero, Enrique; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Mesa, José L; Delgado, Manuel; González-Gross, Marcela; García-Fuentes, Miguel; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Gutiérrez, Angel; Castillo, Manuel J

    2007-06-01

    To determine whether the level of physical activity or physical fitness (i.e., aerobic capacity and muscle strength) in Spanish adolescents influences lipid and metabolic profiles. From a total of 2859 Spanish adolescents (age 13.0-18.5 years) taking part in the AVENA (Alimentación y Valoración del Estado Nutricional en Adolescentes) study, 460 (248 male, 212 female) were randomly selected for blood analysis. Their level of physical activity was determined by questionnaire. Aerobic capacity was assessed using the Course-Navette test. Muscle strength was evaluated using manual dynamometry, the long jump test, and the flexed arm hang test. A lipid-metabolic cardiovascular risk index was derived from the levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), and glucose. No relationship was found between the level of physical activity and lipid-metabolic index in either sex. In contrast, there was an inverse relationship between the lipid-metabolic index and aerobic capacity in males (P=.003) after adjustment for physical activity level and muscle strength. In females, a favorable lipid-metabolic index was associated with greater muscle strength (P=.048) after adjustment for aerobic capacity. These results indicate that, in adolescents, physical fitness, and not physical activity, is related to lipid and metabolic cardiovascular risk. Higher aerobic capacity in males and greater muscle strength in females were associated with lower lipid and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  9. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs

    OpenAIRE

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L.; DeMello, Madison M.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0???3.3?years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6?week...

  10. Bio-methane from an-aerobic digestion using activated carbon adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Bell, Alexandra H; Almustapha, M N; Andresen, John M

    2017-08-01

    There is an increasing global demand for carbon-neutral bio-methane from an-aerobic digestion (AD) to be injected into national gas grids. Bio-gas, a methane -rich energy gas, is produced by microbial decomposition of organic matter through an-aerobic conditions where the presence of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide affects its performance. Although the microbiological process in the AD can be tailored to enhance the bio-gas composition, physical treatment is needed to convert the bio-gas into bio-methane. Water washing is the most common method for upgrading bio-gas for bio-methane production, but its large use of water is challenging towards industrial scale-up. Hence, the present study focuses on scale-up comparison of water washing with activated-carbon adsorption using HYSYS and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. The models show that for plants processing less than 500 m 3 /h water scrubbing was cost effective compared with activated carbon. However, against current fossil natural-gas cost of about 1 p/kWh in the UK both relied heavily on governmental subsidies to become economically feasible. For plants operating at 1000 m 3 /hr, the treatment costs were reduced to below 1.5 p/kWh for water scrubbing and 0.9 p/kWh for activated carbon where the main benefits of activated carbon were lower capital and operating costs and virtually no water losses. It is envisioned that this method can significantly aid the production of sustainable bio-methane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness and body fat in an urban sample of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Thorsson, O; Karlsson, M K

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates associations between objectively measured daily physical activity vs aerobic fitness and body fat in children aged 8-11 years. A cross-sectional study of 225 children aged 7.9-11.1 years was performed. Abdominal fat mass (AFM) and total body fat (TBF) were quantified by dual......-energy x-ray absorptiometry. TBF was calculated as percentage of total body mass (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Aerobic fitness was measured by indirect calorimetry during a maximal cycle ergometer exercise test. Daily physical activity was assessed by accelerometers for 4 days...... and daily accumulation of moderate-to-vigorous and vigorous activity was calculated. Significant relationships (Pfitness (r=0.38), whereas moderate-to-vigorous activity displayed weaker relationships...

  12. An obligately aerobic soil bacterium activates fermentative hydrogen production to survive reductive stress during hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berney, Michael; Greening, Chris; Conrad, Ralf; Jacobs, William R; Cook, Gregory M

    2014-08-05

    Oxygen availability is a major factor and evolutionary force determining the metabolic strategy of bacteria colonizing an environmental niche. In the soil, conditions can switch rapidly between oxia and anoxia, forcing soil bacteria to remodel their energy metabolism accordingly. Mycobacterium is a dominant genus in the soil, and all its species are obligate aerobes. Here we show that an obligate aerobe, the soil actinomycete Mycobacterium smegmatis, adopts an anaerobe-type strategy by activating fermentative hydrogen production to adapt to hypoxia. This process is controlled by the two-component system DosR-DosS/DosT, an oxygen and redox sensor that is well conserved in mycobacteria. We show that DosR tightly regulates the two [NiFe]-hydrogenases: Hyd3 (MSMEG_3931-3928) and Hyd2 (MSMEG_2719-2718). Using genetic manipulation and high-sensitivity GC, we demonstrate that Hyd3 facilitates the evolution of H2 when oxygen is depleted. Combined activity of Hyd2 and Hyd3 was necessary to maintain an optimal NAD(+)/NADH ratio and enhanced adaptation to and survival of hypoxia. We demonstrate that fermentatively-produced hydrogen can be recycled when fumarate or oxygen become available, suggesting Mycobacterium smegmatis can switch between fermentation, anaerobic respiration, and aerobic respiration. Hydrogen metabolism enables this obligate aerobe to rapidly meet its energetic needs when switching between microoxic and anoxic conditions and provides a competitive advantage in low oxygen environments.

  13. Aerobic training for improved memory in patients with stress-related exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskilsson, Therese; Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth; Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with stress-related exhaustion suffer from cognitive impairments, which often remain after psychological treatment or work place interventions. It is important to find effective treatments that can address this problem. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate...... the effects on cognitive performance and psychological variables of a 12-week aerobic training program performed at a moderate-vigorous intensity for patients with exhaustion disorder who participated in a multimodal rehabilitation program. METHODS: In this open-label, parallel, randomized and controlled...... was cognitive function, and secondary outcome measures were psychological health variables and aerobic capacity. RESULTS: In total, 51% patients in the aerobic training group and 78% patients in the control group completed the intervention period. The aerobic training group significantly improved in maximal...

  14. Effect of wrist cooling on aerobic and anaerobic performance in elite sportsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Anup; Singh, Krishan; Sharma, Deep; Upadhyay, Vivekanand; Singh, Amit

    2018-01-01

    Body cooling has been used to increase sporting performance and enhance recovery. Several studies have reported improvement in exercise capacities using forearm and hand cooling or only hand cooling. Wrist cooling has emerged as a portable light weight solution for precooling prior to sporting activity. The Astrand test for aerobic performance and the Wingate test for anaerobic performance are reliable and accurate tests for performance assessment. This study conducted on elite Indian athletes analyses the effects of wrist precooling on aerobic and anaerobic performance as tested by the Astrand test and the Wingate test before and after wrist precooling. 67 elite sportsmen were administered Wingate and Astrand test under standardised conditions with and without wrist precooling using a wrist cooling device (dhamaSPORT). Paired t -test was applied to study effect on aerobic [VO 2 (ml/min/kg)] and anaerobic performance [peak power (W/kg) and average power (W/kg)] and Cohen's d was used to calculate effect size of wrist precooling. After wrist precooling, significant increase of 0.22 ( p  = 0.014, 95% CI: 0.047, 0.398) in peak power (W/kg) and 0.22 ( p  effective in aerobic performance. Wrist cooling effect size was smaller in VO 2 (Cohen's d  = 0.21), peak power (Cohen's d  = 0.31) and it was larger in average power (Cohen's d  = 0.71). Results show wrist precooling significantly improves anaerobic than aerobic performance of elite sportsmen.

  15. Aerobic exercise protects against pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction and hypertrophy via β3-AR-nNOS-NO activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenju; Li, Xiaoli; Zheng, Qiangsun; Niu, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic exercise confers sustainable protection against cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF). Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and nitric oxide (NO) are known to play an important role in exercise-mediated cardioprotection, but the mechanism of NOS/NO stimulation during exercise remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the role of β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs), NOS activation, and NO metabolites (nitrite and nitrosothiols) in the sustained cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise. An HF model was constructed by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Animals were treated with either moderate aerobic exercise by swimming for 9 weeks and/or the β3-AR-specific inhibitor SR59230A at 0.1 mg/kg/hour one day after TAC operation. Myocardial fibrosis, myocyte size, plasma catecholamine (CA) level, cardiac function and geometry were assessed using Masson’s trichrome staining, FITC-labeled wheat germ agglutinin staining, enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) and echocardiography, respectively. Western blot analysis was performed to elucidate the expression of target proteins. The concentration of myocardial NO production was evaluated using the nitrate reductase method. Myocardial oxidative stress was assessed by detecting the concentration of myocardial super oxidative dismutase (SOD), malonyldialdehyde (MDA), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Aerobic exercise training improved dilated left ventricular function and partially attenuated the degree of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in TAC mice. Moreover, the increased expression of β3-AR, activation of neuronal NOS (nNOS), and production of NO were detected after aerobic exercise training in TAC mice. However, selective inhibition of β3-AR by SR59230A abolished the upregulation and activation of nNOS induced NO production. Furthermore, aerobic exercise training decreased the myocardial ROS and MDA contents and increased myocardial levels of SOD; both effects were partially attenuated by SR

  16. Aerobic exercise protects against pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction and hypertrophy via β3-AR-nNOS-NO activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Xu, Ming; Li, Wenju; Li, Xiaoli; Zheng, Qiangsun; Niu, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic exercise confers sustainable protection against cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF). Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and nitric oxide (NO) are known to play an important role in exercise-mediated cardioprotection, but the mechanism of NOS/NO stimulation during exercise remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the role of β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs), NOS activation, and NO metabolites (nitrite and nitrosothiols) in the sustained cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise. An HF model was constructed by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Animals were treated with either moderate aerobic exercise by swimming for 9 weeks and/or the β3-AR-specific inhibitor SR59230A at 0.1 mg/kg/hour one day after TAC operation. Myocardial fibrosis, myocyte size, plasma catecholamine (CA) level, cardiac function and geometry were assessed using Masson's trichrome staining, FITC-labeled wheat germ agglutinin staining, enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) and echocardiography, respectively. Western blot analysis was performed to elucidate the expression of target proteins. The concentration of myocardial NO production was evaluated using the nitrate reductase method. Myocardial oxidative stress was assessed by detecting the concentration of myocardial super oxidative dismutase (SOD), malonyldialdehyde (MDA), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Aerobic exercise training improved dilated left ventricular function and partially attenuated the degree of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in TAC mice. Moreover, the increased expression of β3-AR, activation of neuronal NOS (nNOS), and production of NO were detected after aerobic exercise training in TAC mice. However, selective inhibition of β3-AR by SR59230A abolished the upregulation and activation of nNOS induced NO production. Furthermore, aerobic exercise training decreased the myocardial ROS and MDA contents and increased myocardial levels of SOD; both effects were partially attenuated by SR59230

  17. Systems-level computational modeling demonstrates fuel selection switching in high capacity running and low capacity running rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Nathan R.

    2018-01-01

    High capacity and low capacity running rats, HCR and LCR respectively, have been bred to represent two extremes of running endurance and have recently demonstrated disparities in fuel usage during transient aerobic exercise. HCR rats can maintain fatty acid (FA) utilization throughout the course of transient aerobic exercise whereas LCR rats rely predominantly on glucose utilization. We hypothesized that the difference between HCR and LCR fuel utilization could be explained by a difference in mitochondrial density. To test this hypothesis and to investigate mechanisms of fuel selection, we used a constraint-based kinetic analysis of whole-body metabolism to analyze transient exercise data from these rats. Our model analysis used a thermodynamically constrained kinetic framework that accounts for glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and mitochondrial FA transport and oxidation. The model can effectively match the observed relative rates of oxidation of glucose versus FA, as a function of ATP demand. In searching for the minimal differences required to explain metabolic function in HCR versus LCR rats, it was determined that the whole-body metabolic phenotype of LCR, compared to the HCR, could be explained by a ~50% reduction in total mitochondrial activity with an additional 5-fold reduction in mitochondrial FA transport activity. Finally, we postulate that over sustained periods of exercise that LCR can partly overcome the initial deficit in FA catabolic activity by upregulating FA transport and/or oxidation processes. PMID:29474500

  18. EFFECTS OF SODIUM PHOSPHATE LOADING ON AEROBIC POWER AND CAPACITY IN OFF ROAD CYCLISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Woska

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of short- term (6 days phosphate loading, as well as prolonged (21 days intake of sodium phosphate on aerobic capacity in off-road cyclists. Nineteen well-trained cyclists were randomly divided into a supplemental (S and control group (C. Group S was supplemented for 6 days with tri-sodium phosphate, in a dose of 50 mg·kg-1 of FFM/d, while a placebo was provided for the C group. Additionally, group S was further subjected to a 3-week supplementation of 25 mg·kg-1 FFM/d, while group C received 2g of glucose. The results indicate a significant (p < 0.05 increase in VO2max, VEmax, and O2/HR, due to sodium phosphate intake over 6 days. Also a significant (p < 0.05 decrease in HRrest and HRmax occurred. The supplementation procedure caused a significant increase (p < 0.05 in Pmax and a shift of VAT towards higher loads. There were no significant changes in the concentration of 2,3-DPG, acid-base balance and lactate concentration, due to phosphate salt intake

  19. Association between aerobic fitness and cerebrovascular function with neurocognitive functions in healthy, young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jungyun; Kim, Kiyoung; Brothers, R Matthew; Castelli, Darla M; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2018-05-01

    Studies of the effects of physical activity on cognition suggest that aerobic fitness can improve cognitive abilities. However, the physiological mechanisms for the cognitive benefit of aerobic fitness are less well understood. We examined the association between aerobic fitness and cerebrovascular function with neurocognitive functions in healthy, young adults. Participants aged 18-29 years underwent measurements of cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVMR) in response to rebreathing-induced hypercapnia, maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) during cycle ergometry to voluntary exhaustion, and simple- and complex-neurocognitive assessments at rest. Ten subjects were identified as having low-aerobic fitness (LF aerobic fitness (HF > 80th fitness percentile). There were no LF versus HF group differences in cerebrovascular hemodynamics during the baseline condition. Changes in middle cerebral artery blood velocity and CVMR during hypercapnia were elevated more in the HF than the LF group. Compared to the LF, the HF performed better on a complex-cognitive task assessing fluid reasoning, but not on simple attentional abilities. Statistical modeling showed that measures of VO 2 max, CVMR, and fluid reasoning were positively inter-correlated. The relationship between VO 2 max and fluid reasoning, however, did not appear to be reliably mediated by CVMR. In conclusion, a high capacity for maximal oxygen uptake among healthy, young adults was associated with greater CVMR and better fluid reasoning, implying that high-aerobic fitness may promote cerebrovascular and cognitive functioning abilities.

  20. Objectively assessed physical activity and aerobic fitness in a population-based sample of Norwegian 9- and 15-year-olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolle, E; Steene-Johannessen, J; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2010-01-01

    The present study described current physical activity, determined compliance with physical activity guidelines and assessed aerobic fitness in a nationally representative sample of 9- and 15-year-olds in Norway. In 2005-2006, 2299 children and adolescents were randomly recruited. The participation...... rate was 89% and 74% among the 9- and 15-year-olds, respectively. Physical activity was assessed objectively by accelerometry, and aerobic fitness was measured directly as peak oxygen uptake during a cycle ergometry test. Boys were more physically active than girls, and 9-year-olds were substantially......, 48.2 (7.1) mL/min/kg; 9-year-old girls, 42.9 (6.7) mL/min/kg; and 15-year-old girls 41.1 (6.0) mL/min/kg and 15-year-old boys 51.9 (8.0) mL/min/kg. Because of the high participation rate, this study provides a good description of the physical activity and aerobic fitness in the young population...

  1. Correlates of physical fitness and activity in Taiwanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J-L; Unnithan, V; Kennedy, C; Yeh, C-H

    2008-03-01

    This cross-sectional study examined factors related to children's physical fitness and activity levels in Taiwan. A total of 331 Taiwanese children, aged 7 and 8, and their mothers participated in the study. Children performed physical fitness tests, recorded their physical activities during two weekdays and completed self-esteem questionnaires. Research assistants measured the children's body mass and stature. Mothers completed demographic, parenting style and physical activity questionnaires. Attending urban school, lower body mass index (BMI), older age and better muscular endurance contributed to the variance in better aerobic capacity, and attending rural school and better aerobic capacity contributed to the variance in better muscular endurance in boys. Attending urban school, lower BMI and better athletic competence contributed to the variance in better aerobic capacity, and younger age, rural school and higher household income contributed to the variance in better flexibility in girls. Despite the limitations of the study, with many countries and regions, including Taiwan, now emphasizing the importance of improving physical fitness and activity in children, an intervention that is gender-, geographically, and developmentally appropriate can improve the likelihood of successful physical fitness and activity programmes.

  2. Relationships Among Two Repeated Activity Tests and Aerobic Fitness of Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckel, Yoav; May-Rom, Moran; Ekshtien, Aya; Eisenstein, Tamir; Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine performance indices of a repeated sprint test (RST) and to examine their relationships with performance indices of a repeated jump test (RJT) and with aerobic fitness among trained volleyball players. Sixteen male volleyball players performed RST (6 × 30 m sprints), RJT (6 sets of 6 consecutive jumps), and an aerobic power test (20-m Shuttle Run Test). Performance indices for the RST and the RJT were (a) the ideal 30-m run time (IS), the total run time (TS) of the 6 sprints, and the performance decrement (PD) during the test and (b) the ideal jump height (IJ), the total jump height (TJ) of all the jumps, and the PD during the test, respectively. No significant correlations were found between performance indices of the RST and RJT. Significant correlations were found between PD, IS, and TS in the RST protocol and predicted peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (r = -0.60, -0.75, -0.77, respectively). No significant correlations were found between performance indices of the RJT (IJ, TJ, and PD) and peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2. The findings suggest that a selection of repeated activity test protocols should acknowledge the specific technique used in the sport, and that a distinct RJT, rather than the classic RST, is more appropriate for assessing the anaerobic capabilities of volleyball players. The findings also suggest that aerobic fitness plays only a minor role in performance maintenance throughout characteristic repeated jumping activity of a volleyball game.

  3. Aerobic training and postexercise protein in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Grete; Prahm, Kira P; Dahlqvist, Julia R

    2015-01-01

    ) and women (n = 20) with FSHD (age 19-65 years) to 2 training groups-training with protein supplement (n = 18) and training with placebo supplement (n = 13)-and a nonintervention control group (n = 10). We assessed fitness, walking speed, muscle strength, questionnaires, and daily activity levels before......%-15%], 18% [CI 10%-26%], 7% [CI 4%-11%], respectively, p physical capacity and health (Short Form-36) also improved. Muscle strength and daily activity levels did not change with training. Protein-carbohydrate supplementation did not result in further......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of regular aerobic training and postexercise protein-carbohydrate supplementation in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study, we randomized untrained men (n = 21...

  4. The effect of physical training on patients with rheumatoid arthritis: changes in disease activity, muscle strength and aerobic capacity. A clinically controlled minimized cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngberg, K; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B; Halskov, O

    1988-01-01

    cross-over study the effect of graduated progressive training has been evaluated in 18 RA-patients with moderately active disease. The training was performed twice weekly with aerobic conditioning and strength exercises progressing to strenuous exercises over an 8-week period. The design was a crossover......For decades, physical training of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-patients has been controversial, especially for patients with active disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RA-patients could receive graduated training without increasing the activity of the disease. In a controlled...... project with two groups obtained by minimisation. After training the patients had significantly fewer swollen joints than before. Training of the muscles acting over the swollen joints resulted in more than a 35% decrease in the number of swollen joints. The hemoglobin level increased significantly after...

  5. Removal of micropollutants from aerobically treated grey water via ozone and activated carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Leal, L.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Ozonation and adsorption onto activated carbon were tested for the removal micropollutants of personal care products from aerobically treated grey water. MilliQ water spiked with micropollutants (100–1600 µgL-1) was ozonated at a dosing rate of 1.22. In 45 min, this effectively removed (>99%):

  6. Training modalities: impact on endurance capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueck, Martin; Eilers, Wouter

    2010-03-01

    Endurance athletes demonstrate an exceptional resistance to fatigue when exercising at high intensity. Much research has been devoted to the contribution of aerobic capacity for the economy of endurance performance. Important aspects of the fine-tuning of metabolic processes and power output in the endurance athlete have been overlooked. This review addresses how training paradigms exploit bioenergetic pathways in recruited muscle groups to promote the endurance phenotype. A special focus is laid on the genome-mediated mechanisms that underlie the conditioning of fatigue resistance and aerobic performance by training macrocycles and complements. The available data on work-induced muscle plasticity implies that different biologic strategies are exploited in athletic and untrained populations to boost endurance capacity. Olympic champions are probably endowed with a unique constitution that renders the conditioning of endurance capacity for competition particularly efficient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An Action Research Inquiry into the Relationship Among Aerobic Activities, Memory, and Stress with Students Identified as Gifted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Denise Marie

    Students identified as gifted come from varying socio-economic strata and nationalities with a range of talents and temperaments comprising a diverse community. They may experience stress for a variety of reasons. Although a certain amount of stress can enhance the learning process, too much stress can impede learning, especially memory. Strategies have been offered for relieving stress, yet the benefits of physical activities as stress reducers for the gifted have frequently been overlooked. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among aerobic activity, stress, and memory ability in students in an elementary school gifted program. An exceptional aspect of this research was that the students were an integral part of their own study. As co-researchers they had a vested interest in what they were doing, enhancing the significance of the experience and heightening learning. This action research project conducted in a mid-western school district with fourth and fifth grade students examined the impact of aerobic movement on physical indicators of stress and memory. The study lasted twelve weeks with data collected on physical indicators of stress, memory test scores, parent observations, interviews with students, a parent focus group session, observational data, student comments, and investigator/teacher journal. By infusing regular exercise into curricula, stress levels in students identified as gifted were examined. Students' scores on declarative memory tasks conducted with and without an accompanying aerobic activity were documented. Students learned of the delicate relationship between stress and memory as they studied the physiology of the brain. Twenty-four hour retention rates of declarative memory items were higher when a 20-minute aerobic activity intervention preceded the memory activity. Perceived stress levels were lowered for 14 of the 16 co-researchers. Students indicated a positive attitude toward physical activity and its

  8. Effect of an aerobic-based physical activity programme on physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a 10 week aerobic-based exercise programme performed twice a week, with a 30 minutes duration and an intensity level of 55 – 70% heart rate max would improve aerobic endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition of 10 – 15 ...

  9. Impact of Aerobic and Resistance Exercise on the Health of HIV-Infected Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Gregory A.; Lyerly, G. William; Jaggers, Jason R.; Dudgeon, Wesley D.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals infected with HIV experience numerous comorbidities caused by the disease progression and medications, lack of (or inability to perform) physical activity, malnutrition, or a combination of these causes. Common symptoms include loss of muscle mass, fatigue, lypodystrophy, lypoatrophy, and decreases in strength, functional capacity, and overall quality of life. Studies have shown that exercise is a potential treatment of many of these symptoms. Research suggests that exercise may produce beneficial physiological changes in the HIV-infected population such as improved body composition and increases in both strength and endurance. In addition, psychological conditions such as depression and anxiety have been shown to be positively affected by exercise. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature regarding effects of aerobic, resistance, and combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on HIV-infected individuals. PMID:20508736

  10. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L; DeMello, Madison M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0 ± 3.3 years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6 weeks in random order. Energy expenditure and PA were measured with the SenseWear Mini Armband prior to each intervention as well as during week 1, week 8 and week 16 of the aerobic and resistance exercise program. Body composition was measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition did not change in response to either exercise intervention. Total daily energy expenditure on exercise days increased by 443 ± 126 kcal/d and 239 ± 152 kcal/d for aerobic and resistance exercise, respectively (p change in total daily energy expenditure and PA on non-exercise days with aerobic exercise while resistance exercise was associated with an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA during non-exercise days (216 ± 178 kcal/d, p = 0.01). Results of the present study suggest a compensatory reduction in PA in response to aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise, on the other hand, appears to facilitate non-exercise PA, particularly on non-exercise days, which may lead to more sustainable adaptations in response to an exercise program.

  11. Aerobic exercise training induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and age-dependent adaptations in myofiber function in young and older men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Adam R.; Undem, Miranda K.; Hinkley, James M.; Minchev, Kiril; Kaminsky, Leonard A.; Trappe, Todd A.; Trappe, Scott

    2012-01-01

    To examine potential age-specific adaptations in skeletal muscle size and myofiber contractile physiology in response to aerobic exercise, seven young (YM; 20 ± 1 yr) and six older men (OM; 74 ± 3 yr) performed 12 wk of cycle ergometer training. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis to determine size and contractile properties of isolated slow [myosin heavy chain (MHC) I] and fast (MHC IIa) myofibers, MHC composition, and muscle protein concentration. Aerobic capacity was higher (P 0.05) with training. Training reduced (P aerobic capacity are similar between YM and OM, while adaptations in myofiber contractile function showed a general improvement in OM. Training-related increases in MHC I and MHC IIa peak power reveal that skeletal muscle of OM is responsive to aerobic exercise training and further support the use of aerobic exercise for improving cardiovascular and skeletal muscle health in older individuals. PMID:22984247

  12. [PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS, PHYSICAL FITNESS AND SCREE TIME AMONG CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS FROM BOGOTÁ, COLOMBIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Benavides, Daniel Humberto; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2015-11-01

    to investigate the association between objective measures of physical activity levels, physical fitness and screen time in Colombia children and adolescents from Bogota, Colombia. a sample of 149 healthy Colombian youth, children and adolescents (9-17.9 years old) participated in the study. Physical activity level was assessed over 7 days using an accelerometer. Weight, height, waist circumference, hip waist, subscapular/ triceps skinfold thicknesses and self-reported screen time (television/internet and videogame-viewing time) were measured. Aerobic capacity, handgrip strength, standing broad jump, vertical jump, speed/agility and flexibility were used as indicators of physical fitness. in girls with a high level of physical activity had favorable aerobic capacity (r = 0.366) and inverse relationship with subscapular/triceps skinfold thicknesses (r = -0.257) and (r = -0,237) p < 0.05, respectively. In boys, vigorous physical activity were associated with higher values of flexibility (r = 0.277) and aerobic capacity (r = 0.347), p < 0.05. Finally, the participants who watched 2 h or less of television per day showed 1.81 times (95%CI 1.401 to 2.672) that met physical activity guidelines. the healthy Colombian youth who reported moderate to vigorous objective measures of physical activity levels, presented higher levels in physical fitness especially in aerobic capacity and flexibility and lower values in subscapular/triceps skinfold thicknesses. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Progressive hypoxia decouples activity and aerobic performance of skate embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Santo, Valentina; Tran, Anna H; Svendsen, Jon C

    2016-01-01

    Although fish population size is strongly affected by survival during embryonic stages, our understanding of physiological responses to environmental stressors is based primarily on studies of post-hatch fishes. Embryonic responses to acute exposure to changes in abiotic conditions, including increase in hypoxia, could be particularly important in species exhibiting long developmental time, as embryos are unable to select a different environment behaviourally. Given that oxygen is key to metabolic processes in fishes and aquatic hypoxia is becoming more severe and frequent worldwide, organisms are expected to reduce their aerobic performance. Here, we examined the metabolic and behavioural responses of embryos of a benthic elasmobranch fish, the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), to acute progressive hypoxia, by measuring oxygen consumption and movement (tail-beat) rates inside the egg case. Oxygen consumption rates were not significantly affected by ambient oxygen levels until reaching 45% air saturation (critical oxygen saturation, S crit). Below S crit, oxygen consumption rates declined rapidly, revealing an oxygen conformity response. Surprisingly, we observed a decoupling of aerobic performance and activity, as tail-beat rates increased, rather than matching the declining metabolic rates, at air saturation levels of 55% and below. These results suggest a significantly divergent response at the physiological and behavioural levels. While skate embryos depressed their metabolic rates in response to progressive hypoxia, they increased water circulation inside the egg case, presumably to restore normoxic conditions, until activity ceased abruptly around 9.8% air saturation.

  14. Lack of effect of delta F508 mutation on aerobic capacity in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, T A; Moccia-Loos, G; Rabin, M; McKey, R M

    1996-10-01

    As aerobic exercise capacity, as defined by VO2max, is associated with patient functioning and possibly prognosis in cystic fibrosis (CF), correlations between VO2max phenotype and genotype may be of value. Retrospective clinical series. Cystic fibrosis referral clinic. Convenience sample of 35 patients with CF consecutively referred for exercise testing. Blood samples were examined for mutations of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), Height, wight, pulmonary function, resting-energy expenditure, VO2max, and other exercise variables were assessed in each referred patient. Statistical comparison of 10 patients who were homozygous for the dF508 mutation of CFTR with 20 patients heterozygous for dF508 revealed no significant differences for height, weight, pulmonary function, resting-energy expenditure, VO2max, or any other exercise variables. These results imply a limited effect of the mutation status on overall patient functioning and prognosis. Future identification of more rare CFTR mutations and other genes and subsequent classification of patients in a manner reflective of the cellular physiology may lead to different results.

  15. 1Interaction between serum BDNF and aerobic fitness predicts recognition memory in healthy young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Andrew; Young, Daniel E.; He, Xuemei; Chen, Tai C.; Wagenaar, Robert C.; Stern, Chantal; Schon, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Convergent evidence from human and non-human animal studies suggests aerobic exercise and increased aerobic capacity may be beneficial for brain health and cognition. It is thought growth factors may mediate this putative relationship, particularly by augmenting plasticity mechanisms in the hippocampus, a brain region critical for learning and memory. Among these factors, glucocorticoids, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hormones that have considerable and diverse physiological importance, are thought to effect normal and exercise-induced hippocampal plasticity. Despite these predictions, relatively few published human studies have tested hypotheses that relate exercise and fitness to the hippocampus, and none have considered the potential links to all of these hormonal components. Here we present cross-sectional data from a study of recognition memory; serum BDNF, cortisol, IGF-1, and VEGF levels; and aerobic capacity in healthy young adults. We measured circulating levels of these hormones together with performance on a recognition memory task, and a standard graded treadmill test of aerobic fitness. Regression analyses demonstrated BDNF and aerobic fitness predict recognition memory in an interactive manner. In addition, IGF-1 was positively associated with aerobic fitness, but not with recognition memory. Our results may suggest an exercise adaptation-related change in the BDNF dose-response curve that relates to hippocampal memory. PMID:24269495

  16. [Chronic fatigue syndrome--exercise and physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Shai; Frid, Mordechai

    2006-04-01

    One of the major symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is reduced exercise and functional capacity and increased fatigue symptoms following physical effort. A review of the literature indicates that patients that suffer from CFS are characterized by: low aerobic capacity, higher heart rate during sub-maximal exercise, higher subjective effort prescription, reduced muscle strength, and prolonged recovery period. Although several symptoms are a result of lack of physical activity, several mechanisms were suggested to explain those symptoms: pathological heart rate control, reduced aerobic metabolic capacity, reduced blood supply to the working muscles and nerve system dysfunction. Participating in guided exercise programs was found to be the most effective treatment in improving exercise and functional capacity, reducing fatigue syndromes and improving patients' daily function.

  17. Mineralization of 14C-Pirimiphos-Methyl in Soil Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Farghly, M.; El-Maghrby, S.

    2006-01-01

    The mineralization of 14 C-ring labelled pirimiphos-methyl in clay loam soil was determined in a three months laboratory incubation period under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Evolution of 14 CO2 increased with time and reached 9.2% and 12 %, of the initial 14 C-concentration , within 90 days in case of anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively, at that time, soil contained about 61.5% of the applied dose as extractable residues under anaerobic conditions and 59% under aerobic conditions. the unextractable pesticide residues gradually increased with time and the highest binding capacity of about 11%-13% was observed after 90 days of incubation. the total 14 C-activity recovered from soil was generally between 82% and 92% of the applied radiocarbon. the nature of methanolic 14 C-residues was determined by chromatographic analysis and the results revealed the presence of pirimiphos- methyl as a main product together with its phenol. the principle of radio-respirometry has been used for evaluating the effect of different application rates of pirimiphos-methyl on soil microbial activity using U- 14 C-glucose as a substrate. At two concentrations used, pirimiphos-methyl showed an inhibition in the rate of 14 Co2 evolution over 14 days of incubation as a result of oxidation of 14 C-glucose by microorganisms especially in case of high concentration

  18. The Influence of Various Types of Water Gymnastics Upon the Exercise Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana BADAU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Between the components of the physiological capacity and the practice degree of the physical exercise is a direct interrelation, which is influenced by a number of factors, out of which deployment environment with its features has a leading role. Determining the relationship between the effort capacity by heart rate changes during recovery after exercise, determining the body aerobic resistance level, as a result of the entertaining and recreational activities, specifically, performed in different environments: terrestrial and aquatic, using adapted exercises and innovative materials, that require various and specific efforts. The study was conducted during the academic year 2012-2013, with the female students in the first year of the non-profile faculties and comprised two experimental groups of 24 subjects each, from UMF Tg. Mures, who carried out specific water gymnastics activities, during physical education classes and a control group composed of 47 female students from Transilvania University of Brasov, who carried out the following: entertaining and recreational activities, application exercises, overall physical development free exercises or with portable objects. During the research, the Ruffier test was applied with target on the body aerobic resistance level. Following the research performance, the Ruffier index recorded the biggest difference of the averages of 1.75, after practicing aqua-pullpush-gym activities.

  19. Isolation and characterization of aerobic microorganisms with cellulolytic activity in the gut of endogeic earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Kana; Yoshida, Seo

    2012-09-01

    The ability of earthworms to decompose lignocellulose involves the assistance of microorganisms in their digestive system. While many studies have revealed a diverse microbiota in the earthworm gut, including aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, it remains unclear which of these species contribute to lignocellulose digestion. In this study, aerobic microorganisms with cellulolytic activity isolated from the gut of two endogeic earthworms, Amynthas heteropoda (Megascolecidae) and Eisenia fetida (Lumbricidae) were isolated by solid culture of gut homogenates using filter paper as a carbon source. A total of 48 strains, including four bacterial and four fungal genera, were isolated from two earthworm species. Characterization of these strains using enzyme assays showed that the most representative ones had exocellulase and xylanase activities, while some had weak laccase activity. These findings suggest that earthworms digest lignocellulose by exploiting microbial exocellulase and xylanase besides their own endocellulase. Phylogenetic analysis showed that among the cellulolytic isolates in both earthworm species Burkholderia and Chaetomium were the dominant bacterial and fungal members.

  20. Feasibility and effect of aerobic exercise for lowering depressive symptoms among individuals with traumatic brain injury: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Marika; Harris, Jocelyn E; Thomas, Scott; Keightley, Michelle; Snaiderman, Abe; Colantonio, Angela

    2012-01-01

    : To establish the feasibility and effect of an aerobic exercise intervention on symptoms of depression among individuals with traumatic brain injury. : A pre-post single group. : our community dwelling participants (>11 months postinjury) with residual physical impairment recruited from an outpatient clinic. : 12-week aerobic exercise program. : The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; aerobic capacity (cycle ergometer, heart rate at reference resistance, perceived exertion); Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and program perception (survey). : Descriptive statistics to depict change in outcome measure scores. Answers from the survey were collated and presented as summary statements. : All participants had fewer symptoms of depression, improved aerobic capacity and higher self esteem after the intervention. High satisfaction with the program was reported with no adverse effects. : The aerobic exercise program was feasible and effective for individuals with traumatic brain injury, leading to improved mood, cardiovascular fitness, and self-esteem. Future research is needed to determine the intensity, frequency, and duration required to reach and maintain improvement.

  1. Root morphology, hydraulic conductivity and plant water relations of high-yielding rice grown under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoichiro; Okami, Midori

    2011-09-01

    Increasing physical water scarcity is a major constraint for irrigated rice (Oryza sativa) production. 'Aerobic rice culture' aims to maximize yield per unit water input by growing plants in aerobic soil without flooding or puddling. The objective was to determine (a) the effect of water management on root morphology and hydraulic conductance, and (b) their roles in plant-water relationships and stomatal conductance in aerobic culture. Root system development, stomatal conductance (g(s)) and leaf water potential (Ψ(leaf)) were monitored in a high-yielding rice cultivar ('Takanari') under flooded and aerobic conditions at two soil moisture levels [nearly saturated (> -10 kPa) and mildly dry (> -30 kPa)] over 2 years. In an ancillary pot experiment, whole-plant hydraulic conductivity (soil-leaf hydraulic conductance; K(pa)) was measured under flooded and aerobic conditions. Adventitious root emergence and lateral root proliferation were restricted even under nearly saturated conditions, resulting in a 72-85 % reduction in total root length under aerobic culture conditions. Because of their reduced rooting size, plants grown under aerobic conditions tended to have lower K(pa) than plants grown under flooded conditions. Ψ(leaf) was always significantly lower in aerobic culture than in flooded culture, while g(s) was unchanged when the soil moisture was at around field capacity. g(s) was inevitably reduced when the soil water potential at 20-cm depth reached -20 kPa. Unstable performance of rice in water-saving cultivations is often associated with reduction in Ψ(leaf). Ψ(leaf) may reduce even if K(pa) is not significantly changed, but the lower Ψ(leaf) would certainly occur in case K(pa) reduces as a result of lower water-uptake capacity under aerobic conditions. Rice performance in aerobic culture might be improved through genetic manipulation that promotes lateral root branching and rhizogenesis as well as deep rooting.

  2. The fermentative activity and morphological specialitys of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y-503 at cultivation in aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ts. Kotenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of aerobic and anaerobic conditions of cultivation on structure of cells and enzymes` activity of yeast S. cerevisiae Y-503 is researched. The results of experiment have shown that nutrient medium containing geothermal water in aerobic conditions of cultivation improves biotechnological properties of yeast important for manufacturing bread, and anaerobic activates the enzymes participating in synthesis of ethanol. Strain S. cerevisiae Y-503 can successfully be used both in baking, and in the spirit industries

  3. Aerobic sludge granulation for simultaneous anaerobic decolorization and aerobic aromatic amines mineralization for azo dye wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lawrence K Q; Fung, Ka Y; Ng, Ka M

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the capability of using aerobic granules to undergo simultaneous anaerobic decolorization and aerobic aromatic amines degradation was demonstrated for azo dye wastewater treatment. An integrated acclimation-granulation process was devised, with Mordant Orange 1 as the model pollutant. Performance tests were carried out in a batch column reactor to evaluate the effect of various operating parameters. The optimal condition was to use 1.0-1.7 mm (1.51 ± 0.33 mm) granules, 5 g/L biomass, and 4000 mg/L organics as nutrient; and supplement the wastewater with 1  mg/L dissolved oxygen. This led to a dye mineralization of 61 ± 2%, an anaerobic dye removal of 88 ± 1%, and an aerobic aromatic amines removal of 70 ± 3% within 48 h. This study showed that simultaneous anaerobic/aerobic process by aerobic granules could be a possible alternative to the conventional activated sludge process.

  4. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Foster, Courtney V. Farland, Flavia Guidotti, Michelle Harbin, Brianna Roberts, Jeff Schuette, Andrew Tuuri, Scott T. Doberstein, John P. Porcari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High intensity interval training (HIIT has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly. Steady-state (n = 19 exercised (cycle ergometer 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT. Tabata (n = 21 completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15 completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05 increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18% and PPO (+17, +24 and +14% for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5% & mean (+4, +7 and +6% power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05 than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05 across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults.

  5. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia eHeijnen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors.

  6. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  7. Aerobic dehalogenation activities of two petroleum degrading bacteria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... Full Length Research Paper. Aerobic ... these compounds are good carbon sources for bacteria capable of ... Degradation of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid using soil .... Such toxic effects of chlorinated aromatic compound.

  8. The relationship between skeletal muscle mitochondrial citrate synthase activity and whole body oxygen uptake adaptations in response to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Andersen, Nynne Bjerre; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity and chan......Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity...

  9. Inverse relationship between changes of maximal aerobic capacity and changes in walking economy after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Juliano H; Carter, Stephen J; Singh, Harshvardhan; Hunter, Gary R

    2018-05-16

    The aims of this study were to: (1) determine the relationships between maximum oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O 2max ) and walking economy during non-graded and graded walking among overweight women and (2) examine potential differences in [Formula: see text]O 2max and walking economy before and after weight loss. One-hundred and twenty-four premenopausal women with a body mass index (BMI) between 27 and 30 kg/m 2 were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) diet only; (b) diet and aerobic exercise training; and (c) diet and resistance exercise training. All were furnished with standard, very-low calorie diet to reduce BMI to < 25 kg/m 2 . [Formula: see text]O 2max was measured using a modified-Bruce protocol while walking economy (1-net [Formula: see text]O 2 ) was obtained during fixed-speed (4.8 k·h -1 ), steady-state treadmill walking at 0% grade and 2.5% grade. Assessments were conducted before and after achieving target BMI. Prior to weight loss, [Formula: see text]O 2max was inversely related (P < 0.05) with non-graded and graded walking economy (r = - 0.28 to - 0.35). Similar results were also observed following weight loss (r = - 0.22 to - 0.28). Additionally, we also detected a significant inverse relationship (P < 0.05) between the changes (∆, after weight loss) in ∆[Formula: see text]O 2max , adjusted for fat-free mass, with non-graded and graded ∆walking economy (r = - 0.37 to - 0.41). Our results demonstrate [Formula: see text]O 2max and walking economy are inversely related (cross-sectional) before and after weight loss. Importantly though, ∆[Formula: see text]O 2max and ∆walking economy were also found to be inversely related, suggesting a strong synchrony between maximal aerobic capacity and metabolic cost of exercise.

  10. Effects of Six-Week Ginkgo biloba Supplementation on Aerobic Performance, Blood Pro/Antioxidant Balance, and Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Physically Active Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sadowska-Krępa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves, a natural source of flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds, are commonly used as therapeutic agents for the improvement of both cognitive and physiological performance. The present study was aimed to test the effects of a six-week supplementation with 160 mg/day of a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba or a matching placebo on aerobic performance, blood antioxidant capacity, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF level in healthy, physically active young men, randomly allocated to two groups (n = 9 each. At baseline, as well as on the day following the treatment, the participants performed an incremental cycling test for the assessment of maximal oxygen uptake. Venous blood samples taken at rest, then immediately post-test and following 1 h of recovery, were analyzed for activities of antioxidant enzymes and plasma concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants, total phenolics, uric acid, lipid peroxidation products, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. Our results show that six weeks’ supplementation with Ginkgo biloba extract in physically active young men may provide some marginal improvements in their endurance performance expressed as VO2max and blood antioxidant capacity, as evidenced by specific biomarkers, and elicit somewhat better neuroprotection through increased exercise-induced production of BDNF.

  11. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Body Composition of Canadian Shift Workers: Data From the Canadian Health Measures Survey Cycles 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil-Sztramko, Sarah E; Gotay, Carolyn C; Demers, Paul A; Campbell, Kristin L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time, physical fitness, and body composition in shift workers (SWs) with those who work regular days. Population-based, cross-sectional data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (n = 4323) were used. Univariate and multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to compare outcomes between SWs and day workers. In unweighted analyses, SWs were more likely to have poor body composition, although had fewer minutes per week of sedentary time. Despite no differences in physical activity, SWs had a lower aerobic capacity. In weighted analyses, only differences in aerobic capacity were observed. This analysis confirms previous findings that SWs have poorer body composition than day workers, and suggest that SWs may need to engage in more physical activity to achieve the same aerobic capacity as day workers.

  12. Enhancement of aerobic biodegradability potential of municipal waste activated sludge by ultrasonic aided bacterial disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Jessin Brindha, G M; Sally Gloriana, A; Rajashankar, K; Yeom, Ick Tae; Rajesh Banu, J

    2016-01-01

    An investigation was performed to study the influence of ultrasonic aided bacterial disintegration on the aerobic degradability of sludge. In first phase of the study, effective floc disruption was achieved at an ultrasonic specific energy input of 2.45kJ/kg TS with 44.5mg/L of Extracellular Polymeric Substance (EPS) release including 0.035U/mL and 0.025U/mL protease and amylase activity respectively. In second phase, experimental outcomes revealed bacterial disintegration of floc disrupted-sludge showing a maximum solubilization of about 23% and was observed to be superior to bacterially disintegrated (11%) and control (6%), respectively. The result of aerobic biodegradability of ultrasonic aided bacterially pretreated sludge showed volatile solids (VS) degradation of about 40.2%. The kinetic study of aerobic biodegradability through non linear regression modelling reveals that floc disrupted sludge showed better biodegradability with decay constant of about 0.19d(-1) relatively higher than the control (0.14d(-1)) and bacterially disintegrated (0.17d(-1)) sludges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of acute aerobic and resistance exercise on working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontifex, Matthew B; Hillman, Charles H; Fernhall, Bo; Thompson, Kelli M; Valentini, Teresa A

    2009-04-01

    The goal of this investigation was to assess the influence of acute bouts of aerobic versus resistance exercise on the executive control of working memory. Twenty-one young adult participants completed a cardiorespiratory fitness test and maximal strength tests. On subsequent days, task performance measures of reaction time (RT) and accuracy were collected while participants completed a modified Sternberg working memory task before the start of, immediately after, and 30 min after an intervention consisting of 30 min of either resistance or aerobic exercise and a seated rest control. Findings indicated shorter RT immediately and 30 min after acute aerobic exercise relative to the preexercise baseline with no such effects observed after resistance exercise or seated rest. Further, in the aerobic condition, a larger reduction in RT from the baseline occurred during task conditions requiring increased working memory capacity. Again, no effect was observed in the resistance exercise or the seated rest conditions. These data extend the current knowledge base by indicating that acute exercise-induced changes in cognition are disproportionately related to executive control and may be specific to the aerobic exercise domain.

  14. Interaction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and aerobic granular sludge: biosorption and microbial degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Shou-Qing; Cui, Qingjie; Zheng, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    As a new category of persistent organic pollutants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have become ubiquitous global environmental contaminants. No literature is available on the aerobic biotransformation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). Herein, we investigated the interaction of PBDEs with aerobic granular sludge. The results show that the removal of BDE-209 from wastewater is mainly via biosorption onto aerobic granular sludge. The uptake capacity increased when temperature, contact time, and sludge dosage increased or solution pH dropped. Ionic strength had a negative influence on BDE-209 adsorption. The modified pseudo first-order kinetic model was appropriate to describe the adsorption kinetics. Microbial debromination of BDE-209 did not occur during the first 30 days of operation. Further study found that aerobic microbial degradation of 4,4(')-dibromodiphenyl ether happened with the production of lower BDE congeners.

  15. Interaction of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Aerobic Granular Sludge: Biosorption and Microbial Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Qing Ni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a new category of persistent organic pollutants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs have become ubiquitous global environmental contaminants. No literature is available on the aerobic biotransformation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209. Herein, we investigated the interaction of PBDEs with aerobic granular sludge. The results show that the removal of BDE-209 from wastewater is mainly via biosorption onto aerobic granular sludge. The uptake capacity increased when temperature, contact time, and sludge dosage increased or solution pH dropped. Ionic strength had a negative influence on BDE-209 adsorption. The modified pseudo first-order kinetic model was appropriate to describe the adsorption kinetics. Microbial debromination of BDE-209 did not occur during the first 30 days of operation. Further study found that aerobic microbial degradation of 4,4′-dibromodiphenyl ether happened with the production of lower BDE congeners.

  16. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene Mark

    2015-01-01

    Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically...... and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results...

  17. [Factors associated with low levels of aerobic fitness among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of low aerobic fitness levels and to analyze the association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and excess body fatness among adolescents of southern Brazil. The study included 879 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years the city of São José/SC, Brazil. The aerobic fitness was assessed by Canadian modified test of aerobic fitness. Sociodemographic variables (skin color, age, sex, study turn, economic level), sexual maturation and lifestyle (eating habits, screen time, physical activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Excess body fatness was evaluated by sum of skinfolds triceps and subscapular. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Prevalence of low aerobic fitness level was 87.5%. The girls who spent two hours or more in front screen, consumed less than one glass of milk by day, did not smoke and had an excess of body fatness had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. White boys with low physical activity had had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. Eight out of ten adolescents were with low fitness levels aerobic. Modifiable lifestyle factors were associated with low levels of aerobic fitness. Interventions that emphasize behavior change are needed. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Differences in aerobic fitness between inpatients and outpatients with severe mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Daae-Qvale Holmemo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackgroundPatients with severe mental disorders have increased mortality, and cardiovascular disease (CVD accounts for a large part. Physical inactivity and low aerobic fitness have been recognized as significant risk factors for CVD. In this study, we investigated the differences in aerobic fitness and physical activity between in- and outpatients with severe mental disorders. Method and subjectsFifty in- and outpatients from a regional psychiatric department were included. The patients filled in a questionnaire on physical activity and completed a clinical examination. An estimation of aerobic fitness was calculated for each patient, using gender, age, waist circumference, resting heart rate and physical activity level as variables.ResultsInpatients had lower estimated aerobic fitness than outpatients (VO₂peak 42 vs 50 mL•kg-1•min-1, p<0.001. Compared to population data matched for age and gender, inpatients had lower aerobic fitness, while outpatients were not different from the population average.ConclusionInpatients at a psychiatric department had lower estimated aerobic fitness than outpatients, and a lower aerobic fitness compared to the general population. Our findings suggest that inpatients with severe mental disorders should be considered a high risk group for CVD.

  19. The Relationship Between Aerobic Activity Health Conditions and Medical Visits Among Men and Women Serving Aboard Navy Ships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hughes, Linda

    2002-01-01

    .... Contingency tables were computed for amount of self-reported aerobic activity and prevalence rate of adverse health conditions, number of adverse health conditions, number of medical visits, and gender...

  20. Investigation of decolorization of textile wastewater in an anaerobic/aerobic biological activated carbon system (A/A BAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasukphun, N; Vinitnantharat, S; Gheewala, S

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the decolorization in anaerobic/aerobic biological activated carbon (A/A BAC) system. The experiment was divided into 2 stages; stage I is batch test for preliminary study of dye removal equilibrium time. The preliminary experiment (stage I) provided the optimal data for experimental design of A/A BAC system in SBR (stage II). Stage II is A/A BAC system imitated Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) which consist of 5 main periods; fill, react, settle, draw and idle. React period include anaerobic phase followed by aerobic phase. The BAC main media; Granular Activated Carbon (GAC), Mixed Cultures (MC) and Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) were used for dye and organic substances removal in three different solutions; Desizing Agent Solution (DAS), dye Solution (DS) and Synthetic Textile Wastewater (STW). Results indicate that GAC adsorption plays role in dye removal followed by BAC and MC activities, respectively. In the presence desizing agent, decolorization by MC was improved because desizing agent acts as co-substrates for microorganisms. It was found that 50% of dye removal efficiency was achieved in Fill period by MC. GC/MS analysis was used to identify dye intermediate from decolorization. Dye intermediate containing amine group was found in the solution and on BAC surfaces. The results demonstrated that combination of MC and BAC in the system promotes decolorization and dye intermediate removal. In order to improve dye removal efficiency in an A/A BAC system, replacement of virgin GAC, sufficient co-substrates supply and the appropriate anaerobic: aerobic period should be considered.

  1. Successful treatment of high azo dye concentration wastewater using combined anaerobic/aerobic granular activated carbon-sequencing batch biofilm reactor (GAC-SBBR): simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Koupaie, E; Alavi Moghaddam, M R; Hashemi, S H

    2013-01-01

    The application of a granular activated carbon-sequencing batch biofilm reactor (GAC-SBBR) for treatment of wastewater containing 1,000 mg/L Acid Red 18 (AR18) was investigated in this research. The treatment system consisted of a sequencing batch reactor equipped with moving GAC as biofilm support. Each treatment cycle consisted of two successive anaerobic (14 h) and aerobic (8 h) reaction phases. Removal of more than 91% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 97% AR18 was achieved in this study. Investigation of dye decolorization kinetics showed that the dye removal was stimulated by the adsorption capacity of the GAC at the beginning of the anaerobic phase and then progressed following a first-order reaction. Based on COD analysis results, at least 77.8% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment system. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that more than 97% of 1-naphthyalamine-4-sulfonate as one of the main sulfonated aromatic constituents of AR18 was removed during the aerobic reaction phase. According to the scanning electron microscopic analysis, the microbial biofilms grew in most cavities and pores of the GAC, but not on the external surfaces of the GAC.

  2. EFEKTIVITAS SISTEM BIOFILTER AEROB DALAM MENURUNKAN KADAR AMONIA PADA AIR LIMBAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Indra Wahyuni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasingpopulationand activity of the Balinese people can increase the amount of waste as a byproduct of community activities. The presence of the metabolites in wastewater as ammonia is toxic to aquatic organisms. Application aerobic biofilter system can be used as an attempt to reduce levels of ammonia. In the aerobic biofilter, contact between the gravel media with microorganisms that form biofilmsare able to accelerate the degradation of organic matter and nitrification processes. The aims of this research are to determine the best consortium of activated sludge to reduce ammonia levels by aerobic biofilter system and to determine the effectivity of aerobic biofilter system. The first stage of this research were seeding of activated sludge from three sources are Wastewater Treatment Plan (WWTP of Suwung Denpasar, WWTP of Wangaya Hospital and WWTP of Bali Tourism Development Corporation (BTDC Nusa Dua Bali, for six days. This research was done by measuring Volatile Suspended Solid (VSS value that showed the growth rate of biomass in activated sludge. The second stage wereapplication of activated sludges and control in aerobic biofilter to reduce ammonia levels, for five days. This study used a Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and three repetitions. The results showed that the best activated sludge obtained from WWTP of Suwung Denpasar indicated by the highest biomass growth (VSS value of 2396.6 mg/L and was able to reduce ammonia up to 0.78 mg/ L. The effectivity of aerobic biofilter system with activated sludge from WWTP of Suwung Denpasar achieve effectivity of treatment process up to 92.20 % and have been able to pass the effectivity of quality standards (90% during five days of processing. The effectivity levels was the highest compared to control and activated sludgetreatments.

  3. Aerobic Fitness and Cognitive Development: Event-Related Brain Potential and Task Performance Indices of Executive Control in Preadolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Charles H.; Buck, Sarah M.; Themanson, Jason R.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between aerobic fitness and executive control was assessed in 38 higher- and lower-fit children (M[subscript age] = 9.4 years), grouped according to their performance on a field test of aerobic capacity. Participants performed a flanker task requiring variable amounts of executive control while event-related brain potential…

  4. Aerobic exercise regulates blood lipid and insulin resistance via the toll‑like receptor 4‑mediated extracellular signal‑regulated kinases/AMP‑activated protein kinases signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Li, Sen; Wang, Fubaihui; Zou, Jinhui; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2018-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disease with symptoms of hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, chronic damage and dysfunction of tissues, and metabolic syndrome for insufficient insulin production. Evidence has indicated that exercise treatments are essential in the progression of type‑ІІ diabetes mellitus, and affect insulin resistance and activity of islet β‑cells. In the present study, the efficacy and signaling mechanism of aerobic exercise on blood lipids and insulin resistance were investigated in the progression of type‑ІІ diabetes mellitus. Body weight, glucose metabolism and insulin serum levels were investigated in mouse models of type‑ІІ diabetes mellitus following experienced aerobic exercise. Expression levels of inflammatory factors, interleukin (IL)‑6, high‑sensitivity C‑reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor‑α and leucocyte differentiation antigens, soluble CD40 ligand in the serum were analyzed in the experimental mice. In addition, expression levels of toll‑like receptor 4 (TLR‑4) were analyzed in the liver cells of experimental mice. Changes of oxidative stress indicators, including reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase were examined in the liver cells of experimental mice treated by aerobic exercise. Expression levels and activity of extracellular signal‑regulated kinases (ERK) and AMP‑activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways were investigated in the liver cells of mouse models of type‑ІІ diabetes mellitus after undergoing aerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise decreased the expression levels of inflammatory factors in the serum of mouse models of type‑ІІ diabetes mellitus. The results indicated that aerobic exercise downregulated oxidative stress indicators in liver cells from mouse models of type‑ІІ diabetes mellitus. In addition, the ERK and AMPK signaling pathways were inactivated by aerobic exercise in liver cells in mouse models of type

  5. Aerobic capacity of rats recovered from fetal malnutrition with a fructose-rich diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambri, Lucieli Teresa; Dalia, Rodrigo Augusto; Ribeiro, Carla; Rostom de Mello, Maria Alice

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the aerobic capacity, through the maximal lactate steady-state (MLSS) protocol, of rats subjected to fetal protein malnutrition and recovered with a fructose-rich diet. Pregnant adult Wistar rats that were fed a balanced (17% protein) diet or a low-protein (6% protein) diet were used. After birth, the offspring were distributed into groups according to diet until 60 days of age: balanced (B), balanced diet during the whole experimental period; balanced-fructose (BF), balanced diet until birth and fructose-rich diet (60% fructose) until 60 days; low protein-balanced (LB), low-protein diet until birth and balanced diet until 60 days; and low protein-fructose (LF), low protein diet until birth and fructose-rich diet until 60 days. It was verified that the fructose-rich diet reduced body growth, mainly in the BF group. There was no difference among the groups in the load corresponding to the MLSS (B, 7.5+/-0.5%; BF, 7.4+/-0.6%; LB, 7.7+/-0.4%; and LF, 7.7+/-0.6% relative to body weight). However, the BF group presented higher blood lactate concentrations (4.8+/-0.9 mmol.L(-1)) at 25 min in the load corresponding to the MLSS (B, 3.2+/-0.9 mmol.L(-1); LB, 3.4+/-0.9 mmol.L(-1); and LF, 3.2+/-1.0 mmol.L(-1)). Taken together, these results indicate that the ability of young rats to perform exercise was not altered by intrauterine malnutrition or a fructose-rich diet, although the high fructose intake after the balanced diet in utero increased blood lactate during swimming exercises in rats.

  6. The application of individual approach in how to conduct aerobics classes with students of different levels of preparedness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barybina L.N.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a system of classes in aerobics in high school with an individual approach. On this subject has been analyzed about 15 references. 105 students took part in an experiment. The technique, which combines fitness aerobics and step aerobics. The technique allows to take into account the physical capacity, functional differences, the level of preparedness and dealing with their needs, as well as to use an individual approach in the selection of means and methods of physical education. We propose the organization of activities in which the hall can simultaneously engage up to 5-6 subgroups: students with low fitness and low levels of coordination abilities, students with an average level of physical fitness and low levels of coordination abilities, students with high levels of physical fitness and low levels of coordination abilities, students with an average level of physical fitness and a high level of coordination abilities, students with high levels of physical fitness and coordination abilities.

  7. The reinforcing value and liking of resistance training and aerobic exercise as predictors of adult's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Kyle D; Johnson, LuAnn; Roemmich, James N

    2017-10-01

    Reinforcing value (motivating value) is a stronger predictor than hedonic value (liking) for engaging in drug use, gambling, and eating. The associations of reinforcing value and liking with physical activity of adults have not yet been studied and may depend on the modes of exercise (e.g., aerobic/cardiovascular exercise, resistance training) under consideration. The purpose of this study was to test associations of the reinforcing value and liking of aerobic exercise training (AT) and resistance exercise training (RT) modes of exercise with usual participation in aerobic and resistance exercise in adults. Men (n=38) and women (n=50) were measured for their liking and relative reinforcing value (RRV) of AT and RT, for their usual vigorous physical activity (VPA) participation, and for usual resistance exercise behavior (Yale physical activity questionnaire). The RRV of AT (RRVAT) and liking of AT were correlated, (r=0.22, pvalue for, but not the liking of, a mode of exercise predicted how much an individual engaged in that mode of exercise. RRVAT (p˂0.01) was positively associated with usual VPA. RRVRT (p˂0.01) was positively associated with RT behavior. The hedonic value of AT and of RT were not associated (p>0.30) with VPA or RT behavior. Reinforcing value of a mode of exercise is a stronger predictor than the liking of that mode of exercise for usual amount of participation in the exercise. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Application of the International Water Association activated sludge models to describe aerobic sludge digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, M; Eskicioglu, C

    2011-12-01

    Batch and semi-continuous flow aerobic digesters were used to stabilize thickened waste-activated sludge at different initial conditions and mean solids retention times. Under dynamic conditions, total suspended solids, volatile suspended solids (VSS) and total and particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD and PCOD) were monitored in the batch reactors and effluent from the semi-continuous flow reactors. Activated Sludge Model (ASM) no. 1 and ASM no. 3 were applied to measured data (calibration data set) to evaluate the consistency and performances of models at different flow regimes for digester COD and VSS modelling. The results indicated that both ASM1 and ASM3 predicted digester COD, VSS and PCOD concentrations well (R2, Ra2 > or = 0.93). Parameter estimation concluded that compared to ASM1, ASM3 parameters were more consistent across different batch and semi-continuous flow runs with different operating conditions. Model validation on a data set independent from the calibration data successfully predicted digester COD (R2 = 0.88) and VSS (R2 = 0.94) concentrations by ASM3, while ASM1 overestimated both reactor COD (R2 = 0.74) and VSS concentrations (R2 = 0.79) after 15 days of aerobic batch digestion.

  9. A Randomized-Controlled Trial of School-Based Active Videogame Intervention on Chinese Children's Aerobic Fitness, Physical Activity Level, and Psychological Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Patrick Wing Chung; Wang, Jing Jing; Maddison, Ralph

    2016-12-01

    Active videogames (AVGs) that require body movements to play offer a novel opportunity to turn a traditionally sedentary behavior into a physically active one. We sought to determine the effect of a school-based AVG intervention on Chinese children's aerobic fitness, physical activity (PA) level, and PA-related psychological correlates. Eighty 8-11-year-old Chinese children (55 males) were recruited from one Hong Kong primary school and were allocated at random to either an AVG intervention or control group. Children in the intervention group played an AVG, Xbox 360, twice per week during after-school hours, each for 60 minutes over 12 weeks in duration. The control group received no intervention. Children's body-mass index (BMI), objective PA, aerobic fitness (maximum oxygen consumption [VO 2max ]), PA task efficacy, barrier efficacy, and enjoyment were assessed. Compared with the control group, significant increases were found in the intervention group in VO 2max [mean and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.58 (0.74, 2.42) mL/(kg·min)], objective moderate-to-vigorous PA [6.73 (1.70, 11.76) min/day], and total PA [27.19 (9.33, 45.04) min/day], but not for BMI. No significant differences in PA task efficacy, barrier efficacy, and enjoyment were observed. A 12-week (60 minutes × twice per week) school-based AVG intervention can improve Chinese children's aerobic fitness and PA level. These findings indicated that AVGs could be used as an alternative means to engage Chinese children in PA in school setting. However, the treatment effects of AVGs on PA-related psychological correlates and body composition need more investigation.

  10. Region-specific differences in bioenergetic proteins and protein response to acute high fat diet in brains of low and high capacity runner rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Li; Ma, Delin; Li, Min; Yang, Fu-Chen; Rogers, Robert S; Wheatley, Joshua L; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Thyfault, John P; Geiger, Paige C; Stanford, John A

    2018-05-01

    Aerobic capacity is a strong predictor of mortality. Low capacity runner (LCR) rats exhibit reduced mitochondrial function in peripheral organs. A high fat diet (HFD) can worsen metabolic phenotype in LCR rats. Little is known about metabolic changes in the brains of these rats, however. This study examined protein markers of mitochondrial function and metabolism as a function of aerobic running capacity and an acute HFD in four brain regions: the striatum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and substantia nigra. After 3 days HFD or chow diets, we measured peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC1-α), nuclear respiratory factors 1 (Nrf-1), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and phosphorylated (activated) AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) protein levels in the four brain regions. LCR rats exhibited lower levels of mitochondrial proteins (PGC1-α, Nrf-1, TFAM), and greater p-AMPK, in striatum, but not in the other brain regions. Mitochondrial protein levels were greater in HFD LCR striatum, while p-AMPK was lower in this group. Markers of lower mitochondrial biogenesis and increased metabolic demand were limited to the LCR striatum, which nevertheless maintained the capacity to respond to an acute HFD challenge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of Active-Play Video Games to Enhance Aerobic Fitness in Schizophrenia: Feasibility, Safety, and Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimhy, David; Khan, Samira; Ayanrouh, Lindsey; Chang, Rachel W; Hansen, Marie C; Lister, Amanda; Ballon, Jacob S; Vakhrusheva, Julia; Armstrong, Hilary F; Bartels, Matthew N; Sloan, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    Active-play video games have been used to enhance aerobic fitness in various clinical populations, but their use among individuals with schizophrenia has been limited. Feasibility, acceptability, safety, and adherence data were obtained for use of aerobic exercise (AE) equipment by 16 individuals with schizophrenia during a 12-week AE program consisting of three one-hour exercise sessions per week. Equipment included exercise video games for Xbox 360 with Kinect motion sensing devices and traditional exercise equipment. Most participants (81%) completed the training, attending an average of 79% of sessions. The proportion of time spent playing Xbox (39%) exceeded time spent on any other type of equipment. When using Xbox, participants played 2.24±1.59 games per session and reported high acceptability and enjoyment ratings, with no adverse events. Measures of feasibility, acceptability, adherence, and safety support the integration of active-play video games into AE training for people with schizophrenia.

  12. The effect of sesamine and aerobic exercise on plasma levels of total antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase in athlete men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Saberi

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Aerobic exercise and supplementation of sesamin is an effective method to improve the health of mens athlete's immune system. In addition, combining supplementation with aerobic exercise can increase some of the beneficial effects of exercise during a 10-week period.

  13. Aerobic capacity, orthostatic tolerance, and exercise perceptions at discharge from inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Chelsea A; Jones, Graham; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Warburton, Darren E; Hicks, Audrey L

    2013-10-01

    To describe physical capacity, autonomic function, and perceptions of exercise among adults with subacute spinal cord injury (SCI). Cross-sectional. Two inpatient SCI rehabilitation programs in Canada. Participants (N=41; mean age ± SD, 38.9 ± 13.7y) with tetraplegia (TP; n=19), high paraplegia (HP; n=8), or low paraplegia (LP; n=14) completing inpatient SCI rehabilitation (mean ± SD, 112.9 ± 52.5d postinjury). Not applicable. Peak exercise capacity was determined by an arm ergometry test. As a measure of autonomic function, orthostatic tolerance was assessed by a passive sit-up test. Self-efficacy for exercise postdischarge was evaluated by a questionnaire. There was a significant difference in peak oxygen consumption and heart rate between participants with TP (11.2 ± 3.4;mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) 113.9 ± 19.7 beats/min) and LP (17.1 ± 7.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); 142.8 ± 22.7 beats/min). Peak power output was also significantly lower in the TP group (30.0 ± 6.9W) compared with the HP (55.5 ± 7.56W) and LP groups (62.5 ± 12.2W). Systolic blood pressure responses to the postural challenge varied significantly between groups (-3.0 ± 33.5 mmHg in TP, 17.8 ± 14.7 mmHg in HP, 21.6 ± 18.7 mmHg in LP). Orthostatic hypotension was most prevalent among participants with motor complete TP (73%). Results from the questionnaire revealed that although participants value exercise and see benefits to regular participation, they have low confidence in their abilities to perform the task of either aerobic or strengthening exercise. Exercise is well tolerated in adults with subacute SCI. Exercise interventions at this stage should focus on improving task-specific self-efficacy, and attention should be made to blood pressure regulation, particularly in individuals with motor complete TP. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Physical health of young and middle age women under influence of step-aerobics exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Masliak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the degree of step-aerobics exercises’ influence on 20-35 years age women’s health. Material: in the research 28 women of 20-35 years old age participated. Anthropometric indicators, heart beats rate in rest and after load (20 squats for 30 sec., blood pressure, vital capacity of lungs, hand dynamometry were registered. Results: level of physical health has been determined; influence of step-aerobics on women’s health has been found; age differences in the tested indicators have been analyzed. It was found out that step-aerobic trainings influence greatly on the following indicators: body mass, circumferential sizes and cardio vascular system; on functioning of respiratory system, strength of hand’s flexors and regulation of 31-35 years age women’s cardio-vascular system. Conclusions: application of step-aerobic exercises positively influenced on health of 20-35 years old women.

  15. Aerobic Exercise for Reducing Migraine Burden: Mechanisms, Markers, and Models of Change Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Megan B; Bond, Dale S; Lipton, Richard B; Nicklas, Barbara; Houle, Timothy T; Penzien, Donald B

    2016-02-01

    Engagement in regular exercise routinely is recommended as an intervention for managing and preventing migraine, and yet empirical support is far from definitive. We possess at best a weak understanding of how aerobic exercise and resulting change in aerobic capacity influence migraine, let alone the optimal parameters for exercise regimens as migraine therapy (eg, who will benefit, when to prescribe, optimal types, and doses/intensities of exercise, level of anticipated benefit). These fundamental knowledge gaps critically limit our capacity to deploy exercise as an intervention for migraine. Clear articulation of the markers and mechanisms through which aerobic exercise confers benefits for migraine would prove invaluable and could yield insights on migraine pathophysiology. Neurovascular and neuroinflammatory pathways, including an effect on obesity or adiposity, are obvious candidates for study given their role both in migraine as well as the changes known to accrue with regular exercise. In addition to these biological pathways, improvements in aerobic fitness and migraine alike also are mediated by changes in psychological and sociocognitive factors. Indeed a number of specific mechanisms and pathways likely are operational in the relationship between exercise and migraine improvement, and it remains to be established whether these pathways operate in parallel or synergistically. As heuristics that might conceptually benefit our research programs here forward, we: (1) provide an extensive listing of potential mechanisms and markers that could account for the effects of aerobic exercise on migraine and are worthy of empirical exploration and (2) present two exemplar conceptual models depicting pathways through which exercise may serve to reduce the burden of migraine. Should the promise of aerobic exercise as a feasible and effective migraine therapy be realized, this line of endeavor stands to benefit migraineurs (including the many who presently remain

  16. Aerobic Fitness Thresholds Associated with Fifth Grade Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittberg, Richard; Cottrell, Lesley A.; Davis, Catherine L.; Northrup, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whereas effects of physical fitness and physical activity on cognitive function have been documented, little is known about how they are related. Purpose: This study assessed student aerobic fitness measured by FITNESSGRAM Mile times and/or Pacer circuits and whether the nature of the association between aerobic fitness and…

  17. An Investigation of the Changes in Enzymatic and Non-Enzymatic Salivary Antioxidants Caused by Exhausting Aerobic Activity in Non-Athletic Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazgaldi Nazari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In the present study, the effect of acute aerobic exercise on enzymatic and non-enzymatic salivary antioxidants variations in non-athlete men, was investigated. Methods: In this experimental study, 25 male non-athlete collegiates (age, 21.2±1.6 years; weight, 68.62±10.1kg; body fat, 16.75±2.9%; and Vo2 max, 37.54±2.4ml/kg/min participated voluntarily in this study. Saliva samples were collected in three phases (before, immediately, and 1 hour after running on treadmill according to Astrand test. The activity of peroxidase and catalase, and concentration of uric acid were measured by laboratory methods. Then, to assess the obtained changes, repeated measures statistical test, and in case of significance, post-hoc Bonferroni test were used for pairwise comparing of the measuring phases at the significance level of p≤0.05 used.  Results: The activity of peroxidase significantly increased immediately and 1 hour after exercise compared to the baseline; Also, the concentration of uric acid significantly increased after aerobic exercise, but catalase enzyme activity significantly decreased after aerobic exercise (p<0.05. No significant change was observed in saliva flow rate after exercise. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, aerobic exercise causes the production of free radicals, and salivary antioxidant system increases as the body biological response to neutralize and counteract the damaging effects of free radicals.

  18. Characterization, Modeling and Application of Aerobic Granular Sludge for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Ni, Bing-Jie; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    Recently extensive studies have been carried out to cultivate aerobic granular sludge worldwide, including in China. Aerobic granules, compared with conventional activated sludge flocs, are well known for their regular, dense, and strong microbial structure, good settling ability, high biomass retention, and great ability to withstand shock loadings. Studies have shown that the aerobic granules could be applied for the treatment of low- or high-strength wastewaters, simultaneous removal of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and decomposition of toxic wastewaters. Thus, this new form of activate sludge, like anaerobic granular sludge, could be employed for the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters in near future. This chapter attempts to provide an up-to-date review on the definition, cultivation, characterization, modeling and application of aerobic granular sludge for biological wastewater treatment. This review outlines some important discoveries with regard to the factors affecting the formation of aerobic granular sludge, their physicochemical characteristics, as well as their microbial structure and diversity. It also summarizes the modeling of aerobic granule formation. Finally, this chapter highlights the applications of aerobic granulation technology in the biological wastewater treatment. It is concluded that the knowledge regarding aerobic granular sludge is far from complete. Although previous studies in this field have undoubtedly improved our understanding on aerobic granular sludge, it is clear that much remains to be learned about the process and that many unanswered questions still remain. One of the challenges appears to be the integration of the existing and growing scientific knowledge base with the observations and applications in practice, which this paper hopes to partially achieve.

  19. Estimation of work capacity and work ability among plantation workers in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbazhagan, Suguna; Ramesh, Naveen; Surekha, A; Fathima, Farah N; Melina; Anjali

    2016-01-01

    Work capacity is the ability to perform real physical work, and work ability is a result of interaction of worker to his or her work that is how good a worker is at present, in near future, and how able is he or she to do his or her work with respect to work demands and health and mental resources. To assess the work capacity and work ability and to study the factors associated with work capacity and work ability of workers at a tea plantation in South India. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tea plantation in Annamalai, South India, from March to May 2015. Data were collected using a structured interview schedule comprising of three parts as follows: sociodemographic data, work ability questionnaire, and work capacity assessment. Of the 199 subjects participated in the study, majority [90 (45.3%)] were in the age group of 46-55 years, and 128 (64.3%) were females. Of the 199 workers, 12.6% had poor aerobic capacity (by Harvard Step test), 88.4% had an endurance of more than 1 h, 70.9% had better work productivity and energetic efficiency, and the voluntary activity workers spent most time on household chores. Of the 199 workers assessed, only 9.6% had good work ability. There is negative correlation between work ability and body mass index (BMI). Our study found 12.6% workers with poor aerobic capacity and 9.6% of workers with good work ability. Periodic health examinations and other screening procedures should be made as routine in workplace to improve work ability and capacity.

  20. Examining physiotherapist use of structured aerobic exercise testing to decrease barriers to aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster B Sc, Evan; Fraser, Julia E; Inness PhD, Elizabeth L; Munce, Sarah; Biasin, Louis; Poon, Vivien; Bayley, Mark

    2018-04-03

    To determine the frequency of physiotherapist-administered aerobic exercise testing/training, the proportion of physiotherapists who administer this testing/training, and the barriers that currently exist across different practice environments. A secondary objective is to identify the learning needs of physiotherapists for the development of an education curriculum in aerobic exercise testing and training with electrocardiograph (ECG) administration and interpretation. National, cross-sectional survey. Registered physiotherapists practicing in Canada. Out of 137 participants, most (75%) physiotherapists prescribed aerobic exercise on a regular basis (weekly); however, 65% had never conducted an aerobic exercise test. There were no significant differences in frequency of aerobic exercise testing across different practice environments or across years of physiotherapy experience. Physiotherapists perceived the main barriers to aerobic exercise testing as being a lack of equipment/space (78%), time (65%), and knowledge (56%). Although most (82%) were uncomfortable administering 12-lead ECG-monitored aerobic exercise tests, 60% stated they would be interested in learning more about ECG interpretation. This study found that physiotherapists are regularly implementing aerobic exercise. This exercise was infrequently guided by formal aerobic exercise testing, which could increase access to safe and effective exercise within the optimal aerobic training zone. As well, this could facilitate training in patients with cardiovascular diagnoses that require additional testing for medical clearance. Increased ECG training and access to equipment for physiotherapists may augment pre-screening aerobic exercise testing. This training should include learning the key arrhythmias for aerobic exercise test termination as defined by the American College of Sports Medicine.

  1. Effects of intrinsic aerobic capacity and ovariectomy on voluntary wheel running and nucleus accumbens dopamine receptor gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Min; Kanaley, Jill A; Padilla, Jaume; Zidon, Terese; Welly, Rebecca J; Will, Matthew J; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Booth, Frank W; Thyfault, John P; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J

    2016-10-01

    Rats selectively bred for high (HCR) and low (LCR) aerobic capacity show a stark divergence in wheel running behavior, which may be associated with the dopamine (DA) system in the brain. HCR possess greater motivation for voluntary running along with greater brain DA activity compared to LCR. We recently demonstrated that HCR are not immune to ovariectomy (OVX)-associated reductions in spontaneous cage (i.e. locomotor) activity. Whether HCR and LCR rats differ in their OVX-mediated voluntary wheel running response is unknown. To determine whether HCR are protected from OVX-associated reduction in voluntary wheel running. Forty female HCR and LCR rats (age ~27weeks) had either SHM or OVX operations, and given access to a running wheel for 11weeks. Weekly wheel running distance was monitored throughout the intervention. Nucleus accumbens (NAc) was assessed for mRNA expression of DA receptors at sacrifice. Compared to LCR, HCR ran greater distance and had greater ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression (both line main effects, PWheel running distance was significantly, positively correlated with the ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression across animals. In both lines, OVX reduced wheel running (Pwheel running, they had greater OVX-induced reduction in wheel running than LCR such that no differences were found 11weeks after OVX between HCROVX and LCROVX (interaction, Pwheel running in HCR was associated with an OVX-mediated reduction in the ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression. The DA system in the NAc region may play a significant role in motivation to run in female rats. Compared to LCR, HCR rats run significantly more, which associates with greater ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression. However, despite greater inherent motivation to run and an associated brain DA mRNA expression profile, HCR rats are not protected against OVX-induced reduction in wheel running or OVX-mediated reduction in the ratio of excitatory

  2. THE ROLE OF AEROBIC CAPACITY IN HIGH-INTENSITY INTERMITTENT EFFORTS IN ICE-HOCKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stanula

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to determine a relationship between aerobic capacity ( ·VO2max and fatigue from high-intensity skating in elite male hockey players. The subjects were twenty-four male members of the senior national ice hockey team of Poland who played the position of forward or defence. Each subject completed an on-ice Repeated-Skate Sprint test (RSS consisting of 6 timed 89-m sprints, with 30 s of rest between subsequent efforts, and an incremental test on a cycle ergometer in the laboratory, the aim of which was to establish their maximal oxygen uptake ( ·VO2max. The analysis of variance showed that each next repetition in the 6x89 m test was significantly longer than the previous one (F5,138=53.33, p<0.001. An analysis of the fatigue index (FI calculated from the times recorded for subsequent repetitions showed that the value of the FI increased with subsequent repetitions, reaching its maximum between repetitions 5 and 6 (3.10±1.16%. The total FI was 13.77±1.74%. The coefficient of correlation between ·VO2max and the total FI for 6 sprints on the distance of 89 m (r =–0.584 was significant (p=0.003. The variance in the index of players’ fatigue in the 6x89 m test accounted for 34% of the variance in ·VO2max. The 6x89 m test proposed in this study offers a high test-retest correlation coefficient (r=0.78. Even though the test is criticized for being too exhaustive and thereby for producing highly variable results it still seems that it was well selected for repeated sprint ability testing in hockey players.

  3. Toxic and inhibitory effects of trichloroethylene aerobic co-metabolism on phenol-grown aerobic granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Tay, JooHwa

    2015-04-09

    Aerobic granule, a form of microbial aggregate, exhibits good potential in degrading toxic and recalcitrant substances. In this study, the inhibitory and toxic effects of trichloroethylene (TCE), a model compound for aerobic co-metabolism, on phenol-grown aerobic granules were systematically studied, using respiratory activities after exposure to TCE as indicators. High TCE concentration did not exert positive or negative effects on the subsequent endogenous respiration rate or phenol dependent specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR), indicating the absence of solvent stress and induction effect on phenol-hydroxylase. Phenol-grown aerobic granules exhibited a unique response to TCE transformation product toxicity, that small amount of TCE transformation enhanced the subsequent phenol SOUR. Granules that had transformed between 1.3 and 3.7 mg TCE gSS(-1) showed at most 53% increase in the subsequent phenol SOUR, and only when the transformation exceeded 6.6 mg TCE gSS(-1) did the SOUR dropped below that of the control. This enhancing effect was found to sustain throughout several phenol dosages, and TCE transformation below the toxicity threshold also lessened the granules' sensitivity to higher phenol concentration. The unique toxic effect was possibly caused by the granule's compact structure as a protection barrier against the diffusive transformation product(s) of TCE co-metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Yuancai, E-mail: donkey1204@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen, Yuancai, E-mail: chenyc@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Song, Wenzhe, E-mail: songwenzhe007@126.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu, Yongyou, E-mail: ppyyhu@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: In this work, an aerobic column reactor was placed before the USB to maintain micro-oxygen condition in the reactor and the micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) was successfully obtained. PCP degradation by the micro-aerobic system was studied and the variance of microbial community was also discussed by using PCR-DGGE analysis. - Highlights: • Micro-aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in column-type combined reactors. • PCP biodegradation, VFA accumulation and biogas production were studied. • The function of Methanogenic archaeon in the system was investigated. • Fluctuation and diversity of microbial community were discussed by DGGE analysis. • The dominated microorganisms were identified by 16S rDNA sequences. - Abstract: Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH{sub 4}/h g VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO{sub 2}/h g VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic

  5. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Yuancai; Chen, Yuancai; Song, Wenzhe; Hu, Yongyou

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this work, an aerobic column reactor was placed before the USB to maintain micro-oxygen condition in the reactor and the micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L −1 ) was successfully obtained. PCP degradation by the micro-aerobic system was studied and the variance of microbial community was also discussed by using PCR-DGGE analysis. - Highlights: • Micro-aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in column-type combined reactors. • PCP biodegradation, VFA accumulation and biogas production were studied. • The function of Methanogenic archaeon in the system was investigated. • Fluctuation and diversity of microbial community were discussed by DGGE analysis. • The dominated microorganisms were identified by 16S rDNA sequences. - Abstract: Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L −1 ) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH 4 /h g VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO 2 /h g VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic condition and

  6. Activation of zero-error classical capacity in low-dimensional quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeonghoon; Heo, Jun

    2018-06-01

    Channel capacities of quantum channels can be nonadditive even if one of two quantum channels has no channel capacity. We call this phenomenon activation of the channel capacity. In this paper, we show that when we use a quantum channel on a qubit system, only a noiseless qubit channel can generate the activation of the zero-error classical capacity. In particular, we show that the zero-error classical capacity of two quantum channels on qubit systems cannot be activated. Furthermore, we present a class of examples showing the activation of the zero-error classical capacity in low-dimensional systems.

  7. Litter type affects the activity of aerobic decomposers in a boreal peatland more than site nutrient and water level regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straková, P.; Niemi, R. M.; Freeman, C.; Peltoniemi, K.; Toberman, H.; Heiskanen, I.; Fritze, H.; Laiho, R.

    2011-02-01

    Peatlands are carbon (C) storage ecosystems sustained by a high water level (WL). High WL creates anoxic conditions that suppress the activity of aerobic decomposers and provide conditions for peat accumulation. Peatland function can be dramatically affected by WL drawdown caused by land-use and/or climate change. Aerobic decomposers are directly affected by WL drawdown through environmental factors such as increased oxygenation and nutrient availability. Additionally, they are indirectly affected via changes in plant community composition and litter quality. We studied the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of WL drawdown on aerobic decomposer activity in plant litter. We did this by profiling 11 extracellular enzymes involved in the mineralization of organic C, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur. Our study sites represented a three-stage chronosequence from pristine (undrained) to short-term (years) and long-term (decades) WL drawdown conditions under two nutrient regimes. The litter types included reflected the prevalent vegetation, i.e., Sphagnum mosses, graminoids, shrubs and trees. WL drawdown had a direct and positive effect on microbial activity. Enzyme allocation shifted towards C acquisition, which caused an increase in the rate of decomposition. However, litter type overruled the direct effects of WL drawdown and was the main factor shaping microbial activity patterns. Our results imply that changes in plant community composition in response to persistent WL drawdown will strongly affect the C dynamics of peatlands.

  8. Effects of 16 weeks of aerobic, resistance and combination exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of 16 weeks of aerobic, resistance and combination exercise programmes on smoking. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Abstract. Previous research on the cessation of smoking and the prevention of smoking recidivism using exercise training has mainly focused on aerobic training (AER).

  9. Gait characteristics of individuals with multiple sclerosis before and after a 6-month aerobic training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M M; Mulcare, J A; King, D L; Mathews, T; Gupta, S C; Glaser, R M

    1999-07-01

    Individuals who have multiple sclerosis (MS) typically experience problems with physical activities such as walking, resulting from the combined effects of skeletal muscle weakness, sensory disturbances, spasticity, gait ataxia, and reduction in aerobic capacity. The aim of this study was to determine whether a 6-mo exercise program designed for aerobic conditioning might also affect gait abnormalities in individuals with MS. Subjects included 18 individuals with MS who presented a range of disability. Passive range of motion (PROM) in the lower limbs was measured and gait analyzed before and after exercise conditioning. Three-dimensional kinematics, ground reaction forces (GRF), and electromyographic information were acquired as subjects walked at self-selected velocities. Hip PROM increased following conditioning. Mean walking velocity, cadence, and posterior shear GRF (push-off force) decreased. During walking, maximum ankle dorsiflexion decreased and ankle plantarflexion increased. Total knee flexion/extension range during the walking cycle decreased slightly as did maximum hip extension. Results suggest this 6-mo training program had minimal effect on gait abnormalities.

  10. The study of a pilot-scale aerobic/Fenton/anoxic/aerobic process system for the treatment of landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyong; Zhou, Yu; Min, Xiaobo; Liu, Jingyi; Li, Xinyu; Luo, Lin; Zhang, Jiachao; Mao, Qiming; Chai, Liyuan; Zhou, YaoYu

    2017-06-29

    In this study, a combined aerobic-Fenton-anoxic/aerobic system was designed for the remediation of raw landfill leachate in a pilot-scale experiment. This system included (i) a granular sludge biological oxidation procedure that achieves the accumulation of nitrite nitrogen ([Formula: see text]) under aerobic conditions; (ii) a Fenton process that improves the biodegradability of the biotreated leachate and (iii) an activated sludge biological oxidation component under anoxic and aerobic conditions. Additionally, a shortcut nitrification and denitrification pathway was achieved. The effects of free ammonia, temperature and pH on nitrite accumulation were discussed. The change in the biochemical oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand ratio of the effluent after shortcut nitrification was also analysed. The microbial community in the reactor were also investigated. The problem of the lack of carbon source in the denitrification process can be solved by the Fenton reagent method. Moreover, it was beneficial to achieving nitrogen removal as well as the more extensive removal of organic matter. The treatment strategy employed in this study exhibited good results and provided the potential practical application for treating landfill leachate.

  11. MAXIMAL OXIGEN UPTAKE (VO2 MAX AS THE INDICATOR OF PHYSICAL WORKING CAPACITY IN SPORTSMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvezdana Rajkovaca

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The term “aerobic capacity” represents the sum of aerobic metabolic processes in human organism. It is the basis of the physical working capacity. Value of the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max is the best indicator for the aerobic capacity evaluation.The purpose of this study was to check the possibility of using VO2max as the indicator of aerobic capacity in sportsmen and to check differences in VO2max values in regard to non-sportsmen.The goals were: 1.Analyses of the VO2max values in sportsmen of various sports 2. Comparison of values of sportsmen with the values of non-sportsmen.This study included 67 sportsmen (rowers, football players and judoists and 28 nonsportsmen. VO2max was measured by using a direct method.The results obtained show statistically higher VO2max values in rowers (4,52 L/min - 55,8 mL/kg/min in regard to football players (4,2 L/min – 53,6 mL/kg/min, judoists (3,58 L/min - 47,2 mL/ kg/min and non-sportsmen (3,28 L/min – 42,3 mL/kg/min. Successful rowing requires high anaerobic capacity and, therefore, high VO2max.These results show higher values of VO2max in sportsmen in regard to non-sportsmen, which is the result of training only.

  12. Depletion of Essential Fatty Acids in the Food Source Affects Aerobic Capacities of the Golden Grey Mullet Liza aurata in a Warming Seawater Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagner, Marie; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Zambonino Infante, José-Luis; Mazurais, David; Dubillot, Emmanuel; Le Delliou, Hervé; Quazuguel, Patrick; Lefrançois, Christel

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of thermal acclimation and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) content of the food source on the aerobic capacities of fish in a thermal changing environment. The model used was the golden grey mullet Liza aurata, a species of high ecological importance in temperate coastal areas. For four months, fish were exposed to two food sources with contrasting n-3 HUFA contents (4.8% ecosapentaenoic acid EPA + docosahexaenoic acid DHA on the dry matter DM basis vs. 0.2% EPA+DHA on DM) combined with two acclimation temperatures (12°C vs. 20°C). The four experimental conditions were LH12, LH20, HH12 and HH20. Each group was then submitted to a thermal challenge consisting of successive exposures to five temperatures (9°C, 12°C, 16°C, 20°C, 24°C). At each temperature, the maximal and minimal metabolic rates, metabolic scope, and the maximum swimming speed were measured. Results showed that the cost of maintenance of basal metabolic activities was particularly higher when n-3 HUFA food content was low. Moreover, fish exposed to high acclimation temperature combined with a low n-3 HUFA dietary level (LH20) exhibited a higher aerobic scope, as well as a greater expenditure of energy to reach the same maximum swimming speed as other groups. This suggested a reduction of the amount of energy available to perform other physiological functions. This study is the first to show that the impact of lowering n-3 HUFA food content is exacerbated for fish previously acclimated to a warmer environment. It raises the question of the consequences of longer and warmer summers that have already been recorded and are still expected in temperate areas, as well as the pertinence of the lowering n-3 HUFA availability in the food web expected with global change, as a factor affecting marine organisms and communities.

  13. Aerobic training for improved memory in patients with stress-related exhaustion: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskilsson, Therese; Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth; Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna; Stigsdotter Neely, Anna; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan

    2017-09-02

    Patients with stress-related exhaustion suffer from cognitive impairments, which often remain after psychological treatment or work place interventions. It is important to find effective treatments that can address this problem. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects on cognitive performance and psychological variables of a 12-week aerobic training program performed at a moderate-vigorous intensity for patients with exhaustion disorder who participated in a multimodal rehabilitation program. In this open-label, parallel, randomized and controlled trial, 88 patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder participated in a 24-week multimodal rehabilitation program. After 12 weeks in the program the patients were randomized to either a 12-week aerobic training intervention or to a control group with no additional training. Primary outcome measure was cognitive function, and secondary outcome measures were psychological health variables and aerobic capacity. In total, 51% patients in the aerobic training group and 78% patients in the control group completed the intervention period. The aerobic training group significantly improved in maximal oxygen uptake and episodic memory performance. No additional improvement in burnout, depression or anxiety was observed in the aerobic group compared with controls. Aerobic training at a moderate-vigorous intensity within a multimodal rehabilitation program for patients with exhaustion disorder facilitated episodic memory. A future challenge would be the clinical implementation of aerobic training and methods to increase feasibility in this patient group. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03073772 . Retrospectively registered 21 February 2017.

  14. Ecology of Exercise in Wild Fish: Integrating Concepts of Individual Physiological Capacity, Behavior, and Fitness Through Diverse Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownscombe, Jacob W; Cooke, Steven J; Algera, Dirk A; Hanson, Kyle C; Eliason, Erika J; Burnett, Nicholas J; Danylchuk, Andy J; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P

    2017-08-01

    Wild animals maximize fitness through certain behaviors (e.g., foraging, mating, predator avoidance) that incur metabolic costs and often require high levels of locomotor activity. Consequently, the ability of animals to achieve high fitness often relies on their physiological capacity for exercise (aerobic scope) and/or their ability to acquire and utilize energy judiciously. Here, we explore how environmental factors and physiological limitations influence exercise and metabolism in fish while foraging, migrating to spawning grounds, and providing parental care. We do so with three case studies that use a number of approaches to studying exercise in wild fish using biologging and biotelemetry platforms. Bonefish (Albula vulpes) selectively use shallow water tropical marine environments to forage when temperatures are near optimal for aerobic scope and exercise capacity. Bonefish energy expenditure at upper thermal extremes is maximal while activity levels diminish, likely caused by reduced aerobic scope. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) reproductive migrations frequently involve passage through hydraulically challenging areas, and their ability to successfully pass these regions is constrained by their physiological capacity for exercise. Aerobic scope and swim performance are correlated with migration difficulty among sockeye salmon (O. nerka) populations; however, depletion of endogenous energy stores can also limit migration success. In another example, male smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) allocate a significant amount of energy to nest-guarding behaviors to protect their developing brood. Smallmouth bass body size, endogenous energy reserves, and physiological state influence nest-guarding behaviors and reproductive success. We suggest that in some scenarios (e.g., bonefish foraging, Pacific salmon dam passage) metabolic capacity for exercise may be the strongest determinant of biological fitness, while in others (e.g., long distance salmon migration

  15. Evaluating dispersal potential of an invasive fish by the use of aerobic scope and osmoregulation capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane W Behrens

    Full Text Available Non-indigenous species (NIS can impact marine biodiversity and ecosystem structure and function. Once introduced into a new region, secondary dispersal is limited by the physiology of the organism in relation to the ambient environment and by complex interactions between a suite of ecological factors such as presence of predators, competitors, and parasites. Early prediction of dispersal potential and future 'area of impact' is challenging, but also a great asset in taking appropriate management actions. Aerobic scope (AS in fish has been linked to various fitness-related parameters, and may be valuable in determining dispersal potential of aquatic invasive species in novel environments. Round goby, Neogobius melanostomus, one of the most wide-ranging invasive fish species in Europe and North America, currently thrives in brackish and fresh water, but its ability to survive in high salinity waters is unknown to date. We show that AS in round goby is reduced by 30% and blood plasma osmolality increased (indicating reduced capacity for osmoregulation at salinities approaching oceanic conditions, following slow ramping (5 PSU per week and subsequent long-term acclimation to salinities ranging between 0 and 30 PSU (8 days at final treatment salinities before blood plasma osmolality measurements, 12-20 additional days before respirometry. Survival was also reduced at the highest salinities yet a significant proportion (61% of the fish survived at 30 PSU. Reduced physiological performance at the highest salinities may affect growth and competitive ability under oceanic conditions, but to what extent reduced AS and osmoregulatory capacity will slow the current 30 km year-1 rate of advance of the species through the steep salinity gradient from the brackish Baltic Sea and into the oceanic North Sea remains speculative. An unintended natural experiment is in progress to test whether the rate of advance slows down. At the current rate of advance the

  16. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  17. Activity, Microenvironments, and Community Structure of Aerobic and Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidizing Prokaryotes in Estuarine Sediment (Randers Fjord, DK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Andreas; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Dalsgaard, Tage

    2006-01-01

    ACTIVITY, MICROENVIRONMENTS, AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC AMMONIUM OXIDIZING PROKARYOTES IN ESTUARINE SEDIMENT (RANDERS FJORD, DK) A. Schramm 1, N.P. Revsbech 1, T. Dalsgaard 2, E. Piña-Ochoa 3, J. de la Torré 4, D.A. Stahl 4, N. Risgaard-Petersen 2 1 Department of Biological...... conversion of ammonium with nitrite to N2, is increasingly recognized as link in the aquatic nitrogen cycle. However, factors regulating the occurrence and activity of anammox bacteria are still poorly understood. Besides the influence of abiotic factors, anammox might be controlled by either aerobic ammonia...... oxidizing bacteria and archaea (AOB and AOA) or nitrate-reducing/denitrifying bacteria via their supply of nitrite. Along the Randers Fjord estuary (Denmark), gradients of salinity, nutrients, and organic loading can be observed, and anammox has been detected previously at some sites. The aim of this study...

  18. Physiological and functional diversity of phenol degraders isolated from phenol-grown aerobic granules: Phenol degradation kinetics and trichloroethylene co-metabolic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Aerobic granule is a novel form of microbial aggregate capable of degrading toxic and recalcitrant substances. Aerobic granules have been formed on phenol as the growth substrate, and used to co-metabolically degrade trichloroethylene (TCE), a synthetic solvent not supporting aerobic microbial growth. Granule formation process, rate limiting factors and the comprehensive toxic effects of phenol and TCE had been systematically studied. To further explore their potential at the level of microbial population and functions, phenol degraders were isolated and purified from mature granules in this study. Phenol and TCE degradation kinetics of 15 strains were determined, together with their TCE transformation capacities and other physiological characteristics. Isolation in the presence of phenol and TCE exerted stress on microbial populations, but the procedure was able to preserve their diversity. Wide variation was found with the isolates' kinetic behaviors, with the parameters often spanning 3 orders of magnitude. Haldane kinetics described phenol degradation well, and the isolates exhibited actual maximum phenol-dependent oxygen utilization rates of 9-449 mg DO g DW(-1) h(-1), in phenol concentration range of 4.8-406 mg L(-1). Both Michaelis-Menten and Haldane types were observed for TCE transformation, with the actual maximum rate of 1.04-21.1 mg TCE g DW(-1) h(-1) occurring between TCE concentrations of 0.42-4.90 mg L(-1). The TCE transformation capacities and growth yields on phenol ranged from 20-115 mg TCE g DW(-1) and 0.46-1.22 g DW g phenol(-1), respectively, resulting in TCE transformation yields of 10-70 mg TCE g phenol(-1). Contact angles of the isolates were between 34° and 82°, suggesting both hydrophobic and hydrophilic cell surface. The diversity in the isolates is a great advantage, as it enables granules to be versatile and adaptive under different operational conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Low-intensity training dissociates metabolic from aerobic fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, J W; Damsgaard, R; Overgaard, K

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of prolonged whole-body low-intensity exercise on blood lipids, skeletal muscle adaptations and aerobic fitness. Seven male subjects completed a 32-day crossing of the Greenland icecap on cross-country skies and before and after this arm or leg cranking was perf......This study investigated the effect of prolonged whole-body low-intensity exercise on blood lipids, skeletal muscle adaptations and aerobic fitness. Seven male subjects completed a 32-day crossing of the Greenland icecap on cross-country skies and before and after this arm or leg cranking...... sensitive lipase activity was similar in arm and leg muscle prior to the expedition and was not significantly affected by the crossing. In conclusion, an improved blood lipid profile and thus metabolic fitness was present after prolonged low-intensity training and this occurred in spite of a decreased...... aerobic fitness and an unchanged arm and leg muscle hormone-sensitive lipase activity....

  20. Carbohydrate administration during a day of sustained aerobic activity improves vigilance, as assessed by a novel ambulatory monitoring device, and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R; Falco, Christina M; Slade, Steven S

    2002-07-01

    The brain requires a continuous supply of glucose to function adequately. During aerobic exercise, peripheral glucose requirements increase and carbohydrate supplementation improves physical performance. The brain's utilization of glucose also increases during aerobic exercise. However, the effects of energy supplementation on cognitive function during sustained aerobic exercise are not well characterized. The effects of energy supplementation, as liquid carbohydrate, on cognitive function during sustained aerobic activity were examined. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design was used. Young, healthy men (n = 143) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups. The groups received either a 6% (by vol) carbohydrate (35.1 kJ/kg), 12% (by vol) carbohydrate (70.2 kJ/kg), or placebo beverage in 6 isovolumic doses, and all groups consumed 2 meals (3200 kJ). Over the 10-h study, the subjects performed physically demanding tasks, including a 19.3-km road march and two 4.8-km runs, interspersed with rest and other activities. Wrist-worn vigilance monitors, which emitted auditory stimuli (20/h) to which the subjects responded as rapidly as possible, and a standardized self-report mood questionnaire were used to assess cognitive function. Vigilance consistently improved with supplemental carbohydrates in a dose-related manner; the 12% carbohydrate group performed the best and the placebo group the worst (P Mood-questionnaire results corroborated the results from the monitors; the subjects who received carbohydrates reported less confusion (P = 0.040) and greater vigor (P = 0.025) than did those who received the placebo. Supplemental carbohydrate beverages enhance vigilance and mood during sustained physical activity and interspersed rest. In addition, ambulatory monitoring devices can continuously assess the effects of nutritional factors on cognition as individuals conduct their daily activities or participate in experiments.

  1. Aerobic exercise (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerobic exercise gets the heart working to pump blood through the heart more quickly and with more ... must be oxygenated more quickly, which quickens respiration. Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart and boosts healthy cholesterol ...

  2. Effects of Aerobic Training on Body Composition and Serum Homocysteine in Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Taghian

    2011-08-01

    . Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, regular and controlled aerobic endurance exercise programs of 12 weeks, with moderate-intensity of increased skeletal muscle capacity use of lipids, may play an important role in weight control in obese individuals and decrease their cardiovascular disease risk factors.

  3. The effect of low-level laser therapy on oxidative stress and functional fitness in aged rats subjected to swimming: an aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaraldo, Simone A; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Amadio, Eliane Martins; Antônio, Ednei Luis; Silva, Flávio; Portes, Leslie Andrews; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in conjunction with aerobic training interferes with oxidative stress, thereby influencing the performance of old rats participating in swimming. Thirty Wistar rats (Norvegicus albinus) (24 aged and six young) were tested. The older animals were randomly divided into aged-control, aged-exercise, aged-LLLT, aged-LLLT/exercise, and young-control. Aerobic capacity (VO2max(0.75)) was analyzed before and after the training period. The exercise groups were trained for 6 weeks, and the LLLT was applied at 808 nm and 4 J energy. The rats were euthanized, and muscle tissue was collected to analyze the index of lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities. VO2 (0.75)max values in the aged-LLLT/exercise group were significantly higher from those in the baseline older group (p exercise group (p exercise group than those in the LLLT and exercise groups. Young animals presented lesser and statistically significant activities of antioxidant enzymes compared to the aged group. The LLLT/exercise group and the LLLT and exercise group could also mitigate the concentration of TBARS (p > 0.05). Laser therapy in conjunction with aerobic training may reduce oxidative stress, as well as increase VO2 (0.75)max, indicating that an aerobic exercise such as swimming increases speed and improves performance in aged animals treated with LLLT.

  4. Aerobic biotransformation of N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrodimethylamine in methane and benzene amended soil columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidhaas, Jennifer; Dupont, R. Ryan

    2013-07-01

    Aerobic biotransformation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), an emerging contaminant of concern, and its structural analog N-nitrodimethylamine (DMN), was evaluated in benzene and methane amended groundwater passed through laboratory scale soil columns. Competitive inhibition models were used to model the kinetics for NDMA and DMN cometabolism accounting for the concurrent degradation of the growth and cometabolic substrates. Transformation capacities for NDMA and DMN with benzene (13 and 23 μg (mg cells)- 1) and methane (0.14 and 8.4 μg (mg cells)- 1) grown cultures, respectively are comparable to those presented in the literature, as were first order endogenous decay rates estimated to be 2.1 × 10- 2 ± 1.7 × 10- 3 d- 1 and 6.5 × 10- 1 ± 7.1 × 10- 1 d- 1 for the methane and benzene amended cultures, respectively. These studies highlight possible attenuation mechanisms and rates for NDMA and DMN biotransformation in aerobic aquifers undergoing active remediation, natural attenuation or managed aquifer recharge with treated wastewater (i.e., reclaimed water).

  5. Radioassay for hydrogenase activity in viable cells and documentation of aerobic hydrogen-consuming bacteria living in extreme environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schink, B.; Lupton, F.S.; Zeikus, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    An isotopic tracer assay based on the hydrogenase-dependent formation of tritiated water from tritium gas was developed for in life analysis of microbial hydrogen transformation. This method allowed detection of bacterial hydrogen metabolism in pure cultures or in natural samples obtained from aquatic ecosystems. A differentiation between chemical-biological and aerobic-anaerobic hydrogen metabolism was established by variation of the experimental incubation temperature or by addition of selective inhibitors. Hydrogenase activity was shown to be proportional to the consumption or production of hydrogen by cultures of Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Clostridium pasteurianum, and Methanosarcina barkeri. This method was applied, in connection with measurements of free hydrogen and most-probable-number enumerations, in aerobic natural source waters to establish the activity and document the ecology of hydrogen-consuming bacteria in extreme acid, thermal, or saline environments. The utility of the assay is based in part on the ability to quantify bacterial hydrogen transformation at natural hydrogen partial pressures, without the use of artificial electron acceptors

  6. Interval Running Training Improves Cognitive Flexibility and Aerobic Power of Young Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Solianik, Rima; Juodsnukis, Antanas; Streckis, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2016-08-01

    Venckunas, T, Snieckus, A, Trinkunas, E, Baranauskiene, N, Solianik, R, Juodsnukis, A, Streckis, V, and Kamandulis, S. Interval running training improves cognitive flexibility and aerobic power of young healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2114-2121, 2016-The benefits of regular physical exercise may well extend beyond the reduction of chronic diseases risk and augmentation of working capacity, to many other aspects of human well-being, including improved cognitive functioning. Although the effects of moderate intensity continuous training on cognitive performance are relatively well studied, the benefits of interval training have not been investigated in this respect so far. The aim of the current study was to assess whether 7 weeks of interval running training is effective at improving both aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. For this purpose, 8 young dinghy sailors (6 boys and 2 girls) completed the interval running program with 200 m and 2,000 m running performance, cycling maximal oxygen uptake, and cognitive function was measured before and after the intervention. The control group consisted of healthy age-matched subjects (8 boys and 2 girls) who continued their active lifestyle and were tested in the same way as the experimental group, but did not complete any regular training. In the experimental group, 200 m and 2,000 m running performance and cycling maximal oxygen uptake increased together with improved results on cognitive flexibility tasks. No changes in the results of short-term and working memory tasks were observed in the experimental group, and no changes in any of the measured indices were evident in the controls. In conclusion, 7 weeks of interval running training improved running performance and cycling aerobic power, and were sufficient to improve the ability to adjust behavior to changing demands in young active individuals.

  7. Aerobic-synergized exercises may improve fall-related physical fitness in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Chen; Wang, Jung-Der; Chen, Ho-Cheng; Hu, Susan C

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a synergistic exercise model based on aerobics with additional fall-preventive components could provide extra benefits compared with the same duration of aerobic-synergistic exercise alone. A total of 102 adults aged 65 years and over from three geographically separated communities were assigned to three groups: the general aerobic exercise (GAE) group (N.=44), the GAE plus ball game group (BG group; N.=30) and the GAE plus square-stepping exercise group (SSE group; N.=28). Each group participated in one hour of exercise intervention and two hours of leisure activities twice weekly for 12 weeks. Each exercise session consisted of one hour of combined exercises performed in the following order: 10 minutes of warm-up activities, 20 minutes of aerobics, 20 minutes of the respective exercise model, and 10 minutes of cool-down activities. Functional fitness tests, including aerobic endurance, leg strength, flexibility, reaction time, static balance and mobility, were measured before and after the intervention. Paired t-tests and mixed model analyses were conducted to compare the differences in each measurement within and among the groups. All of the groups exhibited significantly positive effects (Pfall-prevention exercises performed over a consistent period may improve mobility without compromising the fundamental benefits of aerobics. Future studies using randomized control trials with recorded fall events and a longer period of follow-up are indicated to validate the effects of fall prevention exercises.

  8. Cardio-respiratory capacity as an important biomarker of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Novák

    2016-12-01

    could be calculated according to the maximal performance (Wmax and Wmax/kg attained on bicycle ergometer. Regular aerobic endurance exercise could reduce biological age of active individuals by 10 to 20 years with a correspondingly decreased likelihood of becoming dependent when a senior and an expressive improvement in the quality of the final years of life (Shephard, 1994. VO2max and VO2max/kg values represent important health quality biomarkers. They also offer feedback information, positive and/or negative, about the effectiveness of physical activity influencing its development. Thus, aerobic fitness level has been strongly and positively associated with reduced morbidity, prevalence and mortality rates of so called civilization diseases, good quality of life, performance level, and functional ability. Thus, if no O2-CO2 analyzer during ergometry examination is available, calculated VO2max and VO2max/kg values can be used for evaluation of cardio-respiratory capacity.

  9. The Acute Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Measures of Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Inza L.; And Others

    The immediate response of stress to aerobic exercise was measured by utilizing the Palmar Sweat Index (PSI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Forty subjects (20 male and 20 female) from the ages of 18-30 sustained a single bout of aerobic activity for 30 minutes at 60 percent of their maximum heart rate. Pre-treatment procedures…

  10. Does aerobic exercise improve or impair cardiorespiratory fitness and health among cleaners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj Larsen, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Skotte, Jørgen H

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is unknown if aerobic exercise overloads or improves the cardiovascular system among workers with high occupational physical activity. This was investigated in a worksite randomized controlled trial (RCT) of aerobic exercise among cleaners. METHODS: We randomized 116 cleaners betwee...

  11. Daily physical activity and its relation to aerobic fitness in children aged 8-11 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K.

    2006-01-01

    and fitness in children has been published, where fitness has been assessed by direct measurement of maximum oxygen uptake and related to daily physical activity intensities by accelerometers. We examined 248 children (140 boys and 108 girls), aged 7.9-11.1 years. Maximum workload and maximal oxygen uptake...... in vigorous physical activity were calculated. VO2PEAK was correlated with mean accelerometer counts (r=0.23 for boys and r=0.23 for girls, both Pactivity (r=0.32 for boys, r=0.30 for girls, both P...Abstract  A positive relationship between daily physical activity and aerobic fitness exists in adults. Studies in children have given conflicting results, possibly because of differences in methods used to assess daily physical activity and fitness. No study regarding daily physical activity...

  12. Aerobic anti-gravity exercise in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease types 1A and X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knak, Kirsten L; Andersen, Linda K; Vissing, John

    2017-01-01

    Background: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a hereditary neuropathy associated with impaired walking capacity. Some patients are too weak in the lower extremity muscles to walk at gravity with sufficient intensity or duration to gain benefit. Aim: The aim was to investigate the effect...... of aerobic anti-gravity exercise in weak patients with CMT 1A and X. Methods: Five adult patients performed moderate-intensity aerobic anti-gravity exercise 3/week for 10 weeks. Results: There was a significant positive difference in Berg balance scale and postural stability test between test occasions...

  13. Changes in aerobic performance, body composition, and physical activity in polar explorers during a year-long stay at the polar station in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejczyk, Marcin; Araźny, Andrzej; Opyrchał, Marta

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in physical activity, aerobic performance, and body composition in polar explorers during a 1-year stay at the polar station. The study group consisted of 10 people, including 8 men and 2 women. Aerobic performance (maximal oxygen uptake), physical activity, body mass, and composition were evaluated for the polar explores of the Polish Polar Station prior to departure, and then during their stay at the station for a period of 1 year. The measurements were performed every 3 months. Compared to the measurements taken before going to the polar station, aerobic performance significantly ( p = 0.02) increased in the first 3 months of residing at the polar station and then remained relatively stable for the following duration of the stay. In the first 3 months of the stay, we also observed the highest level of physical activity in participants. In the polar explorers, no significant ( p > 0.05) body fatness changes were noted. Nonetheless, lean body mass, body mass, and BMI significantly increased compared to the measurements taken before departure to the polar station. The greatest changes in aerobic performance, physical activity, and body composition were observed during the first 3 months after arrival to the Arctic and then, despite changing biometeorological conditions, they remained stable for the next months of the stay. We recommend the introduction of a physical preparation program before departing to the polar station to improve explorers' physical fitness, so that they can meet the physical challenges they are faced with immediately after arrival to the polar station.

  14. Aerobic Activity in the Healthy Elderly Is Associated with Larger Plasticity in Memory Related Brain Structures and Lower Systemic Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, Jan-Willem; Kärgel, Christian; Müller, Bernhard W.; Rasche, Ina; Genius, Just; Bus, Boudewijn; Maderwald, Stefan; Norris, David G.; Wiltfang, Jens; Tendolkar, Indira

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive abilities decline over the time course of our life, a process, which may be mediated by brain atrophy and enhanced inflammatory processes. Lifestyle factors, such as regular physical activities have been shown to counteract those noxious processes and are assumed to delay or possibly even prevent pathological states, such as dementing disorders. Whereas the impact of lifestyle and immunological factors and their interactions on cognitive aging have been frequently studied, their effects on neural parameters as brain activation and functional connectivity are less well studied. Therefore, we investigated 32 healthy elderly individuals (60.4 ± 5.0 SD; range 52–71 years) with low or high level of self-reported aerobic physical activity at the time of testing. A higher compared to a lower level in aerobic physical activity was associated with an increased encoding related functional connectivity in an episodic memory network comprising mPFC, thalamus, hippocampus precuneus, and insula. Moreover, encoding related functional connectivity of this network was associated with decreased systemic inflammation, as measured by systemic levels of interleukin 6. PMID:28082894

  15. Comparison of proteomics profiles of Campylobacter jejuni strain Bf under microaerobic and aerobic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramila Christiane Rodrigues

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni accounts for one of the leading causes of foodborne bacterial enteritis in humans. Despite being considered an obligate microaerobic microorganism, C. jejuni is regularly exposed to oxidative stress. However, its adaptive strategies to survive the atmospheric oxygen level during transmission to humans remain unclear. Recently, the atypical clinical C. jejuni Bf strain was shown by its unexpected ability to grow under ambient atmosphere. Here, we aimed to understand better the biological mechanisms underlying its atypical aerotolerance trait using two-dimensional protein electrophoresis, gene expression and enzymatic activities. Forty-seven proteins were identified with a significantly different abundance between cultivation under microaerobic and aerobic conditions. The over-expressed proteins in aerobiosis belonged mainly to the oxidative stress response, modulation of the main enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, iron uptake and regulation and amino acid uptake when compared to microaerobic conditions. The higher abundance of proteins related to oxidative stress was correlated to dramatically higher transcript levels of the corresponding encoding genes in aerobic conditions compared to microaerobic conditions. In addition, a higher catalase-equivalent activity in strain Bf was observed. Despite the restricted catabolic capacities of C. jejuni, this study reveals that strain Bf is equipped to withstand oxidative stress. This ability could contribute to emergence and persistence of particular strains of C. jejuni throughout food processing or macrophage attack during human infection.

  16. Functional Capacity and Levels of Physical Activity in Aging: A 3-Year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, Maria Teresa; Galán-Mercant, Alejandro; Carnero, Elvis Alvarez; Fernandes, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades, the world elderly population has increased exponentially and this tendency will continue during the coming years; from 2000 to 2050, people over 60 will double and those over 80 will quadruple. Loss of independence occurs as people age due to mobility restrictions, frailty, and decreased functional fitness and cognitive abilities. Evidence has shown that appropriate programs and policies contribute to keep older adults healthy and independent over time. The purpose of this chapter is to report the results of our 3-year follow-up study designed to characterize functional physical fitness in a sample of Portuguese community-dwelling older adults to propose a set of functional parameters that decline the most. We studied a group of 43 elderly people, aged 60 and over. Variables assessed on the participants were anthropometric measurements, functional capacity with the Senior Fitness Test battery (muscle strength, aerobic endurance, flexibility, agility, and dynamic balance), handgrip strength, levels of physical activity, and balance. Three years after the first assessment, a second assessment of the same variables was conducted. We analyzed what were the variables that, for this group, were related with a healthier aging and the relation with different physical activity levels. Our study showed that the distance covered in 6-min walk test and handgrip strength seem to explain a great amount of variability on functional variables that have changed on this period (68% of balance, lower and upper functional strength, respectively) and the active participants showed less decrements with aging in anthropometric and functional variables than those inactive or insufficiently active ( p  activities should be given more attention as components of a community exercise program.

  17. Effect of aerobic exercise intervention on DDT degradation and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kefeng; Zhu, Xiaohua; Wang, Yuzhan; Zheng, Shuqian; Dong, Guijun

    2017-03-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) reportedly causes extensively acute or chronic effects to human health. Exercise can generate positive stress. We evaluated the effect of aerobic exercise on DDT degradation and oxidative stress. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into control (C), DDT without exercise training (D), and DDT plus exercise training (DE) groups. The rats were treated as follows: DDT exposure to D and DE groups at the first 2 weeks; aerobic exercise treatment only to the DE group from the 1st day until the rats are killed. DDT levels in excrements, muscle, liver, serum, and hearts were analyzed. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined. Aerobic exercise accelerated the degradation of DDT primarily to DDE due to better oxygen availability and aerobic condition and promoted the degradation of DDT. Cumulative oxidative damage of DDT and exercise led to significant decrease of SOD level. Exercise resulted in consistent increase in SOD activity. Aerobic exercise enhanced activities of CAT and GSH-Px and promoted MDA scavenging. Results suggested that exercise can accelerate adaptive responses to oxidative stress and activate antioxidant enzymes activities. Exercise can also facilitate the reduction of DDT-induced oxidative damage and promoted DDT degradation. This study strongly implicated the positive effect of exercise training on DDT-induced liver oxidative stress.

  18. The influence of training characteristics on the effect of aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure: A meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromen, T; Kraal, J J; Kuiper, J; Spee, R F; Peek, N; Kemps, H M

    2016-04-01

    Although aerobic exercise training has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic heart failure patients, there has been a debate about the design of training programs and which training characteristics are the strongest determinants of improvement in exercise capacity. Therefore, we performed a meta-regression analysis to determine a ranking of the individual effect of the training characteristics on the improvement in exercise capacity of an aerobic exercise training program in chronic heart failure patients. We focused on four training characteristics; session frequency, session duration, training intensity and program length, and their product; total energy expenditure. A systematic literature search was performed for randomized controlled trials comparing continuous aerobic exercise training with usual care. Seventeen unique articles were included in our analysis. Total energy expenditure appeared the only training characteristic with a significant effect on improvement in exercise capacity. However, the results were strongly dominated by one trial (HF-action trial), accounting for 90% of the total patient population and showing controversial results compared to other studies. A repeated analysis excluding the HF-action trial confirmed that the increase in exercise capacity is primarily determined by total energy expenditure, followed by session frequency, session duration and session intensity. These results suggest that the design of a training program requires high total energy expenditure as a main goal. Increases in training frequency and session duration appear to yield the largest improvement in exercise capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Trail Information on Physical Activity Enjoyment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik Rosegard

    2004-01-01

    Moderate physical activity (PA) improves physical fitness measures (i.e., aerobic capacity, agility, flexibility, body composition, and muscular endurance and strength). In addition to numerous physiological benefits, PA has been shown to increase cognitive and emotional functioning. These benefits lead to improved immune response and have been associated with...

  20. Aerobic conditioning for team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicholas M; Kilding, Andrew E

    2009-01-01

    Team sport athletes require a high level of aerobic fitness in order to generate and maintain power output during repeated high-intensity efforts and to recover. Research to date suggests that these components can be increased by regularly performing aerobic conditioning. Traditional aerobic conditioning, with minimal changes of direction and no skill component, has been demonstrated to effectively increase aerobic function within a 4- to 10-week period in team sport players. More importantly, traditional aerobic conditioning methods have been shown to increase team sport performance substantially. Many team sports require the upkeep of both aerobic fitness and sport-specific skills during a lengthy competitive season. Classic team sport trainings have been shown to evoke marginal increases/decreases in aerobic fitness. In recent years, aerobic conditioning methods have been designed to allow adequate intensities to be achieved to induce improvements in aerobic fitness whilst incorporating movement-specific and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games and dribbling circuits. Such 'sport-specific' conditioning methods have been demonstrated to promote increases in aerobic fitness, though careful consideration of player skill levels, current fitness, player numbers, field dimensions, game rules and availability of player encouragement is required. Whilst different conditioning methods appear equivalent in their ability to improve fitness, whether sport-specific conditioning is superior to other methods at improving actual game performance statistics requires further research.

  1. Physical work capacity in older adults: implications for the aging worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Glen P; Yardley, Jane E; Martineau, Lucie; Jay, Ollie

    2008-08-01

    In many developed countries, the workforce is rapidly aging. Occupational demands however, have not decreased despite the fact that workers see a decline in physical work capacity with age. The purpose of this review is to examine the physiological adaptations to aging, the impact of aging on performance and the benefits of physical fitness in improving functional work capacity in aging individuals. An extensive search of the scientific literature was performed, acquiring published articles which examined the physiological changes associated with age-related decrements in the physical work capacity of healthy aging adults. The databases accessed included AARP Ageline, AccessScience, Annual Reviews, CISTI, Cochrane Library, Clinical Evidence, Digital Dissertations (Proquest), Embase, HealthSTAR, Medline, PubMed, Scopus, and PASCAL and included relevant information sites obtained on the world wide web. While a great deal of variation exists, an average decline of 20% in physical work capacity has been reported between the ages of 40 and 60 years, due to decreases in aerobic and musculoskeletal capacity. These declines can contribute to decreased work capacity, and consequential increases in work-related injuries and illness. However, differences in habitual physical activity will greatly influence the variability seen in individual physical work capacity and its components. Well-organized, management-supported, work-site health interventions encouraging physical activity during work hours could potentially decrease the incidence of age-related injury and illness. Age-associated functional declines and the accompanying risk of work-related injury can be prevented or at least delayed by the practice of regular physical activity. Older workers could optimally pursue their careers until retirement if they continuously maintain their physical training.

  2. Gas-exfoliated porous monolayer boron nitride for enhanced aerobic oxidative desulfurization performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingcheng; Wu, Peiwen; Chao, Yanhong; He, Jing; Li, Hongping; Lu, Linjie; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Beibei; Li, Huaming; Zhu, Wenshuai

    2018-01-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride has been regarded to be an efficient catalyst in aerobic oxidation fields, but limited by the less-exposed active sites. In this contribution, we proposed a simple green liquid nitrogen gas exfoliation strategy for preparation of porous monolayer nanosheets (BN-1). Owing to the reduced layer numbers, decreased lateral sizes and artificially-constructed pores, increased exposure of active sites was expected, further contributed to an enhanced aerobic oxidative desulfurization (ODS) performance up to ˜98% of sulfur removal, achieving ultra-deep desulfurization. This work not only introduced an excellent catalyst for aerobic ODS, but also provided a strategy for construction of some other highly-efficient monolayer two-dimensional materials for enhanced catalytic performance.

  3. EXERCISE PERFORMANCE AND MUSCLE CONTRACTILE PROPERTIES AFTER CREATINE MONOHYDRATE SUPPLEMENTATION IN AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC TRAINING RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolay Boyadjiev

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on exercise performance and contractile variables in aerobic-anaerobic training rats. Twenty 90-day-old male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups - creatine (Cr and controls (K. The creatine group received creatine monohydrate as a nutritional supplement, whereas the control group was given placebo. Both groups were trained 5 days a week on a treadmill for 20 days in a mixed (aerobic-anaerobic metabolic working regimen (27 m·min-1, 15% elevation for 40 min. The exercise performance (sprint-test, contractile properties (m. tibialis anterior, oxidative enzyme activity (SDH, LDH, NADH2 in m. soleus and blood hematological and chemical variables were assessed in the groups at the end of the experiment. It was found out that creatine supplementation improved the exercise performance after 20 days of administration in a dose of 60 mg per day on the background of a mixed (aerobic-anaerobic exercise training. At the end of the trial the Cr-group demonstrated better values for the variables which characterize the contractile properties of m. tibialis anterior containing predominantly types IIA and IIB muscle fibers. On the other hand, a higher oxidative capacity was found out in m. soleus (type I muscle fibers as a result of 20-day creatine supplementation. No side effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation were assessed by the hematological and blood biochemical indices measured in this study

  4. A TEMPO-free copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Boran; Lumb, Jean-Philip; Arndtsen, Bruce A

    2015-03-27

    The copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols without an external N-oxide co-oxidant is described. The catalyst system is composed of a Cu/diamine complex inspired by the enzyme tyrosinase, along with dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) or N-methylimidazole (NMI). The Cu catalyst system works without 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-l-piperidinoxyl (TEMPO) at ambient pressure and temperature, and displays activity for un-activated secondary alcohols, which remain a challenging substrate for catalytic aerobic systems. Our work underscores the importance of finding alternative mechanistic pathways for alcohol oxidation, which complement Cu/TEMPO systems, and demonstrate, in this case, a preference for the oxidation of activated secondary over primary alcohols. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Cross-Validation of Aerobic Capacity Prediction Models in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ryan Donald; Hannon, James C; Brusseau, Timothy A; Eisenman, Patricia A; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Greg J; Mahar, Matthew T

    2015-08-01

    Cardiorespiratory endurance is a component of health-related fitness. FITNESSGRAM recommends the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) or One mile Run/Walk (1MRW) to assess cardiorespiratory endurance by estimating VO2 Peak. No research has cross-validated prediction models from both PACER and 1MRW, including the New PACER Model and PACER-Mile Equivalent (PACER-MEQ) using current standards. The purpose of this study was to cross-validate prediction models from PACER and 1MRW against measured VO2 Peak in adolescents. Cardiorespiratory endurance data were collected on 90 adolescents aged 13-16 years (Mean = 14.7 ± 1.3 years; 32 girls, 52 boys) who completed the PACER and 1MRW in addition to a laboratory maximal treadmill test to measure VO2 Peak. Multiple correlations among various models with measured VO2 Peak were considered moderately strong (R = .74-0.78), and prediction error (RMSE) ranged from 5.95 ml·kg⁻¹,min⁻¹ to 8.27 ml·kg⁻¹.min⁻¹. Criterion-referenced agreement into FITNESSGRAM's Healthy Fitness Zones was considered fair-to-good among models (Kappa = 0.31-0.62; Agreement = 75.5-89.9%; F = 0.08-0.65). In conclusion, prediction models demonstrated moderately strong linear relationships with measured VO2 Peak, fair prediction error, and fair-to-good criterion referenced agreement with measured VO2 Peak into FITNESSGRAM's Healthy Fitness Zones.

  6. Combined Effects of Lignosus rhinocerotis Supplementation and Resistance Training on Isokinetic Muscular Strength and Power, Anaerobic and Aerobic Fitness Level, and Immune Parameters in Young Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chee Keong; Hamdan, Nor Faeiza; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Wan Abd Hamid, Wan Zuraida

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Lignosus rhinocerotis (LRS) supplementation and resistance training (RT) on isokinetic muscular strength and power, anaerobic and aerobic fitness, and immune parameters in young males. Participants were randomly assigned to four groups: Control (C), LRS, RT, and combined RT-LRS (RT-LRS). Participants in the LRS and RT-LRS groups consumed 500 mg of LRS daily for 8 weeks. RT was conducted 3 times/week for 8 weeks for participants in the RT and RT-LRS groups. The following parameters were measured before and after the intervention period: Anthropometric data, isokinetic muscular strength and power, and anaerobic and aerobic fitness. Blood samples were also collected to determine immune parameters. Isokinetic muscular strength and power were increased ( P anaerobic power and capacity and aerobic fitness in this group. Similarly, RT group had increases ( P anaerobic power and capacity, aerobic fitness, T lymphocytes (CD3 and CD4), and B lymphocytes (CD19) counts were observed in the RT group. RT elicited increased isokinetic muscular strength and power, anaerobic and aerobic fitness, and immune parameters among young males. However, supplementation with LRS during RT did not provide additive benefits.

  7. Aerobic fitness in children and young adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Astrid Hellerup; Green, Kent; Buchvald, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although aerobic fitness is regarded as an overall prognostic measure of morbidity and mortality, its evaluation in the chronic progressive sinopulmonary disease primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) has been infrequently and inconsistently reported. Here we assessed peak oxygen uptake (VO2...... multiple breath inert gas washout (N2 MBW) were assessed in a cross-sectional, single-occasion study of clinically stable children and young adults with PCD. We used a questionnaire including self-reported physical limitations in everyday life or in vigorous activities, and estimation of weekly hours...... patients. CONCLUSION: One-third of PCD patients exhibited substantially lower aerobic fitness than healthy subjects. Aerobic fitness correlated with FEV1, DLCO/VA and self-reported complaints of limitations in vigorous physical activity. These findings are most likely explained by PCD pulmonary disease...

  8. Formation and functions of aerobic microbial granula; Entstehung und Funktionen aerober mikrobieller Granula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etterer, T.; Wilderer, P.A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Pruefamt fuer Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft

    1999-07-01

    The present project investigates the phenomenon of the formation of aerobic microbial granula and their properties. To generate granula, sequencing batch reactors fed in batches were used. As shown by microbiological assays, fungi played an above-average role in granula formation and build-up. In first degradation experiments, furthermore, chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be reduced by over 90 %. The determination yielded comparable values to activated sludge, standing on average at 1.044g/ml. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des hier vorgestellten Projekts wurde das Phaenomen der Bildung aerober mikrobieller Granula sowie deren Eigenschaften untersucht. Zur Erzeugung von Granula wurden schubweise beschickte Reaktoren, sogenannte Sequencing-Batch-Reaktoren (SBR) verwendet. Wie mikrobiologische Untersuchungen zeigten spielen Pilze bei der Entstehung und beim Aufbau eine ueberdurchschnittliche Rolle. Des weiteren konnte in ersten Abbauversuchen der chemische Sauerstoff-Bedarf (CSB) um ueber 90% gesenkt werden. Die Dichtebestimmung ergab vergleichbare Werte zu Belebtschlamm und zwar im Durchschnitt 1,044 g/ml. (orig.)

  9. Extensive Functional Evaluations to Monitor Aerobic Training in Becker Muscular Dystrophy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramonti, Caterina; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2016-06-13

    Low-intensity aerobic training seems to have positive effects on muscle strength, endurance and fatigue in Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) patients. We describe the case of a 33-year old BMD man, who performed a four-week aerobic training. Extensive functional evaluations were executed to monitor the efficacy of the rehabilitative treatment. Results evidenced an increased force exertion and an improvement in muscle contraction during sustained exercise. An improvement of walk velocity, together with agility, endurance capacity and oxygen consumption during exercise was observed. Moreover, an enhanced metabolic efficiency was evidenced, as shown by reduced lactate blood levels after training. Interestingly, CK showed higher levels after the training protocol, revealing possible muscle damage. In conclusion, aerobic training may represent an effective method improving exercise performance, functional status and metabolic efficiency. Anyway, a careful functional assessment should be taken into account as a useful approach in the management of the disease's rehabilitative treatment.

  10. Extensive functional evaluations to monitor aerobic training in Becker Muscular Dystrophy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Tramonti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-intensity aerobic training seems to have positive effects on muscle strength, endurance and fatigue in Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD patients. We describe the case of a 33-year old BMD man, who performed a four-week aerobic training. Extensive functional evaluations were executed to monitor the efficacy of the rehabilitative treatment. Results evidenced an increased force exertion and an improvement in muscle contraction during sustained exercise. An improvement of walk velocity, together with agility, endurance capacity and oxygen consumption during exercise was observed. Moreover, an enhanced metabolic efficiency was evidenced, as shown by reduced lactate blood levels after training. Interestingly, CK showed higher levels after the training protocol, revealing possible muscle damage. In conclusion, aerobic training may represent an effective method improving exercise performance, functional status and metabolic efficiency. Anyway, a careful functional assessment should be taken into account as a useful approach in the management of the disease’s rehabilitative treatment.

  11. Aerobic fitness after JDM--a long-term follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Pernille R; Orngreen, Mette C; Vissing, John

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. It has previously been shown that patients with active JDM have decreased aerobic fitness; however, it is not known whether these patients regain their physical fitness after recovery. The objective of this study was to investigate the long-term outcome of aerobic fitness in patients...... with JDM. We hypothesized that fitness (VO(2max)) is reduced compared with healthy controls in the years after active JDM.Methods. A maximal exercise test was performed using a cycle ergometer. Results were compared with those of sex- and age-matched healthy controls.Results. A total of 36 patients...... year of active disease, VO(2max) was reduced by 0.85 ml/min/kg on average (P fitness. This impairment is directly related to the duration of active disease....

  12. Critical force during tethered swimming for the evaluation of aerobic capacity and prediction of performances in freestyle swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Papoti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship of critical force (Fcrit with lactate threshold (LLNA and the intensity corresponding to VO2max (iVO2max in tethered swimming (TS, and their correlation with maximal performance in 400-m (V400 and 30-min (VT30 freestyle swimming (FS. Seven swimmers were submitted to a TS incremental test for the determination of LLNA and iVO2max. For the determination of Fcrit, the swimmers performed four exercises to exhaustion at intensities (F corresponding to 87%, 104%, 118% and 134% of iVO2max for the calculation of time limits (Tlim. Fcrit corresponded to the linear coefficient of the ratio between F and 1/tlim. The maximal performance in FS corresponded to the mean velocity obtained during maximal exercise of 400-m and 30-min crawl swimming. Fcrit (51.97 ± 4.02 N was significantly lower than iVO2max (60.21 ± 8.73 N but not than LLNA (45.89 ± 8.73. Fcrit was significantly correlated with iVO2max (0.97, LLNA (0.88, V400 (0.85, and VT30 (0.86. These data suggest that Fcrit can be used for the determination of aerobic capacity, prescription of a TS training program, and prediction of performance in FS.

  13. Cognitive functions in middle aged individuals are related to metabolic disturbances and aerobic capacity: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pedersen

    Full Text Available AIMS: Metabolic disturbances may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the relation between cognitive impairment and metabolic deteriorations, low physical fitness, low-grade inflammation and abdominal obesity in middle aged individuals. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 40 to 65 year-old patients with type 2 diabetes and limited co morbidity (N = 56, age-matched individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (N = 56 as well as age-matched controls with normal glucose tolerance (N = 72. Specific cognitive functions were assessed with focus on verbal memory, processing speed, executive functions, and a composite overall mean score. Oral glucose tolerance test, VO(2max test, systemic inflammation, DXA scanning and abdominal MRI were measured. RESULTS: Multiple linear regression analyses adjusting for age, gender and verbal intelligence demonstrated that a low score in processing speed, executive functions and overall cognitive function were related to high fasting C-peptide, as well as low insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function and VO(2max. Measurements of blood glucose, obesity and inflammation were not associated with cognitive function. CONCLUSION: Low cognitive scores are seen in middle aged individuals with hyperinsulinemia, low insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function and low aerobic capacity. These findings emphasize the importance of appropriate lifestyle and not only blood glucose control in prevention of cognitive disability.

  14. Benefits of regular aerobic exercise for executive functioning in healthy populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiney, Hayley; Machado, Liana

    2013-02-01

    Research suggests that regular aerobic exercise has the potential to improve executive functioning, even in healthy populations. The purpose of this review is to elucidate which components of executive functioning benefit from such exercise in healthy populations. In light of the developmental time course of executive functions, we consider separately children, young adults, and older adults. Data to date from studies of aging provide strong evidence of exercise-linked benefits related to task switching, selective attention, inhibition of prepotent responses, and working memory capacity; furthermore, cross-sectional fitness data suggest that working memory updating could potentially benefit as well. In young adults, working memory updating is the main executive function shown to benefit from regular exercise, but cross-sectional data further suggest that task-switching and post error performance may also benefit. In children, working memory capacity has been shown to benefit, and cross-sectional data suggest potential benefits for selective attention and inhibitory control. Although more research investigating exercise-related benefits for specific components of executive functioning is clearly needed in young adults and children, when considered across the age groups, ample evidence indicates that regular engagement in aerobic exercise can provide a simple means for healthy people to optimize a range of executive functions.

  15. Do physical activity and aerobic fitness moderate the association between birth weight and metabolic risk in youth? The European Youth Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridgway, Charlotte L; Brage, Soren; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2011-01-01

    (MTI Actigraph) for >600 minutes/day for ≥3 days, and expressed as 'average activity' (counts per minute) and time spent in above moderate intensity activity (MVPA, >2000 cpm). Aerobic fitness was assessed using a maximal cycle ergometry test (watts/kg FFM). Results: Higher birth weight was associated...

  16. Physical exercise modifies the functional capacity of elderly patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moane Marchesan

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Patients on hemodialysis (HD improve functional capacity after physical training. However, little is discussed about these effects in elderly patients, since these are usually excluded of studies, due to their physical disabilities and other deficits. Objective To analyze the effects of aerobic and resistance training in the functional capacity of elderly patients submitted to HD. Methods Studied participants were 15 patients, of both genders, and aged over 60 years. Aerobic and resistance training was carried out during the hemodialysis session, three times per week, during four months. Patients were distributed into control (CG and experimental (EG groups. Functional capacity was assessed by six-minute walk (6MW, sit-to-stand (STS and respiratory muscle strength tests. Results After the physical training, EG presented a significant increase in the distance covered in 6MW (Z = 2.521, p < .012, respiratory muscle strength (inspiratory pressure: Z = 2.533, p < .011; expiratory pressure: Z = 2.536, p < .011; and in number of STS repetitions (2.54; p <.001. Conclusion The training modified the functional capacity of the HD patients, contributing to their rehabilitation.

  17. Effect of operational strategies on activated sludge’s acclimation to phenol, subsequent aerobic granulation, and accumulation of polyhydoxyalkanoates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wosman, Afrida; Lu, Yuhao; Sun, Supu; Liu, Xiang [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Yangpu District, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Wan, Chunli, E-mail: hitwan@163.com [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Yangpu District, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Zhang, Yi, E-mail: sybil_zhang@yahoo.com [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Yangpu District, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Lee, Duu-Jong [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Tay, JooHwa [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Activated sludge was acclimated to phenol with 2 different strategies. • Acclimated sludge later underwent aerobic granulation process. • Sludge acclimated with phenol only degraded phenol and formed granules faster. • Sludge acclimated with phenol + acetate formed more stable and robust granules. • Both sludge exhibited significant PHA accumulation in early granulation stage. - Abstract: Aerobic granules, a relative novel form of microbial aggregate, are capable of degrading many toxic organic pollutants. Appropriate strategy is needed to acclimate seed sludge to the toxic compounds for successful granulation. In this study, two distinct strategies, i.e. mixed or single carbon sources, were experimented to obtain phenol-acclimated sludge. Their effects on reactor performance, biomass characteristics, microbial population and the granulation process were analyzed. Sludge fed with phenol alone exhibited faster acclimation and earlier appearance of granules, but possibly lower microbial diversity and reactor stability. Using a mixture of acetate and phenol in the acclimation stage, on the other hand, led to a reactor with slower phenol degradation and granulation, but eventual formation of strong and stable aerobic granules. In addition, the content of intracellular polyhydoxyakanoates (PHA) was also monitored, and significant accumulation was observed during the pre-granulation stage, where PHA >50% of dry weight was observed in both reactors.

  18. Effect of operational strategies on activated sludge’s acclimation to phenol, subsequent aerobic granulation, and accumulation of polyhydoxyalkanoates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wosman, Afrida; Lu, Yuhao; Sun, Supu; Liu, Xiang; Wan, Chunli; Zhang, Yi; Lee, Duu-Jong; Tay, JooHwa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Activated sludge was acclimated to phenol with 2 different strategies. • Acclimated sludge later underwent aerobic granulation process. • Sludge acclimated with phenol only degraded phenol and formed granules faster. • Sludge acclimated with phenol + acetate formed more stable and robust granules. • Both sludge exhibited significant PHA accumulation in early granulation stage. - Abstract: Aerobic granules, a relative novel form of microbial aggregate, are capable of degrading many toxic organic pollutants. Appropriate strategy is needed to acclimate seed sludge to the toxic compounds for successful granulation. In this study, two distinct strategies, i.e. mixed or single carbon sources, were experimented to obtain phenol-acclimated sludge. Their effects on reactor performance, biomass characteristics, microbial population and the granulation process were analyzed. Sludge fed with phenol alone exhibited faster acclimation and earlier appearance of granules, but possibly lower microbial diversity and reactor stability. Using a mixture of acetate and phenol in the acclimation stage, on the other hand, led to a reactor with slower phenol degradation and granulation, but eventual formation of strong and stable aerobic granules. In addition, the content of intracellular polyhydoxyakanoates (PHA) was also monitored, and significant accumulation was observed during the pre-granulation stage, where PHA >50% of dry weight was observed in both reactors.

  19. Effects of Exercise Modality During Additional "High-Intensity Interval Training" on Aerobic Fitness and Strength in Powerlifting and Strongman Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulakis-Korakakis, Patroklos; Langdown, Louis; Lewis, Adam; Fisher, James P; Gentil, Paulo; Paoli, Antonio; Steele, James

    2018-02-01

    Androulakis-Korakakis, P, Langdown, L, Lewis, A, Fisher, JP, Gentil, P, Paoli, A, and Steele, J. Effects of exercise modality during additional "high-intensity interval training" on aerobic fitness and strength in powerlifting and strongman athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 450-457, 2018-Powerlifters and strongman athletes have a necessity for optimal levels of muscular strength while maintaining sufficient aerobic capacity to perform and recover between events. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been popularized for its efficacy in improving both aerobic fitness and strength but never assessed within the aforementioned population group. This study looked to compare the effect of exercise modality, e.g., a traditional aerobic mode (AM) and strength mode (SM), during HIIT on aerobic fitness and strength. Sixteen well resistance-trained male participants, currently competing in powerlifting and strongman events, completed 8 weeks of approximately effort- and volume-matched HIIT in 2 groups: AM (cycling, n = 8) and SM (resistance training, n = 8). Aerobic fitness was measured as predicted V[Combining Dot Above]O2max using the YMCA 3 minutes step test and strength as predicted 1 repetition maximum from a 4-6RM test using a leg extension. Both groups showed significant improvements in both strength and aerobic fitness. There was a significant between-group difference for aerobic fitness improvements favoring the AM group (p ≤ 0.05). There was no between-group difference for change in strength. Magnitude of change using within-group effect size for aerobic fitness and strength was considered large for each group (aerobic fitness, AM = 2.6, SM = 2.0; strength, AM = 1.9, SM = 1.9). In conclusion, our results support enhanced strength and aerobic fitness irrespective of exercise modality (e.g., traditional aerobic and resistance training). However, powerlifters and strongman athletes wishing to enhance their aerobic fitness should consider HIIT using an

  20. Mesophilic anaerobic stabilization of sewage sludge. Mesophile anaerobe Klaerschlammstabilisierung mit aerober Folgebehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, U.

    1988-01-01

    Sludges treated in two stages in experiments - 7 days of anaerobic treatment and 2 days of aerobic-thermophilic treatment - can be judged to be completely stabilized because of the stabilization parameters BOD/sub 5//COD ratio and respiratory activity. The degradation results obtained are comparable to or better than those of the 20-day digestion (reference process). For all aerobic processes under investigation a clear temperature increase in the aerobic reactor was measured because of the exothermal metabolic processes of the aerobic biocenosis. There was a temperature rise of 15/sup 0/C in the tests in the aerobic reactor even after longer digestion times of 15 and 20 days. The results of the epidemics and hygiene investigations show that a secondary aerobic-thermophilic stage after the mesophilic digestion with adequate marginal conditions - germ retention time of 23 hours in the aerobic reactor at process temperatures higher than 50/sup 0/C as well as charging in batch quantities - leads to a safe and complete decontamination. Under these process and operation conditions all salmonellae were killed and the number of the enterobacteriaceae in 1 g of sludge was always less than 1.000. (orig./EF).

  1. Effect of Wearing the Elevation Training Mask on Aerobic Capacity, Lung Function, and Hematological Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Porcari, Lauren Probst, Karlei Forrester, Scott Doberstein, Carl Foster, Maria L. Cress, Katharina Schmidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Altitude training and respiratory muscle training (RMT have been reported to improve performance in elite and well-trained athletes. Several devices (altitude and RMT have been developed to help athletes gain the competitive edge. The Elevation Training Mask 2.0 (ETM purportedly simulates altitude training and has been suggested to increase aerobic capacity (VO2max, endurance performance, and lung function. Twenty-four moderately trained subjects completed 6 weeks of high-intensity cycle ergometer training. Subjects were randomized into a mask (n = 12 or control (n = 12 group. Pre and post-training tests included VO2max, pulmonary function, maximal inspiration pressure, hemoglobin and hematocrit. No significant differences were found in pulmonary function or hematological variables between or within groups. There was a significant improvement in VO2max and PPO in both the control (13.5% and 9.9% and mask (16.5% and 13.6% groups. There was no difference in the magnitude of improvement between groups. Only the mask group had significant improvements in ventilatory threshold (VT (13.9%, power output (PO at VT (19.3%, respiratory compensation threshold (RCT (10.2%, and PO at RCT (16.4% from pre to post-testing. The trends for improvements in VT and PO at VT between groups were similar to improvements in RCT and PO at RCT, but did not reach statistical significance (VT p = 0.06, PO at VT p = 0.170. Wearing the ETM while participating in a 6-week high-intensity cycle ergometer training program does not appear to act as a simulator of altitude, but more like a respiratory muscle training device. Wearing the ETM may improve specific markers of endurance performance beyond the improvements seen with interval training alone.

  2. Aerobic exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; Schachter, Candice L; Overend, Tom J; Kim, Soo Y; Góes, Suelen M; Boden, Catherine; Foulds, Heather Ja

    2017-06-21

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for individuals with fibromyalgia. This review is one of a series of reviews about exercise training for people with fibromyalgia that will replace the "Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome" review first published in 2002. • To evaluate the benefits and harms of aerobic exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia• To assess the following specific comparisons ० Aerobic versus control conditions (eg, treatment as usual, wait list control, physical activity as usual) ० Aerobic versus aerobic interventions (eg, running vs brisk walking) ० Aerobic versus non-exercise interventions (eg, medications, education) We did not assess specific comparisons involving aerobic exercise versus other exercise interventions (eg, resistance exercise, aquatic exercise, flexibility exercise, mixed exercise). Other systematic reviews have examined or will examine these comparisons (Bidonde 2014; Busch 2013). We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Thesis and Dissertation Abstracts, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry up to June 2016, unrestricted by language, and we reviewed the reference lists of retrieved trials to identify potentially relevant trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia that compared aerobic training interventions (dynamic physical activity that increases breathing and heart rate to submaximal levels for a prolonged period) versus no exercise or another intervention. Major outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain intensity, stiffness, fatigue, physical function, withdrawals, and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted

  3. Outpatient rehabilitation as an intervention to improve employees' physical capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, Birgitta; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Nikkari, Seppo T

    2016-01-01

    The aging of the workforce poses new challenges for maintaining work ability. Because of limited information on the effectiveness of vocational rehabilitation performed in traditional inpatient programs, extended interest in outpatient rehabilitation has risen in the past few years. We examined the effects of a new outpatient rehabilitation program where every participant defined their own goals to improve work ability by the aid of a goal-oriented multi-professional team. This report will focus on the employees' physical capacity during a nine-month program. A total of 605 municipal employees from different production areas of the City of Tampere took part in the outpatient rehabilitation program, implemented by the occupational health unit. Groups of 12 employees participated in eight one-day sessions at intervals of two to three weeks; the final follow-up was 9 months from the beginning. Submaximal aerobic capacity was tested by a calibrated cycle ergometer with a commercial program (Aino Fitware pro, Helsinki, Finland). Musculoskeletal tests assessed muscle strength, balance and mobility. During the 9-month follow-up of the rehabilitation program, the employees' physical capacity was improved. The follow-up test scores from a total of 329 employees were significantly higher in the submaximal aerobic capacity test (p health situation to take part in physical capacity tests; however they took part in the intervention. The new outpatient rehabilitation program organized by the occupational health unit had a positive influence on employees' physical capacity during a nine-month follow up.

  4. The effect of anaerobic and aerobic tests on autonomic nervous system activity in healthy young athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Ratkowski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. In the evaluation of physical efficiency in professional athletes two tests are used: Wingate test (WT and incremental test for maximal oxygen uptake (IT. In the former anaerobic power is evaluated and in the latter aerobic power. The influence of these tests on autonomic nervous system (ANS activity is not fully examined. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of anaerobic and aerobic tests performed on the consecutive days, on the ANS activity in young healthy athletes. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Ten athletes aged 17 ± 1 were included in the study. The ANS parameters (baroreflex sensitivity – BRS_WBA, heart rate variability–HRV were analysed on the basis of 10-minute systolic arterial pressure and heart period (HP records during controlled breathing (0.23 Hz. BRS_WBA, HRV indices and mean HP were analysed before (examination 1 and 1 hour after WT (examination 2, 1 hour after IT (examination 3, and on the day after the tests (examination 4. RESULTS. The borderline statistically significant decrease in BRS_WBA in examination 2 in comparison to 1 was found (16.4 ± 10.5 vs 9.4 ± 3.9 ms/mmHg, p=0.059. In examination 3 in comparison to 1 the significant decrease in BRS_WBA was found (8.8 ± 6.2 ms/mmHg, p<0.05. SDNN, PNN50, RMSSD and HF were significantly lower in examination 2 comparing to 1 (p<0.05; the changes of HFnu were borderline statistically significant (p=0.059. These lower values were also noticed after examination 3 and returned to the initial values in examination 4. The mean HP showed similar changes. LF/HF increased significantly in examination 2 in comparison to 1 (p<0.05. The changes in LFnu were borderline statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS. Anaerobic and aerobic exercise tests lead to the decrease in ANS parasympathetic activity and to the increase in sympathetic one in young healthy athletes. These changes persist for at least one hour after exertion. The return to the initial values is observed the

  5. Enhanced aerobic degradation of 4-chlorophenol with iron-nickel nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wenjuan; Mu, Yi; Wang, Bingning; Ai, Zhihui, E-mail: jennifer.ai@mail.ccnu.edu.cn; Zhang, Lizhi

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Bimetallic iron-nickel nanoparticles possessed an enhanced performance on aerobic degradation of 4-CP. • Hydroxyl radicals were the major active species contributed to aerobic 4-CP degradation with nZVI. • Superoxide radicals predominated the 4-CP degradation in the nZVIN/Air process. • The 4-CP degradation pathways were dependent on the generated superoxide radicals in the nZVIN/Air process. - Abstract: In this study, we demonstrate that the bimetallic iron-nickel nanoparticles (nZVIN) possessed an enhanced performance in comparison with nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) on aerobic degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). The 4-CP degradation rate constant in the aerobic nZVIN process (nZVIN/Air) was 5 times that in the classic nZVI counterpart system (nZVI/Air). Both reactive oxygen species measurement and inhibition experimental results suggested that hydroxyl radicals were the major active species contributed to aerobic 4-CP degradation with nZVI, on contrast, superoxide radicals predominated the 4-CP degradation in the nZVIN/Air process. High performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis indicated the intermediates of the nZVI/Air system were p-benzoquinone and hydroquinone, which were resulted from the bond cleavage between the chlorine and carbon atom in the benzene ring by hydroxyl radicals. However, the primary intermediates of 4-CP found in the nZVIN/Air system were phenol via the direct dechlorination by superoxide radicals, accompanying with the formation of chloride ions. On the base of experimental results, a superoxide radicals mediated enhancing mechanism was proposed for the aerobic degradation of 4-CP in the nZVIN/Air system. This study provides new insight into the role of bimetallic nickel on enhancing removal of organic pollutants with nZVI.

  6. Community Structure of Active Aerobic Methanotrophs in Red Mangrove (Kandelia obovata) Soils Under Different Frequency of Tides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Yo-Jin; Cai, Yuanfeng; Lin, Yu-Te; Jia, Zhongjun; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2018-04-01

    Methanotrophs are important microbial communities in coastal ecosystems. They reduce CH 4 emission in situ, which is influenced by soil conditions. This study aimed to understand the differences in active aerobic methanotrophic communities in mangrove forest soils experiencing different inundation frequency, i.e., in soils from tidal mangroves, distributed at lower elevations, and from dwarf mangroves, distributed at higher elevations. Labeling of pmoA gene of active methanotrophs using DNA-based stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) revealed that methanotrophic activity was higher in the dwarf mangrove soils than in the tidal mangrove soils, possibly because of the more aerobic soil conditions. Methanotrophs affiliated with the cluster deep-sea-5 belonging to type Ib methanotrophs were the most dominant methanotrophs in the fresh mangrove soils, whereas type II methanotrophs also appeared in the fresh dwarf mangrove soils. Furthermore, Methylobacter and Methylosarcina were the most important active methanotrophs in the dwarf mangrove soils, whereas Methylomonas and Methylosarcina were more active in the tidal mangrove soils. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene also confirmed similar differences in methanotrophic communities at the different locations. However, several unclassified methanotrophic bacteria were found by 16S rRNA MiSeq sequencing in both fresh and incubated mangrove soils, implying that methanotrophic communities in mangrove forests may significantly differ from the methanotrophic communities documented in previous studies. Overall, this study showed the feasibility of 13 CH 4 DNA-SIP to study the active methanotrophic communities in mangrove forest soils and revealed differences in the methanotrophic community structure between coastal mangrove forests experiencing different tide frequencies.

  7. Aerobic training in aquatic environment improves the position sense of stroke patients: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia de Andrade e Souza Mazuchi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract AIMS (Stroke patients often present sensory-motor alterations and less aerobic capacity. Joint position sense, which is crucial for balance and gait control, is also affected in stroke patients. To compare the effect of two exercise training protocols (walking in deep water and on a treadmill on the knee position sense of stroke patients. METHODS This study was designed as a randomized controlled clinical trial. Twelve adults, who suffered a stroke at least one year prior to the start of the study, were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 1 pool group submitted to aerobic deep water walking training; and 2 the treadmill group which was submitted to aerobic walk on a treadmill. Measurements: The position sense, absolute error and variable error, of the knee joint was evaluated prior to and after nine weeks of aerobic training. RESULTS The pool group presented smaller absolute (13.9o versus 6.1o; p < 0.05 and variable (9.2o versus 3.9o; p < 0.05 errors after nine-weeks gait training than the treadmill group. CONCLUSIONS Nine-week aerobic exercise intervention in aquatic environment improved precision in the position sense of the knee joint of stroke patients, suggesting a possible application in a rehabilitation program.

  8. Urban-Rural Differences in Aerobic Physical Activity, Muscle Strengthening Exercise, and Screen-Time Sedentary Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Michael C; Song, Jaejoon; Taylor, Wendell C; Durand, Casey P; Basen-Engquist, Karen M

    2018-02-16

    Compared to their urban counterparts, US residents in rural settings face an increased risk of premature mortality and health problems that have been linked to insufficient physical activity (PA) levels. There is limited literature regarding urban-rural differences in adherence to national guidelines for all 3 PA-related behaviors. We investigated urban-rural differences in aerobic PA, leisure-time muscle strengthening PA, and leisure screen-time sedentary behavior in a combined data set of the 2011-2014 waves (N = 14,188) of the nationally representative National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey. We found no evidence of a difference between large urban and rural residents' aerobic PA levels. The typical number of weekly bouts of leisure-time muscle strengthening PA was 25% lower for rural residents (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.751, P rural residents to engage in 6.6% less daily leisure screen-time sedentary behavior than their large urban counterparts (IRR = 0.934, P = .031). Taken together with previous literature, these results suggest that rural residents may engage in comparable levels of total PA, but less leisure-time PA, than their urban counterparts. © 2018 National Rural Health Association.

  9. Functional Capacity and Levels of Physical Activity in Aging: A 3-Year Follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Tomás

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the world elderly population has increased exponentially and this tendency will continue during the coming years; from 2000 to 2050, people over 60 will double and those over 80 will quadruple. Loss of independence occurs as people age due to mobility restrictions, frailty, and decreased functional fitness and cognitive abilities. Evidence has shown that appropriate programs and policies contribute to keep older adults healthy and independent over time. The purpose of this chapter is to report the results of our 3-year follow-up study designed to characterize functional physical fitness in a sample of Portuguese community-dwelling older adults to propose a set of functional parameters that decline the most. We studied a group of 43 elderly people, aged 60 and over. Variables assessed on the participants were anthropometric measurements, functional capacity with the Senior Fitness Test battery (muscle strength, aerobic endurance, flexibility, agility, and dynamic balance, handgrip strength, levels of physical activity, and balance. Three years after the first assessment, a second assessment of the same variables was conducted. We analyzed what were the variables that, for this group, were related with a healthier aging and the relation with different physical activity levels. Our study showed that the distance covered in 6-min walk test and handgrip strength seem to explain a great amount of variability on functional variables that have changed on this period (68% of balance, lower and upper functional strength, respectively and the active participants showed less decrements with aging in anthropometric and functional variables than those inactive or insufficiently active (p < 0.05. Greater importance should be given to prescription of exercise targeting older adults and, specifically, walking and manual activities should be given more attention as components of a community exercise program.

  10. Addition of non-invasive ventilatory support to combined aerobic and resistance training improves dyspnea and quality of life in heart failure patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Hugo Souza; Cruz, Cristiano Gonçalves; David, Bruno Costa; Rodrigues, Erenaldo; Abade, Camille Magalhães; Junior, Roque Aras; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Dos Reis, Francisco Borges Faria; Gomes Neto, Mansueto

    2017-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that combined aerobic and resistance training and non-invasive ventilatory support result in additional benefits compared with combined aerobic and resistance training alone in heart failure patients. A randomized, single-blind, controlled study. Cardiac rehabilitation center. A total of 46 patients with New York Heart Association class II/III heart failure were randomly assigned to a 10-week program of combined aerobic and resistance training, plus non-invasive ventilatory support ( n = 23) or combined aerobic and resistance training alone ( n = 23). Before and after intervention, results for the following were obtained: 6-minute walk test, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at one second, maximal inspiratory muscle pressure, and maximal expiratory muscle pressure, with evaluation of dyspnea by the London Chest Activity of Daily Living scale, and quality of life with the Minnesota Living With Heart Failure questionnaire. Of the 46 included patients, 40 completed the protocol. The combined aerobic and resistance training plus non-invasive ventilatory support, as compared with combined aerobic and resistance training alone, resulted in significantly greater benefit for dyspnea (mean change: 4.8 vs. 1.3, p = 0.004), and quality of life (mean change: 19.3 vs. 6.8, p = 0.017 ). In both groups, the 6-minute walk test improved significantly (mean change: 45.7 vs. 44.1, p = 0.924), but without a statistically significant difference. Non-invasive ventilatory support combined with combined aerobic and resistance training provides additional benefits for dyspnea and quality of life in moderate heart failure patients. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02384798. Registered 03 April 2015.

  11. Aerobic Exercise: Top 10 Reasons to Get Physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help you live longer and healthier. Need motivation? See how aerobic exercise affects your heart, lungs ... found that regular physical activity may help protect memory, reasoning, judgment and thinking skills (cognitive function) in ...

  12. Assessment of aerobic and respiratory growth in the Lactobacillus casei group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Zotta

    Full Text Available One hundred eighty four strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus were screened for their ability to grow under aerobic conditions, in media containing heme and menaquinone and/or compounds generating reactive oxygen species (ROS, in order to identify respiratory and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes. Most strains were able to cope with aerobic conditions and for many strains aerobic growth and heme or heme/menaquinone supplementation increased biomass production compared to anaerobic cultivation. Only four L. casei strains showed a catalase-like activity under anaerobic, aerobic and respiratory conditions and were able to survive in presence of H2O2 (1 mM. Almost all L. casei and L. paracasei strains tolerated menadione (0.2 mM and most tolerated pyrogallol (50 mM, while L. rhamnosus was usually resistant only to the latter compound. This is the first study in which an extensive screening of oxygen and oxidative stress tolerance of members of the L. casei group has been carried out. Results allowed the selection of strains showing the typical traits of aerobic and respiratory metabolism (increased pH and biomass under aerobic or respiratory conditions and unique oxidative stress response properties. Aerobic growth and respiration may confer technological and physiological advantages in the L. casei group and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes could be exploited in several food industry applications.

  13. Assessment of Aerobic and Respiratory Growth in the Lactobacillus casei Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotta, Teresa; Ricciardi, Annamaria; Ianniello, Rocco G.; Parente, Eugenio; Reale, Anna; Rossi, Franca; Iacumin, Lucilla; Comi, Giuseppe; Coppola, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    One hundred eighty four strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus were screened for their ability to grow under aerobic conditions, in media containing heme and menaquinone and/or compounds generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), in order to identify respiratory and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes. Most strains were able to cope with aerobic conditions and for many strains aerobic growth and heme or heme/menaquinone supplementation increased biomass production compared to anaerobic cultivation. Only four L. casei strains showed a catalase-like activity under anaerobic, aerobic and respiratory conditions and were able to survive in presence of H2O2 (1 mM). Almost all L. casei and L. paracasei strains tolerated menadione (0.2 mM) and most tolerated pyrogallol (50 mM), while L. rhamnosus was usually resistant only to the latter compound. This is the first study in which an extensive screening of oxygen and oxidative stress tolerance of members of the L. casei group has been carried out. Results allowed the selection of strains showing the typical traits of aerobic and respiratory metabolism (increased pH and biomass under aerobic or respiratory conditions) and unique oxidative stress response properties. Aerobic growth and respiration may confer technological and physiological advantages in the L. casei group and oxygen-tolerant phenotypes could be exploited in several food industry applications. PMID:24918811

  14. Evaluation of adsorption capacity of acetaminophen on activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate varying dosage forms of activated charcoal obtained from community pharmacy outlets in Nigeria for their adsorption capacity when challenged with acetaminophen. Methods: Equilibruim kinetics of acetaminophen adsorption onto activated charcoal surface was determined via batch studies at ...

  15. Left ventricular mechanics in humans with high aerobic fitness: adaptation independent of structural remodelling, arterial haemodynamics and heart rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöhr, Eric J; McDonnell, Barry; Thompson, Jane; Stone, Keeron; Bull, Tom; Houston, Rory; Cockcroft, John; Shave, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with high aerobic fitness have lower systolic left ventricular strain, rotation and twist (‘left ventricular (LV) mechanics’) at rest, suggesting a beneficial reduction in LV myofibre stress and more efficient systolic function. However, the mechanisms responsible for this functional adaptation are not known and the influence of aerobic fitness on LV mechanics during dynamic exercise has never been studied. We assessed LV mechanics, LV wall thickness and dimensions, central augmentation index (AIx), aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), blood pressure and heart rate in 28 males (age: 21 ± 2 years SD) with a consistent physical activity level (no change >6 months). Individuals were examined at rest and during exercise (40% peak exercise capacity) and separated post hoc into a moderate and high aerobic fitness group (: 49 ± 5 and 63 ± 7 ml kg−1 min−1, respectively, P 0.05). However, for the same AIx, the high group had significantly lower LV apical rotation (P = 0.002) and LV twist (P = 0.003) while basal rotation and strain indices did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). We conclude that young males with high aerobic fitness have lower LV apical rotation at rest and during submaximal exercise that can occur without changes in gross LV structure, arterial haemodynamics or heart rate. The findings suggest a previously unknown type of physiological adaptation of the left ventricle that may have important implications for exercise training in older individuals and patient populations in which exercise training has previously failed to show clear benefits for LV function. PMID:22431336

  16. Diet and exercise effects on aerobic fitness and body composition in seriously mentally ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Botonis, Petros; Kostara, Christina; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Low exercise capacity and high obesity levels are the main characteristics of people with serious mental illness (SMI). We conducted a pilot study on the effects of a 3-month exercise and dietary intervention on the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI taking Olanzapine, a second generation antipsychotic medication known to induce weight increments. Fifty adults with SMI (15 males and 35 females) followed a 3-month weight loss intervention programme based on exercise and diet. Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. All participants were obese (body mass index (BMI): 33.61 ± 0.91 kg/m(2)). Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test on the treadmill was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. Significant reductions in body weight, BMI, body fat and waist circumference were found from pre to post (p exercise and diet improves the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI, despite the use of Olanzapine.

  17. Physical activity and stress coping in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Andréa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the value of a physical activity program on stress coping of the elderly. Methods: Intervention study with a group of 18 elderly people referred by the Geriatric Service of Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade de São Paulo, who attended a supervised exercise program, evaluated by the human activity profile and the coping questionnaire. Results: In the coping and functional performance scales, increased stress coping capacity and improvement of daily activities were found after exposure to a physical activity program. Conclusions: The practice of supervised and regular physical activity, combining aerobic, resistance, stretching, and respiratory exercises, yields positive effects in the coping capacity and in the accomplishment of the daily activities.

  18. High intensity aerobic interval training improves peak oxygen consumption in patients with metabolic syndrome: CAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Espinoza Salinas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A number of cardiovascular risk factors characterizes the metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance (IR, low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides. The aforementioned risk factors lead to elevated levels of abdominal adipose tissue, resulting in oxygen consumption deficiency. Purpose To verify the validity and applicability of using high intensity interval training (HIIT in subjects with metabolic syndrome and to answer the following question: Can HIIT improve peak oxygen consumption? Method The systematic review "Effects of aerobic interval training on exercise capacity and metabolic risk factors in individuals with cardiometabolic disorders" was analyzed. Results Data suggests high intensity aerobic interval training increases peak oxygen consumption by a standardized mean difference of 3.60 mL/kg-1/min-1 (95% confidence interval, 0.28-4.91. Conclusion In spite of the methodological shortcomings of the primary studies included in the systematic review, we reasonably conclude that implementation of high intensity aerobic interval training in subjects with metabolic syndrome, leads to increases in peak oxygen consumption.

  19. Aerobic exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, David A; Fournier, Sara B; Reger, Brian L; DeVallance, Evan; Bonner, Daniel E; Olfert, I Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Chantler, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a threefold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS subjects without overt CVD or type 2 diabetes. MetS and healthy control (Con) subjects underwent 8 wk of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre- and postintervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (P Exercise training reduced (P exercise training, thereby lowering their cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Aerobic exercise combined with huwentoxin-I mitigates chronic cerebral ischemia injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-feng Mao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ca2+ channel blockers have been shown to protect neurons from ischemia, and aerobic exercise has significant protective effects on a variety of chronic diseases. The present study injected huwentoxin-I (HWTX-I, a spider peptide toxin that blocks Ca2+ channels, into the caudal vein of a chronic cerebral ischemia mouse model, once every 2 days, for a total of 15 injections. During this time, a subgroup of mice was subjected to treadmill exercise for 5 weeks. Results showed amelioration of cortical injury and improved neurological function in mice with chronic cerebral ischemia in the HWTX-I + aerobic exercise group. The combined effects of HWTX-I and exercise were superior to HWTX-I or aerobic exercise alone. HWTX-I effectively activated the Notch signal transduction pathway in brain tissue. Aerobic exercise up-regulated synaptophysin mRNA expression. These results demonstrated that aerobic exercise, in combination with HWTX-I, effectively relieved neuronal injury induced by chronic cerebral ischemia via the Notch signaling pathway and promoting synaptic regeneration.

  1. Development of 1-Mile Walk Tests to Estimate Aerobic Fitness in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hoyong; Collier, David N.; DuBose, Katrina D.; Kemble, C. David; Mahar, Matthew T.

    2018-01-01

    To examine the reliability and validity of 1-mile walk tests for estimation of aerobic fitness (VO[subscript 2max]) in 10- to 13-year-old children and to cross-validate previously published equations. Participants (n = 61) walked 1-mile on two different days. Self-reported physical activity, demographic variables, and aerobic fitness were used in…

  2. [Streptococcus group B--association with Aerobic vaginitis and ability to human cell lines activation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanik, Małgorzata; Kafel, Joanna; Lagergård, Teresa; Martirosian, Gayane

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate: the frequency of aerobic vaginitis, susceptibility of the GBS isolated from vagina of non-pregnant women with and without cervicitis to selected antibiotics and chemotherapeutics and the proinflammatory cytokines production by HeLa, THP-I, U - 937 cells after stimulation by vaginal GBS. Our results indicated low frequency of the aerobic vaginitis -4.5% among non-pregnant young women and ability of the vaginal GBS to release proinflammatory cytokines by human cell lines in vitro.

  3. The association between aerobic fitness and cognitive function in older men mediated by frontal lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Kazuki; Dan, Ippeita; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Suwabe, Kazuya; Byun, Kyeongho; Ochi, Genta; Kato, Morimasa; Soya, Hideaki

    2016-01-15

    Previous studies have shown that higher aerobic fitness is related to higher cognitive function and higher task-related prefrontal activation in older adults. However, a holistic picture of these factors has yet to be presented. As a typical age-related change of brain activation, less lateralized activity in the prefrontal cortex during cognitive tasks has been observed in various neuroimaging studies. Thus, this study aimed to reveal the relationship between aerobic fitness, cognitive function, and frontal lateralization. Sixty male older adults each performed a submaximal incremental exercise test to determine their oxygen intake (V·O2) at ventilatory threshold (VT) in order to index their aerobic fitness. They performed a color-word Stroop task while prefrontal activation was monitored using functional near infrared spectroscopy. As an index of cognitive function, Stroop interference time was analyzed. Partial correlation analyses revealed significant correlations among higher VT, shorter Stroop interference time and greater left-lateralized dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation when adjusting for education. Moreover, mediation analyses showed that left-lateralized DLPFC activation significantly mediated the association between VT and Stroop interference time. These results suggest that higher aerobic fitness is associated with cognitive function via lateralized frontal activation in older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Weight training, aerobic physical activities, and long-term waist circumference change in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekary, Rania A; Grøntved, Anders; Despres, Jean-Pierre; De Moura, Leandro Pereira; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B; Giovannucci, Edward; Hu, Frank B

    2015-02-01

    Findings on weight training and waist circumference (WC) change are controversial. This study examined prospectively whether weight training, moderate to vigorous aerobic activity (MVAA), and replacement of one activity for another were associated with favorable changes in WC and body weight (BW). Physical activity, WC, and BW were reported in 1996 and 2008 in a cohort of 10,500 healthy U.S. men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Multiple linear regression models (partition/substitution) to assess these associations were used. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant inverse dose-response relationship between weight training and WC change (P-trend weight training (-0.67 cm, 95% CI -0.93, -0.41) than for MVAA (-0.33 cm, 95% CI -0.40, -0.27), other activities (-0.16 cm, 95% CI -0.28, -0.03), or TV watching (0.08 cm, 95% CI 0.05, 0.12). Substituting 20 min/day of weight training for any other discretionary activity had the strongest inverse association with WC change. MVAA had the strongest inverse association with BW change (-0.23 kg, 95% CI -0.29, -0.17). Among various activities, weight training had the strongest association with less WC increase. Studies on frequency/volume of weight training and WC change are warranted. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  5. A comparison of aerobic granular sludge with conventional and compact biological treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Simon; de Blois, Mark; Wilén, Britt-Marie; Gustavsson, David

    2018-03-20

    The aerobic granular sludge (AGS) technology is growing towards becoming a mature option for new municipal wastewater treatment plants and capacity extensions. A process based on AGS was compared to conventional activated sludge processes (with and without enhanced biological phosphorus removal), an integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) process and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) by estimating the land area demand (footprint), electricity demand and chemicals' consumption. The process alternatives compared included pre-settling, sludge digestion and necessary post-treatment to achieve effluent concentrations of 8 mg/L nitrogen and 0.2 mg/L phosphorus at 7°C. The alternative based on AGS was estimated to have a 40-50% smaller footprint and 23% less electricity requirement than conventional activated sludge. In relation to the other compact treatment options IFAS and MBR, the AGS process had an estimated electricity usage that was 35-70% lower. This suggests a favourable potential for processes based on AGS although more available experience of AGS operation and performance at full scale is desired.

  6. The relationship between skeletal muscle mitochondrial citrate synthase activity and whole body oxygen uptake adaptations in response to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø, Andreas; Andersen, Nynne B; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity and chan......Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity...... and changes in CS activity is often assumed. However, this relationship and absolute values of CS and maximal oxygen uptake (V.O2max) has never been assessed across different studies. A systematic PubMed search on literature published from 1983 to 2013 was performed. The search profile included: citrate...... and CS activity. 70 publications with 97 intervention groups were included. There was a positive (r = 0.45) correlation (P

  7. Aerobic Exercise During Encoding Impairs Hippocampus-Dependent Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Keishi; Kamijo, Keita; Masaki, Hiroaki

    2017-08-01

    We investigated how aerobic exercise during encoding affects hippocampus-dependent memory through a source memory task that assessed hippocampus-independent familiarity and hippocampus-dependent recollection processes. Using a within-participants design, young adult participants performed a memory-encoding task while performing a cycling exercise or being seated. The subsequent retrieval phase was conducted while sitting on a chair. We assessed behavioral and event-related brain potential measures of familiarity and recollection processes during the retrieval phase. Results indicated that source accuracy was lower for encoding with exercise than for encoding in the resting condition. Event-related brain potential measures indicated that the parietal old/new effect, which has been linked to recollection processing, was observed in the exercise condition, whereas it was absent in the rest condition, which is indicative of exercise-induced hippocampal activation. These findings suggest that aerobic exercise during encoding impairs hippocampus-dependent memory, which may be attributed to inefficient source encoding during aerobic exercise.

  8. Interaction between age and aerobic fitness in determining heart rate dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNarry, M A; Lewis, M J

    2012-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) and phase-rectified signal averaging (PRSA) estimates of heart rate dynamics are diminished in older people compared with younger people. However, it is not fully elucidated whether these differences are related to age per se or to the concomitant influence of aerobic fitness. Aerobic fitness (peak oxygen uptake, gas exchange threshold, oxygen uptake kinetics, exercise economy) was assessed in 70 healthy adults (41 male) aged 18–57 years. Participants also underwent a 24 h, ambulatory ECG for the derivation of HRV and PRSA variables. HRV was most sensitive to age and aerobic fitness when measured during the morning period (6 am–12 pm). HRV and PRSA were both diminished with age and were higher in aerobically superior participants. The decline in HRV with age was predominantly attributable to age itself (33%), with aerobic fitness representing an additional modulating factor. The present study also provides tentative evidence that assessment of the influence of aerobic fitness should not rely on .VO 2peak alone. These findings demonstrate that age per se is an important factor in determining HRV. However, given the clinical importance of diminished HRV and the immutable nature of aging, the potential significance of physical activity/training to enhance cardiac regulatory function should not be underestimated. (paper)

  9. Complete genome sequence of the aerobically denitrifying thermophilic bacterium Chelatococcus daeguensis TAD1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Yang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chelatococcus daeguensis TAD1 is a themophilic bacterium isolated from a biotrickling filter used to treat NOx in Ruiming Power Plant, located in Guangzhou, China, which shows an excellent aerobic denitrification activity at high temperature. The complete genome sequence of this strain was reported in the present study. Genes related to the aerobic denitrification were identified through whole genome analysis. This work will facilitate the mechanism of aerobic denitrification and provide evidence for its potential application in the nitrogen removal.

  10. School-based study found that physical activity and aerobic fitness predicted increases in total body fat and abdominal fat at a mean age of 9.8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Anton; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Dencker, Magnus

    2018-02-22

    We assessed whether baseline measurements of physical activity, aerobic fitness, body fat and abdominal fat were predictors of changes in body fat measurements over a two-year period. The study comprised of 204 children aged 9.8 ± 0.6 years with a normal body mass distribution, who recruited from four schools in middle-class areas of Malmö, Sweden, from 2001 to 2004. Peak oxygen uptake and physical activity were measured at baseline. Body fat was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and two years later. Physical activity, aerobic fitness and total body fat or abdominal fat were predictors of change in total body fat or abdominal fat over a period of two years. Changes in the percentage of body fat were not related to any of the baseline measurements. Our two-year follow-up of children with a mean age of 9.8 years at baseline showed that physical activity, aerobic fitness and body fat or abdominal fat predicted changes in total body fat or abdominal fat, but not the percentage of body fat. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Aerobic exercise and cold pressor test induce hypoalgesia in active and inactive men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vægter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Jørgensen, Maria N.

    2015-01-01

    ). Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) was assessed by cold pressor testing. Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) was assessed after 15 minutes bicycling at a heart rate corresponding to 75% VO2max. A control session of 15 minutes quiet rest was also included. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded...... and after exercise, PPTs increased to the same degree in active and inactive subjects, and the CPM and EIH responses were correlated (P CPM response immediately after cold pressor test was maintained in women but not in men. CONCLUSIONS: Cold pressor stimulation and aerobic exercise caused...... comparable multisegmental increases in PPT in active and inactive men and women. The CPM and EIH responses were correlated, but they have different temporal manifestation of hypoalgesia....

  12. Groundwater contamination and natural attenuation capacity at a petroleum spilled facility in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun-Mi Choi; Jin-Yong Lee

    2011-01-01

    As a remedial option,the natural attenuation capacity of a petroleum contaminated groundwater at a military facility was examined.Hydrogeological conditions,such as high water level,permeable uppermost layer and frequent heavy rainfall,were favorable to natural attenuation at this site.The changes in the concentrations of electron acceptors and donors,as well as the relevant hydrochemical conditions,indicated the occurrence of aerobic respiration,denitrification,iron reduction,manganese reduction and sulfate reduction.The calculated BTEX expressed biodegradation capacity ranged between 20.52 and 33.67 mg/L,which appeared effective for the reduction of the contaminants levels.The contribution of each electron accepting process to the total biodegradation was in the order:denitrification > iron reduction > sulfate reduction > aerobic respiration > manganese reduction.The BTEX and benzene point attenuation rates were 0.0058-0.0064 and 0.0005-0.0032 day-1,respectively,and the remediation time was 0.7-1.2 and 2.5-30 years,respectively.The BTEX and benzene bulk attenuation rates were 8.69 × 10-4 and 1.05 × 10-3 day-1,respectively,and the remediation times for BTEX and benzene were 7.2 and 17.5 years,respectively.However,most of the natural attenuation occurring in this site can be attributed to dilution and dispersion.Consequently,the biodegradation and natural attenuation capacities were good enough to lower the contaminants levels,but their rates appeared to be insufficient to reach the remediation goal within a reasonable time frame.Therefore,some active remedial measures would be required.

  13. Aerobic physical activity and resistance training: an application of the theory of planned behavior among adults with type 2 diabetes in a random, national sample of Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunamuni Nandini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aerobic physical activity (PA and resistance training are paramount in the treatment and management of type 2 diabetes (T2D, but few studies have examined the determinants of both types of exercise in the same sample. Objective The primary purpose was to investigate the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB in explaining aerobic PA and resistance training in a population sample of T2D adults. Methods A total of 244 individuals were recruited through a random national sample which was created by generating a random list of household phone numbers. The list was proportionate to the actual number of household telephone numbers for each Canadian province (with the exception of Quebec. These individuals completed self-report TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention, and a 3-month follow-up that assessed aerobic PA and resistance training. Results TPB explained 10% and 8% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training; and accounted for 39% and 45% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training intentions. Conclusion These results may guide the development of appropriate PA interventions for aerobic PA and resistance training based on the TPB.

  14. Field assessment of semi-aerobic condition and the methane correction factor for the semi-aerobic landfills provided by IPCC guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Sangjae; Nam, Anwoo; Yi, Seung-Muk; Kim, Jae Young

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CH 4 /CO 2 and CH 4 + CO 2 % are proposed as indices to evaluate semi-aerobic landfills. • A landfill which CH 4 /CO 2 > 1.0 is difficult to be categorized as semi-aerobic landfill. • Field conditions should be carefully investigated to determine landfill types. • The MCF default value for semi-aerobic landfills underestimates the methane emissions. - Abstract: According to IPCC guidelines, a semi-aerobic landfill site produces one-half of the amount of CH 4 produced by an equally-sized anaerobic landfill site. Therefore categorizing the landfill type is important on greenhouse gas inventories. In order to assess semi-aerobic condition in the sites and the MCF value for semi-aerobic landfill, landfill gas has been measured from vent pipes in five semi-aerobically designed landfills in South Korea. All of the five sites satisfied requirements of semi-aerobic landfills in 2006 IPCC guidelines. However, the ends of leachate collection pipes which are main entrance of air in the semi-aerobic landfill were closed in all five sites. The CH 4 /CO 2 ratio in landfill gas, indicator of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition, ranged from 1.08 to 1.46 which is higher than the values (0.3–1.0) reported for semi-aerobic landfill sites and is rather close to those (1.0–2.0) for anaerobic landfill sites. The low CH 4 + CO 2 % in landfill gas implied air intrusion into the landfill. However, there was no evidence that air intrusion has caused by semi-aerobic design and operation. Therefore, the landfills investigated in this study are difficult to be classified as semi-aerobic landfills. Also MCF of 0.5 may significantly underestimate methane emissions compared to other researches. According to the carbon mass balance analyses, the higher MCF needs to be proposed for semi-aerobic landfills. Consequently, methane emission estimate should be based on field evaluation for the semi-aerobically designed landfills

  15. Field assessment of semi-aerobic condition and the methane correction factor for the semi-aerobic landfills provided by IPCC guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sangjae [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Anwoo [Korea Environment Corporation, 42 Hwangyeong-ro, Seo-gu, Incheon 404-170 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Seung-Muk [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Young, E-mail: jaeykim@snu.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2}% are proposed as indices to evaluate semi-aerobic landfills. • A landfill which CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} > 1.0 is difficult to be categorized as semi-aerobic landfill. • Field conditions should be carefully investigated to determine landfill types. • The MCF default value for semi-aerobic landfills underestimates the methane emissions. - Abstract: According to IPCC guidelines, a semi-aerobic landfill site produces one-half of the amount of CH{sub 4} produced by an equally-sized anaerobic landfill site. Therefore categorizing the landfill type is important on greenhouse gas inventories. In order to assess semi-aerobic condition in the sites and the MCF value for semi-aerobic landfill, landfill gas has been measured from vent pipes in five semi-aerobically designed landfills in South Korea. All of the five sites satisfied requirements of semi-aerobic landfills in 2006 IPCC guidelines. However, the ends of leachate collection pipes which are main entrance of air in the semi-aerobic landfill were closed in all five sites. The CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} ratio in landfill gas, indicator of aerobic and anaerobic decomposition, ranged from 1.08 to 1.46 which is higher than the values (0.3–1.0) reported for semi-aerobic landfill sites and is rather close to those (1.0–2.0) for anaerobic landfill sites. The low CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2}% in landfill gas implied air intrusion into the landfill. However, there was no evidence that air intrusion has caused by semi-aerobic design and operation. Therefore, the landfills investigated in this study are difficult to be classified as semi-aerobic landfills. Also MCF of 0.5 may significantly underestimate methane emissions compared to other researches. According to the carbon mass balance analyses, the higher MCF needs to be proposed for semi-aerobic landfills. Consequently, methane emission estimate should be based on field evaluation for the semi-aerobically designed landfills.

  16. Functional properties of myoglobins from five whale species with different diving capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbo, Signe; Fago, Angela

    2012-10-01

    Whales show an exceptionally wide range of diving capabilities and many express high amounts of the O(2) carrier protein myoglobin (Mb) in their muscle tissues, which increases their aerobic diving capacity. Although previous studies have mainly focused on the muscle Mb concentration and O(2) carrying capacity as markers of diving behavior in whales, it still remains unexplored whether whale Mbs differ in their O(2) affinities and nitrite reductase and peroxidase enzymatic activities, all functions that could contribute to differences in diving capacities. In this study, we have measured the functional properties of purified Mbs from five toothed whales and two baleen whales and have examined their correlation with average dive duration. Results showed that some variation in functional properties exists among whale Mbs, with toothed whale Mbs having higher O(2) affinities and nitrite reductase activities (similar to those of horse Mb) compared with baleen whale Mbs. However, these differences did not correlate with average dive duration. Instead, a significant correlation was found between whale Mb concentration and average duration and depth of dives, and between O(2) affinity and nitrite reductase activity when including horse Mb. Despite the fact that the functional properties showed little species-specific differences in vitro, they may still contribute to enhancing diving capacity as a result of the increased muscle Mb concentration found in extreme divers. In conclusion, Mb concentration rather than specific functional reactivities may support whale diving performance.

  17. Mineralization of 14C-labelled aromatic pesticide molecules in Egyptian soils under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Earghaly, M.; Mahdy, F.; El-Maghraby, S.; Taha, H.; Soliman, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    The mineralization of 2,4-D, carbofuran and pirimiphos-methyl in Egyptian soils was studied over a period of 90 days. Laboratory studies under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were conducted using 14 C-ring labelled pesticides. Under anaerobic conditions 10-14% of applied ring labelled 2,4-D mineralized during 90 days with no significant variations due to soil type. Under aerobic conditions, 2,4-D mineralized more readily in clay soil to reach 29-34% of applied dose within 90 days. In clay loam soil, 14 C-carbofuran and 14 C-pirimiphos-methyl mineralized at a rather slow rate to reach 12-14% and 12-13% of applied dose in 90 days, respectively under aerobic conditions. Generally, soils repeatedly treated with pesticides gave a slightly lower percentage of mineralization than control soils. In all studies, the soil extractable pesticide residues decreased with time and the bound residues gradually increased. The highest binding affinity of about 26-29% was observed with 2,4-D in clay soil under aerobic conditions in 90 days. Carbofuran, and pirimiphos-methyl, on the other hand, had lower binding capacity that did not exceed 16% of applied radioactivity. (author)

  18. Physical fitness and mitochondrial respiratory capacity in horse skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique-Marie Votion

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Within the animal kingdom, horses are among the most powerful aerobic athletic mammals. Determination of muscle respiratory capacity and control improves our knowledge of mitochondrial physiology in horses and high aerobic performance in general. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied high-resolution respirometry and multiple substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration protocols to study mitochondrial physiology in small (1.0-2.5 mg permeabilized muscle fibres sampled from triceps brachii of healthy horses. Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS capacity (pmol O(2 • s(-1 • mg(-1 wet weight with combined Complex I and II (CI+II substrate supply (malate+glutamate+succinate increased from 77 ± 18 in overweight horses to 103 ± 18, 122 ± 15, and 129 ± 12 in untrained, trained and competitive horses (N = 3, 8, 16, and 5, respectively. Similar to human muscle mitochondria, equine OXPHOS capacity was limited by the phosphorylation system to 0.85 ± 0.10 (N = 32 of electron transfer capacity, independent of fitness level. In 15 trained horses, OXPHOS capacity increased from 119 ± 12 to 134 ± 37 when pyruvate was included in the CI+II substrate cocktail. Relative to this maximum OXPHOS capacity, Complex I (CI-linked OXPHOS capacities were only 50% with glutamate+malate, 64% with pyruvate+malate, and 68% with pyruvate+malate+glutamate, and ~78% with CII-linked succinate+rotenone. OXPHOS capacity with glutamate+malate increased with fitness relative to CI+II-supported ETS capacity from a flux control ratio of 0.38 to 0.40, 0.41 and 0.46 in overweight to competitive horses, whereas the CII/CI+II substrate control ratio remained constant at 0.70. Therefore, the apparent deficit of the CI- over CII-linked pathway capacity was reduced with physical fitness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The scope of mitochondrial density-dependent OXPHOS capacity and the density-independent (qualitative increase of CI-linked respiratory capacity with increased

  19. Effect of granular activated carbon on the aerobic granulation of sludge and its mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jia; Qin, Lian; Liu, Xiaoying; Li, Bolin; Chen, Junnan; You, Juan; Shen, Yitian; Chen, Xiaoguo

    2017-07-01

    The granulation of activated sludge and effect of granular activated carbon (GAC) was investigated under the alternative anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The results showed that GAC accelerated the granulation, but had no obvious effect on the bacterial community structure of granules. The whole granulation process could be categorized into three phases, i.e. lag, granulation and granule maturation phase. During lag period GAC provided nuclei for sludge to attach, and thus enhanced the morphological regularization of sludge. During granulation period the granule size increased significantly due to the growth of bacteria in granules. GAC reduced the compression caused by the inter-particle collisions and thus accelerate the granulation. GAC has no negative effect on the performance of SBR, and thus efficient simultaneous removal of COD, nitrogen and phosphorus were obtained during most of the operating time. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Effects of 16-week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Yusuke; Azuma, Koichiro; Tabata, Shogo; Katsukawa, Fuminori; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Oguma, Yuko; Kawai, Toshihide; Itoh, Hiroshi; Okuda, Shigeo; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether combined leg and arm high-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves fitness and morphological characteristics equal to those of leg-based HIIT programs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT using leg-cycling (LC) and arm-cranking (AC) ergometers with an HIIT program using only LC. Effects on aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle were analyzed. Twelve healthy male subjects were assigned into two groups. One performed LC-HIIT (n=7) and the other LC- and AC-HIIT (n=5) twice weekly for 16 weeks. The training programs consisted of eight to 12 sets of >90% VO2 (the oxygen uptake that can be utilized in one minute) peak for 60 seconds with a 60-second active rest period. VO2 peak, watt peak, and heart rate were measured during an LC incremental exercise test. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of trunk and thigh muscles as well as bone-free lean body mass were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The watt peak increased from baseline in both the LC (23%±38%; PHIIT program improves aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in both leg and trunk muscles.

  1. Random mtDNA mutations modulate proliferation capacity in mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukat, Alexandra; Edgar, Daniel; Bratic, Ivana; Maiti, Priyanka; Trifunovic, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Increased mtDNA mutations in MEFs lead to high level of spontaneous immortalization. → This process is independent of endogenous ROS production. → Aerobic glycolysis significantly contributes to spontaneous immortalization of MEFs. -- Abstract: An increase in mtDNA mutation load leads to a loss of critical cells in different tissues thereby contributing to the physiological process of organismal ageing. Additionally, the accumulation of senescent cells that display changes in metabolic function might act in an active way to further disrupt the normal tissue function. We believe that this could be the important link missing in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of premature ageing in the mtDNA mutator mice. We tested proliferation capacity of mtDNA mutator cells in vitro. When cultured in physiological levels of oxygen (3%) their proliferation capacity is somewhat lower than wild-type cells. Surprisingly, in conditions of increased oxidative stress (20% O 2 ) mtDNA mutator mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibit continuous proliferation due to spontaneous immortalization, whereas the same conditions promote senescence in wild-type cells. We believe that an increase in aerobic glycolysis observed in mtDNA mutator mice is a major mechanism behind this process. We propose that glycolysis promotes proliferation and allows a fast turnover of metabolites, but also leads to energy crisis due to lower ATP production rate. This could lead to compromised replication and/or repair and therefore, in rare cases, might lead to mutations in tumor suppressor genes and spontaneous immortalization.

  2. State of the art of aerobic granulation in continuous flow bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Timothy R; Bott, Charles B; Wang, Zhi-Wu

    granule activity, improvement of long-term granule stability, and a better understanding of aerobic granulation mechanisms in CFRs, especially in full-scale applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Anxiety Symptoms and Cortical Activity in Patients with Panic Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattari, Eduardo; Budde, Henning; Paes, Flávia; Neto, Geraldo Albuquerque Maranhão; Appolinario, José Carlos; Nardi, Antônio Egídio; Murillo-Rodriguez, Eric; Machado, Sérgio

    2018-01-01

    The effects of the aerobic exercise on anxiety symptoms in patients with Panic Disorder (PD) remain unclear. Thus, the investigation of possible changes in EEG frontal asymmetry could contribute to understand the relationship among exercise, brain and anxiety. To investigate the acute effects of aerobic exercise on the symptoms of anxiety and the chronic effects of aerobic exercise on severity and symptoms related to PD, besides the changes in EEG frontal asymmetry. Ten PD patients were divided into two groups, Exercise Group (EG; n=5) and Control Group (CG; n=5), in a randomized allocation. At baseline and post-intervention, they submitted the psychological evaluation through Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), EEG frontal asymmetry, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max). On the second visit, the patients of EG being submitted to the aerobic exercise (treadmill, 25 minutes, and 50-55% of heart rate reserve) and the CG remained seated for the same period of time. Both groups submitted a psychological evaluation with Subjective Units of Distress Scale (SUDS) at baseline, immediately after (Post-0), and after 10 minutes of the rest pause (Post-10). The patients performed 12 sessions of aerobic exercise with 48-72 hours of interval between sessions. In EG, SUDS increased immediately after exercise practice and showed chronic decrease in BAI and BDI-II as well as increased in VO 2 max (Post-intervention). Aerobic exercise can promote increase in anxiety acutely and regular aerobic exercise promotes reduction in anxiety levels.

  4. Repeated high-speed activities during youth soccer games in relation to changes in maximal sprinting and aerobic speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, M; Simpson, B M; Mendez-Villanueva, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine in highly-trained young soccer players whether substantial changes in either maximal sprinting speed (MSS) or maximal aerobic speed (as inferred from peak incremental test speed, V(Vam-Eval)) can affect repeated high-intensity running during games. Data from 33 players (14.5±1.3 years), who presented substantial changes in either MSS or V(Vam-Eval) throughout 2 consecutive testing periods (~3 months) were included in the final analysis. For each player, time-motion analyses were performed using a global positioning system (1-Hz) during 2-10 international club games played within 1-2 months from/to each testing period of interest (n for game analyzed=109, player-games=393, games per player per period=4±2). Sprint activities were defined as at least a 1-s run at intensities higher than 61% of individual MSS. Repeated-sprint sequences (RSS) were defined as a minimum of 2 consecutive sprints interspersed with a maximum of 60 s of recovery. Improvements in both MSS and V(Vam-Eval) were likely associated with a decreased RSS occurrence, but in some positions only (e. g., - 24% vs. - 3% for improvements in MSS in strikers vs. midfielders, respectively). The changes in the number of sprints per RSS were less clear but also position-dependent, e. g., +7 to +12% for full-backs and wingers, - 5 to - 7% for centre-backs and midfielders. In developing soccer players, changes in repeated-sprint activity during games do not necessarily match those in physical fitness. Game tactical and strategic requirements are likely to modulate on-field players' activity patterns independently (at least partially) of players' physical capacities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Physical activity interventions for people with mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Simon; Tiedemann, Anne; Sherrington, Catherine; Curtis, Jackie; Ward, Philip B

    2014-09-01

    To determine effects of physical activity on depressive symptoms (primary objective), symptoms of schizophrenia, anthropometric measures, aerobic capacity, and quality of life (secondary objectives) in people with mental illness and explore between-study heterogeneity. MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase, and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) were searched from earliest record to 2013. Randomized controlled trials of adults with a DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10, or clinician-confirmed diagnosis of a mental illness other than dysthymia or eating disorders were selected. Interventions included exercise programs, exercise counseling, lifestyle interventions, tai chi, or physical yoga. Study methodological quality and intervention compliance with American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines were also assessed. Two investigators extracted data. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Meta-regression was used to examine sources of between-study heterogeneity. Thirty-nine eligible trials were identified. The primary meta-analysis found a large effect of physical activity on depressive symptoms (n = 20; standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.80). The effect size in trial interventions that met ACSM guidelines for aerobic exercise did not differ significantly from those that did not meet these guidelines. The effect for trials with higher methodological quality was smaller than that observed for trials with lower methodological quality (SMD = 0.39 vs 1.35); however, the difference was not statistically significant. A large effect was found for schizophrenia symptoms (SMD = 1.0), a small effect was found for anthropometry (SMD = 0.24), and moderate effects were found for aerobic capacity (SMD = 0.63) and quality of life (SMD = 0.64). Physical activity reduced depressive symptoms in people with mental illness. Larger effects were seen in studies of poorer methodological quality. Physical activity reduced symptoms of

  6. Improving heterologous protein secretion at aerobic conditions by activating hypoxia-induced genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Lifang; Zhang, Yiming; Liu, Zihe

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is important for normal aerobic metabolism, as well as for protein production where it is needed for oxidative protein folding. However, several studies have reported that anaerobic conditions seem to be more favorable in terms of recombinant protein production. We were interested in incre......Oxygen is important for normal aerobic metabolism, as well as for protein production where it is needed for oxidative protein folding. However, several studies have reported that anaerobic conditions seem to be more favorable in terms of recombinant protein production. We were interested...... in increasing recombinant protein production under aerobic conditions so we focused on Rox1p regulation. Rox1p is a transcriptional regulator, which in oxidative conditions represses genes induced in hypoxia. We deleted ROX1 and studied the effects on the production of recombinant proteins in Saccharomyces...

  7. Phenotypic variation in metabolism and morphology correlating with animal swimming activity in the wild: relevance for the OCLTT (oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance), allocation and performance models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baktoft, Henrik; Jacobsen, Lene; Skov, Christian; Koed, Anders; Jepsen, Niels; Berg, Søren; Boel, Mikkel; Aarestrup, Kim; Svendsen, Jon C

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is affecting animal physiology in many parts of the world. Using metabolism, the oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis provides a tool to predict the responses of ectothermic animals to variation in temperature, oxygen availability and pH in the aquatic environment. The hypothesis remains controversial, however, and has been questioned in several studies. A positive relationship between aerobic metabolic scope and animal activity would be consistent with the OCLTT but has rarely been tested. Moreover, the performance model and the allocation model predict positive and negative relationships, respectively, between standard metabolic rate and activity. Finally, animal activity could be affected by individual morphology because of covariation with cost of transport. Therefore, we hypothesized that individual variation in activity is correlated with variation in metabolism and morphology. To test this prediction, we captured 23 wild European perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a lake, tagged them with telemetry transmitters, measured standard and maximal metabolic rates, aerobic metabolic scope and fineness ratio and returned the fish to the lake to quantify individual in situ activity levels. Metabolic rates were measured using intermittent flow respirometry, whereas the activity assay involved high-resolution telemetry providing positions every 30 s over 12 days. We found no correlation between individual metabolic traits and activity, whereas individual fineness ratio correlated with activity. Independent of body length, and consistent with physics theory, slender fish maintained faster mean and maximal swimming speeds, but this variation did not result in a larger area (in square metres) explored per 24 h. Testing assumptions and predictions of recent conceptual models, our study indicates that individual metabolism is not a strong determinant of animal activity, in contrast to individual morphology, which is

  8. Plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin, and renin activity during graded exercise in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Keil, L. C.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of work intensity on plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin and renin activity and the interrelationships between these responses are investigated. Plasma volume, renin activity and osmotic, sodium and arginine vasopressin concentrations were measured in venous blood samples taken from 15 healthy male subjects before and after six minutes of bicycle ergometer exercise at 100, 175 and 225 W. Plasma volume is found to decrease significantly with increasing work intensity, while increases in Na(+) concentration, osmolality and vasopressin are only observed to be significant when the work intensity exceeds 40% maximal aerobic capacity and plasma resin activity increased linearly at all work levels. In addition, significant correlations are observed between plasma volume and osmolality and sodium changes, and between vasopressin and osmolality and sodium content changes. Data thus support the hypotheses that (1) vasopressin may be the primary controlling endocrine for fluid and electrolyte levels following exercise; (2) an exercise intensity greater than 40% maximal aerobic capacity is required to stimulate vasopressin release through changes in plasma osmolality; and (3) the stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system is a more general stress response.

  9. Comparison of Aerobic Performance Testing Protocols in Elite Male Wheelchair Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molik Bartosz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In wheelchair sports, aerobic performance is commonly assessed with the use of an arm crank ergometer (ACE, a wheelchair ergometer (WCE or a wheelchair treadmill (WCT. There are different protocols to identify peak oxygen uptake in wheelchair sports; however, only a few protocols have been applied to evaluate these conditions in wheelchair basketball players. The purpose of this study was to compare physiological responses during maximal exercise testing with the use of ACE and WCT in wheelchair basketball players. Twelve elite male wheelchair basketball players participated in this study. The research was performed during a training camp of the Polish National Wheelchair Basketball Team. The study participants were divided into two functional categories: A (players with class 1.0 - 2.5 and B (players with class 3.0 - 4.5. Two main maximal exercise tests, i.e. wheelchair treadmill stress test (WCT test and arm crank ergometer stress test (ACE test were used to evaluate aerobic performance of the players. There were no statistically significant differences in aerobic tests between the players from both groups. The comparison of results achieved in two aerobic tests performed on WCT and ACE did not reveal any significant differences between the analyzed variables (peak heart rate (HRpeak, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak, minute ventilation (VE, anaerobic threshold (AT, lactate concentration (LApeak, and a drop in lactate concentration (%LA. Strong correlations between results achieved in WCT and ACE tests were found for VO2peak, VE and LApeak. The main conclusion of the study is that both WCT and ACE tests may be useful when determining aerobic capacity of wheelchair basketball players. Moreover, both protocols can be used by athletes regardless of their functional capabilities and types of impairment.

  10. Enhanced erythrocyte antioxidant status following an 8-week aerobic exercise training program in heavy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Manthou, Eirini; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Deli, Chariklia K; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Theodorakis, Yannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2018-06-01

    Alcohol-induced oxidative stress is involved in the development and progression of various pathological conditions and diseases. On the other hand, exercise training has been shown to improve redox status, thus attenuating oxidative stress-associated disease processes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of an exercise training program that has been previously reported to decrease alcohol consumption on blood redox status in heavy drinkers. In a non-randomized within-subject design, 11 sedentary, heavily drinking men (age: 30.3 ± 3.5 years; BMI: 28.4 ± 0.86 kg/m 2 ) participated first in a control condition for 4 weeks, and then in an intervention where they completed an 8-week supervised aerobic training program of moderate intensity (50-60% of the heart rate reserve). Blood samples were collected in the control condition (pre-, post-control) as well as before, during (week 4 of the training program), and after intervention (week 8 of the training program). Samples were analyzed for total antioxidant capacity (TAC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), uric acid (UA), bilirubin, reduced glutathione (GSH), and catalase activity. No significant change in indices of redox status in the pre- and post-control was observed. Catalase activity increased (p program enhanced erythrocyte antioxidant status in heavy drinkers, indicating that aerobic training may attenuate pathological processes caused by alcohol-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Feasibility, safety, and efficacy of aerobic training in pretreated patients with metastatic breast cancer: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jessica M; Iyengar, Neil M; Nilsen, Tormod S; Michalski, Meghan; Thomas, Samantha M; Herndon, James; Sasso, John; Yu, Anthony; Chandarlapaty, Sarat; Dang, Chau T; Comen, Elizabeth A; Dickler, Maura N; Peppercorn, Jeffrey M; Jones, Lee W

    2018-04-06

    The investigation of exercise training in metastatic breast cancer has received minimal attention. This study determined the feasibility and safety of aerobic training in metastatic breast cancer. Sixty-five women (age, 21-80 years) with metastatic (stage IV) breast cancer (57% were receiving chemotherapy, and >40% had ≥ 2 lines of prior therapy) were allocated to an aerobic training group (n = 33) or a stretching group (n = 32). Aerobic training consisted of 36 supervised treadmill walking sessions delivered thrice weekly between 55% and 80% of peak oxygen consumption (VO 2peak ) for 12 consecutive weeks. Stretching was matched to aerobic training with respect to location, frequency, duration, and intervention length. The primary endpoint was aerobic training feasibility, which was a priori defined as the lost to follow-up (LTF) rate (aerobic training was LTF, whereas the mean attendance rate was 63% ± 30%. The rates of permanent discontinuation and dose modification were 27% and 49%, respectively. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated improvements in PROs, which favored the attention control group (P values > .05). Per protocol analyses indicated that 14 of 33 patients (42%) receiving aerobic training had acceptable tolerability (relative dose intensity ≥ 70%), and this led to improvements in VO 2peak and functional capacity (P values Aerobic training at the dose and schedule tested is safe but not feasible for a significant proportion of patients with metastatic breast cancer. The acceptable feasibility and promising benefit for select patients warrant further evaluation in a dose-finding phase 1/2 study. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  12. Does participation in standardized aerobic fitness training during inpatient stroke rehabilitation promote engagement in aerobic exercise after discharge? A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christiane; Fraser, Julia E; Inness, Elizabeth L; Wong, Jennifer S; Middleton, Laura E; Poon, Vivien; McIlroy, William E; Mansfield, Avril

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether attending an aerobic fitness program during inpatient stroke rehabilitation is associated with increased participation in physical activity after discharge. This was a prospective cohort study. Patients who received inpatient stroke rehabilitation and were discharged into the community (n = 61; mean age, 65 years) were recruited. Thirty-five participants attended a standardized aerobic fitness program during inpatient rehabilitation, whereas 26 did not. The Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) and adherence to the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines were assessed up to 6 months after discharge. Participants in the fitness group had PASIPD scores and adherence to ACSM guidelines similar to those of participants in the nonfitness group up to 6 months after discharge. There was no significant correlation between volume of exercise performed during the inpatient program and amount of physical activity after discharge. Participation in an inpatient fitness program did not increase participation in physical activity after discharge in individuals with stroke. A new model of care that encourages patients to pursue physical activity after discharge and reduces the potential barriers to participation should be developed.

  13. Acute effects of intradialytic aerobic exercise on solute removal, blood gases and oxidative stress in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseane Böhm

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Hemodialysis contributes to increased oxidative stress and induces transitory hypoxemia. Compartmentalization decreases the supply of solutes to the dialyzer during treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of intradialytic aerobic exercise on solute removal, blood gases and oxidative stress in patients with chronic kidney disease during a single hemodialysis session. Methods: Thirty patients were randomized to perform aerobic exercise with cycle ergometer for lower limbs during 30 minutes with intensity between 60-70% of maximal heart rate, or control group (CG. Blood samples were collected prior to and immediately after exercise or the equivalent time in CG. Analysis of blood and dialysate biochemistry as well as blood gases were performed. Mass removal and solute clearance were calculated. Oxidative stress was determined by lipid peroxidation and by the total antioxidant capacity. Results: Serum concentrations of solutes increased with exercise, but only phosphorus showed a significant elevation (p = 0.035. There were no significant changes in solute removal and in the acid-base balance. Both oxygen partial pressure and saturation increased with exercise (p = 0.035 and p = 0.024, respectivelly, which did not occur in the CG. The total antioxidant capacity decreased significantly (p = 0.027. Conclusion: The acute intradialytic aerobic exercise increased phosphorus serum concentration and decreased total antioxidant capacity, reversing hypoxemia resulting from hemodialysis. The intradialytic exercise did not change the blood acid-base balance and the removal of solutes.

  14. Acute effects of intradialytic aerobic exercise on solute removal, blood gases and oxidative stress in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Joseane; Monteiro, Mariane Borba; Andrade, Francini Porcher; Veronese, Francisco Veríssimo; Thomé, Fernando Saldanha

    2017-01-01

    Hemodialysis contributes to increased oxidative stress and induces transitory hypoxemia. Compartmentalization decreases the supply of solutes to the dialyzer during treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of intradialytic aerobic exercise on solute removal, blood gases and oxidative stress in patients with chronic kidney disease during a single hemodialysis session. Thirty patients were randomized to perform aerobic exercise with cycle ergometer for lower limbs during 30 minutes with intensity between 60-70% of maximal heart rate, or control group (CG). Blood samples were collected prior to and immediately after exercise or the equivalent time in CG. Analysis of blood and dialysate biochemistry as well as blood gases were performed. Mass removal and solute clearance were calculated. Oxidative stress was determined by lipid peroxidation and by the total antioxidant capacity. Serum concentrations of solutes increased with exercise, but only phosphorus showed a significant elevation (p = 0.035). There were no significant changes in solute removal and in the acid-base balance. Both oxygen partial pressure and saturation increased with exercise (p = 0.035 and p = 0.024, respectivelly), which did not occur in the CG. The total antioxidant capacity decreased significantly (p = 0.027). The acute intradialytic aerobic exercise increased phosphorus serum concentration and decreased total antioxidant capacity, reversing hypoxemia resulting from hemodialysis. The intradialytic exercise did not change the blood acid-base balance and the removal of solutes.

  15. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Youth Aerobic Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Neil

    2017-06-01

    Peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text] 2 ) is internationally recognized as the criterion measure of youth aerobic fitness, but despite pediatric data being available for almost 80 years, its measurement and interpretation in relation to growth, maturation, and health remain controversial. The trainability of youth aerobic fitness continues to be hotly debated, and causal mechanisms of training-induced changes and their modulation by chronological age, biological maturation, and sex are still to be resolved. The daily physical activity of youth is characterized by intermittent bouts and rapid changes in intensity, but physical activity of the intensity and duration required to determine peak [Formula: see text] 2 is rarely (if ever) experienced by most youth. In this context, it may therefore be the transient kinetics of pulmonary [Formula: see text] 2 that best reflect youth aerobic fitness. There are remarkably few rigorous studies of youth pulmonary [Formula: see text] 2 kinetics at the onset of exercise in different intensity domains, and the influence of chronological age, biological maturation, and sex during step changes in exercise intensity are not confidently documented. Understanding the trainability of the parameters of youth pulmonary [Formula: see text] 2 kinetics is primarily based on a few comparative studies of athletes and nonathletes. The underlying mechanisms of changes due to training require further exploration. The aims of the present article are therefore to provide a brief overview of aerobic fitness during growth and maturation, increase awareness of current controversies in its assessment and interpretation, identify gaps in knowledge, raise 10 relevant research questions, and indicate potential areas for future research.

  16. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise and Gaming on Cognitive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douris Peter C.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of video gaming, aerobic exercise (biking, and the combination of these two activities on the domains of cognitive performance: selective attention, processing speed, and executive functioning. The study was a randomized clinical trial with 40 subjects (mean age 23.7 ± 1.8 years randomized to one of four thirty-minute conditions: video gaming, biking, simultaneous gaming and biking, and a control condition. Cognitive performance was measured pre and post condition using the Stroop test and Trails B test. A mixed design was utilized. While video gaming, biking, simultaneous gaming and biking conditions improved selective attention and processing speed (p < 0.05, only the bike condition improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function (p < 0.01. There were no changes in cognitive performance for the control condition. Previous studies have shown that if tasks approach the limits of attentional capacity there is an increase in the overall chance for errors, known as the dual-task deficit. Simultaneous biking and gaming may have surpassed attentional capacity limits, ultimately increasing errors during the executive function tests of our cognitive performance battery. The results suggest that the fatiguing effects of a combined physically and mentally challenging task that extends after the exercise cessation may overcome the eventual beneficial cognitive effects derived from the physical exercise.

  17. Adolescent Trajectories of Aerobic Fitness and Adiposity as Markers of Cardiometabolic Risk in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowski, S A; Eisenmann, J C; Sherar, L B; Bailey, D A; Baxter-Jones, A D G

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether adolescent growth trajectories of aerobic fitness and adiposity were associated with mid-adulthood cardiometabolic risk (CMR). Participants were drawn from the Saskatchewan Growth and Development Study (1963-1973). Adolescent growth trajectories for maximal aerobic capacity (absolute VO 2 (AbsVO 2 )), skinfolds (SF), representing total body (Sum6SF) and central adiposity (TrunkSF), and body mass index (BMI) were determined from 7 to 17 years of age. In mid-adulthood (40 to 50 years of age), 61 individuals (23 females) returned for follow-ups. A CMR score was calculated to group participants as displaying either high or a low CMR. Multilevel hierarchical models were constructed, comparing the adolescent growth trajectories of AbsVO 2, Sum6SF, TrunkSF, and BMI between CMR groupings. There were no significant differences in the adolescent development of AbsVO 2, Sum6SF, TrunkSF, and BMI between adult CMR groupings ( p > 0.05). Individuals with high CMR accrued 62% greater adjusted total body fat percentage from adolescence to adulthood ( p =0.03). Growth trajectories of adolescent aerobic fitness and adiposity do not appear to be associated with mid-adulthood CMR. Individuals should be encouraged to participate in behaviours that promote healthy aerobic fitness and adiposity levels throughout life to reduce lifelong CMR.

  18. Adolescent Trajectories of Aerobic Fitness and Adiposity as Markers of Cardiometabolic Risk in Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Jackowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adolescent growth trajectories of aerobic fitness and adiposity were associated with mid-adulthood cardiometabolic risk (CMR. Methods. Participants were drawn from the Saskatchewan Growth and Development Study (1963–1973. Adolescent growth trajectories for maximal aerobic capacity (absolute VO2 (AbsVO2, skinfolds (SF, representing total body (Sum6SF and central adiposity (TrunkSF, and body mass index (BMI were determined from 7 to 17 years of age. In mid-adulthood (40 to 50 years of age, 61 individuals (23 females returned for follow-ups. A CMR score was calculated to group participants as displaying either high or a low CMR. Multilevel hierarchical models were constructed, comparing the adolescent growth trajectories of AbsVO2, Sum6SF, TrunkSF, and BMI between CMR groupings. Results. There were no significant differences in the adolescent development of AbsVO2, Sum6SF, TrunkSF, and BMI between adult CMR groupings (p>0.05. Individuals with high CMR accrued 62% greater adjusted total body fat percentage from adolescence to adulthood (p=0.03. Conclusions. Growth trajectories of adolescent aerobic fitness and adiposity do not appear to be associated with mid-adulthood CMR. Individuals should be encouraged to participate in behaviours that promote healthy aerobic fitness and adiposity levels throughout life to reduce lifelong CMR.

  19. High-capacity neutron activation analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochel, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    A high-capacity neutron activation analysis facility, the Reactor Activation Facility, was designed and built and has been in operation for about a year at one of the Savannah River Plant's production reactors. The facility determines uranium and about 19 other trace elements in hydrogeochemical samples collected in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. The facility has a demonstrated average analysis rate of over 10,000 samples per month, and a peak rate of over 16,000 samples per month. Uranium is determined by cyclic activation and delayed neutron counting of the U-235 fission products; other elements are determined from gamma-ray spectra recorded in subsequent irradiation, decay, and counting steps. The method relies on the absolute activation technique and is highly automated for round-the-clock unattended operation

  20. The development of aerobic and skill assessment in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, John; Wong, Stephen H S

    2012-12-01

    Methods of assessing soccer players' performance have developed significantly in recent times. The fitness profiles and skill levels of a prospective elite soccer player is a valuable resource for coaches in the process of identifying talent. Traditional means to measure aerobic fitness have centred on the 'aerobic capacity' or '&OV0312;O(2max)' test (also known as the maximal oxygen consumption test) but, over time, this has been shown not to be a sensitive measure for specific aspects of soccer in a match situation. Therefore, numerous soccer-specific simulations have been designed to re-create exercise patterns similar to those experienced during a match. Some of these studies have yet to be validated, while others have been shown to result in a similar physiological load to that encountered during regular match play. Further developments have led to specifically designed intermittent sprint tests, which are used as a sensitive tool to accurately measure the fluctuations in players' ability both between and within soccer seasons. Testing procedures have also been developed that incorporate elements of both skill and physical ability. Soccer-specific field tests have been designed, incorporating skill and dynamic movements, and this opens up the possibility of teams testing the aerobic capacity of their elite players using soccer-specific movements. Valid studies assessing soccer-specific skills in an ecologically sound environment have been quite rare until recently. Some test protocols have been deemed largely irrelevant to soccer match play, while others have had limited impact on scientific literature. More recently, skill tests have been developed and shown to be valid and reliable methods of assessing soccer skill performance. Many new skill tests continue to be developed, and some have been shown to be highly reliable, but further study of these relatively novel concepts is required before a more solid recommendation can be made. Overall, while significant

  1. Fat-free mass mediates the association between birth weight and aerobic fitness in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridgway, C L; Andresen, Brage Storstein; Anderssen, S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To investigate whether birth weight acts as a biological determinant of later aerobic fitness, and whether fat-free mass may mediate this association. Methods. The European Youth Heart Study (EYHS) is a population-based cohort of two age groups (9 and 15 years) from Denmark...... test. Physical activity was collected in a subset (n = 1 505) using a hip-worn accelerometer and defined as total activity counts/wear time, all children with >600 minutes/day for ≥3 days of wear were included. Results. Lower birth weight was associated with lower aerobic fitness, after adjusting...... may have long-term influences on fat-free mass and differences in fat-free mass mediate the observed association between birth weight and aerobic fitness....

  2. Aerobic exercise improves self-reported sleep and quality of life in older adults with insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kathryn J; Baron, Kelly Glazer; Lu, Brandon; Naylor, Erik; Wolfe, Lisa; Zee, Phyllis C

    2010-10-01

    To assess the efficacy of moderate aerobic physical activity with sleep hygiene education to improve sleep, mood and quality of life in older adults with chronic insomnia. Seventeen sedentary adults aged >or=55 years with insomnia (mean age 61.6 [SD±4.3] years; 16 female) participated in a randomized controlled trial comparing 16 weeks of aerobic physical activity plus sleep hygiene to non-physical activity plus sleep hygiene. Eligibility included primary insomnia for at least 3 months, habitual sleep duration 5. Outcomes included sleep quality, mood and quality of life questionnaires (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS], Short-form 36 [SF-36], Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]). The physical activity group improved in sleep quality on the global PSQI (pimprovements in vitality (p=.017) compared to baseline scores. Aerobic physical activity with sleep hygiene education is an effective treatment approach to improve sleep quality, mood and quality of life in older adults with chronic insomnia.

  3. Binding of dicamba to soluble and bound extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from aerobic activated sludge: a fluorescence quenching study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiangliang; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Daoyong; Chen, Xi; Song, Wenjuan; Wu, Fengchang

    2010-05-15

    Binding of dicamba to soluble EPS (SEPS) and bound EPS (BEPS) from aerobic activated sludge was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy. Two protein-like fluorescence peaks (peak A with Ex/Em=225 nm/342-344 nm and peak B with Ex/Em=275/340-344 nm) were identified in SEPS and BEPS. Humic-like fluorescence peak C (Ex/Em=270-275 nm/450-460 nm) was only found in BEPS. Fluorescence of the peaks A and B for SEPS and peak A for BEPS were markedly quenched by dicamba at all temperatures whereas fluorescence of peaks B and C for BEPS was quenched only at 298 K. A dynamic process dominated the fluorescence quenching of peak A of both SEPS and BEPS. Fluorescence quenching of peak B and C was governed a static process. The effective quenching constants (logK(a)) were 4.725-5.293 for protein-like fluorophores of SEPS and 4.23-5.190 for protein-like fluorophores of BEPS, respectively. LogK(a) for humic-like substances was 3.85. Generally, SEPS had greater binding capacity for dicamba than BEPS, and protein-like substances bound dicamba more strongly than humic-like substances. Binding of dicamba to SEPS and BEPS was spontaneous and exothermic. Electrostatic force and hydrophobic interaction forces play a crucial role in binding of dicamba to EPS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Working memory is not fixed-capacity: More active storage capacity for real-world objects than for simple stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Timothy F; Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-07-05

    Visual working memory is the cognitive system that holds visual information active to make it resistant to interference from new perceptual input. Information about simple stimuli-colors and orientations-is encoded into working memory rapidly: In under 100 ms, working memory ‟fills up," revealing a stark capacity limit. However, for real-world objects, the same behavioral limits do not hold: With increasing encoding time, people store more real-world objects and do so with more detail. This boost in performance for real-world objects is generally assumed to reflect the use of a separate episodic long-term memory system, rather than working memory. Here we show that this behavioral increase in capacity with real-world objects is not solely due to the use of separate episodic long-term memory systems. In particular, we show that this increase is a result of active storage in working memory, as shown by directly measuring neural activity during the delay period of a working memory task using EEG. These data challenge fixed-capacity working memory models and demonstrate that working memory and its capacity limitations are dependent upon our existing knowledge.

  5. Autonomic adjusting of activity of cardio-vessel system of girls of the prepubescence period, engaged in dancing aerobic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanchuk А.P.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The vegetative adjusting of activity of the cardio-vessel system of girls is investigational. In an experiment took part girls of 9-12 years old. A type of sport is a dancing aerobics. The indexes of general power of spectrum of variability of cardiac rhythm are presented, systole and diastole arteriotony. Motion of the adaptation re-erecting is appraised under influence of the physical loadings in the conditions of current and operative control. Certain change activity and tone of vegetative influences on the cardio-vessel system. They determine the features of the further adaptation re-erecting in an organism.

  6. Blunted angiogenesis and hypertrophy are associated with increased fatigue resistance and unchanged aerobic capacity in old overloaded mouse muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballak, Sam B; Busé-Pot, Tinelies; Harding, Peter J; Yap, Moi H; Deldicque, Louise; de Haan, Arnold; Jaspers, Richard T; Degens, Hans

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesize that the attenuated hypertrophic response in old mouse muscle is (1) partly due to a reduced capillarization and angiogenesis, which is (2) accompanied by a reduced oxidative capacity and fatigue resistance in old control and overloaded muscles, that (3) can be rescued by the antioxidant resveratrol. To investigate this, the hypertrophic response, capillarization, oxidative capacity, and fatigue resistance of m. plantaris were compared in 9- and 25-month-old non-treated and 25-month-old resveratrol-treated mice. Overload increased the local capillary-to-fiber ratio less in old (15 %) than in adult (59 %) muscle (P muscles of old mice had a higher succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity (P < 0.05) and a slower fiber type profile (P < 0.05), the isometric fatigue resistance was similar in 9- and 25-month-old mice. In both age groups, the fatigue resistance was increased to the same extent after overload (P < 0.01), without a significant change in SDH activity, but an increased capillary density (P < 0.05). Attenuated angiogenesis during overload may contribute to the attenuated hypertrophic response in old age. Neither was rescued by resveratrol supplementation. Changes in fatigue resistance with overload and aging were dissociated from changes in SDH activity, but paralleled those in capillarization. This suggests that capillarization plays a more important role in fatigue resistance than oxidative capacity.

  7. Preseason Aerobic Fitness Predicts In-Season Injury and Illness in Female Youth Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew; Brickson, Stacey; Brooks, M Alison; Dunn, Warren

    2017-09-01

    Although preseason aerobic fitness has been suggested as a modifiable risk factor for injury in adult athletes, the relationship between aerobic fitness, injury, and illness in youth athletes is unknown. To determine whether preseason aerobic fitness predicts in-season injury and illness risk in female adolescent soccer players. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Fifty-four female adolescent soccer players underwent preseason evaluation to determine years of experience, body mass index (BMI), maximal aerobic capacity (VO 2max ), and time to exhaustion (T max ) during cycle ergometer testing. All injuries and illnesses during the subsequent 20-week season were recorded. Variables were compared between individuals with and without a self-reported injury and individuals with and without a self-reported illness. Separate Poisson regression models were developed to predict number of injuries and illnesses for each individual by use of age, years of experience, BMI, VO 2max , and T max. Twenty-eight injuries and 38 illnesses in 23 individuals were recorded during the season. Although not a statistically significant finding, individuals who reported an in-season injury had lower VO 2max than those who did not (54.9 ± 7.3 vs 58.3 ± 8.5 mL/kg/min, P = .13). Individuals who reported an illness had significantly lower VO 2max than those who did not (54.5 ± 9.9 vs 58.8 ± 6.2 mL/kg/min, P = .014). With the Poisson regression models, VO 2max was a significant predictor of both injury (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; P = .046) and illness (OR, 0.94; P = .009), while no significant relationships were identified between injury or illness and age, years of experience, T max , or BMI (all P > .05). Among adolescent female soccer players, greater preseason aerobic fitness is associated with a reduced risk of in-season injury and illness. Off-season intervention to promote aerobic fitness may help reduce the risk of lost time during the season due to injury and illness.

  8. Tumor vessel normalization after aerobic exercise enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadler, Keri L; Thomas, Nicholas J; Galie, Peter A; Bhang, Dong Ha; Roby, Kerry C; Addai, Prince; Till, Jacob E; Sturgeon, Kathleen; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Chen, Christopher S; Ryeom, Sandra

    2016-10-04

    Targeted therapies aimed at tumor vasculature are utilized in combination with chemotherapy to improve drug delivery and efficacy after tumor vascular normalization. Tumor vessels are highly disorganized with disrupted blood flow impeding drug delivery to cancer cells. Although pharmacologic anti-angiogenic therapy can remodel and normalize tumor vessels, there is a limited window of efficacy and these drugs are associated with severe side effects necessitating alternatives for vascular normalization. Recently, moderate aerobic exercise has been shown to induce vascular normalization in mouse models. Here, we provide a mechanistic explanation for the tumor vascular normalization induced by exercise. Shear stress, the mechanical stimuli exerted on endothelial cells by blood flow, modulates vascular integrity. Increasing vascular shear stress through aerobic exercise can alter and remodel blood vessels in normal tissues. Our data in mouse models indicate that activation of calcineurin-NFAT-TSP1 signaling in endothelial cells plays a critical role in exercise-induced shear stress mediated tumor vessel remodeling. We show that moderate aerobic exercise with chemotherapy caused a significantly greater decrease in tumor growth than chemotherapy alone through improved chemotherapy delivery after tumor vascular normalization. Our work suggests that the vascular normalizing effects of aerobic exercise can be an effective chemotherapy adjuvant.

  9. New insights into the benefits of exercise for muscle health in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemo Munters, Li; Alexanderson, Helene; Crofford, Leslie J; Lundberg, Ingrid E

    2014-07-01

    With recommended treatment, a majority with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) develop muscle impairment and poor health. Beneficial effects of exercise have been reported on muscle performance, aerobic capacity and health in chronic polymyositis and dermatomyositis and to some extent in active disease and inclusion body myositis (IBM). Importantly, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate that improved health and decreased clinical disease activity could be mediated through increased aerobic capacity. Recently, reports seeking mechanisms underlying effects of exercise in skeletal muscle indicate increased aerobic capacity (i.e. increased mitochondrial capacity and capillary density, reduced lactate levels), activation of genes in aerobic phenotype and muscle growth programs, and down regulation in genes related to inflammation. Altogether, exercise contributes to both systemic and within-muscle adaptations demonstrating that exercise is fundamental to improve muscle performance and health in IIM. There is a need for RCTs to study effects of exercise in active disease and IBM.

  10. Re-evaluating the relationships among filtering activity, unnecessary storage, and visual working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, Stephen M; Busseri, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    The amount of task-irrelevant information encoded in visual working memory (VWM), referred to as unnecessary storage, has been proposed as a potential mechanism underlying individual differences in VWM capacity. In addition, a number of studies have provided evidence for additional activity that initiates the filtering process originating in the frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and is therefore a crucial step in the link between unnecessary storage and VWM capacity. Here, we re-examine data from two prominent studies that identified unnecessary storage activity as a predictor of VWM capacity by directly testing the implied path model linking filtering-related activity, unnecessary storage, and VWM capacity. Across both studies, we found that unnecessary storage was not a significant predictor of individual differences in VWM capacity once activity associated with filtering was accounted for; instead, activity associated with filtering better explained variation in VWM capacity. These findings suggest that unnecessary storage is not a limiting factor in VWM performance, whereas neural activity associated with filtering may play a more central role in determining VWM performance that goes beyond preventing unnecessary storage.

  11. Reductive dehalogenation of 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoate by an aerobic strain of Delftia sp. EOB-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Jian, Shanshan; Huang, Linglong; Ruan, Zhepu; Li, Shunpeng; Jiang, Jiandong

    2015-12-01

    To confirm the reductive dehalogenation ability of the aerobic strain of Delftia sp. EOB-17, finding more evidences to support the hypothesis that reductive dehalogenation may occur extensively in aerobic bacteria. Delftia sp. EOB-17, isolated from terrestrial soil contaminated with halogenated aromatic compounds, completely degraded 0.2 mM DBHB in 28 h and released two equivalents of bromides under aerobic conditions in the presence of sodium succinate. LC-MS analysis revealed that DBHB was transformed to 4-hydroxybenzoate via 3-bromo-4-hydroxybenzoate by successive reductive dehalogenation. Highly conserved DBHB-degrading genes, including reductive dehalogenase gene (bhbA3) and the extra-cytoplasmic binding receptor gene (bhbB3), were also found in strain EOB-17 by genome sequencing. The optimal temperature and pH for DBHB reductive dehalogenation activity are 30 °C and 8, respectively, and 0.1 mM Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+) and Zn(2+) strongly inhibited dehalogenation activity. The aerobic strain of Delftia sp. EOB-17 was confirmed to reductively dehalogenate DBHB under aerobic conditions, providing another evidence to support the hypothesis that reductive dehalogenation occurs extensively in aerobic bacteria.

  12. Effects of Heart Rate vs. Speed-Based High Intensity Interval Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity of Female Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two types of high-intensity interval training (HIIT programs on aerobic and anaerobic capacity of female soccer players. Regional-level female athletes were randomly divided into heart rate-based HIIT (n = 8; age 23.4 ± 1.1 year and speed-based HIIT groups (n = 8; age 23.4 ± 1.3 year. Athletes trained three days per week for six weeks. Before and after training, each athlete’s performance was assessed directly through the Hoff test, 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (VIFT, and repeated-sprint ability test (RAST; maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, power and fatigue were estimated indirectly. Both experimental groups improved power, fatigue index and VO2max after training (p < 0.05. It was noteworthy that the speed-based group had greater gains in minimal power (effect size (ES: 3.99 vs. 0.75, average power (ES: 2.23 vs. 0.33, and fatigue index (ES: 2.53 vs. 0.17 compared to heart rate-based group (p < 0.05. In conclusion, both heart rate-based and speed-based HIIT induced meaningful improvements in power, VO2max, and fatigue index in female soccer players, although the speed-based HIIT group achieved greater gains in power and fatigue index compared to the heart rate-based group.

  13. Granular activated carbon as nucleating agent for aerobic sludge granulation: Effect of GAC size on velocity field differences (GAC versus flocs) and aggregation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jia-Heng; Zhao, Hang; Hu, Miao; Yu, Hai-Tian; Xu, Xiang-Yang; Vidonish, Julia; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Zhu, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Initial cell aggregation plays an important role in the formation of aerobic granules. In this study, three parallel aerobic granular sludge reactors treating low-strength wastewater were established using granular activated carbon (GAC) of different sizes as the nucleating agent. A novel visual quantitative evaluation method was used to discern how GAC size affects velocity field differences (GAC versus flocs) and aggregation behavior during sludge granulation. Results showed that sludge granulation was significantly enhanced by addition of 0.2mm GAC. However, there was no obvious improvement in granulation in reactor amended with 0.6mm GAC. Hydraulic analysis revealed that increase of GAC size enhanced the velocity field difference between flocs and GAC, which decreased the lifecycle and fraction of flocs-GAC aggregates. Overall, based on analysis of aggregation behavior, GAC of suitable sizes (0.2mm) can serve as the nucleating agent to accelerate flocs-GAC coaggregation and formation of aerobic granules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of body composition, aerobic performance and physical activity on exercise-induced oxidative stress in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Więcek, Magdalena; Maciejczyk, Marcin; Szymura, Jadwiga; Wiecha, Szczepan; Kantorowicz, Malgorzata; Szygula, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress could be the result of an increase in ATP resynthesis during exercise. The aim of the study was to compare prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) disturbances induced by exercise at maximal intensity in young men with differing body compositions. Thirty-nine subjects were selected from 1549 volunteers aged 18-30, based on lean body mass (LBM) and body fat percentage (%BF), and then assigned into one of the following groups: control group (CON), including subjects with average LBM (59.0-64.3 kg) and average %BF (14.0-18.5%); high body fat (HBF) group, including subjects with high %BF (>21.5%) and average LBM; and high lean body mass (HLBM) group, including subjects with high LBM (>66.3 kg) and average %BF. Participants' physical activity was determined. A running test with a gradually increased load was used. Before and 3 minutes after exercise, total oxidative status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined in the plasma, and the Oxidative Stress Index (OSI = TOS/TAC) was calculated. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was comparable in the HBF and HLBM groups (53.12±1.51 mL/kg and 50.25±1.27 mL/kg, respectively) and significantly lower compared to the CON group (58.23±1.62 mL/kg). The CON, HBF and HLBM groups showed similar significant (P0.05). There was significant negative correlation between OSI, measured before and after exercise, and participants' physical activity. There was no correlation between OSI and VO2max, BM, LBM, %BF and BMI. Exercise at maximal intensity causes a similar increase in TOS and in TAC in subjects with increased %BF and elevated content of LBM and regardless of body composition, the ratios of TOS/TAC concentrations before and after maximal-intensity exercise, have lower values in people with higher physical activity levels and are not dependent on aerobic performance (VO2max).

  15. The effects of an aerobic exercise program on the mood states of premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Ramírez Balas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between physical activity and psychological health has been stated in recent investigations. Nevertheless, most studies report the physical health benefits, but not the benefits on mood states. Therefore, this research tries to observe the changes on parameters of mood in premenopausal women after an aerobic training. The study included 20 premenopausal women, separated into two groups: younger than 35 years (n = 10 and over 35 years (n = 10. The experimental subjects underwent an assessment of mood before and after an aerobic training. A physical activity program was performed during 5 months, 3 days a week. Exercise sessions lasted 60 minutes and with an intensity between 60 to 70 % of reserve maximum heart rate. Results indicate improves the vigor and reduces the anxiety levels in over 35 years premenopausal women; in contrast, younger than 35 years caused no significant change. The conclusion of this study is that an aerobic exercise program based in aerobics, step and toning classes, improves the mood states in over 35 years premenopausal women.

  16. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise and Gaming on Cognitive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douris, Peter C; Handrakis, John P; Apergis, Demitra; Mangus, Robert B; Patel, Rima; Limtao, Jessica; Platonova, Svetlana; Gregorio, Aladino; Luty, Elliot

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of video gaming, aerobic exercise (biking), and the combination of these two activities on the domains of cognitive performance: selective attention, processing speed, and executive functioning. The study was a randomized clinical trial with 40 subjects (mean age 23.7 ± 1.8 years) randomized to one of four thirty-minute conditions: video gaming, biking, simultaneous gaming and biking, and a control condition. Cognitive performance was measured pre and post condition using the Stroop test and Trails B test. A mixed design was utilized. While video gaming, biking, simultaneous gaming and biking conditions improved selective attention and processing speed (p bike condition improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function (p biking and gaming may have surpassed attentional capacity limits, ultimately increasing errors during the executive function tests of our cognitive performance battery. The results suggest that the fatiguing effects of a combined physically and mentally challenging task that extends after the exercise cessation may overcome the eventual beneficial cognitive effects derived from the physical exercise.

  17. Isolation of aerobic bacteria from ticks infested sheep in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Ibrahem Jalil

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The high isolation rate of aerobic pathogens from ticks might reflect the active contribution of this arthropod in environmental contamination and increase the probability of transmitting bacterial pathogens to their hosts.

  18. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwinkels, Maremka; Verschuren, Olaf; Janssen, Thomas Wj; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Takken, Tim

    2014-09-01

    An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving wheelchair propulsion capacity. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched from their respective inceptions in October 2013. Exercise training studies with at least one outcome measure regarding wheelchair propulsion capacity were included. In this study wheelchair propulsion capacity includes four parameters to reflect functional wheelchair propulsion: cardio-respiratory fitness (aerobic capacity), anaerobic capacity, muscular fitness and mechanical efficiency. Articles were not selected on diagnosis, training type or mode. Studies were divided into four training types: interval, endurance, strength, and mixed training. Methodological quality was rated with the PEDro scale, and the level of evidence was determined. The 21 included studies represented 249 individuals with spinal-cord injury (50%), various diagnoses like spina bifida (4%), cerebral palsy (2%), traumatic injury, (3%) and able-bodied participants (38%). All interval training studies found a significant improvement of 18-64% in wheelchair propulsion capacity. Three out of five endurance training studies reported significant effectiveness. Methodological quality was generally poor and there were only two randomised controlled trials. Exercise training programs seem to be effective in improving wheelchair propulsion capacity. However, there is remarkably little research, particularly for individuals who do not have spinal-cord injury. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Modelling the change in the oxidation coefficient during the aerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work the aerobic degradation of phenol by acclimated activated sludge was studied. Results demonstrate that while the phenol removal rate by acclimated activated sludge follows the Monod model, the oxygen uptake rate obeys a Haldane-type equation. The phenol oxidation coefficient obtained at different intial ...

  20. Associations between fine and gross motor skills, aerobic fitness, cognition and academic performance in 7-8 years old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Beck, Mikkel Malling; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    Purpose: The current literature is concentrated around the positive effects of aerobic fitness (AF) on performance in cognitive tests (CP) and academic performance (AP) (reviewed in Hillman 2008). However, motor skills (MS) are often overlooked in this equation, and studies evaluating both AF......, phonological working-memory capacity (PWM), spatial working-memory capacity (SWM), math performance (MP) and fine- and gross-motor skill (FMS & GMS) assessed. Results: Significant associations were found between FMS and MP (P

  1. Neural activity in the hippocampus predicts individual visual short-term memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Allmen, David Yoh; Wurmitzer, Karoline; Martin, Ernst; Klaver, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Although the hippocampus had been traditionally thought to be exclusively involved in long-term memory, recent studies raised controversial explanations why hippocampal activity emerged during short-term memory tasks. For example, it has been argued that long-term memory processes might contribute to performance within a short-term memory paradigm when memory capacity has been exceeded. It is still unclear, though, whether neural activity in the hippocampus predicts visual short-term memory (VSTM) performance. To investigate this question, we measured BOLD activity in 21 healthy adults (age range 19-27 yr, nine males) while they performed a match-to-sample task requiring processing of object-location associations (delay period  =  900 ms; set size conditions 1, 2, 4, and 6). Based on individual memory capacity (estimated by Cowan's K-formula), two performance groups were formed (high and low performers). Within whole brain analyses, we found a robust main effect of "set size" in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). In line with a "set size × group" interaction in the hippocampus, a subsequent Finite Impulse Response (FIR) analysis revealed divergent hippocampal activation patterns between performance groups: Low performers (mean capacity  =  3.63) elicited increased neural activity at set size two, followed by a drop in activity at set sizes four and six, whereas high performers (mean capacity  =  5.19) showed an incremental activity increase with larger set size (maximal activation at set size six). Our data demonstrated that performance-related neural activity in the hippocampus emerged below capacity limit. In conclusion, we suggest that hippocampal activity reflected successful processing of object-location associations in VSTM. Neural activity in the PPC might have been involved in attentional updating. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Treatment of old landfill leachate with high ammonium content using aerobic granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanan; Ferraz, Fernanda; Kang, Abbass Jafari; Yuan, Qiuyan

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge has become an attractive alternative to the conventional activated sludge due to its high settling velocity, compact structure, and higher tolerance to toxic substances and adverse conditions. Aerobic granular sludge process has been studied intensively in the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater. However, information on leachate treatment using aerobic granular sludge is very limited. This study investigated the treatment performance of old landfill leachate with different levels of ammonium using two aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBR): an activated sludge SBR (ASBR) and a granular sludge SBR (GSBR). Aerobic granules were successfully developed using old leachate with low ammonium concentration (136 mg L -1  NH 4 + -N). The GSBR obtained a stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 70% after 15 days of operation; while the ASBR required a start-up of at least 30 days and obtained unstable COD removal varying from 38 to 70%. Ammonium concentration was gradually increased in both reactors. Increasing influent ammonium concentration to 225 mg L -1  N, the GSBR removed 73 ± 8% of COD; while COD removal of the ASBR was 59 ± 9%. The GSBR was also more efficient than the ASBR for nitrogen removal. The granular sludge could adapt to the increasing concentrations of ammonium, achieving 95 ± 7% removal efficiency at a maximum influent concentration of 465 mg L -1  N. Ammonium removal of 96 ± 5% was obtained by the ASBR when it was fed with a maximum of 217 mg L -1  NH 4 + -N. However, the ASBR was partially inhibited by free-ammonia and nitrite accumulation rate increased up to 85%. Free-nitrous acid and the low biodegradability of organic carbon were likely the main factors affecting phosphorus removal. The results from this research suggested that aerobic granular sludge have advantage over activated sludge in leachate treatment.

  3. Effects of small-volume soccer and vibration training on body composition, aerobic fitness, and muscular PCr kinetics for inactive women aged 20–45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke J. Connolly

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Short duration soccer training for 16 weeks appears to be sufficient to induce favourable changes in body composition and indicators of aerobic fitness and muscle oxidative capacity in untrained premenopausal women.

  4. High-capacity neutron activation analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochel, R.C.; Bowman, W.W.; Zeh, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    A high-capacity neutron activation analysis facility, the Reactor Activation Facility, was designed and built and has been in operation for about a year at one of the Savannah River Plant's production reactors. The facility determines uranium and about 19 other elements in hydrogeochemical samples collected in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, which is sponsored and funded by the United States Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office. The facility has a demonstrated average analysis rate of over 10,000 samples per month, and a peak rate of over 16,000 samples per month. Uranium is determined by cyclic activation and delayed neutron counting of the U-235 fission products; other elements are determined from gamma-ray spectra recorded in subsequent irradiation, decay, and counting steps. The method relies on the absolute activation technique and is highly automated for round-the-clock unattended operation

  5. Aerobic power, huddling and the efficiency of torpor in the South American marsupial, Dromiciops gliroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Franco

    2012-09-01

    During periods of cold, small endotherms depend on a continuous supply of food and energy to maintain euthermic body temperature (Tb, which can be challenging if food is limited. In these conditions, energy-saving strategies are critical to reduce the energetic requirements for survival. Mammals from temperate regions show a wide arrange of such strategies, including torpor and huddling. Here we provide a quantitative description of thermoregulatory capacities and energy-saving strategies in Dromiciops gliroides, a Microbiotherid marsupial inhabiting temperate rain forests. Unlike many mammals from temperate regions, preliminary studies have suggested that this species has low capacity for control and regulation of body temperature, but there is still an incomplete picture of its bioenergetics. In order to more fully understand the physiological capacities of this “living fossil”, we measured its scope of aerobic power and the interaction between huddling and torpor. Specifically, we evaluated: (1 the relation between basal (BMR and maximum metabolic rate (MMR, and (2 the role of huddling on the characteristics of torpor at different temperatures. We found that BMR and MMR were above the expected values for marsupials and the factorial aerobic scope (from CO2 was 6.0±0.45 (using CO2 and 6.2±0.23 (using O2, an unusually low value for mammals. Also, repeatability of physiological variables was non-significant, as in previous studies, suggesting poor time-consistency of energy metabolism. Comparisons of energy expenditure and body temperature (using attached data-loggers between grouped and isolated individuals showed that at 20°C both average resting metabolic rate and body temperature were higher in groups, essentially because animals remained non-torpid. At 10°C, however, all individuals became torpid and no differences were observed between grouped and isolated individuals. In summary, our study suggests that the main response of Dromiciops gliroides to

  6. Summary report on the aerobic degradation of diesel fuel and the degradation of toluene under aerobic, denitrifying and sulfate reducing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyne, P.; Smith, G.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a number of studies that were performed to better understand the technology of the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Topics of investigation include the following: diesel fuel degradation by Rhodococcus erythropolis; BTEX degradation by soil isolates; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-respirometry; aerobic degradation of diesel fuel-shake culture; aerobic toluene degradation by A3; effect of HEPES, B1, and myo-inositol addition on the growth of A3; aerobic and anaerobic toluene degradation by contaminated soils; denitrifying bacteria MPNs; sulfate-reducing bacteria MPNs; and aerobic, DNB and SRB enrichments

  7. Aerobic exercise training rescues cardiac protein quality control and blunts endoplasmic reticulum stress in heart failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozi, Luiz H M; Jannig, Paulo R; Rolim, Natale; Voltarelli, Vanessa A; Dourado, Paulo M M; Wisløff, Ulrik; Brum, Patricia C

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through accumulation of misfolded proteins plays a pivotal role in cardiovascular diseases. In an attempt to reestablish ER homoeostasis, the unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated. However, if ER stress persists, sustained UPR activation leads to apoptosis. There is no available therapy for ER stress relief. Considering that aerobic exercise training (AET) attenuates oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and calcium imbalance, it may be a potential strategy to reestablish cardiac ER homoeostasis. We test the hypothesis that AET would attenuate impaired cardiac ER stress after myocardial infarction (MI). Wistar rats underwent to either MI or sham surgeries. Four weeks later, rats underwent to 8 weeks of moderate-intensity AET. Myocardial infarction rats displayed cardiac dysfunction and lung oedema, suggesting heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction in MI rats was paralleled by increased protein levels of UPR markers (GRP78, DERLIN-1 and CHOP), accumulation of misfolded and polyubiquitinated proteins, and reduced chymotrypsin-like proteasome activity. These results suggest an impaired cardiac protein quality control. Aerobic exercise training improved exercise capacity and cardiac function of MI animals. Interestingly, AET blunted MI-induced ER stress by reducing protein levels of UPR markers, and accumulation of both misfolded and polyubiquinated proteins, which was associated with restored proteasome activity. Taken together, our study provide evidence for AET attenuation of ER stress through the reestablishment of cardiac protein quality control, which contributes to better cardiac function in post-MI heart failure rats. These results reinforce the importance of AET as primary non-pharmacological therapy to cardiovascular disease. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  8. Assessment of physical activity, energy expenditure and energy intakes of young men practicing aerobic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierniuk, Alicja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Adequate nutrition and energy intake play key rule during the training period and recovery time. The assessment of athlete's energetic needs should be calculated individually, based on personal energy expenditure and Sense Wear PRO3 Armband (SWA) mobile monitor is a useful tool to achieve this goal. However, there is still few studies conducted with use of this monitor. To assess individual energy needs of athletes by use of SWA and to determine whether their energy intake fulfils the body's energy expenditure. Subjects were 15 male students attending Military University of Technology in Warsaw, aged 19-24 years, practicing aerobic. The average body mass was 80.7 ± 7.7 kg and average height was 186.9 ± 5.2 cm, (BMI 23.09 ± 1.85 kg/m2). Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure (TEE) was established using SWA, which was placed on the back side of dominant hand and worn continuously for 48 hours (during the training and non-training day). The presented results are the average values of these 2 days. Assessment of athletes' physical activity level was established by use of metabolic equivalent of task (MET) and number of steps (NS). Estimation of energy intake was based on three-day dietary recalls (two weekdays and one day of the weekend), evaluated using the Polish Software 'Energia' package. The average TEE of examined athletes was 3877 ± 508 kcal/day and almost half of this energy was spend on physical activity (1898 ± 634 kcal/day). The number of steps was on average 19498 ± 5407 and average MET was 2.05 ± 2.09. The average daily energy intake was 2727 ± 576 kcal. Athletes consumed inadequate amount of energy in comparison to their energy expenditure. Examined group did not have an adequate knowledge about their energy requirement, which shows the need of nutritional consulting and education among these athletes. athletes, aerobic sports, energy expenditure, energy intake.

  9. Aerobic granular SBR systems applied to the treatment of industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, V. del; Figueroa, M.; Arrojo, B.; Mosquera-Corral, A.; Campos, J. L.; Garcia-Torriello, G.; Mendez, R.

    2009-01-01

    Systems based on aerobic granular biomass are an alternative to the conventional activated sludge plants for wastewater treatment. Large organic and nitrogen loads are treated in these systems where biomass grown as granules, easy to separate by setting, make unnecessary the construction of secondary settler reducing the surface requirements for the treatment system construction. Furthermore, in aerobic granular reactors simultaneously carbon and nitrogen removal is feasible. These systems have been already applied at laboratory scale for the treatment of different types of industrial and urban wastewater. (Author)

  10. Aerobic granular SBR systems applied to the treatment of industrial effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, V. del; Figueroa, M.; Arrojo, B.; Mosquera-Corral, A.; Campos, J. L.; Garcia-Torriello, G.; Mendez, R.

    2009-07-01

    Systems based on aerobic granular biomass are an alternative to the conventional activated sludge plants for wastewater treatment. Large organic and nitrogen loads are treated in these systems where biomass grown as granules, easy to separate by setting, make unnecessary the construction of secondary settler reducing the surface requirements for the treatment system construction. Furthermore, in aerobic granular reactors simultaneously carbon and nitrogen removal is feasible. These systems have been already applied at laboratory scale for the treatment of different types of industrial and urban wastewater. (Author)

  11. Health benefits of aerobic training programs in adults aged 70 and over: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Walid; Vogel, Thomas; Schmitt, Elise; Kaltenbach, Georges; Geny, Bernard; Lang, Pierre Olivier

    Aging is intrinsically associated with a progressive decline in muscle strength and mass, and aerobic capacity. This contributes to reduced mobility and impaired quality of life (QoL) among seniors. Regular physical activity, and more particularly aerobic training (AT), has demonstrated benefits on adults' health. The aim of this review was to assess the current level of evidence regarding the health benefits of AT in the population aged 70 years and over. A comprehensive, systematic database search for manuscripts was performed. Two reviewers independently assessed interventional studies for potential inclusion. Cardiovascular, metabolic, functional, cognitive, and QoL outcomes were targeted. Fifty-three studies were included totalling 2051 seniors aged 70 years and over. Studies selected were divided into 5 categories according to their main outcomes: cardiovascular function (34 studies), metabolic outcomes (26 studies), functional fitness (19 studies), cognitive functions (8 studies), and QoL (3 studies). With a good level of evidence but a wide heterogeneity between study designs, a significant and beneficial effect of AT was measured on the 5 outcomes. For QoL results showed a significant but slighter improvement. This systematic review highlights the benefits of AT on seniors' health outcome such as cardiovascular, functional, metabolic, cognitive, and QoL outcomes although the optimal program remains unclear. When more studies regarding this specific population are needed to determine the most favourable exercise program, clinicians should nevertheless encourage older adults over 70 to participate in AT programs to favour active and healthy ageing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Moderately haloalkaliphilic aerobic methylobacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotsenko, Iu A; Doronina, N V; Li, Ts D; Reshetnikov, A S

    2007-01-01

    Aerobic methylobacteria utilizing oxidized and substituted methane derivatives as carbon and energy sources are widespread in nature and involved in the global carbon cycle, being a unique biofilter on the path of these C1 compounds from different ecosystems to the atmosphere. New data on the biological features of moderately halophilic, neutrophilic, and alkaliphilic methylobacteria isolated from biotopes with higher osmolarity (seas, saline and soda lakes, saline soils, and deteriorating marble) are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the latest advances in the study of the mechanisms of osmoadaptation of aerobic moderately haloalkaliphilic methylobacteria: formation of osmolytes, in particular, molecular and genetic aspects of biosynthesis of the universal bioprotectant ectoine. The prospects for further studies of the physiological and biochemical principles of haloalkalophily and for the application of haloalkaliphilic aerobic methylobacteria in biosynthesis and biodegradation are discussed.

  13. RELATION BETWEEN THE PHYSICAL WORKING CAPACITY (PWC170 AND STATIC RELATIVE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Elezi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the relationship within the segments, and establish the correlation between the functional and motor areas may be important for programming load both in education and in sports and recreation. For this reason we set goals and work this year. The main objective of this research is to determine association and motor characteristics impact on functional ability (physical work capacity. The sample is defined as a sample of 263 respondents drawn from the population of secondary schools: Gymnasium Zenel Hajdini; Marin Barleti and Mehmet Isai in city of Gjilan. Nine tests were used to estimate motoric capabilities and a test of functional capacity of aerobic-type (physical work capacity. To determine the relation between the predictor (motor variables and criterion variables (physical working capacity - PWC170 it is prepared the regression analysis of the manifest space. Analyses were made to the program SPSS 12.0 for Windows. The connection of the entire system of variables static relative strength with a score of Physics working capacity (PWC170 on a bicycle ergo meter as aerobic type variable explains the coefficient of multiple correlations, which is RO 0.394. Regression analysis indicates that the better results on a bicycle ergo meter will have respondents who score better in tests of static relative strength of the leg (at the test isometric muscle contraction quadriceps thighs and static tests of the relative strength of arm and shoulder area (at the test of isometric contraction triceps muscle circumference.

  14. The effects of a 16-week aerobic exercise programme on cognitive function in people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Adam; Zaporojan, Lilia; McNamara, Patricia; Doherty, Colin P; Redmond, Janice; Forde, Cuisle; Gormley, John; Egaña, Mikel; Bergin, Colm

    2017-06-01

    High levels of cardiovascular fitness and physical activity are associated with higher levels of cognitive function in people with HIV, thus, they may reduce the risk of developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 16-week aerobic exercise intervention on cognitive function in people with HIV. Eleven participants living with HIV were recruited into the study. Participants were randomised into either an exercise group (n = 5), that completed a 16-week aerobic exercise programme training, 3 times per week (2 supervised sessions and one unsupervised session) or a control group (n = 6) that received no intervention. Outcomes measured included cognitive function (Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA) and the Trail making tests A and B), aerobic fitness (modified Bruce protocol), sleep quality (Pittsburgh sleep quality index; PSQI) and physical activity levels (seven-day accelerometry). At baseline, higher levels of moderate physical activity were positively correlated with higher MOCA scores and levels of aerobic fitness were negatively associated with Trail A scores (P = 0.04 and P = 0.001 respectively). However, exercise training did not induce any significant improvements in cognitive function or aerobic fitness. The overall mean adherence rate to the exercise programme was 60%. In conclusion, in the present study a 16-week aerobic exercise intervention did not affect the cognitive function of participants with HIV. It is likely that longer intervention periods and/or higher adherence rates to exercise might be needed for an aerobic exercise programme to be effective in improving cognitive function in a cohort with no baseline cognitive impairments.

  15. The order of exercise during concurrent training for rehabilitation does not alter acute genetic expression, mitochondrial enzyme activity or improvements in muscle function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren G MacNeil

    Full Text Available Concurrent exercise combines different modes of exercise (e.g., aerobic and resistance into one training protocol, providing stimuli meant to increase muscle strength, aerobic capacity and mass. As disuse is associated with decrements in strength, aerobic capacity and muscle size concurrent training is an attractive modality for rehabilitation. However, interference between the signaling pathways may result in preferential improvements for one of the exercise modes. We recruited 18 young adults (10 ♂, 8 ♀ to determine if order of exercise mode during concurrent training would differentially affect gene expression, protein content and measures of strength and aerobic capacity after 2 weeks of knee-brace induced disuse. Concurrent exercise sessions were performed 3x/week for 6 weeks at gradually increasing intensities either with endurance exercise preceding (END>RES or following (RES>END resistance exercise. Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis before, 3 h after the first exercise bout and 48 h after the end of training. Concurrent exercise altered the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α, PRC, PPARγ, hypertrophy (PGC-1α4, REDD2, Rheb and atrophy (MuRF-1, Runx1, increased electron transport chain complex protein content, citrate synthase and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase enzyme activity, muscle mass, maximum isometric strength and VO 2peak. However, the order in which exercise was completed (END>RES or RES>END only affected the protein content of mitochondrial complex II subunit. In conclusion, concurrent exercise training is an effective modality for the rehabilitation of the loss of skeletal muscle mass, maximum strength, and peak aerobic capacity resulting from disuse, regardless of the order in which the modes of exercise are performed.

  16. Systemic oxidative-nitrosative-inflammatory stress during acute exercise in hypoxia; implications for microvascular oxygenation and aerobic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodside, John D S; Gutowski, Mariusz; Fall, Lewis; James, Philip E; McEneny, Jane; Young, Ian S; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Bailey, Damian M

    2014-12-01

    Exercise performance in hypoxia may be limited by a critical reduction in cerebral and skeletal tissue oxygenation, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We examined whether increased systemic free radical accumulation during hypoxia would be associated with elevated microvascular deoxygenation and reduced maximal aerobic capacity (V̇O2 max ). Eleven healthy men were randomly assigned single-blind to an incremental semi-recumbent cycling test to determine V̇O2 max in both normoxia (21% O2) and hypoxia (12% O2) separated by a week. Continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy was employed to monitor concentration changes in oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin in the left vastus lateralis muscle and frontal cerebral cortex. Antecubital venous blood samples were obtained at rest and at V̇O2 max to determine oxidative (ascorbate radical by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy), nitrosative (nitric oxide metabolites by ozone-based chemiluminescence and 3-nitrotyrosine by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and inflammatory stress biomarkers (soluble intercellular/vascular cell adhesion 1 molecules by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Hypoxia was associated with increased cerebral and muscle tissue deoxygenation and lower V̇O2 max (P exercise-induced increase in oxidative-nitrosative-inflammatory stress, hypoxia per se did not have an additive effect (P > 0.05 versus normoxia). Consequently, we failed to observe correlations between any metabolic, haemodynamic and cardiorespiratory parameters (P > 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggest that altered free radical metabolism cannot explain the elevated microvascular deoxygenation and corresponding lower V̇O2 max in hypoxia. Further research is required to determine whether free radicals when present in excess do indeed contribute to the premature termination of exercise in hypoxia. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  17. Aerobic Games and Playful exercises in 9-YearOld Boys: Intensity and Fitness Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar E Mathisen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on exercise for pre-adolescents with the purpose of improving aerobic fitness levels has yielded contradictory results. Sufficient training intensity, frequency and duration are the crucial factors in achieving this goal; the question, however, is whether it is possible to reach sufficient intensity levels using aerobic games and playful exercises. Variety and fun are the important factors in motivating children to participate in physical exercises and sports. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of high intensity exercises in pre-adolescent boys, using programs consisting of fun activities and aerobic games. The findings show that the participants achieved intensity levels above 80 % of HRpeak on average in about 60 % of the total exercise time, resulting in significantly improved aerobic fitness.

  18. The influence of aerobic sludge retention time on anaerobic co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABR) and aerobic plug flow reactor (PFR) were operated aiming to minimize excess sludge output of the activated sludge process through coupled alkaline hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion. Variations in the effluent total chemical oxygen ...

  19. The Effect of Being Aerobically Active vs. Inactive on Cutaneous Vascular Conductance during Local Heat Stress in an Older Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike H. Mitchell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the hypothesis that long- term aerobically trained elderly individuals have a greater amount of bioavailable nitric oxide (NO and have a larger cutaneous vasodilation during local heat stress compared to their inactive elderly counterparts.Methods: Eight aerobically trained and 8 inactive older men (>60 years old participated in this study. NO bioavailability in blood and intradermal dialysate were measured with an ozone based chemiluminescence NO analyzer. Cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating was obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry.Results: Whole blood NO were similar in older- trained and inactive subjects (0.75 ± 0.56 and 0.38 ± 0.32 μM, respectively; Mann–Whitney, p = 0.153, as was intradermal dialysate NO before (7.82 ± 6.32 and 4.18 ± 1.89 μM, respectively and after local heating (7.16 ± 6.27 and 5.88 ± 3.97 μM, respectively, p = 0.354. The cutaneous vasodilator response of the older- inactive group was smaller than the older- trained group [Group-Time interaction, F(24, 264 = 12.0, p < 0.0001]. When compared to a young group the peak vasodilator response of the older- trained subjects was similar. However, the time to initial dilation was 3.1 and 2.2 times longer (p < 0.05 in older- inactive and older- trained subjects, respectively, compared to young subjects.Conclusions: Our data support the hypothesis that the age-related reductions in cutaneous vasodilation can possibly be restored by maintaining an aerobic training regimen (at least 3 years. However, some residual effects of aging remain, specifically a delayed cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating is still present in active older adults. We found no evidence for an increase in systemic or local NO-bioavailability with an extended commitment to aerobic fitness.

  20. The Effect of Being Aerobically Active vs. Inactive on Cutaneous Vascular Conductance during Local Heat Stress in an Older Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ulrike H; Burton, Samantha; Gordon, Christopher; Mack, Gary W

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that long- term aerobically trained elderly individuals have a greater amount of bioavailable nitric oxide (NO) and have a larger cutaneous vasodilation during local heat stress compared to their inactive elderly counterparts. Methods: Eight aerobically trained and 8 inactive older men (>60 years old) participated in this study. NO bioavailability in blood and intradermal dialysate were measured with an ozone based chemiluminescence NO analyzer. Cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating was obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry. Results: Whole blood NO were similar in older- trained and inactive subjects (0.75 ± 0.56 and 0.38 ± 0.32 μM, respectively; Mann-Whitney, p = 0.153), as was intradermal dialysate NO before (7.82 ± 6.32 and 4.18 ± 1.89 μM, respectively) and after local heating (7.16 ± 6.27 and 5.88 ± 3.97 μM, respectively, p = 0.354). The cutaneous vasodilator response of the older- inactive group was smaller than the older- trained group [Group-Time interaction, F (24, 264) = 12.0, p < 0.0001]. When compared to a young group the peak vasodilator response of the older- trained subjects was similar. However, the time to initial dilation was 3.1 and 2.2 times longer ( p < 0.05) in older- inactive and older- trained subjects, respectively, compared to young subjects. Conclusions: Our data support the hypothesis that the age-related reductions in cutaneous vasodilation can possibly be restored by maintaining an aerobic training regimen (at least 3 years). However, some residual effects of aging remain, specifically a delayed cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating is still present in active older adults. We found no evidence for an increase in systemic or local NO-bioavailability with an extended commitment to aerobic fit