Sample records for activities including modelling

  1. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar


    Full Text Available Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to exert potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of these particles, and overlook interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic. To address this gap, we developed a new parameterization that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable particles externally mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory to i find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH which yield atmospherically-relevant behavior, and, ii express activation properties (critical supersaturation that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter.

    The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2~0.98. A preliminary sensitivity study suggests that the sublinear response of droplet number to Köhler particle concentration is not as strong for FHH particles.

  2. Applying the model of goal-directed behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the theory of planned behavior




    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behaviour (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norm construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additio...

  3. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior. (United States)

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor


    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.


    ) experience with methods of protein purification; (iii) incorporation of appropriate controls into experiments; (iv) use of basic statistics in data analysis; (v) writing papers and grant proposals in accepted scientific style; (vi) peer review; (vii) oral presentation of results and proposals; and (viii) introduction to molecular modeling. Figure 1 illustrates the modular nature of the lab curriculum. Elements from each of the exercises can be separated and treated as stand-alone exercises, or combined into short or long projects. We have been able to offer the opportunity to use sophisticated molecular modeling in the final module through funding from an NSF-ILI grant. However, many of the benefits of the research proposal can be achieved with other computer programs, or even by literature survey alone. Figure 1.Design of project-based biochemistry laboratory. Modules (projects, or portions of projects) are indicated as boxes. Each of these can be treated independently, or used as part of a larger project. Solid lines indicate some suggested paths from one module to the next. The skills and knowledge required for protein purification and design are developed in three units: (i) an introduction to critical assays needed to monitor degree of purification, including an evaluation of assay parameters; (ii) partial purification by ion-exchange techniques; and (iii) preparation of a grant proposal on protein design by mutagenesis. Brief descriptions of each of these units follow, with experimental details of each project at the end of this paper. Assays for Lysozyme Activity and Protein Concentration (4 weeks) The assays mastered during the first unit are a necessary tool for determining the purity of the enzyme during the second unit on purification by ion exchange. These assays allow an introduction to the concept of specific activity (units of enzyme activity per milligram of total protein) as a measure of purity. In this first sequence, students learn a turbidimetric assay


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Tsang


    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  6. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle. (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P


    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature.

  7. On Multidimensional Linear Modelling Including Real Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Nowakova


    Full Text Available The theoretical background for abstract formalization of vague phenomenon of complex systems is fuzzy set theory. In the paper are defined vague data as specialized fuzzy sets - fuzzy numbers and there is described a fuzzy linear regression model as a fuzzy function with fuzzy numbers as vague regression parameters. To identify the fuzzy coefficients of model the genetic algorithm is used. The linear approximation of vague function together with its possibility area are analytically and graphically expressed. The suitable numerical experiments are performed namely in the task of two-dimensional fuzzy function modelling and the time series fuzzy regression analysis as well.

  8. Seepage Model for PA Including Dift Collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Li; C. Tsang


    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in

  9. Enhanced battery model including temperature effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.


    Within electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries are used to provide/buffer the energy required for driving. However, battery performance varies throughout the temperature range specific to automotive applications, and as such, models that describe this behaviour are required. This paper presents a

  10. Energy transport modelling including ergodic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McTaggart, N.; Bonnin, X.; Runov, A.; Schneider, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Zagorski, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, P.O.Box 49, Warsaw (Poland)


    The effect of ergodization (either by additional coils like in TEXTOR-DED or by intrinsic plasma effects like in W7-X) defines the need for transport models being able to describe this properly. A prerequisite for this is the concept of local magnetic coordinates allowing a correct discretization with minimized numerical errors. For these coordinates the full respective metric tensor has to be known. To study the energy transport in complex edge geometries (in particular for W7-X) we use a finite difference discretization of the transport equations on a custom-tailored grid in local magnetic coordinates. This grid is generated by field line tracing to guarantee an exact discretization of the dominant parallel transport (this also minimizes the numerical diffusion problem). The perpendicular fluxes are interpolated on cross-sectional planes (toroidal cuts), where a quasi-isotropic problem is solved by a constrained Delaunay triangulation (preserving magnetic surfaces where they exist), and discretization. All terms involving toroidal terms are discretized by finite differences. The first tests for W7X and NCSX were successfully performed. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Modeling Electric Double-Layers Including Chemical Reaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.


    for symmetric and asymmetric multi-species electrolytes and is not limited to a range of surface potentials. Numerical simulations are presented, for the case of a CaCO3 electrolyte solution in contact with a surface with rate-controlled protonation/deprotonation reactions. The surface charge and potential...... are determined by the surface reactions, and therefore they depends on the bulk solution composition and concentration......A physicochemical and numerical model for the transient formation of an electric double-layer between an electrolyte and a chemically-active flat surface is presented, based on a finite elements integration of the nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including chemical reactions. The model works...

  12. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book. (United States)

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  13. Dynamic hysteresis modeling including skin effect using diffusion equation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Souad, E-mail: [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Louai, Fatima Zohra, E-mail: [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Nait-Said, Nasreddine, E-mail: [LSP-IE: Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Benabou, Abdelkader, E-mail: [L2EP, Université de Lille1, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France)


    An improved dynamic hysteresis model is proposed for the prediction of hysteresis loop of electrical steel up to mean frequencies, taking into account the skin effect. In previous works, the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for low frequency (DELF) was coupled with the inverse static Jiles-Atherton (JA) model in order to represent the hysteresis behavior for a lamination. In the present paper, this approach is improved to ensure the reproducibility of measured hysteresis loops at mean frequency. The results of simulation are compared with the experimental ones. The selected results for frequencies 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 200 Hz and 400 Hz are presented and discussed.

  14. Including investment risk in large-scale power market models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard; Meibom, P.


    can be included in large-scale partial equilibrium models of the power market. The analyses are divided into a part about risk measures appropriate for power market investors and a more technical part about the combination of a risk-adjustment model and a partial-equilibrium model. To illustrate......Long-term energy market models can be used to examine investments in production technologies, however, with market liberalisation it is crucial that such models include investment risks and investor behaviour. This paper analyses how the effect of investment risk on production technology selection...

  15. Progressive IRP Models for Power Resources Including EPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Zhu


    Full Text Available In the view of optimizing regional power supply and demand, the paper makes effective planning scheduling of supply and demand side resources including energy efficiency power plant (EPP, to achieve the target of benefit, cost, and environmental constraints. In order to highlight the characteristics of different supply and demand resources in economic, environmental, and carbon constraints, three planning models with progressive constraints are constructed. Results of three models by the same example show that the best solutions to different models are different. The planning model including EPP has obvious advantages considering pollutant and carbon emission constraints, which confirms the advantages of low cost and emissions of EPP. The construction of progressive IRP models for power resources considering EPP has a certain reference value for guiding the planning and layout of EPP within other power resources and achieving cost and environmental objectives.

  16. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects (United States)

    Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad


    The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  17. Exclusive queueing model including the choice of service windows (United States)

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro


    In a queueing system involving multiple service windows, choice behavior is a significant concern. This paper incorporates the choice of service windows into a queueing model with a floor represented by discrete cells. We contrived a logit-based choice algorithm for agents considering the numbers of agents and the distances to all service windows. Simulations were conducted with various parameters of agent choice preference for these two elements and for different floor configurations, including the floor length and the number of service windows. We investigated the model from the viewpoint of transit times and entrance block rates. The influences of the parameters on these factors were surveyed in detail and we determined that there are optimum floor lengths that minimize the transit times. In addition, we observed that the transit times were determined almost entirely by the entrance block rates. The results of the presented model are relevant to understanding queueing systems including the choice of service windows and can be employed to optimize facility design and floor management.

  18. Wideband CMOS low noise amplifier including an active balun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaakmeer, S.C.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Leenaerts, D.M.W.; Nauta, Bram


    An inductorless LNA with active balun is proposed for multi-standard radio applications between 100MHz and 6GHz [1]. It exploits a combination of a common-gate (CG) stage and an common-source (CS) stage with replica biasing to maximize balanced operation, while simultaneously canceling the noise and

  19. Extending Primitive Spatial Data Models to Include Semantics (United States)

    Reitsma, F.; Batcheller, J.


    Our traditional geospatial data model involves associating some measurable quality, such as temperature, or observable feature, such as a tree, with a point or region in space and time. When capturing data we implicitly subscribe to some kind of conceptualisation. If we can make this explicit in an ontology and associate it with the captured data, we can leverage formal semantics to reason with the concepts represented in our spatial data sets. To do so, we extend our fundamental representation of geospatial data in a data model by including a URI in our basic data model that links it to our ontology defining our conceptualisation, We thus extend Goodchild et al's geo-atom [1] with the addition of a URI: (x, Z, z(x), URI) . This provides us with pixel or feature level knowledge and the ability to create layers of data from a set of pixels or features that might be drawn from a database based on their semantics. Using open source tools, we present a prototype that involves simple reasoning as a proof of concept. References [1] M.F. Goodchild, M. Yuan, and T.J. Cova. Towards a general theory of geographic representation in gis. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 21(3):239-260, 2007.

  20. Hydrogen production by model systems including hydrogenases from phototrophic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogotov, I.N.; Zorin, N.A.; Serebriakova, L.T. (AN SSSR, Pushchino (SU). Inst. of Soil Science and Photosynthesis)


    Hydrogenases of purple (Rhodobacter capsulatus, Thiocapsa roseopersicina) and green (Chlorobium limicola, Chloroflexus aurantiacus) bacteria catalyse the reactions of H{sub 2} evolution (uptake) and isotopic exchange in the system D{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O at a high rate (20-60 units mg{sup -1} protein; 30{sup o}C). The enzyme active center includes a proton-accepting group, an (FeS) cluster and nickel. The data proving the direct participation of nickel in H{sub 2} activation are obtained. The hydrogenases from phototrophic bacteria are characterized by a high stability to denaturing factors. Thiocapsa roseopersicina hydrogenase absorbed at the carbon electrode accelerates electrochemical H{sub 2} oxidation and evolution. Biocatalytic systems containing chloroplasts, ferredoxin and hydrogenase produce H{sub 2} at a rate up to 100{mu}mol (h mg Chl){sup -1} but exhibit low stability. Thiocapsa roseopersicina hydrogenase adsorbed on the particles of inorganic semiconductor TiO{sub 2} carries out H{sub 2} photoproduction. (author).

  1. Numerical Modeling of Electroacoustic Logging Including Joule Heating (United States)

    Plyushchenkov, Boris D.; Nikitin, Anatoly A.; Turchaninov, Victor I.

    It is well known that electromagnetic field excites acoustic wave in a porous elastic medium saturated with fluid electrolyte due to electrokinetic conversion effect. Pride's equations describing this process are written in isothermal approximation. Update of these equations, which allows to take influence of Joule heating on acoustic waves propagation into account, is proposed here. This update includes terms describing the initiation of additional acoustic waves excited by thermoelastic stresses and the heat conduction equation with right side defined by Joule heating. Results of numerical modeling of several problems of propagation of acoustic waves excited by an electric field source with and without consideration of Joule heating effect in their statements are presented. From these results, it follows that influence of Joule heating should be taken into account at the numerical simulation of electroacoustic logging and at the interpretation of its log data.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanović


    Full Text Available The research is oriented on improvement of environmental management system (EMS using BSC (Balanced Scorecard model that presents strategic model of measurem ents and improvement of organisational performance. The research will present approach of objectives and environmental management me trics involvement (proposed by literature review in conventional BSC in "Ad Barska plovi dba" organisation. Further we will test creation of ECO-BSC model based on business activities of non-profit organisations in order to improve envir onmental management system in parallel with other systems of management. Using this approach we may obtain 4 models of BSC that includ es elements of environmen tal management system for AD "Barska plovidba". Taking into acc ount that implementation and evaluation need long period of time in AD "Barska plovidba", the final choice will be based on 14598 (Information technology - Software product evaluation and ISO 9126 (Software engineering - Product quality using AHP method. Those standards are usually used for evaluation of quality software product and computer programs that serve in organisation as support and factors for development. So, AHP model will be bas ed on evolution criteria based on suggestion of ISO 9126 standards and types of evaluation from two evaluation teams. Members of team & will be experts in BSC and environmental management system that are not em ployed in AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation. The members of team 2 will be managers of AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation (including manage rs from environmental department. Merging results based on previously cr eated two AHP models, one can obtain the most appropriate BSC that includes elements of environmental management system. The chosen model will present at the same time suggestion for approach choice including ecological metrics in conventional BSC model for firm that has at least one ECO strategic orientation.

  3. Activated sludge model No. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gujer, W.; Henze, M.; Mino, T.


    The Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) can predict oxygen consumption, sludge production, nitrification and denitrification of activated sludge systems. It relates to the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) and corrects for some defects of ASM I. In addition to ASM1, ASM3 includes storage...

  4. Comparing Active Vision Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croon, G.C.H.E. de; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Postma, E.O.


    Active vision models can simplify visual tasks, provided that they can select sensible actions given incoming sensory inputs. Many active vision models have been proposed, but a comparative evaluation of these models is lacking. We present a comparison of active vision models from two different

  5. Comparing active vision models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croon, G.C.H.E. de; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Postma, E.O.


    Active vision models can simplify visual tasks, provided that they can select sensible actions given incoming sensory inputs. Many active vision models have been proposed, but a comparative evaluation of these models is lacking. We present a comparison of active vision models from two different

  6. Including spatial data in nutrient balance modelling on dairy farms (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; van Middelaar, Corina; Stoof, Cathelijne; Oenema, Jouke; Stoorvogel, Jetse; de Boer, Imke


    The Annual Nutrient Cycle Assessment (ANCA) calculates the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) balance at a dairy farm, while taking into account the subsequent nutrient cycles of the herd, manure, soil and crop components. Since January 2016, Dutch dairy farmers are required to use ANCA in order to increase understanding of nutrient flows and to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. A nutrient balance calculates the difference between nutrient inputs and outputs. Nutrients enter the farm via purchased feed, fertilizers, deposition and fixation by legumes (nitrogen), and leave the farm via milk, livestock, manure, and roughages. A positive balance indicates to which extent N and/or P are lost to the environment via gaseous emissions (N), leaching, run-off and accumulation in soil. A negative balance indicates that N and/or P are depleted from soil. ANCA was designed to calculate average nutrient flows on farm level (for the herd, manure, soil and crop components). ANCA was not designed to perform calculations of nutrient flows at the field level, as it uses averaged nutrient inputs and outputs across all fields, and it does not include field specific soil characteristics. Land management decisions, however, such as the level of N and P application, are typically taken at the field level given the specific crop and soil characteristics. Therefore the information that ANCA provides is likely not sufficient to support farmers' decisions on land management to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. This is particularly a problem when land management and soils vary between fields. For an accurate estimate of nutrient flows in a given farming system that can be used to optimize land management, the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs (and thus the effect of land management and soil variation) could be essential. Our aim was to determine the effect of the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs on modelled nutrient flows and nutrient use efficiencies

  7. Single-Phase Bundle Flows Including Macroscopic Turbulence Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Yoon, Han Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seok Jong; Cho, Hyoung Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To deal with various thermal hydraulic phenomena due to rapid change of fluid properties when an accident happens, securing mechanistic approaches as much as possible may reduce the uncertainty arising from improper applications of the experimental models. In this study, the turbulence mixing model, which is well defined in the subchannel analysis code such as VIPRE, COBRA, and MATRA by experiments, is replaced by a macroscopic k-e turbulence model, which represents the aspect of mathematical derivation. The performance of CUPID with macroscopic turbulence model is validated against several bundle experiments: CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. In this study, the macroscopic k-e model has been validated for the application to subchannel analysis. It has been implemented in the CUPID code and validated against CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. The results showed that the macroscopic k-e turbulence model can estimate the experiments properly.

  8. Global atmospheric model for mercury including oxidation by bromine atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Holmes


    Full Text Available Global models of atmospheric mercury generally assume that gas-phase OH and ozone are the main oxidants converting Hg0 to HgII and thus driving mercury deposition to ecosystems. However, thermodynamic considerations argue against the importance of these reactions. We demonstrate here the viability of atomic bromine (Br as an alternative Hg0 oxidant. We conduct a global 3-D simulation with the GEOS-Chem model assuming gas-phase Br to be the sole Hg0 oxidant (Hg + Br model and compare to the previous version of the model with OH and ozone as the sole oxidants (Hg + OH/O3 model. We specify global 3-D Br concentration fields based on our best understanding of tropospheric and stratospheric Br chemistry. In both the Hg + Br and Hg + OH/O3 models, we add an aqueous photochemical reduction of HgII in cloud to impose a tropospheric lifetime for mercury of 6.5 months against deposition, as needed to reconcile observed total gaseous mercury (TGM concentrations with current estimates of anthropogenic emissions. This added reduction would not be necessary in the Hg + Br model if we adjusted the Br oxidation kinetics downward within their range of uncertainty. We find that the Hg + Br and Hg + OH/O3 models are equally capable of reproducing the spatial distribution of TGM and its seasonal cycle at northern mid-latitudes. The Hg + Br model shows a steeper decline of TGM concentrations from the tropics to southern mid-latitudes. Only the Hg + Br model can reproduce the springtime depletion and summer rebound of TGM observed at polar sites; the snowpack component of GEOS-Chem suggests that 40% of HgII deposited to snow in the Arctic is transferred to the ocean and land reservoirs, amounting to a net deposition flux to the Arctic of 60 Mg a−1. Summertime events of depleted Hg0 at Antarctic sites due to subsidence are much better simulated by

  9. NASA Trapezoidal Wing Computations Including Transition and Advanced Turbulence Modeling (United States)

    Rumsey, C. L.; Lee-Rausch, E. M.


    Flow about the NASA Trapezoidal Wing is computed with several turbulence models by using grids from the first High Lift Prediction Workshop in an effort to advance understanding of computational fluid dynamics modeling for this type of flowfield. Transition is accounted for in many of the computations. In particular, a recently-developed 4-equation transition model is utilized and works well overall. Accounting for transition tends to increase lift and decrease moment, which improves the agreement with experiment. Upper surface flap separation is reduced, and agreement with experimental surface pressures and velocity profiles is improved. The predicted shape of wakes from upstream elements is strongly influenced by grid resolution in regions above the main and flap elements. Turbulence model enhancements to account for rotation and curvature have the general effect of increasing lift and improving the resolution of the wing tip vortex as it convects downstream. However, none of the models improve the prediction of surface pressures near the wing tip, where more grid resolution is needed.

  10. Identifying Clusters with Mixture Models that Include Radial Velocity Observations (United States)

    Czarnatowicz, Alexis; Ybarra, Jason E.


    The study of stellar clusters plays an integral role in the study of star formation. We present a cluster mixture model that considers radial velocity data in addition to spatial data. Maximum likelihood estimation through the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is used for parameter estimation. Our mixture model analysis can be used to distinguish adjacent or overlapping clusters, and estimate properties for each cluster.Work supported by awards from the Virginia Foundation for Independent Colleges (VFIC) Undergraduate Science Research Fellowship and The Research Experience @Bridgewater (TREB).

  11. Unsteady panel method for complex configurations including wake modeling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H


    Full Text Available The calculation of unsteady air loads is an essential step in any aeroelastic analysis. The subsonic doublet lattice method (DLM) is used extensively for this purpose due to its simplicity and reliability. The body models available with the popular...

  12. Including lateral interactions into microkinetic models of catalytic reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellman, Anders; Honkala, Johanna Karoliina


    In many catalytic reactions lateral interactions between adsorbates are believed to have a strong influence on the reaction rates. We apply a microkinetic model to explore the effect of lateral interactions and how to efficiently take them into account in a simple catalytic reaction. Three...

  13. Aircrew Availability: Modeling Predictors of Duties Not Including Flying Status (United States)


    were used, with 22 additional levels for Department of Defense (DoD) specific categories, such as “ Medication Education,” “Armed Forces Health Exam...and “Travel Medication Education,” for a total of 389 levels. 3 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release. Distribution is...interpretation of the latter (e.g., standard errors , p-values, etc.). Separating variable selection and model building ensured that the reported standard

  14. Comparison of Joint Modeling Approaches Including Eulerian Sliding Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomov, I; Antoun, T; Vorobiev, O


    Accurate representation of discontinuities such as joints and faults is a key ingredient for high fidelity modeling of shock propagation in geologic media. The following study was done to improve treatment of discontinuities (joints) in the Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN (Lomov and Liu 2005). Lagrangian methods with conforming meshes and explicit inclusion of joints in the geologic model are well suited for such an analysis. Unfortunately, current meshing tools are unable to automatically generate adequate hexahedral meshes for large numbers of irregular polyhedra. Another concern is that joint stiffness in such explicit computations requires significantly reduced time steps, with negative implications for both the efficiency and quality of the numerical solution. An alternative approach is to use non-conforming meshes and embed joint information into regular computational elements. However, once slip displacement on the joints become comparable to the zone size, Lagrangian (even non-conforming) meshes could suffer from tangling and decreased time step problems. The use of non-conforming meshes in an Eulerian solver may alleviate these difficulties and provide a viable numerical approach for modeling the effects of faults on the dynamic response of geologic materials. We studied shock propagation in jointed/faulted media using a Lagrangian and two Eulerian approaches. To investigate the accuracy of this joint treatment the GEODYN calculations have been compared with results from the Lagrangian code GEODYN-L which uses an explicit treatment of joints via common plane contact. We explore two approaches to joint treatment in the code, one for joints with finite thickness and the other for tight joints. In all cases the sliding interfaces are tracked explicitly without homogenization or blending the joint and block response into an average response. In general, rock joints will introduce an increase in normal compliance in addition to a reduction in shear strength. In the

  15. Double pendulum model for tennis stroke including a collision process

    CERN Document Server

    Youn, Sun-Hyun


    By means of adding a collision process between the ball and racket in double pendulum model, we analyzed the tennis stroke. It is possible that the speed of the rebound ball does not simply depend on the angular velocity of the racket, and higher angular velocity sometimes gives lower ball speed. We numerically showed that the proper time lagged racket rotation increases the speed of the rebound ball by 20%. We also showed that the elbow should move in order to add the angular velocity of the racket.

  16. Modelling of Dual-Junction Solar Cells including Tunnel Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz Amine


    Full Text Available Monolithically stacked multijunction solar cells based on III–V semiconductors materials are the state-of-art of approach for high efficiency photovoltaic energy conversion, in particular for space applications. The individual subcells of the multi-junction structure are interconnected via tunnel diodes which must be optically transparent and connect the component cells with a minimum electrical resistance. The quality of these diodes determines the output performance of the solar cell. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the investigation of the tunnel electrical resistance of such a multi-junction cell through the analysis of the current-voltage (J-V characteristics under illumination. Our approach is based on an equivalent circuit model of a diode for each subcell. We examine the effect of tunnel resistance on the performance of a multi-junction cell using minimization of the least squares technique.

  17. Active registration models (United States)

    Marstal, Kasper; Klein, Stefan


    We present the Active Registration Model (ARM) that couples medical image registration with regularization using a statistical model of intensity. Inspired by Active Appearance Models (AAMs), the statistical model is embedded in the registration procedure as a regularization term that penalize differences between a target image and a synthesized model reconstruction of that image. We demonstrate that the method generalizes AAMs to 3D images, many different transformation models, and many different gradient descent optimization methods. The method is validated on magnetic resonance images of human brains.

  18. Active seat suspension for a small vehicle: considerations for control system including observer (United States)

    Katsumata, Hiroyuki; Shiino, Hiroshi; Oshinoya, Yasuo; Ishibashi, Kazuhisa; Ozaki, Koichi; Ogino, Hirohiko


    We have examined the improvement of ride quality and the reduction of riding fatigue brought about by the active control of the seat suspension of small vehicles such as one-seater electric automobiles. A small active seat suspension, which is easy to install, was designed and manufactured for one-seater electric automobiles. For the actuator, a maintenance-free voice coil motor used as a direct drive was adopted. For fundamental considerations, we designed a one-degree-of-freedom model for the active seat suspension system. Then, we designed a disturbance cancellation control system that includes the observer for a two-degree-of-freedom model. In an actual driving test, a test road, in which the concavity and convexity of an actual road surface were simulated using hard rubber, was prepared and the control performance of vertical vibrations of the seat surface during driving was examined. As a result, in comparison with the one-degree-of-freedom control system, it was confirmed that the control performance was improved by the two-degree-of-freedom control system that includes the observer.

  19. A structural model for the in vivo human cornea including collagen-swelling interaction (United States)

    Cheng, Xi; Petsche, Steven J.; Pinsky, Peter M.


    A structural model of the in vivo cornea, which accounts for tissue swelling behaviour, for the three-dimensional organization of stromal fibres and for collagen-swelling interaction, is proposed. Modelled as a binary electrolyte gel in thermodynamic equilibrium, the stromal electrostatic free energy is based on the mean-field approximation. To account for active endothelial ionic transport in the in vivo cornea, which modulates osmotic pressure and hydration, stromal mobile ions are shown to satisfy a modified Boltzmann distribution. The elasticity of the stromal collagen network is modelled based on three-dimensional collagen orientation probability distributions for every point in the stroma obtained by synthesizing X-ray diffraction data for azimuthal angle distributions and second harmonic-generated image processing for inclination angle distributions. The model is implemented in a finite-element framework and employed to predict free and confined swelling of stroma in an ionic bath. For the in vivo cornea, the model is used to predict corneal swelling due to increasing intraocular pressure (IOP) and is adapted to model swelling in Fuchs' corneal dystrophy. The biomechanical response of the in vivo cornea to a typical LASIK surgery for myopia is analysed, including tissue fluid pressure and swelling responses. The model provides a new interpretation of the corneal active hydration control (pump-leak) mechanism based on osmotic pressure modulation. The results also illustrate the structural necessity of fibre inclination in stabilizing the corneal refractive surface with respect to changes in tissue hydration and IOP. PMID:26156299

  20. Including hydrological self-regulating processes in peatland models: Effects on peatmoss drought projections. (United States)

    Nijp, Jelmer J; Metselaar, Klaas; Limpens, Juul; Teutschbein, Claudia; Peichl, Matthias; Nilsson, Mats B; Berendse, Frank; van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M


    The water content of the topsoil is one of the key factors controlling biogeochemical processes, greenhouse gas emissions and biosphere - atmosphere interactions in many ecosystems, particularly in northern peatlands. In these wetland ecosystems, the water content of the photosynthetic active peatmoss layer is crucial for ecosystem functioning and carbon sequestration, and is sensitive to future shifts in rainfall and drought characteristics. Current peatland models differ in the degree in which hydrological feedbacks are included, but how this affects peatmoss drought projections is unknown. The aim of this paper was to systematically test whether the level of hydrological detail in models could bias projections of water content and drought stress for peatmoss in northern peatlands using downscaled projections for rainfall and potential evapotranspiration in the current (1991-2020) and future climate (2061-2090). We considered four model variants that either include or exclude moss (rain)water storage and peat volume change, as these are two central processes in the hydrological self-regulation of peatmoss carpets. Model performance was validated using field data of a peatland in northern Sweden. Including moss water storage as well as peat volume change resulted in a significant improvement of model performance, despite the extra parameters added. The best performance was achieved if both processes were included. Including moss water storage and peat volume change consistently reduced projected peatmoss drought frequency with >50%, relative to the model excluding both processes. Projected peatmoss drought frequency in the growing season was 17% smaller under future climate than current climate, but was unaffected by including the hydrological self-regulating processes. Our results suggest that ignoring these two fine-scale processes important in hydrological self-regulation of northern peatlands will have large consequences for projected climate change impact on

  1. A structural model for the in vivo human cornea including collagen-swelling interaction. (United States)

    Cheng, Xi; Petsche, Steven J; Pinsky, Peter M


    A structural model of the in vivo cornea, which accounts for tissue swelling behaviour, for the three-dimensional organization of stromal fibres and for collagen-swelling interaction, is proposed. Modelled as a binary electrolyte gel in thermodynamic equilibrium, the stromal electrostatic free energy is based on the mean-field approximation. To account for active endothelial ionic transport in the in vivo cornea, which modulates osmotic pressure and hydration, stromal mobile ions are shown to satisfy a modified Boltzmann distribution. The elasticity of the stromal collagen network is modelled based on three-dimensional collagen orientation probability distributions for every point in the stroma obtained by synthesizing X-ray diffraction data for azimuthal angle distributions and second harmonic-generated image processing for inclination angle distributions. The model is implemented in a finite-element framework and employed to predict free and confined swelling of stroma in an ionic bath. For the in vivo cornea, the model is used to predict corneal swelling due to increasing intraocular pressure (IOP) and is adapted to model swelling in Fuchs' corneal dystrophy. The biomechanical response of the in vivo cornea to a typical LASIK surgery for myopia is analysed, including tissue fluid pressure and swelling responses. The model provides a new interpretation of the corneal active hydration control (pump-leak) mechanism based on osmotic pressure modulation. The results also illustrate the structural necessity of fibre inclination in stabilizing the corneal refractive surface with respect to changes in tissue hydration and IOP. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. MARR: active vision model (United States)

    Podladchikova, Lubov N.; Gusakova, Valentina I.; Shaposhnikov, Dmitry G.; Faure, Alain; Golovan, Alexander V.; Shevtsova, Natalia A.


    Earlier, the biologically plausible active vision, model for multiresolutional attentional representation and recognition (MARR) has been developed. The model is based on the scanpath theory of Noton and Stark and provides invariant recognition of gray-level images. In the present paper, the algorithm of automatic image viewing trajectory formation in the MARR model, the results of psychophysical experiments, and possible applications of the model are considered. Algorithm of automatic image viewing trajectory formation is based on imitation of the scanpath formed by operator. Several propositions about possible mechanisms for a consecutive selection of fixation points in human visual perception inspired by computer simulation results and known psychophysical data have been tested and confirmed in our psychophysical experiments. In particular, we have found that gaze switch may be directed (1) to a peripheral part of the vision field which contains an edge oriented orthogonally to the edge in the point of fixation, and (2) to a peripheral part of the vision field containing crossing edges. Our experimental results have been used to optimize automatic algorithm of image viewing in the MARR model. The modified model demonstrates an ability to recognize complex real world images invariantly with respect to scale, shift, rotation, illumination conditions, and, in part, to point of view and can be used to solve some robot vision tasks.

  3. Particle-based modeling of heterogeneous chemical kinetics including mass transfer (United States)

    Sengar, A.; Kuipers, J. A. M.; van Santen, Rutger A.; Padding, J. T.


    Connecting the macroscopic world of continuous fields to the microscopic world of discrete molecular events is important for understanding several phenomena occurring at physical boundaries of systems. An important example is heterogeneous catalysis, where reactions take place at active surfaces, but the effective reaction rates are determined by transport limitations in the bulk fluid and reaction limitations on the catalyst surface. In this work we study the macro-micro connection in a model heterogeneous catalytic reactor by means of stochastic rotation dynamics. The model is able to resolve the convective and diffusive interplay between participating species, while including adsorption, desorption, and reaction processes on the catalytic surface. Here we apply the simulation methodology to a simple straight microchannel with a catalytic strip. Dimensionless Damkohler numbers are used to comment on the spatial concentration profiles of reactants and products near the catalyst strip and in the bulk. We end the discussion with an outlook on more complicated geometries and increasingly complex reactions.

  4. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising. (United States)


    ... advertising space or time including, but not limited to, newspapers, magazines, radio, television, transit and... advertising. 981.441 Section 981.441 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her...

  5. Event-Based Activity Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars


    We present and discuss a modeling approach that supports event-based modeling of information and activity in information systems. Interacting human actors and IT-actors may carry out such activity. We use events to create meaningful relations between information structures and the related...... activities inside and outside an IT-system. We use event-activity diagrams to model activity. Such diagrams support the modeling of activity flow, object flow, shared events, triggering events, and interrupting events....

  6. Including students with moderate and severe intellectual disabilities in school extracurricular and community recreation activities. (United States)

    Kleinert, Harold L; Miracle, Sally; Sheppard-Jones, Kathy


    We conducted an online statewide survey of teachers of students with moderate and severe intellectual disabilities to determine the extent to which their students were included in school extracurricular and community recreation activities. For the 252 teacher respondents who indicated that their primary caseload consisted of students with significant intellectual disabilities, we report the numbers of students participating in school and community activities and the primary type of support students required to participate in each activity. Finally, we identify implications for practitioners who want to increase the participation of students with significant disabilities in school and community activities.

  7. Physical activity before school, including active commuting to school: associations with cognition and academic achievement in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Martin; De Groot, Renate; Van Acker, Frederik; Savelberg, Hans; Kirschner, Paul A.


    Van Dijk, M. L., De Groot, R. H. M., Van Acker, F. H. M., Savelberg, H. C. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 25 May). Physical activity before school, including active commuting to school: associations with cognition and academic achievement in adolescents. Poster presentation at the ISBNPA conference

  8. 76 FR 10385 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related Forms That Will be Included in... (United States)


    ... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related Forms That Will be Included in... Legislation Office, DHS will submit the following information collection request (ICR) to the Office of... to correct the cost from $236,253.00 to zero. DATES: Comments are encouraged and will be accepted...

  9. Implementation of the Project "Including Disabled Senior Citizens in Creative Activities in 2013-2015" (United States)

    Ploch, Leszek


    This paper made an attempt to indicate the findings of the author's research from the experiences of the implementation of the project "Including disabled senior citizens in creative activities in 2013-2015". The issues of disabled senior citizens have been an object of interest over the recent years though it still has not had a proper…

  10. Oriented active shape models. (United States)

    Liu, Jiamin; Udupa, Jayaram K


    Active shape models (ASM) are widely employed for recognizing anatomic structures and for delineating them in medical images. In this paper, a novel strategy called oriented active shape models (OASM) is presented in an attempt to overcome the following five limitations of ASM: 1) lower delineation accuracy, 2) the requirement of a large number of landmarks, 3) sensitivity to search range, 4) sensitivity to initialization, and 5) inability to fully exploit the specific information present in the given image to be segmented. OASM effectively combines the rich statistical shape information embodied in ASM with the boundary orientedness property and the globally optimal delineation capability of the live wire methodology of boundary segmentation. The latter characteristics allow live wire to effectively separate an object boundary from other nonobject boundaries with similar properties especially when they come very close in the image domain. The approach leads to a two-level dynamic programming method, wherein the first level corresponds to boundary recognition and the second level corresponds to boundary delineation, and to an effective automatic initialization method. The method outputs a globally optimal boundary that agrees with the shape model if the recognition step is successful in bringing the model close to the boundary in the image. Extensive evaluation experiments have been conducted by utilizing 40 image (magnetic resonance and computed tomography) data sets in each of five different application areas for segmenting breast, liver, bones of the foot, and cervical vertebrae of the spine. Comparisons are made between OASM and ASM based on precision, accuracy, and efficiency of segmentation. Accuracy is assessed using both region-based false positive and false negative measures and boundary-based distance measures. The results indicate the following: 1) The accuracy of segmentation via OASM is considerably better than that of ASM; 2) The number of landmarks

  11. Triple Active Antiretroviral Regimen Including Enfuvirtide Via the Biojector is Effective and Safe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Loutfy


    Full Text Available For full HIV virological suppression, three fully active antiretroviral agents are required. New drug classes should be included to ensure that agents are fully active. The addition of enfuvirtide and efavirenz to the present patient’s new antiretroviral regimen ensured that two fully active agents were in use in the setting of a moderate degree of nucleoside resistance and a high level of protease resistance, and where non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were still fully active. Both viral load and CD4 count responded favourably to this regimen. The patient received support from physicians and clinic staff in the introduction and use of enfuvirtide. To reduce injection site reactions, a needle-free injection system (Biojector proved effective.

  12. ATEFlap aerodynamic model, a dynamic stall model including the effects of trailing edge flap deflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergami, L.; Gaunaa, M.


    The report presents the ATEFlap aerodynamic model, which computes the unsteady lift, drag and moment on a 2D airfoil section equipped with Adaptive Trailing Edge Flap. The model captures the unsteady response related to the effects of the vorticity shed into the wake, and the dynamics of flow separation a thin-airfoil potential flow model is merged with a dynamic stall model of the Beddoes-Leishmann type. The inputs required by the model are steady data for lift, drag, and moment coefficients as function of angle of attack and flap deflection. Further steady data used by the Beddoes- Leishmann dynamic stall model are computed in an external preprocessor application, which gives the user the possibility to verify, and eventually correct, the steady data passed to the aerodynamic model. The ATEFlap aerodynamic model is integrated in the aeroelastic simulation tool HAWC2, thus al- lowing to simulate the response of a wind turbine with trailing edge flaps on the rotor. The algorithms used by the preprocessor, and by aerodynamic model are presented, and modifications to previous implementations of the aerodynamic model are briefly discussed. The performance and the validity of the model are verified by comparing the dynamic response computed by the ATEFlap with solutions from CFD simulations. (Author)

  13. Modelling HIV and MTB co-infection including combined treatment strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Ramkissoon

    Full Text Available A new host-pathogen model is described that simulates HIV-MTB co-infection and treatment, with the objective of testing treatment strategies. The model includes CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, resting and activated macrophages, HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB. For TB presentation at various stages of HIV disease in a co-infected individual, combined treatment strategies were tested with different relative timings of treatment for each infection. The stages were early HIV disease, late HIV disease and AIDS. The main strategies were TB treatment followed by anti-retroviral therapy (ART after delays of 15 days, 2 months and 6 months. ART followed by TB treatment was an additional strategy that was tested. Treatment was simulated with and without drug interaction. Simulation results were that TB treatment first followed by ART after a stage-dependent delay has the best outcome. During early HIV disease a 6 month delay is acceptable. During late HIV disease, a 2 month delay is best. During AIDS it is better to start ART after 15 days. However, drug interaction works against the benefits of early ART. These results agree with expert reviews and clinical trials.

  14. Hot DA white dwarf model atmosphere calculations: including improved Ni PI cross-sections (United States)

    Preval, S. P.; Barstow, M. A.; Badnell, N. R.; Hubeny, I.; Holberg, J. B.


    To calculate realistic models of objects with Ni in their atmospheres, accurate atomic data for the relevant ionization stages need to be included in model atmosphere calculations. In the context of white dwarf stars, we investigate the effect of changing the Ni IV-VI bound-bound and bound-free atomic data on model atmosphere calculations. Models including photoionization cross-section (PICS) calculated with AUTOSTRUCTURE show significant flux attenuation of up to ˜80 per cent shortward of 180 Å in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region compared to a model using hydrogenic PICS. Comparatively, models including a larger set of Ni transitions left the EUV, UV, and optical continua unaffected. We use models calculated with permutations of these atomic data to test for potential changes to measured metal abundances of the hot DA white dwarf G191-B2B. Models including AUTOSTRUCTURE PICS were found to change the abundances of N and O by as much as ˜22 per cent compared to models using hydrogenic PICS, but heavier species were relatively unaffected. Models including AUTOSTRUCTURE PICS caused the abundances of N/O IV and V to diverge. This is because the increased opacity in the AUTOSTRUCTURE PICS model causes these charge states to form higher in the atmosphere, more so for N/O V. Models using an extended line list caused significant changes to the Ni IV-V abundances. While both PICS and an extended line list cause changes in both synthetic spectra and measured abundances, the biggest changes are caused by using AUTOSTRUCTURE PICS for Ni.

  15. Modelling Mediterranean agro-ecosystems by including agricultural trees in the LPJmL model (United States)

    Fader, M.; von Bloh, W.; Shi, S.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.


    In the Mediterranean region, climate and land use change are expected to impact on natural and agricultural ecosystems by warming, reduced rainfall, direct degradation of ecosystems and biodiversity loss. Human population growth and socioeconomic changes, notably on the eastern and southern shores, will require increases in food production and put additional pressure on agro-ecosystems and water resources. Coping with these challenges requires informed decisions that, in turn, require assessments by means of a comprehensive agro-ecosystem and hydrological model. This study presents the inclusion of 10 Mediterranean agricultural plants, mainly perennial crops, in an agro-ecosystem model (Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land - LPJmL): nut trees, date palms, citrus trees, orchards, olive trees, grapes, cotton, potatoes, vegetables and fodder grasses. The model was successfully tested in three model outputs: agricultural yields, irrigation requirements and soil carbon density. With the development presented in this study, LPJmL is now able to simulate in good detail and mechanistically the functioning of Mediterranean agriculture with a comprehensive representation of ecophysiological processes for all vegetation types (natural and agricultural) and in a consistent framework that produces estimates of carbon, agricultural and hydrological variables for the entire Mediterranean basin. This development paves the way for further model extensions aiming at the representation of alternative agro-ecosystems (e.g. agroforestry), and opens the door for a large number of applications in the Mediterranean region, for example assessments of the consequences of land use transitions, the influence of management practices and climate change impacts.

  16. Modeling of Pem Fuel Cell Systems Including Controls and Reforming Effects for Hybrid Automotive Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boettner, Daisie


    .... This study develops models for a stand-alone Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, a direct-hydrogen fuel cell system including auxiliaries, and a methanol reforming fuel cell system for integration into a vehicle performance simulator...

  17. Smart Voyage Planning Model Sensitivity Analysis Using Ocean and Atmospheric Models Including Ensemble Methods (United States)


    exceeding wind and sea limits specified by competent authority. STARS utilizes a Dijkstra exhaustive search algorithm for minimum cost as follows... Navigation Toolkit CONOPS Concept of Operations COTS Commercial Off-the-Shelf DBDB-V Digital Bathymetric Data Base Variable Resolution DCAP...platform hydrodynamic models and environmental forecasts combined with improved algorithms enable fuel savings in addition to aiding in heavy weather

  18. Are language-based activities in science effective for all students, including low achievers? (United States)

    Rivard, Léonard P.


    The study investigated achievement status as a factor determining the use of language-based activities for learning science. A total of 154 eighth-grade students were randomly assigned to four groups, all stratified for gender and achievement level. The treatments involved various combinations of talk and writing, and descriptive and explanatory tasks. The dependent measures included scores on multiple choice tests obtained at three times during the study. Records of student talk and writing were also analyzed to identify patterns of differences between groups of achievers. The findings suggested that low achievers complete more problems, and develop better understanding and comprehension of ecology concepts when they have engaged in peer discussions of explanatory tasks. In comparison, high achievers benefit more from writing than talking, and writing explanations enhances comprehension more than restricted writing activities.

  19. Simulation of tumor induced angiogenesis using an analytical adaptive modeling including dynamic sprouting and blood flow modeling. (United States)

    Naghavi, Nadia; Hosseini, Farideh S; Sardarabadi, Mohammad; Kalani, Hadi


    In this paper, an adaptive model for tumor induced angiogenesis is developed that integrates generation and diffusion of a growth factor originated from hypoxic cells, adaptive sprouting from a parent vessel, blood flow and structural adaptation. The proposed adaptive sprout spacing model (ASS) determines position, time and number of sprouts which are activated from a parent vessel and also the developed vascular network is modified by a novel sprout branching prediction algorithm. This algorithm couples local vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations, stresses due to the blood flow and stochastic branching to the structural reactions of each vessel segment in response to mechanical and biochemical stimuli. The results provide predictions for the time-dependent development of the network structure, including the position and diameters of each segment and the resulting distributions of blood flow and VEGF. Considering time delays between sprout progressions and number of sprouts activated at different time durations provides information about micro-vessel density in the network. Resulting insights could be useful for motivating experimental investigations of vascular pattern in tumor induced angiogenesis and development of therapies targeting angiogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A market based active/reactive dispatch including transformer taps and reactor and capacitor banks using Simulated Annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Mario Helder [Departamento de Engenharia Electrotecnica, Instituto Politecnico de Tomar, Quinta do Contador, Estrada da Serra, 2300 Tomar (Portugal); Saraiva, Joao Tome [INESC Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Campus da FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)


    This paper describes an optimization model to be used by System Operators in order to validate the economic schedules obtained by Market Operators together with the injections from Bilateral Contracts. These studies will be performed off-line in the day before operation and the developed model is based on adjustment bids submitted by generators and loads and it is used by System Operators if that is necessary to enforce technical or security constraints. This model corresponds to an enhancement of an approach described in a previous paper and it now includes discrete components as transformer taps and reactor and capacitor banks. The resulting mixed integer formulation is solved using Simulated Annealing, a well known metaheuristic specially suited for combinatorial problems. Once the Simulated Annealing converges and the values of the discrete variables are fixed, the resulting non-linear continuous problem is solved using Sequential Linear Programming to get the final solution. The developed model corresponds to an AC version, it includes constraints related with the capability diagram of synchronous generators and variables allowing the computation of the active power required to balance active losses. Finally, the paper includes a Case Study based on the IEEE 118 bus system to illustrate the results that it is possible to obtain and their interest. (author)

  1. Catalytic conversion of lignin pyrolysis model compound- guaiacol and its kinetic model including coke formation (United States)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Wang, Yun; Shao, Shanshan; Xiao, Rui


    Lignin is the most difficult to be converted and most easy coking component in biomass catalytic pyrolysis to high-value liquid fuels and chemicals. Catalytic conversion of guaiacol as a lignin model compound was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor over ZSM-5 to investigate its conversion and coking behaviors. The effects of temperature, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) and partial pressure on product distribution were studied. The results show the maximum aromatic carbon yield of 28.55% was obtained at temperature of 650 °C, WHSV of 8 h-1 and partial pressure of 2.38 kPa, while the coke carbon yield was 19.55%. The reaction pathway was speculated to be removing methoxy group to form phenols with further aromatization to form aromatics. The amount of coke increased with increasing reaction time. The surface area and acidity of catalysts declined as coke formed on the acid sites and blocked the pore channels, which led to the decrease of aromatic yields. Finally, a kinetic model of guaiacol catalytic conversion considering coke deposition was built based on the above reaction pathway to properly predict product distribution. The experimental and model predicting data agreed well. The correlation coefficient of all equations were all higher than 0.90.

  2. Numerical Acoustic Models Including Viscous and Thermal losses: Review of Existing and New Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Risby; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Aage, Niels


    This work presents an updated overview of numerical methods including acoustic viscous and thermal losses. Numerical modelling of viscothermal losses has gradually become more important due to the general trend of making acoustic devices smaller. Not including viscothermal acoustic losses...... in such numerical computations will therefore lead to inaccurate or even wrong results. Both, Finite Element Method (FEM) and Boundary Element Method (BEM), formulations are available that incorporate these loss mechanisms. Including viscothermal losses in FEM computations can be computationally very demanding, due...... and BEM method including viscothermal dissipation are compared and investigated....

  3. Method for including operation and maintenance costs in the economic analysis of active solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W.D.


    For a developing technology such as solar energy, the costs for operation and maintenance (O and M) can be substantial. In the past, most economic analyses included these costs by simply assuming that an annual cost will be incurred that is proportional to the initial cost of the system. However, in assessing the economics of new systems proposed for further research and development, such a simplification can obscure the issues. For example, when the typical method for including O and M costs in an economic analysis is used, the O and M costs associated with a newly developed, more reliable, and slightly more expensive controller will be assumed to increase - an obvious inconsistency. The method presented in this report replaces this simplistic approach with a representation of the O and M costs that explicitly accounts for the uncertainties and risks inherent in the operation of any equipment. A detailed description of the data inputs required by the method is included as well as a summary of data sources and an example of the method as applied to an active solar heating system.

  4. Activity-based DEVS modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alshareef, Abdurrahman; Sarjoughian, Hessam S.; Zarrin, Bahram


    Use of model-driven approaches has been increasing to significantly benefit the process of building complex systems. Recently, an approach for specifying model behavior using UML activities has been devised to support the creation of DEVS models in a disciplined manner based on the model driven...... architecture and the UML concepts. In this paper, we further this work by grounding Activity-based DEVS modeling and developing a fully-fledged modeling engine to demonstrate applicability. We also detail the relevant aspects of the created metamodel in terms of modeling and simulation. A significant number...... of the artifacts of the UML 2.5 activities and actions, from the vantage point of DEVS behavioral modeling, is covered in details. Their semantics are discussed to the extent of time-accurate requirements for simulation. We characterize them in correspondence with the specification of the atomic model behavior. We...

  5. Enhanced UWB Radio Channel Model for Short-Range Communication Scenarios Including User Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, Istvan Zsolt; Nguyen, Tuan Hung; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.


    In this paper we propose a SISO UWB radio channel model for short-range radio link scenarios between a fixed device and a dynamic user hand-held device. The channel model is derived based on novel experimental UWB radio propagation investigations carried out in typical indoor PAN scenarios...... including realistic device and user terminal antenna configurations. The radio channel measurements have been performed in the lower UWB frequency band of 3GHz to 5GHz with a 2x4 MIMO antenna configuration. Several environments, user scenarios and two types of user terminals have been used. The developed...... channel model represents an enhancement of the existing IEEE 802.15.3a/4a PAN channel model, where antenna and user-proximity effects are not included. Our investigations showed that significant variations of the received wideband power and time-delay signal clustering are possible due the human body...

  6. Modeling of Temperature-Dependent Noise in Silicon Nanowire FETs including Self-Heating Effects


    Anandan, P.; Malathi, N.; Mohankumar, N.


    Silicon nanowires are leading the CMOS era towards the downsizing limit and its nature will be effectively suppress the short channel effects. Accurate modeling of thermal noise in nanowires is crucial for RF applications of nano-CMOS emerging technologies. In this work, a perfect temperature-dependent model for silicon nanowires including the self-heating effects has been derived and its effects on device parameters have been observed. The power spectral density as a function of thermal resi...

  7. Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)


    The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined

  8. The No-Core Gamow Shell Model: Including the continuum in the NCSM

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, B R; Michel, N; Płoszajczak, M


    We are witnessing an era of intense experimental efforts that will provide information about the properties of nuclei far from the line of stability, regarding resonant and scattering states as well as (weakly) bound states. This talk describes our formalism for including these necessary ingredients into the No-Core Shell Model by using the Gamow Shell Model approach. Applications of this new approach, known as the No-Core Gamow Shell Model, both to benchmark cases as well as to unstable nuclei will be given.

  9. Modeling of the dynamics of wind to power conversion including high wind speed behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Bjerge, Martin Huus; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio


    This paper proposes and validates an efficient, generic and computationally simple dynamic model for the conversion of the wind speed at hub height into the electrical power by a wind turbine. This proposed wind turbine model was developed as a first step to simulate wind power time series...... for power system studies. This paper focuses on describing and validating the single wind turbine model, and is therefore neither describing wind speed modeling nor aggregation of contributions from a whole wind farm or a power system area. The state-of-the-art is to use static power curves for the purpose...... of power system studies, but the idea of the proposed wind turbine model is to include the main dynamic effects in order to have a better representation of the fluctuations in the output power and of the fast power ramping especially because of high wind speed shutdowns of the wind turbine. The high wind...

  10. Including an ocean carbon cycle model into iLOVECLIM (v1.0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouttes, N.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.; Mariotti, V.; Bopp, L.


    The atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration plays a crucial role in the radiative balance and as such has a strong influence on the evolution of climate. Because of the numerous interactions between climate and the carbon cycle, it is necessary to include a model of the carbon cycle within a

  11. Latest cosmological constraints on Cardassian expansion models including the updated gamma-ray bursts (United States)

    Liang, Nan; Wu, Pu-Xun; Zhu, Zong-Hong


    We constrain the Cardassian expansion models from the latest observations, including the updated Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which are calibrated using a cosmology independent method from the Union2 compilation of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). By combining the GRB data with the joint observations from the Union2 SNe Ia set, along with the results from the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation observation from the seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and the baryonic acoustic oscillation observation galaxy sample from the spectroscopic Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release, we find significant constraints on the model parameters of the original Cardassian model ΩM0 = 0.282+0.015-0.014, n = 0.03+0.05-0.05 and n = -0.16+0.25-3.26, β = 0.76+0.34-0.58 of the modified polytropic Cardassian model, which are consistent with the ΛCDM model in a 1-σ confidence region. From the reconstruction of the deceleration parameter q(z) in Cardassian models, we obtain the transition redshift zT = 0.73 ± 0.04 for the original Cardassian model and zT = 0.68 ± 0.04 for the modified polytropic Cardassian model.

  12. Safe distance car-following model including backward-looking and its stability analysis (United States)

    Yang, Da; Jin, Peter Jing; Pu, Yun; Ran, Bin


    The focus of this paper is the car-following behavior including backward-looking, simply called the bi-directional looking car-following behavior. This study is motivated by the potential changes of the physical properties of traffic flow caused by the fast developing intelligent transportation system (ITS), especially the new connected vehicle technology. Existing studies on this topic focused on general motors (GM) models and optimal velocity (OV) models. The safe distance car-following model, Gipps' model, which is more widely used in practice have not drawn too much attention in the bi-directional looking context. This paper explores the property of the bi-directional looking extension of Gipps' safe distance model. The stability condition of the proposed model is derived using the linear stability theory and is verified using numerical simulations. The impacts of the driver and vehicle characteristics appeared in the proposed model on the traffic flow stability are also investigated. It is found that taking into account the backward-looking effect in car-following has three types of effect on traffic flow: stabilizing, destabilizing and producing non-physical phenomenon. This conclusion is more sophisticated than the study results based on the OV bi-directional looking car-following models. Moreover, the drivers who have the smaller reaction time or the larger additional delay and think the other vehicles have larger maximum decelerations can stabilize traffic flow.

  13. Be BOLD: Encouraging Girls to Include Unstructured Bouts of Physical Activity into Daily Routines (United States)

    Hill, Kory; Williams, Gwynne M.


    Adolescent girls are less active than their male counterparts and physical activity levels tend to decline as one ages. One of the goals of concerned physical educators is to promote a physically active lifestyle and to teach skills and promote behaviors that will allow students to be active both in and out of school. This article presents a…

  14. TS Fuzzy Model-Based Controller Design for a Class of Nonlinear Systems Including Nonsmooth Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vafamand, Navid; Asemani, Mohammad Hassan; Khayatiyan, Alireza


    criterion, new robust controller design conditions in terms of linear matrix inequalities are derived. Three practical case studies, electric power steering system, a helicopter model and servo-mechanical system, are presented to demonstrate the importance of such class of nonlinear systems comprising......This paper proposes a novel robust controller design for a class of nonlinear systems including hard nonlinearity functions. The proposed approach is based on Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy modeling, nonquadratic Lyapunov function, and nonparallel distributed compensation scheme. In this paper, a novel...... TS modeling of the nonlinear dynamics with signum functions is proposed. This model can exactly represent the original nonlinear system with hard nonlinearity while the discontinuous signum functions are not approximated. Based on the bounded-input-bounded-output stability scheme and L₁ performance...

  15. Prospects for genetically modified non-human primate models, including the common marmoset. (United States)

    Sasaki, Erika


    Genetically modified mice have contributed much to studies in the life sciences. In some research fields, however, mouse models are insufficient for analyzing the molecular mechanisms of pathology or as disease models. Often, genetically modified non-human primate (NHP) models are desired, as they are more similar to human physiology, morphology, and anatomy. Recent progress in studies of the reproductive biology in NHPs has enabled the introduction of exogenous genes into NHP genomes or the alteration of endogenous NHP genes. This review summarizes recent progress in the production of genetically modified NHPs, including the common marmoset, and future perspectives for realizing genetically modified NHP models for use in life sciences research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Including source uncertainty and prior information in the analysis of stable isotope mixing models. (United States)

    Ward, Eric J; Semmens, Brice X; Schindler, Daniel E


    Stable isotope mixing models offer a statistical framework for estimating the contribution of multiple sources (such as prey) to a mixture distribution. Recent advances in these models have estimated the source proportions using Bayesian methods, but have not explicitly accounted for uncertainty in the mean and variance of sources. We demonstrate that treating these quantities as unknown parameters can reduce bias in the estimated source contributions, although model complexity is increased (thereby increasing the variance of estimates). The advantages of this fully Bayesian approach are particularly apparent when the source geometry is poor or sample sizes are small. A second benefit to treating source quantities as parameters is that prior source information can be included. We present findings from 9 lake food-webs, where the consumer of interest (fish) has a diet composed of 5 sources: aquatic insects, snails, zooplankton, amphipods, and terrestrial insects. We compared the traditional Bayesian stable isotope mixing model with fixed source parameters to our fully Bayesian model-with and without an informative prior. The informative prior has much less impact than the choice of model-the traditional mixing model with fixed source parameters estimates the diet to be dominated by aquatic insects, while the fully Bayesian model estimates the diet to be more balanced but with greater importance of zooplankton. The findings from this example demonstrate that there can be stark differences in inference between the two model approaches, particularly when the source geometry of the mixing model is poor. These analyses also emphasize the importance of investing substantial effort toward characterizing the variation in the isotopic characteristics of source pools to appropriately quantify uncertainties in their contributions to consumers in food webs.

  17. A New Circuit Model for Spin-Torque Oscillator Including Perpendicular Torque of Magnetic Tunnel Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyein Lim


    Full Text Available Spin-torque oscillator (STO is a promising new technology for the future RF oscillators, which is based on the spin-transfer torque (STT effect in magnetic multilayered nanostructure. It is expected to provide a larger tunability, smaller size, lower power consumption, and higher level of integration than the semiconductor-based oscillators. In our previous work, a circuit-level model of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR STO was proposed. In this paper, we present a physics-based circuit-level model of the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ-based STO. MTJ-STO model includes the effect of perpendicular torque that has been ignored in the GMR-STO model. The variations of three major characteristics, generation frequency, mean oscillation power, and generation linewidth of an MTJ-STO with respect to the amount of perpendicular torque, are investigated, and the results are applied to our model. The operation of the model was verified by HSPICE simulation, and the results show an excellent agreement with the experimental data. The results also prove that a full circuit-level simulation with MJT-STO devices can be made with our proposed model.

  18. Active control of environmental noise, VIII: increasing the response to primary source changes including unpredictable noise (United States)

    Wright, S. E.; Atmoko, H.; Vuksanovic, B.


    Conventional adaptive cancellation systems using traditional transverse finite impulse response (FIR) filters, together with least mean square (LMS) adaptive algorithms, well known in active noise control, are slow to adapt to primary source changes. This makes them inappropriate for cancelling rapidly changing noise, including unpredictable noise such as speech and music. Secondly, the cancelling structures require considerable computational processing effort to adapt to primary source and plant changes, particularly for multi-channel systems. This paper describes methods to increase the adaptive speed to primary source changes in large enclosed spaces and outdoor environments. A method is described that increases the response to time varying periodic noise using traditional transverse FIR filters. Here a multi-passband filter, with individual variable adaptive step sizes for each passband is automatically adjusted according to the signal level in each band. This creates a similar adaptive response for all frequencies within the total pass-band, irrespective of amplitude, minimizing the signal distortion and increasing the combined adaptive speed. Unfortunately, there is a limit to the adaptive speed using the above method as classical transverse FIR filters have a finite adaptive speed given by the stability band zero bandwidth. For rapidly changing periodic noise and unpredictable non-stationary noise, a rapid to instantaneous response is required. In this case the on-line adaptive FIR filters are dispensed with and replaced by a time domain solution that gives virtually instantaneous cancellation response (infinite adaptive speed) to primary source changes, and is computationally efficient.

  19. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein


    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  20. Including surface ligand effects in continuum elastic models of nanocrystal vibrations (United States)

    Lee, Elizabeth M. Y.; Mork, A. Jolene; Willard, Adam P.; Tisdale, William A.


    The measured low frequency vibrational energies of some quantum dots (QDs) deviate from the predictions of traditional elastic continuum models. Recent experiments have revealed that these deviations can be tuned by changing the ligands that passivate the QD surface. This observation has led to speculation that these deviations are due to a mass-loading effect of the surface ligands. In this article, we address this speculation by formulating a continuum elastic theory that includes the dynamical loading by elastic surface ligands. We demonstrate that this model is capable of accurately reproducing the l = 0 phonon energy across a variety of different QD samples, including cores with different ligand identities and epitaxially grown CdSe/CdS core/shell heterostructures. We highlight that our model performs well even in the small QD regime, where traditional elastic continuum models are especially prone to failure. Furthermore, we show that our model combined with Raman measurements can be used to infer the elastic properties of surface bound ligands, such as sound velocities and elastic moduli, that are otherwise challenging to measure.

  1. Kinetic modeling of rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 including cell density-dependent regulation. (United States)

    Henkel, Marius; Schmidberger, Anke; Vogelbacher, Markus; Kühnert, Christian; Beuker, Janina; Bernard, Thomas; Schwartz, Thomas; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf


    The production of rhamnolipid biosurfactants by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is under complex control of a quorum sensing-dependent regulatory network. Due to a lack of understanding of the kinetics applicable to the process and relevant interrelations of variables, current processes for rhamnolipid production are based on heuristic approaches. To systematically establish a knowledge-based process for rhamnolipid production, a deeper understanding of the time-course and coupling of process variables is required. By combining reaction kinetics, stoichiometry, and experimental data, a process model for rhamnolipid production with P. aeruginosa PAO1 on sunflower oil was developed as a system of coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs). In addition, cell density-based quorum sensing dynamics were included in the model. The model comprises a total of 36 parameters, 14 of which are yield coefficients and 7 of which are substrate affinity and inhibition constants. Of all 36 parameters, 30 were derived from dedicated experimental results, literature, and databases and 6 of them were used as fitting parameters. The model is able to describe data on biomass growth, substrates, and products obtained from a reference batch process and other validation scenarios. The model presented describes the time-course and interrelation of biomass, relevant substrates, and products on a process level while including a kinetic representation of cell density-dependent regulatory mechanisms.

  2. Including Finite Surface Span Effects in Empirical Jet-Surface Interaction Noise Models (United States)

    Brown, Clifford A.


    The effect of finite span on the jet-surface interaction noise source and the jet mixing noise shielding and reflection effects is considered using recently acquired experimental data. First, the experimental setup and resulting data are presented with particular attention to the role of surface span on far-field noise. These effects are then included in existing empirical models that have previously assumed that all surfaces are semi-infinite. This extended abstract briefly describes the experimental setup and data leaving the empirical modeling aspects for the final paper.

  3. Macroenvironmental Factors Including GDP per Capita and Physical Activity in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, A.J.; van Stralen, M.M.; Kunst, A.E.; te Velde, S.J.; Lenthe, F.J.; Salmon, J.; Brug, J.


    Purpose: Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. Methods: We

  4. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, Adrian J.; van Stralen, Maartje M.; Kunst, Anton E.; te Velde, Saskia J.; van Lenthe, Frank J.; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes


    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the

  5. Including Flocculation in a Numerical Sediment Transport Model for a Partially-Mixed Estuary (United States)

    Tarpley, D.; Harris, C. K.; Friedrichs, C. T.


    Particle settling velocity impacts the transport of suspended sediment to the first order but fine-grained material like muds tend to form loosely bound aggregates (flocs) whose settling velocity can vary widely. Properties of flocculated sediment such as settling velocity and particle density are difficult to predict because they change in response to several factors including salinity, suspended sediment concentration, turbulent mixing, and organic content. Knowledge of the mechanisms governing flocculation of cohesive sediment is rapidly expanding; especially in response to recent technical advances. As the understanding of particle dynamics progresses, numerical models describing flocculation and break-up are being developed with varying degrees of complexity. While complex models capture the dynamics of the system, their computational costs may prohibit their incorporation into larger model domains. It is important to determine if the computational costs of intricate floc models are justifiable compared to simpler formulations. For this study, we implement an idealized two-dimensional model designed to represent a longitudinal section of a partially mixed estuary that neglects across-channel variation but exhibits salinity driven estuarine circulation. The idealized domain is designed to mimic the primary features of the York River, VA. Suspended load, erosion and deposition are calculated within the sediment transport routines of the COAWST modeling system. We compare different methods for prescribing settling velocity of fine-grained material. The simplest, standard model neglects flocculation dynamics while the complex treatment is a size-class-based flocculation model (FLOCMOD). Differences in tidal and daily averages of suspended load, bulk settling velocity and bed deposition are compared between the standard and FLOCMOD runs, to examine the relative impact of flocculation on sediment transport patterns. We expect FLOCMOD to have greater variability and

  6. Modeling of Temperature-Dependent Noise in Silicon Nanowire FETs including Self-Heating Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anandan


    Full Text Available Silicon nanowires are leading the CMOS era towards the downsizing limit and its nature will be effectively suppress the short channel effects. Accurate modeling of thermal noise in nanowires is crucial for RF applications of nano-CMOS emerging technologies. In this work, a perfect temperature-dependent model for silicon nanowires including the self-heating effects has been derived and its effects on device parameters have been observed. The power spectral density as a function of thermal resistance shows significant improvement as the channel length decreases. The effects of thermal noise including self-heating of the device are explored. Moreover, significant reduction in noise with respect to channel thermal resistance, gate length, and biasing is analyzed.

  7. A High-Rate, Single-Crystal Model including Phase Transformations, Plastic Slip, and Twinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addessio, Francis L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Bronkhorst, Curt Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Bolme, Cynthia Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Explosive Science and Shock Physics Division; Brown, Donald William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Cerreta, Ellen Kathleen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Lebensohn, Ricardo A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Lookman, Turab [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Luscher, Darby Jon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Mayeur, Jason Rhea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Morrow, Benjamin M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Rigg, Paulo A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Inst. for Shock Physics


    An anisotropic, rate-­dependent, single-­crystal approach for modeling materials under the conditions of high strain rates and pressures is provided. The model includes the effects of large deformations, nonlinear elasticity, phase transformations, and plastic slip and twinning. It is envisioned that the model may be used to examine these coupled effects on the local deformation of materials that are subjected to ballistic impact or explosive loading. The model is formulated using a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. A plate impact experiment on a multi-­crystal sample of titanium was conducted. The particle velocities at the back surface of three crystal orientations relative to the direction of impact were measured. Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the details of the high-­rate deformation and pursue issues related to the phase transformation for titanium. Simulations using the single crystal model were conducted and compared to the high-­rate experimental data for the impact loaded single crystals. The model was found to capture the features of the experiments.

  8. Producing high-accuracy lattice models from protein atomic coordinates including side chains. (United States)

    Mann, Martin; Saunders, Rhodri; Smith, Cameron; Backofen, Rolf; Deane, Charlotte M


    Lattice models are a common abstraction used in the study of protein structure, folding, and refinement. They are advantageous because the discretisation of space can make extensive protein evaluations computationally feasible. Various approaches to the protein chain lattice fitting problem have been suggested but only a single backbone-only tool is available currently. We introduce LatFit, a new tool to produce high-accuracy lattice protein models. It generates both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models in any user defined lattice. LatFit implements a new distance RMSD-optimisation fitting procedure in addition to the known coordinate RMSD method. We tested LatFit's accuracy and speed using a large nonredundant set of high resolution proteins (SCOP database) on three commonly used lattices: 3D cubic, face-centred cubic, and knight's walk. Fitting speed compared favourably to other methods and both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models show low deviation from the original data (~1.5 Å RMSD in the FCC lattice). To our knowledge this represents the first comprehensive study of lattice quality for on-lattice protein models including side chains while LatFit is the only available tool for such models.

  9. Model for safety reports including descriptive examples; Mall foer saekerhetsrapporter med beskrivande exempel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Several safety reports will be produced in the process of planning and constructing the system for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Sweden. The present report gives a model, with detailed examples, of how these reports should be organized and what steps they should include. In the near future safety reports will deal with the encapsulation plant and the repository. Later reports will treat operation of the handling systems and the repository.

  10. Collisional-radiative model including recombination processes for W27+ ion★ (United States)

    Murakami, Izumi; Sasaki, Akira; Kato, Daiji; Koike, Fumihiro


    We have constructed a collisional-radiative (CR) model for W27+ ions including 226 configurations with n ≤ 9 and ł ≤ 5 for spectroscopic diagnostics. We newly include recombination processes in the model and this is the first result of extreme ultraviolet spectrum calculated for recombining plasma component. Calculated spectra in 40-70 Å range in ionizing and recombining plasma components show similar 3 strong lines and 1 line weak in recombining plasma component at 45-50 Å and many weak lines at 50-65 Å for both components. Recombination processes do not contribute much to the spectrum at around 60 Å for W27+ ion. Dielectronic satellite lines are also minor contribution to the spectrum of recombining plasma component. Dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficient from W28+ to W27+ ions is also calculated with the same atomic data in the CR model. We found that larger set of energy levels including many autoionizing states gave larger DR rate coefficients but our rate agree within factor 6 with other works at electron temperature around 1 keV in which W27+ and W28+ ions are usually observed in plasmas. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, and Grzegorz Karwasz.

  11. Modeling and Analysis of Lateral Propagation of Surface Acoustic Waves Including Coupling Between Different Waves. (United States)

    Zhang, Benfeng; Han, Tao; Tang, Gongbin; Zhang, Qiaozhen; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-Ya


    This paper discusses lateral propagation of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in periodic grating structures when two types of SAWs exist simultaneously and are coupled. The thin plate model proposed by the authors is extended to include the coupling between two different SAW modes. First, lateral SAW propagation in an infinitely long periodic grating is modeled and discussed. Then, the model is applied to the Al-grating/42° YX-LiTaO3 (42-LT) substrate structure, and it is shown that the slowness curve shape changes from concave to convex with the Al grating thickness. The transverse responses are also analyzed on an infinitely long interdigital transducer on the structure, and good agreement is achieved between the present and the finite-element method analyses. Finally, SAW resonators are fabricated on the Cu grating/42-LT substrate structure, and it is experimentally verified that the slowness curve shape of the shear horizontal SAW changes with the Cu thickness.

  12. RELAP5-3D Code Includes Athena Features and Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard A. Riemke; Cliff B. Davis; Richard R. Schultz


    Version 2.3 of the RELAP5-3D computer program includes all features and models previously available only in the ATHENA version of the code. These include the addition of new working fluids (i.e., ammonia, blood, carbon dioxide, glycerol, helium, hydrogen, lead-bismuth, lithium, lithium-lead, nitrogen, potassium, sodium, and sodium-potassium) and a magnetohydrodynamic model that expands the capability of the code to model many more thermal-hydraulic systems. In addition to the new working fluids along with the standard working fluid water, one or more noncondensable gases (e.g., air, argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen, krypton, nitrogen, oxygen, sf6, xenon) can be specified as part of the vapor/gas phase of the working fluid. These noncondensable gases were in previous versions of RELAP5- 3D. Recently four molten salts have been added as working fluids to RELAP5-3D Version 2.4, which has had limited release. These molten salts will be in RELAP5-3D Version 2.5, which will have a general release like RELAP5-3D Version 2.3. Applications that use these new features and models are discussed in this paper.

  13. Modeling the distribution of ammonia across Europe including bi-directional surface–atmosphere exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Wichink Kruit


    Full Text Available A large shortcoming of current chemistry transport models (CTM for simulating the fate of ammonia in the atmosphere is the lack of a description of the bi-directional surface–atmosphere exchange. In this paper, results of an update of the surface–atmosphere exchange module DEPAC, i.e. DEPosition of Acidifying Compounds, in the chemistry transport model LOTOS-EUROS are discussed. It is shown that with the new description, which includes bi-directional surface–atmosphere exchange, the modeled ammonia concentrations increase almost everywhere, in particular in agricultural source areas. The reason is that by using a compensation point the ammonia lifetime and transport distance is increased. As a consequence, deposition of ammonia and ammonium decreases in agricultural source areas, while it increases in large nature areas and remote regions especially in southern Scandinavia. The inclusion of a compensation point for water reduces the dry deposition over sea and allows reproducing the observed marine background concentrations at coastal locations to a better extent. A comparison with measurements shows that the model results better represent the measured ammonia concentrations. The concentrations in nature areas are slightly overestimated, while the concentrations in agricultural source areas are still underestimated. Although the introduction of the compensation point improves the model performance, the modeling of ammonia remains challenging. Important aspects are emission patterns in space and time as well as a proper approach to deal with the high concentration gradients in relation to model resolution. In short, the inclusion of a bi-directional surface–atmosphere exchange is a significant step forward for modeling ammonia.

  14. Including policy and management in socio-hydrology models: initial conceptualizations (United States)

    Hermans, Leon; Korbee, Dorien


    Socio-hydrology studies the interactions in coupled human-water systems. So far, the use of dynamic models that capture the direct feedback between societal and hydrological systems has been dominant. What has not yet been included with any particular emphasis, is the policy or management layer, which is a central element in for instance integrated water resources management (IWRM) or adaptive delta management (ADM). Studying the direct interactions between human-water systems generates knowledges that eventually helps influence these interactions in ways that may ensure better outcomes - for society and for the health and sustainability of water systems. This influence sometimes occurs through spontaneous emergence, uncoordinated by societal agents - private sector, citizens, consumers, water users. However, the term 'management' in IWRM and ADM also implies an additional coordinated attempt through various public actors. This contribution is a call to include the policy and management dimension more prominently into the research focus of the socio-hydrology field, and offers first conceptual variables that should be considered in attempts to include this policy or management layer in socio-hydrology models. This is done by drawing on existing frameworks to study policy processes throughout both planning and implementation phases. These include frameworks such as the advocacy coalition framework, collective learning and policy arrangements, which all emphasis longer-term dynamics and feedbacks between actor coalitions in strategic planning and implementation processes. A case about longter-term dynamics in the management of the Haringvliet in the Netherlands is used to illustrate the paper.

  15. A finite element model of the lower limb during stance phase of gait cycle including the muscle forces. (United States)

    Diffo Kaze, Arnaud; Maas, Stefan; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Wolf, Claude; Pape, Dietrich


    Results of finite element (FE) analyses can give insight into musculoskeletal diseases if physiological boundary conditions, which include the muscle forces during specific activities of daily life, are considered in the FE modelling. So far, many simplifications of the boundary conditions are currently made. This study presents an approach for FE modelling of the lower limb for which muscle forces were included. The stance phase of normal gait was simulated. Muscle forces were calculated using a musculoskeletal rigid body (RB) model of the human body, and were subsequently applied to a FE model of the lower limb. It was shown that the inertial forces are negligible during the stance phase of normal gait. The contact surfaces between the parts within the knee were modelled as bonded. Weak springs were attached to the distal tibia for numerical reasons. Hip joint reaction forces from the RB model and those from the FE model were similar in magnitude with relative differences less than 16%. The forces of the weak spring were negligible compared to the applied muscle forces. The maximal strain was 0.23% in the proximal region of the femoral diaphysis and 1.7% in the contact zone between the tibia and the fibula. The presented approach based on FE modelling by including muscle forces from inverse dynamic analysis of musculoskeletal RB model can be used to perform analyses of the lower limb with very realistic boundary conditions. In the present form, this model can be used to better understand the loading, stresses and strains of bones in the knee area and hence to analyse osteotomy fixation devices.

  16. Active control: Wind turbine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.


    This report is a part of the reporting of the work done in the project 'Active Control of Wind Turbines'. This project aim is to develop a simulation model for design of control systems for turbines with pitch control and to use that model to designcontrollers. This report describes the model...... developed for controller design and analysis. Emphasis has been put on establishment of simple models describing the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine in adequate details for controller design. This hasbeen done with extensive use of measurements as the basis for selection of model complexity and model....... The models are all formulated as linear differential equations. The models are validated throughcomparisons with measurements performed on a Vestas WD 34 400 kW wind turbine. It is shown from a control point of view simple linear models can be used to describe the dynamic behavior of a pitch controlled wind...

  17. S5-4: Formal Modeling of Affordance in Human-Included Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namhun Kim


    Full Text Available In spite of it being necessary for humans to consider modeling, analysis, and control of human-included systems, it has been considered a challenging problem because of the critical role of humans in complex systems and of humans' capability of executing unanticipated actions–both beneficial and detrimental ones. Thus, to provide systematic approaches to modeling human actions as a part of system behaviors, a formal modeling framework for human-involved systems in which humans play a controlling role based on their perceptual information is presented. The theory of affordance provides definitions of human actions and their associated properties; Finite State Automata (FSA based modeling is capable of mapping nondeterministic humans into computable components in the system representation. In this talk, we investigate the role of perception in human actions in the system operation and examine the representation of perceptual elements in affordance-based modeling formalism. The proposed framework is expected to capture the natural ways in which humans participate in the system as part of its operation. A human-machine cooperative manufacturing system control example and a human agent simulation example will be introduced for the illustrative purposes at the end of the presentation.

  18. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model. (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young


    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Fast Newton active appearance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kossaifi, Jean; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Pantic, Maja


    Active Appearance Models (AAMs) are statistical models of shape and appearance widely used in computer vision to detect landmarks on objects like faces. Fitting an AAM to a new image can be formulated as a non-linear least-squares problem which is typically solved using iterative methods. Owing to

  20. Impact of including surface currents on simulation of Indian Ocean variability with the POAMA coupled model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Mei; Wang, Guomin; Hendon, Harry H.; Alves, Oscar [Bureau of Meteorology, Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Melbourne (Australia)


    Impacts on the coupled variability of the Indo-Pacific by including the effects of surface currents on surface stress are explored in four extended integrations of an experimental version of the Bureau of Meteorology's coupled seasonal forecast model POAMA. The first pair of simulations differs only in their treatment of momentum coupling: one version includes the effects of surface currents on the surface stress computation and the other does not. The version that includes the effect of surface currents has less mean-state bias in the equatorial Pacific cold tongue but produces relatively weak coupled variability in the Tropics, especially that related to the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The version without the effects of surface currents has greater bias in the Pacific cold tongue but stronger IOD and ENSO variability. In order to diagnose the role of changes in local coupling from changes in remote forcing by ENSO for causing changes in IOD variability, a second set of simulations is conducted where effects of surface currents are included only in the Indian Ocean and only in the Pacific Ocean. IOD variability is found to be equally reduced by inclusion of the local effects of surface currents in the Indian Ocean and by the reduction of ENSO variability as a result of including effects of surface currents in the Pacific. Some implications of these results for predictability of the IOD and its dependence on ENSO, and for ocean subsurface data assimilation are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Does limited virucidal activity of biocides include duck hepatitis B virucidal action?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerbrei Andreas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is agreement that the infectivity assay with the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV is a suitable surrogate test to validate disinfectants for hepatitis B virucidal activity. However, since this test is not widely used, information is necessary whether disinfectants with limited virucidal activity also inactivate DHBV. In general, disinfectants with limited virucidal activity are used for skin and sensitive surfaces while agents with full activity are more aggressive. The present study compares the activity of five different biocides against DHBV and the classical test virus for limited virucidal activity, the vaccinia virus strain Lister Elstree (VACV or the modified vaccinia Ankara strain (MVA. Methods Virucidal assay was performed as suspension test according to the German DVV/RKI guideline. Duck hepatitis B virus obtained from congenitally infected Peking ducks was propagated in primary duck embryonic hepatocytes and was detected by indirect immunofluorescent antigen staining. Results The DHBV was inactivated by the use of 40% ethanol within 1-min and 30% isopropanol within 2-min exposure. In comparison, 40% ethanol within 2-min and 40% isopropanol within 1-min exposure were effective against VACV/MVA. These alcohols only have limited virucidal activity, while the following agents have full activity. 0.01% peracetic acid inactivated DHBV within 2 min and a concentration of 0.005% had virucidal efficacy against VACV/MVA within 1 min. After 2-min exposure, 0.05% glutardialdehyde showed a comparable activity against DHBV and VACV/MVA. This is also the case for 0.7% formaldehyde after a contact time of 30 min. Conclusions Duck hepatitis B virus is at least as sensitive to limited virucidal activity as VACV/MVA. Peracetic acid is less effective against DHBV, while the alcohols are less effective against VACV/MVA. It can be expected that in absence of more direct tests the results may be extrapolated to HBV.

  2. A satellite relative motion model including J_2 and J_3 via Vinti's intermediary (United States)

    Biria, Ashley D.; Russell, Ryan P.


    Vinti's potential is revisited for analytical propagation of the main satellite problem, this time in the context of relative motion. A particular version of Vinti's spheroidal method is chosen that is valid for arbitrary elliptical orbits, encapsulating J_2, J_3, and generally a partial J_4 in an orbit propagation theory without recourse to perturbation methods. As a child of Vinti's solution, the proposed relative motion model inherits these properties. Furthermore, the problem is solved in oblate spheroidal elements, leading to large regions of validity for the linearization approximation. After offering several enhancements to Vinti's solution, including boosts in accuracy and removal of some singularities, the proposed model is derived and subsequently reformulated so that Vinti's solution is piecewise differentiable. While the model is valid for the critical inclination and nonsingular in the element space, singularities remain in the linear transformation from Earth-centered inertial coordinates to spheroidal elements when the eccentricity is zero or for nearly equatorial orbits. The new state transition matrix is evaluated against numerical solutions including the J_2 through J_5 terms for a wide range of chief orbits and separation distances. The solution is also compared with side-by-side simulations of the original Gim-Alfriend state transition matrix, which considers the J_2 perturbation. Code for computing the resulting state transition matrix and associated reference frame and coordinate transformations is provided online as supplementary material.

  3. Models of epidemics: when contact repetition and clustering should be included. (United States)

    Smieszek, Timo; Fiebig, Lena; Scholz, Roland W


    The spread of infectious disease is determined by biological factors, e.g. the duration of the infectious period, and social factors, e.g. the arrangement of potentially contagious contacts. Repetitiveness and clustering of contacts are known to be relevant factors influencing the transmission of droplet or contact transmitted diseases. However, we do not yet completely know under what conditions repetitiveness and clustering should be included for realistically modelling disease spread. We compare two different types of individual-based models: One assumes random mixing without repetition of contacts, whereas the other assumes that the same contacts repeat day-by-day. The latter exists in two variants, with and without clustering. We systematically test and compare how the total size of an outbreak differs between these model types depending on the key parameters transmission probability, number of contacts per day, duration of the infectious period, different levels of clustering and varying proportions of repetitive contacts. The simulation runs under different parameter constellations provide the following results: The difference between both model types is highest for low numbers of contacts per day and low transmission probabilities. The number of contacts and the transmission probability have a higher influence on this difference than the duration of the infectious period. Even when only minor parts of the daily contacts are repetitive and clustered can there be relevant differences compared to a purely random mixing model. We show that random mixing models provide acceptable estimates of the total outbreak size if the number of contacts per day is high or if the per-contact transmission probability is high, as seen in typical childhood diseases such as measles. In the case of very short infectious periods, for instance, as in Norovirus, models assuming repeating contacts will also behave similarly as random mixing models. If the number of daily contacts or

  4. Models of epidemics: when contact repetition and clustering should be included

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholz Roland W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spread of infectious disease is determined by biological factors, e.g. the duration of the infectious period, and social factors, e.g. the arrangement of potentially contagious contacts. Repetitiveness and clustering of contacts are known to be relevant factors influencing the transmission of droplet or contact transmitted diseases. However, we do not yet completely know under what conditions repetitiveness and clustering should be included for realistically modelling disease spread. Methods We compare two different types of individual-based models: One assumes random mixing without repetition of contacts, whereas the other assumes that the same contacts repeat day-by-day. The latter exists in two variants, with and without clustering. We systematically test and compare how the total size of an outbreak differs between these model types depending on the key parameters transmission probability, number of contacts per day, duration of the infectious period, different levels of clustering and varying proportions of repetitive contacts. Results The simulation runs under different parameter constellations provide the following results: The difference between both model types is highest for low numbers of contacts per day and low transmission probabilities. The number of contacts and the transmission probability have a higher influence on this difference than the duration of the infectious period. Even when only minor parts of the daily contacts are repetitive and clustered can there be relevant differences compared to a purely random mixing model. Conclusion We show that random mixing models provide acceptable estimates of the total outbreak size if the number of contacts per day is high or if the per-contact transmission probability is high, as seen in typical childhood diseases such as measles. In the case of very short infectious periods, for instance, as in Norovirus, models assuming repeating contacts will also behave

  5. Modeling interdisciplinary activities involving Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Steffen Møllegaard


    In this paper a didactical model is presented. The goal of the model is to work as a didactical tool, or conceptual frame, for developing, carrying through and evaluating interdisciplinary activities involving the subject of mathematics and philosophy in the high schools. Through the terms...... of Horizontal Intertwining, Vertical Structuring and Horizontal Propagation the model consists of three phases, each considering different aspects of the nature of interdisciplinary activities. The theoretical modelling is inspired by work which focuses on the students abilities to concept formation in expanded...... domains (Michelsen, 2001, 2005a, 2005b). Furthermore the theoretical description rest on a series of qualitative interviews with teachers from the Danish high school (grades 9-11) conducted recently. The special case of concrete interdisciplinary activities between mathematics and philosophy is also...

  6. A generalized model for optimal transport of images including dissipation and density modulation

    KAUST Repository

    Maas, Jan


    © EDP Sciences, SMAI 2015. In this paper the optimal transport and the metamorphosis perspectives are combined. For a pair of given input images geodesic paths in the space of images are defined as minimizers of a resulting path energy. To this end, the underlying Riemannian metric measures the rate of transport cost and the rate of viscous dissipation. Furthermore, the model is capable to deal with strongly varying image contrast and explicitly allows for sources and sinks in the transport equations which are incorporated in the metric related to the metamorphosis approach by Trouvé and Younes. In the non-viscous case with source term existence of geodesic paths is proven in the space of measures. The proposed model is explored on the range from merely optimal transport to strongly dissipative dynamics. For this model a robust and effective variational time discretization of geodesic paths is proposed. This requires to minimize a discrete path energy consisting of a sum of consecutive image matching functionals. These functionals are defined on corresponding pairs of intensity functions and on associated pairwise matching deformations. Existence of time discrete geodesics is demonstrated. Furthermore, a finite element implementation is proposed and applied to instructive test cases and to real images. In the non-viscous case this is compared to the algorithm proposed by Benamou and Brenier including a discretization of the source term. Finally, the model is generalized to define discrete weighted barycentres with applications to textures and objects.

  7. Habitability of super-Earth planets around other suns: models including Red Giant Branch evolution. (United States)

    von Bloh, W; Cuntz, M; Schröder, K-P; Bounama, C; Franck, S


    The unexpected diversity of exoplanets includes a growing number of super-Earth planets, i.e., exoplanets with masses of up to several Earth masses and a similar chemical and mineralogical composition as Earth. We present a thermal evolution model for a 10 Earth-mass planet orbiting a star like the Sun. Our model is based on the integrated system approach, which describes the photosynthetic biomass production and takes into account a variety of climatological, biogeochemical, and geodynamical processes. This allows us to identify a so-called photosynthesis-sustaining habitable zone (pHZ), as determined by the limits of biological productivity on the planetary surface. Our model considers solar evolution during the main-sequence stage and along the Red Giant Branch as described by the most recent solar model. We obtain a large set of solutions consistent with the principal possibility of life. The highest likelihood of habitability is found for "water worlds." Only mass-rich water worlds are able to realize pHZ-type habitability beyond the stellar main sequence on the Red Giant Branch.

  8. Empirical Validation of a Thermal Model of a Complex Roof Including Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Guichard


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the empirical validation of a building thermal model of a complex roof including a phase change material (PCM. A mathematical model dedicated to PCMs based on the heat apparent capacity method was implemented in a multi-zone building simulation code, the aim being to increase the understanding of the thermal behavior of the whole building with PCM technologies. In order to empirically validate the model, the methodology is based both on numerical and experimental studies. A parametric sensitivity analysis was performed and a set of parameters of the thermal model has been identified for optimization. The use of the generic optimization program called GenOpt® coupled to the building simulation code enabled to determine the set of adequate parameters. We first present the empirical validation methodology and main results of previous work. We then give an overview of GenOpt® and its coupling with the building simulation code. Finally, once the optimization results are obtained, comparisons of the thermal predictions with measurements are found to be acceptable and are presented.

  9. Fluid-structure interaction including volumetric coupling with homogenised subdomains for modeling respiratory mechanics. (United States)

    Yoshihara, Lena; Roth, Christian J; Wall, Wolfgang A


    In this article, a novel approach is presented for combining standard fluid-structure interaction with additional volumetric constraints to model fluid flow into and from homogenised solid domains. The proposed algorithm is particularly interesting for investigations in the field of respiratory mechanics as it enables the mutual coupling of airflow in the conducting part and local tissue deformation in the respiratory part of the lung by means of a volume constraint. In combination with a classical monolithic fluid-structure interaction approach, a comprehensive model of the human lung can be established that will be useful to gain new insights into respiratory mechanics in health and disease. To illustrate the validity and versatility of the novel approach, three numerical examples including a patient-specific lung model are presented. The proposed algorithm proves its capability of computing clinically relevant airflow distribution and tissue strain data at a level of detail that is not yet achievable, neither with current imaging techniques nor with existing computational models. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Analysis of electronic models for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glitzky, Annegret


    We introduce an electronic model for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities. The resulting drift-diffusion model corresponds to a generalized van Roosbroeck system with additional source terms coupled with ODEs containing space and energy as parameters for all defect densities. The system has to be considered in heterostructures and with mixed boundary conditions from device simulation. We give a weak formulation of the problem. If the boundary data and the sources are compatible with thermodynamic equilibrium the free energy along solutions decays monotonously. In other cases it may be increasing, but we estimate its growth. We establish boundedness and uniqueness results and prove the existence of a weak solution. This is done by considering a regularized problem, showing its solvability and the boundedness of its solutions independent of the regularization level. (orig.)

  11. A roller chain drive model including contact with guide-bars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sine Leergaard; Hansen, John Michael; Ambrósio, J. A. C.


    of the roller chain drive model include the sprockets with different sizes and the chain made of rollers and links, which are represented by rigid bodies, mass particles and springs - damper assemblies respectively. The guide-bars are modelled as rigid bodies with a roller-guide contact representation...... and the sprocket centre, i.e. a constraint is added when such distance is less than the pitch radius. The unilateral kinematic constraint is removed when its associated constraint reaction force, applied on the roller, is in the direction of the root of the sprocket teeth. In order to improve the numerical...... efficiency of the methodology only the first and last roller seated on each sprocket and the two free rollers nearest to the sprocket are checked for capture or release. It is assumed that all the rollers in the chain, between the first and last seated rollers are in contact with the sprocket...

  12. Novel Modeling and Control Strategies for a HVAC System Including Carbon Dioxide Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Soon Kang


    Full Text Available Conventional heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC systems have traditionally used the temperature and the humidity ratio as the quantitative indices of comfort in a room. Recently, the carbon dioxide (CO2 concentration has also been recognized as having an important contribution to room comfort. This paper presents the modeling of an augmented HVAC system including CO2 concentration, and its control strategies. Because the proposed augmented HVAC system is multi-input multi-output (MIMO and has no relative degree problem, the dynamic extension algorithm can be employed; then, a feedback linearization technique is applied. A linear-quadratic regulator (LQR is designed to optimize control performance and to stabilize the proposed HVAC system. Simulation results are provided to validate the proposed system model, as well as its linearized control system.

  13. Modeling coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical processes including plastic deformation in geological porous media (United States)

    Kelkar, S.; Karra, S.; Pawar, R. J.; Zyvoloski, G.


    There has been an increasing interest in the recent years in developing computational tools for analyzing coupled thermal, hydrological and mechanical (THM) processes that occur in geological porous media. This is mainly due to their importance in applications including carbon sequestration, enhanced geothermal systems, oil and gas production from unconventional sources, degradation of Arctic permafrost, and nuclear waste isolation. Large changes in pressures, temperatures and saturation can result due to injection/withdrawal of fluids or emplaced heat sources. These can potentially lead to large changes in the fluid flow and mechanical behavior of the formation, including shear and tensile failure on pre-existing or induced fractures and the associated permeability changes. Due to this, plastic deformation and large changes in material properties such as permeability and porosity can be expected to play an important role in these processes. We describe a general purpose computational code FEHM that has been developed for the purpose of modeling coupled THM processes during multi-phase fluid flow and transport in fractured porous media. The code uses a continuum mechanics approach, based on control volume - finite element method. It is designed to address spatial scales on the order of tens of centimeters to tens of kilometers. While large deformations are important in many situations, we have adapted the small strain formulation as useful insight can be obtained in many problems of practical interest with this approach while remaining computationally manageable. Nonlinearities in the equations and the material properties are handled using a full Jacobian Newton-Raphson technique. Stress-strain relationships are assumed to follow linear elastic/plastic behavior. The code incorporates several plasticity models such as von Mises, Drucker-Prager, and also a large suite of models for coupling flow and mechanical deformation via permeability and stresses

  14. Mathematical modeling of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) axis, including hippocampal mechanisms. (United States)

    Andersen, Morten; Vinther, Frank; Ottesen, Johnny T


    This paper presents a mathematical model of the HPA axis. The HPA axis consists of the hypothalamus, the pituitary and the adrenal glands in which the three hormones CRH, ACTH and cortisol interact through receptor dynamics. Furthermore, it has been suggested that receptors in the hippocampus have an influence on the axis. A model is presented with three coupled, non-linear differential equations, with the hormones CRH, ACTH and cortisol as variables. The model includes the known features of the HPA axis, and includes the effects from the hippocampus through its impact on CRH in the hypothalamus. The model is investigated both analytically and numerically for oscillating solutions, related to the ultradian rhythm seen in data, and for multiple fixed points related to hypercortisolemic and hypocortisolemic depression. The existence of an attracting trapping region guarantees that solution curves stay non-negative and bounded, which can be interpreted as a mathematical formulation of homeostasis. No oscillating solutions are present when using physiologically reasonable parameter values. This indicates that the ultradian rhythm originate from different mechanisms. Using physiologically reasonable parameters, the system has a unique fixed point, and the system is globally stable. Therefore, solutions converge to the fixed point for all initial conditions. This is in agreement with cortisol levels returning to normal, after periods of mild stress, in healthy individuals. Perturbing parameters lead to a bifurcation, where two additional fixed points emerge. Thus, the system changes from having a unique stable fixed point into having three fixed points. Of the three fixed points, two are stable and one is unstable. Further investigations show that solutions converge to one of the two stable fixed points depending on the initial conditions. This could explain why healthy people becoming depressed usually fall into one of two groups: a hypercortisolemic depressive group or

  15. Analytical and numerical modelling of thermoviscous shocks in their interactions in nonlinear fluids including dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich


    A wave equation, that governs finite amplitude acoustic disturbances in a thermoviscous Newtonian fluid, and includes nonlinear terms up to second order, is proposed. The equation preserves the Hamiltonian structure of the fundamental fluid dynamical equations in the non dissipative limit. An exact...... thermoviscous shock solution is derived. This solution is, in an overall sense, equivalent to the Taylor shock solution of the Burgers equation. However, in contrast to the Burgers equation, the model equation considered here is capable to describe waves propagating in opposite directions. Studies of head...

  16. Dynamic experiments with high bisphenol-A concentrations modelled with an ASM model extended to include a separate XOC degrading microorganism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Press-Kristensen, Kåre; Vanrolleghem, P.A.


    with the endocrine disrupting XOC bisphenol-A (BPA) in an activated sludge process with real wastewater were used to hypothesize an ASM-based process model including aerobic growth of a specific BPA-degrading microorganism and sorption of BPA to sludge. A parameter estimation method was developed, which...

  17. Modeling ozone removal to indoor materials, including the effects of porosity, pore diameter, and thickness. (United States)

    Gall, Elliott T; Siegel, Jeffrey A; Corsi, Richard L


    We develop an ozone transport and reaction model to determine reaction probabilities and assess the importance of physical properties such as porosity, pore diameter, and material thickness on reactive uptake of ozone to five materials. The one-dimensional model accounts for molecular diffusion from bulk air to the air-material interface, reaction at the interface, and diffusive transport and reaction through material pore volumes. Material-ozone reaction probabilities that account for internal transport and internal pore area, γ(ipa), are determined by a minimization of residuals between predicted and experimentally derived ozone concentrations. Values of γ(ipa) are generally less than effective reaction probabilities (γ(eff)) determined previously, likely because of the inclusion of diffusion into substrates and reaction with internal surface area (rather than the use of the horizontally projected external material areas). Estimates of γ(ipa) average 1 × 10(-7), 2 × 10(-7), 4 × 10(-5), 2 × 10(-5), and 4 × 10(-7) for two types of cellulose paper, pervious pavement, Portland cement concrete, and an activated carbon cloth, respectively. The transport and reaction model developed here accounts for observed differences in ozone removal to varying thicknesses of the cellulose paper, and estimates a near constant γ(ipa) as material thickness increases from 0.02 to 0.16 cm.

  18. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS (United States)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.


    With 4 million ha currently grown for ethanol in Brazil only, approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005 (Smeets 2008), and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Indeed, ethanol made from biomass is currently the most widespread option for alternative transportation fuels. It was originally promoted as a carbon neutral energy resource that could bring energy independence to countries and local opportunities to farmers, until attention was drawn to its environmental and socio-economical drawbacks. It is still not clear to which extent it is a solution or a contributor to climate change mitigation. Dynamic Global Vegetation models can help address these issues and quantify the potential impacts of biofuels on ecosystems at scales ranging from on-site to global. The global agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE describes water, carbon and energy exchanges at the soil-atmosphere interface for a limited number of natural and agricultural vegetation types. In order to integrate agricultural management to the simulations and to capture more accurately the specificity of crops' phenology, ORCHIDEE has been coupled with the agronomical model STICS. The resulting crop-oriented vegetation model ORCHIDEE-STICS has been used so far to simulate temperate crops such as wheat, corn and soybean. As a generic ecosystem model, each grid cell can include several vegetation types with their own phenology and management practices, making it suitable to spatial simulations. Here, ORCHIDEE-STICS is altered to include sugar cane as a new agricultural Plant functional Type, implemented and parametrized using the STICS approach. An on-site calibration and validation is then performed based on biomass and flux chamber measurements in several sites in Australia and variables such as LAI, dry weight, heat fluxes and respiration are used to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate the specific

  19. Computational Models for Analysis of Illicit Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat

    . These models include a model for analyzing evolution of terrorist networks; a text classification model for detecting suspicious text and identification of suspected authors of anonymous emails; and a semantic analysis model for news reports, which may help analyze the illicit activities in certain area...... traditional models for both of the tasks. Apart from these globally organized crimes and cybercrimes, there happen specific world issues which affect geographic locations and take the form of bursts of public violence. These kinds of issues have received little attention by the academicians. These issues have...

  20. Intracellular activity of clinical concentrations of phenothiazines including thioridiazine against phagocytosed Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    Ordway, Diane; Viveiros, Miguel; Leandro, Clara; Arroz, Maria Jorge; Amaral, Leonard


    The effect of thioridazine (TZ) was studied on the killing activity of human peripheral blood monocyte derived macrophages (HPBMDM) and of human macrophage cell line THP-1 at extracellular concentrations below those achievable clinically. These macrophages have nominal killing activity against bacteria and therefore, would not influence any activity that the compounds may have against intracellular localised Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicated that whereas TZ has an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the strains of S. aureus of 18, 0.1 mg/l of TZ in the medium completely inhibits the growth of S. aureus that has been phagocytosed by macrophages. The latter concentration was non-toxic to macrophages, did not cause cellular expression of activation marker CD69 nor induction of CD3+ T cell production of IFN-gamma, but blocked cellular proliferation and down-regulated the production of T cell-derived cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-5). These results suggest that TZ induces intracellular bactericidal activities independent of the capacity to generate Type 1 responses against S. aureus.

  1. a New Model for Describing Evolution and Control of Disaster System Including Instantaneous and Continuous Actions (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Kun; Li, Zhi; Sun, Yun-Feng

    A new model for describing the disaster system including instantaneous and continuous action synchronously has been developed. The model is composed of three primary parts, that is, the impact from its causative disaster events, stochastic noise of disaster node and self-healing function, and every part is modeled concretely in terms of their characteristics in practice. Some key parameters, namely link appearance probability, retardation coefficient, ultimate repair capacity of government, dynamical modes considering different disaster evolving chains, and the positions of link with the specific performance in disaster network system are involved. Combined with a case study, the proposed model is applied to a certain disaster evolution system, and the influence law of different parameters on disaster evolution process, in disaster networks with instantaneous-action and/or continuous-action, is presented and compared. The results indicate that the destructive impact in the networks by link in continuous action is far greater an order of magnitude than that in instantaneous action. If a link in continuous action emerges in the disaster network system, properties of the causative event for the link, link appearance probability and its position in the network all have a notable influence to the severity of the disaster network. In addition, some peculiar phenomena are also commendably observed in the disaster evolution process based on the model, such as the multipeaks emerging in the destroyed rate number curve for some crisis nodes caused by their various inducing paths together with the relevant retardation coefficients, the existence of the critical value for ultimate repair capacity to recover the disaster node, and so on.

  2. Web-accessible molecular modeling with Rosetta: The Rosetta Online Server that Includes Everyone (ROSIE). (United States)

    Moretti, Rocco; Lyskov, Sergey; Das, Rhiju; Meiler, Jens; Gray, Jeffrey J


    The Rosetta molecular modeling software package provides a large number of experimentally validated tools for modeling and designing proteins, nucleic acids, and other biopolymers, with new protocols being added continually. While freely available to academic users, external usage is limited by the need for expertise in the Unix command line environment. To make Rosetta protocols available to a wider audience, we previously created a web server called Rosetta Online Server that Includes Everyone (ROSIE), which provides a common environment for hosting web-accessible Rosetta protocols. Here we describe a simplification of the ROSIE protocol specification format, one that permits easier implementation of Rosetta protocols. Whereas the previous format required creating multiple separate files in different locations, the new format allows specification of the protocol in a single file. This new, simplified protocol specification has more than doubled the number of Rosetta protocols available under ROSIE. These new applications include pKa determination, lipid accessibility calculation, ribonucleic acid redesign, protein-protein docking, protein-small molecule docking, symmetric docking, antibody docking, cyclic toxin docking, critical binding peptide determination, and mapping small molecule binding sites. ROSIE is freely available to academic users at © 2017 The Protein Society.

  3. Coupled modeling of land hydrology–regional climate including human carbon emission and water exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Hui Xie


    Full Text Available Carbon emissions and water use are two major kinds of human activities. To reveal whether these two activities can modify the hydrological cycle and climate system in China, we conducted two sets of numerical experiments using regional climate model RegCM4. In the first experiment used to study the climatic responses to human carbon emissions, the model were configured over entire China because the impacts of carbon emissions can be detected across the whole country. Results from the first experiment revealed that near-surface air temperature may significantly increase from 2007 to 2059 at a rate exceeding 0.1 °C per decade in most areas across the country; southwestern and southeastern China also showed increasing trends in summer precipitation, with rates exceeding 10 mm per decade over the same period. In summer, only northern China showed an increasing trend of evapotranspiration, with increase rates ranging from 1 to 5 mm per decade; in winter, increase rates ranging from 1 to 5 mm per decade were observed in most regions. These effects are believed to be caused by global warming from human carbon emissions. In the second experiment used to study the effects of human water use, the model were configured over a limited region—Haihe River Basin in the northern China, because compared with the human carbon emissions, the effects of human water use are much more local and regional, and the Haihe River Basin is the most typical region in China that suffers from both intensive human groundwater exploitation and surface water diversion. We incorporated a scheme of human water regulation into RegCM4 and conducted the second experiment. Model outputs showed that the groundwater table severely declined by ∼10 m in 1971–2000 through human groundwater over-exploitation in the basin; in fact, current conditions are so extreme that even reducing the pumping rate by half cannot eliminate the groundwater depletion cones observed in the area

  4. A coupled general circulation model for the Late Jurassic including fully interactive carbon cycling (United States)

    Williams, J.; Valdes, P. J.; Leith, T. L.; Sagoo, N.


    The climatology of a coupled atmosphere - ocean (including sea ice) general circulation model for the Late Jurassic epoch (Kimmeridgian stage) is presented. The simulation framework used is the FAMOUS climate model [Jones et al, Climate Dynamics 25, 189-204 (2005)], which is a reduced resolution configuration of the UK Met Office model HadCM3 [Pope et al, Climate Dynamics 16, 123-46 (2000)]. In order to enable computation of carbon fluxes through the Earth System, fully interactive terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycle modules are added to FAMOUS. These include temporally evolving vegetation on land and populations of zooplankton, phytoplankton and nitrogenous nutrients in the ocean. The Kimmeridgian was a time of significantly enhanced carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere (roughly four times preindustrial) and as such is a useful test bed for "paleocalibration" of a future climate perturbed by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases [Barron et al, Paleoceanography 10 (5) 953-962 (1995) for example]. From a geological perspective, the Kimmeridgian was also a time of significant laying down of hydrocarbon reserves (particularly in the North Sea) and thus the inclusion of a fully interactive carbon cycle in FAMOUS enables the study of the dysoxic (low oxygen) and circulatory conditions relevant to their formation and preservation. The parameter space of both the terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycles was explored using the Latin Hypercube method [Mckay, Proceedings of the 24th conference on winter simulation, ACM Press, Arlington, Virginia, 57-564 (1992)], which enables efficient yet rigorous sampling of multiple covarying parameters. These parameters were validated using present day observations of meteorological, vegetative and biological parameters since the data available for the Jurassic itself is relatively scarce. To remove subjective bias in the validation process, the "Arcsine Mielke" skill score was used [Watterson, Int. J. Climatology, 16, 379

  5. A Hydrological Concept including Lateral Water Flow Compatible with the Biogeochemical Model ForSAFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Zanchi


    Full Text Available The study presents a hydrology concept developed to include lateral water flow in the biogeochemical model ForSAFE. The hydrology concept was evaluated against data collected at Svartberget in the Vindeln Research Forest in Northern Sweden. The results show that the new concept allows simulation of a saturated and an unsaturated zone in the soil as well as water flow that reaches the stream comparable to measurements. The most relevant differences compared to streamflow measurements are that the model simulates a higher base flow in winter and lower flow peaks after snowmelt. These differences are mainly caused by the assumptions made to regulate the percolation at the bottom of the simulated soil columns. The capability for simulating lateral flows and a saturated zone in ForSAFE can greatly improve the simulation of chemical exchange in the soil and export of elements from the soil to watercourses. Such a model can help improve the understanding of how environmental changes in the forest landscape will influence chemical loads to surface waters.

  6. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy (United States)

    Kirk, Stacie M.; Kirk, Erik P.


    Background: The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Methods: Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA…

  7. Using assistive technology adaptations to include students with learning disabilities in cooperative learning activities. (United States)

    Bryant, D P; Bryant, B R


    Cooperative learning (CL) is a common instructional arrangement that is used by classroom teachers to foster academic achievement and social acceptance of students with and without learning disabilities. Cooperative learning is appealing to classroom teachers because it can provide an opportunity for more instruction and feedback by peers than can be provided by teachers to individual students who require extra assistance. Recent studies suggest that students with LD may need adaptations during cooperative learning activities. The use of assistive technology adaptations may be necessary to help some students with LD compensate for their specific learning difficulties so that they can engage more readily in cooperative learning activities. A process for integrating technology adaptations into cooperative learning activities is discussed in terms of three components: selecting adaptations, monitoring the use of the adaptations during cooperative learning activities, and evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. The article concludes with comments regarding barriers to and support systems for technology integration, technology and effective instructional practices, and the need to consider technology adaptations for students who have learning disabilities.

  8. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance agreement...

  9. Hybrid discrete-continuum modeling for transport, biofilm development and solid restructuring including electrostatic effects (United States)

    Prechtel, Alexander; Ray, Nadja; Rupp, Andreas


    We want to present an approach for the mathematical, mechanistic modeling and numerical treatment of processes leading to the formation, stability, and turnover of soil micro-aggregates. This aims at deterministic aggregation models including detailed mechanistic pore-scale descriptions to account for the interplay of geochemistry and microbiology, and the link to soil functions as, e.g., the porosity. We therefore consider processes at the pore scale and the mesoscale (laboratory scale). At the pore scale transport by diffusion, advection, and drift emerging from electric forces can be taken into account, in addition to homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions of species. In the context of soil micro-aggregates the growth of biofilms or other glueing substances as EPS (extracellular polymeric substances) is important and affects the structure of the pore space in space and time. This model is upscaled mathematically in the framework of (periodic) homogenization to transfer it to the mesoscale resulting in effective coefficients/parameters there. This micro-macro model thus couples macroscopic equations that describe the transport and fluid flow at the scale of the porous medium (mesoscale) with averaged time- and space-dependent coefficient functions. These functions may be explicitly computed by means of auxiliary cell problems (microscale). Finally, the pore space in which the cell problems are defined is time and space dependent and its geometry inherits information from the transport equation's solutions. The microscale problems rely on versatile combinations of cellular automata and discontiuous Galerkin methods while on the mesoscale mixed finite elements are used. The numerical simulations allow to study the interplay between these processes.

  10. 75 FR 69688 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related Forms That Will Be Included in... (United States)


    ... Contract Related Forms That Will Be Included in the Homeland Security Acquisition Regulation, DHS Form 0700... Officer, Acquisition Policy and Legislation Office, will submit the following Information Collection... will be accepted until January 14, 2011. This process is conducted in accordance with 5 CFR 1320.1...

  11. Beam propagation model for the laser hazard evaluations including optical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulmeister, K.; Althaus, S.; Grabner, U.; Vees, G. [ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH (Austria)


    A beam propagation model was developed to calculate the most hazardous position, the angular subtense of the apparent source, and the power that passes through a 7 mm representing the pupil of the eye for a Gaussian laser beam including the usage of magnifiers and telescopes. The results for the thermal retinal hazard are discussed and it is shown that for the telescope for most cases, at the most hazardous position, the beam waist can be treated as the apparent source, where the dependence and the regions are equivalent to those of the naked eye discussed elsewhere. For magnifying glasses, the beam is transformed in terms of beam waist diameter and divergence and consequently the dependencies and regions are also flipped. (orig.)

  12. Models that include supercoiling of topological domains reproduce several known features of interphase chromosomes. (United States)

    Benedetti, Fabrizio; Dorier, Julien; Burnier, Yannis; Stasiak, Andrzej


    Understanding the structure of interphase chromosomes is essential to elucidate regulatory mechanisms of gene expression. During recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing expanded the power of chromosome conformation capture (3C) methods that provide information about reciprocal spatial proximity of chromosomal loci. Since 2012, it is known that entire chromatin in interphase chromosomes is organized into regions with strongly increased frequency of internal contacts. These regions, with the average size of ∼1 Mb, were named topological domains. More recent studies demonstrated presence of unconstrained supercoiling in interphase chromosomes. Using Brownian dynamics simulations, we show here that by including supercoiling into models of topological domains one can reproduce and thus provide possible explanations of several experimentally observed characteristics of interphase chromosomes, such as their complex contact maps.

  13. Exergoeconomic performance optimization for a steady-flow endoreversible refrigeration model including six typical cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lingen; Kan, Xuxian; Sun, Fengrui; Wu, Feng [College of Naval Architecture and Power, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)


    The operation of a universal steady flow endoreversible refrigeration cycle model consisting of a constant thermal-capacity heating branch, two constant thermal-capacity cooling branches and two adiabatic branches is viewed as a production process with exergy as its output. The finite time exergoeconomic performance optimization of the refrigeration cycle is investigated by taking profit rate optimization criterion as the objective. The relations between the profit rate and the temperature ratio of working fluid, between the COP (coefficient of performance) and the temperature ratio of working fluid, as well as the optimal relation between profit rate and the COP of the cycle are derived. The focus of this paper is to search the compromised optimization between economics (profit rate) and the utilization factor (COP) for endoreversible refrigeration cycles, by searching the optimum COP at maximum profit, which is termed as the finite-time exergoeconomic performance bound. Moreover, performance analysis and optimization of the model are carried out in order to investigate the effect of cycle process on the performance of the cycles using numerical example. The results obtained herein include the performance characteristics of endoreversible Carnot, Diesel, Otto, Atkinson, Dual and Brayton refrigeration cycles.

  14. In vitro activity of Inula helenium against clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains including MRSA.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, S


    The present study aims to investigate the bactericidal activity (specifically antistaphylococcal) of Inula helenium. The antimicrobial activity of the extract is tested against 200 clinically significant Irish Staphylococcus aureus isolates consisting of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and -sensitive (MSSA) S. aureus using a drop test method and a microbroth dilution method. The antibacterial effect is evaluated by measuring the area of the inhibition zone against the isolates. Results proved I. helenium to be 100% effective against the 200 staphylococci tested, with 93% of isolates falling within the ++ and +++ groups. The minimum bactericidal concentration of I. helenium was examined on a subset of isolates and values ranged from 0.9 mg\\/mL to 9.0 mg\\/mL. The extract was equally effective against antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive strains. This plant therefore possesses compounds with potent antistaphylococcal properties, which in the future could be used to complement infection control policies and prevent staphylococcal infection and carriage. This research supports other studies wherein herbal plants exhibiting medicinal properties are being examined to overcome the problems of antibiotic resistance and to offer alternatives in the treatment and control of infectious diseases.

  15. Evidence to support including lifestyle light-intensity recommendations in physical activity guidelines for older adults. (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Lee, Hyo; Cardinal, Bradley J


    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of objectively measured lifestyle light-intensity physical activity (LLPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with various biological markers and chronic diseases among a nationally representative sample of U.S. older adults (65+ years). A cross-sectional design was used for this study. Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006. Subjects were 1,496 older U.S. adults. Participants wore an accelerometer for at least 4 days and completed questionnaires to assess sociodemographics and chronic disease information. Blood samples were taken to assess biological markers. Adjusted Wald tests and Poisson regression were used to examine the association of LLPA and MVPA with biological markers and chronic disease. Older adults engaging in ≥300 min/wk of LLPA had lower observed values for body mass index, waist circumference, C-reactive protein, and insulin resistance compared to those engaging in engaging in engaging in ≥300 min/wk of LLPA. In this national sample of older U.S. adults, participation in at least 300 min/wk of LLPA was associated with more favorable health outcomes. Future experimental studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  16. Active immunisation of horses against tetanus including the booster dose and its application. (United States)

    Liefman, C E


    Successful active immunisation of horses against tetanus is dependent on a number of factors of which the toxoid preparation used, its method of application and the ability of the individual horse to respond are fundamental. Two immunisation schedules using an aluminium-based toxoid preparation were examined and the protection determined by monitoring the level of antitoxin afforded by each schedule. The results obtained demonstrated that 2 doses of this toxoid are necessary to ensure 12 months protection in all horses. These results are discussed in relation to the factors involved in active immunisation against tetanus. Reference is also made to the occurrence of a transient phase of reduced levels of antitoxin following booster doses of toxoid in immunised horses during which it is considered these horses could become more susceptible to tetanus. The effect of a booster dose on immunised horses was examined and while there can be a reduction in the level of antitoxin in some immunised horses following this dose its effect is minimal, short-lived and for all practical purposes can be disregarded. The application of the booster dose in practice is also discussed.

  17. Potential factors, including activities of daily living, influencing home discharge for patients with putaminal haemorrhage. (United States)

    Maeshima, Shinichiro; Okamoto, Sayaka; Okazaki, Hideto; Mizuno, Shiho; Asano, Naoki; Maeda, Hirofumi; Masaki, Mitsuko; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Tsunoda, Tetsuya; Sonoda, Shigeru


    Convalescent rehabilitation wards assist stroke patients in acquiring skills for activities of daily living to increase the likelihood of home discharge. However, an improvement in activities of daily living does not necessarily imply that patients are discharged home. We investigated the characteristics of patients with putaminal haemorrhage who are discharged home following convalescence in rehabilitation wards. The sample comprised 89 patients (58 men and 31 women) with putaminal haemorrhage hospitalised in the convalescent rehabilitation ward of our hospital between August 2012 and July 2013. Their age ranged from 29 to 88 years (61.9 ± 11.9 years). The lesion occurred on the right side in 48 and on the left in 41 patients. The mean period from onset to hospitalisation in the convalescent rehabilitation ward was 30.8 ± 17.2 days, and the mean hospitalisation period was 70.7 ± 31.8 days. We examined age, sex, haematoma volume, duration from onset to hospitalisation, neurological symptoms, cognitive function, functional independence measure, number of cohabitating family members and whether the patient lived alone before stroke, and the relationship among these factors and discharge destination (home or facility/hospital) was assessed. The discharge destination was home for 71 and a facility or hospital for 18 patients. Differences were observed in age, haematoma volume, neurological symptoms, cognitive function, functional independence measure score on admission and discharge, number of cohabitating family members and whether the patient lived alone before stroke for patients discharged home. Patients who required long-term care and were discharged home were more likely to be living with family members who were present during daytime. Home discharge was possible if functional independence measure score was ≥70 at the time of discharge for motor items and ≥24 for cognitive items, even if a patient lived alone before stroke. Although the

  18. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included Within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy. (United States)

    Kirk, Stacie M; Kirk, Erik P


    The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA intervention and a second site participating as the control site. The PA program was designed to promote 300 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous PA academic lessons. Academic achievement related to early literacy and phonological awareness in the areas of rhyming and alliteration were assessed at baseline, 4 and 8 months. Over 8 months, rhyming significantly (p literacy. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  19. Achieving desired plant growth regulator levels in liquid plant tissue culture media that include activated carbon. (United States)

    Van Winkle, Stephen C; Pullman, Gerald S


    This paper is part of a series considering the impact of activated carbon (AC) on the composition of plant tissue culture media. Using liquid culture media for initiation of Norway spruce embryogenic tissue and eight different ACs, we present a method for achieving target plant growth regulator (PGR) levels in AC-containing medium based on sorption isotherms for individual PGRs. Linear relationships were found between PGR adsorption and specific BET (Brunauer, Emmett, Teller theory) surface area and specific total pore volume of AC. When using a new AC, this linear relationship allows one to achieve multiple PGR levels similar to historic levels through adjustment of the mass of AC based on its relative BET surface area or relative total pore volume. Target levels of PGRs and an initiation success similar to that in medium without AC were achieved with several different AC types when AC mass was adjusted on the basis of pore volume.

  20. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Kruzic


    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

  1. Education outcomes related to including genomics activities in nursing practice in Singapore. (United States)

    Pestka, Elizabeth; Lim, Swee Hia; Png, Hong Hock


    The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of a genomic educational intervention by measuring the extent participants could apply the class content to practice. A sample of 76 nurses employed by Singapore Health Services, Singapore, participated in a nursing genomics seminar in 2008 and completed a survey form with a response rate of 89%. Every respondent was able to identify use of a genomic assessment or intervention item with a patient from their clinical practice. The mean use of genomic assessment and intervention items was 5.8 out of a possible 10. The most frequently used items were assessment of family history information, environmental factors and genomic physical findings. Findings provide evidence that nurses are able to include genomic assessments and interventions in their practice following targeted education. This study highlights how informed nurses are able to apply genomic assessments and interventions to individualize patient care.

  2. Ozone control of biological activity during Earth's history, including the KT catastrophe (United States)

    Sheldon, W. R.


    There have been brief periods since the beginning of the Cambrian some 600 m.y. ago when mass extinctions destroyed a significant fraction of living species. The most widely studied of these events is the catastrophe at the KT boundary that ended the long dominance of the dinosaurs. In addition to mass extinctions, there is another profound discontinuity in the history of Earth's biota, the explosion of life at the end of the Precambrian era which is an episode that is not explained well at all. For some 3 b.y. before the Cambrian, life had been present on Earth, but maintained a low level of activity which is an aspect of the biota that is puzzling, especially during the last two-thirds of that period. During the last 2 b.y. before the Cambrian, conditions at the Earth's surface were suitable for a burgeoning of the biota, according to most criteria: the oceans neither boiled nor were fozen solid during this time, and the atmosphere contained sufficient O for the development of animals. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that mass extinctions and the lackluster behavior of the Precambrian biota share a common cause: an inadequate amount of ozone in the atmosphere.

  3. Multifunctional colloidal nanofiber composites including dextran and folic acid as electro-active platforms. (United States)

    Rzayev, Zakir M O; Bunyatova, Ulviye; Şimșek, Murat


    This work presents the fabrication and characterization of novel colloidal multifunctional polymer nanofiber composites (NFCs) from water dispersion blends of intercalated silicate layered nanocomposites of poly (2-vinyl-N-pyrrolidone)/octadecyl amine-montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) and dextran/ODA-MMT as matrix and partner polymer intercalated nanocomposites in the presence of NaOH and folic acid (FA) as doping agents by green reactive electrospinning. Chemical and physical structures, surface morphology and electrical properties were investigated. Effects of matrix/partner polymer ratios, doping agents, absorption time of NaOH, and temperature on electrical parameters of NFCs were evaluated. The presence of FA and increasing dextran fraction in NFCs resulted in reducing fiber diameter and improving diameter distribution. High complexing behaviors of matrix/partner polymer chains, organoclay, FA, and NaOH significantly improved conductivity parameters, especially 5-min of absorption time (≈10 -2 -10 - 3 Sm -1 ). The conductivity of the samples decreased with increasing temperature. NFCs fabricated for the first time are promising candidates for various biomedical, electrochemical and electronic applications as electro-active platforms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A single parameter representation of hygroscopic growth and cloud condensation nucleus activity – Part 2: Including solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Petters


    Full Text Available The ability of a particle to serve as a cloud condensation nucleus in the atmosphere is determined by its size, hygroscopicity and its solubility in water. Usually size and hygroscopicity alone are sufficient to predict CCN activity. Single parameter representations for hygroscopicity have been shown to successfully model complex, multicomponent particles types. Under the assumption of either complete solubility, or complete insolubility of a component, it is not necessary to explicitly include that component's solubility into the single parameter framework. This is not the case if sparingly soluble materials are present. In this work we explicitly account for solubility by modifying the single parameter equations. We demonstrate that sensitivity to the actual value of solubility emerges only in the regime of 2×10−1–5×10−4, where the solubility values are expressed as volume of solute per unit volume of water present in a saturated solution. Compounds that do not fall inside this sparingly soluble envelope can be adequately modeled assuming they are either infinitely soluble in water or completely insoluble.

  5. Mathematical and numerical model of directional solidification including initial and terminal transients of the process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kapturkiewicz


    Full Text Available The, developed in this study, simple model and numerical solution of diffusion growth of the solid phase under the conditions of directional solidification allow for the effect of constituent diffusion in both liquid and solid phase and assume the process run in which (like in reality the preset parameter is the velocity of sample (pulling velocity at a preset temperature gradient. The solid/liquid interface velocity is not the process parameter (like it is in numerous other solutions proposed so far but a function of this process. The effect of convection outside the diffusion layer has been included in mass balance under the assumption that in the zone of convection the mixing is complete. The above assumptions enabled solving the kinetics of growth of the solid phase (along with the diffusion field in solid and liquid phase under the conditions of diffusion well reflecting the process run starting with the initial transient state, going through the steady state period in central part of the casting, and ending in a terminal transient state. In the numerical solution obtained by the finite difference method with variable grid dimensions, the error of the mass control balance over the whole process range was 1 - 2 %.

  6. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development... (United States)


    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development staff...

  7. Speech recognition based on statistical models including multiple phonetic decision trees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shiota, Sayaka; Hashimoto, Kei; Zen, Heiga; Nankaku, Yoshihiko; Lee, Akinobu; Tokuda, Keiichi


    We propose a speech recognition technique using multiple model structures. In the use of context-dependent models, decision-tree-based context clustering is applied to find an appropriate parameter tying structure...

  8. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities (United States)

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten


    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending time…

  9. Modelling stress-dependent permeability in fractured rock including effects of propagating and bending fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latham, J.P.; Xiang, J.; Belayneh, M.; Nick, H.M.; Tsang, C.F.; Blunt, M.J.


    The influence of in-situ stresses on flow processes in fractured rock is investigated using a novel modelling approach. The combined finite-discrete element method (FEMDEM) is used to model the deformation of a fractured rock mass. The fracture wall displacements and aperture changes are modelled in

  10. ETM documentation update – including modelling conventions and manual for software tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik

    , it summarises the work done during 2013, and it also contains presentations for promotion of fusion as a future element in the electricity generation mix and presentations for the modelling community concerning model development and model documentation – in particular for TIAM collaboration workshops....

  11. Analysis of Two Stroke Marine Diesel Engine Operation Including Turbocharger Cut-Out by Using a Zero-Dimensional Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Guan


    Full Text Available In this article, the operation of a large two-stroke marine diesel engine including various cases with turbocharger cut-out was thoroughly investigated by using a modular zero-dimensional engine model built in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The model was developed by using as a basis an in-house modular mean value engine model, in which the existing cylinder block was replaced by a more detailed one that is capable of representing the scavenging ports-cylinder-exhaust valve processes. Simulation of the engine operation at steady state conditions was performed and the derived engine performance parameters were compared with the respective values obtained by the engine shop trials. The investigation of engine operation under turbocharger cut-out conditions in the region from 10% to 50% load was carried out and the influence of turbocharger cut-out on engine performance including the in-cylinder parameters was comprehensively studied. The recommended schedule for the combination of the turbocharger cut-out and blower activation was discussed for the engine operation under part load conditions. Finally, the influence of engine operating strategies on the annual fuel savings, CO2 emissions reduction and blower operating hours for a Panamax container ship operating at slow steaming conditions is presented and discussed.

  12. Serverification of Molecular Modeling Applications: The Rosetta Online Server That Includes Everyone (ROSIE) (United States)

    Conchúir, Shane Ó.; Der, Bryan S.; Drew, Kevin; Kuroda, Daisuke; Xu, Jianqing; Weitzner, Brian D.; Renfrew, P. Douglas; Sripakdeevong, Parin; Borgo, Benjamin; Havranek, James J.; Kuhlman, Brian; Kortemme, Tanja; Bonneau, Richard; Gray, Jeffrey J.; Das, Rhiju


    The Rosetta molecular modeling software package provides experimentally tested and rapidly evolving tools for the 3D structure prediction and high-resolution design of proteins, nucleic acids, and a growing number of non-natural polymers. Despite its free availability to academic users and improving documentation, use of Rosetta has largely remained confined to developers and their immediate collaborators due to the code’s difficulty of use, the requirement for large computational resources, and the unavailability of servers for most of the Rosetta applications. Here, we present a unified web framework for Rosetta applications called ROSIE (Rosetta Online Server that Includes Everyone). ROSIE provides (a) a common user interface for Rosetta protocols, (b) a stable application programming interface for developers to add additional protocols, (c) a flexible back-end to allow leveraging of computer cluster resources shared by RosettaCommons member institutions, and (d) centralized administration by the RosettaCommons to ensure continuous maintenance. This paper describes the ROSIE server infrastructure, a step-by-step ‘serverification’ protocol for use by Rosetta developers, and the deployment of the first nine ROSIE applications by six separate developer teams: Docking, RNA de novo, ERRASER, Antibody, Sequence Tolerance, Supercharge, Beta peptide design, NCBB design, and VIP redesign. As illustrated by the number and diversity of these applications, ROSIE offers a general and speedy paradigm for serverification of Rosetta applications that incurs negligible cost to developers and lowers barriers to Rosetta use for the broader biological community. ROSIE is available at PMID:23717507

  13. Extending Galactic Habitable Zone Modelling to Include the Emergence of Intelligent Life (United States)

    Morrison, I. S.; Gowanlock, M. G.


    Previous studies of the Galactic Habitable Zone (GHZ) have been concerned with identifying those regions of the Galaxy that may favour the emergence of "complex life" - typically defined to be land-based life. A planet is deemed "habitable" if it meets a set of assumed criteria for supporting the emergence of such complex life. The notion of the GHZ, and the premise that sufficient chemical evolution is required for planet formation, was quantified by Gonzalez et al. (2001). This work was later broadened to include dangers to the formation and habitability of terrestrial planets by Lineweaver et al. (2004) and then studied using a Monte Carlo simulation on the resolution of individual stars in the previous work of Gowanlock et al. (2011). The model developed in the latter work considers the stellar number density distribution and formation history of the Galaxy, planet formation mechanisms and the hazards to planetary biospheres as a result of supernova sterilization events that take place in the vicinity of the planets. Based on timescales taken from the origin and evolution of complex life on Earth, the model suggests large numbers of potentially habitable planets exist in our Galaxy, with the greatest concentration likely being towards the inner Galaxy. In this work we extend the assessment of habitability to consider the potential for life to further evolve on habitable planets to the point of intelligence - which we term the propensity for the emergence of intelligent life. We assume the propensity is strongly influenced by the time durations available for evolutionary processes to proceed undisturbed by the "resetting" effect of nearby supernovae. The model of Gowanlock et al. (2011) is used to produce a representative population of habitable planets by matching major observable properties of the Milky Way. Account is taken of the birth and death dates of each habitable planet and the timing of supernova events in each planet's vicinity. The times between

  14. A Two-Account Life Insurance Model for Scenario-Based Valuation Including Event Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ninna Reitzel; Schomacker, Kristian Juul


    model by conducting scenario analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation, but the model applies to scenarios in general and to worst-case and best-estimate scenarios in particular. In addition to easy computations, our model offers a common framework for the valuation of life insurance payments across......Using a two-account model with event risk, we model life insurance contracts taking into account both guaranteed and non-guaranteed payments in participating life insurance as well as in unit-linked insurance. Here, event risk is used as a generic term for life insurance events, such as death...... and unit-linked insurance. By use of a two-account model, we are able to illustrate general concepts without making the model too abstract. To allow for complicated financial markets without dramatically increasing the mathematical complexity, we focus on economic scenarios. We illustrate the use of our...

  15. Modifications of the optimal velocity traffic model to include delay due to driver reaction time (United States)

    Davis, L. C.


    Straightforward inclusion of a delay time due to driver reaction time in the optimal velocity (OV) model reveals an unphysical sensitivity to driver reaction times. For delay times of nearly 1 s, which are typical for most drivers, oscillations in vehicle velocity induced by encountering a slower vehicle grow until limited by non-linear effects. Simulations demonstrate that unrealistically small delay times are needed for lengthy platoons of vehicles to avoid collisions. This is a serious limitation of the OV model. Other models, such as the inertial car-following model, allow somewhat larger delay times, but also show unphysical effects. Modifications of the OV model to overcome this deficiency are demonstrated. In addition, unphysical short-period oscillations of vehicle velocity are eliminated by introducing partial car-following into the model. Traffic jams are caused primarily by the delay due to driver reaction time in the modified OV model.

  16. Measurement network design including traveltime determinations to minimize model prediction uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.M.C.M.; Valstar, J.R.; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der


    Traveltime determinations have found increasing application in the characterization of groundwater systems. No algorithms are available, however, to optimally design sampling strategies including this information type. We propose a first-order methodology to include groundwater age or tracer arrival

  17. Laboratory Studies of the Reactive Chemistry and Changing CCN Properties of Secondary Organic Aerosol, Including Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scot Martin


    The chemical evolution of secondary-organic-aerosol (SOA) particles and how this evolution alters their cloud-nucleating properties were studied. Simplified forms of full Koehler theory were targeted, specifically forms that contain only those aspects essential to describing the laboratory observations, because of the requirement to minimize computational burden for use in integrated climate and chemistry models. The associated data analysis and interpretation have therefore focused on model development in the framework of modified kappa-Koehler theory. Kappa is a single parameter describing effective hygroscopicity, grouping together several separate physicochemical parameters (e.g., molar volume, surface tension, and van't Hoff factor) that otherwise must be tracked and evaluated in an iterative full-Koehler equation in a large-scale model. A major finding of the project was that secondary organic materials produced by the oxidation of a range of biogenic volatile organic compounds for diverse conditions have kappa values bracketed in the range of 0.10 +/- 0.05. In these same experiments, somewhat incongruently there was significant chemical variation in the secondary organic material, especially oxidation state, as was indicated by changes in the particle mass spectra. Taken together, these findings then support the use of kappa as a simplified yet accurate general parameter to represent the CCN activation of secondary organic material in large-scale atmospheric and climate models, thereby greatly reducing the computational burden while simultaneously including the most recent mechanistic findings of laboratory studies.

  18. Including effects of microstructure and anisotropy in theoretical models describing hysteresis of ferromagnetic materials


    Hauser, H.; Melikhov, Yevgen; Jiles, David


    Two recent theoretical hysteresis models (Jiles-Atherton model and energetic model) are examined with respect to their capability to describe the dependence of the magnetization on magnetic field, microstructure, and anisotropy. It is shown that the classical Rayleigh law for the behavior of magnetization at low fields and the Stoner-Wohlfarth theory of domain magnetization rotation in noninteracting magnetic single domain particles can be considered as limiting cases of a more general theore...

  19. Two methods for modeling vibrations of planetary gearboxes including faults: Comparison and validation (United States)

    Parra, J.; Vicuña, Cristián Molina


    Planetary gearboxes are important components of many industrial applications. Vibration analysis can increase their lifetime and prevent expensive repair and safety concerns. However, an effective analysis is only possible if the vibration features of planetary gearboxes are properly understood. In this paper, models are used to study the frequency content of planetary gearbox vibrations under non-fault and different fault conditions. Two different models are considered: phenomenological model, which is an analytical-mathematical formulation based on observation, and lumped-parameter model, which is based on the solution of the equations of motion of the system. Results of both models are not directly comparable, because the phenomenological model provides the vibration on a fixed radial direction, such as the measurements of the vibration sensor mounted on the outer part of the ring gear. On the other hand, the lumped-parameter model provides the vibrations on the basis of a rotating reference frame fixed to the carrier. To overcome this situation, a function to decompose the lumped-parameter model solutions to a fixed reference frame is presented. Finally, comparisons of results from both model perspectives and experimental measurements are presented.

  20. Radioreceptor assay to study the affinity of benzodiazepines and their receptor binding activity in human plasma including their active metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorow, R.G.; Seidler, J.; Schneider, H.H. (Schering A.G., Berlin (Germany, F.R.))


    A radioreceptor assay has been established to measure the receptor affinities of numerous benzodiazepines in clinical use. The time course of receptor binding activity was studied by this method in the plasma of eight healthy subjects randomly treated with 1mg lormetazepam (Noctamid(R)), 2mg flunitrazepam (Rohypnol(R)), and 10mg diazepam (Valium(R)), and placebo on a cross-over basis. Blood samples were collected up to 154h after treatment. Receptor affinities of numerous benzodiazepines in vitro show good correlation with therapeutic human doses (r=0.96) and may be predictive of drug potency in man. Mean peak plasma levels of lormetazepam binding equivalents were 4.8+-1 ng/ml at 2h after lormetazepam, 7.2+-1.8 ng/ml at 8h after flunitrazepam, and 17.9+-2.7 ng/ml at 15h after diazepam. Plasma elimination halflives of benzodiazepine binding equivalents were 9.3, 23 and 63h, respectively. Slow elimination of benzodiazepine binding equivalents following flunitrazepam and diazepam may be due to persistent active metabolites.

  1. A model for firm-specific strategic wisdom : including illustrations and 49 guiding questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straten, Roeland Peter


    This PhD thesis provides an answer to the question ‘How may one think strategically’. It does so by presenting a new prescriptive ‘Model for Firm-Specific Strategic Wisdom’. This Model aims to guide any individual strategist in his or her thinking from a state of firm-specific ‘ignorance’ to a state

  2. Gasification of biomass in a fixed bed downdraft gasifier--a realistic model including tar. (United States)

    Barman, Niladri Sekhar; Ghosh, Sudip; De, Sudipta


    This study presents a model for fixed bed downdraft biomass gasifiers considering tar also as one of the gasification products. A representative tar composition along with its mole fractions, as available in the literature was used as an input parameter within the model. The study used an equilibrium approach for the applicable gasification reactions and also considered possible deviations from equilibrium to further upgrade the equilibrium model to validate a range of reported experimental results. Heat balance was applied to predict the gasification temperature and the predicted values were compared with reported results in literature. A comparative study was made with some reference models available in the literature and also with experimental results reported in the literature. Finally a predicted variation of performance of the gasifier by this validated model for different air-fuel ratio and moisture content was also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Spatial modelling of marine organisms in Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Including calculation of physical predictor variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlen, Ida; Nikolopoulos, Anna; Isaeus, Martin (AquaBiota Water Research, Stockholm (SE))


    GIS grids (maps) of marine parameters were created using point data from previous site investigations in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The proportion of global radiation reaching the sea bottom in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated in ArcView, using Secchi depth measurements and the digital elevation models for the respective area. The number of days per year when the incoming light exceeds 5 MJ/m2 at the bottom was then calculated using the result of the previous calculations together with measured global radiation. Existing modelled grid-point data on bottom and pelagic temperature for Forsmark were interpolated to create surface covering grids. Bottom and pelagic temperature grids for Oskarshamn were calculated using point measurements to achieve yearly averages for a few points and then using regressions with existing grids to create new maps. Phytoplankton primary production in Forsmark was calculated using point measurements of chlorophyll and irradiance, and a regression with a modelled grid of Secchi depth. Distribution of biomass of macrophyte communities in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated using spatial modelling in GRASP, based on field data from previous surveys. Physical parameters such as those described above were used as predictor variables. Distribution of biomass of different functional groups of fish in Forsmark was calculated using spatial modelling based on previous surveys and with predictor variables such as physical parameters and results from macrophyte modelling. All results are presented as maps in the report. The quality of the modelled predictions varies as a consequence of the quality and amount of the input data, the ecology and knowledge of the predicted phenomena, and by the modelling technique used. A substantial part of the variation is not described by the models, which should be expected for biological modelling. Therefore, the resulting grids should be used with caution and with this uncertainty kept in mind. All

  4. Potential transformation of trace species including aircraft exhaust in a cloud environment. The `Chedrom model`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolin, Y.E.; Karol, I.L. [Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ramaroson, R. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)


    Box model for coupled gaseous and aqueous phases is used for sensitivity study of potential transformation of trace gases in a cloud environment. The rate of this transformation decreases with decreasing of pH in droplets, with decreasing of photodissociation rates inside the cloud and with increasing of the droplet size. Model calculations show the potential formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in aqueous phase and transformation of gaseous HNO{sub 3} into NO{sub x} in a cloud. This model is applied for exploration of aircraft exhausts evolution in plume inside a cloud. (author) 10 refs.

  5. Hybrid Model Representation of a TLP Including Flexible Topsides in Non-Linear Regular Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof; Ferri, Francesco; Andersen, Morten Thøtt


    technologies able to solve this challenge is the floating wind turbine foundation. For the ultimate limit state, where higher order wave loads have a significant influence, a design tool that couples non-linear excitations with structural dynamics is required. To properly describe the behavior...... of such a structure, a numerical model is proposed and validated by physical test results. The model is applied to a case study of a tension leg platform with a flexible topside mimicking the tower and a lumped mass mimicking the rotor-nacelle assembly. The model is additionally compared to current commercial...

  6. A Lumped Thermal Model Including Thermal Coupling and Thermal Boundary Conditions for High Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede


    Detailed thermal dynamics of high power IGBT modules are important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated thermal behavior in the IGBTs: The typically used...... thermal model based on one-dimensional RC lumps have limits to provide temperature distributions inside the device, moreover some variable factors in the real-field applications like the cooling and heating conditions of the converter cannot be adapted. On the other hand, the more advanced three......-dimensional thermal models based on Finite Element Method (FEM) need massive computations, which make the long-term thermal dynamics difficult to calculate. In this paper, a new lumped three-dimensional thermal model is proposed, which can be easily characterized from FEM simulations and can acquire the critical...

  7. Progress in turbulence modeling for complex flow fields including effects of compressibility (United States)

    Wilcox, D. C.; Rubesin, M. W.


    Two second-order-closure turbulence models were devised that are suitable for predicting properties of complex turbulent flow fields in both incompressible and compressible fluids. One model is of the "two-equation" variety in which closure is accomplished by introducing an eddy viscosity which depends on both a turbulent mixing energy and a dissipation rate per unit energy, that is, a specific dissipation rate. The other model is a "Reynolds stress equation" (RSE) formulation in which all components of the Reynolds stress tensor and turbulent heat-flux vector are computed directly and are scaled by the specific dissipation rate. Computations based on these models are compared with measurements for the following flow fields: (a) low speed, high Reynolds number channel flows with plane strain or uniform shear; (b) equilibrium turbulent boundary layers with and without pressure gradients or effects of compressibility; and (c) flow over a convex surface with and without a pressure gradient.

  8. Including nonequilibrium interface kinetics in a continuum model for melting nanoscaled particles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Back, Julian M; McCue, Scott W; Moroney, Timothy J


    .... This relationship is most often modelled by a Gibbs-Thomson law, with the decrease in melting temperature proposed to be a product of the curvature of the solid-melt interface and the surface tension...

  9. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas


    .... We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of the school and on the...

  10. A Novel Mean-Value Model of the Cardiovascular System Including a Left Ventricular Assist Device. (United States)

    Ochsner, Gregor; Amacher, Raffael; Schmid Daners, Marianne


    Time-varying elastance models (TVEMs) are often used for simulation studies of the cardiovascular system with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Because these models are computationally expensive, they cannot be used for long-term simulation studies. In addition, their equilibria are periodic solutions, which prevent the extraction of a linear time-invariant model that could be used e.g. for the design of a physiological controller. In the current paper, we present a new type of model to overcome these problems: the mean-value model (MVM). The MVM captures the behavior of the cardiovascular system by representative mean values that do not change within the cardiac cycle. For this purpose, each time-varying element is manually converted to its mean-value counterpart. We compare the derived MVM to a similar TVEM in two simulation experiments. In both cases, the MVM is able to fully capture the inter-cycle dynamics of the TVEM. We hope that the new MVM will become a useful tool for researchers working on physiological control algorithms. This paper provides a plant model that enables for the first time the use of tools from classical control theory in the field of physiological LVAD control.

  11. Model of Organic Solar Cell Photocurrent Including the Effect of Charge Accumulation at Interfaces and Non-Uniform Carrier Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torto, Lorenzo; Cester, Andrea; Rizzo, Antonio


    We developed an improved model to fit the photocurrent density versus voltage in organic solar cells. The model has been validated by fitting data from P3HT:PCBM solar cells. Our model quantitatively accounts for the band bending near the electrodes caused by charge accumulation in the active layer...

  12. Including the effects of debris cover in a distributed glacier energy balance model (Invited) (United States)

    Pellicciotti, F.; Reid, T.; Carenzo, M.; Brock, B. W.


    Distributed models of glacier energy balance, which make use of digital elevation models and extensive spatial data on local meteorology, have become very useful tools for predicting glacial ablation and runoff in recent years. They generally function by running a one-dimensional energy balance model at every point on a grid on the glacier surface - for each point in the grid the ablation is calculated based on the balance of heat fluxes at the ice-air boundary. However, one key component has been missing from distributed models to date, namely the effects of debris cover. Many glacier ablation zones are mantled in near-continuous blankets of rock debris, and debris-covered glaciers are important drivers of the water cycle in the European Alps, Andes and Himalayas. Moreover, debris covers have been seen to expand in recent years, so it is essential to assess exactly how the presence of debris may affect a glacier’s surface energy balance and potential responses to climate changes. The effects of a debris cover are complicated by the varying surface roughness, albedo and thermal properties of the debris in question, but generally a debris cover reduces glacier melt rate by insulating the glacier surface from direct solar radiation. Even on glaciers where the debris cover is not continuous, isolated patches of debris caused by rockfalls can affect the glacier evolution by introducing differential ablation across the glacier surface, thus creating ice-cored moraines that may persist after ‘clean’ parts of the glacier have wasted away. This paper presents the results of incorporating a one-dimensional ‘debris energy balance model’ called DEB-Model (Reid and Brock 2010) into a distributed melt model for Haut Glacier d’Arolla, Switzerland. DEB-Model numerically estimates debris surface temperature by considering the balance of heat fluxes at the air-debris interface, then calculates heat conduction through the debris in order to estimate melt rates at the

  13. Including crystal structure attributes in machine learning models of formation energies via Voronoi tessellations (United States)

    Ward, Logan; Liu, Ruoqian; Krishna, Amar; Hegde, Vinay I.; Agrawal, Ankit; Choudhary, Alok; Wolverton, Chris


    While high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) has become a prevalent tool for materials discovery, it is limited by the relatively large computational cost. In this paper, we explore using DFT data from high-throughput calculations to create faster, surrogate models with machine learning (ML) that can be used to guide new searches. Our method works by using decision tree models to map DFT-calculated formation enthalpies to a set of attributes consisting of two distinct types: (i) composition-dependent attributes of elemental properties (as have been used in previous ML models of DFT formation energies), combined with (ii) attributes derived from the Voronoi tessellation of the compound's crystal structure. The ML models created using this method have half the cross-validation error and similar training and evaluation speeds to models created with the Coulomb matrix and partial radial distribution function methods. For a dataset of 435 000 formation energies taken from the Open Quantum Materials Database (OQMD), our model achieves a mean absolute error of 80 meV/atom in cross validation, which is lower than the approximate error between DFT-computed and experimentally measured formation enthalpies and below 15% of the mean absolute deviation of the training set. We also demonstrate that our method can accurately estimate the formation energy of materials outside of the training set and be used to identify materials with especially large formation enthalpies. We propose that our models can be used to accelerate the discovery of new materials by identifying the most promising materials to study with DFT at little additional computational cost.

  14. Kinetic modelling of anaerobic hydrolysis of solid wastes, including disintegration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Gen, Santiago [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sousbie, Philippe; Rangaraj, Ganesh [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France); Lema, Juan M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Rodríguez, Jorge, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Institute Centre for Water and Environment (iWater), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, PO Box 54224 Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Torrijos, Michel [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France)


    Highlights: • Fractionation of solid wastes into readily and slowly biodegradable fractions. • Kinetic coefficients estimation from mono-digestion batch assays. • Validation of kinetic coefficients with a co-digestion continuous experiment. • Simulation of batch and continuous experiments with an ADM1-based model. - Abstract: A methodology to estimate disintegration and hydrolysis kinetic parameters of solid wastes and validate an ADM1-based anaerobic co-digestion model is presented. Kinetic parameters of the model were calibrated from batch reactor experiments treating individually fruit and vegetable wastes (among other residues) following a new protocol for batch tests. In addition, decoupled disintegration kinetics for readily and slowly biodegradable fractions of solid wastes was considered. Calibrated parameters from batch assays of individual substrates were used to validate the model for a semi-continuous co-digestion operation treating simultaneously 5 fruit and vegetable wastes. The semi-continuous experiment was carried out in a lab-scale CSTR reactor for 15 weeks at organic loading rate ranging between 2.0 and 4.7 g VS/L d. The model (built in Matlab/Simulink) fit to a large extent the experimental results in both batch and semi-continuous mode and served as a powerful tool to simulate the digestion or co-digestion of solid wastes.

  15. A Simple Model of Fields Including the Strong or Nuclear Force and a Cosmological Speculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Spencer


    Full Text Available Reexamining the assumptions underlying the General Theory of Relativity and calling an object's gravitational field its inertia, and acceleration simply resistance to that inertia, yields a simple field model where the potential (kinetic energy of a particle at rest is its capacity to move itself when its inertial field becomes imbalanced. The model then attributes electromagnetic and strong forces to the effects of changes in basic particle shape. Following up on the model's assumption that the relative intensity of a particle's gravitational field is always inversely related to its perceived volume and assuming that all black holes spin, may create the possibility of a cosmic rebound where a final spinning black hole ends with a new Big Bang.

  16. Hybrid Model Representation of a TLP Including Flexible Topsides in Non-Linear Regular Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Wehmeyer


    Full Text Available The rising demand for renewable energy solutions is forcing the established industries to expand and continue evolving. For the wind energy sector, the vast resources in deep sea locations have encouraged research towards the installation of turbines in deeper waters. One of the most promising technologies able to solve this challenge is the floating wind turbine foundation. For the ultimate limit state, where higher order wave loads have a significant influence, a design tool that couples non-linear excitations with structural dynamics is required. To properly describe the behavior of such a structure, a numerical model is proposed and validated by physical test results. The model is applied to a case study of a tension leg platform with a flexible topside mimicking the tower and a lumped mass mimicking the rotor-nacelle assembly. The model is additionally compared to current commercial software, where the need for the coupled higher order dynamics proposed in this paper becomes evident.

  17. European column buckling curves and finite element modelling including high strength steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Stan, Tudor-Cristian


    Eurocode allows for finite element modelling of plated steel structures, however the information in the code on how to perform the analysis or what assumptions to make is quite sparse. The present paper investigates the deterministic modelling of flexural column buckling using plane shell elements...... in advanced non-linear finite element analysis (GMNIA) with the goal of being able to reestablish the European buckling curves. A short comprehensive historical review is given on the development of the European buckling curves and the related assumptions made with respect to deterministic modelling of column...... deterministic analysis can be performed based on given magnitudes of characteristic yield stress, material stress–strain relationship, and given characteristic values for imperfections and residual stresses. The magnitude of imperfections and residual stresses are discussed as well as how the use of equivalent...

  18. Molecular Modeling of Aerospace Polymer Matrices Including Carbon Nanotube-Enhanced Epoxy (United States)

    Radue, Matthew S.

    Carbon fiber (CF) composites are increasingly replacing metals used in major structural parts of aircraft, spacecraft, and automobiles. The current limitations of carbon fiber composites are addressed through computational material design by modeling the salient aerospace matrix materials. Molecular Dynamics (MD) models of epoxies with and without carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforcement and models of pure bismaleimides (BMIs) were developed to elucidate structure-property relationships for improved selection and tailoring of matrices. The influence of monomer functionality on the mechanical properties of epoxies is studied using the Reax Force Field (ReaxFF). From deformation simulations, the Young's modulus, yield point, and Poisson's ratio are calculated and analyzed. The results demonstrate an increase in stiffness and yield strength with increasing resin functionality. Comparison between the network structures of distinct epoxies is further advanced by the Monomeric Degree Index (MDI). Experimental validation demonstrates the MD results correctly predict the relationship in Young's moduli for all epoxies modeled. Therefore, the ReaxFF is confirmed to be a useful tool for studying the mechanical behavior of epoxies. While epoxies have been well-studied using MD, there has been no concerted effort to model cured BMI polymers due to the complexity of the network-forming reactions. A novel, adaptable crosslinking framework is developed for implementing 5 distinct cure reactions of Matrimid-5292 (a BMI resin) and investigating the network structure using MD simulations. The influence of different cure reactions and extent of curing are analyzed on the several thermo-mechanical properties such as mass density, glass transition temperature, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic moduli, and thermal conductivity. The developed crosslinked models correctly predict experimentally observed trends for various properties. Finally, the epoxies modeled (di-, tri-, and tetra

  19. European air quality modelled by CAMx including the volatility basis set scheme (United States)

    Ciarelli, G.; Aksoyoglu, S.; Crippa, M.; Jimenez, J. L.; Nemitz, E.; Sellegri, K.; Äijälä, M.; Carbone, S.; Mohr, C.; O'Dowd, C.; Poulain, L.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.


    Four periods of EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) intensive measurement campaigns (June 2006, January 2007, September-October 2008 and February-March 2009) were modelled using the regional air quality model CAMx with VBS (Volatility Basis Set) approach for the first time in Europe within the framework of the EURODELTA-III model intercomparison exercise. More detailed analysis and sensitivity tests were performed for the period of February-March 2009 and June 2006 to investigate the uncertainties in emissions as well as to improve the modelling of organic aerosols (OA). Model performance for selected gas phase species and PM2.5 was evaluated using the European air quality database Airbase. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) were found to be overestimated for all the four periods with O3 having the largest mean bias during June 2006 and January-February 2007 periods (8.93 and 12.30 ppb mean biases, respectively). In contrast, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were found to be underestimated for all the four periods. CAMx reproduced both total concentrations and monthly variations of PM2.5 very well for all the four periods with average biases ranging from -2.13 to 1.04 μg m-3. Comparisons with AMS (Aerosol Mass Spectrometer) measurements at different sites in Europe during February-March 2009, showed that in general the model over-predicts the inorganic aerosol fraction and under-predicts the organic one, such that the good agreement for PM2.5 is partly due to compensation of errors. The effect of the choice of volatility basis set scheme (VBS) on OA was investigated as well. Two sensitivity tests with volatility distributions based on previous chamber and ambient measurements data were performed. For February-March 2009 the chamber-case reduced the total OA concentrations by about 43 % on average. On the other hand, a test based on ambient measurement data increased OA concentrations by about 47 % for the same period bringing model

  20. Evaluation of European air quality modelled by CAMx including the volatility basis set scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ciarelli


    Full Text Available Four periods of EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme intensive measurement campaigns (June 2006, January 2007, September–October 2008 and February–March 2009 were modelled using the regional air quality model CAMx with VBS (volatility basis set approach for the first time in Europe within the framework of the EURODELTA-III model intercomparison exercise. More detailed analysis and sensitivity tests were performed for the period of February–March 2009 and June 2006 to investigate the uncertainties in emissions as well as to improve the modelling of organic aerosol (OA. Model performance for selected gas phase species and PM2.5 was evaluated using the European air quality database AirBase. Sulfur dioxide (SO2 and ozone (O3 were found to be overestimated for all the four periods, with O3 having the largest mean bias during June 2006 and January–February 2007 periods (8.9 pbb and 12.3 ppb mean biases respectively. In contrast, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and carbon monoxide (CO were found to be underestimated for all the four periods. CAMx reproduced both total concentrations and monthly variations of PM2.5 for all the four periods with average biases ranging from −2.1 to 1.0 µg m−3. Comparisons with AMS (aerosol mass spectrometer measurements at different sites in Europe during February–March 2009 showed that in general the model overpredicts the inorganic aerosol fraction and underpredicts the organic one, such that the good agreement for PM2.5 is partly due to compensation of errors. The effect of the choice of VBS scheme on OA was investigated as well. Two sensitivity tests with volatility distributions based on previous chamber and ambient measurements data were performed. For February–March 2009 the chamber case reduced the total OA concentrations by about 42 % on average. In contrast, a test based on ambient measurement data increased OA concentrations by about 42 % for the same period bringing

  1. Complete Loss and Thermal Model of Power Semiconductors Including Device Rating Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Beczkowski, Szymon


    Thermal loading of power devices are closely related to the reliability performance of the whole converter system. The electrical loading and device rating are both important factors that determine the loss and thermal behaviors of power semiconductor devices. In the existing loss and thermal...... models, only the electrical loadings are focused and treated as design variables, while the device rating is normally pre-defined by experience with limited design flexibility. Consequently, a more complete loss and thermal model is proposed in this paper, which takes into account not only the electrical...

  2. Selective hydrogenation in trickle-bed reactor. Experimental and modelling including partial wetting.


    Dietz, Adrian; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Wilhelm, Anne-Marie; Delmas, Henri


    International audience; A steady state model of a trickle bed reactor is developed for the consecutive hydrogenation of 1,5,9-cyclododecatriene on a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst. Various experiments have shown that the selectivity of this reaction towards the product of interest is much lower in co-current down-flow (trickle-bed) than in up-flow. This is due to uneven liquid distribution and to partial wetting of the catalyst surface at low liquid flow rates. The non-isothermal heterogeneous model propo...

  3. 24 CFR 1006.225 - Model activities. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Model activities. 1006.225 Section... NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Eligible Activities § 1006.225 Model activities. NHHBG funds may be used for housing activities under model programs that are: (a) Designed to carry out the...

  4. The island coalescence problem: Scaling of reconnection in extended fluid models including higher-order moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Jonathan; Huang, Yi-Min; Hakim, Ammar; Bhattacharjee, A. [Center for Heliophysics, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Stanier, Adam; Daughton, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Wang, Liang; Germaschewski, Kai [Space Science Center and Physics Department, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States)


    As modeling of collisionless magnetic reconnection in most space plasmas with realistic parameters is beyond the capability of today's simulations, due to the separation between global and kinetic length scales, it is important to establish scaling relations in model problems so as to extrapolate to realistic scales. Recently, large scale particle-in-cell simulations of island coalescence have shown that the time averaged reconnection rate decreases with system size, while fluid systems at such large scales in the Hall regime have not been studied. Here, we perform the complementary resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), Hall MHD, and two fluid simulations using a ten-moment model with the same geometry. In contrast to the standard Harris sheet reconnection problem, Hall MHD is insufficient to capture the physics of the reconnection region. Additionally, motivated by the results of a recent set of hybrid simulations which show the importance of ion kinetics in this geometry, we evaluate the efficacy of the ten-moment model in reproducing such results.

  5. Simple vibration modeling of structural fuzzy with continuous boundary by including two-dimensional spatial memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Lars; Ohlrich, Mogens


    is considered as one or more fuzzy substructures that are known in some statistical sense only. Experiments have shown that such fuzzy substructures often introduce a damping in the master which is much higher than the structural losses account for. A special method for modeling fuzzy substructures with a one...

  6. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of

  7. LES studies of wind farms including wide turbine spacings and comparisons with the CWBL engineering model (United States)

    Stevens, Richard; Gayme, Dennice; Meyers, Johan; Meneveau, Charles


    We present results from large eddy simulations (LES) of wind farms consisting of tens to hundreds of turbines with respective streamwise and spanwise spacings approaching 35 and 12 turbine diameters. Even in staggered farms where the distance between consecutive turbines in the flow direction is more than 50 turbine diameters, we observe visible wake effects. In aligned farms, the performance of the turbines in the fully developed regime, where the power output as function of the downstream position becomes constant, is shown to primarily depend on the streamwise distance between consecutive turbine rows. However, for other layouts the power production in the fully developed regime mainly depends on the geometrical mean turbine spacing (inverse turbine density). These findings agree very well with predictions from our recently developed coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model, which introduces a two way coupling between the wake (Jensen) and top-down model approaches (Stevens et al. JRSE 7, 023115, 2015). To further validate the CWBL model we apply it to the problem of determining the optimal wind turbine thrust coefficient for power maximization over the entire farm. The CWBL model predictions agree very well with recent LES results (Goit & Meyers, JFM 768, 5-50, 2015). FOM Fellowships for Young Energy Scientists (YES!), NSF (IIA 1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project), ERC (FP7-Ideas, 306471).

  8. A model of a syntrophic relationship between two microbial species in a chemostat including maintenance. (United States)

    Sari, Tewfik; Harmand, Jérôme


    Many microbial ecosystems can be seen as microbial 'food chains' where the different reaction steps can be seen as such: the waste products of the organisms at a given reaction step are consumed by organisms at the next reaction step. In the present paper we study a model of a two-step biological reaction with feedback inhibition, which was recently presented as a reduced and simplified version of the anaerobic digestion model ADM1 of the International Water Association (IWA). It is known that in the absence of maintenance (or decay) the microbial 'food chain' is stable. In a previous study, using a purely numerical approach and ADM1 consensus parameter values, it was shown that the model remains stable when decay terms are added. However, the authors could not prove in full generality that it remains true for other parameter values. In this paper we prove that introducing decay in the model preserves stability whatever its parameters values are and for a wide range of kinetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Loss and thermal model for power semiconductors including device rating information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Beczkowski, Szymon


    pre-defined by experience with poor design flexibility. Consequently a more complete loss and thermal model is proposed in this paper, which takes into account not only the electrical loading but also the device rating as input variables. The quantified correlation between the power loss, thermal...

  10. Surface-wave mode coupling : modelling and inverting waveforms including body-wave phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquering, H.A.


    This thesis is concerned with a similar problem as addressed by Li & Tanimoto (1993) in the surfacewave mode approach. In this thesis it is shown that surface-wave mode coupling is required when body-wave phases in laterally heterogeneous media are modelled by surface-wave mode summation. An

  11. Modeling the elastic behavior of ductile cast iron including anisotropy in the graphite nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriollo, Tito; Thorborg, Jesper; Hattel, Jesper Henri


    This paper presents a micro-mechanical approach to model the intrinsic elastic anisotropy of the graphite particles in ductile iron. Contrary to most of the published works in the field, the constitutive behavior is directly derived on the basis of the nodule characteristic internal structure, co...

  12. Modeling the distribution of ammonia across Europe including bi-directional surface-atmosphere exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichink Kruit, R.J.; Schaap, M.; Sauter, F.J.; Zanten, M.C. van; Pul, W.A.J. van


    A large shortcoming of current chemistry transport models (CTM) for simulating the fate of ammonia in the atmosphere is the lack of a description of the bi-directional surface-atmosphere exchange. In this paper, results of an update of the surface-atmosphere exchange module DEPAC, i.e. DEPosition of

  13. Logical diagnosis model turbojet engine including double-circuit intermittent flow of his injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.П. Стьопушкіна


    Full Text Available  In this article is considered question of the change quantitative and qualitative factors of the technical condition constructive element running part of jet engine. As a result called on experimental studies diagnostic sign were definite sign with provision for intermittent damages and on base this is built expert model of the turbojet double-circuit engine.

  14. Social Rationality as a Unified Model of Man (Including Bounded Rationality)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart


    In 1957, Simon published a collection of his essays under the title of “Models of Man: Social and Rational”. In the preface, he explains the choice for this title: All of the essays “are concerned with laying foundations for a science of man that will comfortably accommodate his dual nature as a

  15. Static aeroelastic analysis including geometric nonlinearities based on reduced order model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changchuan Xie


    Full Text Available This paper describes a method proposed for modeling large deflection of aircraft in nonlinear aeroelastic analysis by developing reduced order model (ROM. The method is applied for solving the static aeroelastic and static aeroelastic trim problems of flexible aircraft containing geometric nonlinearities; meanwhile, the non-planar effects of aerodynamics and follower force effect have been considered. ROMs are computational inexpensive mathematical representations compared to traditional nonlinear finite element method (FEM especially in aeroelastic solutions. The approach for structure modeling presented here is on the basis of combined modal/finite element (MFE method that characterizes the stiffness nonlinearities and we apply that structure modeling method as ROM to aeroelastic analysis. Moreover, the non-planar aerodynamic force is computed by the non-planar vortex lattice method (VLM. Structure and aerodynamics can be coupled with the surface spline method. The results show that both of the static aeroelastic analysis and trim analysis of aircraft based on structure ROM can achieve a good agreement compared to analysis based on the FEM and experimental result.

  16. A biologically inspired neural model for visual and proprioceptive integration including sensory training. (United States)

    Saidi, Maryam; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar; Lari, Abdolaziz Azizi


    Humans perceive the surrounding world by integration of information through different sensory modalities. Earlier models of multisensory integration rely mainly on traditional Bayesian and causal Bayesian inferences for single causal (source) and two causal (for two senses such as visual and auditory systems), respectively. In this paper a new recurrent neural model is presented for integration of visual and proprioceptive information. This model is based on population coding which is able to mimic multisensory integration of neural centers in the human brain. The simulation results agree with those achieved by casual Bayesian inference. The model can also simulate the sensory training process of visual and proprioceptive information in human. Training process in multisensory integration is a point with less attention in the literature before. The effect of proprioceptive training on multisensory perception was investigated through a set of experiments in our previous study. The current study, evaluates the effect of both modalities, i.e., visual and proprioceptive training and compares them with each other through a set of new experiments. In these experiments, the subject was asked to move his/her hand in a circle and estimate its position. The experiments were performed on eight subjects with proprioception training and eight subjects with visual training. Results of the experiments show three important points: (1) visual learning rate is significantly more than that of proprioception; (2) means of visual and proprioceptive errors are decreased by training but statistical analysis shows that this decrement is significant for proprioceptive error and non-significant for visual error, and (3) visual errors in training phase even in the beginning of it, is much less than errors of the main test stage because in the main test, the subject has to focus on two senses. The results of the experiments in this paper is in agreement with the results of the neural model

  17. Prediction model for knee osteoarthritis incidence, including clinical, genetic and biochemical risk factors. (United States)

    Kerkhof, H J M; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A; Arden, N K; Metrustry, S; Castano-Betancourt, M; Hart, D J; Hofman, A; Rivadeneira, F; Oei, E H G; Spector, Tim D; Uitterlinden, A G; Janssens, A C J W; Valdes, A M; van Meurs, J B J


    To develop and validate a prognostic model for incident knee osteoarthritis (KOA) in a general population and determine the value of different risk factor groups to prediction. The prognostic model was developed in 2628 individuals from the Rotterdam Study-I (RS-I). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for questionnaire/easily obtainable variables, imaging variables, genetic and biochemical markers. The extended multivariate model was tested on discrimination (receiver operating characteristic curve and area under the curve (AUC)) in two other population-based cohorts: Rotterdam Study-II and Chingford Study. In RS-I, there was moderate predictive value for incident KOA based on the genetic score alone in subjects aged <65 years (AUC 0.65), while it was only 0.55 for subjects aged ≥65 years. The AUC for gender, age and body mass index (BMI) in prediction for KOA was 0.66. Addition of the questionnaire variables, genetic score or biochemical marker urinary C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type II collagen to the model did not change the AUC. However, when adding the knee baseline KL score to the model the AUC increased to 0.79. Applying external validation, similar results were observed in the Rotterdam Study-II and the Chingford Study. Easy obtainable 'Questionnaire' variables, genetic markers, OA at other joint sites and biochemical markers add only modestly to the prediction of KOA incidence using age, gender and BMI in an elderly population. Doubtful minor radiographic degenerative features in the knee, however, are a very strong predictor of future KOA. This is an important finding, as many radiologists do not report minor degenerative changes in the knee. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  18. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities (United States)

    Ertuzun, Ezgi


    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  19. Numerical models of single- and double-negative metamaterials including viscous and thermal losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Sánchez-Dehesa, José


    Negative index acoustic metamaterials are artificial structures made of subwavelength units arranged in a lattice, whose effective acoustic parameters, bulk modulus and mass density, can be negative. In these materials, sound waves propagate inside the periodic structure, assumed rigid, showing...... extraordinary properties. We are interested in two particular cases: a double-negative metamaterial, where both parameters are negative at some frequencies, and a single-negative metamaterial with negative bulk modulus within a broader frequency band. In previous research involving the double-negative...... detailed understanding on how viscous and thermal losses affect the setups at different frequencies. The modeling of a simpler single-negative metamaterial also broadens this overview. Both setups have been modeled with quadratic BEM meshes. Each sample, scaled at two different sizes, has been represented...

  20. Paint Pavement Marking Performance Prediction Model That Includes the Impacts of Snow Removal Operations (United States)


    Hypothesized that snow plows wear down mountain road pavement markings. 2007 Craig et al. -Edge lines degrade slower than center/skip lines 2007...retroreflectivity to create the models. They discovered that paint pavement markings last 80% longer on Portland Cement Concrete than Asphalt Concrete at low AADT...retroreflectivity, while yellow markings lost 21%. Lu and Barter attributed the sizable degradation to snow removal, sand application, and studded

  1. Molten pool-lower head integrity. Heat transfer models including advanced numerical simulations (DNS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, J.M.; Bonnet, J.M.; Bernaz, L. [CEA Grenoble (France)


    Extensive studies have been performed to investigate the heat transfer within a molten corium pool (homogeneous, stratified and with miscibility gap): Synthesis of heat transfer correlations in molten pool (homogeneous and stratified), Focusing effect in stratified metal layer, DNS analysis of Rayleigh Benard instabilities at the top boundary; interpretation of the different convection regimes and exponents affecting the Rayleigh number in the heat transfer correlations, Molten pool model for corium presenting a miscibility gap. Condition for de-stratification. (authors)

  2. Improvement in genetic evaluation of female fertility in dairy cattle using multiple-trait models including milk production traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, C; Madsen, P; Lund, M S


    This study investigated the improvement in genetic evaluation of fertility traits by using production traits as secondary traits (MILK = 305-d milk yield, FAT = 305-d fat yield, and PROT = 305-d protein yield). Data including 471,742 records from first lactations of Denmark Holstein cows, covering...... the model including FAT. In addition, it was found that single-trait models underestimated genetic trend of fertility traits. These results suggested that genetic evaluation of fertility traits would be improved using a multiple-trait model including MILK or PROT...... within 56 d after first service) were analyzed using single- and multiple-trait sire models including 1 or 3 production traits. Model stability was evaluated by correlation between EBV from 2 sub-data sets (DATAA and DATAB). Model predictive ability was assessed by the correlation between EBV from...

  3. Do ICF core sets for low back pain include patients' self-reported activity limitations because of back problems? (United States)

    Lygren, Hildegunn; Strand, Liv Inger; Anderson, Bodil; Magnussen, Liv Heide


    The aim of this study was to investigate content validity of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for low back pain (LBP), by examining whether common activities reported as difficult to perform are included in the Core Sets. A cross-sectional design was used. Ninety-eight patients with long-lasting back pain (>3 months) between 18 and 65 years of age were consecutively recruited from a Multidisciplinary Outpatient Spine Clinic. Difficulties with daily life and work task activities because of back pain were examined by asking the patients two questions: 1) can you specify activities that are difficult to perform because of your back pain? and 2) are there specific work tasks that you are unable to do because of your back pain? Two raters independently classified the written responses according to the ICF Core Sets' component Activities and Participation. Activities and work tasks were linked to 15 of 29 categories (52%) in the Comprehensive Core Set, and 9 of 12 (75%) in the Brief Core Set, and the initial agreement between the two raters in coding the answers according to the Core Sets was (83%, k = 0.80) and (93%, k = 0.9), respectively, before consensus was reached. The Comprehensive Core Set for LBP to a large degree contains daily life and work-related activities frequently reported as difficult to perform by patients with long-lasting LBP. The categories, however, are very broad and do not provide specified descriptions of the most frequently reported activity limitations such as sitting, standing and walking. The Brief Core Set does not include categories for frequently reported activities such as pulling/pushing and leisure/recreation activities. ICF Core Sets for LBP seem suitable for obtaining a gross overview of the patients' functional limitations, but do not give sufficient information from a therapeutic point of view. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. A stepped leader model for lightning including charge distribution in branched channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Wei; Zhang, Li [School of Electrical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Li, Qingmin, E-mail: [Beijing Key Lab of HV and EMC, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); State Key Lab of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, Beijing 102206 (China)


    The stepped leader process in negative cloud-to-ground lightning plays a vital role in lightning protection analysis. As lightning discharge usually presents significant branched or tortuous channels, the charge distribution along the branched channels and the stochastic feature of stepped leader propagation were investigated in this paper. The charge density along the leader channel and the charge in the leader tip for each lightning branch were approximated by introducing branch correlation coefficients. In combination with geometric characteristics of natural lightning discharge, a stochastic stepped leader propagation model was presented based on the fractal theory. By comparing simulation results with the statistics of natural lightning discharges, it was found that the fractal dimension of lightning trajectory in simulation was in the range of that observed in nature and the calculation results of electric field at ground level were in good agreement with the measurements of a negative flash, which shows the validity of this proposed model. Furthermore, a new equation to estimate the lightning striking distance to flat ground was suggested based on the present model. The striking distance obtained by this new equation is smaller than the value estimated by previous equations, which indicates that the traditional equations may somewhat overestimate the attractive effect of the ground.

  5. A cell-based model of Nematostella vectensis gastrulation including bottle cell formation, invagination and zippering. (United States)

    Tamulonis, Carlos; Postma, Marten; Marlow, Heather Q; Magie, Craig R; de Jong, Johann; Kaandorp, Jaap


    The gastrulation of Nematostella vectensis, the starlet sea anemone, is morphologically simple yet involves many conserved cell behaviors such as apical constriction, invagination, bottle cell formation, cell migration and zippering found during gastrulation in a wide range of more morphologically complex animals. In this article we study Nematostella gastrulation using a combination of morphometrics and computational modeling. Through this analysis we frame gastrulation as a non-trivial problem, in which two distinct cell domains must change shape to match each other geometrically, while maintaining the integrity of the embryo. Using a detailed cell-based model capable of representing arbitrary cell-shapes such as bottle cells, as well as filopodia, localized adhesion and constriction, we are able to simulate gastrulation and associate emergent macroscopic changes in embryo shape to individual cell behaviors. We have developed a number of testable hypotheses based on the model. First, we hypothesize that the blastomeres need to be stiffer at their apical ends, relative to the rest of the cell perimeter, in order to be able to hold their wedge shape and the dimensions of the blastula, regardless of whether the blastula is sealed or leaky. We also postulate that bottle cells are a consequence of cell strain and low cell-cell adhesion, and can be produced within an epithelium even without apical constriction. Finally, we postulate that apical constriction, filopodia and de-epithelialization are necessary and sufficient for gastrulation based on parameter variation studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Developing parameters for multi-mode ambient air models including the nanometer mode (United States)

    Tronville, Paolo; Rivers, Richard


    The particle count, surface and mass in an occupied space can be modeled when the HVAC system airflows are known, along with the particle-size distribution for outdoor air, internal generation rates as a function of particle size, and the efficiency as a function of particle size for filters present. Outdoor air particle-size distribution is rarely available, but measures of particle mass concentration, PM2.5 and PM10, are often available for building locations. Outdoor air aerosol size distributions are well modeled by sums of two or three log-normal distributions, with essentially all mass in two larger modes. Studies have also shown that some mode parameters are, in general, related by simple functions. This paper shows how these relationships can be combined with known characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10 samplers to create reasonable inclusive models of outdoor air aerosol-size distributions. This information plus knowledge of indoor particle generation allows calculation of aerosol mass in occupied spaces. Estimation of parameters of aerosol modes with sizes below100 nm and measurement of filter efficiencies in that range are described.

  7. The association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance: a systematic review of the literature. (United States)

    Rasberry, Catherine N; Lee, Sarah M; Robin, Leah; Laris, B A; Russell, Lisa A; Coyle, Karin K; Nihiser, Allison J


    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the scientific literature that has examined the association between school-based physical activity (including physical education) and academic performance (including indicators of cognitive skills and attitudes, academic behaviors, and academic achievement). Relevant research was identified through a search of nine electronic databases using both physical activity and academic-related search terms. Forty-three articles (reporting a total of 50 unique studies) met the inclusion criteria and were read, abstracted, and coded for this synthesis. Findings of the 50 studies were then summarized. Across all the studies, there were a total of 251 associations between physical activity and academic performance, representing measures of academic achievement, academic behavior, and cognitive skills and attitudes. Slightly more than half (50.5%) of all associations examined were positive, 48% were not significant, and 1.5% were negative. Examination of the findings by each physical activity context provides insights regarding specific relationships. Results suggest physical activity is either positively related to academic performance or that there is not a demonstrated relationship between physical activity and academic performance. Results have important implications for both policy and schools. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Phase Transitions in Model Active Systems (United States)

    Redner, Gabriel S.

    The amazing collective behaviors of active systems such as bird flocks, schools of fish, and colonies of microorganisms have long amazed scientists and laypeople alike. Understanding the physics of such systems is challenging due to their far-from-equilibrium dynamics, as well as the extreme diversity in their ingredients, relevant time- and length-scales, and emergent phenomenology. To make progress, one can categorize active systems by the symmetries of their constituent particles, as well as how activity is expressed. In this work, we examine two categories of active systems, and explore their phase behavior in detail. First, we study systems of self-propelled spherical particles moving in two dimensions. Despite the absence of an aligning interaction, this system displays complex emergent dynamics, including phase separation into a dense active solid and dilute gas. Using simulations and analytic modeling, we quantify the phase diagram and separation kinetics. We show that this nonequilibrium phase transition is analogous to an equilibrium vapor-liquid system, with binodal and spinodal curves and a critical point. We also characterize the dense active solid phase, a unique material which exhibits the structural signatures of a crystalline solid near the crystal-hexatic transition point, as well as anomalous dynamics including superdiffusive motion on intermediate timescales. We also explore the role of interparticle attraction in this system. We demonstrate that attraction drastically changes the phase diagram, which contains two distinct phase-separated regions and is reentrant as a function of propulsion speed. We interpret this complex situation with a simple kinetic model, which builds from the observed microdynamics of individual particles to a full description of the macroscopic phase behavior. We also study active nematics, liquid crystals driven out of equilibrium by energy-dissipating active stresses. The equilibrium nematic state is unstable in these

  9. Improving Public Health DSSs by Including Saharan Dust Forecasts Through Incorporation of NASA's GOCART Model Results (United States)

    Berglund, Judith


    Approximately 2-3 billion metric tons of soil dust are estimated to be transported in the Earth's atmosphere each year. Global transport of desert dust is believed to play an important role in many geochemical, climatological, and environmental processes. This dust carries minerals and nutrients, but it has also been shown to carry pollutants and viable microorganisms capable of harming human, animal, plant, and ecosystem health. Saharan dust, which impacts the eastern United States (especially Florida and the southeast) and U.S. Territories in the Caribbean primarily during the summer months, has been linked to increases in respiratory illnesses in this region and has been shown to carry other human, animal, and plant pathogens. For these reasons, this candidate solution recommends integrating Saharan dust distribution and concentration forecasts from the NASA GOCART global dust cycle model into a public health DSS (decision support system), such as the CDC's (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's) EPHTN (Environmental Public Health Tracking Network), for the eastern United States and Caribbean for early warning purposes regarding potential increases in respiratory illnesses or asthma attacks, potential disease outbreaks, or bioterrorism. This candidate solution pertains to the Public Health National Application but also has direct connections to Air Quality and Homeland Security. In addition, the GOCART model currently uses the NASA MODIS aerosol product as an input and uses meteorological forecasts from the NASA GEOS-DAS (Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System) GEOS-4 AGCM. In the future, VIIRS aerosol products and perhaps CALIOP aerosol products could be assimilated into the GOCART model to improve the results.

  10. Individual welfare maximization in electricity markets including consumer and full transmission system modeling (United States)

    Weber, James Daniel


    This dissertation presents a new algorithm that allows a market participant to maximize its individual welfare in the electricity spot market. The use of such an algorithm in determining market equilibrium points, called Nash equilibria, is also demonstrated. The start of the algorithm is a spot market model that uses the optimal power flow (OPF), with a full representation of the transmission system. The OPF is also extended to model consumer behavior, and a thorough mathematical justification for the inclusion of the consumer model in the OPF is presented. The algorithm utilizes price and dispatch sensitivities, available from the Hessian matrix of the OPF, to help determine an optimal change in an individual's bid. The algorithm is shown to be successful in determining local welfare maxima, and the prospects for scaling the algorithm up to realistically sized systems are very good. Assuming a market in which all participants maximize their individual welfare, economic equilibrium points, called Nash equilibria, are investigated. This is done by iteratively solving the individual welfare maximization algorithm for each participant until a point is reached where all individuals stop modifying their bids. It is shown that these Nash equilibria can be located in this manner. However, it is also demonstrated that equilibria do not always exist, and are not always unique when they do exist. It is also shown that individual welfare is a highly nonconcave function resulting in many local maxima. As a result, a more global optimization technique, using a genetic algorithm (GA), is investigated. The genetic algorithm is successfully demonstrated on several systems. It is also shown that a GA can be developed using special niche methods, which allow a GA to converge to several local optima at once. Finally, the last chapter of this dissertation covers the development of a new computer visualization routine for power system analysis: contouring. The contouring algorithm is

  11. Nuclear monopole charge form factor calculation for relativistic models including center-of-mass corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avancini, S.S.; Marinelli, J.R. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Florianopolis, Depto de Fisica - CFM, Florianopolis (Brazil); Carlson, B.V. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)


    Relativistic models for finite nuclei contain spurious center-of-mass motion in most applications for the nuclear many-body problem, where the nuclear wave function is taken as a single Slater determinant within a space-fixed frame description. We use the Peierls-Yoccoz projection method, previously developed for relativistic approaches together with a reparametrization of the coupling constants that fits binding energies and charge radius and apply our results to calculate elastic electron scattering monopole charge form factors for light nuclei. (orig.)

  12. Antioxidant activity of fish sauces including puffer (Lagocephalus wheeleri) fish sauce measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Maeda, Toshimichi; Hasegawa, Yoshiro; Tokunaga, Takushi; Tamura, Yoshiyuki; Koizumi, Takeo


    Fish sauces are fermented seasonings traditionally used throughout Asia, including Japan. Here, we report on the antioxidant activity of 30 fish sauces, among them a puffer fish sauce developed specifically for this study. To determine the antioxidant activity (i.e., the peroxyl radical elimination capacity) of the fish sauces, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) was measured. ORAC values ranged between 104 µmol (flatfish sauce 1) and 103 µmol (sandfish sauce) trolox equivalent (TE)/100 ml of fish sauce. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (IC50) was measured using electron spin resonance. IC50 values ranged between 0.081% (puffer fish sauce) and 0.653% (sardine fish sauce 7). Puffer fish sauce had a high ORAC value (8,365 µmol TE/100 ml) and the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (0.081). The relationship between the ORAC and IC50 values of the 30 fish sauces was determined to be intermediate (r =-0.521, p=0.01).

  13. Effect of neurosteroids on a model lipid bilayer including cholesterol: An Atomic Force Microscopy study. (United States)

    Sacchi, Mattia; Balleza, Daniel; Vena, Giulia; Puia, Giulia; Facci, Paolo; Alessandrini, Andrea


    Amphiphilic molecules which have a biological effect on specific membrane proteins, could also affect lipid bilayer properties possibly resulting in a modulation of the overall membrane behavior. In light of this consideration, it is important to study the possible effects of amphiphilic molecule of pharmacological interest on model systems which recapitulate some of the main properties of the biological plasma membranes. In this work we studied the effect of a neurosteroid, Allopregnanolone (3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or Allo), on a model bilayer composed by the ternary lipid mixture DOPC/bSM/chol. We chose ternary mixtures which present, at room temperature, a phase coexistence of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains and which reside near to a critical point. We found that Allo, which is able to strongly partition in the lipid bilayer, induces a marked increase in the bilayer area and modifies the relative proportion of the two phases favoring the Ld phase. We also found that the neurosteroid shifts the miscibility temperature to higher values in a way similarly to what happens when the cholesterol concentration is decreased. Interestingly, an isoform of Allo, isoAllopregnanolone (3β,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or isoAllo), known to inhibit the effects of Allo on GABAA receptors, has an opposite effect on the bilayer properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A model of plasma current through a hole of Rogowski probe including sheath effects. (United States)

    Furui, H; Ejiri, A; Nagashima, Y; Takase, Y; Sonehara, M; Tsujii, N; Yamaguchi, T; Shinya, T; Togashi, H; Homma, H; Nakamura, K; Takeuchi, T; Yajima, S; Yoshida, Y; Toida, K; Takahashi, W; Yamazaki, H


    In TST-2 Ohmic discharges, local current is measured using a Rogowski probe by changing the angle between the local magnetic field and the direction of the hole of the Rogowski probe. The angular dependence shows a peak when the direction of the hole is almost parallel to the local magnetic field. The obtained width of the peak was broader than that of the theoretical curve expected from the probe geometry. In order to explain this disagreement, we consider the effect of sheath in the vicinity of the Rogowski probe. A sheath model was constructed and electron orbits were numerically calculated. From the calculation, it was found that the electron orbit is affected by E × B drift due to the sheath electric field. Such orbit causes the broadening of the peak in the angular dependence and the dependence agrees with the experimental results. The dependence of the broadening on various plasma parameters was studied numerically and explained qualitatively by a simplified analytical model.

  15. The 4-parameter Compressible Packing Model (CPM) including a critical cavity size ratio (United States)

    Roquier, Gerard


    The 4-parameter Compressible Packing Model (CPM) has been developed to predict the packing density of mixtures constituted by bidisperse spherical particles. The four parameters are: the wall effect and the loosening effect coefficients, the compaction index and a critical cavity size ratio. The two geometrical interactions have been studied theoretically on the basis of a spherical cell centered on a secondary class bead. For the loosening effect, a critical cavity size ratio, below which a fine particle can be inserted into a small cavity created by touching coarser particles, is introduced. This is the only parameter which requires adaptation to extend the model to other types of particles. The 4-parameter CPM demonstrates its efficiency on frictionless glass beads (300 values), spherical particles numerically simulated (20 values), round natural particles (125 values) and crushed particles (335 values) with correlation coefficients equal to respectively 99.0%, 98.7%, 97.8%, 96.4% and mean deviations equal to respectively 0.007, 0.006, 0.007, 0.010.

  16. On the modelling of semi-insulating GaAs including surface tension and bulk stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, W.; Duderstadt, F.


    Necessary heat treatment of single crystal semi-insulating Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), which is deployed in micro- and opto- electronic devices, generate undesirable liquid precipitates in the solid phase. The appearance of precipitates is influenced by surface tension at the liquid/solid interface and deviatoric stresses in the solid. The central quantity for the description of the various aspects of phase transitions is the chemical potential, which can be additively decomposed into a chemical and a mechanical part. In particular the calculation of the mechanical part of the chemical potential is of crucial importance. We determine the chemical potential in the framework of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law which gives an appropriate stress/strain relation for many solids in the small strain regime. We establish criteria, which allow the correct replacement of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law by the simpler Hooke law. The main objectives of this study are: (i) We develop a thermo-mechanical model that describes diffusion and interface motion, which both are strongly influenced by surface tension effects and deviatoric stresses. (ii) We give an overview and outlook on problems that can be posed and solved within the framework of the model. (iii) We calculate non-standard phase diagrams, i.e. those that take into account surface tension and non-deviatoric stresses, for GaAs above 786 C, and we compare the results with classical phase diagrams without these phenomena. (orig.)

  17. Three-Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of the Solar Wind Including Pickup Protons and Turbulence Transport (United States)

    Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Matthaeus, William H.


    To study the effects of interstellar pickup protons and turbulence on the structure and dynamics of the solar wind, we have developed a fully three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model that treats interstellar pickup protons as a separate fluid and incorporates the transport of turbulence and turbulent heating. The governing system of equations combines the mean-field equations for the solar wind plasma, magnetic field, and pickup protons and the turbulence transport equations for the turbulent energy, normalized cross-helicity, and correlation length. The model equations account for photoionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms and their charge exchange with solar wind protons, energy transfer from pickup protons to solar wind protons, and plasma heating by turbulent dissipation. Separate mass and energy equations are used for the solar wind and pickup protons, though a single momentum equation is employed under the assumption that the pickup protons are comoving with the solar wind protons.We compute the global structure of the solar wind plasma, magnetic field, and turbulence in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU for a source magnetic dipole on the Sun tilted by 0 deg - .90 deg and compare our results with Voyager 2 observations. The results computed with and without pickup protons are superposed to evaluate quantitatively the deceleration and heating effects of pickup protons, the overall compression of the magnetic field in the outer heliosphere caused by deceleration, and the weakening of corotating interaction regions by the thermal pressure of pickup protons.

  18. Mouse preimplantation embryo responses to culture medium osmolarity include increased expression of CCM2 and p38 MAPK activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Andrew J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms that confer an ability to respond positively to environmental osmolarity are fundamental to ensuring embryo survival during the preimplantation period. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK occurs following exposure to hyperosmotic treatment. Recently, a novel scaffolding protein called Osmosensing Scaffold for MEKK3 (OSM was linked to p38 MAPK activation in response to sorbitol-induced hypertonicity. The human ortholog of OSM is cerebral cavernous malformation 2 (CCM2. The present study was conducted to investigate whether CCM2 is expressed during mouse preimplantation development and to determine whether this scaffolding protein is associated with p38 MAPK activation following exposure of preimplantation embryos to hyperosmotic environments. Results Our results indicate that Ccm2 along with upstream p38 MAPK pathway constituents (Map3k3, Map2k3, Map2k6, and Map2k4 are expressed throughout mouse preimplantation development. CCM2, MAP3K3 and the phosphorylated forms of MAP2K3/MAP2K6 and MAP2K4 were also detected throughout preimplantation development. Embryo culture in hyperosmotic media increased p38 MAPK activity in conjunction with elevated CCM2 levels. Conclusion These results define the expression of upstream activators of p38 MAPK during preimplantation development and indicate that embryo responses to hyperosmotic environments include elevation of CCM2 and activation of p38 MAPK.

  19. Beyond the Business Case: Different Models of Including People with Disabilities at Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Lee


    Full Text Available When not done properly, policies or interventions that claim to be 'inclusive' can be patronizing or even oppressive. Through interviews and focus groups with employers, service providers and the disability community in Singapore, we helped to articulate what counts as ideal or sensible inclusion of people with disabilities at work. Against those that might seek to mainstream disability wherever it exists, our findings suggest that enclaved spaces for work serve an important function despite charges of being exclusionary. Some enclaves operate as 'work villages' that provide a protected, familiar space to accommodate unique needs while others serve as 'diversity incubators' that provide scalable lessons for more mainstream contexts. Within the Singapore context, policymakers largely operate within a 'business case' paradigm that focuses on incentivizing employers and an 'industrial model' of vocational assessment and job placement. While this has a role to play, we demonstrate the importance of attending to the neglected 'moral case' for hiring people with disabilities.

  20. Including temperature in a wavefunction description of the dynamics of the quantum Rabi model (United States)

    Werther, Michael; Grossmann, Frank


    We present a wavefunction methodology to account for finite temperature initial conditions in the quantum Rabi model. The approach is based on the Davydov Ansatz together with a statistical sampling of the canonical harmonic oscillator initial density matrix. Equations of motion are gained from a variational principle and numerical results are compared to those of the thermal Hamiltonian approach. For a system consisting of a single spin and a single oscillator and for moderate coupling strength, we compare our new results with full quantum ones as well as with other Davydov-type results based on alternative sampling/summation strategies. All of these perform better than the ones based on the thermal Hamiltonian approach. The best agreement is shown by a Boltzmann weighting of individual eigenstate propagations. Extending this to a bath of many oscillators will, however, be very demanding numerically. The use of any one of the investigated stochastic sampling approaches will then be favorable.

  1. Energy-based fatigue model for shape memory alloys including thermomechanical coupling (United States)

    Zhang, Yahui; Zhu, Jihong; Moumni, Ziad; Van Herpen, Alain; Zhang, Weihong


    This paper is aimed at developing a low cycle fatigue criterion for pseudoelastic shape memory alloys to take into account thermomechanical coupling. To this end, fatigue tests are carried out at different loading rates under strain control at room temperature using NiTi wires. Temperature distribution on the specimen is measured using a high speed thermal camera. Specimens are tested to failure and fatigue lifetimes of specimens are measured. Test results show that the fatigue lifetime is greatly influenced by the loading rate: as the strain rate increases, the fatigue lifetime decreases. Furthermore, it is shown that the fatigue cracks initiate when the stored energy inside the material reaches a critical value. An energy-based fatigue criterion is thus proposed as a function of the irreversible hysteresis energy of the stabilized cycle and the loading rate. Fatigue life is calculated using the proposed model. The experimental and computational results compare well.

  2. Robust and Adaptive OMR System Including Fuzzy Modeling, Fusion of Musical Rules, and Possible Error Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloch Isabelle


    Full Text Available This paper describes a system for optical music recognition (OMR in case of monophonic typeset scores. After clarifying the difficulties specific to this domain, we propose appropriate solutions at both image analysis level and high-level interpretation. Thus, a recognition and segmentation method is designed, that allows dealing with common printing defects and numerous symbol interconnections. Then, musical rules are modeled and integrated, in order to make a consistent decision. This high-level interpretation step relies on the fuzzy sets and possibility framework, since it allows dealing with symbol variability, flexibility, and imprecision of music rules, and merging all these heterogeneous pieces of information. Other innovative features are the indication of potential errors and the possibility of applying learning procedures, in order to gain in robustness. Experiments conducted on a large data base show that the proposed method constitutes an interesting contribution to OMR.

  3. Roughing It Up: Including Jump Components in the Measurement, Modeling and Forecasting of Return Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Andersen, Torben G.; Diebold, Francis X.

    -Nielsen and Shephard (2004a, 2005) for related bi-power variation measures, the present paper provides a practical and robust framework for non-parametrically measuring the jump component in asset return volatility. In an application to the DM/$ exchange rate, the S&P500 market index, and the 30-year U.S. Treasury...... bond yield, we find that jumps are both highly prevalent and distinctly less persistent than the continuous sample path variation process. Moreover, many jumps appear directly associated with specific macroeconomic news announcements. Separating jump from non-jump movements in a simple...... but sophisticated volatility forecasting model, we find that almost all of the predictability in daily, weekly, and monthly return volatilities comes from the non-jump component. Our results thus set the stage for a number of interesting future econometric developments and important financial applications...

  4. Including ethical considerations in models for first-trimester screening for pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jennifer Maureen; Hedley, Paula L.; Gjerris, Mickey


    Recent efforts to develop reliable and efficient early pregnancy screening programmes for pre-eclampsia have focused on com-bining clinical, biochemical and biophysical markers. The same model has been used for first-trimester screening for fetal aneuploidies i.e. prenatal diagnosis (PD), which...... is routinely offered to all pregnant women in many developed countries. Some studies suggest combining PD and pre-eclampsia screening, so women can be offered testing for a number of conditions at the same clinical visit. A combination of these tests may be practical in terms of saving time and resources......; however, the combination raises ethical issues. First-trimester PD and pre-eclampsia screening entail qualitative differences which alter the requirements for disclosure, non-directedness and consent with regard to the informed consent process. This article explores the differences related to the ethical...

  5. Modelling of safety barriers including human and organisational factors to improve process safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Thommesen, Jacob


    Assessment Methodology for IndustrieS, see Salvi et al 2006). ARAMIS employs the bow-tie approach to modelling hazardous scenarios, and it suggests the outcome of auditing safety management to be connected to a semi-quantitative assessment of the quality of safety barriers. ARAMIS discriminates a number......It is believed that traditional safety management needs to be improved on the aspect of preparedness for coping with expected and unexpected deviations, avoiding an overly optimistic reliance on safety systems. Remembering recent major accidents, such as the Deep Water Horizon, the Texas City...... explosion, and the Mont Blanc Tunnel Fire, such an approach may have helped to maintain the integrity of the designed provisions against major deviations resulting in these disasters. In order to make this paradigm operational, safety management and in particular risk assessment tools need to be refined...

  6. ECO: A Generic Eutrophication Model Including Comprehensive Sediment-Water Interaction (United States)

    Smits, Johannes G. C.; van Beek, Jan K. L.


    The content and calibration of the comprehensive generic 3D eutrophication model ECO for water and sediment quality is presented. Based on a computational grid for water and sediment, ECO is used as a tool for water quality management to simulate concentrations and mass fluxes of nutrients (N, P, Si), phytoplankton species, detrital organic matter, electron acceptors and related substances. ECO combines integral simulation of water and sediment quality with sediment diagenesis and closed mass balances. Its advanced process formulations for substances in the water column and the bed sediment were developed to allow for a much more dynamic calculation of the sediment-water exchange fluxes of nutrients as resulting from steep concentration gradients across the sediment-water interface than is possible with other eutrophication models. ECO is to more accurately calculate the accumulation of organic matter and nutrients in the sediment, and to allow for more accurate prediction of phytoplankton biomass and water quality in response to mitigative measures such as nutrient load reduction. ECO was calibrated for shallow Lake Veluwe (The Netherlands). Due to restoration measures this lake underwent a transition from hypertrophic conditions to moderately eutrophic conditions, leading to the extensive colonization by submerged macrophytes. ECO reproduces observed water quality well for the transition period of ten years. The values of its process coefficients are in line with ranges derived from literature. ECO’s calculation results underline the importance of redox processes and phosphate speciation for the nutrient return fluxes. Among other things, the results suggest that authigenic formation of a stable apatite-like mineral in the sediment can contribute significantly to oligotrophication of a lake after a phosphorus load reduction. PMID:23844160

  7. ECO: a generic eutrophication model including comprehensive sediment-water interaction. (United States)

    Smits, Johannes G C; van Beek, Jan K L


    The content and calibration of the comprehensive generic 3D eutrophication model ECO for water and sediment quality is presented. Based on a computational grid for water and sediment, ECO is used as a tool for water quality management to simulate concentrations and mass fluxes of nutrients (N, P, Si), phytoplankton species, detrital organic matter, electron acceptors and related substances. ECO combines integral simulation of water and sediment quality with sediment diagenesis and closed mass balances. Its advanced process formulations for substances in the water column and the bed sediment were developed to allow for a much more dynamic calculation of the sediment-water exchange fluxes of nutrients as resulting from steep concentration gradients across the sediment-water interface than is possible with other eutrophication models. ECO is to more accurately calculate the accumulation of organic matter and nutrients in the sediment, and to allow for more accurate prediction of phytoplankton biomass and water quality in response to mitigative measures such as nutrient load reduction. ECO was calibrated for shallow Lake Veluwe (The Netherlands). Due to restoration measures this lake underwent a transition from hypertrophic conditions to moderately eutrophic conditions, leading to the extensive colonization by submerged macrophytes. ECO reproduces observed water quality well for the transition period of ten years. The values of its process coefficients are in line with ranges derived from literature. ECO's calculation results underline the importance of redox processes and phosphate speciation for the nutrient return fluxes. Among other things, the results suggest that authigenic formation of a stable apatite-like mineral in the sediment can contribute significantly to oligotrophication of a lake after a phosphorus load reduction.

  8. ECO: a generic eutrophication model including comprehensive sediment-water interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes G C Smits

    Full Text Available The content and calibration of the comprehensive generic 3D eutrophication model ECO for water and sediment quality is presented. Based on a computational grid for water and sediment, ECO is used as a tool for water quality management to simulate concentrations and mass fluxes of nutrients (N, P, Si, phytoplankton species, detrital organic matter, electron acceptors and related substances. ECO combines integral simulation of water and sediment quality with sediment diagenesis and closed mass balances. Its advanced process formulations for substances in the water column and the bed sediment were developed to allow for a much more dynamic calculation of the sediment-water exchange fluxes of nutrients as resulting from steep concentration gradients across the sediment-water interface than is possible with other eutrophication models. ECO is to more accurately calculate the accumulation of organic matter and nutrients in the sediment, and to allow for more accurate prediction of phytoplankton biomass and water quality in response to mitigative measures such as nutrient load reduction. ECO was calibrated for shallow Lake Veluwe (The Netherlands. Due to restoration measures this lake underwent a transition from hypertrophic conditions to moderately eutrophic conditions, leading to the extensive colonization by submerged macrophytes. ECO reproduces observed water quality well for the transition period of ten years. The values of its process coefficients are in line with ranges derived from literature. ECO's calculation results underline the importance of redox processes and phosphate speciation for the nutrient return fluxes. Among other things, the results suggest that authigenic formation of a stable apatite-like mineral in the sediment can contribute significantly to oligotrophication of a lake after a phosphorus load reduction.

  9. Areal rainfall estimation using moving cars - computer experiments including hydrological modeling (United States)

    Rabiei, Ehsan; Haberlandt, Uwe; Sester, Monika; Fitzner, Daniel; Wallner, Markus


    The need for high temporal and spatial resolution precipitation data for hydrological analyses has been discussed in several studies. Although rain gauges provide valuable information, a very dense rain gauge network is costly. As a result, several new ideas have emerged to help estimating areal rainfall with higher temporal and spatial resolution. Rabiei et al. (2013) observed that moving cars, called RainCars (RCs), can potentially be a new source of data for measuring rain rate. The optical sensors used in that study are designed for operating the windscreen wipers and showed promising results for rainfall measurement purposes. Their measurement accuracy has been quantified in laboratory experiments. Considering explicitly those errors, the main objective of this study is to investigate the benefit of using RCs for estimating areal rainfall. For that, computer experiments are carried out, where radar rainfall is considered as the reference and the other sources of data, i.e., RCs and rain gauges, are extracted from radar data. Comparing the quality of areal rainfall estimation by RCs with rain gauges and reference data helps to investigate the benefit of the RCs. The value of this additional source of data is not only assessed for areal rainfall estimation performance but also for use in hydrological modeling. Considering measurement errors derived from laboratory experiments, the result shows that the RCs provide useful additional information for areal rainfall estimation as well as for hydrological modeling. Moreover, by testing larger uncertainties for RCs, they observed to be useful up to a certain level for areal rainfall estimation and discharge simulation.

  10. Field theory of bicritical and tetracritical points. III. Relaxational dynamics including conservation of magnetization (model C). (United States)

    Folk, R; Holovatch, Yu; Moser, G


    We calculate the relaxational dynamical critical behavior of systems of O(n_{ parallel}) plus sign in circleO(n_{ perpendicular}) symmetry including conservation of magnetization by renormalization group theory within the minimal subtraction scheme in two-loop order. Within the stability region of the Heisenberg fixed point and the biconical fixed point, strong dynamical scaling holds, with the asymptotic dynamical critical exponent z=2varphinu-1 , where varphi is the crossover exponent and nu the exponent of the correlation length. The critical dynamics at n_{ parallel}=1 and n_{ perpendicular}=2 is governed by a small dynamical transient exponent leading to nonuniversal nonasymptotic dynamical behavior. This may be seen, e.g., in the temperature dependence of the magnetic transport coefficients.

  11. Including the effects of filamentous bulking sludge during the simulation of wastewater treatment plants using a risk assessment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Comas, J.; Rodriquez-Roda, I.


    The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate how including the occurrence of filamentous bulking sludge in a secondary clarifier model will affect the predicted process performance during the simulation of WWTPs. The IWA Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) is hereby used as a simulation...... case study. Practically, the proposed approach includes a risk assessment model based on a knowledge-based decision tree to detect favourable conditions for the development of filamentous bulking sludge. Once such conditions are detected, the settling characteristics of the secondary clarifier model...... are automatically changed during the simulation by modifying the settling model parameters to mimic the effect of growth of filamentous bacteria. The simulation results demonstrate that including effects of filamentous bulking in the secondary clarifier model results in a more realistic plant performance...

  12. Thermodynamic Modeling and Dispatch of Distributed Energy Technologies including Fuel Cell -- Gas Turbine Hybrids (United States)

    McLarty, Dustin Fogle

    Distributed energy systems are a promising means by which to reduce both emissions and costs. Continuous generators must be responsive and highly efficiency to support building dynamics and intermittent on-site renewable power. Fuel cell -- gas turbine hybrids (FC/GT) are fuel-flexible generators capable of ultra-high efficiency, ultra-low emissions, and rapid power response. This work undertakes a detailed study of the electrochemistry, chemistry and mechanical dynamics governing the complex interaction between the individual systems in such a highly coupled hybrid arrangement. The mechanisms leading to the compressor stall/surge phenomena are studied for the increased risk posed to particular hybrid configurations. A novel fuel cell modeling method introduced captures various spatial resolutions, flow geometries, stack configurations and novel heat transfer pathways. Several promising hybrid configurations are analyzed throughout the work and a sensitivity analysis of seven design parameters is conducted. A simple estimating method is introduced for the combined system efficiency of a fuel cell and a turbine using component performance specifications. Existing solid oxide fuel cell technology is capable of hybrid efficiencies greater than 75% (LHV) operating on natural gas, and existing molten carbonate systems greater than 70% (LHV). A dynamic model is calibrated to accurately capture the physical coupling of a FC/GT demonstrator tested at UC Irvine. The 2900 hour experiment highlighted the sensitivity to small perturbations and a need for additional control development. Further sensitivity studies outlined the responsiveness and limits of different control approaches. The capability for substantial turn-down and load following through speed control and flow bypass with minimal impact on internal fuel cell thermal distribution is particularly promising to meet local demands or provide dispatchable support for renewable power. Advanced control and dispatch

  13. Validation of a multi-body optimization with knee kinematic models including ligament constraints. (United States)

    Gasparutto, Xavier; Sancisi, Nicola; Jacquelin, Eric; Parenti-Castelli, Vincenzo; Dumas, Raphaël


    Motion analysis aims at evaluating the joint kinematics but the relative movement between the bones and the skin markers, known as soft tissue artifact (STA), introduces large errors. Multi-body optimization (MBO) methods were proposed to compensate for the STA. However, the validation of the MBO methods using no or simple kinematic constraints (e.g., spherical joint) demonstrated inaccurate in vivo kinematics. Anatomical constraints were introduced in MBO methods and various ligament constraints were proposed in the literature. The validation of these methods has not been performed yet. The objective of this study was to validate, against in vivo knee joint kinematics measured by intra-cortical pins on three subjects, the model-based kinematics obtained by MBO methods using three different types of ligament constraints. The MBO method introducing minimized or prescribed ligament length variations showed some improvements in the estimation of knee kinematics when compared to no kinematic constraints, to degree-of-freedom (DoF) coupling curves, and to null ligament length variations. However, the improvements were marginal when compared to spherical constraints. The errors obtained by minimized and prescribed ligament length variations were below 2.5° and 4.1mm for the joint angles and displacements while the errors obtained with spherical joint constraints were below 2.2° and 3.1mm. These errors are generally lower than the errors previously reported in the literature. As a conclusion, this study presented encouraging results for the compensation of the STA by MBO and for the introduction of anatomical constraints in MBO. Personalization of the geometry should be considered for further improvements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pancreatic Response to Gold Nanoparticles Includes Decrease of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation In Autistic Diabetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manar E. Selim


    Full Text Available Background: Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs have a wide range of applications in various fields. This study provides an understanding of the modulatory effects of AuNPs on an antioxidant system in male Wistar diabetic rats with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Normal littermates fed by control mothers were injected with citrate buffer alone and served as normal, untreated controls controlin this study. Diabetes mellitus (DM was induced by administering a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ (100 mg/kg to the pups of (ND diabetic group, which had been fasted overnight. Autistic pups from mothers that had received a single intraperitoneal injection of 600 mg/kg sodium valproate on day 12.5 after conception were randomly divided into 2 groups (n 2 7/group as follow; administering single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ ( (100 mg/kg to the overnight fasted autistic pups of (AD autistic diabetic group. The treatment was started on the 5th day after STZ injection with the same dose as in group II and it was considered as 1st day of treatment with gold nanoparticles for 7 days to each rat of (group IV treated autistic diabetic group(TAD at a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg. b. wt. Results: At this dose of administration AuNPs, the activities of hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and catalase were greater in group TAD compared with the control group (P 0.05 in the liver of autistic diabetic AuNPs -supplemented rats, whereas reduced glutathione was markedly higher than in control rats, especially after administration of AuNPs. Moreover, the kidney functions in addition to the fat profile scoring supported the protective potential of that dose of AuNPs. The beta cells revealed euchromatic nuclei with no evidence of separation of nuclear membrane. Conclusions: Our results showed that AuNPs improved many of the oxidative stress parameters (SOD, GPx and, CAT, plasma antioxidant capacity (ORAC and lipid profile

  15. In vitro activity of available antimicrobial coated Foley catheters against Escherichia coli, including strains resistant to extended spectrum cephalosporins. (United States)

    Johnson, James R; Johnston, Brian D; Kuskowski, Michael A; Pitout, Johann


    We determined the activity, comparative potency and effect durability of commercially available, antimicrobial coated Foley catheters against Escherichia coli isolates, including extended spectrum cephalosporin resistant strains. We used an inhibition zone assay (diffusible inhibition) and an adherence assay (diffusible and contact dependent inhibition) to assess the inhibitory effect of 3 currently marketed antimicrobial coated catheters, including 2 coated with silver and 1 coated with nitrofurazone, and corresponding silicone catheters against 9 E. coli strains, including 7 extended spectrum cephalosporin resistant and 2 extended spectrum cephalosporin susceptible strains, and a Pseudomonas aeruginosa reference strain. In each assay the nitrofurazone coated catheter showed the greatest and most durable (through day 5) inhibitory activity. This was comparable for extended spectrum cephalosporin resistant and extended spectrum cephalosporin susceptible E. coli strains but decreased or absent for the Pseudomonas strain. One of the 2 silver coated catheters showed sparse but measurable inhibition zone activity on day 1 but not thereafter and no statistically significant activity on adherence assay. The other lacked detectable activity using either test system. In the adherence assay the nitrofurazone coated catheter decreased the E. coli count as potently in inoculum broths as in post-sonication suspensions (median decrease more than 8 and more than 6 log(10) cfu/ml, respectively). The nitrofurazone coated catheter showed significantly greater in vitro potency and durability of the antimicrobial effect against 9 E. coli strains than the 2 silver coated catheters, of which 1 appeared completely inert. No difference in antimicrobial effect was apparent between extended spectrum cephalosporin resistant and susceptible E. coli. The clinical relevance of these in vitro findings remains to be defined. Copyright © 2010 American Urological Association Education and

  16. Quantifying the Earthquake Clustering that Independent Sources with Stationary Rates (as Included in Current Risk Models) Can Produce. (United States)

    Fitzenz, D. D.; Nyst, M.; Apel, E. V.; Muir-Wood, R.


    The recent Canterbury earthquake sequence (CES) renewed public and academic awareness concerning the clustered nature of seismicity. Multiple event occurrence in short time and space intervals is reminiscent of aftershock sequences, but aftershock is a statistical definition, not a label one can give an earthquake in real-time. Aftershocks are defined collectively as what creates the Omori event rate decay after a large event or are defined as what is taken away as "dependent events" using a declustering method. It is noteworthy that depending on the declustering method used on the Canterbury earthquake sequence, the number of independent events varies a lot. This lack of unambiguous definition of aftershocks leads to the need to investigate the amount of clustering inherent in "declustered" risk models. This is the task we concentrate on in this contribution. We start from a background source model for the Canterbury region, in which 1) centroids of events of given magnitude are distributed using a latin-hypercube lattice, 2) following the range of preferential orientations determined from stress maps and focal mechanism, 3) with length determined using the local scaling relationship and 4) rates from a and b values derived from the declustered pre-2010 catalog. We then proceed to create tens of thousands of realizations of 6 to 20 year periods, and we define criteria to identify which successions of events in the region would be perceived as a sequence. Note that the spatial clustering expected is a lower end compared to a fully uniform distribution of events. Then we perform the same exercise with rates and b-values determined from the catalog including the CES. If the pre-2010 catalog was long (or rich) enough, then the computed "stationary" rates calculated from it would include the CES declustered events (by construction, regardless of the physical meaning of or relationship between those events). In regions of low seismicity rate (e.g., Canterbury before

  17. Activated sludge model No. 2d, ASM2d

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, M.


    The Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) presents a model for biological phosphorus removal with simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in activated sludge systems. ASM2d is based on ASM2 and is expanded to include the denitrifying activity of the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs......). This extension of ASM2 allows for improved modeling of the processes, especially with respect to the dynamics of nitrate and phosphate. (C) 1999 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. Clarifying the use of aggregated exposures in multilevel models: self-included vs. self-excluded measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuji Suzuki

    Full Text Available Multilevel analyses are ideally suited to assess the effects of ecological (higher level and individual (lower level exposure variables simultaneously. In applying such analyses to measures of ecologies in epidemiological studies, individual variables are usually aggregated into the higher level unit. Typically, the aggregated measure includes responses of every individual belonging to that group (i.e. it constitutes a self-included measure. More recently, researchers have developed an aggregate measure which excludes the response of the individual to whom the aggregate measure is linked (i.e. a self-excluded measure. In this study, we clarify the substantive and technical properties of these two measures when they are used as exposures in multilevel models.Although the differences between the two aggregated measures are mathematically subtle, distinguishing between them is important in terms of the specific scientific questions to be addressed. We then show how these measures can be used in two distinct types of multilevel models-self-included model and self-excluded model-and interpret the parameters in each model by imposing hypothetical interventions. The concept is tested on empirical data of workplace social capital and employees' systolic blood pressure.Researchers assume group-level interventions when using a self-included model, and individual-level interventions when using a self-excluded model. Analytical re-parameterizations of these two models highlight their differences in parameter interpretation. Cluster-mean centered self-included models enable researchers to decompose the collective effect into its within- and between-group components. The benefit of cluster-mean centering procedure is further discussed in terms of hypothetical interventions.When investigating the potential roles of aggregated variables, researchers should carefully explore which type of model-self-included or self-excluded-is suitable for a given situation

  19. Mean field diffusion models for precipitation in crystalline GaAs including surface tension and bulk stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, Wolfgang [Weierstrass-Institut fuer Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik (WIAS) im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (Germany); Kimmerle, Sven-Joachim [Humboldt-Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics


    Based on a thermodynamically consistent model for precipitation in gallium arsenide crystals including surface tension and bulk stresses by Dreyer and Duderstadt, we propose different mathematical models to describe the size evolution of liquid droplets in a crystalline solid. The first class of models treats the diffusion-controlled regime of interface motion, while the second class is concerned with the interface-controlled regime of interface motion. Our models take care of conservation of mass and substance. We consider homogenised models, where different length scales of the experimental situation have been exploited in order to simplify the equations. These homogenised models generalise the well-known Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner model for Ostwald ripening. Mean field models capture the main properties of our system and are well adapted for numerics and further analysis. Numerical evidence suggests in which case which one of the two regimes might be appropriate to the experimental situation. (orig.)

  20. IGE Model: An Extension of the Ideal Gas Model to Include Chemical Composition as Part of the Equilibrium State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Paolini


    Full Text Available The ideal gas (IG model is probably the most well-known gas models in engineering thermodynamics. In this paper, we extend the IG model into an ideal gas equilibrium (IGE model mixture model by incorporating chemical equilibrium calculations as part of the state evaluation. Through a simple graphical interface, users can set the atomic composition of a gas mixture. We have integrated this model into a thermodynamic web portal TEST ( that contains Java applets for various models for properties of pure substances. In the state panel of the IGE model, the known thermodynamic properties are entered. For a given pressure and temperature, the mixture's Gibbs function is minimized subject to atomic constraints and the equilibrium composition along with thermodynamic properties of the mixture are calculated and displayed. What is unique about this approach is that equilibrium computations are performed in the background, without requiring any major change in the familiar user interface used in other state daemons. Properties calculated by this equilibrium state daemon are compared with results from other established applications such as NASA CEA and STANJAN. Also, two different algorithms, an iterative approach and a direct approach based on minimizing different thermodynamic functions in different situation, are compared.

  1. Development and assessment of 2D fluid neutral models that include atomic databases and a microscopic reflection model (United States)

    Horsten, N.; Samaey, G.; Baelmans, M.


    Neutral particles play a crucial role in the plasma edge due to their strong interaction with the plasma. To capture all physics details most often a kinetic equation is solved using a Monte Carlo (MC) approach. Unfortunately, the MC noise hampers the convergence assessment of the solution of the coupled plasma-neutral equations. Moreover, the MC calculation time increases for high-collisional detached cases. In these high-collisional cases, however, the kinetic model may be well-approximated by a fluid neutral model, which can be solved deterministically. In this paper, we assess different fluid neutral models by comparing the resulting plasma sources to the sources from an MC simulation of the kinetic equation. The fluid models take into account the microscopic cross-sections and rate coefficients from the AMJUEL-HYDHEL databases, as well as the microscopic TRIM reflection model. We accomplish the latter without the introduction of any user-defined fitting parameters. We show that a pure pressure-diffusion equation provides accurate results for the particle source, but is inaccurate for the parallel momentum and ion energy source. Adding a parallel momentum equation gives maximum errors of about 9% for the momentum and 32% for the energy source. These errors are further reduced to respectively 6% and 14% by adding a separate neutral energy equation.

  2. The Benefits of Including Clinical Factors in Rectal Normal Tissue Complication Probability Modeling After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defraene, Gilles, E-mail: [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Van den Bergh, Laura [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Haustermans, Karin [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Heemsbergen, Wilma [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lebesque, Joos V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011-0.013) clinical factor was 'previous abdominal surgery.' As second significant (p = 0.012-0.016) factor, 'cardiac history' was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including 'diabetes' was significant (p = 0.039-0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003-0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D{sub 50}. Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints

  3. Can a one-layer optical skin model including melanin and inhomogeneously distributed blood explain spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectra? (United States)

    Karlsson, Hanna; Pettersson, Anders; Larsson, Marcus; Strömberg, Tomas


    Model based analysis of calibrated diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be used for determining oxygenation and concentration of skin chromophores. This study aimed at assessing the effect of including melanin in addition to hemoglobin (Hb) as chromophores and compensating for inhomogeneously distributed blood (vessel packaging), in a single-layer skin model. Spectra from four humans were collected during different provocations using a twochannel fiber optic probe with source-detector separations 0.4 and 1.2 mm. Absolute calibrated spectra using data from either a single distance or both distances were analyzed using inverse Monte Carlo for light transport and Levenberg-Marquardt for non-linear fitting. The model fitting was excellent using a single distance. However, the estimated model failed to explain spectra from the other distance. The two-distance model did not fit the data well at either distance. Model fitting was significantly improved including melanin and vessel packaging. The most prominent effect when fitting data from the larger separation compared to the smaller separation was a different light scattering decay with wavelength, while the tissue fraction of Hb and saturation were similar. For modeling spectra at both distances, we propose using either a multi-layer skin model or a more advanced model for the scattering phase function.

  4. Physical activity interventions in Latin America: what value might be added by including conference abstracts in a literature review? (United States)

    Hoehner, Christine; Soares, Jesus; Parra, Diana C; Ribeiro, Isabela C; Pratt, Michael; Bracco, Mario; Hallal, Pedro C; Brownson, Ross C


    This review assessed whether conference abstracts yield useful information on the types and effectiveness of community-based physical activity (PA) interventions in Latin America, beyond that from interventions included in a recent systematic review of peer-reviewed literature. Abstracts from 9 conferences were searched for community-based interventions to promote PA in Latin America and summarized. Three reviewers classified and screened abstracts. Evaluated interventions that were not included in the previous review were assessed. Search of abstracts from 31 proceedings of 9 conferences identified 87 abstracts of studies on community-based interventions focused on increasing PA. Only 31 abstracts reported on studies with a control group and an outcome related to PA. Ten of these abstracts represented interventions that had not been included in the previous review of peer-reviewed literature, but the abstracts were insufficient in number or detail to make a practice recommendation for any single intervention. This review highlighted the challenges and low added value of including conference abstracts in a systematic review of community PA interventions in Latin America. Stronger evaluation design and execution and more published reports of evaluated interventions are needed to build an evidence base supporting interventions to increase PA in Latin America.

  5. Including cetaceans in multi-species assessment models using strandings data: why, how and what can we do about it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Saavedra


    questions. Most multispecies models include interactions between commercially exploited species, since those data are more readily available. However, information is needed on at least both the main preys and predators of a selected stock. In the case of European Hake, the species we have focus our research on, cetaceans are their main predator, particularly common and bottlenose dolphins, which have been estimated to remove annually in the Atlantic shelf waters of the Iberian Peninsula, an amount similar to that caught by Spanish and Portuguese fleets (Santos et al., 2013. The European hake is one of the main fishing species of the Spanish and Portuguese fleets operating in the area, and one where more research activity has been concentrated, hence there is plenty of available biological information on growth, reproduction and trophic interactions. As a result, a population model has been built which uses trophic interactions to investigate the relationships between hake and other species. The European hake population is currently divided into two stocks, north and south. The southern hake stock, distributed along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula, is annually assessed by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES and the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO. For the assessment of this stock, “Gadget” a multi-specific modeling framework is used. Gadget allows the building of minimum realistic models that integrating the main trophic relationships among selected species considered to reflect the main processes in the system. Modeling cetacean populations can allow us to include complex trophic relationships in multispecies models. Furthermore, it will also be a tool to help cetaceans conservation by guiding possible management measures that ensure their viability or recovery. All cetacean species are protected by national and international legislation (e.g. Habitats Directive. However, modeling cetaceans dynamics has a number of problems

  6. Nonlinear flow model of multiple fractured horizontal wells with stimulated reservoir volume including the quadratic gradient term (United States)

    Ren, Junjie; Guo, Ping


    The real fluid flow in porous media is consistent with the mass conservation which can be described by the nonlinear governing equation including the quadratic gradient term (QGT). However, most of the flow models have been established by ignoring the QGT and little work has been conducted to incorporate the QGT into the flow model of the multiple fractured horizontal (MFH) well with stimulated reservoir volume (SRV). This paper first establishes a semi-analytical model of an MFH well with SRV including the QGT. Introducing the transformed pressure and flow-rate function, the nonlinear model of a point source in a composite system including the QGT is linearized. Then the Laplace transform, principle of superposition, numerical discrete method, Gaussian elimination method and Stehfest numerical inversion are employed to establish and solve the seepage model of the MFH well with SRV. Type curves are plotted and the effects of relevant parameters are analyzed. It is found that the nonlinear effect caused by the QGT can increase the flow capacity of fluid flow and influence the transient pressure positively. The relevant parameters not only have an effect on the type curve but also affect the error in the pressure calculated by the conventional linear model. The proposed model, which is consistent with the mass conservation, reflects the nonlinear process of the real fluid flow, and thus it can be used to obtain more accurate transient pressure of an MFH well with SRV.

  7. An Antimicrobial Metabolite from Bacillus sp.: Significant activity against pathogenic bacteria including multidrug-resistant clinical strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this study, the cell free modified trypticase soya broth (pH 7.4+0.2 of Bacillus subtilis URID 12.1 showed significant antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The partially purified antimicrobial molecule was found to be resistant to extremes of pH and temperatures and also to higher concentrations of trypsin and proteinase K. The antimicrobial molecule was purified by a three-step method that included reverse-phased high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were determined for 11 species of bacteria using a microbroth dilution technique. The HPLC-purified fraction showed the MICs ranging from 0.5 to 1 µg/ml for methicillin and vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MVRSA and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE strains. The molecular mass of the antimicrobial compound was determined to be 842.37 Da. The same antimicrobial fraction showed negligible haemolytic activity against human red blood cells even at a concentration as high as 100µg/ml. Because of its significant antimicrobial activity at low MIC values coupled with its non-haemolytic property, it may prove to be a novel antimicrobial lead molecule.

  8. The NLP toxin family in Phytophthora sojae includes rapidly evolving groups that lack necrosis-inducing activity. (United States)

    Dong, Suomeng; Kong, Guanghui; Qutob, Dinah; Yu, Xiaoli; Tang, Junli; Kang, Jixiong; Dai, Tingting; Wang, Hai; Gijzen, Mark; Wang, Yuanchao


    Necrosis- and ethylene-inducing-like proteins (NLP) are widely distributed in eukaryotic and prokaryotic plant pathogens and are considered to be important virulence factors. We identified, in total, 70 potential Phytophthora sojae NLP genes but 37 were designated as pseudogenes. Sequence alignment of the remaining 33 NLP delineated six groups. Three of these groups include proteins with an intact heptapeptide (Gly-His-Arg-His-Asp-Trp-Glu) motif, which is important for necrosis-inducing activity, whereas the motif is not conserved in the other groups. In total, 19 representative NLP genes were assessed for necrosis-inducing activity by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Surprisingly, only eight genes triggered cell death. The expression of the NLP genes in P. sojae was examined, distinguishing 20 expressed and 13 nonexpressed NLP genes. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicate that most NLP are highly expressed during cyst germination and infection stages. Amino acid substitution ratios (Ka/Ks) of 33 NLP sequences from four different P. sojae strains resulted in identification of positive selection sites in a distinct NLP group. Overall, our study indicates that expansion and pseudogenization of the P. sojae NLP family results from an ongoing birth-and-death process, and that varying patterns of expression, necrosis-inducing activity, and positive selection suggest that NLP have diversified in function.

  9. ARC (NSC 188491 has identical activity to Sangivamycin (NSC 65346 including inhibition of both P-TEFb and PKC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollingshead Melinda G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nucleoside analog, ARC (NSC 188491 is a recently characterized transcriptional inhibitor that selectively kills cancer cells and has the ability to perturb angiogenesis in vitro. In this study, the mechanism of action of ARC was further investigated by comparing in vitro and in vivo activity with other anti-neoplastic purines. Methods Structure-based homology searches were used to identify those compounds with similarity to ARC. Comparator compounds were then evaluated alongside ARC in the context of viability, cell cycle and apoptosis assays to establish any similarities. Following this, biological overlap was explored in detail using gene-expression analysis and kinase inhibition assays. Results Results demonstrated that sangivamycin, an extensively characterized pro-apoptotic nucleoside isolated from Streptomyces, had identical activity to ARC in terms of 1 cytotoxicity assays, 2 ability to induce a G2/M block, 3 inhibitory effects on RNA/DNA/protein synthesis, 4 transcriptomic response to treatment, 5 inhibition of protein kinase C, 6 inhibition of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb, 7 inhibition of VEGF secretion, and 8 activity within hollow fiber assays. Extending ARC activity to PKC inhibition provides a molecular basis for ARC cancer selectivity and anti-angiogenic effects. Furthermore, functional overlap between ARC and sangivamycin suggests that development of ARC may benefit from a retrospective of previous sangivamycin clinical trials. However, ARC was found to be inactive in several xenograft models, likely a consequence of rapid serum clearance. Conclusion Overall, these data expand on the biological properties of ARC but suggest additional studies are required before it can be considered a clinical trials candidate.

  10. Dipole model analysis of highest precision HERA data, including very low Q{sup 2}'s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luszczak, A. [Cracow Univ. of Technology (Poland); Kowalski, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)


    We analyse, within a dipole model, the final, inclusive HERA DIS cross section data in the low χ region, using fully correlated errors. We show, that these highest precision data are very well described within the dipole model framework starting from Q{sup 2} values of 3.5 GeV{sup 2} to the highest values of Q{sup 2}=250 GeV{sup 2}. To analyze the saturation effects we evaluated the data including also the very low 0.35including this region show a preference of the saturation ansatz.

  11. UPDATE February 2012 - The Food Crises: Predictive validation of a quantitative model of food prices including speculators and ethanol conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Lagi, Marco; Bertrand, Karla Z; Bar-Yam, Yaneer


    Increases in global food prices have led to widespread hunger and social unrest---and an imperative to understand their causes. In a previous paper published in September 2011, we constructed for the first time a dynamic model that quantitatively agreed with food prices. Specifically, the model fit the FAO Food Price Index time series from January 2004 to March 2011, inclusive. The results showed that the dominant causes of price increases during this period were investor speculation and ethanol conversion. The model included investor trend following as well as shifting between commodities, equities and bonds to take advantage of increased expected returns. Here, we extend the food prices model to January 2012, without modifying the model but simply continuing its dynamics. The agreement is still precise, validating both the descriptive and predictive abilities of the analysis. Policy actions are needed to avoid a third speculative bubble that would cause prices to rise above recent peaks by the end of 2012.

  12. Model Selection and Evaluation Based on Emerging Infectious Disease Data Sets including A/H1N1 and Ebola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendi Liu


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to apply simple ODE models in the area of modeling the spread of emerging infectious diseases and show the importance of model selection in estimating parameters, the basic reproduction number, turning point, and final size. To quantify the plausibility of each model, given the data and the set of four models including Logistic, Gompertz, Rosenzweg, and Richards models, the Bayes factors are calculated and the precise estimates of the best fitted model parameters and key epidemic characteristics have been obtained. In particular, for Ebola the basic reproduction numbers are 1.3522 (95% CI (1.3506, 1.3537, 1.2101 (95% CI (1.2084, 1.2119, 3.0234 (95% CI (2.6063, 3.4881, and 1.9018 (95% CI (1.8565, 1.9478, the turning points are November 7,November 17, October 2, and November 3, 2014, and the final sizes until December 2015 are 25794 (95% CI (25630, 25958, 3916 (95% CI (3865, 3967, 9886 (95% CI (9740, 10031, and 12633 (95% CI (12515, 12750 for West Africa, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, respectively. The main results confirm that model selection is crucial in evaluating and predicting the important quantities describing the emerging infectious diseases, and arbitrarily picking a model without any consideration of alternatives is problematic.

  13. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important? (United States)

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A.; Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Raab, Lindsay N.; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N.


    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semi-annual records of anthropometry, maturity and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year pre-menarche [predictor] and ~5 years post-menarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent inter-scan PA and PA over 3 maturity sub-phases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry and strength indices at non-dominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) sub-head BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or post-menarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and inter-scan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p<0.07). Pre-menarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semi-partial r2 = 0.21-0.59, p≤0.001). Adult 1/3 radius and sub-head BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years post-menarche (p<0.03). PA 3-5 years post-menarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter and buckling ratio (p<0.05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  14. Mathematical multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system including mitral valve dynamics. Application to ischemic mitral insufficiency (United States)


    Background Valve dysfunction is a common cardiovascular pathology. Despite significant clinical research, there is little formal study of how valve dysfunction affects overall circulatory dynamics. Validated models would offer the ability to better understand these dynamics and thus optimize diagnosis, as well as surgical and other interventions. Methods A cardiovascular and circulatory system (CVS) model has already been validated in silico, and in several animal model studies. It accounts for valve dynamics using Heaviside functions to simulate a physiologically accurate "open on pressure, close on flow" law. However, it does not consider real-time valve opening dynamics and therefore does not fully capture valve dysfunction, particularly where the dysfunction involves partial closure. This research describes an updated version of this previous closed-loop CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve, and is defined over the full cardiac cycle. Results Simulations of the cardiovascular system with healthy mitral valve are performed, and, the global hemodynamic behaviour is studied compared with previously validated results. The error between resulting pressure-volume (PV) loops of already validated CVS model and the new CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve is assessed and remains within typical measurement error and variability. Simulations of ischemic mitral insufficiency are also performed. Pressure-Volume loops, transmitral flow evolution and mitral valve aperture area evolution follow reported measurements in shape, amplitude and trends. Conclusions The resulting cardiovascular system model including mitral valve dynamics provides a foundation for clinical validation and the study of valvular dysfunction in vivo. The overall models and results could readily be generalised to other cardiac valves. PMID:21942971

  15. Mathematical multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system including mitral valve dynamics. Application to ischemic mitral insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonen Marie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Valve dysfunction is a common cardiovascular pathology. Despite significant clinical research, there is little formal study of how valve dysfunction affects overall circulatory dynamics. Validated models would offer the ability to better understand these dynamics and thus optimize diagnosis, as well as surgical and other interventions. Methods A cardiovascular and circulatory system (CVS model has already been validated in silico, and in several animal model studies. It accounts for valve dynamics using Heaviside functions to simulate a physiologically accurate "open on pressure, close on flow" law. However, it does not consider real-time valve opening dynamics and therefore does not fully capture valve dysfunction, particularly where the dysfunction involves partial closure. This research describes an updated version of this previous closed-loop CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve, and is defined over the full cardiac cycle. Results Simulations of the cardiovascular system with healthy mitral valve are performed, and, the global hemodynamic behaviour is studied compared with previously validated results. The error between resulting pressure-volume (PV loops of already validated CVS model and the new CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve is assessed and remains within typical measurement error and variability. Simulations of ischemic mitral insufficiency are also performed. Pressure-Volume loops, transmitral flow evolution and mitral valve aperture area evolution follow reported measurements in shape, amplitude and trends. Conclusions The resulting cardiovascular system model including mitral valve dynamics provides a foundation for clinical validation and the study of valvular dysfunction in vivo. The overall models and results could readily be generalised to other cardiac valves.

  16. Design and modeling of an advanced marine machinery system including waste heat recovery and removal of sulphur oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik


    and modelling a highly efficient machinery system which includes the removal of exhaust gas sulphur oxides. Numerical simulations are carried out using an open source software developed at Technical University of Denmark called Dynamic Network Analysis (DNA). The machinery system suggested in this paper...

  17. simPH: An R Package for Illustrating Estimates from Cox Proportional Hazard Models Including for Interactive and Nonlinear Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Gandrud


    Full Text Available The R package simPH provides tools for effectively communicating results from Cox proportional hazard (PH models, including models with interactive and nonlinear effects. The Cox (PH model is a popular tool for examining event data. However, previously available computational tools have not made it easy to explore and communicate quantities of interest and associated uncertainty estimated from them. This is especially true when the effects are interactions or nonlinear transformations of continuous variables. These transformations are especially useful with Cox PH models because they can be employed to correctly specifying models that would otherwise violate the nonproportional hazards assumption. Package simPH makes it easy to simulate and then plot quantities of interest for a variety of effects estimated from Cox PH models including interactive effects, nonlinear effects, as well as standard linear effects. Package simPH employs visual weighting in order to effectively communicate estimation uncertainty. There are options to show either the standard central interval of the simulation's distribution or the shortest probability interval - which can be useful for asymmetrically distributed estimates. This paper uses hypothetical and empirical examples to illustrate package simPH 's syntax and capabilities.

  18. Modeling of active beam units with Modelica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarini, Alessandro; Hultmark, Göran; Vorre, Anders


    . Measurements from a full-scale experiment are used to compare the thermal behavior of the active beam with the one predicted by simulations. The simulation results show that the model corresponds closely with the actual operation. The model predicts the outlet water temperature of the active beam...

  19. Analytical linear energy transfer model including secondary particles: calculations along the central axis of the proton pencil beam. (United States)

    Marsolat, F; De Marzi, L; Pouzoulet, F; Mazal, A


    In proton therapy, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) depends on various types of parameters such as linear energy transfer (LET). An analytical model for LET calculation exists (Wilkens' model), but secondary particles are not included in this model. In the present study, we propose a correction factor, L sec, for Wilkens' model in order to take into account the LET contributions of certain secondary particles. This study includes secondary protons and deuterons, since the effects of these two types of particles can be described by the same RBE-LET relationship. L sec was evaluated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the GATE/GEANT4 platform and was defined by the ratio of the LET d distributions of all protons and deuterons and only primary protons. This method was applied to the innovative Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) delivery systems and L sec was evaluated along the beam axis. This correction factor indicates the high contribution of secondary particles in the entrance region, with L sec values higher than 1.6 for a 220 MeV clinical pencil beam. MC simulations showed the impact of pencil beam parameters, such as mean initial energy, spot size, and depth in water, on L sec. The variation of L sec with these different parameters was integrated in a polynomial function of the L sec factor in order to obtain a model universally applicable to all PBS delivery systems. The validity of this correction factor applied to Wilkens' model was verified along the beam axis of various pencil beams in comparison with MC simulations. A good agreement was obtained between the corrected analytical model and the MC calculations, with mean-LET deviations along the beam axis less than 0.05 keV μm(-1). These results demonstrate the efficacy of our new correction of the existing LET model in order to take into account secondary protons and deuterons along the pencil beam axis.

  20. Finite Element Modeling and Analysis of Nonlinear Impact and Frictional Motion Responses Including Fluid—Structure Coupling Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhao


    Full Text Available A nonlinear three dimensional (3D single rack model and a nonlinear 3D whole pool multi-rack model are developed for the spent fuel storage racks of a nuclear power plant (NPP to determine impacts and frictional motion responses when subjected to 3D excitations from the supporting building floor. The submerged free standing rack system and surrounding water are coupled due to hydrodynamic fluid-structure interaction (FSI using potential theory. The models developed have features that allow consideration of geometric and material nonlinearities including (1 the impacts of fuel assemblies to rack cells, a rack to adjacent racks or pool walls, and rack support legs to the pool floor; (2 the hydrodynamic coupling of fuel assemblies with their storing racks, and of a rack with adjacent racks, pool walls, and the pool floor; and (3 the dynamic motion behavior of rocking, twisting, and frictional sliding of rack modules. Using these models 3D nonlinear time history dynamic analyses are performed per the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC criteria. Since few such modeling, analyses, and results using both the 3D single and whole pool multiple rack models are available in the literature, this paper emphasizes description of modeling and analysis techniques using the SOLVIA general purpose nonlinear finite element code. Typical response results with different Coulomb friction coefficients are presented and discussed.

  1. Deterministic Modelling of BAK Activation Kinetics (United States)

    Grills, C.; Chacko, A.; Crawford, N.; Johnston, P. G.; Fennell, D. A.; O'Rourke, S. F. C.


    The molecular mechanism underlying mitochondrial BAK activation during apoptosis remains highly controversial. Two seemingly conflicting models have been proposed. In the activation model, BAK requires so-called activating BH3 only proteins (aBH3) to initiate its conformation change. In the other, displacement from inhibitory pro-survival BCL-2 proteins (PBPs) and monomerization of BAK by PBP restricted dissociator BH3-only proteins (dBH3) is sufficient. To better understand the kinetic implications of these models and reconcile these conflicting but highly evidence-based models, we have employed dynamical systems analysis to explore the kinetics underlying BAK activation as a non-linear reaction system. Our findings accommodate both pure agonism and dissociation as mutually exclusive mechanisms capable of initiating BAK activation. In addition we find our work supports a modelling based approach for predicting resistance to therapeutically relevant small molecules BH3 mimetics.

  2. Active Learning for Player Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Mohammad


    of the full dataset) is necessary for the construction of accu- rate models that are as accurate as those constructed from the full dataset. This indicates the potential of the method and its benefits in cases when obtaining the data is expensive or time, storage or effort consuming. The results also indicate...

  3. Students’ mathematical learning in modelling activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Blomhøj, Morten


    Ten years of experience with analyses of students’ learning in a modelling course for first year university students, led us to see modelling as a didactical activity with the dual goal of developing students’ modelling competency and enhancing their conceptual learning of mathematical concepts...... create and help overcome hidden cognitive conflicts in students’ understanding; that reflections within modelling can play an important role for the students’ learning of mathematics. These findings are illustrated with a modelling project concerning the world population....

  4. A modified tank model including snowmelt and infiltration time lags for deep-seated landslides in alpine environments (Aggenalm, Germany) (United States)

    Nie, Wen; Krautblatter, Michael; Leith, Kerry; Thuro, Kurosch; Festl, Judith


    Deep-seated landslides are an important and widespread natural hazard within alpine regions and can have significant impacts on infrastructure. Pore water pressure plays an important role in determining the stability of hydrologically triggered deep-seated landslides. Based on a simple tank model structure, we improve groundwater level prediction by introducing time lags associated with groundwater supply caused by snow accumulation, snowmelt and infiltration in deep-seated landslides. In this study, we demonstrate an equivalent infiltration calculation to improve the estimation of time lags using a modified tank model to calculate regional groundwater levels. Applied to the deep-seated Aggenalm landslide in the German Alps at 1000-1200 m a. s. l. , our results predict daily changes in pore water pressure ranging from -1 to 1.6 kPa, depending on daily rainfall and snowmelt, which are compared to piezometric measurements in boreholes. The inclusion of time lags improves the results of standard tank models by ˜  36 % (linear correlation with measurement) after heavy rainfall and by ˜ 82 % following snowmelt in a 1-2-day period. For the modified tank model, we introduced a representation of snow accumulation and snowmelt based on a temperature index and an equivalent infiltration method, i.e. the melted snow-water equivalent. The modified tank model compares well to borehole-derived water pressures. Changes of pore water pressure can be modelled with 0-8 % relative error in rainfall season (standard tank model: 2-16 % relative error) and with 0-7 % relative error in snowmelt season (standard tank model: 2-45 % relative error). Here we demonstrate a modified tank model for deep-seated landslides which includes snow accumulation, snowmelt and infiltration effects and can effectively predict changes in pore water pressure in alpine environments.

  5. Theory and modeling of active brazing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Swol, Frank B.; Miller, James Edward; Lechman, Jeremy B.; Givler, Richard C.


    Active brazes have been used for many years to produce bonds between metal and ceramic objects. By including a relatively small of a reactive additive to the braze one seeks to improve the wetting and spreading behavior of the braze. The additive modifies the substrate, either by a chemical surface reaction or possibly by alloying. By its nature, the joining process with active brazes is a complex nonequilibrium non-steady state process that couples chemical reaction, reactant and product diffusion to the rheology and wetting behavior of the braze. Most of the these subprocesses are taking place in the interfacial region, most are difficult to access by experiment. To improve the control over the brazing process, one requires a better understanding of the melting of the active braze, rate of the chemical reaction, reactant and product diffusion rates, nonequilibrium composition-dependent surface tension as well as the viscosity. This report identifies ways in which modeling and theory can assist in improving our understanding.

  6. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Quesada


    Full Text Available An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a * was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties.

  7. Modeling Criminal Activity in Urban Landscapes (United States)

    Brantingham, Patricia; Glässer, Uwe; Jackson, Piper; Vajihollahi, Mona

    Computational and mathematical methods arguably have an enormous potential for serving practical needs in crime analysis and prevention by offering novel tools for crime investigations and experimental platforms for evidence-based policy making. We present a comprehensive formal framework and tool support for mathematical and computational modeling of criminal behavior to facilitate systematic experimental studies of a wide range of criminal activities in urban environments. The focus is on spatial and temporal aspects of different forms of crime, including opportunistic and serial violent crimes. However, the proposed framework provides a basis to push beyond conventional empirical research and engage the use of computational thinking and social simulations in the analysis of terrorism and counter-terrorism.

  8. A reanalysis of a behavioral intervention to prevent incident HIV infections: including indirect effects in modeling outcomes of Project EXPLORE. (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A; Kalichman, Seth C; Kenny, David A; Harel, Ofer


    Project EXPLORE - a large-scale, behavioral intervention tested among men who have sex with men (MSM) at-risk for HIV infection - was generally deemed as ineffective in reducing HIV incidence. Using novel and more precise data analytic techniques we reanalyzed Project EXPLORE by including both direct and indirect paths of intervention effects. Data from 4296 HIV-negative MSM who participated in Project EXPLORE, which included 10 sessions of behavioral risk reduction counseling completed from 1999 to 2005, were included in the analysis. We reanalyzed the data to include parameters that estimate the over-time effects of the intervention on unprotected anal (UA) sex and the over-time effects of the intervention on HIV status mediated by UA sex simultaneously in a single model. We found the indirect effect of intervention on HIV infection through UA sex to be statistically significant up through 12-month post-intervention, OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.72-0.95. Furthermore, the intervention significantly reduced UA sex up through 18-month post-intervention, OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63-0.99. Our results reveal effects not tested in the original model that offer new insight into the effectiveness of a behavioral intervention for reducing HIV incidence. Project EXPLORE demonstrated that when tested against an evidence-based, effective control condition can result in reductions in rates of HIV acquisition at one year follow-up. Findings highlight the critical role of addressing behavioral risk reduction counseling in HIV prevention.

  9. A finite element model of the L4-L5-S1 human spine segment including the heterogeneity and anisotropy of the discs. (United States)

    Jaramillo, Hector E; Gómez, Lessby; García, Jose J


    With the aim to study disc degeneration and the risk of injury during occupational activities, a new finite element (FE) model of the L4-L5-S1 segment of the human spine was developed based on the anthropometry of a typical Colombian worker. Beginning with medical images, the programs CATIA and SOLIDWORKS were used to generate and assemble the vertebrae and create the soft structures of the segment. The software ABAQUS was used to run the analyses, which included a detailed model calibration using the experimental step-wise reduction data for the L4-L5 component, while the L5-S1 segment was calibrated in the intact condition. The range of motion curves, the intradiscal pressure and the lateral bulging under pure moments were considered for the calibration. As opposed to other FE models that include the L5-S1 disc, the model developed in this study considered the regional variations and anisotropy of the annulus as well as a realistic description of the nucleus geometry, which allowed an improved representation of experimental data during the validation process. Hence, the model can be used to analyze the stress and strain distributions in the L4-L5 and L5-S1 discs of workers performing activities such as lifting and carrying tasks.

  10. Crustal growth at active continental margins: Numerical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Katharina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370618947; Gerya, Taras; Castro, Antonio

    The dynamics and melt sources for crustal growth at active continental margins are analyzed by using a 2D coupled petrological–thermomechanical numerical model of an oceanic-continental subduction zone. This model includes spontaneous slab retreat and bending, dehydration of subducted crust, aqueous

  11. Bi-temporal 3D Active Appearance Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille


    in fourdimensional MRI. The theoretical foundation of our work is the generative two-dimensional Active Appearance Models by Cootes et al., here extended to bi-temporal, three-dimensional models. Further issues treated include correction of respiratory induced slice displacements, systole detection, and a texture...

  12. Iwamoto-Harada coalescence/pickup model for cluster emission: state density approach including angular momentum variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Běták Emil


    Full Text Available For low-energy nuclear reactions well above the resonance region, but still below the pion threshold, statistical pre-equilibrium models (e.g., the exciton and the hybrid ones are a frequent tool for analysis of energy spectra and the cross sections of cluster emission. For α’s, two essentially distinct approaches are popular, namely the preformed one and the different versions of coalescence approaches, whereas only the latter group of models can be used for other types of cluster ejectiles. The original Iwamoto-Harada model of pre-equilibrium cluster emission was formulated using the overlap of the cluster and its constituent nucleons in momentum space. Transforming it into level or state densities is not a straigthforward task; however, physically the same model was presented at a conference on reaction models five years earlier. At that time, only the densities without spin were used. The introduction of spin variables into the exciton model enabled detailed calculation of the γ emission and its competition with nucleon channels, and – at the same time – it stimulated further developments of the model. However – to the best of our knowledge – no spin formulation has been presented for cluster emission till recently, when the first attempts have been reported, but restricted to the first emission only. We have updated this effort now and we are able to handle (using the same simplifications as in our previous work pre-equilibrium cluster emission with spin including all nuclei in the reaction chain.

  13. Three-dimensional computer model of the right atrium including the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes predicts classical nodal behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Li

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to develop a three-dimensional (3D anatomically-detailed model of the rabbit right atrium containing the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes to study the electrophysiology of the nodes. A model was generated based on 3D images of a rabbit heart (atria and part of ventricles, obtained using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Segmentation was carried out semi-manually. A 3D right atrium array model (∼3.16 million elements, including eighteen objects, was constructed. For description of cellular electrophysiology, the Rogers-modified FitzHugh-Nagumo model was further modified to allow control of the major characteristics of the action potential with relatively low computational resource requirements. Model parameters were chosen to simulate the action potentials in the sinoatrial node, atrial muscle, inferior nodal extension and penetrating bundle. The block zone was simulated as passive tissue. The sinoatrial node, crista terminalis, main branch and roof bundle were considered as anisotropic. We have simulated normal and abnormal electrophysiology of the two nodes. In accordance with experimental findings: (i during sinus rhythm, conduction occurs down the interatrial septum and into the atrioventricular node via the fast pathway (conduction down the crista terminalis and into the atrioventricular node via the slow pathway is slower; (ii during atrial fibrillation, the sinoatrial node is protected from overdrive by its long refractory period; and (iii during atrial fibrillation, the atrioventricular node reduces the frequency of action potentials reaching the ventricles. The model is able to simulate ventricular echo beats. In summary, a 3D anatomical model of the right atrium containing the cardiac conduction system is able to simulate a wide range of classical nodal behaviours.

  14. Broad-spectrum antiviral activity including human immunodeficiency and hepatitis C viruses mediated by a novel retinoid thiosemicarbazone derivative. (United States)

    Kesel, Andreas J


    Aromatic aldehyde-derived thiosemicarbazones 4-6, the S-substituted modified thiosemicarbazones 7/8, and a vitamin A-derived (retinoid) thiosemicarbazone derivative 12 were investigated as inhibitors of human hepatitis C virus (HCV) subgenomic RNA replicon Huh7 ET (luc-ubi-neo/ET) replication. Compounds 4-6 and 12 were found to be potent suppressors of HCV RNA replicon replication. The trifluoromethoxy-substituted thiosemicarbazone 6 and the retinoid thiosemicarbazone derivative 12 were even superior in selectivity to the included reference agent recombinant human alpha-interferon-2b, showing potencies in the nanomolar range of concentration. In addition, compounds 5, 6, 8 and 12 were tested as inhibitors of cytopathic effect (CPE) induced by human varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and/or human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Compounds 4-6, 8 and 12 were additionally examined as inhibitors of CPE induced by cowpox virus and vaccinia virus. Thiosemicarbazone 4 was inhibitory on cowpox and vaccinia virus replication comparable in potency and selectivity to the reference agent cidofovir. Retinoid thiosemicarbazone derivative 12 was active as micromolar inhibitor of VZV, HCMV, and, in addition, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. These results indicate that thiosemicarbazone derivatives are appropriate lead structures to be evaluated in targeted antiviral therapies for hepatitis C (STAT-C), and that the vitamin A-related thiosemicarbazone derivative 12 emerges as a broad-spectrum antiviral agent, co-suppressing the multiplication of important RNA and DNA viruses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of rotator cuff tears, including shoulders without pain, on activities of daily living in the general population. (United States)

    Nakajima, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Osawa, Toshihisa; Shitara, Hitoshi; Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Takasawa, Eiji; Takagishi, Kenji


    Few reports have so far evaluated the possible restrictions of activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with asymptomatic rotator cuff tears (RCTs). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of RCTs, including shoulders without pain, on ADL in the general population. We performed medical checkups on 462 individuals (924 shoulders). All participants completed a questionnaire regarding their background and medical history. We then assessed their shoulder functions with the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) and performed US (US) examinations of both shoulders to diagnose RCTs. We divided participants into tear and nontear groups and performed statistical analysis to compare total SST scores and each SST item between groups. Furthermore, we performed the same examinations for participants identified as having shoulders without pain. Among participants, those in the tear group showed significantly lower total SST scores than those in the nontear group. After examining each SST item, a significant difference was observed regarding the ability to sleep comfortably and to lift 3.6 kg to shoulder level. In shoulders without pain, the tear group showed significantly lower total SST scores than the nontear group. A significant difference was observed only regarding the ability to lift 3.6 kg to shoulder level. In the general population, ADL were restricted in participants with RCTs; they experienced night pain in the shoulder and muscle weakness during shoulder elevation. Furthermore, participants with RCTs, even if the condition itself did not induce any pain, tended to experience muscle weakness during shoulder elevation, thus resulting in restrictions of ADL.

  16. Discursive positionings and emotions in modelling activities (United States)

    Daher, Wajeeh


    Mathematical modelling is suggested as an activity through which students engage in meaningful mathematics. In the current research, the modelling activity of a group of four seventh-grade students was analysed using the discursive analysis framework. The research findings show that the positionings and emotions of the group members during their participation in the modelling activity changed as the activity proceeded. Overall, it can be said that three of the four group members acted as insiders, while the fourth acted as an outsider, and only, towards the end of the group's work on the activity, he acted as an insider. Moreover, the research findings point at four factors that affected the group members' positionings and emotions during the modelling activity: the member's characteristics, the member's history of learning experiences, the activity characteristics and the modelling phases. Furthermore, the different positionings of the group members in the different modelling phases were accompanied by different emotions experienced by them, where being an insider and a collaborator resulted in positive emotions, while being an outsider resulted in negative emotions.

  17. Activity of Debio1452, a FabI inhibitor with potent activity against Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., including multidrug-resistant strains. (United States)

    Flamm, Robert K; Rhomberg, Paul R; Kaplan, Nachum; Jones, Ronald N; Farrell, David J


    Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are responsible for a wide variety of human infections. The investigational antibacterial Debio1450 (previously AFN-1720), a prodrug of Debio1452 (previously AFN-1252), specifically targets staphylococci without significant activity against other Gram-positive or Gram-negative species. Debio1452 inhibits FabI, an enzyme critical to fatty acid biosynthesis in staphylococci. The activity of Debio1452 against CoNS, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), including significant clones, was determined. A globally diverse collection of 574 patient isolates from 35 countries was tested that included CoNS (6 species, 103 strains), MSSA (154 strains), MRSA (163 strains), and molecularly characterized strains (including spa-typed MRSA clones; 154 strains). The isolates were tested for susceptibility by CLSI broth microdilution methods against Debio1452 and 10 comparators. The susceptibility rates for the comparators were determined using CLSI and EUCAST breakpoint criteria. All S. aureus and CoNS strains were inhibited by Debio1452 concentrations of ≤ 0.12 and ≤ 0.5 μg/ml, respectively. The MIC50s for MSSA, MRSA, and molecularly characterized MRSA strains were 0.004 μg/ml, and the MIC90s ranged from 0.008 to 0.03 μg/ml. The MICs were higher for the CoNS isolates (MIC50/90, 0.015/0.12 μg/ml). Among S. aureus strains, resistance was common for erythromycin (61.6%), levofloxacin (49.0%), clindamycin (27.6%), tetracycline (15.7%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (7.0%). Debio1452 demonstrated potent activity against MSSA, MRSA, and CoNS. Debio1452 showed significantly greater activity overall (MIC50, 0.004 μg/ml) than the other agents tested against these staphylococcal species, which included dominant MRSA clones and strains resistant to currently utilized antimicrobial agents. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Incremental activity modeling in multiple disjoint cameras. (United States)

    Loy, Chen Change; Xiang, Tao; Gong, Shaogang


    Activity modeling and unusual event detection in a network of cameras is challenging, particularly when the camera views are not overlapped. We show that it is possible to detect unusual events in multiple disjoint cameras as context-incoherent patterns through incremental learning of time delayed dependencies between distributed local activities observed within and across camera views. Specifically, we model multicamera activities using a Time Delayed Probabilistic Graphical Model (TD-PGM) with different nodes representing activities in different decomposed regions from different views and the directed links between nodes encoding their time delayed dependencies. To deal with visual context changes, we formulate a novel incremental learning method for modeling time delayed dependencies that change over time. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using a synthetic data set and videos captured from a camera network installed at a busy underground station.

  19. Modelling the effect of acoustic waves on the thermodynamics and kinetics of phase transformation in a solution: Including mass transportation. (United States)

    Haqshenas, S R; Ford, I J; Saffari, N


    Effects of acoustic waves on a phase transformation in a metastable phase were investigated in our previous work [S. R. Haqshenas, I. J. Ford, and N. Saffari, "Modelling the effect of acoustic waves on nucleation," J. Chem. Phys. 145, 024315 (2016)]. We developed a non-equimolar dividing surface cluster model and employed it to determine the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallisation induced by an acoustic field in a mass-conserved system. In the present work, we developed a master equation based on a hybrid Szilard-Fokker-Planck model, which accounts for mass transportation due to acoustic waves. This model can determine the kinetics of nucleation and the early stage of growth of clusters including the Ostwald ripening phenomenon. It was solved numerically to calculate the kinetics of an isothermal sonocrystallisation process in a system with mass transportation. The simulation results show that the effect of mass transportation for different excitations depends on the waveform as well as the imposed boundary conditions and tends to be noticeable in the case of shock waves. The derivations are generic and can be used with any acoustic source and waveform.

  20. Evaluation of the 235U prompt fission neutron spectrum including a detailed analysis of experimental data and improved model information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neudecker Denise


    Full Text Available We present an evaluation of the 235U prompt fission neutron spectrum (PFNS induced by thermal to 20-MeV neutrons. Experimental data and associated covariances were analyzed in detail. The incident energy dependence of the PFNS was modeled with an extended Los Alamos model combined with the Hauser-Feshbach and the exciton models. These models describe prompt fission, pre-fission compound nucleus and pre-equilibrium neutron emissions. The evaluated PFNS agree well with the experimental data included in this evaluation, preliminary data of the LANL and LLNL Chi-Nu measurement and recent evaluations by Capote et al. and Rising et al. However, they are softer than the ENDF/B-VII.1 (VII.1 and JENDL-4.0 PFNS for incident neutron energies up to 2 MeV. Simulated effective multiplication factors keff of the Godiva and Flattop-25 critical assemblies are further from the measured keff if the current data are used within VII.1 compared to using only VII.1 data. However, if this work is used with ENDF/B-VIII.0β2 data, simulated values of keff agree well with the measured ones.

  1. A non-linear mathematical model for dynamic analysis of spur gears including shaft and bearing dynamics (United States)

    Ozguven, H. Nevzat


    A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear semi-definite model with time varying mesh stiffness has been developed for the dynamic analysis of spur gears. The model includes a spur gear pair, two shafts, two inertias representing load and prime mover, and bearings. As the shaft and bearing dynamics have also been considered in the model, the effect of lateral-torsional vibration coupling on the dynamics of gears can be studied. In the nonlinear model developed several factors such as time varying mesh stiffness and damping, separation of teeth, backlash, single- and double-sided impacts, various gear errors and profile modifications have been considered. The dynamic response to internal excitation has been calculated by using the 'static transmission error method' developed. The software prepared (DYTEM) employs the digital simulation technique for the solution, and is capable of calculating dynamic tooth and mesh forces, dynamic factors for pinion and gear, dynamic transmission error, dynamic bearing forces and torsions of shafts. Numerical examples are given in order to demonstrate the effect of shaft and bearing dynamics on gear dynamics.

  2. Including Thermal Fluctuations in Actomyosin Stable States Increases the Predicted Force per Motor and Macroscopic Efficiency in Muscle Modelling. (United States)

    Marcucci, Lorenzo; Washio, Takumi; Yanagida, Toshio


    Muscle contractions are generated by cyclical interactions of myosin heads with actin filaments to form the actomyosin complex. To simulate actomyosin complex stable states, mathematical models usually define an energy landscape with a corresponding number of wells. The jumps between these wells are defined through rate constants. Almost all previous models assign these wells an infinite sharpness by imposing a relatively simple expression for the detailed balance, i.e., the ratio of the rate constants depends exponentially on the sole myosin elastic energy. Physically, this assumption corresponds to neglecting thermal fluctuations in the actomyosin complex stable states. By comparing three mathematical models, we examine the extent to which this hypothesis affects muscle model predictions at the single cross-bridge, single fiber, and organ levels in a ceteris paribus analysis. We show that including fluctuations in stable states allows the lever arm of the myosin to easily and dynamically explore all possible minima in the energy landscape, generating several backward and forward jumps between states during the lifetime of the actomyosin complex, whereas the infinitely sharp minima case is characterized by fewer jumps between states. Moreover, the analysis predicts that thermal fluctuations enable a more efficient contraction mechanism, in which a higher force is sustained by fewer attached cross-bridges.

  3. An explicit continuous analytical model for Gate All Around (GAA) MOSFETs including the hot-carrier degradation effects. (United States)

    Abdi, M A; Djeffal, F; Bentrcia, T; Arar, D


    In this paper, an explicit and continuous analytical model including interfacial hot-carrier effects is developed for a deep submicron Gate All Around (GAA) MOSFETs. Explicit analytical expressions of the surface potential, drain current and transconductance are given for all operating modes. Exploiting this new device model, we have found that the incorporation of a high-k layer, Gate Stack (GS), between oxide region and gate metal leads to drain current enhancement, improved transconductance parameter and enhanced interfacial hot-carrier immunity. The developed approaches are verified and validated by the good agreement found with the 2D numerical simulations for wide range of device parameters and bias conditions. GS GAA MOSFET design can alleviate the critical problem and further improve the immunity of hot-carrier effects of GAA MOSFET-based circuits in the deep submicron working domain.

  4. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include? (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and...

  5. Association of environmental insecticide exposure and fetal growth with a Bayesian model including multiple exposure sources: the PELAGIE mother-child cohort. (United States)

    Petit, Claire; Blangiardo, Marta; Richardson, Sylvia; Coquet, François; Chevrier, Cécile; Cordier, Sylvaine


    It has been suggested that prenatal exposure to insecticides adversely affects fetal growth, but the overall results have been inconsistent, partly because of the different exposure sources and exposure assessments used. In the French PELAGIE (Perturbateurs Endocriniens: Étude Longitudinale sur les Anomalies de la Grossesse, l'Infertilité et l'Enfance) mother and child cohort (2002-2006), the authors investigated the association between fetal growth and insecticide exposure (n = 1,213) using an integrated Bayesian latent variable model to include multiple exposure sources: agricultural activities, nonorganic diet, household insecticide use on plants, and household insecticide use against insects. They used a questionnaire to collect information on household use and organic diet, and a national agricultural census provided data on agricultural activities in the women's municipalities of residence. A 0.10-cm decrease in head circumference at birth (95% credibility interval: -0.22, 0.01) was associated with fetal insecticide exposure from agricultural activities in the municipality of residence. Decreases in average birth weight (-27 g; 95% credibility interval: -59, 6) and head circumference (-0.12 cm; 95% credibility interval: -0.26, 0.01) were associated with household insecticide use to treat plants. The present results suggest an inverse association between fetal growth and prenatal insecticide exposure from nearby agricultural activity or household use. Bayesian modeling via latent variables is a natural framework for including multiple sources of exposure to environmental pollutants.

  6. Interpersonal distance modeling during fighting activities. (United States)

    Dietrich, Gilles; Bredin, Jonathan; Kerlirzin, Yves


    The aim of this article is to elaborate a general framework for modeling dual opposition activities, or more generally, dual interaction. The main hypothesis is that opposition behavior can be measured directly from a global variable and that the relative distance between the two subjects can be this parameter. Moreover, this parameter should be considered as multidimensional parameter depending not only on the dynamics of the subjects but also on the "internal" parameters of the subjects, such as sociological and/or emotional states. Standard and simple mechanical formalization will be used to model this multifactorial distance. To illustrate such a general modeling methodology, this model was compared with actual data from an opposition activity like Japanese fencing (kendo). This model captures not only coupled coordination, but more generally interaction in two-subject activities.

  7. Modeling and control of active twist aircraft (United States)

    Cramer, Nicholas Bryan

    The Wright Brothers marked the beginning of powered flight in 1903 using an active twist mechanism as their means of controlling roll. As time passed due to advances in other technologies that transformed aviation the active twist mechanism was no longer used. With the recent advances in material science and manufacturability, the possibility of the practical use of active twist technologies has emerged. In this dissertation, the advantages and disadvantages of active twist techniques are investigated through the development of an aeroelastic modeling method intended for informing the designs of such technologies and wind tunnel testing to confirm the capabilities of the active twist technologies and validate the model. Control principles for the enabling structural technologies are also proposed while the potential gains of dynamic, active twist are analyzed.

  8. Modeling Sexual Activity among Schoolgirls in Zambia. (United States)

    Pillai, Vijayan K.; Gupta, Rashmi


    Proposes a model of sexual activity among secondary school-going Zambian girls. Identifies the role of dating as an intervening variable in explaining the variation in sexual activity among teenagers. Schools are an important setting for the young to meet and initiate sexual relationships. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed.…

  9. Representation of Dormant and Active Microbial Dynamics for Ecosystem Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Gangsheng [ORNL; Mayes, Melanie [ORNL; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL


    Dormancy is an essential strategy for microorganisms to cope with environmental stress. However, global ecosystem models typically ignore microbial dormancy, resulting in notable model uncertainties. To facilitate the consideration of dormancy in these large-scale models, we propose a new microbial physiology component that works for a wide range of substrate availabilities. This new model is based on microbial physiological states and the major parameters are the maximum specific growth and maintenance rates of active microbes and the ratio of dormant to active maintenance rates. A major improvement of our model over extant models is that it can explain the low active microbial fractions commonly observed in undisturbed soils. Our new model shows that the exponentially-increasing respiration from substrate-induced respiration experiments can only be used to determine the maximum specific growth rate and initial active microbial biomass, while the respiration data representing both exponentially-increasing and non-exponentially-increasing phases can robustly determine a range of key parameters including the initial total live biomass, initial active fraction, the maximum specific growth and maintenance rates, and the half-saturation constant. Our new model can be incorporated into existing ecosystem models to account for dormancy in microbially-driven processes and to provide improved estimates of microbial activities.

  10. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH. (United States)

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis


    The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into 'pre-action' and 'action'. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1-12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. NCT01315756.

  11. Object tracking using active appearance models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille


    This paper demonstrates that (near) real-time object tracking can be accomplished by the deformable template model; the Active Appearance Model (AAM) using only low-cost consumer electronics such as a PC and a web-camera. Successful object tracking of perspective, rotational and translational...

  12. Learning models of activities involving interacting objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Hamilton, Howard J.


    We propose the LEMAIO multi-layer framework, which makes use of hierarchical abstraction to learn models for activities involving multiple interacting objects from time sequences of data concerning the individual objects. Experiments in the sea navigation domain yielded learned models that were t...

  13. Results of gait analysis including the Oxford foot model in children with clubfoot treated with the Ponseti method. (United States)

    Mindler, Gabriel T; Kranzl, Andreas; Lipkowski, Charlotte A M; Ganger, Rudolf; Radler, Christof


    The aim of the study was to evaluate how clubfeet treated with the Ponseti method compare with control feet in gait analysis and whether additional information can be provided by the Oxford foot model. All patients with a minimum age of three years in our prospective database of clubfeet treated with the Ponseti method were considered for inclusion. Exclusion criteria were an associated syndrome or neurological disease, positional (slight) clubfoot, and presentation at an age of more than three months. Of the 125 patients with 199 clubfeet who satisfied the criteria, thirty-six (29%) agreed to participate in the study. Four of these were excluded because of insufficient gait analysis data, leaving thirty-two patients with fifty clubfeet for evaluation. Clinical examination and three-dimensional gait analysis including the Oxford foot model were performed, and a disease-specific questionnaire was administered. Kinetic and kinematic results were compared with those of an age-matched control group (n = 15). The mean score on the disease-specific questionnaire was 83.5. Gait analysis showed significantly decreased range of motion, plantar flexion, and power of the ankle compared with controls. The mean external foot progression angle of 5.7° in the Ponseti group was slightly less than that in the controls. Slight intoeing occurred in 24%, and 12% did not achieve a neutral position during swing phase. Slight compensation was observed, including external rotation of the hip in 28%. The Oxford foot model revealed differences in foot motion between the groups. Clubfoot treatment with the Ponseti method yielded good clinical results with high functional scores. Three-dimensional gait analysis demonstrated distinctive but slight deviations. Intoeing was less frequent and less severe compared with groups in the literature. We recommend the use of three-dimensional gait analysis, including a foot model, as an objective tool for evaluation of the results of clubfoot treatment

  14. Modelling the Active Hearing Process in Mosquitoes (United States)

    Avitabile, Daniele; Homer, Martin; Jackson, Joe; Robert, Daniel; Champneys, Alan


    A simple microscopic mechanistic model is described of the active amplification within the Johnston's organ of the mosquito species Toxorhynchites brevipalpis. The model is based on the description of the antenna as a forced-damped oscillator coupled to a set of active threads (ensembles of scolopidia) that provide an impulsive force when they twitch. This twitching is in turn controlled by channels that are opened and closed if the antennal oscillation reaches a critical amplitude. The model matches both qualitatively and quantitatively with recent experiments. New results are presented using mathematical homogenization techniques to derive a mesoscopic model as a simple oscillator with nonlinear force and damping characteristics. It is shown how the results from this new model closely resemble those from the microscopic model as the number of threads approach physiologically correct values.

  15. The importance of including small body spin effects in the modelling of extreme and intermediate mass-ratio inspirals

    CERN Document Server

    Huerta, EA


    We explore the ability of future low-frequency gravitational wave detectors to measure the spin of stellar mass and intermediate mass black holes that inspiral onto super-massive Kerr black holes (SMBHs). We develop a kludge waveform model based on the equations of motion derived by Saijo et al. [Phys Rev D 58, 064005, 1998] for spinning BH binaries, augmented with spin-orbit and spin-spin couplings taken from perturbative and post-Newtonian (PN) calculations, and the associated conservative self-force corrections, derived by comparison to PN results. We model the inspiral phase using accurate fluxes which include perturbative corrections for the spin of the inspiralling body, spin-spin couplings and higher-order fits to solutions of the Teukolsky equation. We present results of Monte Carlo simulations of parameter estimation errors and of the model errors that arise when we omit conservative corrections from the waveform template. For a source 5000+10^6 solar mass observed with an SNR of 1000, LISA will be a...

  16. Computational Modeling of Open-Irrigated Electrodes for Radiofrequency Cardiac Ablation Including Blood Motion-Saline Flow Interaction (United States)

    González-Suárez, Ana; Berjano, Enrique; Guerra, Jose M.; Gerardo-Giorda, Luca


    Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is a routine treatment for cardiac arrhythmias. During RFCA, the electrode-tissue interface temperature should be kept below 80°C to avoid thrombus formation. Open-irrigated electrodes facilitate power delivery while keeping low temperatures around the catheter. No computational model of an open-irrigated electrode in endocardial RFCA accounting for both the saline irrigation flow and the blood motion in the cardiac chamber has been proposed yet. We present the first computational model including both effects at once. The model has been validated against existing experimental results. Computational results showed that the surface lesion width and blood temperature are affected by both the electrode design and the irrigation flow rate. Smaller surface lesion widths and blood temperatures are obtained with higher irrigation flow rate, while the lesion depth is not affected by changing the irrigation flow rate. Larger lesions are obtained with increasing power and the electrode-tissue contact. Also, larger lesions are obtained when electrode is placed horizontally. Overall, the computational findings are in close agreement with previous experimental results providing an excellent tool for future catheter research. PMID:26938638

  17. Modelled hydraulic redistribution by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) matches observed data only after including night-time transpiration. (United States)

    Neumann, Rebecca B; Cardon, Zoe G; Teshera-Levye, Jennifer; Rockwell, Fulton E; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Holbrook, N Michele


    The movement of water from moist to dry soil layers through the root systems of plants, referred to as hydraulic redistribution (HR), occurs throughout the world and is thought to influence carbon and water budgets and ecosystem functioning. The realized hydrologic, biogeochemical and ecological consequences of HR depend on the amount of redistributed water, whereas the ability to assess these impacts requires models that correctly capture HR magnitude and timing. Using several soil types and two ecotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in split-pot experiments, we examined how well the widely used HR modelling formulation developed by Ryel et al. matched experimental determination of HR across a range of water potential driving gradients. H. annuus carries out extensive night-time transpiration, and although over the last decade it has become more widely recognized that night-time transpiration occurs in multiple species and many ecosystems, the original Ryel et al. formulation does not include the effect of night-time transpiration on HR. We developed and added a representation of night-time transpiration into the formulation, and only then was the model able to capture the dynamics and magnitude of HR we observed as soils dried and night-time stomatal behaviour changed, both influencing HR. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Including local rainfall dynamics and uncertain boundary conditions into a 2-D regional-local flood modelling cascade (United States)

    Bermúdez, María; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Bates, Paul D.; Coxon, Gemma; Freer, Jim E.; Cea, Luis; Puertas, Jerónimo


    Flood inundation models require appropriate boundary conditions to be specified at the limits of the domain, which commonly consist of upstream flow rate and downstream water level. These data are usually acquired from gauging stations on the river network where measured water levels are converted to discharge via a rating curve. Derived streamflow estimates are therefore subject to uncertainties in this rating curve, including extrapolating beyond the maximum observed ratings magnitude. In addition, the limited number of gauges in reach-scale studies often requires flow to be routed from the nearest upstream gauge to the boundary of the model domain. This introduces additional uncertainty, derived not only from the flow routing method used, but also from the additional lateral rainfall-runoff contributions downstream of the gauging point. Although generally assumed to have a minor impact on discharge in fluvial flood modeling, this local hydrological input may become important in a sparse gauge network or in events with significant local rainfall. In this study, a method to incorporate rating curve uncertainty and the local rainfall-runoff dynamics into the predictions of a reach-scale flood inundation model is proposed. Discharge uncertainty bounds are generated by applying a non-parametric local weighted regression approach to stage-discharge measurements for two gauging stations, while measured rainfall downstream from these locations is cascaded into a hydrological model to quantify additional inflows along the main channel. A regional simplified-physics hydraulic model is then applied to combine these inputs and generate an ensemble of discharge and water elevation time series at the boundaries of a local-scale high complexity hydraulic model. Finally, the effect of these rainfall dynamics and uncertain boundary conditions are evaluated on the local-scale model. Improvements in model performance when incorporating these processes are quantified using observed

  19. Development of a Prototype Model to Establish an Economic Earthwork Plan that Includes the Selection of a Dump Site/Borrow Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hak Lee


    Full Text Available Earthwork in road construction projects is the major activity that accounts for about 20%–30% of the total construction cost, and the internal/external hauling plan is the key factor for determining the successful completion of the project. However, the hauling plan at the site, which includes the selection of the dump site and borrow pit, is usually determined by the site manager’s subjective and empirical discretion alone. Therefore, this study has developed a prototype model that provides the optimal internal/external hauling plan. It includes the determination of the most economical dump sites and borrow pits (location and number among other candidate sites as well. The transshipment problem theory is incorporated into the optimized algorithm with the consideration of various factors affecting earthwork cost. Direct costs from an optimized transport based on an existing model against another from this model were compared to prove its feasibility. As a result, the reduction of earthwork cost including the dump site/borrow pits reached 4%–8%. This result implies that this prototype model would also be useful in reducing both the earthwork cost and the occurrence of exhaust gas from earthwork equipment by providing optimized transportation paths.

  20. Alternative and complementary antileishmanial treatments: assessment of the antileishmanial activity of 27 Lebanese plants, including 11 endemic species. (United States)

    Di Giorgio, Carole; Delmas, Florence; Tueni, Marie; Cheble, Edmond; Khalil, Taoubi; Balansard, Guy


    Aqueous, methanolic, and dichloromethane extracts from 27 Lebanese plants were investigated for their in vitro immunomodulatory and antileishmanial activities as compared to their toxicity against human cells. Extracts from yellow chamomile (Anthemis tinctoria), white larkspur (Consolida rigida), Syrian broom (Cytisus syriacus), coast spurge (Euphorbia paralias), shield fibigia (Fibigia clypeata), Auchers golden-drop (Onosma aucheriana), shell-flower sage (Salvia multicaulis), snowy woundwort (Stachys nivea), Palestine woundwort (Stachys palaestina), and polium-leaved speedwell (Veronica polifolia) exhibited interesting antileishmanial activities on the intracellular amastigote form of the parasite, while several extracts from A. tinctoria, F. clypeata, and O. aucheriana were shown to induce nitrous oxide (NO) production by human macrophages. Further experiments should be performed in order to purify and characterize the chemical compounds responsible for these activities.

  1. On avoidance activities in fishery enforcement models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Abildtrup, Jens


    and a common result is that, it is efficient to set fines as high as possible and monitoring as low as possible, when fines are costless and offenders are risk neutral. However, this result is sensitive to the assumption that fishermen cannot engage in avoidance activities, e.g., activities to reduce...... the likelihood of being detected when noncomplying. The paper presents a model of fisheries that allows the fishermen to engage in avoidance activities. The conclusions from the model are that, under certain circumstances, fines are costly transfers to society since they not only have a direct positive effect...... on the level of deterrence, but also an indirect negative effect in the form of increased avoidance activities to reduce the probability of detection. The paper contributes to the literature on avoidance activities by introducing the externality from the illegal behavior as an endogenous effect on other...

  2. Etiology and Progression of Acute Muscle Tension Related Low Back Pain Occurring During Sustained Activity Including Combat Training Exercises (United States)


    myelogram consistent with HNP. b. DEGENERATIVE ARTHROSIS , SPONDYLOLYSIS, SPONDYLOLISTHESIS: (1) Radiographic findings consistent with spondylolysis...spondylolisthesis, or degenerative arthritis. This would include facet arthrosis , oseteophyte formation, disc space narrowing, anterior/posterior

  3. Modeling Students' Units Coordinating Activity (United States)

    Boyce, Steven James


    Primarily via constructivist teaching experiment methodology, "units coordination" (Steffe, 1992) has emerged as a useful construct for modeling students' psychological constructions pertaining to several mathematical domains, including counting sequences, whole number multiplicative conceptions, and fractions schemes. I describe how…

  4. 14 CFR 440.11 - Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities... (United States)


    ... LICENSING FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Financial Responsibility for Licensed and Permitted Activities § 440.11...; modifications. (a) Insurance coverage required under § 440.9, or other form of financial responsibility, shall... recovery; or (ii) The FAA's determination that risk to third parties and Government property as a result of...

  5. Antimicrobial (including antimollicutes, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of Brazilian and Spanish marine organisms – evaluation of extracts and pure compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éverson Miguel Bianco

    Full Text Available Abstract This work describes the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities in vitro of organic extracts from fourteen seaweeds, eleven sponges, two ascidians, one bryozoan, and one sea anemone species collected along the Brazilian and Spanish coast, as well as the isolation of the diterpene (4R, 9S, 14S-4α-acetoxy-9β,14α-dihydroxydolast-1(15,7-diene (1 and halogenated sesquiterpene elatol (2. The most promising antimicrobial results for cell wall bacteria were obtained by extracts from seaweeds Laurencia dendroidea and Sargassum vulgare var. nanun (MIC 250 μg/ml, and by the bryozoan Bugula neritina (MIC 62.5 μg/ml, both against Staphylococcus aureus. As for antimollicutes, extracts from seaweeds showed results better than the extracts from invertebrates. Almost all seaweeds assayed (92% exhibited some antimicrobial activity against mollicutes strains (Mycoplasma hominis,Mycoplasma genitalium,Mycoplasma capricolum and Mycoplasma pneumoniae strain FH. From these seaweeds, A1 (Canistrocarpus cervicornis, A11 (Gracilaria sp. and A4 (Lobophora variegata showed the best results for M. pneumoniae strain FH (MIC 250 μg/ml. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 were also assayed against mollicutes strains M. hominis,M. genitalium,M. capricolum,M. pneumoniae strain 129 and M. pneumoniae strain FH, which showed MIC > 100 μg/ml. Antioxidant activities of extracts from these marine organisms were inactive, except for E7 (from sponge Ircinia sp., which exhibited moderated antioxidant activities for two methods assayed (IC50 83.0 ± 0.1 μg/ml, and 52.0 ± 0.8 mg AA/g, respectively. Finally, for the anticholinesterase activity, all the 29 samples evaluated (100% exhibited some level of activity, with IC50 < 1000 μg/ml. From these, seaweeds extracts were considered more promising than marine invertebrate extracts [A10 (IC50 14.4 ± 0.1 μg/ml, A16 (IC50 16.4 ± 0.4 μg/ml and A8 (IC50 14.9 ± 0.5 μg/ml]. The findings of this work are useful

  6. A nonlinear model of the phasic dynamics of muscle activation (United States)

    Hannaford, Blake


    A phasic excitation-activation (PEXA) model is presented of the process of motoneuron excitation and the resultant activation and force development of a motor unit. The model input is an amount of depolarizing current (as when injected with an intracellular electrode), and the model output is muscle force. The model includes dynamics and nonlinearities similar to phenomena discovered experimentally by others: the firing rate response of motoneurons to steps of depolarizing current and the catch-like enhancement of force produced by overlapping motor neuron action potentials. The parameter values used in this model are derived from experimentally measured data and are expressed in physical units. Model predictions extend to published data beyond those used in generating the model parameter values.

  7. Reliability–based economic model predictive control for generalised flow–based networks including actuators’ health–aware capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosso Juan M.


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a reliability-based economic model predictive control (MPC strategy for the management of generalised flow-based networks, integrating some ideas on network service reliability, dynamic safety stock planning, and degradation of equipment health. The proposed strategy is based on a single-layer economic optimisation problem with dynamic constraints, which includes two enhancements with respect to existing approaches. The first enhancement considers chance-constraint programming to compute an optimal inventory replenishment policy based on a desired risk acceptability level, leading to dynamical allocation of safety stocks in flow-based networks to satisfy non-stationary flow demands. The second enhancement computes a smart distribution of the control effort and maximises actuators’ availability by estimating their degradation and reliability. The proposed approach is illustrated with an application of water transport networks using the Barcelona network as the case study considered.

  8. Kinetic and Mechanistic Study of the pH-Dependent Activation (Epoxidation) of Prodrug Treosulfan Including the Reaction Inhibition in a Borate Buffer. (United States)

    Romański, Michał; Ratajczak, Whitney; Główka, Franciszek


    A prodrug treosulfan (T) undergoes a pH-dependent activation to epoxide derivatives. The process seems to involve an intramolecular Williamson reaction (IWR) but clear kinetic evidence is lacking. Moreover, a cis-diol system present in the T structure is expected to promote complexation with boric acid. As a result, the prodrug epoxidation would be inhibited; however, this phenomenon has not been investigated. In this article, the effect of pH on the kinetics of T conversion to its monoepoxide was studied from a mechanistic point of view. Also, the influence of boric acid on the reaction kinetics was examined. The rate constants observed for the activation of T (k obs ) in acetate, phosphate, and carbonate buffers satisfied the equation logk obs  = -7.48 + 0.96 pH. The reaction was inhibited in the excess of boric acid over T, and the k obs decreased with increasing borate buffer concentration. The experimental results were consistent with the inhibition model that included the formation of a tetrahedral, anionic T-boric acid monoester. To conclude, in nonborate buffers, the T activation to (2S,3S)-1,2-epoxybutane-3,4-diol 4-methanesulfonate follows IWR mechanism. A borate buffer changes the reaction kinetics and complicates kinetic analysis. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Self-consistent Model of the Coronal Heating and Solar Wind Acceleration Including Compressible and Incompressible Heating Processes (United States)

    Shoda, Munehito; Yokoyama, Takaaki; Suzuki, Takeru K.


    We propose a novel one-dimensional model that includes both shock and turbulence heating and qualify how these processes contribute to heating the corona and driving the solar wind. Compressible MHD simulations allow us to automatically consider shock formation and dissipation, while turbulent dissipation is modeled via a one-point closure based on Alfvén wave turbulence. Numerical simulations were conducted with different photospheric perpendicular correlation lengths {λ }0, which is a critical parameter of Alfvén wave turbulence, and different root-mean-square photospheric transverse-wave amplitudes δ {v}0. For the various {λ }0, we obtain a low-temperature chromosphere, high-temperature corona, and supersonic solar wind. Our analysis shows that turbulence heating is always dominant when {λ }0≲ 1 {Mm}. This result does not mean that we can ignore the compressibility because the analysis indicates that the compressible waves and their associated density fluctuations enhance the Alfvén wave reflection and therefore the turbulence heating. The density fluctuation and the cross-helicity are strongly affected by {λ }0, while the coronal temperature and mass-loss rate depend weakly on {λ }0.

  10. Hydraulic Model for Drinking Water Networks, Including Household Connections; Modelo hidraulico para redes de agua potable con tomas domiciliarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero Angulo, Jose Oscar [Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa (Mexico); Arreguin Cortes, Felipe [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)


    This paper presents a hydraulic simulation model for drinking water networks, including elements that are currently not considered household connections, spatially variable flowrate distribution pipelines, and tee secondary network. This model is determined by solving the equations needed for a conventional model following an indirect procedure for the solution of large equations systems. Household connection performance is considered as dependent of water pressure and the way in which users operate the taps of such intakes. This approach allows a better a acquaintance with the drinking water supply networks performance as well as solving problems that demand a more precise hydraulic simulation, such as water quality variations, leaks in networks, and the influence of home water tanks as regulating devices. [Spanish] Se presenta un modelo de simulacion hidraulica para redes de agua potable en el cual se incluyen elementos que no se toman en cuenta actualmente, como las tomas domiciliarias, los tubos de distribucion con gastos espacialmente variado y la red secundaria, resolviendo el numero de ecuaciones que seria necesario plantear en un modelo convencional mediante un procedimiento indirecto para la solucion de grandes sistemas de ecuaciones. En las tomas domiciliarias se considera que su funcionamiento depende de las presiones y la forma en que los usuarios operan las llaves de las mismas. Este planteamiento permite conocer mejor el funcionamiento de las redes de abastecimiento de agua potable y solucionar problemas que requieren de una simulacion hidraulica mas precisa, como el comportamiento de la calidad del agua, las fugas en las redes y la influencia reguladora de los tinacos de las casas.

  11. SmEdA vibro-acoustic modelling in the mid-frequency range including the effect of dissipative treatments (United States)

    Hwang, H. D.; Maxit, L.; Ege, K.; Gerges, Y.; Guyader, J.-L.


    Vibro-acoustic simulation in the mid-frequency range is of interest for automotive and truck constructors. The dissipative treatments used for noise and vibration control such as viscoelastic patches and acoustic absorbing materials must be taken into account in the problem. The Statistical modal Energy distribution Analysis (SmEdA) model consists in extending Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) to the mid-frequency range by establishing power balance equations between the modes of the different subsystems. The modal basis of uncoupled-subsystems that can be estimated by the finite element method in the mid-frequency range is used as input data. SmEdA was originally developed by considering constant modal damping factors for each subsystem. However, this means that it cannot describe the local distribution of dissipative materials. To overcome this issue, a methodology is proposed here to take into account the effect of these materials. This methodology is based on the finite element models of the subsystems that include well-known homogenized material models of dissipative treatments. The Galerkin method with subsystem normal modes is used to estimate the modal damping loss factors. Cross-modal coupling terms which appear in the formulation due to the dissipative materials are assumed to be negligible. An approximation of the energy sharing between the subsystems damped by dissipative materials is then described by SmEdA. The different steps of the method are validated experimentally by applying it to a laboratory test case composed of a plate-cavity system with different configurations of dissipative treatments. The comparison between the experimental and the simulation results shows good agreement in the mid-frequency range.

  12. Weight management including dietary and physical activity advice provided by Australian physiotherapists: a pilot cross-sectional survey. (United States)

    Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Carter, Amy E; Guest, Maya; Collins, Clare E; James, Carole; Kable, Ashley K; Ashby, Samantha E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C


    Physiotherapists may have an impact on obesity prevention and treatment by providing nutrition and physical activity advice to overweight or obese clients; yet little is known about physiotherapists' beliefs and practices related to client weight management. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the practices, beliefs, attitudes and knowledge of physiotherapists regarding the provision of weight management advice to overweight or obese clients. Physiotherapists (n = 65) working in multiple practice settings completed a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression determined factors associated with the provision of dietary and physical activity advice for weight management. The majority of physiotherapists (n = 53 [81.5%]) believed providing weight management advice was within their scope of practice, yet only a minority had received training during their professional entry level education (n = 13 [20%]) or through professional development (n = 7 [11%]). Most physiotherapists (n = 55 [84.6%]) provided physical activity advice for weight management, but a minority (n = 27 [41.5%]) provided dietary advice. Having received training in weight management during their professional entry level education was associated with providing dietary advice (Odds ratio 8.8, 95% confidence interval 2.0-38.9, p = 0.004). Training in weight management may increase the likelihood of physiotherapists providing dietary advice, improving physiotherapists' management of obesity.

  13. The IKAROS interaction with a complex including chromatin remodeling and transcription elongation activities is required for hematopoiesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Bottardi


    Full Text Available IKAROS is a critical regulator of hematopoietic cell fate and its dynamic expression pattern is required for proper hematopoiesis. In collaboration with the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase (NuRD complex, it promotes gene repression and activation. It remains to be clarified how IKAROS can support transcription activation while being associated with the HDAC-containing complex NuRD. IKAROS also binds to the Positive-Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb at gene promoters. Here, we demonstrate that NuRD and P-TEFb are assembled in a complex that can be recruited to specific genes by IKAROS. The expression level of IKAROS influences the recruitment of the NuRD-P-TEFb complex to gene regulatory regions and facilitates transcription elongation by transferring the Protein Phosphatase 1α (PP1α, an IKAROS-binding protein and P-TEFb activator, to CDK9. We show that an IKAROS mutant that is unable to bind PP1α cannot sustain gene expression and impedes normal differentiation of Ik(NULL hematopoietic progenitors. Finally, the knock-down of the NuRD subunit Mi2 reveals that the occupancy of the NuRD complex at transcribed regions of genes favors the relief of POL II promoter-proximal pausing and thereby, promotes transcription elongation.

  14. A post-new horizons global climate model of Pluto including the N2, CH4 and CO cycles (United States)

    Forget, F.; Bertrand, T.; Vangvichith, M.; Leconte, J.; Millour, E.; Lellouch, E.


    We have built a new 3D Global Climate Model (GCM) to simulate Pluto as observed by New Horizons in 2015. All key processes are parametrized on the basis of theoretical equations, including atmospheric dynamics and transport, turbulence, radiative transfer, molecular conduction, as well as phases changes for N2, CH2 and CO. Pluto's climate and ice cycles are found to be very sensitive to model parameters and initial states. Nevertheless, a reference simulation is designed by running a fast, reduced version of the GCM with simplified atmospheric transport for 40,000 Earth years to initialize the surface ice distribution and sub-surface temperatures, from which a 28-Earth-year full GCM simulation is performed. Assuming a topographic depression in a Sputnik-planum (SP)-like crater on the anti-Charon hemisphere, a realistic Pluto is obtained, with most N2 and CO ices accumulated in the crater, methane frost covering both hemispheres except for the equatorial regions, and a surface pressure near 1.1 Pa in 2015 with an increase between 1988 and 2015, as reported from stellar occultations. Temperature profiles are in qualitative agreement with the observations. In particular, a cold atmospheric layer is obtained in the lowest kilometers above Sputnik Planum, as observed by New Horizons's REX experiment. It is shown to result from the combined effect of the topographic depression and N2 daytime sublimation. In the reference simulation with surface N2 ice exclusively present in Sputnik Planum, the global circulation is only forced by radiative heating gradients and remains relatively weak. Surface winds are locally induced by topography slopes and by N2 condensation and sublimation around Sputnik Planum. However, the circulation can be more intense depending on the exact distribution of surface N2 frost. This is illustrated in an alternative simulation with N2 condensing in the South Polar regions and N2 frost covering latitudes between 35°N and 48°N. A global condensation

  15. A Model of Active Roll Vehicle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Čech


    Full Text Available This paper describes active suspension with active roll for four-wheel vehicle (bus by means of an in-series pump actuator with doubled hydropneumatic springs. It also gives full control law with no sky-craping. Lateral stiffness and solid axle geometry in the mechanical model are not neglected. Responses to lateral input as well as responses to statistical unevennesses show considerable improvement of passengers comfort and safety when cornering.

  16. Modelling the residual stresses and microstructural evolution in Friction Stir Welding of AA2024-T3 including the Wagner-Kampmann precipitation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    In this work, a numerical finite element model for friction stir welding of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy, consisting of a heat transfer analysis and a sequentially coupled quasi-static stress analysis is proposed. Metallurgical softening of the material is properly considered and included...

  17. Thomas Kuhn's 'Structure of Scientific Revolutions' applied to exercise science paradigm shifts: example including the Central Governor Model. (United States)

    Pires, Flávio de Oliveira; de Oliveira Pires, Flávio


    According to Thomas Kuhn, the scientific progress of any discipline could be distinguished by a pre-paradigm phase, a normal science phase and a revolution phase. The science advances when a scientific revolution takes place after silent period of normal science and the scientific community moves ahead to a paradigm shift. I suggest there has been a recent change of course in the direction of the exercise science. According to the 'current paradigm', exercise would be probably limited by alterations in either central command or peripheral skeletal muscles, and fatigue would be developed in a task-dependent manner. Instead, the central governor model (GCM) has proposed that all forms of exercise are centrally-regulated, the central nervous system would calculate the metabolic cost required to complete a task in order to avoid catastrophic body failure. Some have criticized the CGM and supported the traditional interpretation, but recently the scientific community appears to have begun an intellectual trajectory to accept this theory. First, the increased number of citations of articles that have supported the CGM could indicate that the community has changed the focus. Second, relevant journals have devoted special editions to promote the debate on subjects challenged by the CGM. Finally, scientists from different fields have recognized mechanisms included in the CGM to understand the exercise limits. Given the importance of the scientific community in demarcating a Kuhnian paradigm shift, I suggest that these three aspects could indicate an increased acceptance of a centrally-regulated effort model, to understand the limits of exercise.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The traditional method of net present value (NPV to analyze the economic profitability of an investment (based on a deterministic approach does not adequately represent the implicit risk associated with different but correlated input variables. Using a stochastic simulation approach for evaluating the profitability of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. production in Chile, the objective of this study is to illustrate the complexity of including risk in economic feasibility analysis when the project is subject to several but correlated risks. The results of the simulation analysis suggest that the non-inclusion of the intratemporal correlation between input variables underestimate the risk associated with investment decisions. The methodological contribution of this study illustrates the complexity of the interrelationships between uncertain variables and their impact on the convenience of carrying out this type of business in Chile. The steps for the analysis of economic viability were: First, adjusted probability distributions for stochastic input variables (SIV were simulated and validated. Second, the random values of SIV were used to calculate random values of variables such as production, revenues, costs, depreciation, taxes and net cash flows. Third, the complete stochastic model was simulated with 10,000 iterations using random values for SIV. This result gave information to estimate the probability distributions of the stochastic output variables (SOV such as the net present value, internal rate of return, value at risk, average cost of production, contribution margin and return on capital. Fourth, the complete stochastic model simulation results were used to analyze alternative scenarios and provide the results to decision makers in the form of probabilities, probability distributions, and for the SOV probabilistic forecasts. The main conclusion shown that this project is a profitable alternative investment in fruit trees in

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Tuberculosis Granuloma Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve M. Ruggiero


    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. It is estimated that one-third of the world’s population is infected with TB. Most have the latent stage of the disease that can later transition to active TB disease. TB is spread by aerosol droplets containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb. Mtb bacteria enter through the respiratory system and are attacked by the immune system in the lungs. The bacteria are clustered and contained by macrophages into cellular aggregates called granulomas. These granulomas can hold the bacteria dormant for long periods of time in latent TB. The bacteria can be perturbed from latency to active TB disease in a process called granuloma activation when the granulomas are compromised by other immune response events in a host, such as HIV, cancer, or aging. Dysregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1 has been recently implicated in granuloma activation through experimental studies, but the mechanism is not well understood. Animal and human studies currently cannot probe the dynamics of activation, so a computational model is developed to fill this gap. This dynamic mathematical model focuses specifically on the latent to active transition after the initial immune response has successfully formed a granuloma. Bacterial leakage from latent granulomas is successfully simulated in response to the MMP-1 dynamics under several scenarios for granuloma activation.

  20. Learning Setting-Generalized Activity Models for Smart Spaces. (United States)

    Cook, Diane J


    The data mining and pervasive computing technologies found in smart homes offer unprecedented opportunities for providing context-aware services, including health monitoring and assistance to individuals experiencing difficulties living independently at home. In order to provide these services, smart environment algorithms need to recognize and track activities that people normally perform as part of their daily routines. However, activity recognition has typically involved gathering and labeling large amounts of data in each setting to learn a model for activities in that setting. We hypothesize that generalized models can be learned for common activities that span multiple environment settings and resident types. We describe our approach to learning these models and demonstrate the approach using eleven CASAS datasets collected in seven environments.

  1. Full simulation of a testbeam experiment including modeling of the Bonn Atlas Telescope and Atlas 3D pixel silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Sjøbæk, Kyrre Ness; Rohne, O M; Bolle, E


    3D silicon pixel sensors are a strong candidate for the sensor component of a new B-layer in the ATLAS detector, and for the ATLAS sLHC tracker, as these sensors can be highly radiation hard, fast, and sensitive to the edge. In order to characterize the sensors before large-scale application, samples are mounted in small fixed-target testbeam experiments. Here the samples are exposed to high-energy charged hadrons, and the response to this radiation is measured. The hit position in the sensor is estimated using a beam telescope, which measures the position of the particle while in flight up- and downstream of the sample. The hit position is then estimated by assuming that particle flies in a straight line between the telescope measurements and the sample. This thesis presents a full Geant4 simulation of the interaction between the beam particles and the material in the testbeam, including but not limited to sensors. The output from the simulation is then used for detailed modeling of the signal formation and ...

  2. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Matthew Mahoney

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation.

  3. Highly active antiretroviral therapy including protease inhibitors does not confer a unique CD4 cell benefit. The AVANTI and INCAS Study Groups. (United States)


    To determine if triple combination therapy, particularly including HIV protease inhibitors (PI), confers an unique immunological benefit that is independent of reductions of plasma viral load (pVL). The correlation between changes from baseline in CD4 cell count and pVL was examined at all time points up to 52 weeks in three randomized clinical trials (AVANTI-2, AVANTI-3 and INCAS) that compared dual nucleoside therapy with triple combination therapy. Individual pVL and CD4 cell counts changes from baseline were entered into multivariate linear regression models for patients receiving double therapy and for those receiving triple therapy including a PI and/or a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), and the null hypothesis was tested. After 52 weeks of therapy, the relationship between changes from baseline CD4 cell count and pVL was independent of whether patients were assigned double or triple therapy (P = 0.23 and 0.69 for intercept and slope, respectively), or whether patients were assigned triple therapy including a PI or triple therapy including an NNRTI (P = 0.92 and 0.95, respectively). Less than 5% of patients ever had 'discordant' increases in both CD4 cell count and pVL compared with baseline, and this proportion was unrelated to the class of therapy used. 'Discordant' decreases from baseline in both parameters were observed in up to 35% of individuals. The correlation between pVL and CD4 cell count changes from baseline improved over time on therapy, regardless of the therapeutic regimen involved. The data provide no evidence for a CD4 cell count benefit of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) unique to triple therapy or PI-containing regimens.

  4. Biological responses of three-dimensional cultured fibroblasts by sustained compressive loading include apoptosis and survival activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Kanazawa

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcers are characterized by chronicity, which results in delayed wound healing due to pressure. Early intervention for preventing delayed healing due to pressure requires a prediction method. However, no study has reported the prediction of delayed healing due to pressure. Therefore, this study focused on biological response-based molecular markers for the establishment of an assessment technology to predict delayed healing due to pressure. We tested the hypothesis that sustained compressive loading applied to three dimensional cultured fibroblasts leads to upregulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs, CD44, hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 along with apoptosis via disruption of adhesion. First, sustained compressive loading was applied to fibroblast-seeded collagen sponges. Following this, collagen sponge samples and culture supernatants were collected for apoptosis and proliferation assays, gene expression analysis, immunocytochemistry, and quantification of secreted substances induced by upregulation of mRNA and protein level. Compared to the control, the compressed samples demonstrated that apoptosis was induced in a time- and load- dependent manner; vinculin and stress fiber were scarce; HSP90α, CD44, HAS2, and COX2 expression was upregulated; and the concentrations of HSP90α, hyaluronan (HA, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were increased. In addition, the gene expression of antiapoptotic Bcl2 was significantly increased in the compressed samples compared to the control. These results suggest that compressive loading induces not only apoptosis but also survival activity. These observations support that HSP90α, HA, and, PGE2 could be potential molecular markers for prediction of delayed wound healing due to pressure.

  5. Assessment of commercially available energy-efficient room air conditioners including models with low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, N. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, W. Y. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerke, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    , the highest-efficiency RAC models employ the low-GWP refrigerants R-32 or R-290. • RACs are available in most regions and worldwide that surpass the highest efficiency levels recognized by labeling programs. • Fixed-speed RACs using high-GWP and ozone-depleting R-22 refrigerant still dominate the market in many emerging economies. There is significant scope to improve RAC efficiency and transition to low-GWP refrigerants using commercially available technology and to design market-transformation programs for high-efficiency, low-GWP equipment including standards, labeling, procurement, and incentive programs.

  6. Probing the structural and dynamical properties of liquid water with models including non-local electron correlation. (United States)

    Del Ben, Mauro; Hutter, Jürg; VandeVondele, Joost


    Water is a ubiquitous liquid that displays a wide range of anomalous properties and has a delicate structure that challenges experiment and simulation alike. The various intermolecular interactions that play an important role, such as repulsion, polarization, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals interactions, are often difficult to reproduce faithfully in atomistic models. Here, electronic structure theories including all these interactions at equal footing, which requires the inclusion of non-local electron correlation, are used to describe structure and dynamics of bulk liquid water. Isobaric-isothermal (NpT) ensemble simulations based on the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) yield excellent density (0.994 g/ml) and fair radial distribution functions, while various other density functional approximations produce scattered results (0.8-1.2 g/ml). Molecular dynamics simulation in the microcanonical (NVE) ensemble based on Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) yields dynamical properties in the condensed phase, namely, the infrared spectrum and diffusion constant. At the MP2 and RPA levels of theory, ice is correctly predicted to float on water, resolving one of the anomalies as resulting from a delicate balance between van der Waals and hydrogen bonding interactions. For several properties, obtaining quantitative agreement with experiment requires correction for nuclear quantum effects (NQEs), highlighting their importance, for structure, dynamics, and electronic properties. A computed NQE shift of 0.6 eV for the band gap and absorption spectrum illustrates the latter. Giving access to both structure and dynamics of condensed phase systems, non-local electron correlation will increasingly be used to study systems where weak interactions are of paramount importance.

  7. A practical kinetic model that considers endproduct inhibition in anaerobic digestion processes by including the equilibrium constant. (United States)

    Hoh, C Y; Cord-Ruwisch, R


    The classical Michaelis-Menten model is widely used as the basis for modeling of a number of biological systems. As the model does not consider the inhibitory effect of endproducts that accumulate in virtually all bioprocesses, it is often modified to prevent the overestimation of reaction rates when products have accumulated. Traditional approaches of model modification use the inclusion of irreversible, competitive, and noncompetitive inhibition factors. This article demonstrates that these inhibition factors are insufficient to predict product inhibition of reactions that are close the dynamic equilibrium. All models investigated were found to violate thermodynamic laws as they predicted positive reaction rates for reactions that were endergonic due to high endproduct concentrations. For modeling of biological processes that operate close to the dynamic equilibrium (e.g., anaerobic processes), it is critical to prevent the prediction of positive reaction rates when the reaction has already reached the dynamic equilibrium. This can be achieved by using a reversible kinetic model. However, the major drawback of the reversible kinetic model is the large number of empirical parameters it requires. These parameters are difficult to determine and prone to experimental error. For this reason, the reversible model is not practical in the modeling of biological processes.This article uses the fundamentals of steady-state kinetics and thermodynamics to establish an equation for the reversible kinetic model that is of practical use in bio-process modeling. The behavior of this equilibrium-based model is compared with Michaelis-Menten-based models that use traditional inhibition factors. The equilibrium-based model did not require any empirical inhibition factor to correctly predict when reaction rates must be zero due to the free energy change being zero. For highly exergonic reactions, the equilibrium-based model did not deviate significantly from the Michaelis


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Munapo


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper presents a new procedure for analysing and managing activity sequences in projects. The new procedure determines critical activities, critical path, start times, free floats, crash limits, and other useful information without the use of the network model. Even though network models have been successfully used in project management so far, there are weaknesses associated with the use. A network is not easy to generate, and dummies that are usually associated with it make the network diagram complex – and dummy activities have no meaning in the original project management problem. The network model for projects can be avoided while still obtaining all the useful information that is required for project management. What are required are the activities, their accurate durations, and their predecessors.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die navorsing beskryf ’n nuwerwetse metode vir die ontleding en bestuur van die sekwensiële aktiwiteite van projekte. Die voorgestelde metode bepaal kritiese aktiwiteite, die kritieke pad, aanvangstye, speling, verhasing, en ander groothede sonder die gebruik van ’n netwerkmodel. Die metode funksioneer bevredigend in die praktyk, en omseil die administratiewe rompslomp van die tradisionele netwerkmodelle.

  9. Validation of Power Requirement Model for Active Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Madsen, Anders Normann; Bjerregaard, Ruben


    The actual power requirement of an active loudspeaker during playback of music has not received much attention in the literature. This is probably because no single and simple solution exists and because a complete system knowledge from input voltage to output sound pressure level is required....... There are however many advantages that could be harvested from such knowledge like size, cost and efficiency improvements. In this paper a recently proposed power requirement model for active loudspeakers is experimentally validated and the model is expanded to include the closed and vented type enclosures...

  10. High water-stressed population estimated by world water resources assessment including human activities under SRES scenarios (United States)

    Kiguchi, M.; Shen, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.


    In an argument of the reduction and the adaptation for the climate change, the evaluation of the influence by the climate change is important. When we argue in adaptation plan from a damage scale and balance with the cost, it is particularly important. Parry et al (2001) evaluated the risks in shortage of water, malaria, food, the risk of the coast flood by temperature function and clarified the level of critical climate change. According to their evaluation, the population to be affected by the shortage of water suddenly increases in the range where temperature increases from 1.5 to 2.0 degree in 2080s. They showed how much we need to reduce emissions in order to draw-down significantly the number at risk. This evaluation of critical climate change threats and targets of water shortage did not include the water withdrawal divided by water availability. Shen et al (2008a) estimated the water withdrawal of projection of future world water resources according to socio-economic driving factors predicted for scenarios A1b, A2, B1, and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). However, these results were in function of not temperature but time. The assessment of the highly water-stressed population considered the socioeconomic development is necessary for a function of the temperature. Because of it is easy to understand to need to reduce emission. We present a multi-GCM analysis of the global and regional populations lived in highly water-stressed basin for a function of the temperature using the socioeconomic data and the outputs of GCMs. In scenario A2, the population increases gradually with warming. On the other hand, the future projection population in scenario A1b and B1 increase gradually until the temperature anomaly exceeds around from +1 to +1.5 degree. After that the population is almost constant. From Shen et al (2008b), we evaluated the HWSP and its ratio in the world with temperature function for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 by the index of W

  11. Rodent model of activity-based anorexia. (United States)

    Carrera, Olaia; Fraga, Ángela; Pellón, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, Emilio


    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) consists of a procedure that involves the simultaneous exposure of animals to a restricted feeding schedule, while free access is allowed to an activity wheel. Under these conditions, animals show a progressive increase in wheel running, a reduced efficiency in food intake to compensate for their increased activity, and a severe progression of weight loss. Due to the parallelism with the clinical manifestations of anorexia nervosa including increased activity, reduced food intake and severe weight loss, the ABA procedure has been proposed as the best analog of human anorexia nervosa (AN). Thus, ABA research could both allow a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying AN and generate useful leads for treatment development in AN. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Modeling, Simulation, and Control of a Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicle in Near-Earth Vicinity Including Solar Array Degradation (United States)

    Witzberger, Kevin (Inventor); Hojnicki, Jeffery (Inventor); Manzella, David (Inventor)


    Modeling and control software that integrates the complexities of solar array models, a space environment, and an electric propulsion system into a rigid body vehicle simulation and control model is provided. A rigid body vehicle simulation of a solar electric propulsion (SEP) vehicle may be created using at least one solar array model, at least one model of a space environment, and at least one model of a SEP propulsion system. Power availability and thrust profiles may be determined based on the rigid body vehicle simulation as the SEP vehicle transitions from a low Earth orbit (LEO) to a higher orbit or trajectory. The power availability and thrust profiles may be displayed such that a user can use the displayed power availability and thrust profiles to determine design parameters for an SEP vehicle mission.

  13. A Mechanistic Model of Botrytis cinerea on Grapevines That Includes Weather, Vine Growth Stage, and the Main Infection Pathways (United States)

    González-Domínguez, Elisa; Caffi, Tito; Ciliberti, Nicola; Rossi, Vittorio


    A mechanistic model for Botrytis cinerea on grapevine was developed. The model, which accounts for conidia production on various inoculum sources and for multiple infection pathways, considers two infection periods. During the first period (“inflorescences clearly visible” to “berries groat-sized”), the model calculates: i) infection severity on inflorescences and young clusters caused by conidia (SEV1). During the second period (“majority of berries touching” to “berries ripe for harvest”), the model calculates: ii) infection severity of ripening berries by conidia (SEV2); and iii) severity of berry-to-berry infection caused by mycelium (SEV3). The model was validated in 21 epidemics (vineyard × year combinations) between 2009 and 2014 in Italy and France. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to: i) evaluate the ability of the model to predict mild, intermediate, and severe epidemics; and ii) assess how SEV1, SEV2, and SEV3 contribute to epidemics. The model correctly classified the severity of 17 of 21 epidemics. Results from DFA were also used to calculate the daily probabilities that an ongoing epidemic would be mild, intermediate, or severe. SEV1 was the most influential variable in discriminating between mild and intermediate epidemics, whereas SEV2 and SEV3 were relevant for discriminating between intermediate and severe epidemics. The model represents an improvement of previous B. cinerea models in viticulture and could be useful for making decisions about Botrytis bunch rot control. PMID:26457808

  14. Heliophysical Modeling at the CCMC - Community Modeling Activities to Compliment the VHGO (United States)

    MacNeice, P.; Taktakishvilli, A.; Rastaetter, L.; Chulaki, A.; Hesse, M.; Kuznetsova, M.


    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) hosts an ever growing inventory of models to support the research activities of the Heliophysics community.In this poster we detail this model inventory. We describe the manner in which the CCMC provides access to these models to the community. This support includes model runs driven with archived data and 'realtime' runs which update as the latest data is ingested by the models. It includes runs for individual researchers and in support of observational planning and analysis for a number of flight missions. Our need to integrate the data streams into and out of numerous models and graphics packages has led to the development of a number of infra-structure component that are also highly relevant to the design of the VHGO. We discuss this issue and the natural and vital link that must develop between the VHGO and modeling centers such as the CCMC, if the usefulness of the VHGO is to be maximized.

  15. Numerical modeling of AA2024-T3 friction stir welding process for residual stress evaluation, including softening effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Carlone, Pierpaolo; Palazzo, Gaetano S.


    In the present paper, a numerical finite element model of the precipitation hardenable AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy, consisting of a heat transfer analysis based on the Thermal Pseudo Mechanical model for heat generation, and a sequentially coupled quasi-static stress analysis is proposed. Metallurgi...

  16. An integrated mathematical model for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) including predation and hydrolysis. (United States)

    Revilla, Marta; Galán, Berta; Viguri, Javier R


    An integrated mathematical model is proposed for modelling a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) under aerobic conditions. The composite model combines the following: (i) a one-dimensional biofilm model, (ii) a bulk liquid model, and (iii) biological processes in the bulk liquid and biofilm considering the interactions among autotrophic, heterotrophic and predator microorganisms. Depending on the values for the soluble biodegradable COD loading rate (SCLR), the model takes into account a) the hydrolysis of slowly biodegradable compounds in the bulk liquid, and b) the growth of predator microorganisms in the bulk liquid and in the biofilm. The integration of the model and the SCLR allows a general description of the behaviour of COD removal by the MBBR under various conditions. The model is applied for two in-series MBBR wastewater plant from an integrated cellulose and viscose production and accurately describes the experimental concentrations of COD, total suspended solids (TSS), nitrogen and phosphorous obtained during 14 months working at different SCLRs and nutrient dosages. The representation of the microorganism group distribution in the biofilm and in the bulk liquid allow for verification of the presence of predator microorganisms in the second reactor under some operational conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multibody Dynamics of a Fluid Power Radial Piston Motor Including Transient Hydrodynamic Pressure Models of Lubricating Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Rømer, Daniel; Andersen, Torben Ole


    The increasing interest in hydraulic transmissions in wind and wave energy applications has created an incentive for the development of high efficiency fluid power machinery. Modeling and analysis of fluid power machinery loss mechanisms are necessary in order to accommodate this demand. At prese...... and model equations are explained in this paper and simulation results are shown in terms macroscopic and microscopic dynamics....

  18. Fast genomic predictions via Bayesian G-BLUP and multilocus models of threshold traits including censored Gaussian data. (United States)

    Kärkkäinen, Hanni P; Sillanpää, Mikko J


    Because of the increased availability of genome-wide sets of molecular markers along with reduced cost of genotyping large samples of individuals, genomic estimated breeding values have become an essential resource in plant and animal breeding. Bayesian methods for breeding value estimation have proven to be accurate and efficient; however, the ever-increasing data sets are placing heavy demands on the parameter estimation algorithms. Although a commendable number of fast estimation algorithms are available for Bayesian models of continuous Gaussian traits, there is a shortage for corresponding models of discrete or censored phenotypes. In this work, we consider a threshold approach of binary, ordinal, and censored Gaussian observations for Bayesian multilocus association models and Bayesian genomic best linear unbiased prediction and present a high-speed generalized expectation maximization algorithm for parameter estimation under these models. We demonstrate our method with simulated and real data. Our example analyses suggest that the use of the extra information present in an ordered categorical or censored Gaussian data set, instead of dichotomizing the data into case-control observations, increases the accuracy of genomic breeding values predicted by Bayesian multilocus association models or by Bayesian genomic best linear unbiased prediction. Furthermore, the example analyses indicate that the correct threshold model is more accurate than the directly used Gaussian model with a censored Gaussian data, while with a binary or an ordinal data the superiority of the threshold model could not be confirmed.

  19. Exploring the Social Impact of Being a Typical Peer Model for Included Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (United States)

    Locke, Jill; Fuller, Erin Rotheram; Kasari, Connie


    This study examined the social impact of being a typical peer model as part of a social skills intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were drawn from a randomized-controlled-treatment trial that examined the effects of targeted interventions on the social networks of 60 elementary-aged children with ASD. Results demonstrated that typical peer models had higher social network centrality, received friendships, friendship quality, and less loneliness than non-peer models. Peer models were also more likely to be connected with children with ASD than non-peer models at baseline and exit. These results suggest that typical peers can be socially connected to children with ASD, as well as other classmates, and maintain a strong and positive role within the classroom. PMID:22215436

  20. Modelling Proteasome and Proteasome Regulator Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Liepe


    Full Text Available Proteasomes are key proteases involved in a variety of processes ranging from the clearance of damaged proteins to the presentation of antigens to CD8+ T-lymphocytes. Which cleavage sites are used within the target proteins and how fast these proteins are degraded have a profound impact on immune system function and many cellular metabolic processes. The regulation of proteasome activity involves different mechanisms, such as the substitution of the catalytic subunits, the binding of regulatory complexes to proteasome gates and the proteasome conformational modifications triggered by the target protein itself. Mathematical models are invaluable in the analysis; and potentially allow us to predict the complex interactions of proteasome regulatory mechanisms and the final outcomes of the protein degradation rate and MHC class I epitope generation. The pioneering attempts that have been made to mathematically model proteasome activity, cleavage preference variation and their modification by one of the regulatory mechanisms are reviewed here.

  1. A continuum-mechanical skeletal muscle model including actin-titin interaction predicts stable contractions on the descending limb of the force-length relation (United States)

    Rode, Christian


    Contractions on the descending limb of the total (active + passive) muscle force—length relationship (i. e. when muscle stiffness is negative) are expected to lead to vast half-sarcomere—length inhomogeneities. This is however not observed in experiments—vast half-sarcomere—length inhomogeneities can be absent in myofibrils contracting in this range, and initial inhomogeneities can even decrease. Here we show that the absence of half-sarcomere—length inhomogeneities can be predicted when considering interactions of the semi-active protein titin with the actin filaments. Including a model of actin—titin interactions within a multi-scale continuum-mechanical model, we demonstrate that stability, accurate forces and nearly homogeneous half-sarcomere lengths can be obtained on the descending limb of the static total force—length relation. This could be a key to durable functioning of the muscle because large local stretches, that might harm, for example, the transverse-tubule system, are avoided. PMID:28968385


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Belyayev


    Full Text Available Purpose. Chemically hazardous objects, where toxic substances are used, manufactured and stored, and also main lines, on which the hazardous materials transportation is conducted, pose potential sources of atmosphere accidental pollution.Development of the CFD model for evaluating the efficiency of the building local protection from hazardous substantives ingress by using air curtain and sorption/desorption of hazardous substance on indoor surfaces. Methodology. To solve the problem of hydrodynamic interaction of the air curtain with wind flow and considering the building influence on this process the model of ideal fluid is used. In order to calculate the transfer process of the hazardous substance in the atmosphere an equation of convection-diffusion transport of impurities is applied. To calculate the process of indoors air pollution under leaking of foul air Karisson & Huber model is used. This model takes into account the sorption of the hazardous substance at various indoors surfaces. For the numerical integration of the model equations differential methods are used. Findings. In this paper we construct an efficient CFD model of evaluating the effectiveness of the buildings protection against ingress of hazardous substances through the use of an air curtain. On the basis of the built model a computational experiment to assess the effectiveness of this protection method under varying the location of the air curtain relative to the building was carried out. Originality. A new model was developed to compute the effectiveness of the air curtain supply to reduce the toxic chemical concentration inside the building. Practical value. The developed model can be used for design of the building local protection against ingress of hazardous substances.

  3. Modifications to the steady-state 41-node thermoregulatory model including validation of the respiratory and diffusional water loss equations (United States)


    After the simplified version of the 41-Node Stolwijk Metabolic Man Model was implemented on the Sigma 3 and UNIVAC 1110 computers in batch mode, it became desirable to make certain revisions. First, the availability of time-sharing terminals makes it possible to provide the capability and flexibility of conversational interaction between user and model. Secondly, recent physiological studies show the need to revise certain parameter values contained in the model. Thirdly, it was desired to make quantitative and accurate predictions of evaporative water loss for humans in an orbiting space station. The result of the first phase of this effort are reported.

  4. Modeling of damage in ductile cast iron – The effect of including plasticity in the graphite noduless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriollo, Tito; Thorborg, Jesper; Tiedje, Niels Skat


    In the present paper a micro-mechanical model for investigating the stress-strain relation of ductile cast iron subjected to simple loading conditions is presented. The model is based on a unit cell containing a single spherical graphite nodule embedded in a uniform ferritic matrix, under...... the assumption of infinitesimal strains and plane-stress conditions. Despite the latter being a limitation with respect to full 3D models, it allows a direct comparison with experimental investigations of damage evolution on the surface of ductile cast iron components, where the stress state is biaxial in nature...

  5. Modeling, Vicarious Learning, and Basic Needs: Helping All Children (Including Gifted Children) Recover From an Incendiary Political Season (United States)

    Cross, Tracy L.


    This column examines the recent political campaign and possible effects on gifted and talented students. Using psychological theories, the author describes ways that adults can interpret the events and model appropriate American values.

  6. Including irrigation in niche modelling of the invasive wasp Vespula germanica (Fabricius) improves model fit to predict potential for further spread. (United States)

    de Villiers, Marelize; Kriticos, Darren J; Veldtman, Ruan


    The European wasp, Vespula germanica (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), is of Palaearctic origin, being native to Europe, northern Africa and Asia, and introduced into North America, Chile, Argentina, Iceland, Ascension Island, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Due to its polyphagous nature and scavenging behaviour, V. germanica threatens agriculture and silviculture, and negatively affects biodiversity, while its aggressive nature and venomous sting pose a health risk to humans. In areas with warmer winters and longer summers, queens and workers can survive the winter months, leading to the build-up of large nests during the following season; thereby increasing the risk posed by this species. To prevent or prepare for such unwanted impacts it is important to know where the wasp may be able to establish, either through natural spread or through introduction as a result of human transport. Distribution data from Argentina and Australia, and seasonal phenology data from Argentina were used to determine the potential distribution of V. germanica using CLIMEX modelling. In contrast to previous models, the influence of irrigation on its distribution was also investigated. Under a natural rainfall scenario, the model showed similarities to previous models. When irrigation is applied, dry stress is alleviated, leading to larger areas modelled climatically suitable compared with previous models, which provided a better fit with the actual distribution of the species. The main areas at risk of invasion by V. germanica include western USA, Mexico, small areas in Central America and in the north-western region of South America, eastern Brazil, western Russia, north-western China, Japan, the Mediterranean coastal regions of North Africa, and parts of southern and eastern Africa.

  7. Including irrigation in niche modelling of the invasive wasp Vespula germanica (Fabricius improves model fit to predict potential for further spread.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marelize de Villiers

    Full Text Available The European wasp, Vespula germanica (Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, is of Palaearctic origin, being native to Europe, northern Africa and Asia, and introduced into North America, Chile, Argentina, Iceland, Ascension Island, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Due to its polyphagous nature and scavenging behaviour, V. germanica threatens agriculture and silviculture, and negatively affects biodiversity, while its aggressive nature and venomous sting pose a health risk to humans. In areas with warmer winters and longer summers, queens and workers can survive the winter months, leading to the build-up of large nests during the following season; thereby increasing the risk posed by this species. To prevent or prepare for such unwanted impacts it is important to know where the wasp may be able to establish, either through natural spread or through introduction as a result of human transport. Distribution data from Argentina and Australia, and seasonal phenology data from Argentina were used to determine the potential distribution of V. germanica using CLIMEX modelling. In contrast to previous models, the influence of irrigation on its distribution was also investigated. Under a natural rainfall scenario, the model showed similarities to previous models. When irrigation is applied, dry stress is alleviated, leading to larger areas modelled climatically suitable compared with previous models, which provided a better fit with the actual distribution of the species. The main areas at risk of invasion by V. germanica include western USA, Mexico, small areas in Central America and in the north-western region of South America, eastern Brazil, western Russia, north-western China, Japan, the Mediterranean coastal regions of North Africa, and parts of southern and eastern Africa.

  8. Formal deduction of the Saint-Venant-Exner model including arbitrarily sloping sediment beds and associated energy

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Nieto, E D; Narbona-Reina, G; Zabsonré, J D


    In this work we present a deduction of the Saint-Venant-Exner model through an asymptotic analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations. A multi-scale analysis is performed in order to take into account that the velocity of the sediment layer is smaller than the one of the fluid layer. This leads us to consider a shallow water type system for the fluid layer and a lubrication Reynolds equation for the sediment one. This deduction provides some improvements with respect to the classical Saint-Venant-Exner model: (i) the deduced model has an associated energy. Moreover, it allows us to explain why classical models do not have an associated energy and how to modify them in order to recover a model with this property. (ii) The model incorporates naturally a necessary modification that must be taken into account in order to be applied to arbitrarily sloping beds. Furthermore, we show that this modification is different of the ones considered classically, and that it coincides with a classical one only if the solution ha...

  9. Advanced Control of Active Bearings - Modelling, Design and Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane

    parameter-varying model of a rotor supported by an active gas bearing. Second, is the application of model-based control techniques for controllable gas bearings. The parameter-varying model is shown to suit the design of classical and modern control including observer and state-feedback, H1, LPV and gain...... control design. One example is the controllable radial gas bearing, where the lubricant air is injected through controllable injectors to levitate the rotor on an air film. Feedback control of the injection can improve upon the poor damping to reduce the disturbance sensitivity and vibrations near...... the critical speeds. The feedback control law is preferably designed from a simple model, which captures the dominant dynamics of the machine in the frequency range of interest. This thesis offers two main original contributions in the field of active bearings. First, an experimental technique is proposed...

  10. Modeling activity transport in the CANDU heat transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzonas, D.A.; Qiu, L. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)


    The release and transport of corrosion products from the surfaces of primary coolant system components is a serious concern for all water-cooled nuclear power plants. The consequences of high levels of corrosion product transport are twofold: a) increased corrosion product (crud) deposition on fuel cladding surfaces, leading to reduced heat transfer and the possibility of fuel failures, and b) increased production of radioactive species by neutron activation, resulting in increased out-of-core radiation fields and worker dose. In recent years, a semi-empirical activity transport model has been successfully developed to predict the deposition of radionuclides, including {sup 60}Co, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 124}Sb and fission products, around the CANDU® primary Heat Transport System (HTS), and to predict radiation fields at the steam generators and reactor face. The model links corrosion of the carbon steel outlet feeders to magnetite and radionuclide deposition on steam generator and inlet piping surfaces. This paper will describe the model development, key assumptions, required inputs, and model validation. The importance of reactor artefact characterization in the model development will be highlighted, and some key results will be presented, including oxide morphology and loadings, and radionuclide distributions within the oxide. The predictive capabilities of the model will also be described, including predictions of oxide thickness and the effects of changes in chemistry parameters such as alkalinity. While the model was developed primarily for the CANDU® HTS, the information gained during model development regarding corrosion product and radionuclide transport and deposition can also provide insights into activity transport in other water-cooled reactor systems. (author)

  11. Thermal activation model of endurance limit (United States)

    Lü, Baotong; Zheng, Xiulin


    A thermal activation model of the endurance limit is proposed in the present study. It can quantitatively explain the effects of temperature and frequency on the endurance limit of metals at or below room temperature. Theoretical analysis indicates that the endurance limit, σac, which is considered as a parameter characterizing the resistance of metals to cyclic microplastic deformation, has the same thermally activated nature as the plastic flow stress has and it can be resolved into two independent components: the long-range internal stress (the athermal component), μ(ɛapc), and the short-range effective stress (the thermal component), σa *( T, ɛp). The former is considered as a material constant insensitive to temperature and strain rate (or frequency). The latter, the temperature- and strain rate-dependent part of the endurance limit, is approximately identical with the effective stress component of plastic flow stress (or cyclic yielding stress). In light of the thermal activation model, the temperature and strain-rate dependence of monotonic and cyclic flow stresses in a low alloy steel (16Mn) and a precipitation-hardening aluminum alloy (LY12CZ) were experimentally investigated. The results indicate that the effective stress components of monotonic and cyclic flow stresses are identical, if the temperature and strain rate are held unchanged, and that both of them are approximately independent of the magnitude of plastic strain. On the basis of the thermal activation model, an expression predicting the endurance limit below room temperature is offered. The predicted values of the endurance limit agree with the test data of steels and aluminum alloys available in literature.

  12. Fatigue Behavior and Modeling of Additively Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V Including Interlayer Time Interval Effects (United States)

    Torries, Brian; Shamsaei, Nima


    The effects of different cooling rates, as achieved by varying the interlayer time interval, on the fatigue behavior of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V specimens were investigated and modeled via a microstructure-sensitive fatigue model. Comparisons are made between two sets of specimens fabricated via Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™), with variance in interlayer time interval accomplished by depositing either one or two specimens per print operation. Fully reversed, strain-controlled fatigue tests were conducted, with fractography following specimen failure. A microstructure-sensitive fatigue model was calibrated to model the fatigue behavior of both sets of specimens and was found to be capable of correctly predicting the longer fatigue lives of the single-built specimens and the reduced scatter of the double-built specimens; all data points fell within the predicted upper and lower bounds of fatigue life. The time interval effects and the ability to be modeled are important to consider when producing test specimens that are smaller than the production part (i.e., property-performance relationships).

  13. Fatigue Behavior and Modeling of Additively Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V Including Interlayer Time Interval Effects (United States)

    Torries, Brian; Shamsaei, Nima


    The effects of different cooling rates, as achieved by varying the interlayer time interval, on the fatigue behavior of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V specimens were investigated and modeled via a microstructure-sensitive fatigue model. Comparisons are made between two sets of specimens fabricated via Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™), with variance in interlayer time interval accomplished by depositing either one or two specimens per print operation. Fully reversed, strain-controlled fatigue tests were conducted, with fractography following specimen failure. A microstructure-sensitive fatigue model was calibrated to model the fatigue behavior of both sets of specimens and was found to be capable of correctly predicting the longer fatigue lives of the single-built specimens and the reduced scatter of the double-built specimens; all data points fell within the predicted upper and lower bounds of fatigue life. The time interval effects and the ability to be modeled are important to consider when producing test specimens that are smaller than the production part (i.e., property-performance relationships).

  14. Development of a generic activities model of command and control


    Stanton, NA; Baber, C; Walker, GH; Houghton, RJ; McMaster, R; Stewart, R.; D.; Harris; Jenkins, DP; Young, MS; Salmon, PM


    This paper reports on five different models of command and control. Four different models are reviewed: a process model, a contextual control model, a decision ladder model and a functional model. Further to this, command and control activities are analysed in three distinct domains: armed forces, emergency services and civilian services. From this analysis, taxonomies of command and control activities are developed that give rise to an activities model of command and control. This model w...

  15. Modelling of Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtanjeka, Ž.


    Full Text Available Activated sludge wastewater treatment is a highly complex physical, chemical and biological process, and variations in wastewater flow rate and its composition, combined with time-varying reactions in a mixed culture of microorganisms, make this process non-linear and unsteady. The efficiency of the process is established by measuring the quantities that indicate quality of the treated wastewater, but they can only be determined at the end of the process, which is when the water has already been processed and is at the outlet of the plant and released into the environment.If the water quality is not acceptable, it is already too late for its improvement, which indicates the need for a feed forward process control based on a mathematical model. Since there is no possibility of retracing the process steps back, all the mistakes in the control of the process could induce an ecological disaster of a smaller or bigger extent. Therefore, models that describe this process well may be used as a basis for monitoring and optimal control of the process development. This work analyzes the process of biological treatment of wastewater in the Velika Gorica plant. Two empirical models for the description of the process were established, multiple linear regression model (MLR with 16 predictor variables and piecewise linear regression model (PLR with 17 predictor variables. These models were developed with the aim to predict COD value of the effluent wastewater at the outlet, after treatment. The development of the models is based on the statistical analysis of experimental data, which are used to determine the relations among individual variables. In this work are applied linear models based on multiple linear regression (MLR and partial least squares (PLR methods. The used data were obtained by everyday measurements of the quantities that indicate the quality of the input and output water, working conditions of the plant and the quality of the activated sludge

  16. 75 FR 30740 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-2B16 (CL-604 Variants (Including CL-605... (United States)


    ... ADGs /ram air turbines installed on other aircraft types, investigation by Hamilton Sundstrand..., if deployment was activated by a dual engine shutdown, could also result in loss of hydraulic power... MCAI states: Following five reported cases of * * * balance washer screw failure on similar ADGs /ram...

  17. 75 FR 59071 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-2B16 (CL-604 Variants (Including CL-605... (United States)


    ...: Following five reported cases of * * * balance washer screw failure on similar ADGs /ram air turbines... activated by a dual engine shutdown, could also result in loss of hydraulic power for the flight controls... screw failure on similar ADGs /ram air turbines installed on other aircraft types, investigation by...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Flerovich Vildanov


    Full Text Available Actualized demand of manufactury company's efficiency from the point of quality charachteristics. Reveal unbreakable connection of man and organisation, on example of the comparative analysis of man's and manufacture company's activities. Studing models of company's and men's activities in order to reveal similarity. In order of their implementation to the economics assumes opportunity of using scientific methods, which use for studying functions, vital activities and behavior of the men.

  19. Modelling of real area of contact between tool and workpiece in metal forming processes including the influence of subsurface deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, Paulo A. F.; Bay, Niels Oluf


    New equipment for testing asperity deformation at various normal loads and subsurface elongations is presented. Resulting real contact area ratios increase heavily with increasing subsurface expansion due to lowered yield pressure on the asperities when imposing subsurface normal stress parallel ...... for estimating friction in the numerical modelling of metal forming processes.......New equipment for testing asperity deformation at various normal loads and subsurface elongations is presented. Resulting real contact area ratios increase heavily with increasing subsurface expansion due to lowered yield pressure on the asperities when imposing subsurface normal stress parallel...... to the surface. Finite element modelling supports the presentation and contributes by extrapolation of results to complete the mapping of contact area as function of normal pressure and one-directional subsurface strain parallel to the surface. Improved modelling of the real contact area is the basis...

  20. A non-linear optimization programming model for air quality planning including co-benefits for GHG emissions. (United States)

    Turrini, Enrico; Carnevale, Claudio; Finzi, Giovanna; Volta, Marialuisa


    This paper introduces the MAQ (Multi-dimensional Air Quality) model aimed at defining cost-effective air quality plans at different scales (urban to national) and assessing the co-benefits for GHG emissions. The model implements and solves a non-linear multi-objective, multi-pollutant decision problem where the decision variables are the application levels of emission abatement measures allowing the reduction of energy consumption, end-of pipe technologies and fuel switch options. The objectives of the decision problem are the minimization of tropospheric secondary pollution exposure and of internal costs. The model assesses CO2 equivalent emissions in order to support decision makers in the selection of win-win policies. The methodology is tested on Lombardy region, a heavily polluted area in northern Italy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analytical validation of COMSOL Multiphysics for theoretical models of Radiofrequency ablation including the Hyperbolic Bioheat transfer equation. (United States)

    Rivera, Maria J; López Molina, Juan A; Trujillo, Macarena; Romero-Garcia, Vicente; Berjano, Enrique J


    In this paper we outline our main findings about the differences between the use of the Bioheat Equation and the Hyperbolic Bioheat Equation in theoretical models for Radiofrequency (RF) ablation. At the moment, we have been working on the analytical approach to solve both equations, but more recently, we have considered numerical models based on the Finite Element Method (FEM). As a first step to use FEM, we conducted a comparative study between the temperature profiles obtained from the analytical solutions and those obtained from FEM. Regarding the differences between both methods, we obtain agreement in less than 5% of relative differences. Then FEM is a good alternative to model heating of biological tissues using BE and HBE in, for example, more complex and realistic geometries.

  2. A moving boundary problem and orthogonal collocation in solving a dynamic liquid surfactant membrane model including osmosis and breakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Biscaia Junior


    Full Text Available A dynamic kinetic-diffusive model for the extraction of metallic ions from aqueous liquors using liquid surfactant membranes is proposed. The model incorporates undesirable intrinsic phenomena such as swelling and breakage of the emulsion globules that have to be controlled during process operation. These phenomena change the spatial location of the chemical reaction during the course of extraction, resulting in a transient moving boundary problem. The orthogonal collocation method was used to transform the partial differential equations into an ordinary differential equation set that was solved by an implicit numerical routine. The model was found to be numerically stable and reliable in predicting the behaviour of zinc extraction with acidic extractant for long residence times.

  3. Accounting for genetic differences among unknown parents in microevolutionary studies: how to include genetic groups in quantitative genetic animal models. (United States)

    Wolak, Matthew E; Reid, Jane M


    Quantifying and predicting microevolutionary responses to environmental change requires unbiased estimation of quantitative genetic parameters in wild populations. 'Animal models', which utilize pedigree data to separate genetic and environmental effects on phenotypes, provide powerful means to estimate key parameters and have revolutionized quantitative genetic analyses of wild populations. However, pedigrees collected in wild populations commonly contain many individuals with unknown parents. When unknown parents are non-randomly associated with genetic values for focal traits, animal model parameter estimates can be severely biased. Yet, such bias has not previously been highlighted and statistical methods designed to minimize such biases have not been implemented in evolutionary ecology. We first illustrate how the occurrence of non-random unknown parents in population pedigrees can substantially bias animal model predictions of breeding values and estimates of additive genetic variance, and create spurious temporal trends in predicted breeding values in the absence of local selection. We then introduce 'genetic group' methods, which were developed in agricultural science, and explain how these methods can minimize bias in quantitative genetic parameter estimates stemming from genetic heterogeneity among individuals with unknown parents. We summarize the conceptual foundations of genetic group animal models and provide extensive, step-by-step tutorials that demonstrate how to fit such models in a variety of software programs. Furthermore, we provide new functions in r that extend current software capabilities and provide a standardized approach across software programs to implement genetic group methods. Beyond simply alleviating bias, genetic group animal models can directly estimate new parameters pertaining to key biological processes. We discuss one such example, where genetic group methods potentially allow the microevolutionary consequences of local

  4. Description of premixing with the MC3D code including molten jet behavior modeling. Comparison with FARO experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthoud, G.; Crecy, F. de; Meignen, R.; Valette, M. [CEA-G, DRN/DTP/SMTH, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)


    The premixing phase of a molten fuel-coolant interaction is studied by the way of mechanistic multidimensional calculation. Beside water and steam, corium droplet flow and continuous corium jet flow are calculated independent. The 4-field MC3D code and a detailed hot jet fragmentation model are presented. MC3D calculations are compared to the FARO L14 experiment results and are found to give satisfactory results; heat transfer and jet fragmentation models are still to be improved to predict better final debris size values. (author)

  5. 2D Numerical Modelling of the Resin Injection Pultrusion Process Including Experimental Resin Kinetics and Temperature Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Filip Salling; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Larsen, Martin


    In the present study, a two-dimensional (2D) transient Eulerian thermo-chemical analysis of a carbon fibre epoxy thermosetting Resin Injection Pultrusion (RIP) process is carried out. The numerical model is implemented using the well known unconditionally stable Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI......) scheme. The total heat of reaction and the cure kinetics of the epoxy thermosetting are determined using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). A very good agreement is observed between the fitted cure kinetic model and the experimental measurements. The numerical steady state temperature predictions...

  6. Resolution-independent modelling of environmental effects in semi-analytic models of galaxy formation that include ram-pressure stripping of both hot and cold gas (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Kang, Xi; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Fu, Jian


    The quenching of star formation in satellite galaxies is observed over a wide range of dark matter halo masses and galaxy environments. In the recent Guo et al. and Fu et al. semi-analytic + N-body models, the gaseous environment of the satellite galaxy is governed by the properties of the dark matter subhalo in which it resides. This quantity depends of the resolution of the N-body simulation, leading to a divergent fraction of quenched satellites in high- and low-resolution simulations. Here, we incorporate an analytic model to trace the subhaloes below the resolution limit. We demonstrate that we then obtain better converged results between the Millennium I and II simulations, especially for the satellites in the massive haloes (log Mhalo = [14, 15]). We also include a new physical model for the ram-pressure stripping of cold gas in satellite galaxies. However, we find very clear discrepancies with observed trends in quenched satellite galaxy fractions as a function of stellar mass at fixed halo mass. At fixed halo mass, the quenched fraction of satellites does not depend on stellar mass in the models, but increases strongly with mass in the data. In addition to the overprediction of low-mass passive satellites, the models also predict too few quenched central galaxies with low stellar masses, so the problems in reproducing quenched fractions are not purely of environmental origin. Further improvements to the treatment of the gas-physical processes regulating the star formation histories of galaxies are clearly necessary to resolve these problems.

  7. [Active ageing and success: A brief history of conceptual models]. (United States)

    Petretto, Donatella Rita; Pili, Roberto; Gaviano, Luca; Matos López, Cristina; Zuddas, Carlo


    The aim of this paper is to analyse and describe different conceptual models of successful ageing, active and healthy ageing developed in Europe and in America in the 20° century, starting from Rowe and Kahn's original model (1987, 1997). A narrative review was conducted on the literature on successful ageing. Our review included definition of successful ageing from European and American scholars. Models were found that aimed to describe indexes of active and healthy ageing, models devoted to describe processes involved in successful ageing, and additional views that emphasise subjective and objective perception of successful ageing. A description is also given of critiques on previous models and remedies according to Martin et al. (2014) and strategies for successful ageing according to Jeste and Depp (2014). The need is discussed for the enhancement of Rowe and Kahn's model and other models with a more inclusive, universal description of ageing, incorporating scientific evidence regarding active ageing. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase rapidly suppresses multiple pro-inflammatory pathways in adipocytes including IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-4 phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancini, Sarah J; White, Anna D; Bijland, Silvia


    tissue from AMPKα1(-/-) mice exhibited increased JNK and STAT3 phosphorylation, supporting suppression of these distinct proinflammatory pathways by AMPK in vivo. The inhibition of multiple pro-inflammatory signalling pathways by AMPK may underlie the reported beneficial effects of AMPK activation...

  9. Evaluation of reptation-based modeling of entangled polymeric fluids including chain rotation via nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation (United States)

    Nafar Sefiddashti, Mohammad Hadi; Edwards, Brian J.; Khomami, Bamin


    Recent simulation results of a moderately entangled linear polyethylene C700H1402 liquid have confirmed prior simulation and experimental evidence that individual polymer molecules experience periodic rotation and retraction cycles under steady shear flow at high Weissenberg number. With this insight, theoreticians have begun to grapple with this additional complicating physical phenomenon that needs to be incorporated into rheological models to help explain the data under conditions of high shear. In this paper we examine these recent efforts by using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to provide insight into the requisite theoretical variables and their assigned evolution equations to evaluate the capability of these tube-based models to predict accurately the simulated data sets. This analysis reveals that the primary variables used in tube models to impart a conceptual basis to the theory, namely, the tube orientation tensor and the tube stretch, remain fundamental system properties even far away from equilibrium; however, the theory describing their evolution under flow is not well suited to quantitative prediction. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that key system properties, such as the entanglement number and disengagement time, should play a more significant role in model development since these quantities can change dramatically under flow, particularly at high Weissenberg number where the chain rotation and retraction cycles dominate the system physics.

  10. Designing a Curriculum Model to Include Sexuality and a Procedure for its Administration. Human Sexuality-Nursing 50383. (United States)

    Hoffman, Elise; And Others

    In order to design and implement a plan to integrate human sexuality into the curriculum for associate degree nursing students at Alvin Community College (Texas), levels of knowledge, attitudes and skills necessary in promoting sexual health were defined. Of the four levels in the Mims and Swenson Sexual Health Model (life experiences, basic,…

  11. A depth-averaged debris-flow model that includes the effects of evolving dilatancy. I. physical basis (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.; George, David L.


    To simulate debris-flow behaviour from initiation to deposition, we derive a depth-averaged, two-phase model that combines concepts of critical-state soil mechanics, grain-flow mechanics and fluid mechanics. The model's balance equations describe coupled evolution of the solid volume fraction, m, basal pore-fluid pressure, flow thickness and two components of flow velocity. Basal friction is evaluated using a generalized Coulomb rule, and fluid motion is evaluated in a frame of reference that translates with the velocity of the granular phase, vs. Source terms in each of the depth-averaged balance equations account for the influence of the granular dilation rate, defined as the depth integral of ∇⋅vs. Calculation of the dilation rate involves the effects of an elastic compressibility and an inelastic dilatancy angle proportional to m−meq, where meq is the value of m in equilibrium with the ambient stress state and flow rate. Normalization of the model equations shows that predicted debris-flow behaviour depends principally on the initial value of m−meq and on the ratio of two fundamental timescales. One of these timescales governs downslope debris-flow motion, and the other governs pore-pressure relaxation that modifies Coulomb friction and regulates evolution of m. A companion paper presents a suite of model predictions and tests.

  12. 2D Numerical Modelling of the Resin Injection Pultrusion Process Including Experimental Resin Kinetics and Temperature Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Filip Salling; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Larsen, Martin

    In the present study, a two-dimensional (2D) transient Eulerian thermo-chemical analysis of a carbon fibre epoxy thermosetting Resin Injection Pultrusion (RIP) process is carried out. The numerical model is implemented using the well known unconditionally stable Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI...

  13. Towards a Four-Dimensional Model of Burnout: A Multigroup Factor-Analytic Study Including Depersonalization and Cynicism (United States)

    Salanova, Marisa; Llorens, Susana; Garcia-Renedo, Monica; Burriel, Raul; Breso, Edgar; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.


    This article investigated whether cynicism and depersonalization are two different dimensions of burnout or whether they may be collapsed into one construct of mental distance. Using confirmatory factor analyses in two samples of teachers (n = 483) and blue-collar workers (n = 474), a superior fit was found for the four-factor model that contained…

  14. Exploring the Social Impact of Being a Typical Peer Model for Included Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (United States)

    Locke, Jill; Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; Kasari, Connie


    This study examined the social impact of being a typical peer model as part of a social skills intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were drawn from a randomized-controlled-treatment trial that examined the effects of targeted interventions on the social networks of 60 elementary-aged children with ASD.…

  15. A Numerical Model of an Acoustic Metamaterial Using the Boundary Element Method Including Viscous and Thermal Losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Andersen, Peter Risby; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard


    In recent years, boundary element method (BEM) and finite element method (FEM) implementations of acoustics in fluids with viscous and thermal losses have been developed. They are based on the linearized Navier–Stokes equations with no flow. In this paper, such models with acoustic losses...

  16. A Numerical Model of an Acoustic Metamaterial Using the Boundary Element Method Including Viscous and Thermal Losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Andersen, Peter Risby; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard


    In recent years, boundary element method (BEM) and finite element method (FEM) implementations of acoustics in fluids with viscous and thermal losses have been developed. They are based on the linearized Navier–Stokes equations with no flow. In this paper, such models with acoustic losses are app...

  17. Modelling the long-term consequences of a hypothetical dispersal of radioactivity in an urban area including remediation alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Batandjieva, B.


    ) and for selected countermeasures. The exercise provided an opportunity for comparison of three modelling approaches, as well as a comparison of the predicted effectiveness of various countermeasures in terms of their short-term and long-term effects on predicted doses to humans. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  18. PREFACE: 9th International Fröhlich's Symposium: Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells (Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics) (United States)

    Cifra, Michal; Pokorný, Jirí; Kucera, Ondrej


    This volume contains papers presented at the International Fröhlich's Symposium entitled 'Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells' (1-3 July 2011, Prague, Czech Republic). The Symposium was the 9th meeting devoted to physical processes in living matter organized in Prague since 1987. The hypothesis of oscillation systems in living cells featured by non-linear interaction between elastic and electrical polarization fields, non-linear interactions between the system and the heat bath leading to energy downconversion along the frequency scale, energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode and creation of a coherent state was formulated by H Fröhlich, founder of the theory of dielectric materials. He assumed that biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms and that their disturbances form basic links along the cancer transformation pathway. Fröhlich outlined general ideas of non-linear physical processes in biological systems. The downconversion and the elastic-polarization interactions should be connected in a unified theory and the solution based on comprehensive non-linear characteristics. Biochemical and genetic research of biological systems are highly developed and have disclosed a variety of cellular and subcellular structures, chemical reactions, molecular information transfer, and genetic code sequences - including their pathological development. Nevertheless, the cancer problem is still a big challenge. Warburg's discovery of suppressed oxidative metabolism in mitochondria in cancer cells suggested the essential role of physical mechanisms (but his discovery has remained without impact on cancer research and on the study of physical properties of biological systems for a long time). Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, have several areas of activity-oxidative energy production is connected with the formation of a strong static electric field around them, water ordering, and liberation of non

  19. Numerical Modeling of the Hydrothermal System at East Pacific Rise 9°50'N Including Anhydrite Precipitation (United States)

    Kolandaivelu, K. P.; Lowell, R. P.


    To better understand the effects of anhydrite precipitation on mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems, we conducted 2-D numerical simulations of two-phase hydrothermal circulation in a NaCl-H2O fluid at the East Pacific Rise 9°50'N. The simulations were constrained by key observational thermal data and seismicity that suggests the fluid flow is primarily along axis with recharge focused into a small zone near a 4th order discontinuity. The simulations considered an open-top square box with a fixed seafloor pressure of 25 MPa, and nominal seafloor temperature of 10 °C. The sides of the box were assumed to be impermeable and insulated. We considered two models: a homogeneous model with a permeability of 10-13 m2 and a heterogeneous model in which layer 2A extrusives were given a higher permeability. Both models had a fixed bottom temperature distribution and initial porosity of 0.1. Assuming that anhydrite precipitation resulted from the decrease in solubility with increasing temperature as downwelling fluid gets heated, we calculated the rate of porosity decrease and sealing times in each cell at certain time snapshots in the simulations. The results showed that sealing would occur most rapidly in limited regions near the base of the high-temperature plumes, where complete sealing could occur on decadal time scales. Though more detailed analysis is needed, it appeared that the areas of rapid sealing would likely have negligible impact on the overall circulation pattern and hydrothermal vent temperatures. The simulations also indicated that sealing due to anhydrite precipitation would occur more slowly at the margins of the ascending plumes. The sealing times in the deep recharge zone determined in these simulations were considerably greater than estimated from 1D analytical calculations, suggesting that with a 2D model, focused recharge at the EPR 9°50'N site may occur, at least on a decadal time scale.

  20. Routine OGTT: a robust model including incretin effect for precise identification of insulin sensitivity and secretion in a single individual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea De Gaetano

    Full Text Available In order to provide a method for precise identification of insulin sensitivity from clinical Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT observations, a relatively simple mathematical model (Simple Interdependent glucose/insulin MOdel SIMO for the OGTT, which coherently incorporates commonly accepted physiological assumptions (incretin effect and saturating glucose-driven insulin secretion has been developed. OGTT data from 78 patients in five different glucose tolerance groups were analyzed: normal glucose tolerance (NGT, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, impaired fasting glucose (IFG, IFG+IGT, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM. A comparison with the 2011 Salinari (COntinuos GI tract MOdel, COMO and the 2002 Dalla Man (Dalla Man MOdel, DMMO models was made with particular attention to insulin sensitivity indices ISCOMO, ISDMMO and kxgi (the insulin sensitivity index for SIMO. ANOVA on kxgi values across groups resulted significant overall (P<0.001, and post-hoc comparisons highlighted the presence of three different groups: NGT (8.62×10(-5±9.36×10(-5 min(-1pM(-1, IFG (5.30×10(-5±5.18×10(-5 and combined IGT, IFG+IGT and T2DM (2.09×10(-5±1.95×10(-5, 2.38×10(-5±2.28×10(-5 and 2.38×10(-5±2.09×10(-5 respectively. No significance was obtained when comparing ISCOMO or ISDMMO across groups. Moreover, kxgi presented the lowest sample average coefficient of variation over the five groups (25.43%, with average CVs for ISCOMO and ISDMMO of 70.32% and 57.75% respectively; kxgi also presented the strongest correlations with all considered empirical measures of insulin sensitivity. While COMO and DMMO appear over-parameterized for fitting single-subject clinical OGTT data, SIMO provides a robust, precise, physiologically plausible estimate of insulin sensitivity, with which habitual empirical insulin sensitivity indices correlate well. The kxgi index, reflecting insulin secretion dependency on glycemia, also significantly differentiates clinically

  1. On compositional modeling of lunar highlands soils, including application to the orbiting gamma-ray experimental data (United States)

    Haskin, L. A.; Korotev, R. L.


    The compositions of remotely sensed highlands soils are compared with those of acquired highlands soils through the use of a compositional model. This model previously demonstrated its ability to describe compositions of acquired highlands soils with an accuracy approximating the present knowledge of the compositions. The principal question addressed here is whether the compositional end-members used to describe the acquired highlands soils are adequate to describe the remotely sensed ones or whether in some remotely sensed regions volumetrically significant components of different composition are required. Owing to the large analytical uncertainties in the gamma-ray data, only the presence of substantial proportions of significantly different components would be detectable by this (or any other) analysis of those data.

  2. Potential of the Galaxy from the Besançon galaxy model including non-axisymmetric components: Preliminary results (United States)

    Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Robin, A. C.; Bienaymé, O.; Reylé, C.; Valenzuela, O.; Pichardo, B.


    In this contributed poster we present a preliminary attempt to compute a non-axisymmetric potential together with previous axisymmetric potential of the Besançon galaxy model. The contribution by non-axisymmetric components are modeled by the superposition of inhomogeneous ellipsoids to approximate the triaxial bar and superposition of homogeneous oblate spheroids for a stellar halo, possibly triaxial. Finally, we have computed the potential and force field for these non-axisymmetric components in order to constraint the total mass of the Milky Way. We present preliminary results for the rotation curve and the contribution of the bar to it. This approach will allow future studies of dynamical constraints from comparisons of kinematical simulations with upcoming surveys such as RAVE, BRAVA, APOGEE, and GAIA in the near future. More details, are presented in

  3. A two-dimensional model of the pressing section of a paper machine including dynamic capillary effects

    KAUST Repository

    Iliev, Oleg P.


    Paper production is a problem with significant importance for society; it is also a challenging topic for scientific investigation. This study is concerned with the simulation of the pressing section of a paper machine. A two-dimensional model is developed to account for the water flow within the pressing zone. A Richards-type equation is used to describe the flow in the unsaturated zone. The dynamic capillary pressure-saturation relation is adopted for the paper production process. The mathematical model accounts for the coexistence of saturated and unsaturated zones in a multilayer computational domain. The discretization is performed by the MPFA-O method. Numerical experiments are carried out for parameters that are typical of the production process. The static and dynamic capillary pressure-saturation relations are tested to evaluate the influence of the dynamic capillary effect. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmadi Javid


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present a distribution network design problem in a supply chain system that minimises the total cost of location, inventory, and delivery delay. Customers’ demands are random, and multiple capacity levels are available for the distribution centers. The problem is first formulated as a mixed integer convex programming model to optimally solve medium-sized instances, and then a heuristic is developed for solving large-sized instances.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In hierdie artikel word ‘n distribusienetwerkprobleem in ‘n voorsieningsketting voorgehou waar die totale koste van die ligging, voorraad en afleweringsvertragings geminimiseer word. Die vraag is lukraak en verskeie kapasiteitsvlakke is beskikbaar in die verspreidingsentra. Die problem word eers geformuleer as ‘n gemengde-heeltal-konvekse model sodat mediumgrootte gevalle geoptimiseer kan word, waarna ‘n heuristieke benadering ontwikkel word vir die oplos van grootskaalse aktiwiteite.

  5. Developing integrated models of Southern Ocean food webs: Including ecological complexity, accounting for uncertainty and the importance of scale (United States)

    Murphy, E. J.; Cavanagh, R. D.; Hofmann, E. E.; Hill, S. L.; Constable, A. J.; Costa, D. P.; Pinkerton, M. H.; Johnston, N. M.; Trathan, P. N.; Klinck, J. M.; Wolf-Gladrow, D. A.; Daly, K. L.; Maury, O.; Doney, S. C.


    The Southern Ocean supports diverse and unique ecosystems that have been impacted by more than two centuries of exploitation and are now experiencing rapid changes in ocean temperature and seasonal ice cover due to climate warming. Understanding and projecting responses of Southern Ocean marine ecosystems to changing climate conditions and direct human impacts, such as fisheries, requires integrated ecosystem analyses at scales previously unexplored. Here we consider the main ecological and modelling challenges in predicting the responses of Southern Ocean ecosystems to change, and propose three interlinked focus areas that will advance the development of integrated models for Southern Ocean ecosystems. The first focus area is development of fundamental understanding of the factors that determine the structure and function of the food webs at multiple scales. Ecological research in the Southern Ocean is often centred on key species or localised systems, a tendency which is reflected in existing food web and ecosystem models. To build on this, a systematic analysis of regional food web structure and function is required. The second focus area is development of a range of mechanistic models that vary in their resolution of ecological processes, and consider links across physical scales, biogeochemical cycles and feedbacks, and the central role of zooplankton. These two focus areas underlie the third, which is development of methodologies for scenario testing across a range of trophic levels of the effects of past and future changes, which will facilitate consideration of the underlying complexity of interactions and the associated uncertainty. The complex nature of interactions determining Southern Ocean ecosystem structure and function will require new approaches, which we propose should be developed within a scale-based framework that emphasises both physical and ecological aspects.

  6. Development and Internal Validation of a Predictive Model Including Pulse Oximetry for Hospitalization of Under-Five Children in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahreen Raihana

    Full Text Available The reduction in the deaths of millions of children who die from infectious diseases requires early initiation of treatment and improved access to care available in health facilities. A major challenge is the lack of objective evidence to guide front line health workers in the community to recognize critical illness in children earlier in their course.We undertook a prospective observational study of children less than 5 years of age presenting at the outpatient or emergency department of a rural tertiary care hospital between October 2012 and April 2013. Study physicians collected clinical signs and symptoms from the facility records, and with a mobile application performed recordings of oxygen saturation, heart rate and respiratory rate. Facility physicians decided the need for hospital admission without knowledge of the oxygen saturation. Multiple logistic predictive models were tested.Twenty-five percent of the 3374 assessed children, with a median (interquartile range age of 1.02 (0.42-2.24, were admitted to hospital. We were unable to contact 20% of subjects after their visit. A logistic regression model using continuous oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, temperature and age combined with dichotomous signs of chest indrawing, lethargy, irritability and symptoms of cough, diarrhea and fast or difficult breathing predicted admission to hospital with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.89 (95% confidence interval -CI: 0.87 to 0.90. At a risk threshold of 25% for admission, the sensitivity was 77% (95% CI: 74% to 80%, specificity was 87% (95% CI: 86% to 88%, positive predictive value was 70% (95% CI: 67% to 73% and negative predictive value was 91% (95% CI: 90% to 92%.A model using oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and temperature in combination with readily obtained clinical signs and symptoms predicted the need for hospitalization of critically ill children. External validation of this model in a community

  7. A lattice study of a chirally invariant Higgs–Yukawa model including a higher dimensional Φ6-term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Y.-J. Chu


    Full Text Available We discuss the non-thermal phase structure of a chirally invariant Higgs–Yukawa model on the lattice in the presence of a higher dimensional Φ6-term. For the exploration of the phase diagram we use analytical, lattice perturbative calculations of the constraint effective potential as well as numerical simulations. We also present first results of the effects of the Φ6-term on the lower Higgs boson mass bounds.

  8. A constitutive model for the compressive response of metallic closed-cell foams including micro-inertia effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barthélémy Romain


    Full Text Available Metallic foams have known a keen interest in the last decades. Their ability to undergo very large deformations while transmitting low stress levels make them capable of performing functions of protective layers against intense loadings and of energy absorbers, for instance. The behaviour of metal foams varies considerably between quasi-static and dynamic regimes. Those differences can be linked to the strain-rate sensitivity of the skeleton material and to micro-inertial effects (induced by the crushing of the foam cells. In the present work, a micromechanical model has been developed to take into account micro-inertia effects on the macroscopic behaviour of closed-cell foams under dynamic loading conditions. The proposed modelling is based on the dynamic homogenisation procedure introduced by Molinari and Mercier (J. Mech. Phys. Solids 49 (2001 1497–1516. Within this framework, the macrostress is the sum of two terms. The first one is a static stress, that can be described with any existing model of metal foam. The second contribution is a dynamic stress related to micro-inertia effects. Considering an initially spherical shell as a Representative Volume Element (RVE of the foam material, a closed-form expression of the dynamic stress was obtained. The proposed modelling was applied to shock propagation in aluminium foams (it should however be noted that the present theory is not restricted to uniaxial deformation but can be applied to arbitrary loadings. From experimental data of the literature, it is observed that incorporating micro-inertia effects allows one to achieve a better description of the foam shock response. This indicates that micro-inertia may have a significant influence on the dynamic behaviour of metallic foams.

  9. Tongue Segmentation Using Active Contour Model (United States)

    Saparudin; Erwin; Fachrurrozi, Muhammad


    Tongue is an organ of the human body for tasting sense. Healthy conditions can be known from observation of the surface tongue by an expert. Before analyzing the tongue, feature extraction process is needed to segment the tongue from image, so it is possible to develop an application that can segment the tongue image from opened mouth image. This research uses Canny Edge Detection and Active Contour method. Canny Edge Detection is used to find the edges of tongue. This method has four steps: Smoothing Gaussian Filter, Finding Gradients, Non-maximum Suppression, and Hysteresis Thresholding. After finding the tongue edge, Active Contour Model will be generating energy that can pull into edges curve that is already defined and cropping that to produce tongue image. Testing result of this research yield an accuracy rate of 75%, by which from all 40 tongue images, 30 are successfully segmented.

  10. Self-consistent plasma chemistry model for surface microdischarge in humid air including effects of ohmic heating and gas flow (United States)

    Yi, Changho; Yoon, Sung-Young; Eom, Sangheum; Park, Seungil; Kim, Seong Bong; Ryu, Seungmin; Yoo, Suk Jae


    A numerical model is presented for surface microdischarges (SMDs) in flowing humid air at atmospheric pressure, to investigate the effects of the direct ohmic heating of gases in the discharge layer, and the transports of heat and particles by gas flow. Using a simplified configuration of heat transfer and gas flow, the proposed model calculated not only the densities of neutral species but also the temperatures of gases as time dependent variables. The calculated dynamics for various reactive oxygen and nitrogen species showed reasonable agreement with the experimental results obtained by Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy, while the calculated dynamics without ohmic heating of gases in the discharge layer showed significant disagreement. These results imply that local ohmic heating of the thin discharge layer by the microdischarge itself considerably affected the rate constants of the temperature dependent chemical reactions. The dynamics of the neutral species were also affected by gas flow, both directly through particle transport, and indirectly through cooling. Accordingly, to properly simulate the dynamics of reactive neutral species in SMDs, plasma chemistry models should treat plasmas as sources of both particles and heat which can be deliberately transported by gas flow.

  11. A Discrete Model for Simulation of Composites Plate Impact Including Coupled Intra- and Inter-ply Failure (United States)

    Jäger, Sebastian; Pickett, Anthony; Middendorf, Peter


    Laminated composites can undergo complex damage mechanisms when subjected to transverse impact. For unidirectional laminates it is well recognized that delamination failure usually initiates via intra-ply shear cracks that run parallel to the fibres. These cracks extend to the interface of adjacent orthogonal plies, where they are either stopped, or propagate further as inter-ply delamination cracks. These mechanisms largely determine impact energy absorption and post-delamination bending stiffness of the laminate. Important load transfer mechanisms will occur that may lead to fibre failure and ultimate rupture of the laminate. In recent years most Finite Element (FE) models to predict delamination usually stack layers of ply elements with interface elements to represent inter-ply stiffness and treat possible delamination. The approach is computationally efficient and does give some estimate of delamination zones and damaged laminate bending stiffness. However, these models do not properly account for coupled intra-ply shear failure and delamination crack growth, and therefore cannot provide accurate results on crack initiation and propagation. An alternative discrete meso-scale FE model is presented that accounts for this coupling, which is validated against common delamination tests and impact delamination from the Compression After Impact (CAI) test. Ongoing research is using damage prediction from the CAI simulation as a basis for residual strength analysis, which will be the published in future work.

  12. Modeling the Nonlinear, Strain Rate Dependent Deformation of Shuttle Leading Edge Materials with Hydrostatic Stress Effects Included (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.


    An analysis method based on a deformation (as opposed to damage) approach has been developed to model the strain rate dependent, nonlinear deformation of woven ceramic matrix composites, such as the Reinforced Carbon Carbon (RCC) material used on the leading edges of the Space Shuttle. In the developed model, the differences in the tension and compression deformation behaviors have also been accounted for. State variable viscoplastic equations originally developed for metals have been modified to analyze the ceramic matrix composites. To account for the tension/compression asymmetry in the material, the effective stress and effective inelastic strain definitions have been modified. The equations have also been modified to account for the fact that in an orthotropic composite the in-plane shear response is independent of the stiffness in the normal directions. The developed equations have been implemented into LS-DYNA through the use of user defined subroutines (UMATs). Several sample qualitative calculations have been conducted, which demonstrate the ability of the model to qualitatively capture the features of the deformation response present in woven ceramic matrix composites.

  13. Modeling the Nonlinear, Strain Rate Dependent Deformation of Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites With Hydrostatic Stress Effects Included (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.


    An analysis method based on a deformation (as opposed to damage) approach has been developed to model the strain rate dependent, nonlinear deformation of woven ceramic matrix composites with a plain weave fiber architecture. In the developed model, the differences in the tension and compression response have also been considered. State variable based viscoplastic equations originally developed for metals have been modified to analyze the ceramic matrix composites. To account for the tension/compression asymmetry in the material, the effective stress and effective inelastic strain definitions have been modified. The equations have also been modified to account for the fact that in an orthotropic composite the in-plane shear stiffness is independent of the stiffness in the normal directions. The developed equations have been implemented into a commercially available transient dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA, through the use of user defined subroutines (UMATs). The tensile, compressive, and shear deformation of a representative plain weave woven ceramic matrix composite are computed and compared to experimental results. The computed values correlate well to the experimental data, demonstrating the ability of the model to accurately compute the deformation response of woven ceramic matrix composites.

  14. Earth system modelling and data grid activities (United States)

    Brohan, P.; Budich, R. G.; Lautenschlager, M.; Foujols, M.-A.


    Earth System science in general is based upon modelling and observations. The bulk of the raw data model output and Earth observation data is stored in a few centres, distributed over Europe and worldwide. The scientists in principle rely on the avail-ability of easy and transparent access to these data-bases, which is not given today for different reasons: National boundaries, different structures of the archives, non-standard data formats, inconsistent access management are a few of them. Earth System Modelling is an extremely data intensive field of science. Typical archive sizes presently are on the order of a few hundred Terabyte with a rapid growing rate. Successful modelling and prediction of the Earth System relies heavily on the availability of these huge data sets for boundary and initial conditions from observations and other model studies, and on comparison with the output of other model studies. ENES tries to solve the parts of the data problems by the following activities, mainly planned in the context of FP6: Networking aspects: National Research Networks are to be involved, together with the industry, to solve problems existing today concerning bandwidth, latency, Qual-ity of Service and control and development as well as integration of middleware. Software aspects: Tools have to be developed to help scientists find and access the data they need. This means development of common data and metadata standards, systems for authorising access, and tools for data extraction and visualisation. Such tools will have to be optimised in their computer science aspects, for instance load balancing and job scheduling. Data archives: The value and potential of the data stored and produced in the differ-ent centres can not be used in an optimal way if the centres do not strive for unifica-tion and standardisation of their data models, primary data and meta data organiza-tion, and interfaces. Additional aspects for cooperation are long-term storage, secu-rity, data


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brînduşa-Antonela SBÎRCEA


    Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

  16. Activity based costing model for inventory valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Chouhan


    Full Text Available Activity-Based-Model (ABC is used for the purpose of significant improvement for overhead accounting systems by providing the best information required for managerial decision. This pa-per discusses implacability of ABC technique on inventory valuation as a management account-ing innovation. In order to prove the applicability of ABC for inventory control a material driven medium-sized and privately owned company from engineering (iron and steel industry is select-ed and by analysis of its production process and its material dependency and use of indirect in-ventory, an ABC model is explored for better inventory control. The case revealed that the ne-cessity of ABC in the area of inventory control is significant. The company is not only able to increase its quality of decision but also it can significantly analyze its cost of direct material cost, valuation of direct material and use its implications for better decision making.

  17. Styrene-spaced copolymers including anthraquinone and β-O-4 lignin model units: synthesis, characterization and reactivity under alkaline pulping conditions. (United States)

    Megiatto, Jackson D; Cazeils, Emmanuel; Ham-Pichavant, Frédérique; Grelier, Stéphane; Gardrat, Christian; Castellan, Alain


    A series of random copoly(styrene)s has been synthesized via radical polymerization of functionalized anthraquinone (AQ) and β-O-4 lignin model monomers. The copolymers were designed to have a different number of styrene spacer groups between the AQ and β-O-4 lignin side chains aiming at investigating the distance effects on AQ/β-O-4 electron transfer mechanisms. A detailed molecular characterization, including techniques such as size exclusion chromatography, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and (1)H, (13)C, (31)P NMR and UV-vis spectroscopies, afforded quantitative information about the composition of the copolymers as well as the average distribution of the AQ and β-O-4 groups in the macromolecular structures. TGA and DSC thermal analysis have indicated that the copolymers were thermally stable under regular pulping conditions, revealing the inertness of the styrene polymer backbone in the investigation of electron transfer mechanisms. Alkaline pulping experiments showed that close contact between the redox active side chains in the copolymers was fundamental for an efficient degradation of the β-O-4 lignin model units, highlighting the importance of electron transfer reactions in the lignin degradation mechanisms catalyzed by AQ. In the absence of glucose, AQ units oxidized phenolic β-O-4 lignin model parts, mainly by electron transfer leading to vanillin as major product. By contrast, in presence of glucose, anthrahydroquinone units (formed by reduction of AQ) reduced the quinone-methide units (issued by dehydration of phenolic β-O-4 lignin model part) mainly by electron transfer leading to guaiacol as major product. Both processes were distance dependent.

  18. Managing CSCL Activity through networking models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Casillas


    Full Text Available This study aims at managing activity carried out in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL environments. We apply an approach that gathers and manages the knowledge underlying huge data structures, resulting from collaborative interaction among participants and stored as activity logs. Our method comprises a variety of important issues and aspects, such as: deep understanding of collaboration among participants in workgroups, definition of an ontology for providing meaning to isolated data manifestations, discovering of knowledge structures built in huge amounts of data stored in log files, and development of high-semantic indicators to describe diverse primitive collaborative acts, and binding these indicators to formal descriptions defined in the collaboration ontology; besides our method includes gathering collaboration indicators from web forums using natural language processing (NLP techniques.

  19. Development of a fluidized bed agglomeration modeling methodology to include particle-level heterogeneities in ash chemistry and granular physics (United States)

    Khadilkar, Aditi B.

    The utility of fluidized bed reactors for combustion and gasification can be enhanced if operational issues such as agglomeration are mitigated. The monetary and efficiency losses could be avoided through a mechanistic understanding of the agglomeration process and prediction of operational conditions that promote agglomeration. Pilot-scale experimentation prior to operation for each specific condition can be cumbersome and expensive. So the development of a mathematical model would aid predictions. With this motivation, the study comprised of the following model development stages- 1) development of an agglomeration modeling methodology based on binary particle collisions, 2) study of heterogeneities in ash chemical composition and gaseous atmosphere, 3) computation of a distribution of particle collision frequencies based on granular physics for a poly-disperse particle size distribution, 4) combining the ash chemistry and granular physics inputs to obtain agglomerate growth probabilities and 5) validation of the modeling methodology. The modeling methodology comprised of testing every binary particle collision in the system for sticking, based on the extent of dissipation of the particles' kinetic energy through viscous dissipation by slag-liquid (molten ash) covering the particles. In the modeling methodology developed in this study, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations are used to estimate the amount of slag-liquid in the system, and the changes in particle collision frequencies are accounted for by continuously tracking the number density of the various particle sizes. In this study, the heterogeneities in chemical composition of fuel ash were studied by separating the bulk fuel into particle classes that are rich in specific minerals. FactSage simulations were performed on two bituminous coals and an anthracite to understand the effect of particle-level heterogeneities on agglomeration. The mineral matter behavior of these constituent classes was studied

  20. Bipole-dipole interpretation with three-dimensional models (including a field study of Las Alturas, New Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohmann, G.W.; Jiracek, G.R.


    The bipole-dipole responses of three-dimensional (3D) prisms were studied using an integral equation numerical solution. Although response patterns are quite complex, the bipole-dipole method appears to be a useful, efficient means of mapping the areal distribution of resistivity. However, 3D modeling is required for quantitative interpretation. Computer time for our solution varies from negligible for small bodies to 6 minutes on a UNIVAC 1108 for the largest possible body (85 cubes). Bipole-dipole response varies significantly with bipole orientation and position, but simply changing the distance between the bipole and the body does not greatly affect the response. However, the response is complex and interpretation ambiguous if both transmitter electrodes are located directly over a body. Boundaries of shallow bodies are much better resolved than those of deep bodies. Conductive bodies produce false polarization highs that can confuse interpretation. It is difficult to distinguish the effects of depth and resistivity contrast, and, as with all electrical methods, depth extent is difficult to resolve. Interactive interpretation of bipole-dipole field results from a geothermal prospect in New Mexico illustrates the value of the 3D modeling technique.

  1. Can we expand active surveillance criteria to include biopsy Gleason 3+4 prostate cancer? A multi-institutional study of 2,323 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploussard, G.; Isbarn, H.; Briganti, A.; Sooriakumaran, P.; Surcel, C.I.; Salomon, L.; Freschi, M.; Mirvald, C.; Poel, H.G. van der; Jenkins, A.; Ost, P.; Oort, I.M. van; Yossepowitch, O.; Giannarini, G.; Bergh, R.C. van den


    OBJECTIVE: To test the expandability of active surveillance (AS) to Gleason score 3+4 cancers by assessing the unfavorable disease risk in a large multi-institutional cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis including 2,323 patients with localized Gleason score 3+4

  2. Hierarchical production planning model in flexible job shop including a preemption and sequence-dependent setup times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Osorio Gómez


    Full Text Available Production planning and control are complex problems for manufacturing organisations. Hierarchical production planning and control is one way to address the problem as it can reduce its complexity and reach good solutions in reasonable computational time. This paper presents a hierarchical approach to resolving production programming in a flexible job shop configuration; this problem includes pre-emption and sequence-dependent setup times. Al-though non-optimal (as expected, good solutions were obtained as shown in the validation of the method.

  3. Modeling & imaging of bioelectrical activity principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bin


    Over the past several decades, much progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of electrical activity in biological tissues and systems, and for developing non-invasive functional imaging technologies to aid clinical diagnosis of dysfunction in the human body. The book will provide full basic coverage of the fundamentals of modeling of electrical activity in various human organs, such as heart and brain. It will include details of bioelectromagnetic measurements and source imaging technologies, as well as biomedical applications. The book will review the latest trends in

  4. Numerical modeling and experimental validation of the acoustic transmission of aircraft's double-wall structures including sound package (United States)

    Rhazi, Dilal

    In the field of aeronautics, reducing the harmful effects of acoustics constitutes a major concern at the international level and justifies the call for further research, particularly in Canada where aeronautics is a key economic sector, which operates in a context of global competition. Aircraft sidewall structure is usually of a double wall construction with a curved ribbed metallic skin and a lightweight composite or sandwich trim separated by a cavity filled with a noise control treatment. The latter is of a great importance in the transport industry, and continues to be of interest in many engineering applications. However, the insertion loss noise control treatment depends on the excitation of the supporting structure. In particular, Turbulent Boundary Layer is of interest to several industries. This excitation is difficult to simulate in laboratory conditions, given the prohibiting costs and difficulties associated with wind tunnel and in-flight tests. Numerical simulation is the only practical way to predict the response to such excitations and to analyze effects of design changes to the response to such excitation. Another kinds of excitations encountered in industrial are monopole, rain on the Roof and diffuse acoustic field. Deterministic methods can calculate in each point the spectral response of the system. Most known are numerical methods such as finite elements and boundary elements methods. These methods generally apply to the low frequency where modal behavior of the structure dominates. However, the high limit of calculation in frequency of these methods cannot be defined in a strict way because it is related to the capacity of data processing and to the nature of the studied mechanical system. With these challenges in mind, and with limitations of the main numerical codes on the market, the manufacturers have expressed the need for simple models immediately available as early as the stage of preliminary drafts. This thesis represents an attempt

  5. The VOLMAX Transient Electromagnetic Modeling System, Including Sub-Cell Slots and Wires on Random Non-Orthogonal Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, D.J.; Turner, C.D.


    VOLMAX is a three-dimensional transient volumetric Maxwell equation solver that operates on standard rectilinear finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) grids, non-orthogonal unstructured grids, or a combination of both types (hybrid grids). The algorithm is fully explicit. Open geometries are typically solved by embedding multiple unstructured regions into a simple rectilinear FDTD mesh. The grid types are fully connected at the mesh interfaces without the need for complex spatial interpolation. The approach permits detailed modeling of complex geometry while mitigating the large cell count typical of non-orthogonal cells such as tetrahedral elements. To further improve efficiency, the unstructured region carries a separate time step that sub-cycles relative to the time-step used in the FDTD mesh.

  6. Analytic model for the long-term evolution of circular Earth satellite orbits including lunar node regression (United States)

    Zhu, Ting-Lei; Zhao, Chang-Yin; Zhang, Ming-Jiang


    This paper aims to obtain an analytic approximation to the evolution of circular orbits governed by the Earth's J2 and the luni-solar gravitational perturbations. Assuming that the lunar orbital plane coincides with the ecliptic plane, Allan and Cook (Proc. R. Soc. A, Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 280(1380):97, 1964) derived an analytic solution to the orbital plane evolution of circular orbits. Using their result as an intermediate solution, we establish an approximate analytic model with lunar orbital inclination and its node regression be taken into account. Finally, an approximate analytic expression is derived, which is accurate compared to the numerical results except for the resonant cases when the period of the reference orbit approximately equals the integer multiples (especially 1 or 2 times) of lunar node regression period.

  7. Laurentian Great Lakes Phytoplankton and Their Water Quality Characteristics, Including a Diatom-Based Model for Paleoreconstruction of Phosphorus (United States)

    Reavie, Euan D.; Heathcote, Adam J.; Shaw Chraïbi, Victoria L.


    Recent shifts in water quality and food web characteristics driven by anthropogenic impacts on the Laurentian Great Lakes warranted an examination of pelagic primary producers as tracers of environmental change. The distributions of the 263 common phytoplankton taxa were related to water quality variables to determine taxon-specific responses that may be useful in indicator models. A detailed checklist of taxa and their environmental optima are provided. Multivariate analyses indicated a strong relationship between total phosphorus (TP) and patterns in the diatom assemblages across the Great Lakes. Of the 118 common diatom taxa, 90 (76%) had a directional response along the TP gradient. We further evaluated a diatom-based transfer function for TP based on the weighted-average abundance of taxa, assuming unimodal distributions along the TP gradient. The r2 between observed and inferred TP in the training dataset was 0.79. Substantial spatial and environmental autocorrelation within the training set of samples justified the need for further model validation. A randomization procedure indicated that the actual transfer function consistently performed better than functions based on reshuffled environmental data. Further, TP was minimally confounded by other environmental variables, as indicated by the relatively large amount of unique variance in the diatoms explained by TP. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the transfer function by hindcasting TP concentrations using fossil diatom assemblages in a Lake Superior sediment core. Passive, multivariate analysis of the fossil samples against the training set indicated that phosphorus was a strong determinant of historical diatom assemblages, verifying that the transfer function was suited to reconstruct past TP in Lake Superior. Collectively, these results showed that phytoplankton coefficients for water quality can be robust indicators of Great Lakes pelagic condition. The diatom-based transfer function can be used in

  8. OBLIMAP 2.0: a fast climate model–ice sheet model coupler including online embeddable mapping routines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Reerink


    Full Text Available This paper accompanies the second OBLIMAP open-source release. The package is developed to map climate fields between a general circulation model (GCM and an ice sheet model (ISM in both directions by using optimal aligned oblique projections, which minimize distortions. The curvature of the surfaces of the GCM and ISM grid differ, both grids may be irregularly spaced and the ratio of the grids is allowed to differ largely. OBLIMAP's stand-alone version is able to map data sets that differ in various aspects on the same ISM grid. Each grid may either coincide with the surface of a sphere, an ellipsoid or a flat plane, while the grid types might differ. Re-projection of, for example, ISM data sets is also facilitated. This is demonstrated by relevant applications concerning the major ice caps. As the stand-alone version also applies to the reverse mapping direction, it can be used as an offline coupler. Furthermore, OBLIMAP 2.0 is an embeddable GCM–ISM coupler, suited for high-frequency online coupled experiments. A new fast scan method is presented for structured grids as an alternative for the former time-consuming grid search strategy, realising a performance gain of several orders of magnitude and enabling the mapping of high-resolution data sets with a much larger number of grid nodes. Further, a highly flexible masked mapping option is added. The limitation of the fast scan method with respect to unstructured and adaptive grids is discussed together with a possible future parallel Message Passing Interface (MPI implementation.

  9. Generic simplified simulation model for DFIG with active crowbar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buendia, Francisco Jimenez [Gamesa Innovation and Technology, Sarriguren, Navarra (Spain). Technology Dept.; Barrasa Gordo, Borja [Assystem Iberia, Bilbao, Vizcaya (Spain)


    Simplified models for transient stability studies are a general requirement for transmission system operators to wind turbine (WTG) manufacturers. Those models must represent the performance of the WTGs for transient stability studies, mainly voltage dips originated by short circuits in the electrical network. Those models are implemented in simulation software as PSS/E, DigSilent or PSLF. Those software platforms allow simulation of transients in large electrical networks with thousands of busses, generators and loads. The high complexity of the grid requires that the models inserted into the grid should be simplified in order to allow the simulations being executed as fast as possible. The development of a model which is simplified enough to be integrated in those complex grids and represent the performance of WTG is a challenge. The IEC TC88 working group has developed generic models for different types of generators, among others for WTGs using doubly fed induction generators (DFIG). This paper will focus in an extension of the models for DFIG WTGs developed in IEC in order to be able to represent the simplified model of DFIG with an active crowbar, which is required to withstand voltage dips without disconnecting from the grid. This paper improves current generic model of Type 3 for DFIG adding a simplified version of the generator including crowbar functionality and a simplified version of the crowbar firing. In addition, this simplified model is validated by correlation with voltage dip field test from a real wind turbine. (orig.)

  10. Models of the stochastic activity of neurones

    CERN Document Server

    Holden, Arun Vivian


    These notes have grown from a series of seminars given at Leeds between 1972 and 1975. They represent an attempt to gather together the different kinds of model which have been proposed to account for the stochastic activity of neurones, and to provide an introduction to this area of mathematical biology. A striking feature of the electrical activity of the nervous system is that it appears stochastic: this is apparent at all levels of recording, ranging from intracellular recordings to the electroencephalogram. The chapters start with fluctuations in membrane potential, proceed through single unit and synaptic activity and end with the behaviour of large aggregates of neurones: L have chgaen this seque~~e\\/~~';uggest that the interesting behaviourr~f :the nervous system - its individuality, variability and dynamic forms - may in part result from the stochastic behaviour of its components. I would like to thank Dr. Julio Rubio for reading and commenting on the drafts, Mrs. Doris Beighton for producing the fin...

  11. Epidemiological models to support animal disease surveillance activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Paisley, Larry; Lind, Peter


    Epidemiological models have been used extensively as a tool in improving animal disease surveillance activities. A review of published papers identified three main groups of model applications: models for planning surveillance, models for evaluating the performance of surveillance systems...

  12. Modeling the Benchmark Active Control Technology Wind-Tunnel Model for Active Control Design Applications (United States)

    Waszak, Martin R.


    This report describes the formulation of a model of the dynamic behavior of the Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) wind tunnel model for active control design and analysis applications. The model is formed by combining the equations of motion for the BACT wind tunnel model with actuator models and a model of wind tunnel turbulence. The primary focus of this report is the development of the equations of motion from first principles by using Lagrange's equations and the principle of virtual work. A numerical form of the model is generated by making use of parameters obtained from both experiment and analysis. Comparisons between experimental and analytical data obtained from the numerical model show excellent agreement and suggest that simple coefficient-based aerodynamics are sufficient to accurately characterize the aeroelastic response of the BACT wind tunnel model. The equations of motion developed herein have been used to aid in the design and analysis of a number of flutter suppression controllers that have been successfully implemented.

  13. Laser-induced electron dynamics including photoionization: A heuristic model within time-dependent configuration interaction theory. (United States)

    Klinkusch, Stefan; Saalfrank, Peter; Klamroth, Tillmann


    We report simulations of laser-pulse driven many-electron dynamics by means of a simple, heuristic extension of the time-dependent configuration interaction singles (TD-CIS) approach. The extension allows for the treatment of ionizing states as nonstationary states with a finite, energy-dependent lifetime to account for above-threshold ionization losses in laser-driven many-electron dynamics. The extended TD-CIS method is applied to the following specific examples: (i) state-to-state transitions in the LiCN molecule which correspond to intramolecular charge transfer, (ii) creation of electronic wave packets in LiCN including wave packet analysis by pump-probe spectroscopy, and, finally, (iii) the effect of ionization on the dynamic polarizability of H(2) when calculated nonperturbatively by TD-CIS.

  14. Model of trauma-induced coagulopathy including hemodilution, fibrinolysis, acidosis, and hypothermia: Impact on blood coagulation and platelet function. (United States)

    Shenkman, Boris; Budnik, Ivan; Einav, Yulia; Hauschner, Hagit; Andrejchin, Mykhaylo; Martinowitz, Uriel


    Trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) is commonly seen among patients with severe injury. The dynamic process of TIC is characterized by variability of the features of the disease. A model of TIC was created. Hemodilution was produced by mixing the blood with 40% Tris/saline solution, fibrinolysis by treating the blood with 160 ng/mL tPA, acidosis by adding 1.2 mg/mL lactic acid achieving pH 7.0 to 7.1, and hypothermia by running the assay at 31°C. Intact blood tested at 37°C served as control. Clot formation was evaluated using rotation thromboelastometry. Platelet adhesion and aggregation were assayed at a shear rate of 1800 s using Impact-R device. Clotting time was not affected by any of the TIC constituents used. Clotting initiation was reduced by hemodilution and further reduced by additive hypothermia. The propagation phase of blood clotting was reduced by hemodilution, further reduced by additive hypothermia, and maximally reduced if additionally combined with fibrinolysis. No effect of fibrinolysis on clot propagation was observed at 37°C. Maximum clot firmness was reduced by hemodilution, further reduced by additive fibrinolysis, and maximally reduced if additionally combined with hypothermia. No effect of hypothermia on clot strength was observed in the absence of fibrinolysis. Platelet adhesion (percentage of surface coverage) and aggregation (aggregate size) under flow condition were reduced by hemodilution and further reduced by additive acidosis. Introduction of tPA to diluted blood had no effect on platelet function. The study revealed a differential effect of TIC constituents-hemodilution, hypothermia, fibrinolysis, and acidosis-on clot formation and platelet function. The effect of one factor may influence that of another factor. These data may be helpful to better understand the pathogenesis of TIC and to elaborate an individually tailored treatment strategy. A new model of TIC is created. Contribution of various constituents to pathogenesis of

  15. A galaxy model from two micron all sky survey star counts in the whole sky, including the plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polido, P.; Jablonski, F. [Divisão de Astrofísica, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Avenida dos Astronautas 1758, 12227-010 São José dos Campos SP (Brazil); Lépine, J. R. D., E-mail: [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, 05508-900 São Paulo SP (Brazil)


    We use the star count model of Ortiz and Lépine to perform an unprecedented exploration of the most important Galactic parameters comparing the predicted counts with the Two Micron All Sky Survey observed star counts in the J, H, and K{sub S} bands for a grid of positions covering the whole sky. The comparison is made using a grid of lines of sight given by the HEALPix pixelization scheme. The resulting best-fit values for the parameters are: 2120 ± 200 pc for the radial scale length and 205 ± 40 pc for the scale height of the thin disk, with a central hole of 2070{sub −800}{sup +2000} pc for the same disk, 3050 ± 500 pc for the radial scale length and 640 ± 70 pc for the scale height of the thick disk, 400 ± 100 pc for the central dimension of the spheroid, 0.0082 ± 0.0030 for the spheroid to disk density ratio, and 0.57 ± 0.05 for the oblate spheroid parameter.

  16. Applying Transtheoretical Model to Promote Physical Activities Among Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Ghofranipour, Fazllolah; Feizi, Awat


    .... Inadequate regular physical activities among women, the importance of education in promoting the physical activities, and lack of studies on the women using transtheoretical model, persuaded us...

  17. Models of low-mass helium white dwarfs including gravitational settling, thermal and chemical diffusion, and rotational mixing (United States)

    Istrate, A. G.; Marchant, P.; Tauris, T. M.; Langer, N.; Stancliffe, R. J.; Grassitelli, L.


    A large number of extremely low-mass helium white dwarfs (ELM WDs) have been discovered in recent years. The majority of them are found in close binary systems suggesting they are formed either through a common-envelope phase or via stable mass transfer in a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) or a cataclysmic variable (CV) system. Here, we investigate the formation of these objects through the LMXB channel with emphasis on the proto-WD evolution in environments with different metallicities. We study for the first time the combined effects of rotational mixing and element diffusion (e.g. gravitational settling, thermal and chemical diffusion) on the evolution of proto-WDs and on the cooling properties of the resulting WDs. We present state-of-the-art binary stellar evolution models computed with MESA for metallicities of Z = 0.02, 0.01, 0.001 and 0.0002, producing WDs with masses between 0.16-0.45 M⊙. Our results confirm that element diffusion plays a significant role in the evolution of proto-WDs that experience hydrogen shell flashes. The occurrence of these flashes produces a clear dichotomy in the cooling timescales of ELM WDs, which has important consequences e.g. for the age determination of binary millisecond pulsars. In addition, we confirm that the threshold mass at which this dichotomy occurs depends on metallicity. Rotational mixing is found to counteract the effect of gravitational settling in the surface layers of young, bloated ELM proto-WDs and therefore plays a key role in determining their surface chemical abundances, I.e. the observed presence of metals in their atmospheres. We predict that these proto-WDs have helium-rich envelopes through a significant part of their lifetime. This is of great importance as helium is a crucial ingredient in the driving of the κ-mechanism suggested for the newly observed ELM proto-WD pulsators. However, we find that the number of hydrogen shell flashes and, as a result, the hydrogen envelope mass at the beginning of

  18. Evaluation of breast cancer risk in a multigenic model including low penetrance genes involved in xenobiotic and estrogen metabolisms. (United States)

    Delort, Laetitia; Satih, Samir; Kwiatkowski, Fabrice; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Bernard-Gallon, Dominique J


    Breast cancer has become the most frequent cancer among women in Westernized countries. The majority of breast cancers are due to low penetrance genes, which can act with environmental factors, particularly nutrition. Polymorphisms in gene coding for xenobiotic and estrogen metabolic pathways could increase individual cancer susceptibility and lead to the indication of individuals at higher cancer risk. A population-based, case-control study consisting of 911 breast cancer cases and 1,000 healthy control cases was performed. The association between 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 7 genes and breast cancer risk was investigated in a multigenic model. The CYP1B1-432 Leu-Val and Val-Val genotypes significantly increased risk [odds ratio (OR) = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.39; OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.17-1.94, respectively] similarly as observed with CYP1B1-453 (Asn-Ser genotype: OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.00-1.37; Ser-Ser genotype: OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.00-1.89). We showed that catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) could modulate the risk conferred by CYP1B1, ESR, GSTP1, and NAT2 acetylation phenotype. Additionally, a higher risk conferred by the variant for COMT was noted only for individuals presenting a high waist-to-hip ratio (COMT Val-Met, OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.04-2.44; COMT Met-Met, OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 0.98-2.53), suggesting a relationship with abdominal adiposity. In conclusion, COMT constitutes a crucial element in estrogen metabolism by regulating carcinogen metabolites elimination and, consequently, is a major factor in breast cancer risk.

  19. Comparison of activity coefficient models for electrolyte systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yi; ten Kate, Antoon; Mooijer, Miranda


    Three activity coefficient models for electrolyte solutions were evaluated and compared. The activity coefficient models are: The electrolyte NRTL model (ElecNRTL) by Aspentech, the mixed solvent electrolyte model (MSE) by OLI Systems Inc., and the Extended UNIQUAC model from the Technical Univer...

  20. Psychosocial Pain Management Moderation: The Limit, Activate, and Enhance Model. (United States)

    Day, Melissa A; Ehde, Dawn M; Jensen, Mark P


    There is a growing emphasis in the pain literature on understanding the following second-order research questions: Why do psychosocial pain treatments work? For whom do various treatments work? This critical review summarizes research that addresses the latter question and proposes a moderation model to help guide future research. A theoretical moderation framework for matching individuals to specific psychosocial pain interventions has been lacking. However, several such frameworks have been proposed in the broad psychotherapy and implementation science literature. Drawing on these theories and adapting them specifically for psychosocial pain treatment, here we propose a Limit, Activate, and Enhance model of pain treatment moderation. This model is unique in that it includes algorithms not only for matching treatments on the basis of patient weaknesses but also for directing patients to interventions that build on their strengths. Critically, this model provides a basis for specific a priori hypothesis generation, and a selection of the possible hypotheses drawn from the model are proposed and discussed. Future research considerations are presented that could refine and expand the model based on theoretically driven empirical evidence. The Limit, Activate, and Enhance model presented here is a theoretically derived framework that provides an a priori basis for hypothesis generation regarding psychosocial pain treatment moderators. The model will advance moderation research via its unique focus on matching patients to specific treatments that (1) limit maladaptive responses, (2) activate adaptive responses, and (3) enhance treatment outcomes based on patient strengths and resources. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Business model in research-development activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszałka Jerzy


    Full Text Available The partners and allies of business practice in the processes of modernization of the economy are scientific-research institutions, such as scientific institutes, research-development units and universities. A market on which companies can look for the solutions they need and scientific-research institutions can look for inspiration, partners and capital is being formed. The market provides conditions for operation, development and implementation of developed solutions. Taking into consideration the complexity of market, technical, legal, financial, or intellectual property protection issues, research-development units are more and more frequently unable to function efficiently without a clear and unequivocal definition of goals, methods and conditions of activity. Their market offer has to take into consideration not just scientific-research, or methodological aspects. Taking into consideration continuously growing demands of the clients and pressure of the competition, scientific-research institutions have to pay attention also to market, information, personnel, or financial aspects typical of strictly commercial ventures. What may support a comprehensive preparation and implementation of scientific-research activities under market conditions are tools successfully used in trade and economy, such as business models. These issues are the basis of deliberations contained in this work.

  2. Importance of including small-scale tile drain discharge in the calibration of a coupled groundwater-surface water catchment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Lausten; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Christensen, Britt Stenhøj Baun


    . The results showed that including tile drain data in the calibration of the catchment model improved its general performance for hydraulic heads and stream discharges. However, the model failed to correctly describe the local-scale dynamics of the tile drain discharges, and, furthermore, including the drain...... data in the calibration did not improve the small-scale spatial dynamics. This is mainly believed to be caused by the model's inadequate simulation of local spatial dynamics in hydraulic heads, which we argue is likely due to the lack of sufficient heterogeneity in the geological model.......To use a catchment-scale model to delineate areas with high and low denitrification capacities in the saturated zone of a catchment, the model must have an accurate spatial description of both general large-scale flow patterns on catchment scale and small-scale flow patterns locally within...

  3. An active power dispatch technique using pseudo spot price of electricity for a power system area including limited energy supply thermal units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadil, Salih [Osmangazi Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Eskisehir (Turkey); Yasar, Celal [Dumlupnar Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kutahya (Turkey)


    We propose a new active power dispatch technique using pseudo spot price of electricity for a power system area including limited energy supply thermal units. The dispatch technique considers upper and lower generation limits of the generation units, maximum capability of transmission lines and the fuel constraint of the limited energy supply thermal units in a lossy power system. Calculation of active line flows that are used in the determination of optimal active generations are obtained by means of Newton-Raphson AC load flow calculation. We assume that limited energy supply thermal units are fueled under take-or-pay agreement. The proposed dispatch technique was tested on an example power system. The dispatch problem was also solved by means of another dispatch technique that uses gradient method. Results obtained from both techniques are compared. (Author)

  4. Health system barriers to implementation of collaborative TB and HIV activities including prevention of mother to child transmission in South Africa. (United States)

    Uwimana, J; Jackson, D; Hausler, H; Zarowsky, C


    In South Africa, the control of TB and HIV co-infection remains a major challenge despite the availability of international and national guidelines for integration of TB and HIV services. This study was undertaken in KwaZulu-Natal, one of the provinces most affected by both TB and HIV, to identify and understand managers' and community care workers' (CCWs) perceptions of health systems barriers related to the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities, including prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). We conducted 29 in-depth interviews with health managers at provincial, district and facility level and with managers of NGOs involved in TB and HIV care, as well as six focus group discussions with CCWs. Thematic analysis of transcripts revealed a convergence of perspectives on the process and the level of the implementation of policy directives on collaborative TB and HIV activities across all categories of respondents (i.e. province-, district-, facility- and community-based organizations). The majority of participants felt that the implementation of the policy was insufficiently consultative and that leadership and political will were lacking. The predominant themes related to health systems barriers include challenges related to structure and organisational culture; management, planning and power issues; unequal financing; and human resource capacity and regulatory problems notably relating to scope of practice of nurses and CCWs. Accelerated implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities including PMTCT will require political will and leadership to address these health systems barriers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Active shielding model for hyperbolic equations (United States)

    Ryaben'kii, Victor S.; Utyuzhnikov, Sergei V.


    The problem of active shielding (AS) in application to hyperbolic equations is analysed. According to the problem, two domains effecting each other via distributed source terms are considered. It is required to implement additional sources nearby the common boundary of the domains in order to "isolate" one domain from the action of the other domain. It is important to note that the total field of the original sources is only known. In the paper, the theory of difference potentials is applied to the system of hyperbolic equations for the first time. It allows one to obtain a one-layer AS not requiring any additional computations. Local one-layer and two-layer AS sources are obtained for an arbitrary hyperbolic system. The solution does not require either the knowledge of the Green's function or the specific characteristics of the sources and medium. The optimal one-layer AS solution is derived in the case of free space. In particular, the results are applicable to the system of acoustics equations. The questions related to a practical realization including the mutual situation of the primary and secondary sources, as well as the measurement point, are discussed. The active noise shielding can be realized via a one-layer source term requiring the measurements only at one layer nearby the domain shielded.

  6. Seasonal snowmelt modelling for the Sieber catchment (Harz Mountains, Germany) by means of WRF-downscaled analysis data including different process parameterizations for microphysics and snowmelt (United States)

    Förster, Kristian; Meon, Günter; Strasser, Ulrich


    Physically based snowmelt modelling at the catchment scale requires adequate strategies to derive basin scale meteorological data fields. These meteorological data fields must fulfil two major requirements for distributed hydrological modelling with a focus on snowmelt and flood prediction: (i) high spatial and temporal resolution, and (ii) all surface variables including precipitation, temperature, humidity, wind speed, and radiation have to be physically consistent in space and time. Local atmospheric models using atmospheric (re-) analysis data meet these prerequisites. We use the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) and NCEP analysis data to derive hourly meteorological data fields of surface meteorological variables with a spatial resolution of 1.1 km for the Sieber catchment (44 km2) in the Harz Mountains, Germany. At first, the performance of several model runs including three different downscaling approaches and four different microphysics parameterizations is evaluated for the winter season 2005/06 using observations from the station network. Then we carry out the hydrological simulations with the hydrological modelling system PANTA RHEI including four independent snowmelt parameterizations. The passively coupled modelling system consisting of WRF and PANTA RHEI performed well (r > 0.8) which holds also for an independent validation period. In conclusion it can be stated that local atmospheric models are suitable tools to provide boundary conditions respectively meteorological data fields for snowmelt modelling at the catchment scale. The presented approach can also be useful for water management in ungauged basins.

  7. Bofu-tsu-shosan, an oriental herbal medicine, exerts a combinatorial favorable metabolic modulation including antihypertensive effect on a mouse model of human metabolic disorders with visceral obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengo Azushima

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that metabolic dysfunction with visceral obesity is a major medical problem associated with the development of hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2DM and dyslipidemia, and ultimately severe cardiovascular and renal disease. Therefore, an effective anti-obesity treatment with a concomitant improvement in metabolic profile is important for the treatment of metabolic dysfunction with visceral obesity. Bofu-tsu-shosan (BOF is one of oriental herbal medicine and is clinically available to treat obesity in Japan. Although BOF is a candidate as a novel therapeutic strategy to improve metabolic dysfunction with obesity, the mechanism of its beneficial effect is not fully elucidated. Here, we investigated mechanism of therapeutic effects of BOF on KKAy mice, a model of human metabolic disorders with obesity. Chronic treatment of KKAy mice with BOF persistently decreased food intake, body weight gain, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure. In addition, both tissue weight and cell size of white adipose tissue (WAT were decreased, with concomitant increases in the expression of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors genes in WAT as well as the circulating adiponectin level by BOF treatment. Furthermore, gene expression of uncoupling protein-1, a thermogenesis factor, in brown adipose tissue and rectal temperature were both elevated by BOF. Intriguingly, plasma acylated-ghrelin, an active form of orexigenic hormone, and short-term food intake were significantly decreased by single bolus administration of BOF. These results indicate that BOF exerts a combinatorial favorable metabolic modulation including antihypertensive effect, at least partially, via its beneficial effect on adipose tissue function and its appetite-inhibitory property through suppression on the ghrelin system.

  8. Effects of lifestyle interventions that include a physical activity component in class II and III obese individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Baillot

    Full Text Available In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals.An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus. Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism, behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes, and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran's chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I².Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%. The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2-7.7; p < 0.01 and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4-2.2; p < 0.01. Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg compared to short-term (7.2 kg and intermediate-term (8.0 kg interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01, without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose.Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II and III obese individuals. However, further

  9. Morality and Prosocial Behavior : The Role of Awareness, Responsibility, and Norms in the Norm Activation Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Judith I. M.; Steg, Linda


    The authors examined the relationships between variables included in the Norm Activation Model (NAM; S. H. Schwartz, 1977) of prosocial behavior. Specifically, they evaluated the strength of 2 commonly used interpretations of this model: the NAM as a mediator model and the NAM as a moderator model.

  10. Neighborhood Design, Physical Activity, and Wellbeing: Applying the Walkability Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana A. Zuniga-Teran


    Full Text Available Neighborhood design affects lifestyle physical activity, and ultimately human wellbeing. There are, however, a limited number of studies that examine neighborhood design types. In this research, we examine four types of neighborhood designs: traditional development, suburban development, enclosed community, and cluster housing development, and assess their level of walkability and their effects on physical activity and wellbeing. We examine significant associations through a questionnaire (n = 486 distributed in Tucson, Arizona using the Walkability Model. Among the tested neighborhood design types, traditional development showed significant associations and the highest value for walkability, as well as for each of the two types of walking (recreation and transportation representing physical activity. Suburban development showed significant associations and the highest mean values for mental health and wellbeing. Cluster housing showed significant associations and the highest mean value for social interactions with neighbors and for perceived safety from crime. Enclosed community did not obtain the highest means for any wellbeing benefit. The Walkability Model proved useful in identifying the walkability categories associated with physical activity and perceived crime. For example, the experience category was strongly and inversely associated with perceived crime. This study provides empirical evidence of the importance of including vegetation, particularly trees, throughout neighborhoods in order to increase physical activity and wellbeing. Likewise, the results suggest that regular maintenance is an important strategy to improve mental health and overall wellbeing in cities.

  11. Neighborhood Design, Physical Activity, and Wellbeing: Applying the Walkability Model. (United States)

    Zuniga-Teran, Adriana A; Orr, Barron J; Gimblett, Randy H; Chalfoun, Nader V; Guertin, David P; Marsh, Stuart E


    Neighborhood design affects lifestyle physical activity, and ultimately human wellbeing. There are, however, a limited number of studies that examine neighborhood design types. In this research, we examine four types of neighborhood designs: traditional development, suburban development, enclosed community, and cluster housing development, and assess their level of walkability and their effects on physical activity and wellbeing. We examine significant associations through a questionnaire ( n = 486) distributed in Tucson, Arizona using the Walkability Model. Among the tested neighborhood design types, traditional development showed significant associations and the highest value for walkability, as well as for each of the two types of walking (recreation and transportation) representing physical activity. Suburban development showed significant associations and the highest mean values for mental health and wellbeing. Cluster housing showed significant associations and the highest mean value for social interactions with neighbors and for perceived safety from crime. Enclosed community did not obtain the highest means for any wellbeing benefit. The Walkability Model proved useful in identifying the walkability categories associated with physical activity and perceived crime. For example, the experience category was strongly and inversely associated with perceived crime. This study provides empirical evidence of the importance of including vegetation, particularly trees, throughout neighborhoods in order to increase physical activity and wellbeing. Likewise, the results suggest that regular maintenance is an important strategy to improve mental health and overall wellbeing in cities.

  12. The inflammatory/cancer-related IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and maintains the active state of breast myofibroblasts. (United States)

    Hendrayani, Siti-Fauziah; Al-Harbi, Bothaina; Al-Ansari, Mysoon M; Silva, Gabriela; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah


    The IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop links inflammation to cancer and maintains cells at a transformed state. Similarly, cancer-associated myofibroblats remains active even in absence of cancer cells. However, the molecular basis of this sustained active state remains elusive. We have shown here that breast cancer cells and IL-6 persistently activate breast stromal fibroblasts through the stimulation of the positive IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB feedback loop. Transient neutralization of IL-6 in culture inhibited this signaling circuit and reverted myofibrobalsts to a normalized state, suggesting the implication of the IL-6 autocrine feedback loop as well. Importantly, the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB pro-inflammatory circuit was also active in cancer-associated fibroblasts isolated from breast cancer patients. Transient inhibition of STAT3 by specific siRNA in active fibroblasts persistently reduced the level of the RNA binding protein AUF1, blocked the loop and normalized these cells. Moreover, we present clear evidence that AUF1 is also part of this positive feedback loop. Interestingly, treatment of breast myofibroblasts with caffeine, which has been previously shown to persistently inhibit active breast stromal fibroblasts, blocked the positive feedback loop through potent and sustained inhibition of STAT3, AKT, lin28B and AUF1. These results indicate that the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and is responsible for the sustained active status of cancer-associated fibroblasts. We have also shown that normalizing myofibroblasts, which could be of great therapeutic value, is possible through the inhibition of this procarcinogenic circuit.

  13. A statistical model for estimation of fish density including correlation in size, space, time and between species from research survey data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Kristensen, Kasper; Lewy, Peter


    Trawl survey data with high spatial and seasonal coverage were analysed using a variant of the Log Gaussian Cox Process (LGCP) statistical model to estimate unbiased relative fish densities. The model estimates correlations between observations according to time, space, and fish size and includes...... zero observations and over-dispersion. The model utilises the fact the correlation between numbers of fish caught increases when the distance in space and time between the fish decreases, and the correlation between size groups in a haul increases when the difference in size decreases. Here the model...... is extended in two ways. Instead of assuming a natural scale size correlation, the model is further developed to allow for a transformed length scale. Furthermore, in the present application, the spatial- and size-dependent correlation between species was included. For cod (Gadus morhua) and whiting...

  14. Inner magnetospheric modeling during geomagnetic active times (United States)

    Yang, Jian

    In this thesis we show that the entropy parameter PV5/3 , where P is the pressure and V is the volume of a flux tube with unit magnetic flux, plays a central role in the earthward plasma convection from the near- and middle-Earth plasma sheet to the inner magnetosphere. This work presents a series of numerical simulations, investigating the relationship between the value of PV5/3 and the different features of plasma earthward transport that occur during different types of events in geomagnetic active times. The simulations are conducted using the Rice-Convection-Model (RCM) and the Rice-Convection-Model-Equilibrium (RCM-E) that have carefully designed boundary conditions to simulate the effect of various values of PV 5/3. In Chapter 3 we present results of an RCM simulation of a sawtooth event where it is found that a dramatic reduction of PV5/3 on the boundary along a wide range of local times produces interchange convection in the inner magnetosphere and drives spatially quasi-periodic Birkeland currents that suggest an explanation for the finger-like aurora usually observed during this type of event. In Chapter 4 we present results of an RCM-E simulation of an isolated substorm, which is done by imposing depleted PV5/3 (a bubble) in the expansion phase. The results of this simulation reproduce typical features of a substorm and agree fairly well with multipoint observations. Chapter 6 presents a detailed analysis of the RCM-E expansion phase simulation which indicates that the reconfigurations of PV5/3, plasma pressure and magnetic field in an idealized bubble injection event can be quite complicated. Chapter 7 presents results of a superposed epoch study using Geotail data showing that the time variations of PV 5/3 are different in isolated substorms, pseudo-breakups and convection bay events, suggesting that bubbles have different characteristics in different modes of earthward transport. We follow this up with three corresponding RCM-E simulations by

  15. Modeling of human factor Va inactivation by activated protein C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo Maria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because understanding of the inventory, connectivity and dynamics of the components characterizing the process of coagulation is relatively mature, it has become an attractive target for physiochemical modeling. Such models can potentially improve the design of therapeutics. The prothrombinase complex (composed of the protease factor (FXa and its cofactor FVa plays a central role in this network as the main producer of thrombin, which catalyses both the activation of platelets and the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, the main substances of a clot. A key negative feedback loop that prevents clot propagation beyond the site of injury is the thrombin-dependent generation of activated protein C (APC, an enzyme that inactivates FVa, thus neutralizing the prothrombinase complex. APC inactivation of FVa is complex, involving the production of partially active intermediates and “protection” of FVa from APC by both FXa and prothrombin. An empirically validated mathematical model of this process would be useful in advancing the predictive capacity of comprehensive models of coagulation. Results A model of human APC inactivation of prothrombinase was constructed in a stepwise fashion by analyzing time courses of FVa inactivation in empirical reaction systems with increasing number of interacting components and generating corresponding model constructs of each reaction system. Reaction mechanisms, rate constants and equilibrium constants informing these model constructs were initially derived from various research groups reporting on APC inactivation of FVa in isolation, or in the presence of FXa or prothrombin. Model predictions were assessed against empirical data measuring the appearance and disappearance of multiple FVa degradation intermediates as well as prothrombinase activity changes, with plasma proteins derived from multiple preparations. Our work integrates previously published findings and through the cooperative

  16. An approach for activity-based DEVS model specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alshareef, Abdurrahman; Sarjoughian, Hessam S.; Zarrin, Bahram


    activity-based behavior modeling of parallel DEVS atomic models. We consider UML activities and actions as fundamental units of behavior modeling, especially in the presence of recent advances in the UML 2.5 specifications. We describe in detail how to approach activity modeling with a set of elemental...... and their corresponding software specifications from both structural and behavioral aspects. Unlike structural modeling, developing models to specify behavior of systems is known to be harder and more complex, particularly when operations with non-trivial control schemes are required. In this paper, we propose specifying...... behavioral constructs for atomic DEVS model. We show how Activity models correspond to the atomic DEVS model using an exemplar. We also highlight the complementary roles of Activity and Statecharts models....

  17. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-1 activate translation of overlapping sets of mRNAs, including that of the negative regulator of inflammation, MCPIP1. (United States)

    Dhamija, Sonam; Winzen, Reinhard; Doerrie, Anneke; Behrens, Gesine; Kuehne, Nancy; Schauerte, Celina; Neumann, Elena; Dittrich-Breiholz, Oliver; Kracht, Michael; Holtmann, Helmut


    Changes in gene expression during inflammation are in part caused by post-transcriptional mechanisms. A transcriptome-wide screen for changes in ribosome occupancy indicated that the inflammatory cytokine IL-17 activates translation of a group of mRNAs that overlaps partially with those affected similarly by IL-1. Included are mRNAs of IκBζ and of MCPIP1, important regulators of the quality and course of immune and inflammatory responses. Evidence for increased ribosome association of these mRNAs was also obtained in LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophages and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Like IL-1, IL-17 activated translation of IκBζ mRNA by counteracting the function of a translational silencing element in its 3'-UTR defined previously. Translational silencing of MCPIP1 mRNA in unstimulated cells resulted from the combined suppressive activities of its 5'-UTR, which contains upstream open reading frames, and of its 3'-UTR, which silences independently of the 5'-UTR. Only the silencing function of the 3'-UTR was counteracted by IL-17 as well as by IL-1. Translational silencing by the 3'-UTR was dependent on a putative stem-loop-forming region previously associated with rapid degradation of the mRNA. The results suggest that translational control exerted by IL-1 and IL-17 plays an important role in the coordination of an inflammatory reaction.

  18. Relationships between meaningful activity, basic psychological needs, and meaning in life: test of the meaningful activity and life meaning model. (United States)

    Eakman, Aaron M


    The author of this study proposed and examined a theoretical model in which meaningful activity fulfills basic psychological needs and contributes to meaning in life. Hypotheses derived from the Meaningful Activity and Life Meaning model and tested within this study included: (1) meaningful activity will be associated with meaning in life, (2) meaningful activity will be associated with basic psychological needs, and (3) basic psychological needs will partially mediate the relationship between meaningful activity and meaning in life. Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to test the study hypotheses. A total of 591 undergraduate and graduate students completed the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey, the Basic Psychological Needs Scales (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness), and the Presence subscale of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire. Results from the study were in full support of each hypothesis and indicate the important role meaningful activity may serve in fostering meaning in life. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Evaluating procedural modelling for 3D models of informal settlements in urban design activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Rautenbach


    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D modelling and visualisation is one of the fastest growing application fields in geographic information science. 3D city models are being researched extensively for a variety of purposes and in various domains, including urban design, disaster management, education and computer gaming. These models typically depict urban business districts (downtown or suburban residential areas. Despite informal settlements being a prevailing feature of many cities in developing countries, 3D models of informal settlements are virtually non-existent. 3D models of informal settlements could be useful in various ways, e.g. to gather information about the current environment in the informal settlements, to design upgrades, to communicate these and to educate inhabitants about environmental challenges. In this article, we described the development of a 3D model of the Slovo Park informal settlement in the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa. Instead of using time-consuming traditional manual methods, we followed the procedural modelling technique. Visualisation characteristics of 3D models of informal settlements were described and the importance of each characteristic in urban design activities for informal settlement upgrades was assessed. Next, the visualisation characteristics of the Slovo Park model were evaluated. The results of the evaluation showed that the 3D model produced by the procedural modelling technique is suitable for urban design activities in informal settlements. The visualisation characteristics and their assessment are also useful as guidelines for developing 3D models of informal settlements. In future, we plan to empirically test the use of such 3D models in urban design projects in informal settlements.

  20. [Model for predicting childhood obesity from diet and physical activity]. (United States)

    Larrosa-Haro, Alfredo; González-Pérez, Guillermo Julián; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar Manuel; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Chávez-Palencia, Clío; Salazar-Preciado, Laura Leticia; Lizárraga-Corona, Elizabeth


    If obesity results from the interaction of variables that involve the subject and his environment, the alternatives to face the problem could be very diverse. The objective of this study was to seek for the best predictive model of childhood obesity from energy ingestion, dietary habits and physical activity. Case control study of 99 obese and 100 healthy weight children (Center for Diseases Control criteria). Energy ingestion was estimated by means of a 24-hour recall, dietary and physical activity habits by validated questionnaires. A logistic regression analysis was made. Variables independently associated to obesity were higher energy ingestion; lower frequency in mealtimes; having the afternoon lunch outside home; higher frequency of consumption of fat, junk food and sweetened beverages; lower time of moderate physical activity at school and at home; and increased time for homework and watching TV. The variables included in the regression model were energy intake; frequency of ingestion of fat, junk foods and sweetened beverages; and physical activity at home and at school. The diversity of associated variables underlines the complexity and multi-causal condition of obesity.

  1. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang


    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  2. Activity of a long-acting echinocandin, CD101, determined using CLSI and EUCAST reference methods, against Candida and Aspergillus spp., including echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates. (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Messer, Shawn A; Rhomberg, Paul R; Jones, Ronald N; Castanheira, Mariana


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of CD101, a novel echinocandin with a long serum elimination half-life, and comparator (anidulafungin and caspofungin) antifungal agents against a collection of Candida and Aspergillus spp. isolates. CD101 and comparator agents were tested against 106 Candida spp. and 67 Aspergillus spp. isolates, including 27 isolates of Candida harbouring fks hotspot mutations and 12 itraconazole non-WT Aspergillus, using CLSI and EUCAST reference susceptibility broth microdilution (BMD) methods. Against WT and fks mutant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis, the activity of CD101 [MIC90 = 0.06, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively (CLSI method values)] was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC90 = 0.03, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively) and caspofungin (MIC90 = 0.12, 0.25 and 0.12 mg/L, respectively). WT Candida krusei isolates were very susceptible to CD101 (MIC = 0.06 mg/L). CD101 activity (MIC50/90 = 1/2 mg/L) was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC50/90 = 2/2 mg/L) against Candida parapsilosis. CD101 (MIC mode = 0.06 mg/L for C. glabrata) was 2- to 4-fold more active against fks hotspot mutants than caspofungin (MIC mode = 0.5 mg/L). CD101 was active against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus (MEC90 range = ≤0.008-0.03 mg/L). The essential agreement between CLSI and EUCAST methods for CD101 was 92.0%-100.0% among Candida spp. and 95.0%-100.0% among Aspergillus spp. The activity of CD101 is comparable to that of other members of the echinocandin class for the prevention and treatment of serious fungal infections. Similar results for CD101 activity versus Candida and Aspergillus spp. may be obtained with either CLSI or EUCAST BMD methods. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  3. Briefing package for the Yucca Flat pre-emptive review, including overview, UZ model, SZ volcanics model and summary and conclusions sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwicklis, Edward Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keating, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Much progress has been made in the last several years in modeling radionuclide transport from tests conducted both in the unsaturated zone and saturated volcanic rocks of Yucca Flat, Nevada. The presentations to the DOE NNSA pre-emptive review panel contained herein document the progress to date, and discuss preliminary conclusions regarding the present and future extents of contamination resulting from past nuclear tests. The presentations also discuss possible strategies for addressing uncertainty in the model results.

  4. 1-(2-aminophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylic acid: activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens including Vibrio cholerae (United States)

    Maji, Krishnendu; Haldar, Debasish


    We report a new synthetic aromatic ε-amino acid containing a triazole moiety with antimicrobial potential against Gram-positive, Gram-negative and pathogenic bacteria including Vibrio cholerae. Structure-property relationship studies revealed that all the functional groups are essential to enhance the antimicrobial activity. The 1-(2-aminophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylic acid was synthesized by click chemistry. From X-ray crystallography, the amino acid adopts a kink-like structure where the phenyl and triazole rings are perpendicular to each other and the amine and acid groups maintain an angle of 60°. The agar diffusion test shows that the amino acid has significant antibacterial activity. The liquid culture test exhibits that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value for Bacillus subtilis and Vibrio cholerae is 59.5 µg ml-1. FE-SEM experiments were performed to study the morphological changes of bacterial shape after treatment with compound 1. The antimicrobial activity of the amino acid was further studied by DNA binding and degradation study, protein binding, dye-binding assay and morphological analysis. Moreover, the amino acid does not have any harmful effect on eukaryotes.

  5. Improved unit hydrograph characterisation of the daily flow regime (including low flows for the River Teifi, Wales: towards better rainfall-streamflow models for regionalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Littlewood


    Full Text Available An established rainfall-streamflow modelling methodology employing a six-parameter unit hydrograph-based rainfall-runoff model structure is developed further to give an improved model-fit to daily flows for the River Teifi at Glan Teifi. It is shown that a previous model of this type for the Teifi, which (a accounted for 85% of the variance in observed streamflow, (b incorporated a pure time delay of one day and (c was calibrated using a trade-off between two model-fit statistics (as recommended in the original methodology, systematically over-estimates low flows. Using that model as a starting point the combined application of a non-integer pure time delay and further adjustment of a temperature modulation parameter in the loss module, using the flow duration curve as an additional model-fit criterion, gives a much improved model-fit to low flows, while leaving the already good model-fit to higher flows essentially unchanged. The further adjustment of the temperature modulation loss module parameter in this way is much more effective at improving model-fit to low flows than the introduction of the non-integer pure time delay. The new model for the Teifi accounts for 88% of the variance in observed streamflow and performs well over the 5 percentile to 95 percentile range of flows. Issues concerning the utility and efficacy of the new model selection procedure are discussed in the context of hydrological studies, including regionalisation. Keywords: unit hydrographs, rainfall-runoff modelling, low flows, regionalisation.

  6. Using Active Learning for Speeding up Calibration in Simulation Models. (United States)

    Cevik, Mucahit; Ergun, Mehmet Ali; Stout, Natasha K; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Craven, Mark; Alagoz, Oguzhan


    Most cancer simulation models include unobservable parameters that determine disease onset and tumor growth. These parameters play an important role in matching key outcomes such as cancer incidence and mortality, and their values are typically estimated via a lengthy calibration procedure, which involves evaluating a large number of combinations of parameter values via simulation. The objective of this study is to demonstrate how machine learning approaches can be used to accelerate the calibration process by reducing the number of parameter combinations that are actually evaluated. Active learning is a popular machine learning method that enables a learning algorithm such as artificial neural networks to interactively choose which parameter combinations to evaluate. We developed an active learning algorithm to expedite the calibration process. Our algorithm determines the parameter combinations that are more likely to produce desired outputs and therefore reduces the number of simulation runs performed during calibration. We demonstrate our method using the previously developed University of Wisconsin breast cancer simulation model (UWBCS). In a recent study, calibration of the UWBCS required the evaluation of 378 000 input parameter combinations to build a race-specific model, and only 69 of these combinations produced results that closely matched observed data. By using the active learning algorithm in conjunction with standard calibration methods, we identify all 69 parameter combinations by evaluating only 5620 of the 378 000 combinations. Machine learning methods hold potential in guiding model developers in the selection of more promising parameter combinations and hence speeding up the calibration process. Applying our machine learning algorithm to one model shows that evaluating only 1.49% of all parameter combinations would be sufficient for the calibration. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. An overview of JET edge modelling activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coster, D.P. E-mail:; Bonnin, X.; Corrigan, G.; Dejarnac, R.; Fenstermacher, M.; Fundamenski, W.; Geier, A.; Hogan, J.; Kallenbach, A.; Kirschner, A.; Krieger, K.; Loarte, A.; Matthews, G.; Pitts, R.A.; Porter, G.; Pugno, R.; Reiser, D.; Reiter, D.; Sipila, S.; Spence, J.; Stangeby, P.C.; Tsitrone, E.; Tskhakaya, D.; Wischmeier, M


    A number of codes are in use at JET to model the edge plasma. The range of edge codes is described as is the range of physics issues being explored by these codes. The balance between focussed modelling (that looking at particular physics effects) and integrated modelling (attempting to combine codes or encapsulate the physics from some codes into other codes) is examined.

  8. Active Orientation Models for Face Alignment In-the-Wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Alabort-i-Medina, Joan; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja


    We present Active Orientation Models (AOMs), generative models of facial shape and appearance, which extend the well-known paradigm of Active Appearance Models (AAMs) for the case of generic face alignment under unconstrained conditions. Robustness stems from the fact that the proposed AOMs employ a

  9. Effect of pH, water activity and gel micro-structure, including oxygen profiles and rheological characterization, on the growth kinetics of Salmonella Typhimurium. (United States)

    Theys, T E; Geeraerd, A H; Verhulst, A; Poot, K; Van Bree, I; Devlieghere, F; Moldenaers, P; Wilson, D; Brocklehurst, T; Van Impe, J F


    In this study, the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium in Tryptic Soy Broth was examined at different pH (4.50-5.50), water activity a(w) (0.970-0.992) and gelatin concentration (0%, 1% and 5% ) at 20 degrees C. Experiments in TSB with 0% gelatin were carried out in shaken erlenmeyers, in the weak 1% gelatin media in petri plates and in the firm 5% gelatin media in gel cassettes. A quantification of gel strength was performed by rheological measurements and the influence of oxygen supply on the growth of S. Typhimurium was investigated. pH, as well as a(w) as well as gelatin concentration had an influence on the growth rate. Both in broth and in gelatinized media, lowering pH or water activity caused a decrease of growth rate. In media with 1% gelatin a reduction of growth rate and maximal cell density was observed compared to broth at all conditions. However, the effects of decreasing pH and a(w) were less pronounced. A further increase in gelatin concentration to 5% gelatin caused a small or no additional drop of growth rate. The final oxygen concentration dropped from 5.5 ppm in stirred broth to anoxic values in petri plates, also when 0% and 5% gelatin media were tested in this recipient. Probably, not stirring the medium, which leads to anoxic conditions, has a more pronounced effect on the growth rate of S. Typhimurium then medium solidness. Finally, growth data were fitted with the primary model of Baranyi and Roberts [Baranyi, J. and Roberts, T. A., 1994. A dynamic approach to predicting bacterial growth in food. International Journal of Food Microbiology 23, 277-294]. An additional factor was introduced into the secondary model of Ross et al. [Ross, T. and Ratkowsky, D. A. and Mellefont, L. A. and McMeekin, T. A., 2003. Modelling the effects of temperature, water activity, pH and lactic acid concentration on the growth rate of Escherichia coli. International Journal of Food Microbiology 82, 33-43.] to incorporate the effect of gelatin concentration, next to

  10. Integrated core–SOL–divertor modelling for ITER including impurity: effect of tungsten on fusion performance in H-mode and hybrid scenario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zagorski, R.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Kochl, F.; Belo, da Silva Ares; Fable, E.; Garcia, J.; Garzotti, L.; Hobirk, J.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Joffrin, E.; Litaudon, X.; Polevoi, A. R.; Telesca, G.; JET Contributors,


    The compatibility of two operational constraints—operation above the L–H power threshold and at low power to divertor—is examined for ITER long pulse H-mode and hybrid scenarios in integrated core–scrape off layer (SOL)–divertor modelling including impurities (intrinsic Be, He, W and seeded Ne). The

  11. In vitro activity of the siderophore monosulfactam BAL30072 against contemporary Gram-negative pathogens from New York City, including multidrug-resistant isolates. (United States)

    Landman, David; Singh, Manisha; El-Imad, Badiaa; Miller, Ezra; Win, Thida; Quale, John


    The in vitro activity of BAL30072 was assessed against clinical isolates from NYC hospitals, including isolates from a citywide surveillance study and a collection of isolates with well-characterised resistance mechanisms. BAL30072 was the most active β-lactam against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC50/90, 0.25/1 μg/mL), Acinetobacter baumannii (MIC50/90, 4/>64 μg/mL) and KPC-possessing Klebsiella pneumoniae (MIC50/90, 4/>64 μg/mL). Combining BAL30072 with meropenem resulted in a ≥ 4-fold decrease in the BAL30072 MIC90 both for A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae. For isolates with a BAL30072 MIC>4 μg/mL, addition of a sub-MIC concentration of colistin resulted in a four-fold decrease in the BAL30072 MIC in 44% of P. aeruginosa, 82% of A. baumannii and 23% of K. pneumoniae. Using sub-MIC concentrations, BAL30072 plus colistin was bactericidal against 4 of 11 isolates in time-kill studies. BAL30072 MICs were frequently lower for P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae when tested using Mueller-Hinton agar versus Iso-Sensitest agar or Mueller-Hinton broth. Against the well-characterised isolates, reduced susceptibility to BAL30072 correlated with mexA and mexX expression (P. aeruginosa), adeB expression (A. baumannii) and presence of SHV-type ESBLs (A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae). BAL30072 shows promising activity against contemporary Gram-negatives, including MDR P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae. Enhanced activity was often present when BAL30072 was combined with meropenem or colistin. BAL30072 MICs were influenced by the testing method, particularly for P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae. Further in vivo studies are warranted to determine the potential clinical utility of BAL30072 alone and combined with other agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. Modelling of evaporation in a sparse millet crop using a two-source model including sensible heat advection within the canopy (United States)

    Lund, M. R.; Soegaard, H.


    During two successive growing seasons meteorological measurements were made in a pearl millet field in the Sahel to investigate the evaporation process in relation to crop growth. The evaporation was measured by eddy correlation and simulated using the Shuttleworth Wallace (SW) model [Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 111 (1985) 839-855]. To take sun height and multi-layer scattering into account a radiation balance model was formulated. The model indicates that partitioning of the net radiation between the vegetation and the soil may be estimated ( r2=0.94) from the fraction of diffuse radiation, the leaf area index and an attenuation coefficient, but that the attenuation coefficient may not be similar in different locations. To solve the SW-model with respect to the soil resistance an iterative solution was employed with the total evaporation estimated from the Bowen-ratio calculated from eddy correlation measurements. The procedure made it possible to derive stable estimates of soil resistance at soil evaporation rates down to 25 W m -2. The soil resistance was found to be in accordance with evaporation through a dry surface layer. The SW-model indicates, that advection of sensible heat from the dry soil to the plants, increases transpiration considerably. This will cause management techniques, such as mulching and dry farming, aimed at reducing soil evaporation to be less effective than might be anticipated. The effects of raising the leaf area index to improve the microclimate is discussed in relation to management of the available water and crop security.

  13. Daily life activity routine discovery in hemiparetic rehabilitation patients using topic models. (United States)

    Seiter, J; Derungs, A; Schuster-Amft, C; Amft, O; Tröster, G


    Monitoring natural behavior and activity routines of hemiparetic rehabilitation patients across the day can provide valuable progress information for therapists and patients and contribute to an optimized rehabilitation process. In particular, continuous patient monitoring could add type, frequency and duration of daily life activity routines and hence complement standard clinical scores that are assessed for particular tasks only. Machine learning methods have been applied to infer activity routines from sensor data. However, supervised methods require activity annotations to build recognition models and thus require extensive patient supervision. Discovery methods, including topic models could provide patient routine information and deal with variability in activity and movement performance across patients. Topic models have been used to discover characteristic activity routine patterns of healthy individuals using activity primitives recognized from supervised sensor data. Yet, the applicability of topic models for hemiparetic rehabilitation patients and techniques to derive activity primitives without supervision needs to be addressed. We investigate, 1) whether a topic model-based activity routine discovery framework can infer activity routines of rehabilitation patients from wearable motion sensor data. 2) We compare the performance of our topic model-based activity routine discovery using rule-based and clustering-based activity vocabulary. We analyze the activity routine discovery in a dataset recorded with 11 hemiparetic rehabilitation patients during up to ten full recording days per individual in an ambulatory daycare rehabilitation center using wearable motion sensors attached to both wrists and the non-affected thigh. We introduce and compare rule-based and clustering-based activity vocabulary to process statistical and frequency acceleration features to activity words. Activity words were used for activity routine pattern discovery using topic models

  14. Constraining the magmatic system at Mount St. Helens (2004–2008) using Bayesian inversion with physics-based models including gas escape and crystallization (United States)

    Wong, Ying-Qi; Segall, Paul; Bradley, Andrew; Anderson, Kyle R.


    Physics-based models of volcanic eruptions track conduit processes as functions of depth and time. When used in inversions, these models permit integration of diverse geological and geophysical data sets to constrain important parameters of magmatic systems. We develop a 1-D steady state conduit model for effusive eruptions including equilibrium crystallization and gas transport through the conduit and compare with the quasi-steady dome growth phase of Mount St. Helens in 2005. Viscosity increase resulting from pressure-dependent crystallization leads to a natural transition from viscous flow to frictional sliding on the conduit margin. Erupted mass flux depends strongly on wall rock and magma permeabilities due to their impact on magma density. Including both lateral and vertical gas transport reveals competing effects that produce nonmonotonic behavior in the mass flux when increasing magma permeability. Using this physics-based model in a Bayesian inversion, we link data sets from Mount St. Helens such as extrusion flux and earthquake depths with petrological data to estimate unknown model parameters, including magma chamber pressure and water content, magma permeability constants, conduit radius, and friction along the conduit walls. Even with this relatively simple model and limited data, we obtain improved constraints on important model parameters. We find that the magma chamber had low (<5wt%) total volatiles and that the magma permeability scale is well constrained at ~10-11.4 m2 to reproduce observed dome rock porosities. Compared with previous results, higher magma overpressure and lower wall friction are required to compensate for increased viscous resistance while keeping extrusion rate at the observed value.

  15. S2DS: Physics-based compact model for circuit simulation of two-dimensional semiconductor devices including non-idealities (United States)

    Suryavanshi, Saurabh V.; Pop, Eric


    We present a physics-based compact model for two-dimensional (2D) field-effect transistors (FETs) based on monolayer semiconductors such as MoS2. A semi-classical transport approach is appropriate for the 2D channel, enabling simplified analytical expressions for the drain current. In addition to intrinsic FET behavior, the model includes contact resistance, traps and impurities, quantum capacitance, fringing fields, high-field velocity saturation, and self-heating, the latter being found to play an important role. The model is calibrated with state-of-the-art experimental data for n- and p-type 2D-FETs, and it can be used to analyze device properties for sub-100 nm gate lengths. Using the experimental fit, we demonstrate the feasibility of circuit simulations using properly scaled devices. The complete model is implemented in SPICE-compatible Verilog-A, and a downloadable version is freely available at the

  16. Modeling the Activity of Single Genes (United States)

    Mjolsness, Eric; Gibson, Michael


    the key questions in gene regulation are: What genes are expressed in a certain cell at a certain time? How does gene expression differ from cell to cell in a multicellular organism? Which proteins act as transcription factors, i.e., are important in regulating gene expression? From questions like these, we hope to understand which genes are important for various macroscopic processes. Nearly all of the cells of a multicellular organism contain the same DNA. Yet this same genetic information yields a large number of different cell types. The fundamental difference between a neuron and a liver cell, for example, is which genes are expressed. Thus understanding gene regulation is an important step in understanding development. Furthermore, understanding the usual genes that are expressed in cells may give important clues about various diseases. Some diseases, such as sickle cell anemia and cystic fibrosis, are caused by defects in single, non-regulatory genes; others, such as certain cancers, are caused when the cellular control circuitry malfunctions - an understanding of these diseases will involve pathways of multiple interacting gene products. There are numerous challenges in the area of understanding and modeling gene regulation. First and foremost, biologists would like to develop a deeper understanding of the processes involved, including which genes and families of genes are important, how they interact, etc. From a computation point of view, there has been embarrassingly little work done. In this chapter there are many areas in which we can phrase meaningful, non-trivial computational questions, but questions that have not been addressed. Some of these are purely computational (what is a good algorithm for dealing with a model of type X) and others are more mathematical (given a system with certain characteristics, what sort of model can one use? How does one find biochemical parameters from system-level behavior using as few experiments as possible?). In

  17. Probabilistic modelling of human exposure to intense sweeteners in Italian teenagers: validation and sensitivity analysis of a probabilistic model including indicators of market share and brand loyalty. (United States)

    Arcella, D; Soggiu, M E; Leclercq, C


    For the assessment of exposure to food-borne chemicals, the most commonly used methods in the European Union follow a deterministic approach based on conservative assumptions. Over the past few years, to get a more realistic view of exposure to food chemicals, risk managers are getting more interested in the probabilistic approach. Within the EU-funded 'Monte Carlo' project, a stochastic model of exposure to chemical substances from the diet and a computer software program were developed. The aim of this paper was to validate the model with respect to the intake of saccharin from table-top sweeteners and cyclamate from soft drinks by Italian teenagers with the use of the software and to evaluate the impact of the inclusion/exclusion of indicators on market share and brand loyalty through a sensitivity analysis. Data on food consumption and the concentration of sweeteners were collected. A food frequency questionnaire aimed at identifying females who were high consumers of sugar-free soft drinks and/or of table top sweeteners was filled in by 3982 teenagers living in the District of Rome. Moreover, 362 subjects participated in a detailed food survey by recording, at brand level, all foods and beverages ingested over 12 days. Producers were asked to provide the intense sweeteners' concentration of sugar-free products. Results showed that consumer behaviour with respect to brands has an impact on exposure assessments. Only probabilistic models that took into account indicators of market share and brand loyalty met the validation criteria.

  18. Understanding active school travel through the Behavioural Ecological Model. (United States)

    Ginja, Samuel; Arnott, Bronia; Namdeo, Anil; McColl, Elaine


    Active school travel (AST) is an important source of physical activity for children and a conceptual understanding of AST is necessary to inform promotion efforts. The aim of this article is to provide a conceptual analysis of AST. All currently identified AST formulations include intra-individual variables which are often recommended as intervention targets. However, existing literature lacks clarity on precisely how these intra-individual variables might shape specific AST interventions. Moreover, evaluative studies of AST interventions typically fail to specify an underpinning theory or model. To address this limitation, the Behavioural Ecological Model (BEM), not previously addressed in AST, is presented to guide this area of research. Based on specific examples, we draw attention to the role of potential antecedents and potential reinforcers of AST, as well as potential reinforcers of motorised travel. Antecedents and reinforcers may help to explain choices of school travel mode, and to inform and increase intervention options to promote AST. Consistent with the BEM, the provision of more immediate consequences, such as fun and material prizes, is an evidence-based strategy for increasing AST which is likely to be low-cost and easier to deliver than alternative interventions. This approach to the study of AST is expected to contribute to similar analyses in this and other areas of behaviour change research, and to a more useful discussion and treatment of theoretical and conceptual behavioural models.

  19. Overview of modelling activities for Plasma Control Upgrade in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albanese, R., E-mail: [Consorzio CREATE, Euratom-ENEA Association, DIEL, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Ambrosino, G.; Ariola, M.; Artaserse, G.; Bellizio, T. [Consorzio CREATE, Euratom-ENEA Association, DIEL, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Coccorese, V. [Consorzio CREATE, Euratom-ENEA Association, DIEL, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); EFDA Close Support Unit, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Crisanti, F. [ENEA Fus, EURATOM Assoc, 00040 Frascati (Italy); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); De Tommasi, G.; Fresa, R. [Consorzio CREATE, Euratom-ENEA Association, DIEL, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Lomas, P.J. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Mattei, M.; Maviglia, F. [Consorzio CREATE, Euratom-ENEA Association, DIEL, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Neto, A. [Associacao Euratom-IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Piccolo, F. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Pironti, A. [Consorzio CREATE, Euratom-ENEA Association, DIEL, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom)


    The JET enhancement project Plasma Control Upgrade (PCU) aimed at increasing the capabilities of the plasma vertical stabilization (VS) system. One of the activities of this project was devoted to the development of simple but sufficiently accurate models of the VS system so as to address the main design choices, use the simulation tools as reliable test-beds, and provide an adequate support to the engineering design and commissioning of the new Enhanced Radial Field Amplifier (ERFA). This paper illustrates some of the main achievements of the modelling activity, which gave rise to a closed loop model of the VS system, including plasma, PF coils and passive structures. In particular the paper deals with the selection of the set of turns to be used in the control coils and with the estimation of the eddy current effects on the VS system. The latter analysis addressed an upgrade of the converter units of ERFA, successfully implemented during its commissioning on plasma in August 2009.

  20. Fluconazole-Pyridoxine Bis-Triazolium Compounds with Potent Activity against Pathogenic Bacteria and Fungi Including Their Biofilm-Embedded Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsel R. Garipov


    Full Text Available Two novel quaternary ammonium salts, bis-triazolium derivatives of fluconazole and pyridoxine, were synthesized by reaction of fluconazole with pyridoxine-based synthetic intermediates. The leading compound demonstrated pronounced antimycotic and antibacterial in vitro activity, comparable to or exceeding that of the reference antifungal (fluconazole, terbinafine and antibacterial/antiseptic (miramistin, benzalkonium chloride agents. In contrast to many antimicrobials, the leading compound was also active against biofilm-embedded staphylococci and Escherichia coli. While no biofilm structure destruction occurred, all compounds were able to diffuse into the matrix and reduce the number of colony-forming units by three orders of magnitude at 16 × MBC. The leading compound was significantly less toxic than miramistin and benzalkonium chloride and more toxic than the reference antifungal drugs. The obtained results make the described chemotype a promising starting point for the development of new broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapies with powerful effect on fungal and bacterial pathogens including their biofilm-embedded forms.

  1. Modelling an actively-cooled CPV system (United States)

    Buonomano, A.; Mittelman, G.; Faiman, D.; Biryukov, S.; Melnichak, V.; Bukobza, D.; Kabalo, S.


    We have constructed a 7-node, 1-dimensional model of the heat flow in a water-cooled CPV receiver. The model is validated against data from a module exposed to solar irradiance at various concentrations up to 1,000X at the PETAL solar dish facility at Sede Boqer.

  2. Developing model-making and model-breaking skills using direct measurement video-based activities (United States)

    Vonk, Matthew; Bohacek, Peter; Militello, Cheryl; Iverson, Ellen


    This study focuses on student development of two important laboratory skills in the context of introductory college-level physics. The first skill, which we call model making, is the ability to analyze a phenomenon in a way that produces a quantitative multimodal model. The second skill, which we call model breaking, is the ability to critically evaluate if the behavior of a system is consistent with a given model. This study involved 116 introductory physics students in four different sections, each taught by a different instructor. All of the students within a given class section participated in the same instruction (including labs) with the exception of five activities performed throughout the semester. For those five activities, each class section was split into two groups; one group was scaffolded to focus on model-making skills and the other was scaffolded to focus on model-breaking skills. Both conditions involved direct measurement videos. In some cases, students could vary important experimental parameters within the video like mass, frequency, and tension. Data collected at the end of the semester indicate that students in the model-making treatment group significantly outperformed the other group on the model-making skill despite the fact that both groups shared a common physical lab experience. Likewise, the model-breaking treatment group significantly outperformed the other group on the model-breaking skill. This is important because it shows that direct measurement video-based instruction can help students acquire science-process skills, which are critical for scientists, and which are a key part of current science education approaches such as the Next Generation Science Standards and the Advanced Placement Physics 1 course.

  3. Effects of including surface depressions in the application of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System in the Upper Flint River Basin, Georgia (United States)

    Viger, Roland J.; Hay, Lauren E.; Jones, John W.; Buell, Gary R.


    This report documents an extension of the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System that accounts for the effect of a large number of water-holding depressions in the land surface on the hydrologic response of a basin. Several techniques for developing the inputs needed by this extension also are presented. These techniques include the delineation of the surface depressions, the generation of volume estimates for the surface depressions, and the derivation of model parameters required to describe these surface depressions. This extension is valuable for applications in basins where surface depressions are too small or numerous to conveniently model as discrete spatial units, but where the aggregated storage capacity of these units is large enough to have a substantial effect on streamflow. In addition, this report documents several new model concepts that were evaluated in conjunction with the depression storage functionality, including: ?hydrologically effective? imperviousness, rates of hydraulic conductivity, and daily streamflow routing. All of these techniques are demonstrated as part of an application in the Upper Flint River Basin, Georgia. Simulated solar radiation, potential evapotranspiration, and water balances match observations well, with small errors for the first two simulated data in June and August because of differences in temperatures from the calibration and evaluation periods for those months. Daily runoff simulations show increasing accuracy with streamflow and a good fit overall. Including surface depression storage in the model has the effect of decreasing daily streamflow for all but the lowest flow values. The report discusses the choices and resultant effects involved in delineating and parameterizing these features. The remaining enhancements to the model and its application provide a more realistic description of basin geography and hydrology that serve to constrain the calibration process to more physically realistic parameter values.

  4. A statistical model for estimation of fish density including correlation in size, space, time and between species from research survey data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rasmus Nielsen

    Full Text Available Trawl survey data with high spatial and seasonal coverage were analysed using a variant of the Log Gaussian Cox Process (LGCP statistical model to estimate unbiased relative fish densities. The model estimates correlations between observations according to time, space, and fish size and includes zero observations and over-dispersion. The model utilises the fact the correlation between numbers of fish caught increases when the distance in space and time between the fish decreases, and the correlation between size groups in a haul increases when the difference in size decreases. Here the model is extended in two ways. Instead of assuming a natural scale size correlation, the model is further developed to allow for a transformed length scale. Furthermore, in the present application, the spatial- and size-dependent correlation between species was included. For cod (Gadus morhua and whiting (Merlangius merlangus, a common structured size correlation was fitted, and a separable structure between the time and space-size correlation was found for each species, whereas more complex structures were required to describe the correlation between species (and space-size. The within-species time correlation is strong, whereas the correlations between the species are weaker over time but strong within the year.

  5. Theoretical and practical aspects of modelling activated sludge processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, S.C.F.


    This thesis describes the full-scale validation and calibration of a integrated metabolic activated sludge model for biological phosphorus removal. In chapters 1 and 2 the metabolic model is described, in chapters 3 to 6 the model is tested and in chapters 7 and 8 the model is put into practice.

  6. Prediction limits of mobile phone activity modelling (United States)

    Kondor, Dániel; Grauwin, Sebastian; Kallus, Zsófia; Gódor, István; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Ratti, Carlo


    Thanks to their widespread usage, mobile devices have become one of the main sensors of human behaviour and digital traces left behind can be used as a proxy to study urban environments. Exploring the nature of the spatio-temporal patterns of mobile phone activity could thus be a crucial step towards understanding the full spectrum of human activities. Using 10 months of mobile phone records from Greater London resolved in both space and time, we investigate the regularity of human telecommunication activity on urban scales. We evaluate several options for decomposing activity timelines into typical and residual patterns, accounting for the strong periodic and seasonal components. We carry out our analysis on various spatial scales, showing that regularity increases as we look at aggregated activity in larger spatial units with more activity in them. We examine the statistical properties of the residuals and show that it can be explained by noise and specific outliers. Also, we look at sources of deviations from the general trends, which we find to be explainable based on knowledge of the city structure and places of attractions. We show examples how some of the outliers can be related to external factors such as specific social events.

  7. Detailed magnetic model simulations of the H- injection chicane magnets for the CERN PS Booster Upgrade, including eddy currents and influence on beam dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, E; Borburgh, J; Carli, C; Martini, M; Forte, V


    The CERN PS Booster will be upgraded with an H- injection system. The chicanemagnets for the injection bump ramp-down in 5 ms and generate eddy currents in the inconel vacuum chamber which perturb the homogeneity of the magnetic field. The multipolar field components are extracted from 3D OPERA simulations and are included in the lattice model. The -beating correction is computed all along the ramp and complete tracking simulations including space-charge are performed to evaluate the impact of these perturbations and correction on beam dynamics.

  8. Preliminary development of the Active Colonoscopy Training Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi J


    Full Text Available JungHun Choi1, Kale Ravindra1, Randolph Robert1, David Drozek21Mechanical Engineering, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA; 2College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USAAbstract: Formal colonoscopy training requires a significant amount of time and effort. In particular, it requires actual patients for a realistic learning experience. The quality of colonoscopy training varies, and includes didactic courses and procedures proctored by skilled surgeons. A colonoscopy training model is occasionally used as part of the training method, but the effects are minute due to both the simple and tedious training procedures. To enhance the educational effect of the colonoscopy training model, the Active Colonoscopy Training Model (ACTM has been developed. ACTM is an interactive colonoscopy training device which can create the environment of a real colonoscopy procedure as closely as possible. It comprises a configurable rubber colon, a human torso, sensors, a display, and the control part. The ACTM provides audio and visual interaction to the trainee by monitoring important factors, such as forces caused by the distal tip and the shaft of the colonoscope and the pressure to open up the lumen and the localization of the distal tip. On the computer screen, the trainee can easily monitor the status of the colonoscopy, which includes the localization of the distal tip, maximum forces, pressure inside the colon, and surgery time. The forces between the rubber colon and the constraints inside the ACTM are measured and the real time display shows the results to the trainee. The pressure sensors will check the pressure at different parts of the colon. The real-time localized distal tip gives the colonoscopy trainee easier and more confident operation without introducing an additional device in the colonoscope. With the current need for colonoscopists and physicians, the ACTM can play an essential role resolving the problems of the current

  9. The clinical obesity maintenance model: an integration of psychological constructs including mood, emotional regulation, disordered overeating, habitual cluster behaviours, health literacy and cognitive function. (United States)

    Raman, Jayanthi; Smith, Evelyn; Hay, Phillipa


    Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM). It is argued that psychological variables, that of habitual cluster Behaviors, emotional dysregulation, mood, and health literacy, interact with executive functioning and impact on the overeating/binge eating behaviors of obese individuals. Second, cognizant of this model, it is argued that the focus of obesity management should be extended to include a broader range of maintaining mechanisms, including but not limited to cognitive deficits. Finally, a discussion on potential future directions in research and practice using the COMM is provided.

  10. The Clinical Obesity Maintenance Model: An Integration of Psychological Constructs including Mood, Emotional Regulation, Disordered Overeating, Habitual Cluster Behaviours, Health Literacy and Cognitive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi Raman


    Full Text Available Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM. It is argued that psychological variables, that of habitual cluster Behaviors, emotional dysregulation, mood, and health literacy, interact with executive functioning and impact on the overeating/binge eating behaviors of obese individuals. Second, cognizant of this model, it is argued that the focus of obesity management should be extended to include a broader range of maintaining mechanisms, including but not limited to cognitive deficits. Finally, a discussion on potential future directions in research and practice using the COMM is provided.

  11. Characterization and modeling of light activated shape memory polymer (United States)

    Beblo, Richard Vincent

    Shape memory polymers have recently become the focus of research for their unique ability to switch between two modulus states, allowing them to both recover from large amounts of strain as well as support complex loads. Part of this research involves engineering new formulas specifically designed for applications where traditional thermally activated SMPs are not ideal by tailoring the activation method used to transition the polymer. One such class of polymers is those that utilize optical energy at specific wavelengths to create and cleave crosslinks. It is the development of this new class of light activated shape memory polymers (LASMP) that is the focus of the presented work. Experimental methods are newly created for this novel class of active materials. Several candidate LASMP formulas are then subjected to this set of experiments characterizing their mechanical and optical properties. Experimentally observed variations among the formulae include virgin state modulus, percent change in modulus with stimulus, and in some instances inelastic response. To expedite the development of LASMP, a first principles multi-scale model based on the polymer's molecular structure is presented and used to predict the stress response of the candidate formulas. Rotational isomeric state (RIS) theory is used to build a molecular model of a phantom polymer chain. Assessment of the resulting conformation is then made via the Johnson family of statistical distributions and Boltzmann statistical thermodynamics. The ability of the presented model to predict material properties based on the molecular structure of the polymer reduces the time and resources required to test new candidate formulas of LASMP as well as aiding in the ability to tailor the polymer to specific application requirements. While the first principles model works well to identify promising formulas, it lacks precision. The stress contribution from the constraints on the polymer chain's junctions and neighboring

  12. Modelling inorganic material in activated sludge systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 2, 2004 ... Water Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape 7707, South Africa. Abstract ..... Calculation method. In more detail, for each SB or SSP of a system in an investigation, the OHO and/or PAO active fractions (favOHO , favPAO) for FA, ND or. NDBEPR ...

  13. Microglia activation in a pediatric rabbit model of tuberculous meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth W. Tucker


    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS tuberculosis (TB is the most severe form of extra-pulmonary TB and disproportionately affects young children where the developing brain has a unique host response. New Zealand white rabbits were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis via subarachnoid inoculation at postnatal day 4-8 and evaluated until 4-6 weeks post-infection. Control and infected rabbit kits were assessed for the development of neurological deficits, bacterial burden, and postmortem microbiologic and pathologic changes. The presence of meningitis and tuberculomas was demonstrated histologically and by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The extent of microglial activation was quantified by in vitro immunohistochemistry as well as non-invasive in vivo imaging of activated microglia/macrophages with positron emission tomography (PET. Subarachnoid infection induced characteristic leptomeningeal and perivascular inflammation and TB lesions with central necrosis, a cellular rim and numerous bacilli on pathologic examination. Meningeal and rim enhancement was visible on MRI. An intense microglial activation was noted in M. tuberculosis-infected animals in the white matter and around the TB lesions, as evidenced by a significant increase in uptake of the tracer 124I-DPA-713, which is specific for activated microglia/macrophages, and confirmed by quantification of Iba-1 immunohistochemistry. Neurobehavioral analyses demonstrated signs similar to those noted in children with delayed maturation and development of neurological deficits resulting in significantly worse composite behavior scores in M. tuberculosis-infected animals. We have established a rabbit model that mimics features of TB meningitis in young children. This model could provide a platform for evaluating novel therapies, including host-directed therapies, against TB meningitis relevant to a young child's developing brain.

  14. Microglia activation in a pediatric rabbit model of tuberculous meningitis. (United States)

    Tucker, Elizabeth W; Pokkali, Supriya; Zhang, Zhi; DeMarco, Vincent P; Klunk, Mariah; Smith, Elizabeth S; Ordonez, Alvaro A; Penet, Marie-France; Bhujwalla, Zaver; Jain, Sanjay K; Kannan, Sujatha


    Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis (TB) is the most severe form of extra-pulmonary TB and disproportionately affects young children where the developing brain has a unique host response. New Zealand white rabbits were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis via subarachnoid inoculation at postnatal day 4-8 and evaluated until 4-6 weeks post-infection. Control and infected rabbit kits were assessed for the development of neurological deficits, bacterial burden, and postmortem microbiologic and pathologic changes. The presence of meningitis and tuberculomas was demonstrated histologically and by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The extent of microglial activation was quantified by in vitro immunohistochemistry as well as non-invasive in vivo imaging of activated microglia/macrophages with positron emission tomography (PET). Subarachnoid infection induced characteristic leptomeningeal and perivascular inflammation and TB lesions with central necrosis, a cellular rim and numerous bacilli on pathologic examination. Meningeal and rim enhancement was visible on MRI. An intense microglial activation was noted in M. tuberculosis-infected animals in the white matter and around the TB lesions, as evidenced by a significant increase in uptake of the tracer (124)I-DPA-713, which is specific for activated microglia/macrophages, and confirmed by quantification of Iba-1 immunohistochemistry. Neurobehavioral analyses demonstrated signs similar to those noted in children with delayed maturation and development of neurological deficits resulting in significantly worse composite behavior scores in M. tuberculosis-infected animals. We have established a rabbit model that mimics features of TB meningitis in young children. This model could provide a platform for evaluating novel therapies, including host-directed therapies, against TB meningitis relevant to a young child's developing brain. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Computational Modeling of Complex Protein Activity Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schivo, Stefano; Leijten, Jeroen; Karperien, Marcel; Post, Janine N.; Prignet, Claude


    Because of the numerous entities interacting, the complexity of the networks that regulate cell fate makes it impossible to analyze and understand them using the human brain alone. Computational modeling is a powerful method to unravel complex systems. We recently described the development of a

  16. Correlation lengths in hydrodynamic models of active nematics. (United States)

    Hemingway, Ewan J; Mishra, Prashant; Marchetti, M Cristina; Fielding, Suzanne M


    We examine the scaling with activity of the emergent length scales that control the nonequilibrium dynamics of an active nematic liquid crystal, using two popular hydrodynamic models that have been employed in previous studies. In both models we find that the chaotic spatio-temporal dynamics in the regime of fully developed active turbulence is controlled by a single active scale determined by the balance of active and elastic stresses, regardless of whether the active stress is extensile or contractile in nature. The observed scaling of the kinetic energy and enstrophy with activity is consistent with our single-length scale argument and simple dimensional analysis. Our results provide a unified understanding of apparent discrepancies in the previous literature and demonstrate that the essential physics is robust to the choice of model.

  17. A Kinetic Modeling study on the Oxidation of Primary Reference Fuel?Toluene Mixtures Including Cross Reactions between Aromatics and Aliphatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Y; Miyoshi, A; Koshi, M; Pitz, W J


    A detailed chemical kinetic model for the mixtures of Primary Reference Fuel (PRF: n-heptane and iso-octane) and toluene has been proposed. This model is divided into three parts; a PRF mechanism [T. Ogura et al., Energy & Fuels 21 (2007) 3233-3239], toluene sub-mechanism and cross reactions between PRF and toluene. Toluene sub-mechanism includes the low temperature kinetics relevant to engine conditions. A chemical kinetic mechanism proposed by Pitz et al. [Proc. the 2nd Joint Meeting of the U.S. Combust. Institute (2001)] was used as a starting model and modified by updating rate coefficients. Theoretical estimations of rate coefficients were performed for toluene and benzyl radical reactions important at low temperatures. Cross-reactions between alkane, alkene, and aromatics were also included in order to account for the acceleration by the addition of toluene into iso-octane recently found in the shock tube study of the ignition delay [Y. Sakai et al, SAE 2007-01-4014 (2007)]. Validations of the model were performed with existing shock tube and flow tube data. The model well predicts the ignition characteristics of toluene and PRF/Toluene mixtures under the wide range of temperatures (500-1700 K) and pressures (2-50 atm). It is found that reactions of benzyl radical with oxygen molecule determine the reactivity of toluene at low temperature. Although the effect of toluene addition to iso-octane is not fully resolved, the reactions of alkene with benzyl radical have the possibility to account for the kinetic interactions between PRF and toluene.

  18. Sensitivity of the active fracture model parameter to fracture network orientation and injection scenarios (United States)

    Başağaoğlu, Hakan; Succi, Sauro; Manepally, Chandrika; Fedors, Randall; Wyrick, Danielle Y.


    Active fractures refer to the portions of unsaturated, connected fractures that actively conduct water. The active fracture model parameter accounts for the reduction in the number of fractures carrying water and in the fracture-matrix interface area in field-scale simulations of flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rocks. One example includes the numerical analyses of the fault test results at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada (USA). In such applications, the active fracture model parameter is commonly used as a calibration parameter without relating it to fracture network orientations and infiltration rates. A two-dimensional, multiphase lattice-Boltzmann model was used in this study to investigate the sensitivity of the active fracture model parameter to fracture network orientation and injection scenarios for an unsaturated, variable dipping, and geometrically simple fracture network. The active fracture model parameter differed by as much as 0.11-0.44 when the effects of fracture network orientation, injection rate, and injection mode were included in the simulations. Hence, the numerical results suggest that the sensitivity of the active fracture model parameter to fracture network orientation, injection rates, and injection modes should be explored at the field-scale to strengthen the technical basis and range of applicability of the active fracture model.

  19. Acoustic Model Support Activities, P-2220 (United States)


    backgrounds of Messrs. Paul Wolff, Robert Colilla , Edward Ver Hoef, Charles Baker, Kenneth Osborne, Howard Straus, Warren Yogi, Gilbert Jacobs, William...oceanographic communities. Mr. Colilla was the ODSI Technical Staff Member most directly responsible for the adaptation of the NISSM II model for the CDC 6700...overall efficiency of operation under Contract No. N66314-70-C-0778. Mr. Colilla also participated in the ambient noise investigations under Contract

  20. Endothelin-2/Vasoactive Intestinal Contractor: Regulation of Expression via Reactive Oxygen Species Induced by CoCl22, and Biological Activities Including Neurite Outgrowth in PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Kotake-Nara


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the local hormone endothelin-2 (ET-2, or vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC, a member of the vasoconstrictor ET peptide family, where ET-2 is the human orthologous peptide of the murine VIC. While ET-2/VIC gene expression has been observed in some normal tissues, ET-2 recently has been reported to act as a tumor marker and as a hypoxia-induced autocrine survival factor in tumor cells. A recently published study reported that the hypoxic mimetic agent CoCl2 at 200 µM increased expression of the ET-2/VIC gene, decreased expression of the ET-1 gene, and induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS increase and neurite outgrowth in neuronal model PC12 cells. The ROS was generated by addition of CoCl2 to the culture medium, and the CoCl2-induced effects were completely inhibited by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine. Furthermore, interleukin-6 (IL-6 gene expression was up-regulated upon the differentiation induced by CoCl2. These results suggest that expression of ET-2/VIC and ET-1 mediated by CoCl2-induced ROS may be associated with neuronal differentiation through the regulation of IL-6 expression. CoCl2 acts as a pro-oxidant, as do Fe(II, III and Cu(II. However, some biological activities have been reported for CoCl2 that have not been observed for other metal salts such as FeCl3, CuSO4, and NiCl2. The characteristic actions of CoCl2 may be associated with the differentiation of PC12 cells. Further elucidation of the mechanism of neurite outgrowth and regulation of ET-2/VIC expression by CoCl2 may lead to the development of treatments for neuronal disorders.

  1. 2-dimensional numerical modeling of active magnetic regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Pryds, Nini; Smith, Anders


    Various aspects of numerical modeling of Active Magnetic Regeneration (AMR) are presented. Using a 2-dimensional numerical model for solving the unsteady heat transfer equations for the AMR system, a range of physical effects on both idealized and non-idealized AMR are investigated. The modeled...

  2. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH...

  3. Four Models Including Fish, Seafood, Red Meat and Enriched Foods to Achieve Australian Dietary Recommendations for n-3 LCPUFA for All Life-Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Fayet-Moore


    Full Text Available Populations are not meeting recommended intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA. The aim was (i to develop a database on n-3 LCPUFA enriched products; (ii to undertake dietary modelling exercise using four dietary approaches to meet the recommendations and (iii to determine the cost of the models. Six n-3 LCPUFA enriched foods were identified. Fish was categorised by n-3 LCPUFA content (mg/100 g categories as “excellent” “good” and “moderate”. The four models to meet recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes were (i fish only; (ii moderate fish (with red meat and enriched foods; (iii fish avoiders (red meat and enriched foods only; and (iv lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (enriched foods only. Diets were modelled using the NUTTAB2010 database and n-3 LCPUFA were calculated and compared to the Suggested Dietary Targets (SDT. The cost of meeting these recommendations was calculated per 100 mg n-3 LCPUFA. The SDT were achieved for all life-stages with all four models. The weekly food intake in number of serves to meet the n-3 LCPUFA SDT for all life-stages for each dietary model were: (i 2 “excellent” fish; (ii 1 “excellent” and 1 “good” fish, and depending on life-stage, 3–4 lean red meat, 0–2 eggs and 3–26 enriched foods; (iii 4 lean red meat, and 20–59 enriched foods; (iv 37–66 enriched foods. Recommended intakes of n-3 LCPUFA were easily met by the consumption of fish, which was the cheapest source of n-3 LCPUFA. Other strategies may be required to achieve the recommendations including modifying the current food supply through feeding practices, novel plant sources and more enriched foods.

  4. A risk computation model for environmental restoration activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droppo, J.B. Jr.; Strenge, D.L.; Buck, J.W.


    A risk computation model useful in environmental restoration activities was developed for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This model, the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS), can be used to evaluate effects of potential exposures over a broad range of regulatory issues including radioactive carcinogenic, nonradioactive carcinogenic, and noncarcinogenic effects. MEPAS integrates risk computation components. Release, transport, dispersion, deposition, exposure, and uptake computations are linked in a single system for evaluation of air, surface water, ground water, and overland flow transport. MEPAS uses standard computation approaches. Whenever available and appropriate, US Environmental Protection Agency guidance and models were used to facilitate compatibility and acceptance. MEPAS is a computational tool that can be used at several phases of an environmental restoration effort. At a preliminary stage in problem characterization, potential problems can be prioritized. As more data become available, MEPAS can provide an estimate of baseline risks or evaluate environmental monitoring data. In the feasibility stage, MEPAS can compute risk from alternative remedies. However, MEPAS is not designed to replace a detailed risk assessment of the selected remedy. For major problems, it will be appropriate to use a more detailed, risk computation tool for a detailed, site-specific evaluation of the selected remedy. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Whole-Body PET/MR Imaging: Quantitative Evaluation of a Novel Model-Based MR Attenuation Correction Method Including Bone. (United States)

    Paulus, Daniel H; Quick, Harald H; Geppert, Christian; Fenchel, Matthias; Zhan, Yiqiang; Hermosillo, Gerardo; Faul, David; Boada, Fernando; Friedman, Kent P; Koesters, Thomas


    In routine whole-body PET/MR hybrid imaging, attenuation correction (AC) is usually performed by segmentation methods based on a Dixon MR sequence providing up to 4 different tissue classes. Because of the lack of bone information with the Dixon-based MR sequence, bone is currently considered as soft tissue. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate a novel model-based AC method that considers bone in whole-body PET/MR imaging. The new method ("Model") is based on a regular 4-compartment segmentation from a Dixon sequence ("Dixon"). Bone information is added using a model-based bone segmentation algorithm, which includes a set of prealigned MR image and bone mask pairs for each major body bone individually. Model was quantitatively evaluated on 20 patients who underwent whole-body PET/MR imaging. As a standard of reference, CT-based μ-maps were generated for each patient individually by nonrigid registration to the MR images based on PET/CT data. This step allowed for a quantitative comparison of all μ-maps based on a single PET emission raw dataset of the PET/MR system. Volumes of interest were drawn on normal tissue, soft-tissue lesions, and bone lesions; standardized uptake values were quantitatively compared. In soft-tissue regions with background uptake, the average bias of SUVs in background volumes of interest was 2.4% ± 2.5% and 2.7% ± 2.7% for Dixon and Model, respectively, compared with CT-based AC. For bony tissue, the -25.5% ± 7.9% underestimation observed with Dixon was reduced to -4.9% ± 6.7% with Model. In bone lesions, the average underestimation was -7.4% ± 5.3% and -2.9% ± 5.8% for Dixon and Model, respectively. For soft-tissue lesions, the biases were 5.1% ± 5.1% for Dixon and 5.2% ± 5.2% for Model. The novel MR-based AC method for whole-body PET/MR imaging, combining Dixon-based soft-tissue segmentation and model-based bone estimation, improves PET quantification in whole-body hybrid PET/MR imaging, especially in bony tissue and

  6. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory. (United States)

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G


    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure.

  7. Testing Models: A Key Aspect to Promote Teaching Activities Related to Models and Modelling in Biology Lessons? (United States)

    Krell, Moritz; Krüger, Dirk


    This study investigated biology teachers' (N = 148) understanding of models and modelling (MoMo), their model-related teaching activities and relations between the two. A framework which distinguishes five aspects of MoMo in science ("nature of models," "multiple models," "purpose of models," "testing…

  8. Developing a school nursing activity demand model Staffordhire. (United States)

    Robins, Jo; Patel, Divya; Hansford, Karen; Sutcliffe, Kate; Forbes-Westlake, Andrea


    Activity demand models for delivery of the Healthy Child Programme (HCP) through the school nursing workforce are limited. This paper describes the application of a potentially new activity demand model for school nursing. The model identifies what the demand for school nursing is in Staffordshire, using estimated delivery times of universal and targeted components from the HCP, numbers of children and local information around targeted activity, eg, numbers of looked after children. The model suggests that the school nursing service would spend around 60% of time on individual face to face activity, 30% on public health leadership, management and evaluation and the 10% on travel in Staffordshire. It also suggests a shortfall in workforce capacity. The model can be used to underpin commissioning decisions and service redesign and changes in practice would be required to meet the full requirements of the HCP.

  9. A path-following driver-vehicle model with neuromuscular dynamics, including measured and simulated responses to a step in steering angle overlay (United States)

    Cole, David J.


    An existing driver-vehicle model with neuromuscular dynamics is improved in the areas of cognitive delay, intrinsic muscle dynamics and alpha-gamma co-activation. The model is used to investigate the influence of steering torque feedback and neuromuscular dynamics on the vehicle response to lateral force disturbances. When steering torque feedback is present, it is found that the longitudinal position of the lateral disturbance has a significant influence on whether the driver's reflex response reinforces or attenuates the effect of the disturbance. The response to angle and torque overlay inputs to the steering system is also investigated. The presence of the steering torque feedback reduced the disturbing effect of torque overlay and angle overlay inputs. Reflex action reduced the disturbing effect of a torque overlay input, but increased the disturbing effect of an angle overlay input. Experiments on a driving simulator showed that measured handwheel angle response to an angle overlay input was consistent with the response predicted by the model with reflex action. However, there was significant intra- and inter-subject variability. The results highlight the significance of a driver's neuromuscular dynamics in determining the vehicle response to disturbances.

  10. A systematic ecological model for adapting physical activities: theoretical foundations and practical examples. (United States)

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu


    This article proposes a theory- and practice-based model for adapting physical activities. The ecological frame of reference includes Dynamic and Action System Theory, World Health Organization International Classification of Function and Disability, and Adaptation Theory. A systematic model is presented addressing (a) the task objective, (b) task criteria, (c) limitation and enablement criteria, (d) performance errors, and (e) adaptation suggestions. Four individual case examples are described, referring to the conceptual model and depicting its use in various settings of physical activity, including physical education, rehabilitation, competition, and recreation.

  11. Bi-temporal 3D active appearance models with applications to unsupervised ejection fraction estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Pedersen, Dorthe


    in four-dimensional MRI. The theoretical foundation of our work is the generative two-dimensional Active Appearance Models by Cootes et al., here extended to bi-temporal, three-dimensional models. Further issues treated include correction of respiratory induced slice displacements, systole detection...

  12. Three dimensional model for particle saltation close to stream beds, including a detailed description of the particle interaction with turbulence and inter-particle collisions

    KAUST Repository

    Moreno, Pablo M.


    We present in this paper a new three-dimensional (3-D) model for bed-load sediment transport, based on a Lagrangian description. We analyze generalized sub-models for the velocities after collision and the representation of the bed-roughness. The free-flight sub-model includes the effect of several forces, such as buoyancy, drag, virtual mass, lift, Basset and Magnus, and also addresses the particle rotation. A recent methodology for saving computational time in the Basset force is also employed. The sub-models for the post-collision velocity and rotation are based on the conservation of linear and angular momentum during the collision with the bed. We develop a new 3-D representation for the bed roughness by using geometric considerations. In order to address the interaction of particles with the turbulent flow, we tracked the particles through a computed turbulent velocity field for a smooth flat plate. This velocity field was used as a surrogate of the 3-D turbulent conditions close to the bed in streams. We first checked that the basic turbulence statistics for this velocity field could be used to approximate those in an open-channel flow. We then analyzed the interaction of the sediment and the turbulence for a single and multiple particles. We compared numerical results with experimental data obtained by Niño and García (1998b). We show that model predictions are in good agreement with existing data, in the sand size range. © 2011 ASCE.

  13. Modelling of the Secondary Clarifier Combined with the Activated Sludge Model no. 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, René; Henze, Mogens


    Modelling of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants is today generally based on the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 combined with a very simple model for the secondary settler. This paper describes the development of a model for the secondary clarifier based on the general flux theory for zone...... model is a purely empirical model, which connects the effluent quality with the hydraulic load, suspended solids load and the nitrate load. The paper describes the model and gives some basic examples on computer simulations and verification of the model....

  14. Modeling of kayak athletes competition activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Kolumbet


    Full Text Available Purpose: determination of correlations between parameters of special and technical fitness of kayak athletes on 500 meters’ distance. Material: in the research 29 elite athletes participated. We studied characteristics of athletes’ coordination structure in natural conditions and laboratory experiment. Results: significant influence of specific adaptive reactions on workability dynamic and sport results is noted. Constant reduction of power is connected with lactate, pyruvate and other under-oxidation products’ accumulation in athlete’s muscles. 500 meters’ distance passing in alternative regime of motor activity permits for athletes to achieve higher level of special workability. We studied four variants of 500 meters’ competition distance passing. Most of athletes pass this distance by third variant (46% of all tested athletes 21% - by the first variant; 14% - by second variant and 19% by the forth. Conclusions: achievement of high sport result is facilitated by optimal structure of competition functioning, which corresponds to the following: speed power qualities and special endurance; individual features of athletes; specific of physical qualities’ manifestation, when passing definite distance.

  15. Long-term post-stroke changes include myelin loss, specific deficits in sensory and motor behaviors and complex cognitive impairment detected using active place avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhou

    Full Text Available Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1 sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2 complex active place avoidance learning (APA and simple passive avoidance retention (PA. Electroretinogram (ERG, hemispheric loss (infarction, hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001, sensory (p<0.001, beam balance performance (p<0.01 and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01. tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05 but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining. No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01 in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and

  16. Simple model, including recoil, for the brightness of sodium guide stars created from CW single frequency fasors and comparison to measurements (United States)

    Hillman, Paul D.; Drummond, Jack D.; Denman, Craig A.; Fugate, Robert Q.


    Using a stable single frequency (Δυ fasor we have characterized the guide star radiance under several conditions, including routinely measuring the radiance at various launch powers and simultaneously illuminating the same spot with a second fasor with a range of different frequency separations. Making use of sodium's hyperfine energy diagram and allowed transitions it is shown that some transitions do not contribute to the radiance after a short time period thus greatly reducing the number of states whose populations need to be tracked in a simple rate equation model. An offshoot of this view is the importance of the pump source's spectral content for efficient sodium scattering. Accounting for atomic recoil, which causes atoms to be Doppler shifted out of resonance, we obtain model curves for photon return flux versus launch power for both linear and circular polarization, both agree with measurements; the only free parameter being the sodium column density on the single night both sets of data were taken. We attempted to measure the sodium velocity distribution due to recoil using two Fasors in a pump-probe arrangement. We have measured some subtle phenomena that this simple model does not explain and these will be discussed. These may imply the importance of understanding the collision rates for sodium atoms to re-equilibrate through velocity changing collisions, spin relaxation and coherent beam propagation under various atmospheric conditions.

  17. GEM1: First-year modeling and IT activities for the Global Earthquake Model (United States)

    Anderson, G.; Giardini, D.; Wiemer, S.


    GEM is a public-private partnership initiated by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to build an independent standard for modeling and communicating earthquake risk worldwide. GEM is aimed at providing authoritative, open information about seismic risk and decision tools to support mitigation. GEM will also raise risk awareness and help post-disaster economic development, with the ultimate goal of reducing the toll of future earthquakes. GEM will provide a unified set of seismic hazard, risk, and loss modeling tools based on a common global IT infrastructure and consensus standards. These tools, systems, and standards will be developed in partnership with organizations around the world, with coordination by the GEM Secretariat and its Secretary General. GEM partners will develop a variety of global components, including a unified earthquake catalog, fault database, and ground motion prediction equations. To ensure broad representation and community acceptance, GEM will include local knowledge in all modeling activities, incorporate existing detailed models where possible, and independently test all resulting tools and models. When completed in five years, GEM will have a versatile, penly accessible modeling environment that can be updated as necessary, and will provide the global standard for seismic hazard, risk, and loss models to government ministers, scientists and engineers, financial institutions, and the public worldwide. GEM is now underway with key support provided by private sponsors (Munich Reinsurance Company, Zurich Financial Services, AIR Worldwide Corporation, and Willis Group Holdings); countries including Belgium, Germany, Italy, Singapore, Switzerland, and Turkey; and groups such as the European Commission. The GEM Secretariat has been selected by the OECD and will be hosted at the Eucentre at the University of Pavia in Italy; the Secretariat is now formalizing the creation of the GEM Foundation. Some of GEM's global

  18. A Mouse Model that Recapitulates Cardinal Features of the 15q13.3 Microdeletion Syndrome Including Schizophrenia- and Epilepsy-Related Alterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejgin, Kim; Nielsen, Jacob; Birknow, Michelle R.


    Background: Genome-wide scans have uncovered rare copy number variants conferring high risk of psychiatric disorders. The 15q13.3 microdeletion is associated with a considerably increased risk of idiopathic generalized epilepsy, intellectual disability, and schizophrenia. Methods: A 15q13.......3 microdeletion mouse model (Df[h15q13]/) was generated by hemizygous deletion of the orthologous region and characterized with focus on schizophrenia- and epilepsy-relevant parameters. Results: Df(h15q13)/ mice showed marked changes in neuronal excitability in acute seizure assays, with increased propensity...... deficits similar to those observed in schizophrenia. Gamma band power was increas