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Sample records for activities gastrointestinal fermentation

  1. Comparative in vitro fermentation activity in the canine distal gastrointestinal tract and fermentation kinetics of fiber sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Rutten, P.G.P.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the variation in fermentation activity along the distal canine gastrointestinal tract (GIT, Exp. 1). It also aimed to assess fermentation kinetics and end product profiles of 16 dietary fibers for dog foods using canine fecal inoculum (Exp. 2). For Exp. 1, digesta

  2. Comparative in vitro fermentation activity in the canine distal gastrointestinal tract and fermentation kinetics of fiber sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Rutten, P.G.P.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the variation in fermentation activity along the distal canine gastrointestinal tract (GIT, Exp. 1). It also aimed to assess fermentation kinetics and end product profiles of 16 dietary fibers for dog foods using canine fecal inoculum (Exp. 2). For Exp. 1, digesta

  3. Comparative in vitro fermentation activity in the canine distal gastrointestinal tract and fermentation kinetics of fiber sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, G; Pellikaan, W F; Rutten, P G P; van der Poel, A F B; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2008-11-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the variation in fermentation activity along the distal canine gastrointestinal tract (GIT, Exp. 1). It also aimed to assess fermentation kinetics and end product profiles of 16 dietary fibers for dog foods using canine fecal inoculum (Exp. 2). For Exp. 1, digesta were collected from the distal ileum, proximal colon, transverse colon, and rectum of 3 adult dogs. Digesta per part of the GIT were pooled for 3 dogs, diluted (1:25, wt/vol), mixed, and filtered for the preparation of inoculum. A fructan, ground soy hulls, and native potato starch were used as substrates and incubated for cumulative gas production measurement as an indicator of the kinetics of fermentation. In addition, fermentation bottles with similar contents were incubated but were allowed to release their gas throughout incubation. Fermentation fluid was sampled at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after initiation of incubation, and short-chain fatty acids and ammonia were measured. Results showed comparable maximal fermentation rates for rectal and proximal colonic inocula (P > 0.05). Production of short-chain fatty acids was least for the ileal and greatest for the rectal inoculum (P fiber, peanut hulls, soy fiber, sugar beet fiber, sugar beet pectin, sugar beet pulp, wheat fiber, and wheat middlings. Feces of 4 adult dogs were used as an inoculum source. Similar techniques were used as in Exp. 1 except for the dilution factor used (1:10, wt/vol). Among substrates, large variations in fermentation kinetics and end product profiles were noted. Sugar beet pectin, the fructans, and the gums were rapidly fermentable, indicated by a greater maximal rate of gas production (R(max)) compared with all other substrates (P fiber were poorly fermentable, indicated by the least amount of gas produced (P fiber, sugar beet pulp, soy fiber, and wheat middlings were moderately fermentable with a low R(max). Citrus pectin and pea fiber showed a similar low R(max), but time at which

  4. Persistence of anticancer activity in berry extracts after simulated gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation.

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    Emma M Brown

    Full Text Available Fruit and vegetable consumption is associated at the population level with a protective effect against colorectal cancer. Phenolic compounds, especially abundant in berries, are of interest due to their putative anticancer activity. After consumption, however, phenolic compounds are subject to digestive conditions within the gastrointestinal tract that alter their structures and potentially their function. However, the majority of phenolic compounds are not efficiently absorbed in the small intestine and a substantial portion pass into the colon. We characterized berry extracts (raspberries, strawberries, blackcurrants produced by in vitro-simulated upper intestinal tract digestion and subsequent fecal fermentation. These extracts and selected individual colonic metabolites were then evaluated for their putative anticancer activities using in vitro models of colorectal cancer, representing the key stages of initiation, promotion and invasion. Over a physiologically-relevant dose range (0-50 µg/ml gallic acid equivalents, the digested and fermented extracts demonstrated significant anti-genotoxic, anti-mutagenic and anti-invasive activity on colonocytes. This work indicates that phenolic compounds from berries undergo considerable structural modifications during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract but their breakdown products and metabolites retain biological activity and can modulate cellular processes associated with colon cancer.

  5. Potential rates of fermentation in digesta from the gastrointestinal tract of pigs: effect of feeding fermented liquid feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højberg, Ole; Canibe, Nuria; Knudsen, Bettina; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2003-01-01

    Microbial catabolic capacity in digesta from the gastrointestinal tract of pigs fed either dry feed or fermented liquid feed (FLF) was determined with the PhenePlate multisubstrate system. The in vitro technique was modified to analyze the kinetics of substrate catabolism mediated by the standing stock of enzymes (potential rates of fermentation), allowing a quantitative evaluation of the dietary effect on the catabolic capacity of the microbiota. In total, the potential rates of fermentation were significantly reduced in digesta from the large intestine (cecum, P feed. No effect of diet was observed in the stomach (P = 0.71) or the distal part of the small intestine (P = 0.97). The highest rates of fermentation and the most significant effect of diet were observed for readily fermentable carbohydrates like maltose, sucrose, and lactose. Feeding FLF to pigs also led to a reduction in the large intestine of the total counts of anaerobic bacteria in general and lactic acid bacteria specifically, as well as of microbial activity, as determined by the concentration of ATP and short-chain fatty acids. The low-molecular-weight carbohydrates were fermented mainly to lactic acid in the FLF before being fed to the animals. This may have limited microbial nutrient availability in the digesta reaching the large intestine of pigs fed FLF and may have caused the observed reduction in activity and density of the cecal and colonic microbial population. On the other hand, feeding FLF to pigs reduced the viable counts of coliform bacteria (indicator of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp.) most profoundly in the stomach and the distal part of the small intestine, probably due to the bactericidal effect of lactic acid and low pH. The results presented clearly demonstrate that feeding FLF to pigs had a great impact on the indigenous microbiota, as reflected in bacterial numbers, short-chain fatty acid concentration, and substrate utilization. However, completely different mechanisms

  6. Effect of fermented feed on the microbial population of the gastrointestinal tracts of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winsen, van R.L.; Urlings, B.A.P.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Snijders, J.M.A.; Keuzenkamp, D.; Verheijden, J.H.M.; Knapen, van F.

    2001-01-01

    An in vivo experiment was performed with pigs to study the inhibitory effect of fermented feed on the bacterial population of the gastrointestinal tract. Results demonstrated a significant positive correlation between pH and lactobacilli in the stomach contents of pigs in dry feed as well as in the

  7. Characterisation of the gastrointestinal bacterial community in pigs fed fermented liquid feed and dry feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Ole; Knudsen, B.; Canibe, N.

    2001-01-01

    Feeding pigs with fermented liquid feed (FLF) has been shown to reduce the number of enteropathogens such as Salmonella and Brachyospira hyodysenteriae as well as coliform bacteria in general in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Also the commensal bacterial populations have been shown to respond...

  8. Extending our knowledge of fermentable, short-chain carbohydrates for managing gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jacqueline S

    2013-06-01

    The Monash University low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) diet is now accepted as an effective strategy for managing symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Australia, with interest expanding across the world. These poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates have been shown to induce IBS symptoms of diarrhea, bloating, abdominal pain, and flatus due to their poor absorption, osmotic activity, and rapid fermentation. Four clinical trials have been published to date, all with significant symptomatic response to the low FODMAP diet. Up to 86% of patients with IBS have achieved relief of overall gastrointestinal symptoms and, more specifically, bloating, flatus, abdominal pain, and altered bowel habit from the approach. This review provides an overview of the low FODMAP diet and summarizes the research to date, emerging concepts, and limitations. FODMAPs are known to be beneficial to bowel health; the importance of this and how this should be considered in the clinical management of IBS is also discussed. A clinical management flowchart is provided to assist nutrition professionals in the use of this approach.

  9. Effect of feeding fermented liquid feed and fermented grain on gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canibe, N; Højberg, O; Badsberg, J H; Jensen, B B

    2007-11-01

    To investigate the microbial and nutritional characteristics of dry feed, liquid feed containing fermented liquid cereal grains, and fermented liquid feed, and their effect on gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance, 120 piglets from 40 litters were used and housed in pens with 5 animals in each. The 3 dietary treatments (all nonheated and nonpelleted diets) were: a dry meal diet (DRY); a fermented, liquid cereal grain feed (FLG); and a fermented liquid feed (FLF). The FLG diet was prepared by storing the dietary cereals (barley and wheat) and water (1:2.5, wt/wt) in a closed tank at 20 degrees C and adding the remaining dietary ingredients immediately before feeding. The FLF diet was prepared by storing compound feed and water (1:2.5, wt/wt) in a closed tank at 20 degrees C. Three times daily, 50% of the fermented cereals or compound feed and water stored in the tanks was removed and replaced with an equal amount of fresh cereals or feed and water. On d 14, 1 piglet from each pen was killed and samples from the gastrointestinal tract were obtained. The pH of the fermented cereals was 3.85 (SD = 0.10), that of the FLG diet was 5.00 (SD = 0.18), and the pH of the FLF diet was 4.45 (SD = 0.11). The dietary concentration of lysine (g/16 g of N) pointed to a decreased concentration in the FLF (5.46, SD = 0.08) compared with the DRY (6.01) and FLG (6.21, SD = 0.27) diets, and the concentration of cadaverine was greater in the FLF diet (890 mg/kg, SD = 151.3) than in the DRY (32 mg/kg) or FLG (153 mg/kg, SD = 18.7) diets. Fermenting only the cereal component of the diet (FLG) promoted the growth of yeasts to a greater extent than fermenting the whole diet (FLF). Terminal RFLP profiles of diets and digesta from the stomach and midcolon showed differences among dietary groups. The number of yeasts able to grow at 37 degrees C in the stomach and caudal small intestine was greatest in the FLG group compared with the other 2 dietary groups (P Feeding liquid feed

  10. Characterisation of the gastrointestinal bacterial community in pigs fed fermented liquid feed and dry feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Ole; Knudsen, B.; Canibe, N.;

    2001-01-01

    Feeding pigs with fermented liquid feed (FLF) has been shown to reduce the number of enteropathogens such as Salmonella and Brachyospira hyodysenteriae as well as coliform bacteria in general in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Also the commensal bacterial populations have been shown to respond...... feed. This reduction could be due to the fact that these substrates are partially depleted by fermentation in the liquid feed prior to entering the animal. Therefore nutrient availability may be limited in the large intestine of pigs fed FLF, which may again affect bacterial enzyme synthesis and growth...... to the use of FLF, e.g. the total counts of anaerobes, including lactic acid bacteria are reduced. In the present work we demonstrate that the capacity to ferment a series of substrates (mainly low-molecular weight carbohydrates) is reduced in caecum, colon and faeces of pigs fed FLF compared to pigs fed dry...

  11. Fermented wheat in liquid diets: effects on gastrointestinal characteristics in weanling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, R H J; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; den Hartog, L A; Balk, M; Schrama, J W; Verstegen, M W A

    2002-05-01

    Effects of adding fermented wheat to liquid diets on gastrointestinal characteristics in weanling piglets were studied. Gastrointestinal characteristics of 40 28-d-old weanling piglets were measured at the day of weaning (d 0) and at d 4 and 8 after weaning. Piglets were group-housed and fed twice daily. Feeding level was based on the average metabolic BW of piglets per group. Groups were fed a liquid diet with either 45% unfermented wheat (FERM_0) or 45% fermented wheat (FERM_45). The other 55% of the diet was identical. To ferment wheat, water at 30 degrees C was added to milled wheat in a 1:2.2 ratio. The pH and contents of lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid were measured in the digesta of the stomach, three parts of the small intestine, cecum, and large intestine. In addition, changes in microbial populations in the digesta were studied during the period after weaning. Moreover, villus height, crypt depth, and villus shape were studied in the small intestine. Piglets fed FERM_45 showed lower gastric pH (P feeding a partly fermented liquid diet to weanling piglets may be a concept to prevent undesirable changes in mucosal architecture after weaning.

  12. Modulation of Lactobacillus plantarum gastrointestinal robustness by fermentation conditions enables identification of bacterial robustness markers.

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    Hermien van Bokhorst-van de Veen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are applied worldwide in the production of a variety of fermented food products. Additionally, specific Lactobacillus species are nowadays recognized for their health-promoting effects on the consumer. To optimally exert such beneficial effects, it is considered of great importance that these probiotic bacteria reach their target sites in the gut alive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the accompanying manuscript by Bron et al. the probiotic model organism Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 was cultured under different fermentation conditions, which was complemented by the determination of the corresponding molecular responses by full-genome transcriptome analyses. Here, the gastrointestinal (GI survival of the cultures produced was assessed in an in vitro assay. Variations in fermentation conditions led to dramatic differences in GI-tract survival (up to 7-log and high robustness could be associated with low salt and low pH during the fermentations. Moreover, random forest correlation analyses allowed the identification of specific transcripts associated with robustness. Subsequently, the corresponding genes were targeted by genetic engineering, aiming to enhance robustness, which could be achieved for 3 of the genes that negatively correlated with robustness and where deletion derivatives displayed enhanced survival compared to the parental strain. Specifically, a role in GI-tract survival could be confirmed for the lp_1669-encoded AraC-family transcription regulator, involved in capsular polysaccharide remodeling, the penicillin-binding protein Pbp2A involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis, and the Na(+/H(+ antiporter NapA3. Moreover, additional physiological analysis established a role for Pbp2A and NapA3 in bile salt and salt tolerance, respectively. CONCLUSION: Transcriptome trait matching enabled the identification of biomarkers for bacterial (gut-robustness, which is important for our molecular

  13. Antioxidant Activity of Whey from Milk Fermented with Lactobacillus Species Isolated from Nigerian Fermented Foods

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    Ifeoma Korie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight Lactobacillus isolates obtained from five indigenous fermented foods (ogi, ogi baba, wara, kunnu and ugba were investigated. Wara is a dairy-based food while the others are not dairy-based. The bacteria were isolated on MRS agar and purified by successive streaking on the same medium. The whey fraction of skimmed milk fermented with each isolate was assayed for radical scavenging effects using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical. All the whey fractions showed radical scavenging activities. The five isolates with the highest activities were selected. On the basis of Gram stain reaction, cellular morphology, biochemical tests and carbohydrate utilization profiles they were identified as strains of Lactobacillus brevis, L. fermentum, L. plantarum, L. casei and L. delbrueckii. The antioxidant activities of whey fractions from 24-hour fermentations with the selected organisms were investigated using both radical scavenging effects and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity. The radical scavenging activity was generally higher than the lipid peroxidation inhibition, except in the L. plantarum strain, which did not show any significant difference in both activities. The probiotic potential of the isolates was evaluated by pH and bile tolerance. None of the selected isolates showed any growth at pH=2.0 but L. casei and L. delbrueckii survived at this pH. Four of the five selected isolates were able to grow in 0.5 % dehydrated bile, with L. casei strain showing the highest level of growth, followed by L. delbrueckii. L. plantarum strain was not bile tolerant. The ability of L. casei and L. delbrueckii strains to survive at pH=2 and grow in the presence of bile indicates that the isolates may be able to colonize the gastrointestinal tract. The findings of this study indicate that Lactobacillus strains isolated from indigenous Nigerian fermented foods could be useful as starter cultures to provide antioxidants in food and that fermented milk

  14. Characterisation of the gastrointestinal bacterial community in pigs fed fermented liquid feed and dry feed: composition and fermentation capacity (phenotypic fingerprint).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højberg, O; Knudsen, B; Canibe, N; Jensen, B B

    2001-01-01

    Feeding pigs with fermented liquid feed (FLF) has been shown to reduce the number of enteropathogens such as Salmonella and Brachyospira hyodysenteriae as well as coliform bacteria in general in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Also the commensal bacterial populations have been shown to respond to the use of FLF, e.g. the total counts of anaerobes, including lactic acid bacteria are reduced. In the present work we demonstrate that the capacity to ferment a series of substrates (mainly low-molecular weight carbohydrates) is reduced in caecum, colon and faeces of pigs fed FLF compared to pigs fed dry feed. This reduction could be due to the fact that these substrates are partially depleted by fermentation in the liquid feed prior to entering the animal. Therefore nutrient availability may be limited in the large intestine of pigs fed FLF, which may again affect bacterial enzyme synthesis and growth and thus the possibility for pathogenic and zoonotic bacteria to establish.

  15. Lipase Activity in Fermented Oil Seeds of Africa Locust Bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Castor Seeds (Ricinu Communis) and African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra Macrophylla). A.A. Liman*, P. ... The peak lipase activity for fermented Africa locust bean, Castor seed, and African oil bean were ..... fermented vegetable proteins. World.

  16. Stability and biological activity of wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) polyphenols during simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Betanzo, J; Allen-Vercoe, E; McDonald, J; Schroeter, K; Corredig, M; Paliyath, G

    2014-12-15

    Wild blueberries are rich in polyphenols and have several potential health benefits. Understanding the factors that affect the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of polyphenols is important for evaluating their biological significance and efficacy as functional food ingredients. Since the bioavailability of polyphenols such as anthocyanins is generally low, it has been proposed that metabolites resulting during colonic fermentation may be the components that exert health benefits. In this study, an in vitro gastrointestinal model comprising sequential chemostat fermentation steps that simulate digestive conditions in the stomach, small intestine and colon was used to investigate the breakdown of blueberry polyphenols. The catabolic products were isolated and biological effects tested using a normal human colonic epithelial cell line (CRL 1790) and a human colorectal cancer cell line (HT 29). The results showed a high stability of total polyphenols and anthocyanins during simulated gastric digestion step with approximately 93% and 99% of recovery, respectively. Intestinal digestion decreased polyphenol- and anthocyanin- contents by 49% and 15%, respectively, by comparison to the non-digested samples. During chemostat fermentation that simulates colonic digestion, the complex polyphenol mixture was degraded to a limited number of phenolic compounds such as syringic, cinnamic, caffeic, and protocatechuic acids. Only acetylated anthocyanins were detected in low amounts after chemostat fermentation. The catabolites showed lowered antioxidant activity and cell growth inhibition potential. Results suggest that colonic fermentation may alter the biological activity of blueberry polyphenols.

  17. Physical activity benefits and risks on the gastrointestinal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Donald

    2011-12-01

    This review evaluates the current understanding of the benefits and risks of physical activity and exercise on the gastrointestinal system. A significant portion of endurance athletes are affected by gastrointestinal symptoms, but most symptoms are transient and do not have long-term consequences. Conversely, physical activity may have a protective effect on the gastrointestinal system. There is convincing evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer. The evidence is less convincing for gastric and pancreatic cancers, gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cholelithiasis, diverticular disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and constipation. Physical activity may reduce the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding and inflammatory bowel disease, although this has not been proven unequivocally. This article provides a critical review of the evidence-based literature concerning exercise and physical activity effects on the gastrointestinal system and provides physicians with a better understanding of the evidence behind exercise prescriptions for patients with gastrointestinal disorders. Well-designed prospective randomized trials evaluating the risks and benefits of exercise and physical activity on gastrointestinal disorders are recommended for future research.

  18. SUPPLEMENTATION OF COFFEE HUSK FERMENTED WITH Pleurotus ostreatus: EFFECT ON PERFORMANCE AND BLOOD PROFILE OF GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES INFECTED GOAT

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    I. Badarina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the potency of coffee husk fermented with P.ostreatus as a natural anthelmintic supplement by measuring the performance and blood profile of goat suffered gastrointestinal nematodes infection. Eighteen local male goats of Kacang goat with body weight of 9.23 ± 1.71 kg and aged at ± 10 months were arranged into three treatments in completely randomized design. The treatments were T0 (group without chemical anthelmintic treatment and no supplementation of fermented coffee husk, T1 (without chemical anthelmintic treatment, but supplied with fermented coffee husk and T2 (group with chemical anthelmintic and no supplementation of fermented coffee husk. All goats were offered a basal diet in the ratio of 60% natural grasses along with 40% concentrate. Fermented coffee husk was added in the diet as much as 6% from the dry matter need. The result showed that there were no significant effect to dry matter intake, daily weight gain, PCV value and eosinophil counts (P>0.05. The supplementation of fermented coffee husk (T1 enhanced Hb and red blood cell (RBC value (P<0.05 while no significant difference to T2. There were no nematodes infection in T1 and T2 with the eggs count were zero while the animals in T0 were still infected. This result indicated that fermented coffee husk can be used as a promising natural anthelmintic supplement with the improvement of Hb value, RBC, egg counts and daily weight gain.

  19. Fermented and nonfermented liquid feed to growing pigs: effect on aspects of gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canibe, N; Jensen, B B

    2003-08-01

    The effect of feeding dry feed (DF), nonfermented liquid feed (NFLF), and fermented liquid feed (FLF) to growing pigs on aspects of gastrointestinal ecology and on performance was investigated. Nonfermented liquid feed was prepared by mixing feed and water at a ratio of 1:2.5 immediately before feeding. Fermented liquid feed was prepared by mixing feed and water in the same ratio as NFLF, and stored in a tank at 20 degrees C for 4 d, after which half the volume was removed twice daily at each feeding and replaced with the same volume of feed and water mixture. A total of 60 pigs (initial BW of 30.7 kg) from 20 litters was used. Twenty pigs, housed individually, were allotted to each of the diets and fed restrictively. Five pigs from each diet were sacrificed at an average BW of 112 kg and digesta from the gastrointestinal tract (GI-tract) was obtained to examine variables describing some aspects of the gastrointestinal ecology. Fermented liquid feed contained high levels of lactic acid bacteria (9.4 log cfu/g) and lactic acid (approximately 169 mmol/kg), low levels of enterobacteria (liquid feed contained 7.2 log cfu/g of lactic acid bacteria, and 6.2 log cfu/g of enterobacteria, which indicated that fermentation had started in the feed. The pigs fed FLF had the lowest levels of enterobacteria along the GI-tract (Fermented liquid feed caused a decrease in gastric pH from 4.4 and 4.6 for DF and NLF, to 4.0 (P = 0.003), and increased numerically the gastric concentration of lactic acid (P = 0.17) from 50 to 60 mmol/kg in the DF and NFLF treatments to 113 mmol/kg in the FLF treatment. The animals fed NFLF showed the highest weight gain (995 g/d) and feed intake (2.14 kg/d), and those fed FLF the lowest values (weight gain, 931 g/d; feed intake, 1.96 kg/d; P = 0.003 for weight gain, and P feed intake). The results from the present study indicate that feeding FLF as prepared here may be a valid feeding strategy to decrease the levels of enterobacteria in the GI-tract of

  20. Extracellular enzyme activities during cassava fermentation for 'fufu' production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewole, O B; Odunfa, S A

    1992-01-01

    Amylase and pectin methyl esterase activities increased rapidly during the early period of the fermentation of cassava for 'fufu' production, attaining their peak activities after 12 and 24h, respectively. Cellulase activity was lower and approximately constant for most of the fermentation period.

  1. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefiak, D; Kierończyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, R M; Højberg, O

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG was affected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as

  2. Changes in antioxidant activities and physicochemical properties of Kapi, a fermented shrimp paste, during fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Faithong, Nandhsha; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2012-01-01

    Changes in chemical composition, physical properties and antioxidant activities of Kapi were monitored during fermentation for 12 months. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl), ABTS (2, 2 – azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical scavenging activity as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) gradually increased as the fermentation time increased, particularly during the first 8 months (P 

  3. Characterization of antimicrobial activity in Kombucha fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sreeramulu, G.; Zhu, Y.; Knol, W.

    2001-01-01

    Fermented tea drink, Kombucha, can inhibit the growth of Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium. Several metabolites were analyzed every two days during a 14-day Kombucha fermentation. Levels of acetic acid and gluconic acid were found to increase with

  4. Efficient L-lactic acid fermentation by the mold Rhizopus oryzae using activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koide, M.; Hirata, M.; Gaw, M.; Takanashi, H.; Hano, T. [Oita Univ, Oita (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2004-11-01

    Batch fermentations of Rhizopus oryzae AHU 6537 in medium containing granular activated carbon from coal, powder activated carbon from coal or granular activated carbon from coconut were carried out in an airlift bioreactor. As a result, fermentation broths were decolorized by activated carbon, and clearer fermentation broths were obtained than in fermentation without activated carbon. With activated carbon from coal, the cells formed smaller pellets than in fermentation without activated carbon, and fermentation performance was improved. Productivity was further improved by increasing the amount of activated carbon from coal. Therefore, the productivity of lactic acid fermentation could be improved by selecting a suitable activated carbon and by controlling the amount of activated carbon.

  5. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jozefiak, D; Kieronczyk, B; Rawski, M

    2014-01-01

    of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v......The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments...... fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C...

  6. Modulation of Lactobacillus plantarum gastrointestinal robustness by fermentation conditions enables identification of bacterial robustness markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst-van de Veen, van H.; Lee, I.; Marco, M.L.; Bron, P.A.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background - Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are applied worldwide in the production of a variety of fermented food products. Additionally, specific Lactobacillus species are nowadays recognized for their health-promoting effects on the consumer. To optimally exert such beneficial effects, it is consider

  7. Modulation of Lactobacillus plantarum Gastrointestinal Robustness by Fermentation Conditions Enables Identification of Bacterial Robustness Markers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst-van de Veen, H. van; Lee, I.C.; Marco, M.L.; Wels, M.W.; Bron, P.A.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are applied worldwide in the production of a variety of fermented food products. Additionally, specific Lactobacillus species are nowadays recognized for their health-promoting effects on the consumer. To optimally exert such beneficial effects, it is considere

  8. Changes in antioxidant activities and physicochemical properties of Kapi, a fermented shrimp paste, during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faithong, Nandhsha; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-10-01

    Changes in chemical composition, physical properties and antioxidant activities of Kapi were monitored during fermentation for 12 months. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl), ABTS (2, 2 - azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical scavenging activity as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) gradually increased as the fermentation time increased, particularly during the first 8 months (P  0.05). The continuous increases in ammonia nitrogen, formaldehyde nitrogen and amino nitrogen contents were noticeable within the first 8 months (P Antioxidant activities of Kapi were more likely governed by the low molecular weight peptides, amino acids as well as Maillard reaction products generated during fermentation.

  9. Kombucha fermentation and its antimicrobial activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sreeramulu, G.; Zhu, Y.; Knol, W.

    2000-01-01

    Kombucha was prepared in a tea broth (0.5% w/v) supplemented with sucrose (10% w/v) by using a commercially available starter culture. The pH decreased steadily from 5 to 2.5 during the fermentation while the weight of the 'tea fungus' and the OD of the tea broth increased through 4 days of the

  10. Kombucha fermentation and its antimicrobial activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sreeramulu, G.; Zhu, Y.; Knol, W.

    2000-01-01

    Kombucha was prepared in a tea broth (0.5% w/v) supplemented with sucrose (10% w/v) by using a commercially available starter culture. The pH decreased steadily from 5 to 2.5 during the fermentation while the weight of the 'tea fungus' and the OD of the tea broth increased through 4 days of the ferm

  11. Development of Antioxidant Activity during Milk Fermentation by Wild Isolates of Lactobacillus helveticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aazam Namdari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Oxidative stress, due to free radicals, brings injury to the body by attacking large molecules and cell organs, and is the main reason of many diseases. Fermentation of foods containing large amount of proteins such as milk by special species of lactic acid bacteria is a potential way in enhancement of the antioxidative activity of foods. This study aimed at evaluating non-common starter species isolates of Lactobacillus helveticus for their capability to produce fermented milk enriched in antioxidant peptides.Materials and Methods: Reconstituted skim milk (11% was inoculated with 7 wild isolates of Lactobacillus helveticus, and after 24 h fermentation at 37ºC, the samples were kept 4ºC and for 14 days. Viable cell number, acidification and proteolysis degree in the milk fermented by each isolate were assessed in 1, 7 and 14 days. Development of antioxidant activity was measured using DPPH and ABTS●+ radial scavenging activities during the storage period.Results and Conclusion: Though some slight strain-dependent differences were observed in growth, acidification and proteolysis, all the samples showed considerably strong antioxidant activity (at least 62.32±3.66% and 57.64±1.42% measured using DPPH and ABTS●+ radicals, respectively through the whole storage period. In vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion indicated that DPPH radical-scavenging activity of the antioxidative peptidic supernatants was not affected significantly by consecutive pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis in most of the samples. These evidences support Lactobacillus helveticus as a promising functional culture able to promote health benefits in dairy-based functional foods.Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  12. The magnetic field of gastrointestinal smooth muscle activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Alan; Ladipo, Jk; Richards, William; Wikswo, John

    1997-11-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract controls the absorption and transport of ingested materials. Its function is determined largely by the electrical activity of the smooth muscle that lines the GI tract. GI electrical activity consists of an omnipresent slowly oscillating wave known as the basic electrical rhythm (BER) that modulates a higher-frequency spiking activity associated with muscle contraction. The BER has been shown to be a reliable indicator of intestinal viability, and thus, recording of smooth muscle activity may have clinical value. The BER is difficult to measure with cutaneous electrodes because layers of low-conductivity fat between the GI tract and the abdominal surface attenuate the potential. On the other hand, the magnetic field associated with GI electrical activity is mostly unaffected by intervening fat layers. We recorded the magnetic fields from GI activity in 12 volunteers using a multichannel Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer. Characteristics typical of gastric and intestinal BER were apparent in the data. Channels near the epigastrium recorded gastric BER, and channels in intestinal areas recorded small bowel BER. These results suggest that a single multichannel SQUID magnetometer is able to measure gastrointestinal electrical activity from multiple locations around the abdomen simultaneously.

  13. Biologically active amines in fermented and non-fermented commercial soybean products from the Spanish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Funes, N; Bosch-Fuste, J; Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2015-04-15

    Biologically active amines were determined in commercial soybean products. The antioxidant polyamines were found in both non-fermented and fermented soybean products. Natto and tempeh showed the highest content of polyamines (75-124 and 11-24 mg/kg of spermidine and spermine, respectively). On the other hand, the bacterial-related biogenic amines, tyramine, histamine, tryptamine and β-phenylethylamine, were detected in practically all fermented products with a high variability. The highest contents were found in sufu, tamari and soybean paste. Extremely high tyramine and histamine contents, 1700 and 700 mg/kg, respectively, found in some sufu samples could be unhealthy. However, biogenic amines observed in the other soybean products should not be a risk for healthy consumers. However, individuals who take monoamine and diamine oxidase inhibitors drugs should be strongly recommended to avoid this kind of products in order to suffer no adverse health effects. These biogenic amines were not detected in non-fermented soybean products.

  14. Gastrointestinal inflammation and associated immune activation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severance, Emily G; Alaedini, Armin; Yang, Shuojia; Halling, Meredith; Gressitt, Kristin L; Stallings, Cassie R; Origoni, Andrea E; Vaughan, Crystal; Khushalani, Sunil; Leweke, F Markus; Dickerson, Faith B; Yolken, Robert H

    2012-06-01

    Immune factors are implicated in normal brain development and in brain disorder pathogenesis. Pathogen infection and food antigen penetration across gastrointestinal barriers are means by which environmental factors might affect immune-related neurodevelopment. Here, we test if gastrointestinal inflammation is associated with schizophrenia and therefore, might contribute to bloodstream entry of potentially neurotropic milk and gluten exorphins and/or immune activation by food antigens. IgG antibodies to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA, a marker of intestinal inflammation), bovine milk casein, wheat-derived gluten, and 6 infectious agents were assayed. Cohort 1 included 193 with non-recent onset schizophrenia, 67 with recent onset schizophrenia and 207 non-psychiatric controls. Cohort 2 included 103 with first episode schizophrenia, 40 of whom were antipsychotic-naïve. ASCA markers were significantly elevated and correlated with food antigen antibodies in recent onset and non-recent onset schizophrenia compared to controls (p≤0.00001-0.004) and in unmedicated individuals with first episode schizophrenia compared to those receiving antipsychotics (p≤0.05-0.01). Elevated ASCA levels were especially evident in non-recent onset females (p≤0.009), recent onset males (p≤0.01) and in antipsychotic-naïve males (p≤0.03). Anti-food antigen antibodies were correlated to antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, an intestinally-infectious pathogen, particularly in males with recent onset schizophrenia (p≤0.002). In conclusion, gastrointestinal inflammation is a relevant pathology in schizophrenia, appears to occur in the absence of but may be modified by antipsychotics, and may link food antigen sensitivity and microbial infection as sources of immune activation in mental illness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biodiversity of brewery yeast strains and their fermentative activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlowska, Joanna; Kregiel, Dorota; Rajkowska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the genetic, biochemical, fermentative and physiological characteristics of brewery yeast strains and performed a hierarchical cluster analysis to evaluate their similarity. We used five different ale and lager yeast strains, originating from different European breweries and deposited at the National Collection of Yeast Cultures (UK). Ale and lager strains exhibited different genomic properties, but their assimilation profiles and pyruvate decarboxylase activities corresponded to their species classifications. The activity of another enzyme, succinate dehydrogenase, varied between different brewing strains. Our results confirmed that ATP and glycogen content, and the activity of the key metabolic enzymes succinate dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase, may be good general indicators of cell viability. However, the genetic properties, physiology and fermentation capacity of different brewery yeasts are unique to individual strains.

  16. Effect of fermentation of cereals on the degradation of polysaccharides and other macronutrients in the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sholly, D.M.; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Sutton, A.L.;

    2011-01-01

    square design. Pigs were cannulated and housed individually in metabolism pens during sample collection. The 4 cerealbased diets were nonfermented liquid barley (NFLB), nonfermented liquid wheat (NFLW), fermented liquid barley (FLB), and fermented liquid wheat (FLW). The fermented feeds were prepared...... ingredients were added. Water was added to the dry nonfermented feeds [1:1 (wt/wt)] immediately before feeding. The fermentation process reduced the amount of DM in both cereals (P fermented cereals. There was an interaction of cereal.......243) on the fecal digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides in either of the cereals but their digestibility was 10.0% greater (P fermentation of cereal before feeding altered the dietary composition and influenced flow and composition...

  17. A yeast fermentate improves gastrointestinal discomfort and constipation by modulation of the gut microbiome: results from a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Iris; Robinson, Larry; Verhelst, An; Marzorati, Massimo; Winkens, Björn; den Abbeele, Pieter Van; Possemiers, Sam

    2017-09-04

    Constipation and symptoms of gastrointestinal discomfort such as bloating are common among otherwise healthy individuals, but with significant impact on quality of life. Despite the recognized contribution of the gut microbiome to this pathology, little is known about which group(s) of microorganism(s) are playing a role. A previous study performed in vitro suggests that EpiCor® fermentate has prebiotic-like properties, being able to favorably modulate the composition of the gut microbiome. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of EpiCor fermentate in a population with symptoms of gastrointestinal discomfort and reduced bowel movements and to evaluate its effect at the level of the gut microbiome. This pilot study was performed according to a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel design. Eighty subjects with symptoms of gastrointestinal discomfort and constipation were allocated to one of two trial arms (placebo or EpiCor fermentate). Randomization was done in a stratified manner according to symptom severity, resulting in two subgroups of patients: severe and moderate. Daily records of gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed on a 5-point scale, and also stool frequency and consistency were documented during a 2-week run-in and a 6-week intervention phases. Averages over two-week intervals were calculated. Constipation-associated quality of life and general perceived stress were assessed at baseline and after 3 and 6 weeks of intervention. Fecal samples were also collected at these same time points. EpiCor fermentate led to a significant improvement of symptoms such as bloating/distension (p = 0.033 and p = 0.024 after 2 and 4 weeks of intervention, respectively), feeling of fullness (p = 0.004 and p = 0.023 after 2 and 4 weeks of intervention, respectively) and general daily scores (p = 0.046 after 2 weeks of intervention) in the moderate subgroup. A significant improvement in stool consistency was observed

  18. Effect of fermentation on the antioxidant activity in plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun Jin; Lee, Seung Yuan; Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Inwook; Kim, Geun-Bae

    2014-10-01

    This study provides an overview of the factors that influence the effect of fermentation on the antioxidant activity and the mechanisms that augment antioxidative activities in fermented plant-based foods. The ability of fermentation to improve antioxidant activity is primarily due to an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids during fermentation, which is the result of a microbial hydrolysis reaction. Moreover, fermentation induces the structural breakdown of plant cell walls, leading to the liberation or synthesis of various antioxidant compounds. These antioxidant compounds can act as free radical terminators, metal chelators, singlet oxygen quenchers, or hydrogen donors to radicals. The production of protease, α-amylase and some other enzymes can be influenced by fermentation that may have metal ion chelation activity. Because the mechanisms that affect antioxidant activity during fermentation are extremely varied, further investigation is needed to establish the precise mechanisms for these processes.

  19. Effects of neurotrophins on gastrointestinal myoelectric activities of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning-Li Chai; Lei Dong; Zong-Fang Li; Ke-Xin Du; Jian-Hua Wang; Li-Kun Yan; Xi-Lin Dong

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effects of mouse nerve growth factor (NGF), rat recombinant brain derived neurotrophic factor (rm-BDNF) and recombinant human neurotrophin-3 (rh-NT3) on the gastrointestinal motility and the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) in rat.METHODS: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled experiment was performed. 5-7 days after we chronically implanted four or five bipolar silver electrodes on the stomach, duodenum, jejunum and colon, 21 experimental rats were coded and divided into 3 groups and injected NGF, rm-BDNF, rh-NT-3 or placebo respectively via tail vein activity was recorded 2 hours before and after the test substance infusions in these consciously fasting rats.RESULTS: The neurotrophins-induced pattern of activity was characterized by enhanced spiking activity of different amplitudes at all recording sites, especially in the colon. In the gastric antrum and intestine, only rh-NT-3 had increased effects on the demographic characteristics of electrical activities (P<0.05), but did not affect the intervals of MMCs.In the colon, all the three kinds of neurotrophins could significantly increase the frequency, amplitude and duration levels of spike bursts, and also rh-NT-3 could prolong the intervals of MMC in the transverse colon (25±11 min vs 19±6 min, P<0.05). In the distal colon rh-NT-3 could evoke phase Ⅲ-like activity and disrupt the MMC pattern, which was replaced by a continuously long spike bursts (LSB) and irregular spike activity (ISA) for 48±6 min.CONCLUSION: Exogenous neurotrophic factors can stimulate gut myoelectric activities in rats.

  20. Mycelial fermentation characteristics and antiproliferative activity of Phellinus vaninii Ljup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mycelial fermentation of higher fungi were investigated to posses various bioactivities. Materials and Methods: The mycelial growth and pellet morphology in a 5-L bioreactor were investigated. The mycelial broth containing biomass and extracellular products harvested from the fermentor was tested for antiproliferative activity of colon cancer LoVo cells using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide assay. Results: The maximum mycelial concentration in a 5-L bioreactor was 12.5 g/L after 8 days cultivation. Further investigation in the mycelial pellets during the fermentation period revealed that the mean diameter of the pellet morphology was positively correlated with mycelial biomass (R2 = 0.82, P < 0.05 and broth viscosity (R2 = 0.90, P < 0.01, significantly. The ethyl acetate extract showed the most significant effects, increasing the inhibition rate up to 87.5% after 48 h at concentration of 1000 μg/mL. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the feasibility of P. vaninii Ljup mycelial fermentation for large-scale production of bioactive and medicinal compounds.

  1. Fermentation temperature affects the antioxidant activity of the enzyme-ripened sufu, an oriental traditional fermented product of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yung-Hsin; Lai, Ying-Jang; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2011-07-01

    In this study, sufu, a Chinese traditional fermented product of soybean, was prepared by ripening salted tofu cubes in the mash of Aspergillus oryzae-fermented rice-soybean koji possessing various hydrolytic enzymes at 25°C, 37°C and 45°C. Antioxidant activity including 2,2-diphenyl-2-picylhydoxyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, Fe(2+)-chelating ability and reducing power exerted by the methanol extract of sufu was determined and compared with that of the non-fermented tofu extract. It was found that antioxidant activity of the sufu extracts was, generally, higher than the non-fermented tofu extract. Ripening temperature and the duration of ripening period affected the antioxidant activity of the sufu extracts. Taking into account of extraction yields, the sufu product ripened at 45°C for 16 days showed the most profound enhancement in the DPPH radical-scavenging effect and Fe(2+)-iron-chelating ability, which is 3.4 and 11.5 folds, respectively, that noted with the non-fermented tofu.

  2. Anthelmintic activity of Indigofera tinctoria against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambalathaduvar Meenakshisundaram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Gastrointestinal (GI nematodes are considered as a major constraint for successful sheep production. Control of these parasites heavily relies on the use of chemical anthelmintics. Over the past decades, the development of anthelmintic resistance to various groups of anthelmintics and problem of drug residues in animal products has awakened interest in medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of Indigofera tinctoria by scientifically validated in vitro and in vivo tests approved by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. Materials and Methods: In vitro assays such as egg hatch assay for ovicidal and larval migration inhibition and larval development assay for larvicidal properties were used to investigate in vitro effect of extracts on strongyle egg and larvae, respectively. Fecal egg count reduction test was conducted in vivo to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the extracts administered orally at dose rates of 125, 250, 500 mg/kg to sheep naturally infected with mixed GI nematodes. Results: Ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria demonstrated significant (p<0.01 inhibition on egg hatching at concentrations of 40 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml. In in vivo assay, the ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria reduced the fecal egg count ranging between 30.82% and 47.78% at various doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg. Although there was a slight variation, all the hematological parameters were within the normal range reported for sheep. Except for alanine transaminase, the overall mean of all the serum biochemical profile was within the normal range for sheep. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained by in vitro and in vivo assay, the ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria possesses anthelmintic activity and could replace the chemical anthelmintics used presently.

  3. Electrodermal screening of biologically active points for upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ying-Jung; Hu, Wen-Long; Hung, I-Ling; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Hung, Yu-Chiang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the relationship between the electrical resistance of the skin at biologically active points (BAPs) on the main meridians and upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). Electrical resistance to direct current at 20 BAPs on the fingers and toes of 100 patients with (38 men, 12 women; mean age [range], 58.20 ± 19.62 [18-83] years) and without (27 men, 23 women; 49.54 ± 12.12 [22-74] years) UGIB was measured through electrodermal screening (EDS), based on the theory of electroacupuncture according to Voll (EAV). Data were compared through analysis of variance (ANOVA), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and logistic regression. The initial readings were lower in the UGIB group, indicating blood and energy deficiency due to UGIB. Significant differences in indicator drop values were observed at nine BAPs (p < 0.05) on the bilateral small intestine, bilateral stomach, bilateral circulation, bilateral fibroid degeneration, and right lymph meridians. The area under the ROC curve values of the BAPs on the bilateral small intestine and stomach meridians were larger than 0.5, suggesting the diagnostic accuracy of EDS for UGIB on the basis of the indicator drop of these BAPs. Logistic regression revealed that when the indicator drop of the BAP on the left stomach meridian increased by one score, the risk of UGIB increased by about 1.545-3.523 times. In conclusion, the change in the electrical resistance of the skin measured by EDS at the BAPs on the bilateral small intestine and stomach meridians provides specific information on UGIB.

  4. FERMENTABILITY AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LACTOPEROXIDASE ACTIVATED BUFFALO MILK YOGHURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz H. Soomro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study was planned to produce and evaluate the coagulum from buffalo milk preserved with the activation of its lactoperoxidase system (LPO-system. A total of 10 trials were conducted and in each trial milk base was equally divided into three parts, two of which were treated with 20 mg/L (A and 30 mg/L (B solution of Sodium thiocyanate + Hydrogen peroxide and third part was kept as control (C. All the samples were analyzed for fermentability trend, pH, acidity, viscosity, specific gravity, syneresis and organoleptic properties. The decreasing trend in pH during fermentation period was comparatively slow in LPO-system activated milk A and B (4h and 5h as compared to control yoghurt (3h. The titratable acidity (% lactic acid of A, B and C yoghurt was 0.86±0.022, 0.85±0.025 and 0.89±0.024, respectively. The viscosity and specific gravity of control yoghurt was significantly (P0.05 were observed in the total solids, fat, ash, lactose and protein contents among the control, A and B yoghurt. Two week stored samples of control yoghurt received lower sensory score for appearance, flavor, body/texture and overall acceptability as compared to fresh control yoghurt. Simultaneously, LPO-system treated A and B yoghurt received high score during storage period than the control yoghurt.

  5. Gastrointestinal-active oligosaccharides from human milk and functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Keywords: human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), konjac glucomannan (KGM), breast milk, baby feces, gastrointestinal metabolization, blood-group specific conjugates, CE-LIF-MSn   Oligosaccharides, as present in human milk or supplemented to food, are renowned for

  6. Milk fermentation products of L. helveticus R389 activate calcineurin as a signal to promote gut mucosal immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perdigón Gabriela

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Fermented milks containing probiotic bacteria are a way of delivering bioactive constituents to targets in the gastrointestinal tract. We reported previously that the fermentation of milk at constant pH 6 by L. helveticus R389 increased its content of peptide fractions, and the oral administration of the non-bacterial fraction (FMSpH6 to mice increased total secretory IgA in the intestinal lumen and enhanced the number of IgA and various cytokines producing cells as well as the secretion of IL-6 by small intestine epithelial cells. We also demonstrated that this FMSpH6 was effective for the prevention of Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice. In this work, we studied in mice the impact of the oral administration of the supernatant of milk fermented by L. helveticus R389 on the gut physiology by measuring parameters such as calcium channels and E-cadherin expression, the activation of the biological signal calcineurin and mast and goblet cells, as a way to determine some mechanisms involved in the immunomodulating effects of the milk fermentation products, observed in previous studies. We analyzed the impact of the supernatant of milk fermented by L. helveticus R389 at pH6-controlled on the expression of calcineurin and on the reinforcement of the ephitelial barrier, measuring parameters such as calcium channels and E-cadherin expression and in the reinforcement of the non-specific immunity determining mast cells and goblet cells associated to the gut. Results We observed an enhanced expression of TRPV6 channels in the duodenum, indicating an improved capacity for dietary Ca2+ uptake. We demonstrated an enhanced expression of calcineurin in the small intestine, able to upregulate immune parameters such as IL-2 and TNF production, with an increase in the number of these cytokines secreting cells. We determined an increase in the number of mucosal mast cells and goblet cells, which would mean an improved state of mucosal surveillance

  7. Discrepancies in microbiota composition along the pig gastrointestinal tract between in vivo observations and an in vitro batch fermentation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudry, C; Poelaert, C; Portetelle, D; Thewis, A; Bindelle, J

    2012-12-01

    In vitro fermentation models are increasingly used to assess prebiotic potential of novel indigestible carbohydrates (CHO). A trial was performed to assess the validity of such approaches by comparing the influence of fermentation of inulin and cellulose on microbiota in vivo and in vitro. Two semipurified diets based on 5% inulin or 5% cellulose were fed to 2 groups of four 25-kg pigs. After 3 wk, the pigs were slaughtered and digesta was sampled from jejunum, ileum, cecum, and 3 parts of the colon to measure pH and microbiota population. An in vitro gas fermentation test was also performed on inulin and cellulose using fresh feces of the experimental pigs as bacterial inoculum. The gas production kinetics were modeled and fermentation broth sampled after 5, 8, 12, 24, and 72 h. Bacterial DNA was extracted and quantitative PCR was performed to quantify total bacteria, lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, Bacteroides, Clostridium cluster I, and Escherichia coli. Total bacteria quantification was similar between both systems. In vivo, total bacteria increased (P 0.05) for both CHO. Evolutions of lactobacilli and Clostridium populations in both systems were also not consistent. This can be ascribed to specific bacterial properties as, for example, adhesive properties or sensitivity to sulfur reducing agent used in the in vitro model. As is, the in vitro model does not reflect properly changes in microbiota along the digestive tract induced by specific feed ingredients compared to in vivo observations.

  8. The potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679 survives the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and its use as starter culture results in safe nutritionally enhanced fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Raquel; Martín, Belén; Aymerich, Teresa; Garriga, Margarita

    2014-09-01

    The human-derived potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679 was used as a starter culture in reduced fat and sodium low-acid fermented sausages (fuets) to assess its ability to survive through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in a human intervention study consisting of 5 healthy volunteers who consumed 25 g fuet a day for 21 days. Faecal samples were analysed during and after consumption. L. rhamnosus CTC1679 produced a transient colonisation of the human GIT and persisted during the ingestion period of fuet containing L. rhamnosus CTC1679 at levels ca. 8log CFU/g. After 3 days of non-consumption, the strain was still recovered in the faeces of all the volunteers. To evaluate the safety of the nutritionally enhanced manufactured fuets, a challenge test was designed in a separately manufactured batch. L. rhamnosus CTC1679 was able to grow, survive and dominate (levels ca. 10(8) CFU/g) the endogenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB), prevented the growth of Listeria monocytogenes throughout the whole ripening process of the fuets and eliminated Salmonella. After 35 days of storage at 4 °C, L. monocytogenes was not detected, achieving absence in 25 g of the product. The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (600 MPa for 5 min) at the end of ripening (day 14) produced an immediate reduction of L. monocytogenes to levels fermented sausages.

  9. Anticancer activity of botanical compounds in ancient fermented beverages (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, P E; Christofidou-Solomidou, M; Wang, W; Dukes, F; Davidson, T; El-Deiry, W S

    2010-07-01

    Humans around the globe probably discovered natural remedies against disease and cancer by trial and error over the millennia. Biomolecular archaeological analyses of ancient organics, especially plants dissolved or decocted as fermented beverages, have begun to reveal the preliterate histories of traditional pharmacopeias, which often date back thousands of years earlier than ancient textual, ethnohistorical, and ethnological evidence. In this new approach to drug discovery, two case studies from ancient Egypt and China illustrate how ancient medicines can be reconstructed from chemical and archaeological data and their active compounds delimited for testing their anticancer and other medicinal effects. Specifically, isoscopoletin from Artemisia argyi, artemisinin from Artemisia annua, and the latter's more easily assimilated semi-synthetic derivative, artesunate, showed the greatest activity in vitro against lung and colon cancers. In vivo tests of these compounds previously unscreened against lung and pancreatic cancers are planned for the future.

  10. Evaluation of In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activities and Protective Effect of Fermented Preparations of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae on Intestinal Barrier Function against Lipopolysaccharide Insult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shambhunath Bose

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a potent inducer of systemic inflammatory responses, is known to cause impairment of intestinal barrier function. Here, we evaluated the in vitro protective effect of an unfermented formulation of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (RAM, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine widely used in the treatment of many digestive and gastrointestinal disorders, and two fermented preparations of RAM, designated as FRAM-1 (prepared in Luria-Bertani broth and FRAM-2 (prepared in glucose, on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs against LPS insult. In general, fermented formulations, especially FRAM-2, but not unfermented RAM, exerted an appreciable protective effect on IECs against LPS-induced perturbation of membrane resistance and permeability. Both fermented formulations exhibited appreciable anti-inflammatory activities in terms of their ability to inhibit LPS-induced gene expression and induced production of a number of key inflammatory mediators and cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. However, in most cases, FRAM-2 exhibited stronger anti-inflammatory effects than FRAM-1. Our findings also suggest that suppression of nuclear factor-κβ (NF-κβ activity might be one of the possible mechanisms by which the fermented RAM exerts its anti-inflammatory effects. Collectively, our results highlight the benefits of using fermented products of RAM to protect against LPS-induced inflammatory insult and impairment in intestinal barrier function.

  11. Antibacterial activity of norfloxacin in the gastrointestinal tracts of rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Frimodt-Møller, P C; Jensen, K. M.; Madsen, P O

    1983-01-01

    The capacities of norfloxacin (MK-0366) and neomycin to reduce the numbers of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tracts of rats were evaluated. Results of a 3-day treatment with norfloxacin were compared with those of a 3-day treatment with neomycin. Both drugs significantly decreased gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Norfloxacin effected a significantly greater reduction in numbers of gram-negative bacteria than did neomycin. Norfloxacin also significantly increased the number of anaer...

  12. Cooking Has Variable Effects on the Fermentability in the Large Intestine of the Fraction of Meats, Grain Legumes, and Insects That Is Resistant to Digestion in the Small Intestine in an in Vitro Model of the Pig's Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelaert, Christine; Despret, Xavier; Sindic, Marianne; Beckers, Yves; Francis, Frédéric; Portetelle, Daniel; Soyeurt, Hélène; Théwis, André; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2017-01-18

    This study aimed to evaluate the fermentation in the large intestine of indigestible dietary protein sources from animal, insect, and plant origin using an in vitro model of the pig's gastrointestinal tract. Protein sources were used raw and after a cooking treatment. Results showed that the category of the ingredient (meats, insects, or grain legumes) exerts a stronger impact on enzymatic digestibility, fermentation patterns, and bacterial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) than the cooking treatment. The digestibility and the fermentation characteristics of insects were more affected by the cooking procedure than the other categories. Per gram of consumed food, ingredients from animal origin, namely, meats and insects, were associated with fewer fermentation end-products (gas, H2S, SCFA) than ingredients from plant origin, which is related to their higher small intestinal digestibility.

  13. Computed tomography angiography in patients with active gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Fatima Regina Silva; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: fatima.rsreis@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Cardia, P.P. [Hospital Vera Cruz, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Gastrointestinal bleeding represents a common medical emergency, with considerable morbidity and mortality rates, and a prompt diagnosis is essential for a better prognosis. In such a context, endoscopy is the main diagnostic tool; however, in cases where the gastrointestinal hemorrhage is massive, the exact bleeding site might go undetected. In addition, a trained professional is not always present to perform the procedure. In an emergency setting, optical colonoscopy presents limitations connected with the absence of bowel preparation, so most of the small bowel cannot be assessed. Scintigraphy cannot accurately demonstrate the anatomic location of the bleeding and is not available at emergency settings. The use of capsule endoscopy is inappropriate in the acute setting, particularly in the emergency department at night, and is a highly expensive method. Digital angiography, despite its high sensitivity, is invasive, presents catheterization-related risks, in addition to its low availability at emergency settings. On the other hand, computed tomography angiography is fast, widely available and minimally invasive, emerging as a promising method in the diagnostic algorithm of these patients, being capable of determining the location and cause of bleeding with high accuracy. Based on a critical literature review and on their own experience, the authors propose a computed tomography angiography protocol to assess the patient with gastrointestinal bleeding. (author)

  14. Streptomyces sp. TEM 33 possesses high lipolytic activity in solid-state fermentation in comparison with submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadirci, Bilge Hilal; Yasa, Ihsan; Kocyigit, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a bioprocess that doesn't need an excess of free water, and it offers potential benefits for microbial cultivation for bioprocesses and product development. In comparing the antibiotic production, few detailed reports could be found with lipolytic enzyme production by Streptomycetes in SSF. Taking this knowledge into consideration, we prefer to purify Actinomycetes species as a new source for lipase production. The lipase-producing strain Streptomyces sp. TEM 33 was isolated from soil and lipase production was managed by solid-state fermentation (SSF) in comparison with submerged fermentation (SmF). Bioprocess-affecting factors like initial moisture content, incubation time, and various carbon and nitrogen additives and the other enzymes secreted into the media were optimized. Lipase activity was measured as 1.74 ± 0.0005 U/g dry substrate (gds) by the p-nitrophenylpalmitate (pNPP) method on day 6 of fermentation with 71.43% final substrate moisture content. In order to understand the metabolic priority in SSF, cellulase and xylanase activity of Streptomyces sp. TEM33 was also measured. The microorganism degrades the wheat bran to its usable form by excreting cellulases and xylanases; then it secretes the lipase that is necessary for degrading the oil in the medium.

  15. Effect of fermentation of cereals on the degradation of polysaccharides and other macronutrients in the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholly, D M; Jørgensen, H; Sutton, A L; Richert, B T; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of the present investigation was to study the impact of fermentation of cereals on the degradation of polysaccharides and other macronutrients in the small intestine and total tract of growing pigs. Eight pigs (initial BW, 34.5 ± 0.9 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Pigs were cannulated and housed individually in metabolism pens during sample collection. The 4 cereal-based diets were nonfermented liquid barley (NFLB), nonfermented liquid wheat (NFLW), fermented liquid barley (FLB), and fermented liquid wheat (FLW). The fermented feeds were prepared by storing the dietary cereals (barley and wheat) and water [1:2.75 (wt/wt)] in a closed tank at 25 °C for 2 d, after which 50% of the volume was removed and replaced with an equal amount of fresh cereals and water after each afternoon meal. At the time of feeding (0730 and 1430 h), the remaining dietary ingredients were added. Water was added to the dry nonfermented feeds [1:1 (wt/wt)] immediately before feeding. The fermentation process reduced the amount of DM in both cereals (Pfermented cereals. There was an interaction of cereal and treatment for ileal flow of DM (P=0.014), OM (P=0.013), and protein (P=0.006), which were less in pigs fed the NFLB than the FLB diets, but unchanged in pigs fed the NFLW and FLW diets. Conversely, the ileal flow of protein was similar (P=0.605) in pigs fed the barley diets (average, 47.5 ± 1.7 g/kg of DMI) and increased with the FLW diet compared with the NFLW diet (43 vs. 35 g/kg of DMI, respectively). Ileal fat and CH(2)O digestibilities were 7.6 (P=0.002) and 8.9% (Pfermented than nonfermented diets (86.5 vs. 84.5%, respectively; PFermentation reduced (PFermentation had no effect (P=0.243) on the fecal digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides in either of the cereals but their digestibility was 10.0% greater (Pfermentation of cereal before feeding altered the dietary composition and influenced flow and composition of polysaccharides

  16. Antimicrobial activity of fermented Theobroma cacao pod husk extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R X; Oliveira, D A; Sodré, G A; Gosmann, G; Brendel, M; Pungartnik, C

    2014-09-26

    Theobroma cacao L. contains more than 500 different chemical compounds some of which have been traditionally used for their antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, immunomodulatory, vasodilatory, analgesic, and antimicrobial activities. Spontaneous aerobic fermentation of cacao husks yields a crude husk extract (CHE) with antimicrobial activity. CHE was fractioned by solvent partition with polar solvent extraction or by silica gel chromatography and a total of 12 sub-fractions were analyzed for chemical composition and bioactivity. CHE was effective against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa. Antibacterial activity was determined using 6 strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella choleraesuis (Gram-negative). At doses up to 10 mg/mL, CHE was not effective against the Gram-positive bacteria tested but against medically important P. aeruginosa and S. choleraesuis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5.0 mg/mL. Sub-fractions varied widely in activity and strongest antibacterial activity was seen with CHE8 against S. choleraesuis (MIC of 1.0 mg/mL) and CHE9 against S. epidermidis (MIC of 2.5 mg/mL). All bioactive CHE fractions contained phenols, steroids, or terpenes, but no saponins. Fraction CHE9 contained flavonoids, phenolics, steroids, and terpenes, amino acids, and alkaloids, while CHE12 had the same compounds but lacked flavonoids.

  17. Screening of immunomodulatory and adhesive Lactobacillus with antagonistic activities against Salmonella from fermented vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Junchang; Liu, Pilong; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Xin

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) by their in vitro adhesive and immunomodulatory properties for potential use as probiotics. In this study, 16 randomly selected LAB strains from fermented vegetables (sauerkraut, bean and cabbage) were first screened for their tolerance to acid, bile salts, pepsin and pancreatin, bacterial inhibitory activities and abilities to adherence to Caco-2 cells. Then, 4 strains with the highest adhesion abilities were selected for further studies of their immunomodulatory properties and inhibitory effects against Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro. The results showed that these 16 LAB strains effectively survived in simulated gastrointestinal condition and inhibited growth of six tested pathogens. Lactobacillus rhamnosus P1, Lactobacillus plantarum P2, Lactobacillus rhamnosus P3 and Lactobacillus casei P4 had the highest abilities to adhere to Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, L. plantarum P2 strain showed higher abilities to induce expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-12 by splenic monocytes and strongly inhibited the adhesion and invasion of S. enteritidis ATCC13076 to Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that Lactobacillus strains P2 could be used as a probiotic candidate in food against Salmonella infection.

  18. The antioxidant activity of kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle and winter savory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitas Jasmina S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antioxidant activity of fermented milk products obtained by kombucha fermentation. Two starter cultures were used as follows: starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened stinging nettle extract; as well as starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened winter savory extract. The starters were added to milk with 0.8, 1.6 and 2.8% milk fat. Fermentation was carried out at 37, 40 and 43oC and stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Antioxidant activity to hydroxyl and DPPH radicals was monitored using response surface methodology. Kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle (KSN and with winter savory (KWS showed the same antioxidant response to hydroxyl and different response to DPPH radicals. Synergetic effect of milk fat and fermentation temperature to antioxidant activity to hydroxyl radicals for both types of kombucha fermented milk products (KSN and KWS was established. Optimum processing conditions in term of antioxidant activity are: milk fat around 2.8% and process temperature around 41 and 43°C for KSN and KWS respectively.

  19. Botanical origin causes changes in nutritional profile and antioxidant activity of fermented products obtained from honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezmirean, Graţia I; Mărghitaş, Liviu A; Bobiş, Otilia; Dezmirean, Daniel S; Bonta, Victoriţa; Erler, Silvio

    2012-08-15

    Honey as rich source of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants serves as health-promoting nutrient in the human body. Here, we present the first time a comparative study of nutritional profiles (e.g., acidities, sugar, organic acid profile, total polyphenolic, flavonoid content) for different unifloral, multifloral honeys and their fermented products, in correlation with their antioxidant activity. Additionally, an optimized method for HPLC separation of organic acids from honey was established. The total phenolic content of honey samples varied widely among the honey types compared to fermented products. High amounts of total flavonoids were quantified in heather honey, followed by raspberry, multifloral, black locust, and linden honey. A positive correlation between the content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity was observed in honey samples. After fermentation, the flavonoid content of dark honey fermented products decreased significantly. Black locust and linden honeys are more suitable for fermentation because the decrease in antioxidant substances is less pronounced.

  20. Probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in a fermented milk product with added fruit preparation reduce antibiotic associated diarrhea and Helicobacter pylori activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrese, Michael; Kristen, Holger; Rautenberg, Peter; Laue, Christiane; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2011-11-01

    To investigate matrix-specifity of probiotic effects and particularly of the reduction of antibiotics-associated diarrhea, a controlled, randomized, double-blind study was performed, in which 88 Helicobacter pylori-infected but otherwise healthy subjects were given for eight weeks either a) a probiotic fruit yoghurt "mild" containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 plus Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12, n = 30), b) the same product but pasteurized after fermentation (n = 29) or c) milk acidified with lactic acid (control, n = 29). During week five, a Helicobacter eradication therapy was performed. Helicobacter activity was measured via 13C-2-urea breath tests and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and other gastrointestinal complaints were recorded by validated questionnaires. In intervention group a, b and c the mean number of days with diarrhoea was 4, 10 and 10 (Pantibiotics treatment was -1·4 ± 1·1, -1·2 ± 1·1, 2·6 ± 1·1 points/four weeks (Pprobiotic bacteria but (rather) to components of acidified milk (most probably lactic acid). Fruit-yogurt-like fermented milk products with living probiotic bacteria significantly shorten the duration of antibiotics-associated diarrhoea and improve gastrointestinal complaints. Fruit yogurt-like fermented milk is a matrix suitable for probiotic bacteria.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of tea as affected by the degree of fermentation and manufacturing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C C; Lin, L L; Chung, K T

    1999-05-01

    Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus were used to test the antimicrobial activity of tea flush extract and extracts of various tea products. Among the six test organisms, P. fluorescens was the most sensitive to the extracts, while B. subtilis was the least sensitive. In general, antimicrobial activity decreased when the extents of tea fermentation increased. The antimicrobial activities of tea flush extract and extracts of tea products with different extents of fermentation varied with test organisms. Tea flush and Green tea, the unfermented tea, exerted the strongest antimicrobial activity followed by the partially fermented tea products such as Longjing, Tieh-Kuan-Ying, Paochung, and Oolong teas. On the other hand, Black tea, the completely fermented tea, showed the least antimicrobial activity. It was also noted that extracts of Oolong tea prepared in summer exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity, followed by those prepared in spring, winter and fall.

  2. Antioxidant Activity of Fermented and Nonfermented Coffee (Coffea arabica Pulp Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Saucedo-Castañeda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee pulp contains natural antioxidants like hydroxycinnamic acids, most of which are covalently linked to the cell wall. These compounds can be released by fermentation or enzymatic processes. In this study, the antioxidant properties of fermented and nonfermented coffee pulp have been evaluated. Coffee pulp was fermented by solid-state fermentation using the fungus Aspergillus tamarii. Fermented and nonfermented samples of coffee pulp were extracted with aqueous methanol followed by alkaline hydrolysis. In both cases, the total polyphenol concentration was quantified by Folin-Ciocalteu method, then hydroxycinnamic acids were concentrated using ethyl acetate and quantified by HPLC. The antioxidant properties of samples were determined by radical monocation of 2,2’-azinobis-( 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid [ABTS]·+: the antioxidant activity was determined by kinetic parameters known as ED50, tED50 and antiradical efficiency (AE. Fermented extracts containing free hydroxycinnamic acids showed better antiradical activity against [ABTS]·+ than the other nonfermented ones. There were no significant differences in the total content of polyphenols in fermented and nonfermented coffee pulp, but the content of total hydroxycinnamic acids was higher in the nonfermented coffee pulp extracts (47.1 g/kg than in the fermented coffee pulp (30.9 g/kg. Nevertheless, the fermentation process increased the fraction of free hydroxycinnamic acids (47 % and consequently decreased those covalently linked to the cell wall. The results of the antioxidant activity assays could be explained by the presence of free hydroxycinnamic acids. Fermented coffee pulp assays showed that free hydroxycinnamic acids were metabolised by A. tamarii. This study shows the potential of using coffee pulp as a natural source of antioxidants.

  3. The effect of beta-glucanase supplementation of barley- and oat-based diets on growth performance and fermentation in broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefiak, D; Rutkowski, A; Jensen, B B; Engberg, R M

    2006-02-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether grain type (barley or oats) and ss-glucanase inclusion influence the performance and the gastrointestinal ecosystem of broiler chickens, taking the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids and lactic acid, pH, ileal viscosity, and the weight of the caeca and liver into consideration. 2. The inclusion of beta-glucanase in the oat-based diet improved body weight gains. Enzyme supplementation of barley-based diets improved feed conversion efficiency and reduced intestinal viscosity. 3. Irrespective of the type of cereal, beta-glucanase supplementation increased the lactic acid concentration and lowered the pH of the crop contents. No such changes in fermentation were observed in the contents of the gizzard and ileum. 4. Larger amounts of total dietary fibre and its fractions (arabinoxylans and beta-glucans) in oats decreased the weight of the caeca. 5. Molar ratios of acetate, propionate and butyrate in the caecal chyme were affected by cereal type but not by enzyme supplementation. The barley-based diet increased the butyrate:propionate ratio but the opposite effect was observed with the oat-based diet.

  4. Anthelmintic activity of Indigofera tinctoria against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakshisundaram, Ambalathaduvar; Harikrishnan, Tirunelveli Jayagopal; Anna, Thavasi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are considered as a major constraint for successful sheep production. Control of these parasites heavily relies on the use of chemical anthelmintics. Over the past decades, the development of anthelmintic resistance to various groups of anthelmintics and problem of drug residues in animal products has awakened interest in medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of Indigofera tinctoria by scientifically validated in vitro and in vivo tests approved by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. Materials and Methods: In vitro assays such as egg hatch assay for ovicidal and larval migration inhibition and larval development assay for larvicidal properties were used to investigate in vitro effect of extracts on strongyle egg and larvae, respectively. Fecal egg count reduction test was conducted in vivo to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the extracts administered orally at dose rates of 125, 250, 500 mg/kg to sheep naturally infected with mixed GI nematodes. Results: Ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria demonstrated significant (pactivity and could replace the chemical anthelmintics used presently. PMID:27051192

  5. Mini Review: Basic Physiology and Factors Influencing Exogenous Enzymes Activity in the Porcine Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strube, Mikael Lenz; Meyer, Anne S.; Boye, Mette

    2013-01-01

    activity during intestinal transit are few, it is known that the enzymes, being protein molecules, can be negatively affected by the gastrointestinal proteolytic enzymes and the low pH in the stomach ventricle. In this review, the pH-values, endogenous proteases and other factors native to the digestive...

  6. Optimal Fermentation Conditions of Hyaluronidase Inhibition Activity on Asparagus cochinchinensis Merrill by Weissella cibaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Kim, Won-Baek; Koo, Kyoung Yoon; Kim, Bo Ram; Kim, Doohyun; Lee, Seoyoun; Son, Hong Joo; Hwang, Dae Youn; Kim, Dong Seob; Lee, Chung Yeoul; Lee, Heeseob

    2017-04-28

    This study was conducted to evaluate the hyaluronidase (HAase) inhibition activity of Asparagus cochinchinesis (AC) extracts following fermentation by Weissella cibaria through response surface methodology. To optimize the HAase inhibition activity, a central composite design was introduced based on four variables: the concentration of AC extract (X1: 1-5%), amount of starter culture (X2: 1-5%), pH (X3: 4-8), and fermentation time (X4: 0-10 days). The experimental data were fitted to quadratic regression equations, the accuracy of the equations was analyzed by ANOVA, and the regression coefficients for the surface quadratic model of HAase inhibition activity in the fermented AC extract were estimated by the F test and the corresponding p values. The HAase inhibition activity indicated that fermentation time was most significant among the parameters within the conditions tested. To validate the model, two different conditions among those generated by the Design Expert program were selected. Under both conditions, predicted and experimental data agreed well. Moreover, the content of protodioscin (a well-known compound related to anti-inflammation activity) was elevated after fermentation of the AC extract at the optimized fermentation condition.

  7. Preventative effects of fermented Chimonobambusa quadrangularis shoot on activated carbon-induced constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guijie; Zou, Xiaochuan; Kuang, Gang; Ren, Yanrong; Deng, Chaofang; Lin, Qiang; Zhao, Xin; Xu, Song; Song, Jia-Le

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the preventative effects of fermented Chimonobambusa quadrangularis shoot (FCQS) on activated carbon constipation in Kun Ming mice. FCQS has a more loose fiber tissue structure than unfermented fresh C. quadrangularis shoot (CQS), which is preferable for relieving constipation. In mice fed with FCQS for 9 days the time from consumption to their first black stool defecation (117 min) was shorter than the control group (192 min) and the CQS group (148 min); however, it was longer than the normal (85 min) and bisacodyl treatment (99 min) groups. The gastrointestinal transit of the FCQS group (73.8%) was increased, as compared with the control (37.9%) and CQS (61.7%) groups; however, it was decreased as compared with the normal (100%) and bisacodyl (88.3%) groups. By observing the hemotoxylin and eosin-stained section of mice intestine, it was demonstrated that FCQS reduced injury to the intestinal tract resulting from constipation and alleviated the damage caused to the intestinal villi over the effects observed in the CQS group. Furthermore, FCQS was also able to increase the serum levels of motilin, endothelin-1, vasoactive intestinal peptide and acetylcholinesterase compared with the control group. c-Kit, stem cell factor (SCF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) mRNA and protein expression levels in the small intestinal cells of FCQS-fed mice were increased, as compared with CQS-fed mice. Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression levels of small intestinal cells of FCQS-fed mice were reduced, as compared with CQS-fed mice. These findings demonstrated that FCQS may induce improved preventative effects on constipation, compared with CQS. PMID:28450948

  8. Relationship between nutritional status, physical activity and quality of life among gastrointestinal cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalina, A Z; Lee, V C; Kandiah, M

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between nutritional status, physical activity and quality of life among gastrointestinal cancer survivors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among gastrointestinal cancer survivors attending the oncology outpatient clinic in Hospital Selayang, Malaysia. A total of 70 gastrointestinal cancer survivors with a mean age of 52.54 +/- 14.59 years (95% CI: 47.48 - 57.60) were included in this study. Results showed that 40% of the patients were classified as having low physical activity. The mean Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PGSGA) score was 10.27 +/- 7.36 (95% CI: 8.23-12.31) and nearly half the patients (48.6%) were identified as severely malnourished (Stage C). Mean Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GQLFI) score was 103.57 +/- 23.85 (95% CI: 92.94-114.20), and about 24.3% of the patients were classified as having a low quality of life. Pearson's correlation test showed a highly significant negative relationship between nutritional status and quality of life (r = -0.661, pnutritional status (low total mean score of PGSGA), the better the quality of life of the survivors (high total mean score of GQLFI). There was a significant negative relationship between physical activity level and nutritional status score (r = -0.309, pnutritional status (low total mean score of PGSGA). This study shows a significant relationship between nutritional status, physical activity and quality of life among gastrointestinal cancer survivors. Those low in nutritional status have a low quality of life while survivors with higher nutritional status have a better quality of life.

  9. Gastrointestinal tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, T E; Goodell, W M; Pulitzer, D R

    1994-06-01

    Tattooing of the gastrointestinal tract is used to facilitate the relocation of biopsy sites or other sites of interest at the time of subsequent biopsy or surgery. Submucosal injection of sterile india ink produces a zone of blue-black coloration that is grossly visible from both the mucosal and serosal surfaces. The pathology of gastrointestinal tattoos has only been briefly mentioned previously in the medical literature. We report two cases of gastrointestinal tattooing: one that was done to mark the margin of resection in a patient with gastric lymphoma, and the second that occurred unintentionally following the administration of activated charcoal for drug overdosage in a patient with undiagnosed active inflammatory bowel disease. Unintentional tattooing of the gastrointestinal tract has, therefore, not been reported.

  10. Science Study Aids 7: Fermentation - Activities of a Fabulous Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Bill

    This publication is the seventh of a series of seven supplementary investigative materials for use in secondary science classes providing up-to-date research-related investigations. This unit is structured for grades 7 through 10. It is concerned with the roles of fermentation processes in the agriculture and food industry. The guide enables…

  11. Solid-state fermentation : modelling fungal growth and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    In solid-state fermentation (SSF) research, it is not possible to separate biomass quantitatively from the substrate. The evolution of biomass dry weight in time can therefore not be measured. Of the aiternatives to dry weight available, glucosamine content is most promising.
    Gluc

  12. Solid-state fermentation: modelling fungal growth and activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    In solid-state fermentation (SSF) research, it is not possible to separate biomass quantitatively from the substrate. The evolution of biomass dry weight in time can therefore not be measured. Of the aiternatives to dry weight available, glucosamine content is most promising.Glucosamine is the monom

  13. Volatile fatty acids produced by co-fermentation of waste activated sludge and henna plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingang; Zhou, Rongbing; Chen, Jianjun; Han, Wei; Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Tang, Junhong

    2016-07-01

    Anaerobic co-fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) and henna plant biomass (HPB) for the enhanced production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was investigated. The results indicated that VFAs was the main constituents of the released organics; the accumulation of VFAs was much higher than that of soluble carbohydrates and proteins. HPB was an advantageous substrate compared to WAS for VFAs production; and the maximum VFAs concentration in an HPB mono-fermentation system was about 2.6-fold that in a WAS mono-fermentation system. In co-fermentation systems, VFAs accumulation was positively related to the proportion of HPB in the mixed substrate, and the accumulated VFAs concentrations doubled when HPB was increased from 25% to 75%. HPB not only adjust the C/N ratio; the associated and/or released lawsone might also have a positive electron-shuttling effect on VFAs production.

  14. Removal of the Fermentation Inhibitor, Furfural, Using Activated Carbon in Cellulosic-Ethanol Production

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Kuang

    2011-12-21

    Ethanol can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass through fermentation; however, some byproducts from lignocellulosics, such as furfural compounds, are highly inhibitory to the fermentation and can substantially reduce the efficiency of ethanol production. In this study, commercial and polymer-derived activated carbons were utilized to selectively remove the model fermentation inhibitor, furfural, from water solution during bioethanol production. The oxygen functional groups on the carbon surface were found to influence the selectivity of sorbents between inhibitors and sugars during the separation. After inhibitors were selectively removed from the broth, the cell growth and ethanol production efficiency was recovered noticeably in the fermentation. A sorption/desorption cycle was designed, and the sorbents were regenerated in a fixed-bed column system using ethanol-containing standard solution. Dynamic mass balance was obtained after running four or five cycles, and regeneration results were stable even after twenty cycles. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in fermented rice (Oryza sativa bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa dos Santos Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in fermented rice bran in order to evaluate the effect of solid state fermentation on these properties. The process was performed with the fungus Rhizopus oryzae CTT 1217 in tray reactors at 30 °C for 120 hours. Samples of fermented rice bran were collected every 24 hours. Antioxidant property was evaluated by the diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method and through the inhibition of enzymatic oxidation and lipid peroxidation of olive oil. The methanol extract of the biomass obtained at 96 hours of fermentation inactivated 50% of free radical in 15 minutes. The same extract reduced the peroxide value in the olive oil by 57% after 30 days of storage. The aqueous extract of the biomass obtained at 120 hours was the most efficient inhibitor of the darkening reaction catalyzed by peroxidase.

  16. Effects of boiling and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant activity of Sonchus oleraceus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawalagedera, S M M R; Ou, Zong-Quan; McDowell, Arlene; Gould, Kevin S

    2016-03-01

    Leaves of Sonchus oleraceus L. are especially rich in phenolic compounds and have potent extractable antioxidants. However, it is not known how their antioxidant activity changes after cooking and gastrointestinal digestion. We recorded the profile of phenolics and their associated antioxidant activity in both raw and boiled S. oleraceus leaf extracts after in vitro gastric and intestinal digestion, and quantified their antioxidant potentials using Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. Boiling significantly diminished the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and concentrations of ascorbate and chicoric acid in the soluble fractions. In contrast, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and concentrations of caftaric and chlorogenic acids were unaffected. Phenolics in the soluble fraction were absorbed into cultured human cells and exerted antioxidant activity. Only chlorogenic acid content remained stable during gastrointestinal digestion. S. oleraceus appears to be an excellent dietary source of phenolic antioxidants.

  17. Impact of carrier material on fermentative activity of encapsulated yoghurt culture in whey based substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunić Tanja Ž.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper were to study the influence of the carrier material used for encapsulation and of bead size to fermentative activity and viability of the dairy starter culture ‘Lactoferm ABY 6’. Encapsulation of yoghurt culture in beads with diameter of 1mm provides better results than encapsulation in beads with larger diameter. Alginate beads and chitosan coated beads have proved to be a strong barrier for nutrients from substrate, so samples with those beads have lower viable cell count, lower titratable acidity and higher pH value after 5h of fermentation at 42°C, than samples with WPC-alginate beads. Also those beads have significantly (P < 0.05 lower cell leaking, than WPC-alginate beads and lower antioxidant capacity. Encapsulation of yoghurt culture in WPC-alginate carrier with diameter of approximately 1mm provided the best characteristics for fermented product. Samples with these beads have significantly (P < 0.05 higher increase of viable cell number after fermentation, despite of major cell leaking (19.7 %. Moreover, sample with these beads have the highest titratable acidity, the lowest pH value after fermentation (the best fermentative activity and the best antioxidant characteristics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31017 i br. III 46010

  18. Effect of nonylphenol on volatile fatty acids accumulation during anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xu; Wang, Xiao; Xie, Jing; Feng, Leiyu; Yan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Qi

    2016-11-15

    Most of the reported studies on anaerobic fermentation of sludge focused on the influences of operating conditions, pretreatment methods, and its characteristics, and little attention was paid to those of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which widespreadly appeared in sludge. In this study, the effect of nonylphenol, a typical POPs in waste activated sludge (WAS), on anaerobic fermentation for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accumulation was investigated. The concentration of VFAs during WAS anaerobic fermentation was found to be affected positively from 2856 mg COD/L in the control (without NP) to 5620 mg COD/L with NP of 200 mg/kg dry sludge. Mechanism exploration exhibited that the main reason for the enhanced VFAs accumulation in the presence of NP was that more acetic acid was generated during the acidification of WAS, which was increased by almost three times (3790 versus 1310 mg COD/L). In WAS fermentation systems, the abundance of anaerobic functional microorganisms was advantageous to the accumulation of acetic acid. Further investigation by the pure acetogen revealed that both the viability and activity of Proteiniphilum acetatigenes were improved by NP during anaerobic fermentation, resulting in more production of acetic acid and showing good agreement with that in the real WAS fermentation systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Aroma-active ester profile of ale beer produced under different fermentation and nutritional conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiralal, Lettisha; Olaniran, Ademola O; Pillay, Balakrishna

    2014-01-01

    A broad range of aroma-active esters produced during fermentation are vital for the complex flavour of beer. This study assessed the influence of fermentation temperature, pH, and wort nutritional supplements on the production of yeast-derived ester compounds and the overall fermentation performance. The best fermentation performance was achieved when wort was supplemented with 0.75 g/l l-leucine resulting in highest reducing sugar and FAN (free amino nitrogen) utilization and ethanol production. At optimum fermentation pH of 5, 38.27% reducing sugars and 35.28% FAN was utilized resulting in 4.07% (v/v) ethanol. Wort supplemented with zinc sulphate (0.12 g/l) resulted in 5.01% ethanol (v/v) production and 54.32% reducing sugar utilization. Increase in fermentation temperature from 18°C to room temperature (± 22.5°C) resulted in 17.03% increased ethanol production and 14.42% and 62.82% increase in total acetate ester concentration and total ethyl ester concentration, respectively. Supplementation of worth with 0.12 g/l ZnSO4 resulted in 2.46-fold increase in both isoamyl acetate and ethyl decanoate concentration, while a 7.05-fold and 1.96-fold increase in the concentration of isoamyl acetate and ethyl decanoate, respectively was obtained upon 0.75 g/l l-leucine supplementation. Wort supplemented with l-leucine (0.75 g/l) yielded the highest beer foam head stability with a rating of 2.67, while highest yeast viability was achieved when wort was supplemented with 0.12 g/l zinc sulphate. Results from this study suggest that supplementing wort with essential nutrients required for yeast growth and optimizing the fermentation conditions could be an effective way of improving fermentation performance and controlling aroma-active esters in beer.

  20. Antigenotoxic activity of lactic acid bacteria, prebiotics, and products of their fermentation against selected mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Adriana; Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Otlewska, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Dietary components such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and prebiotics can modulate the intestinal microbiota and are thought to be involved in the reduction of colorectal cancer risk. The presented study measured, using the comet assay, the antigenotoxic activity of both probiotic and non-probiotic LAB, as well as some prebiotics and the end-products of their fermentation, against fecal water (FW). The production of short chain fatty acids by the bacteria was quantified using HPLC. Seven out of the ten tested viable strains significantly decreased DNA damage induced by FW. The most effective of them were Lactobacillus mucosae 0988 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb-12, leading to a 76% and 80% decrease in genotoxicity, respectively. The end-products of fermentation of seven prebiotics by Lactobacillus casei DN 114-001 exhibited the strongest antigenotoxic activity against FW, with fermented inulin reducing genotoxicity by 75%. Among the tested bacteria, this strain produced the highest amounts of butyrate in the process of prebiotic fermentation, and especially from resistant dextrin (4.09 μM/mL). Fermented resistant dextrin improved DNA repair by 78% in cells pre-treated with 6.8 μM methylnitronitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Fermented inulin induced stronger DNA repair in cells pre-treated with mutagens (FW, 25 μM hydrogen peroxide, or MNNG) than non-fermented inulin, and the efficiency of DNA repair after 120 min of incubation decreased by 71%, 50% and 70%, respectively. The different degrees of genotoxicity inhibition observed for the various combinations of bacteria and prebiotics suggest that this effect may be attributable to carbohydrate type, SCFA yield, and the ratio of the end-products of prebiotic fermentation.

  1. Amaranth peptides from simulated gastrointestinal digestion: antioxidant activity against reactive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, María C Orsini; Galleano, Mónica; Añón, María C; Tironi, Valeria A

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated the capacity of simulated gastrointestinal digests or alcalase hydrolysates of protein isolates from amaranth to scavenge diverse physiologically relevant reactive species. The more active hydrolysate was obtained with the former method. Moreover, a prior alcalase treatment of the isolate followed by the same simulated gastrointestinal digestion did not improve the antioxidant capacity in any of the assays performed and even produced a negative effect under some conditions. Gastrointestinal digestion produced a strong increment in the scavenging capacity against peroxyl radicals (ORAC assay), hydroxyl radicals (ESR-OH assay), and peroxynitrites; thus decreasing the IC50 values to approximately 20, 25, and 20%, respectively, of the levels attained with the nonhydrolyzed proteins. Metal chelation (HORAC assay) also enhanced respect to isolate levels, but to a lesser extent (decreasing IC50 values to only 50%). The nitric-oxide- and superoxide-scavenging capacities of the digests were not relevant with respect to the methodologies used. The gastrointestinal digests from amaranth proteins acted against reactive species by different mechanisms, thus indicating the protein isolate to be a potential polyfunctional antioxidant ingredient.

  2. Soybean fermentation with Bacillus licheniformis increases insulin sensitizing and insulinotropic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye Jeong; Kwon, Dae Young; Moon, Na Rang; Kim, Min Jung; Kang, Hee Joo; Jung, Do Yeon; Park, Sunmin

    2013-11-01

    Traditionally fermented soybeans (chungkookjang; TFC) may have potent anti-diabetic activity, depending on the ambient microorganisms and conditions. We hypothesized that one of the major Bacillus species in TFC contributes to the anti-diabetic activity and could be used to standardize a highly functional TFC. We tested the hypothesis by using cell-based studies to evaluate insulin sensitizing and insulinotropic action of chungkookjangs fermented with various Bacillus spp. and fermentation periods. The 70% methanol and water extracts of chungkookjang fermented with Bacillus licheniformis (BL) for 48 h contained similar profiles of isoflavonoids and peptides to methanol and water extracts of TFC with potent anti-diabetic activity. Water extracts (mainly containing peptides) of TFC and BL fermented for 48 h and 72 h had a better insulin sensitizing action via activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and increased the expression of PPAR-γ in 3T3-L1 adipocytes better than unfermented cooked soybeans (CSB). The 70% methanol extracts (predominantly isoflavone aglycones) of BL fermented for 48 h and 72 h improved glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and protected β-cell viability better than CSB in insulinoma cells, and the improvement by BL was similar to TFC. In conclusion, the BL water extract fermented for 48 h exhibited equal insulin sensitization as TFC and BL methanol extract exerted similar insulinotropic actions to those of TFC. B. licheniformis may be one of the major microorganisms responsible for anti-diabetic actions of chungkookjang. It is important to make chungkookjang that retains the anti-diabetic properties of the most efficacious traditional chungkookjang using a standardized method.

  3. Behaviour of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains during adaptation to unfavourable conditions of fermentation on synthetic medium: cell lipid composition, membrane integrity, viability and fermentative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannazzu, Ilaria; Angelozzi, Daniele; Belviso, Simona; Budroni, Marilena; Farris, Giovanni Antonio; Goffrini, Paola; Lodi, Tiziana; Marzona, Mario; Bardi, Laura

    2008-01-15

    During must fermentation wine strains are exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses which, when prevailing over the cellular defence systems, can affect cell viability with negative consequences on the progression of the fermentative process. To investigate the ability of wine strains to survive and adapt to unfavourable conditions of fermentation, the lipid composition, membrane integrity, cell viability and fermentative activity of three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were analysed during hypoxic growth in a sugar-rich medium lacking lipid nutrients. These are stressful conditions, not unusual during must fermentation, which, by affecting lipid biosynthesis may exert a negative effect on yeast viability. The results obtained showed that the three strains were able to modulate cell lipid composition during fermentation. However, only two of them, which showed highest viability and membrane integrity at the end of the fermentation process, reached a fatty acid composition which seemed to be optimal for a successful adaptation. In particular, C16/TFA and UFA/TFA ratios, more than total lipid and ergosterol contents, seem to be involved in yeast adaptation.

  4. [Important application of intestinal transporters and metabolism enzymes on gastrointestinal disposal of active ingredients of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaolin; Du, Qiu; Di, Liuqing

    2010-02-01

    Oral drug bioavailability depends on gastrointestinal absorption, intestinal transporters and metabolism enzymes are the important factors in drug gastrointestinal absorption and they can also be induced or inhibited by the active ingredients of Chinese materia medica. This article presents important application of intestinal transporters and metabolism enzymes on gastrointestinal disposal of the active ingredients of Chinese materia medica, and points out the importance of research on transport and metabolism of the active ingredients of Chinese materia medica in Chinese extract and Chinese medicinal formulae.

  5. Generation of antitumor active neutral medium-sized alpha-glycan in apple vinegar fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Kaoru; Kushibiki, Toshisada; Matsue, Hajime; Furukawa, Ken-Ichi; Motomura, Shigeru

    2007-09-01

    The physiologically active substances in apple vinegar have not yet been chemically characterized. We studied the biological functions of apple vinegar produced from crushed apples, and found that the constituent neutral medium-sized alpha-glycan (NMalphaG) acts as an antitumor agent against experimental mouse tumors. NMalphaG is a homoglycan composed of glucose having a molecular weight of about 10,000 and a branched structure bearing alpha (1-4,6) linkages. In this study, we clarified the origin of NMalphaG in apple vinegar by examination of its content in alcohol and acetic acid fermentation products sequentially. We found that NMalphaG appeared in acetic acid fermentation, but not in alcohol fermentation. Furthermore we investigated NMalphaG origin using acetic acid fermentation from alcohol fortifiied apple without alcohol fermentation and from raw material with varying amounts of pomace. The results indicate that NMalphaG originated in the apple fruit body and that its production requires both fermentation processes.

  6. Influence of addition of amylase preparation to dough on fermentative activity of baker's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodić Jelena M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dough samples with different content of amylases were investigated immediately after mixing and after 7, 14 and 30 days of frozen storage. The obtained results show that the fermentation time is shorter, both in fresh and frozen samples, when amylase sample 1 was added, compared to dough without enzymes. The addition of amylase 2 to dough resulted in minimal decrease of "rising" time, both is frozen and fresh dough samples. The rising time of fresh samples was shorter when amylase 3 was added to dough. The specific fermentative activity of fresh dough samples is increasing by about 10% compared to the control sample, for all amounts of amylase 1 and 2 added to the do- ugh. The fermentative activity of yeast in frozen samples increased by 5-10%, after keeping of dough with the addition of amylase 1 for 14 days. The specific fermentative activity of fresh dough samples increased compared to the control, for all amounts of added amylase 3 to the dough. In frozen dough samples the fermentative activity of yeast decreased by 10% for all added amounts of amylase 3. Baked goods made of fresh and frozen dough, prepared with the addition of amylase 1, are better than the ones made of control dough sample, considering all evaluated parameters.

  7. In vitro anthelmintic activity of active compounds of the fringed rue Ruta chalepensis against dairy ewe gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortu, E; Sanna, G; Scala, A; Pulina, G; Caboni, P; Battacone, G

    2016-06-22

    Infections by gastrointestinal nematodes negatively affect small ruminant health and at the same time cause substantial economic losses worldwide. Because resistance to conventional anthelmintic compounds is growing, target studies evaluating the effectiveness of alternative ingredients of botanical origin on gastrointestinal nematodes are needed. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro anthelmintic activity of Ruta chalepensis L. extracts on the third-stage larvae of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. A methanol extract showed the highest anthelmintic activity, with an EC50 = 0.10 ± 0.06 mg/ml after 96 h, while the essential oil had an EC50 = 1.45 ± 1.22 mg/ml after 48 h. Moreover, three secondary metabolites of the essential oil, i.e. 2-decanone, 2-nonanone and 2-undecanone, showed EC50 values of 0.07 ± 0.06, 0.25 ± 0.29 and 0.88 ± 0.73 mg/ml at 24 h, respectively. The present study indicated that the R. chalepensis methanol extract, the essential oil and its metabolites 2-decanone, 2-nonanone and 2-undecanone showed promising anthelmintic activity on gastrointestinal nematodes.

  8. Organosulphide profile and hydrogen sulphide-releasing activity of garlic fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tocmo, Restituto; Lai, Abigail Nianci; Wu, Yuchen; Liang, Dong; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Huang, Dejian

    2017-01-01

    Blanched and unblanched garlic were fermented using L. plantarum for investigation of organosulphide profiles, hydrogen sulphide-releasing activity, pH, titratable activity and microbial growth. Both raw and blanched garlic preparations allowed growth of L. plantarum with corresponding lowering of p

  9. Inhibitory activity of carbonyl compounds on alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dongxu; Tu, Maobing; Xie, Rui; Li, Jing; Wu, Yonnie; Adhikari, Sushil

    2014-01-29

    Aldehydes and acids play important roles in the fermentation inhibition of biomass hydrolysates. A series of carbonyl compounds (vanillin, syringaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, pyrogallol aldehyde, and o-phthalaldehyde) were used to examine the quantitative structure-inhibitory activity relationship of carbonyl compounds on alcoholic fermentation, based on the glucose consumption rate and the final ethanol yield. It was observed that pyrogallol aldehyde and o-phthalaldehyde (5.0 mM) reduced the initial glucose consumption rate by 60 and 89%, respectively, and also decreased the final ethanol yield by 60 and 99%, respectively. Correlating the molecular descriptors to inhibition efficiency in yeast fermentation revealed a strong relationship between the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ELUMO) of aldehydes and their inhibitory efficiency in fermentation. On the other hand, vanillin, syringaldehyde, and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (5.0 mM) increased the final ethanol yields by 11, 4, and 1%, respectively. Addition of vanillin appeared to favor ethanol formation over glycerol formation and decreased the glycerol yield in yeast fermentation. Furthermore, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity dropped significantly from 3.85 to 2.72, 1.83, 0.46, and 0.11 U/mg at 6 h of fermentation at vanillin concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 25.0 mM correspondingly. In addition, fermentation inhibition by acetic acid and benzoic acid was pH-dependent. Addition of acetate, benzoate, and potassium chloride increased the glucose consumption rate, likely because the salts enhanced membrane permeability, thus increasing glucose consumption.

  10. Effect of fermentation time on antioxidative activities of Ganoderma lucidum broth using leguminous plants as part of the liquid fermentation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yung Liang; Ho, Chi Tang; Chiang, Been Huang; Hwang, Lucy Sun

    2011-06-15

    Oxidative damage plays an important role in the pathology of human diseases. Ganoderma lucidum, a medicinal fungus, has been used for thousands of years in traditional Oriental medicine. It is reported to have antioxidant functions such as inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of fermentation time on the antioxidative activities of G. lucidum broth filtrate using leguminous plants as part of the liquid fermentation medium. Inhibition of Cu(2+)-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL), DPPH radical-scavenging activity, total phenolic compounds, isoflavones and protocatechuic acid were measured to evaluate the antioxidant activity of G. lucidum fermentation broth filtrate. Our results showed that black soybean and Astragalus membranaceus improved the antioxidant activity of the G. lucidum fermentation broth filtrate. Protocatechuic acid was identified by LC-MS as the antioxidant compounds whose relative potency of inhibiting LDL oxidation to Trolox is 1.55. Protocatechuic acid showed positive correlation with the antioxidant activity of the fermentation broth filtrate while isoflavones did not contribute to antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Colonic Fermentation: A Neglected Topic in Human Physiology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeur, Jorgen; Berstad, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    Human physiology textbooks tend to limit their discussion of colonic functions to those of absorbing water and electrolytes and storing waste material. However, the colon is a highly active metabolic organ, containing an exceedingly complex society of microbes. By means of fermentation, gastrointestinal microbes break down nutrients that cannot be…

  12. Colonic Fermentation: A Neglected Topic in Human Physiology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeur, Jorgen; Berstad, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    Human physiology textbooks tend to limit their discussion of colonic functions to those of absorbing water and electrolytes and storing waste material. However, the colon is a highly active metabolic organ, containing an exceedingly complex society of microbes. By means of fermentation, gastrointestinal microbes break down nutrients that cannot be…

  13. Relationship between physical activity and function in elderly patients discharged after surgical treatment for gastrointestinal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Tsuyoshi; Kubo, Akira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to observe changes in physical activity (PA) from before surgery to after discharge among elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer and to examine the relationships between PA, function, and physique after discharge in these patients. [Subjects and Methods] The study participants were 18 elderly patients who underwent surgical treatment for gastrointestinal cancer [10 males and 8 females, aged 71.4 ± 4.2 years (mean ± SD)]. We evaluated patients’ PA, function, and physique before surgery and after discharge. Calorie consumption as calculated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short version was measured for PA. Isometric knee extension force (IKEF), the timed up and go test (TUGT), and the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) were measured for function. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated for physique. [Results] Significant declines in PA and BMI were observed after discharge among the study participants. In addition, a significant correlation between PA and IKEF was observed in the discharge phase. [Conclusion] These results suggest that PA after discharge is significantly less than that before surgery and related to the functioning of the lower extremities in the same period in elderly patients who undergo surgical treatment for gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:26504327

  14. Fructo-oligosaccharides purification from a fermentative broth using an activated charcoal column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, C; Teixeira, J A; Rodrigues, L R

    2012-02-15

    In this study, a simple and efficient process to purify fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) from a fermentative broth was proposed using a single activated charcoal column. The FOS adsorption onto the activated charcoal was modeled by a pseudo-second order model. Several volumes and concentrations of water/ethanol were studied to optimize the selective desorption of sugars from the broth mixture at 25°C. Mixtures containing 50.6% (w/w) of FOS (FOS content in the fermentative broth) were purified to 92.9% (w/w) with a FOS recovery of 74.5% (w/w). Moreover, with the proposed process, fractions with purity up to 97% (w/w) of FOS were obtained. This purification process was also found to be efficient in the desalting of the fermentative broth.

  15. Leukaemomycin, an antibiotic with antitumor activity. I. Screening, fermentation, and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, W; Strauss, D

    1975-01-01

    A Streptomyces strain belonging to S. griseus (Krainski) Waksman et Henrici 1948 sensu Hütter (1967) was found to produce an antibiotic designated as leukaemomycin. The red-pigment antibiotic, having antimicrobial and antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo, was isolated from C-, N-, and Fe-containing cultures of the strains IMET JA 3933, IMET JA 5570, IMET JA 10086, and IMET JA 10431. Leukaemomycin has indicator properties and is produced by the classic procedures of submerged fermentation. The crude base of leukaemomycin consists of 4 main components, designated as leukaemomycin A, B, C, and D. The biological activity of the main components leukaemomycin B and C was compared. The biological activity and the physicochemical properties of leukaemomycin C are identical with known properties of the anthracycline antibiotic daunorubicin.

  16. Effects of consumption of a fermented dairy product containing the probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 on common respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in shift workers in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemard, Eric; Tanguy, Jérôme; Flavigny, Ann'Laure; de la Motte, Stephan; Schrezenmeir, Juergen

    2010-10-01

    The risk of infection may be increased in people under stress such as shift workers. This study examined the effect of a fermented dairy product containing the probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 (verum) on the incidence of respiratory and gastrointestinal common infectious diseases (CIDs) and on immune functions in healthy shift workers. The study was single-center, randomized, double-blind, and controlled. Volunteers received 200 g/day of verum (n = 500) or control product (n = 500) for 3 months; 1-month follow-up was carried out. The cumulated number of CIDs (primary outcome) was not significantly different between groups. Because the Poisson distribution of the primary parameter did not fully fit the observed data, a post hoc categorical analysis was applied and showed a significantly lower cumulated number of CIDs in the verum group during the product consumption phase (odds ratio [OR] = 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59-0.95, p = 0.017). Verum also reduced the proportion of volunteers experiencing at least 1 CID (43% vs. 51%, p = 0.005), increased the time to the first occurrence of CID (p = 0.017) in the whole population, and reduced the cumulated number of CIDs in the subgroup of smokers (p = 0.033). In the course of CID, cumulated duration of fever was lower in the verum group (in the whole study phase) (p = 0.022), and an increase in leukocyte, neutrophil, and natural killer (NK) cell counts and activity (p = 0.047 to p DN-114 001 could reduce the risk of common infections in stressed individuals such as shift workers.

  17. Changes in energy metabolism in relation to physical activity due to fermentable carbohydrates in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.; Bakker, G.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber) affect energy retention in group-housed growing pigs by reducing physical activity. This study assessed the effects of fermentation and bulkiness of dietary carbohydrates on physical activity in relation to energy metabolism. Eight clusters of 14

  18. Changes in energy metabolism in relation to physical activity due to fermentable carbohydrates in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.; Bakker, G.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber) affect energy retention in group-housed growing pigs by reducing physical activity. This study assessed the effects of fermentation and bulkiness of dietary carbohydrates on physical activity in relation to energy metabolism. Eight clusters of 14

  19. [Glutamatergic neurotransmitter system in regulation of the gastrointestinal tract motor activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, E V; Popova, T S; Sal'nikov, P S

    2015-01-01

    The review include actual facts, demonstrating high probability of glutamatergic neurotransmitter system role in the regulation of the gastrointestinal tract motor activity. These facts suggest significant role of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system dysfunction in forming motor activity disorders of the digestive tract, including in patients in critical condition. The analysis is based on results of multiple experimental and clinical researches of glutamic acid and other components of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system in central nervous system and autonomic nervous system (with the accent on the enteral nervous system) in normal conditions and with functioning changes of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system in case of inflammation, hupoxia, stress and in critical condition.

  20. Physical Activity and Gastrointestinal Cancers: Primary and Tertiary Preventive Effects and Possible Biological Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Steindorf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal cancers account for 37% of all cancer deaths worldwide, underlining the need to further investigate modifiable factors for gastrointestinal cancer risk and prognosis. This review summarizes the corresponding evidence for physical activity (PA, including, briefly, possible biological mechanisms. Despite high public health relevance, there is still a scarcity of studies, especially for tertiary prevention. Besides the convincing evidence of beneficial effects of PA on colon cancer risk, clear risk reduction for gastroesophageal cancer was identified, as well as weak indications for pancreatic cancer. Inverse associations were observed for liver cancer, yet based on few studies. Only for rectal cancer, PA appeared to be not associated with cancer risk. With regard to cancer-specific mortality of the general population, published data were rare but indicated suggestive evidence of protective effects for colon and liver cancer, and to a lesser extent for rectal and gastroesophageal cancer. Studies in cancer patients on cancer-specific and total mortality were published for colorectal cancer only, providing good evidence of inverse associations with post-diagnosis PA. Overall, evidence of associations of PA with gastrointestinal cancer risk and progression is promising but still limited. However, the already available knowledge further underlines the importance of PA to combat cancer.

  1. Antioxidant and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens Infusions Fermented with Kombucha Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia I. Gamboa-Gómez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties, consumer acceptance, antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities of infusions and fermented beverages of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens were compared. Among physicochemical parameters, only the pH of fermented beverages decreased compared with the unfermented infusions. No relevant changes were reported in consumer preference between infusions and fermented beverages. Phenolic profi le measured by UPLC MS/MS analysis demonstrated significant concentration changes of these compounds in plant infusions and fermented beverages. Fermentation induced a decrease in the concentration required to stabilize 50 % of DPPH radical (i.e. lower IC50. Additionally, it enhanced the antioxidant activity measured by the nitric oxide scavenging assay (14 % of E. camaldulensis and 49 % of L. glaucescens; whereas relevant improvements in the fermented beverage were not observed in the lipid oxidation assay compared with unfermented infusions. The same behaviour was observed in the inhibitory activity of ACE; however, both infusions and fermented beverages had lower IC50 than positive control (captopril. The present study demonstrated that fermentation has an influence on the concentration of phenolics and their potential bioactivity. E. camaldulensis and L. glaucescens can be considered as natural sources of biocompounds with antihypertensive potential used either as infusions or fermented beverages.

  2. S. cerevisiae fermentation activity after moderate pulsed electric field pre-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Jessy R; Turk, Mohammad F; Nonus, Maurice; Lebovka, Nikolai I; El Zakhem, Henri; Vorobiev, Eugene

    2015-06-01

    The batch fermentation process, inoculated by Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) treated wine yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Actiflore F33), was studied. PEF treatment was applied to the aqueous yeast suspensions ([Y] = 0.012 g/L) at the electric field strengths of E = 100 and 6000 V/cm using the same treatment protocol (number of pulses n = 1000, pulse duration ti = 100 μs, and pulse repetition time Δt = 100 ms). Electrical conductivity was increasing during and after the PEF treatment, which reflected cell electroporation. Then, fermentation was run for 150 h in an incubator (30 °C) with synchronic agitation. Electro-stimulation was revealing itself by the improvement of fermentation characteristics, and thus increased yeast metabolism. At the end of the lag phase (t = 40 h), fructose consumption in samples with electrically activated inoculum exceeded that of the control samples by ≈ 2.33 times for E = 100 V/cm and by ≈ 3.98 for E = 6000 V/cm. At the end of the log phase (120 h of fermentation), ≈ 30% mass reduction was reached in samples with PEF-treated inocula (E = 6000 V/cm), whereas the same mass reduction of the control sample required approximately 20 extra hours of fermentation.

  3. [Electrochemically active microorganisms and electrolytically assisted fermentative hydrogen production--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianchang; Zhang, Wudi; Yin, Fang; Xu, Rui; Chen, Yubao

    2009-06-01

    Fermentative hydrogen production can be improved by electrolysis and electrochemically active microorganisms which are capable of using an electrode as an electron acceptor for the oxidation of organic matter, in particular, volatile acids produced after fermentation. Firstly volatile acids can be completely converted into CO2, electrons and protons on the surface of anode. Then the electrons flow to cathode through anode and wires, and at the same time the protons move to cathode through cation membrane between anode chamber and cathode chamber. Finally the electrons and the protons combine into hydrogen when they meet at the surface of cathode. In such a process, the fermentation barrier and the product inhibition can be avoided to improve the conversion of hydrogen. 8-9 mol H2/mol glucose of hydrogen potential can be obtained when glucose is used as substrate. This technology is very likely to be applied to produce hydrogen high efficiently from any energy crops, organic waste and wastewater.

  4. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of Agave sisalana Perr. (sisal) on gastrointestinal nematodes of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botura, Mariana B; dos Santos, Jener David G; da Silva, Gisele D; de Lima, Hélimar G; de Oliveira, João Victor A; de Almeida, Maria Angela O; Batatinha, Maria José M; Branco, Alexsandro

    2013-02-18

    This study describes the in vitro anthelmintic activity of aqueous extracts (AE), ethyl acetate extracts (EE), flavonoid fractions (FF) and saponin fractions (SF) obtained from sisal waste (Agave sisalana) against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. The activity of these extracts was evaluated by performing inhibition of egg hatch (EHA) and larval migration (LMI) assays. The EC(50) results of the EHA corresponded to 4.7, 0.1 and 0.05 mg/mL for EE, EA and FF, respectively. The SF fraction showed no ovicidal activity. The percent efficacies that were observed for the LMI were 50.3, 33.2 and 64.1% for the AE, EE and SF, respectively. The FF fraction did not show activity against the larvae. The analysis of the FF fraction indicates the presence of a homoisoflavonoid. This report suggests that the A. sisalana has activity in vitro against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. This effect is likely related to the presence of homoisoflavonoid and saponin compounds, which have different actions for specific stages of nematode development.

  5. Polyol accumulation by Aspergillus oryzae at low water activity in solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, G.J.G.; Visser, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2004-01-01

    Polyol accumulation and metabolism were examined in Aspergillus oryzae cultured on whole wheat grains or on wheat dough as a model for solid-state culture. In solid-state fermentation (SSF), water activity (a(w)) is typically low resulting in osmotic stress. In addition to a high level of mannitol,

  6. Mesophilic and thermophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge for hydrogen production: Focusing on homoacetogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Jingjing; Jing, Yuhang; Zhang, Shicheng;

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the mesophilic and thermophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) for hydrogen production with focus on homoacetogenesis, which mediated the consumption of H2 and CO2 for acetate production. Batch experiments showed that hydrogen yield of WAS increased...

  7. Lactic acid bacteria active during the fermentation of wheat silage in small scale silos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, N.J.; Parker, J.A.; Moon, L.C.; Ely, L.O.

    1981-01-01

    Wheat was ensiled and periodically analyzed for lactic acid bacteria present. Initially Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus cellobiosus and Streptococcus lactis predominated. After two to four days enterococci including S. faecium and S. bovis were present in high populations as well as Lactobacillus plantarum. It was concluded that mixed populations of enterococci and L. plantarum are active in the successful fermentation of wheat silage.

  8. Tyrosinase Inhibitory Effect and Antioxidative Activities of Fermented and Ethanol Extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Shuen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study to investigate the biological activities of fermented extracts of Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae and Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae. Alcaligenes piechaudii CC-ESB2 fermented and ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica were prepared and the antioxidative activities of different concentrations of samples were evaluated using in vitro antioxidative assays. Tyrosinase inhibition was determined by using the dopachrome method with L-DOPA as substrate. The results demonstrated that inhibitory effects (ED50 values on mushroom tyrosinase of fermented Rhodiola rosea, fermented Lonicera japonica, ethanol extract of Lonicera japonica, and ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea were 0.78, 4.07, 6.93, and >10 mg/ml, respectively. The DPPH scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea (ED50 = 0.073 mg/ml and fermented Lonicera japonica (ED50 = 0.207 mg/ml were stronger than effects of their respective ethanol extracts. Furthermore, the scavenging effect increases with the presence of high content of total phenol. However, the superoxide scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea was less than effects of fermented Lonicera japonica. The results indicated that fermentation of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica can be considered as an effective biochemical process for application in food, drug, and cosmetics.

  9. Activation of intestinal epithelial Stat3 orchestrates tissue defense during gastrointestinal infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Wittkopf

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal infections with EHEC and EPEC are responsible for outbreaks of diarrheal diseases and represent a global health problem. Innate first-line-defense mechanisms such as production of mucus and antimicrobial peptides by intestinal epithelial cells are of utmost importance for host control of gastrointestinal infections. For the first time, we directly demonstrate a critical role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells upon infection of mice with Citrobacter rodentium - a murine pathogen that mimics human infections with attaching and effacing Escherichia coli. C. rodentium induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-22 in gut samples of mice and was associated with activation of the transcription factor Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells. C. rodentium infection induced expression of several antimicrobial peptides such as RegIIIγ and Pla2g2a in the intestine which was critically dependent on Stat3 activation. Consequently, mice with specific deletion of Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells showed increased susceptibility to C. rodentium infection as indicated by high bacterial load, severe gut inflammation, pronounced intestinal epithelial cell death and dissemination of bacteria to distant organs. Together, our data implicate an essential role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells during C. rodentium infection. Stat3 concerts the host response to bacterial infection by controlling bacterial growth and suppression of apoptosis to maintain intestinal epithelial barrier function.

  10. Anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus staigeriana encapsulated oil on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino Mesquita, Mayara; E Silva Júnior, João Batista; Panassol, Andressa Machado; de Oliveira, Erick Falcão; Vasconcelos, Ana Lourdes Camurça Fernandes; de Paula, Haroldo Cesar Beserra; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

    2013-09-01

    The anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus staigeriana essential oil has previously been inferred through both in vitro and in vivo tests. Thus, the encapsulation process generally improves oil stability, promotes controlled release in target organs, reduces dosage, and increases efficacy. The aims of this study were to analyze and encapsulate E. staigeriana essential oil and to verify its anthelmintic activity in sheep. The encapsulation process was accomplished through emulsion using a 4% chitosan solution as the matrix. Anthelmintic activity was established through controlled testing using 18 sheep that were separated into three groups: group 1 was treated with a single dose of 365 mg/kg of E. staigeriana encapsulated oil, group 2 was treated with 200 μg/kg of ivermectin, and group 3 was treated with a 4% chitosan solution as a negative control. The sheep were euthanized and necropsied 13 days posttreatment to evaluate worm burden. Limonene was the major oil component (72.91%). The final product was a hydrogel with 36.5% (m/m) E. staigeriana essential oil per gram. Its efficacy on gastrointestinal nematodes was 60.79%. The highest efficacy was against abomasal nematodes, with 83.75% efficacy. Further studies are necessary to explore the possibility of increasing the hydrogel efficacy; nevertheless, we can state that E. staigeriana encapsulated oil had anthelmintic activity and can be used in gastrointestinal nematode control.

  11. Effect of yeast storage temperature and flour composition on fermentative activities of baker's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Dušanka J.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Baker's yeast is a set of living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It contains around 70-72% of water, 42-45% of proteins, around 40% of carbohydrates, around 7.5% of lipids (based on dry matter, and vitamin B-complex. On the basis of yeast cell analysis it can be concluded that yeast is a complex biological system which changes in time. The intensity of the changes depends on temperature. Yeast sample was stored at 4°C i 24°C for 12 days. During storage at 4°C, the content of total carbohydrates decreased from 48.81% to 37.50% (dry matter, whereas carbohydrate loss ranged from 40.81% to 29.28% at 24°C. The content of trehalose was 12.33% in the yeast sample stored at 4°C and 0.24% at 24°C. Loss of fermentative activity was 81.76% in the sample stored at 24°C for 12 days. The composition of five samples of 1st category flour was investigated. It was found that flours containing more reducing sugars and maltose enable higher fermentation activities. The flours with higher ash content (in the range 0.5-0.94% had higher contents of phytic acid. Higher ash and phytic contents in flour increased the yeast fermentative efficiency. In bakery industry, a range of ingredients has been applied to improve the product's quality such as surface active substances (emulsifiers, enzymes, sugars and fats. In the paper, the effect of some ingredients added to dough (margarine, saccharose, sodium chloride and malted barley on the yeast fermentative activity was studied. The mentioned ingredients were added to dough at different doses: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0%, flour basis. It was found that the investigated ingredients affected the fermentative activity of yeast and improved the bread quality.

  12. Optimization of detecting hydrogenase activity for acidogenic fermentation of activated sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Guo-chen; HE Jun-guo; LI Jian-zheng; AJAY Kumar Jha; ZHANG Li-guo

    2010-01-01

    In order to evaluate the hydrogen-producing efficiency of anaerobic activated sludge in Anaerobic Baffled Reactor(ABR)fermentation processes,the optimal conditions for hydrogen producing hydrogenase method on methyl viologen(MV)assay was used to detect the hydrogen production activity of the activated sludge.The most favorable parameters such as 0.6 mL sodium acetate buffer(pH 5.0),100 μL lysozyme,0.2 mL sodium di bromoethane(9.0 mmol/L)and 0.7 mmol/L iron added into 1 mL activated sludge(2.66~26.64 gMLVSS/L)were found.Furthermore,reaction temperature and culture time were detected as 40 ℃ and 30 min respectively.Sodium thiosulfate and sodium sulfides were taken as the reducing agent while trichloroacetic acid as terminator.Under the MV optimal conditions,micro-texic Dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO)get higher security and better accuracy.The sensitivity of the detection methods(DMSO as electron carrier)was increased by more than30%.The results show that the optimal conditions can be applied to measure hydrogenase activity correlating with its specific hydrogen production rate in a hydrogen-producing anaerobic activated sludge system.

  13. Antioxidative and Anticanceric Activities of Magnolia (Magnolia denudata Flower Petal Extract Fermented by Pediococcus acidilactici KCCM 11614

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Park

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of magnolia (Magnolia (M. denudata extract fermentation in increasing the extract’s antioxidative and anticancer activities were investigated. Magnolia was fermented by Pediococcus acidilactici KCCM 11614. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu’s method and the antioxidative effects by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy (DPPH and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP assay. Anticancer activity against cancer and normal cells was determined using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT. Total phenolic content during fermentation increased from 38.1 to 47.0 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g of solid matter. The radical scavenging activity was 91.4% after 72 h fermentation. Fermented magnolia’s antioxidative effect was threefold higher than that of the (non-fermented control. Fermentation (48 h increased anticanceric activity against AGS, LoVo, and MCF-7 cancer cells 1.29- to 1.36-fold compared with that of the control, but did not affect MRC-5 (normal cells, suggesting that fermented magnolia could be used as a natural antioxidative and anticancer agent.

  14. Effect of fermentation with Monascus pilosus on the antioxidant activities and phenolic acid contents of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhua Cheng; Sung-Kwon Lee; Joo-Won Suh; Seung HwanYang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To enhance physiological activities of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) via fermentation with Monascus pilosus (M. pilosus). Methods: The adzuki bean fermentation conditions with M. pilosus were optimized, and the effect of Monascus-fermentation on the antioxidant capacity and phenolic acid contents of adzuki bean was investigated. Results: Optimal fermentation conditions were determined by the production of monacolin K. The highest monacolin K production was observed in 5% inoculum sized on day 15 in fermentation. Free and bound phenolic acids were isolated from native and fermented adzuki bean. A 1.9-fold decrease was observed in bound p-coumaric acid content, whereas the contents of bound ferulic and sinapic acids were increased by 28- and 1.7-fold, respectively. However, the contents of free phenolic acids such as p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids were increased by 2.6-, 5.2-, and 7.2-fold, respectively. The fermentation of adzuki bean by M. pilosus enhanced the activities of DPPH· radical scavenging, ferrous ion-chelating, nitric oxide scavenging, and ferric antioxidant reducing activities 2.2-, 1.7-, 1.2-, and 1.8-fold, respectively. Conclusions: Results from our study suggest that the contents of p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids in adzuki bean were highly increased by fermentation with M. pilosus, resulting in enhanced various antioxidant activities.

  15. Effect of fermentation with Monascus pilosus on the antioxidant activities and phenolic acid contents of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To enhance physiological activities of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis via fermentation with Monascus pilosus (M. pilosus. Methods: The adzuki bean fermentation conditions with M. pilosus were optimized, and the effect of Monascus-fermentation on the antioxidant capacity and phenolic acid contents of adzuki bean was investigated. Results: Optimal fermentation conditions were determined by the production of monacolin K. The highest monacolin K production was observed in 5% inoculum sized on day 15 in fermentation. Free and bound phenolic acids were isolated from native and fermented adzuki bean. A 1.9-fold decrease was observed in bound p-coumaric acid content, whereas the contents of bound ferulic and sinapic acids were increased by 28- and 1.7-fold, respectively. However, the contents of free phenolic acids such as p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids were increased by 2.6-, 5.2-, and 7.2-fold, respectively. The fermentation of adzuki bean by M. pilosus enhanced the activities of DPPH● radical scavenging, ferrous ion-chelating, nitric oxide scavenging, and ferric antioxidant reducing activities 2.2-, 1.7-, 1.2-, and 1.8-fold, respectively. Conclusions: Results from our study suggest that the contents of p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids in adzuki bean were highly increased by fermentation with M. pilosus, resulting in enhanced various antioxidant activities

  16. Estimation of the antioxidant activity of the commercially available fermented milks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Najgebauer-Lejko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Free radicals are connected with the increased risk of certain diseases, especially cancers. There is some scientific evidence that antioxidant-rich diet may inhibit the negative impact of free radicals. The aim of the present study was to analyse the antioxidant capacity of the selected commercial natural and flavoured fermented milks offered in Poland, derived from different producers. Material and methods. The following commercially available natural fermented milks: 12 yoghurts, 12 kefirs, 2 butter milks, 2 cultured milks, Turkish yoghurt drink (ayran and the following flavoured fermented milks: 22 yoghurts, 2 acidophillus milks, 2 kefirs, butter milk and vegetable flavoured fermented milk were analysed for their antioxidant potential. The antioxidant capacity was assessed, in two replicates and twice for each product, by means of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and DPPH radical scavenging ability (expressed as ARP – anti radical power methods. Results. Among all analysed plain products, yoghurts and kefirs were characterised by the highest antioxi- dant activity. The presence of probiotic Lactobacillus casei strains in the product positively affected both FRAP and ARP values. Antioxidant capacity of the flavoured fermented milks was primarily affected by the type and quality (e.g. fruit concentration of the added flavouring preparation. The most valuable regarding the estimated parameters were chocolate, coffee, grapefruit with green tea extract as well as bilberry, forest fruits, strawberry and cherry with blackcurrant fillings. Conclusions. Protein content, inclusion of probiotic microflora as well as type and quality of flavouring preparations are the main factors affecting antioxidant properties of fermented milks.

  17. Effects of motilin and ursodeoxycholic acid on gastrointestinal myoelectric activity of different origins in fasted rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Fang; Lei Dong; Jin-Yan Luo; Xiao-Long Wan; Ke-Xin Du; Ning-Li Chai

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate gastrointestinal migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) and the effects of porcine motilin and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on MMC of gastrointestinaltract of different origins in fasted rats. METHODS: Three bipolar silver electrodes were chronically implanted on the antrum, duodenum and jejunum. Seven days later 24 experimental rats were divided into 2 groups.One group was injected with porcine motilin via sublingual vein at a dose of 20 μg/kg, the other group was perfused into stomach with UDCA. The gastrointestinal myoelectric activity was recorded 1 h before and 2 h after the test substance infusions into the rats.RESULTS: In all fasted rats a typical pattern of MMC was observed. Among the totally 68 activity fronts recorded in fasted rats under control, 67% started in duodenum, and 33% in antrum. MMC cycle duration and duration of phase Ⅲ of antral origin were longer than those of duodenal origin. Administration of 20 μg/kg porcine motilin induced a premature antral phase Ⅲ of antral origin. But perfusion into stomach with UDCA resulted in shorter MMC cycle duration, longer duration of phase Ⅲ of duodenal origin,which were followed with shorter cycle duration and duration of antral phase Ⅲ.CONCLUSION: In fasted rats, MMC could originate from antrum and duodenum respectively. The characteristics of MMC of different origins may contribute to the large variations within subjects. The mechanisms of different origins of phase Ⅲ may be different. Porcine motilin and UDCA could affect MMC of different origins of the gastrointestinal tract in fasted state, respectively.

  18. Gastrointestinal growth factors and hormones have divergent effects on Akt activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berna, Marc J.; Tapia, Jose A.; Sancho, Veronica; Thill, Michelle; Pace, Andrea; Hoffmann, K. Martin; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Lauro; Jensen, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Akt is a central regulator of apoptosis, cell growth and survival. Growth factors and some G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) regulate Akt. Whereas growth-factor activation of Akt has been extensively studied, the regulation of Akt by GPCR's, especially gastrointestinal hormones/neurotransmitters, remains unclear. To address this area, in this study the effects of GI growth factors and hormones/neurotransmitters were investigate in rat pancreatic acinar cells which are high responsive to these agents. Pancreatic acini expressed Akt and 5 of 7 known pancreatic growth-factors stimulate Akt phosphorylation (T308, S473) and translocation. These effects are mediated by p85 phosphorylation and activation of PI3K. GI hormones increasing intracellular cAMP had similar effects. However, GI-hormones/neurotransmitters[CCK, bombesin,carbachol] activating phospholipase C (PLC) inhibited basal and growth-factor-stimulated Akt activation. Detailed studies with CCK, which has both physiological and pathophysiological effects on pancreatic acinar cells at different concentrations, demonstrated CCK has a biphasic effect: at low concentrations(pM) stimulating Akt by a Src-dependent mechanism and at higher concentrations(nM) inhibited basal and stimulated Akt translocation, phosphorylation and activation, by de-phosphorylating p85 resulting in decreasing PI3K activity. This effect required activation of both limbs of the PLC-pathway and a protein tyrosine phosphatase, but was not mediated by p44/42 MAPK, Src or activation of a serine phosphatase. Akt inhibition by CCK was also found in vivo and in Panc-1 cancer cells where it inhibited serum-mediated rescue from apoptosis. These results demonstrate that GI growth factors as well as gastrointestinal hormones/neurotransmitters with different cellular basis of action can all regulate Akt phosphorylation in pancreatic acinar cells. This regulation is complex with phospholipase C agents such as CCK, because both stimulatory and inhibitory

  19. Improved antioxidative and cytotoxic activities of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) florets fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum KCCM 11613P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Hye; Bae, Won-Young; Eom, Su-Jin; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    Antioxidative and cytotoxic effects of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum were investigated to improve their biofunctional activities. Total polyphenol (TP) content was measured by the Folin-Denis method, and the antioxidant activities were assessed by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and β-carotene bleaching method. AGS, HeLa, LoVo, MCF-7, and MRC-5 (normal) cells were used to examine the cytotoxic effects by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay. The TP content of fermented chamomile reduced from 21.75 to 18.76 mg gallic acid equivalent (mg GAE)/g, but the DPPH radical capturing activity of fermented chamomile was found to be 11.1% higher than that of nonfermented chamomile after 72 h of fermentation. Following the β-carotene bleaching, the antioxidative effect decreased because of a reduction in pH during fermentation. Additionally, chamomile fermented for 72 h showed a cytotoxic effect of about 95% against cancer cells at 12.7 mg solid/ml of broth, but MRC-5 cells were significantly less sensitive against fermented chamomile samples. These results suggest that the fermentation of chamomile could be applied to develop natural antioxidative and anticancer products.

  20. Improved antioxidative and cytotoxic activities of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) florets fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum KCCM 11613P*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Hye; Bae, Won-Young; Eom, Su-Jin; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidative and cytotoxic effects of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum were investigated to improve their biofunctional activities. Total polyphenol (TP) content was measured by the Folin-Denis method, and the antioxidant activities were assessed by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and β-carotene bleaching method. AGS, HeLa, LoVo, MCF-7, and MRC-5 (normal) cells were used to examine the cytotoxic effects by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay. The TP content of fermented chamomile reduced from 21.75 to 18.76 mg gallic acid equivalent (mg GAE)/g, but the DPPH radical capturing activity of fermented chamomile was found to be 11.1% higher than that of nonfermented chamomile after 72 h of fermentation. Following the β-carotene bleaching, the antioxidative effect decreased because of a reduction in pH during fermentation. Additionally, chamomile fermented for 72 h showed a cytotoxic effect of about 95% against cancer cells at 12.7 mg solid/ml of broth, but MRC-5 cells were significantly less sensitive against fermented chamomile samples. These results suggest that the fermentation of chamomile could be applied to develop natural antioxidative and anticancer products. PMID:28124843

  1. Milk fermentation by Lactococcus lactis with modified proteolytic systems to accumulate potentially bio-active peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Algaron, Florence; Miranda, Guy; Le Bars, Dominique; Monnet, Véronique

    2004-01-01

    International audience; The proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria has been characterised in detail and numerous modified strains with null or increased specific proteolytic activities have been constructed or identified among natural strains. Based on this knowledge, our objective was to ferment milk with modified strains and produce mixtures of peptides with specific features corresponding to potential bio-activities. We used a collection of Lactococcus lactis negative mutants for pepti...

  2. PROTEOLYTIC AND FIBRINOLYTIC ACTIVITIES OF HALOPHILIC LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FROM TWO INDONESIAN FERMENTED FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep A. Prihanto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of fermented foods as sources of fibrinolytic enzymes is increased in the last decades. Terasi and Jambal roti is Indonesian traditional fermented fish products, which were famous in Java Island. Both are important products in Indonesian dishes, especially in Java. Investigation on halophilic lactic acid bacteria using MRS and M-17 agar obtained seventy four isolated strains. Their proteolytic and fibrinolytic activities were determined using skim milk agar and plasminogen-free fibrin plate. Twenty five isolates showed protease activities, while only four of them secreted fibrinolitic enzyme. The highest proteolytic and fibrinolytic activity was shown by TB1 strain, which is identified as Bacillus coagulans. The 16s rDNA is still in investigating to confirm the TB1 strain identity.

  3. Chronic Response of Waste Activated Sludge Fermentation to Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinguang Chen; Hui Mu; Xiong Zheng⁎

    2014-01-01

    Due to the large-scale production and wide applications, many nanoparticles (NPs) enter wastewater treatment plants and accumulate in activated sludge. It is reported that titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs show severe damage to many model microbes. However, it is stil unknown whether the long-term (e.g., 100 d) presence of TiO2 NPs would affect the performance of sludge fermentation. In this study, long-term exposure experiments (105 d) were conducted to investigate the potential risk of TiO2 NPs to sludge fermentation system. It is found that the presence of environmental y relevant [6 mg·(g TSS)−1] and higher [150 mg·(g TSS)−1] concentrations of TiO2 NPs does not affect methane production from sludge fermentation. The analysis of fluorescence in situ hybridiza-tion indicates that these concentrations of TiO2 NPs present marginal influences on abundances of bacteria and methanogenic archaea in sludge fermentation system. The viability of sludge microorganisms and activities of key enzymes related to methane production such as protease, acetate kinase, and coenzyme F420 are unchanged by the long-term presence of 6 and 150 mg·(g TSS)−1 of TiO2 NPs. Further investigations reveal that the insolu-bility of NPs and the protection role of sludge extracellular polymeric substances are the main reasons for the marginal influence of TiO2 NPs on sludge fermentation.

  4. The Eschericia coli Growth Inhibition Activity of Some Fermented Medicinal Plant Leaf Extract from the Karo Highland, North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOVIK NURHIDAYAT

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A lot of traditional medicinal plant has antibacterial acitivities. Most of these plants are freshly chewed or grounded and used directly to treat infectious bacterial deseases. However, some practices employ a traditionally spontaneous fermentation on boiled extracted leaf, root or other parts of the plant. This work reports a laboratory stimulated spontaneous fermentation of leaf extracts from selected medicinal plants collected from the Karo Higland. The spontaenous fermentation was stimulated to be carried out by the Acetobacter xylinum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The anti-infectious agent activity was assayed on the Eschericia coli growth inhibition. A complementary non fermented leaf extract was also made and assayed as a comparative measure. Indeed, the fermented leaf extract of bitter bush (Eupatorium pallescens, cacao (Theobroma cacao, avocado (Persia gratissima, passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, cassava (Cassava utillissima, diamond flower (Hedyotis corymbosa, periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus, and gandarusa (Justicia gendarussa have relatively higher anti-E.coli acitivity than those of non fermented ones. However, there were no anti-E.coli activity was detected in both fermented and non fermented leaf extract of the guava (Psidium guajava and common betel (Piper nigrum.

  5. Application of Lactobacillus immobilized by Activated Carbon Fiber in Fermentation of Lactic Acid in Starch Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Peng; Chi, Guoda; Huang, Chenyong

    2010-11-01

    Activated carbon fibers (ACF) as the carrier of Lactobacillus was introduced into fermenting system, and a method of modifying the surface of ACF by HNO3-Fe (III) was established. Factors that affect ACF carrier's effect on immobilization of Lactobacillus were studied. HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 and FeCl3 solutions were respectively used to modify the surface properties of ACF. The amount of Fe (III) carried on ACF surface was 0.1563 mol/kg after ACF surface was modified by HNO3 for 5 h and then by 0.1 mol/L FeCl3 for 4 h, when the thickness of Lactobacillus on a single silk of carrier reached 40 μm. When ACF modified by HNO3-Fe (III) was applied in the fermentation of lactic acid in starch industry wastewater, the fermentation period reduced by 8 h and the output of L-lactic acid was 65.5 g/L, which was 3.3% more than that fermented without the carrier.

  6. Fermentation characteristics of several carbohydrate sources for dog diets using the in vitro gas production technique

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Fermentable carbohydrates are an important part of the canine diet. They can improve gastrointestinal health by modifying gut microbial population and metabolic activity. The present study compared the fermentation characteristics and kinetic patterns of 10 carbohydrate sources using the in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT) with dog faecal inoculum. The substrates tested were: pure cellulose (PC), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), sugar-cane fibre (SCF), beet pulp (BP), wheat bran (WB), fruc...

  7. Radiological study of gastrointestinal motor activity after acute cisplatin in the rat. Temporal relationship with pica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezos, Pablo Antonio; Vera, Gema; Castillo, Mónica; Fernández-Pujol, Ramón; Martín, María Isabel; Abalo, Raquel

    2008-08-18

    Nausea and vomiting are amongst the most severe dose-limiting side effects of chemotherapy. Emetogenic activity in rats can only be evaluated by indirect markers, such as pica (kaolin intake), or delay in gastric emptying. The aim of this work was to study, by radiological methods, the alterations in gastrointestinal motility induced by acute cisplatin in the rat, and to compare them with the development of pica. Rats received cisplatin (0-6 mg kg(-1)) at day 0. In the pica study, individual food ingestion and kaolin intake were measured each day (from day -3 to day 3). In the radiological study, conscious rats received an intragastric dose of medium contrast 0, 24 or 48 h after cisplatin injection, and serial X-rays were taken 0-24 h after contrast. Cisplatin dose-dependently induced both gastric stasis and stomach distension, showing a strict temporal relationship with the induction of both acute and delayed pica. Radiological methods, which are non-invasive and preserve animals' welfare, are useful to study the effect of emetogenic drugs in the different gastrointestinal regions and might speed up the search for new anti-emetics.

  8. Effect of fermentation inhibitors in the presence and absence of activated charcoal on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Koo; Park, Don-Hee; Song, Se Hee; Wee, Young-Jung; Jeong, Gwi-Taek

    2013-06-01

    The acidic hydrolysis of biomass generates numerous inhibitors of fermentation, which adversely affect cell growth and metabolism. The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of fermentation inhibitors on growth and glucose consumption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We also conducted in situ adsorption during cell cultivation in synthetic broth containing fermentation inhibitors. In order to evaluate the effect of in situ adsorption on cell growth, five inhibitors, namely 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, levulinic acid, furfural, formic acid, and acetic acid, were introduced into synthetic broth. The existence of fermentation inhibitors during cell culture adversely affects cell growth and sugar consumption. Furfural, formic acid, and acetic acid were the most potent inhibitors in our culture system. The in situ adsorption of inhibitors by the addition of activated charcoal to the synthetic broth increased cell growth and sugar consumption. Our results indicate that detoxification of fermentation media by in situ adsorption may be useful for enhancing biofuel production.

  9. Synthesis of Taste-Active γ-Glutamyl Dipeptides during Sourdough Fermentation by Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cindy J; Gänzle, Michael G

    2016-10-12

    This study aimed to assess whether peptides influence the taste of sourdough bread. γ-Glutamyl dipeptides with known kokumi taste threshold, namely γ-Glu-Glu, γ-Glu-Leu, γ-Glu-Ile, γ-Glu-Phe, γ-Glu-Met, and γ-Glu-Val, were identified in sourdough by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in MRM mode. γ-Glutamyl dipeptides were found in higher concentrations in sourdough fermented with Lactobacillus reuteri when compared to the chemically acidified controls. Proteolysis was an important factor for generation of γ-glutamyl dipeptides. Sourdoughs fermented with four strains of L. reuteri had different concentrations of γ-Glu-Glu, γ-Glu-Leu, and γ-Glu-Met, indicating strain-specific differences in enzyme activity. Buffer fermentations with L. reuteri confirmed the ability of the strains to convert amino acids to γ-glutamyl dipeptides as well as the strain-specific differences. Sensory evaluation of bread revealed that sourdough bread with higher concentrations of γ-glutamyl dipeptides ranked higher with respect to the taste intensity when compared to regular bread and type I sourdough bread. Sourdough breads fermented with L. reuteri LTH5448 and L. reuteri 100-23 differed with respect to the intensity of the salty taste; this difference corresponded to a different concentration of γ-glutamyl dipeptides. These results suggest a strain-specific contribution of γ-glutamyl dipeptides to the taste of bread. The use of sourdough fermented with glutamate and kokumi peptide accumulating lactobacilli improved the taste of bread without adverse effect on other taste or quality attributes.

  10. Lycopene and β-carotene recovery from fermented tomato waste and their antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John OWUSU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Waste generated from tomato processing poses disposal challenge even though it is a potential source of bioactive compounds. Acetone/ethanol/hexane mixture was used to recover lycopene and β-carotene from tomato pomace obtained from tomato must fermentation (pH of 4.11, 3.40, 3.20; temperature of 15, 20oC. Tomato must pH and temperature influenced (P<0.05 both lycopene and β-carotene recovery from the pomace. The highest total antioxidant activity and reducing power values were obtained from the tomato pomace of must pH 3.20, and fermented at 20ᵒC. Tomato pomace from winemaking is a rich source of the bioactive compounds, lycopene and β-carotene, and possess substantial levels of antioxidant activity.

  11. Effects of mill stream flours technological quality on fermentative activity of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Katarina V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work in concerned with the interdependence between technological quality of mill stream flours and fermentative activity of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each mill stream flour has its own specific properties, determined by the particle size, technological phase of its formation and part of the wheat kernel it consists of. Biochemical complexity of dough during examination of fermentative activity of baker's yeast confirmed the influence of a number of physical and biochemical flour properties, such as ash content, wet gluten content, rheological flour properties, phytic acid content and amylograph peak viscosity. Abudance of significant flour characteristic, their interaction and different behavior in the presence of the yeast, showed diversity and variation of result within the same category of the mill stream flour.

  12. In Vitro Rumen Fermentation and Anti Mastitis Bacterial Activity of Diet Containing Betel Leaf Meal (Piper betle L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Yamin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this experiment was to study the inhibition effect of betel leaf meal (BLM addition into concentrate diet on mastitis causing bacteria and on rumen fermentation condition. The study consisted of five dietary treatments of BLM level in concentrate feed, i.e., 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% and four replicates of each treatment. The treatment diets together with napier grass in ratio of 40 : 60 were fermented using rumen liquor. All treatments were examined their antibacterial activity before and after fermentation. After four hours fermentation, supernatant of each samples were analyzed for VFA, NH3, number of bacteria and protozoa. Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility were analyzed after 48 h fermentation. The results showed that before fermentation, 8% BLM addition caused the bigest (P<0.05 inhibition diameter of Staphylococcus spp. growth compared to other lower levels. However after fermentation there were no significant differences among the addition levels of BLM. Two per cent of BLM addition produced higher VFA (P<0.05 than the other addition levels. Ammonia concentration, dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility were not different among the treatments. Addition of BLM significantly (P<0.01 decreased protozoa number, but did not affect bacterial count. It is concluded that the addition of 2% BLM in concentrate feed can be used effectively to inhibit the growth of mastitis causing bacteria (Staphylococcus spp. and does not disturb rumen fermentation condition.

  13. Development of Antioxidant Activity during Milk Fermentation by Wild Isolates of Lactobacillus helveticus

    OpenAIRE

    Aazam Namdari; Fatemeh Nejati

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Oxidative stress, due to free radicals, brings injury to the body by attacking large molecules and cell organs, and is the main reason of many diseases. Fermentation of foods containing large amount of proteins such as milk by special species of lactic acid bacteria is a potential way in enhancement of the antioxidative activity of foods. This study aimed at evaluating non-common starter species isolates of Lactobacillus helveticus for their capability to produce fer...

  14. Biochemical studies on the Natamycin antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lydicus: Fermentation, extraction and biological activities

    OpenAIRE

    Atta, H.M.; A.S. El-Sayed; M.A. El-Desoukey; Hassan, M.; M. El-Gazar

    2015-01-01

    Natamycin “polyene” antibiotic was isolated from the fermentation broth of a Streptomyces strain No. AZ-55. According to the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, strain AZ-55 was identified as Streptomyces lydicus. It is active in vitro against some microbial pathogens viz: Staphylococcus aureus, NCTC 7447; Bacillus subtilis, NCTC 1040; Bacillus pumilus, NCTC 8214 ; Micrococcus luteus, ATCC 9341; Escherichia coli, NCTC 10416; ...

  15. Lactic acid bacteria active during the fermentation of wheat silage in small scale silos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, N.J.; Moon, L.C.; Ely, L.O.; Parker, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Wheat was ensiled and periodically analyzed for lactic acid bacteria present. Initially Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus cellobiosus and Streptococcus lactis predominated. After two to four days enterococci including S. faecium and S. bovis were present in high populations as well as Lactobacillus plantarum. It was concluded that mixed populations of enterococci and L. plantarum are active in the successful fermentation of wheat silage. (Refs. 5).

  16. Anatomically realistic multiscale models of normal and abnormal gastrointestinal electrical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Leo K; Komuro, Rie; Austin, Travis M; Buist, Martin L; Pullan, Andrew J

    2007-03-01

    One of the major aims of the International Union of Physiological Sciences (IUPS) Physiome Project is to develop multiscale mathematical and computer models that can be used to help understand human health. We present here a small facet of this broad plan that applies to the gastrointestinal system. Specifically, we present an anatomically and physiologically based modelling framework that is capable of simulating normal and pathological electrical activity within the stomach and small intestine. The continuum models used within this framework have been created using anatomical information derived from common medical imaging modalities and data from the Visible Human Project. These models explicitly incorporate the various smooth muscle layers and networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) that are known to exist within the walls of the stomach and small bowel. Electrical activity within individual ICCs and smooth muscle cells is simulated using a previously published simplified representation of the cell level electrical activity. This simulated cell level activity is incorporated into a bidomain representation of the tissue, allowing electrical activity of the entire stomach or intestine to be simulated in the anatomically derived models. This electrical modelling framework successfully replicates many of the qualitative features of the slow wave activity within the stomach and intestine and has also been used to investigate activity associated with functional uncoupling of the stomach.

  17. Anatomically realistic multiscale models of normal and abnormal gastrointestinal electrical activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leo K Cheng; Rie Komuro; Travis M Austin; Martin L Buist; Andrew J Pullan

    2007-01-01

    One of the major aims of the Tnternational Union of Physiological Sciences (IUPS) Physiome Project is to develop multiscale mathematical and computer models that can be used to help understand human health.We present here a small facet of this broad plan that applies to the gastrointestinal system. Specifically,we present an anatomically and physiologically based modelling framework that is capable of simulating normal and pathological electrical activity within the stomach and small intestine. The continuum models used within this framework have been created using anatomical information derived from common medical imaging modalities and data from the Visible Human Project. These models explicitly incorporate the various smooth muscle layers and networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) that are known to exist within the walls of the stomach and small bowel. Electrical activity within individual ICCs and smooth muscle cells is simulated using a previously published simplified representation of the cell level electrical activity. This simulated cell level activity is incorporated into a bidomain representation of the tissue, allowing electrical activity of the entire stomach or intestine to be simulated in the anatomically derived models. This electrical modelling framework successfully replicates many of the qualitative features of the slow wave activity within the stomach and intestine and has also been used to investigate activity associated with functional uncoupling of the stomach.

  18. Characteristic of phenolic compound and antioxidant activity of fermented broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp.) beverage by lactic acid bacteria (LAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryati, Yati; Susilowati, Agustine; Melanie, Hakiki; Lotulung, Puspa D.

    2017-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp.) has a relatively high nutrient content, especially as a source of vitamins, minerals and fiber and contain bioactive compounds that act as antioxidants. In order to increase the nutritional value and innovate new products, fermentation process involving rich-antioxidants lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was done. The aim of this study is to determine the content of bioactive components, such as total polyphenols, total acid and antioxidant activity of the mixed culture of LAB (L. bulgaricus, S. thermophulus, L. acidophilus, Bd. bifidum)-fermented broccoli extracts. Ratio of fermented broccoli extract and concentration of starter cultureLAB was varied in the range of 5, 10, 15 and 20% (v/v), and the alterations of characteristics of the fermented broccoli extract, before and after fermentation (0 and 24 hours), were evaluated. The results showed that fermentation functional beverage broccoli with different concentrations of LAB cultures affect the antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, total acid and total cell of LAB generated. The optimum conditions obtained for the highest antioxidant activity of 6.74%, at aculture concentration of 20% during fermentation time of 24 h with a pH value of 4.29, total sugar of 10.89%, total acids of 0.97%, total polyphenols of 0.076%, and total LAB of 13.02 + 0.05 log cfu /ml.

  19. Influence of activated carbon amended ASBR on anaerobic fermentative hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Li; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Qi;

    2013-01-01

    %~66% and 30%~34% of total soluble metabolic products(SMP), respectively, indicating that the dominant H2 producers in the mixed culture belonged to acidogenic bacteria that underwent butyrate-type fermentation. In addition, higher concentration of volatile fatty acid (VFA) generation was observed......The effect of activated carbon amended ASBR on fermentative bio-hydgrogen production from glucose was evaluated at hydraulic retention time (HRTs) ranging from 48 h to 12 h with initial pH of 6.0 at the system temperature of 60°C. Experimental results showed that the performance of activated carbon...... of hydrogen yield in smaller size activated carbon amended reactor under the tested HRT ranges, and the maximum HPR of (7.09±0.31)L·(L·d)-1 and HY of (1.42±0.03) mol·mol-1 was obtained at HRT of 12h. The major soluble products form hydrogen fermentation were n-butyric acid and acetic acid, accounting for 46...

  20. Antioxidant Activity of Peptides from Fermented Milk with Mix Culture of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the production of antioxidant peptides during milk fermentation with co-culture of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB and yeast. Five LAB strains, previously screened with higher hydrolysis activity and Debaryomyces hansenii H2 which isolated from Tibet kefir were used in the study. The peptides separated from fermented milk were analysed antioxidant activity with DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, chelation of metal ions and reducing power assays. The growth of Streptococcus. thermophilus Lactobacillus. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Lactococcus. lactis was enhanced with co-cultures and L. acidophilus was inhibited in co-culture with yeast. In co-culture with yeast, a significant decrease of the acidity was observed among all the fermentation and the pH reached higher values than in single LAB cultures. Except for L.delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, there was no significant difference of protein hydrolysis with other test LAB strains between co-culture and single culture. The co-incubation of LAB with the yeast developed a stronger antioxidant activity in DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging and no significant (p>0.05 difference in chelation of metal ions. The reducing power of L.delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and L. helveticus in co-culture was significant higher than those of single culture.

  1. Determination of Harvesting Time and Fermentation Conditions of Coffee (Coffee sp) Beans Based on the Fruit Pericarp Enzyme Activity)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Said Didu

    2001-01-01

    Pectinase enzyme of coffee pericarp, containing pectinesterase and polymetilesterase, is potential to determine harvesting time or to classify coffee beans. The activity of the enzyme on the green fruit is higher than on the yellow one. When the fruit become light red, the activity increaed for the second time and then decrease when the fruit is overripe (dark colored)The optimum fermentation condition of the fruit is depending on the maturation degree. Study on the fermentation process at 25...

  2. Gastrointestinal ecosystem and immunological responses in E.coli challenged pigs after weaning fed liquid diets containing whey permeate fermented with different lactic acid bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding liquid feed containing whey permeate (WP) fermented with different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the microbiota and mucosal immune responses of Escherichia coli F4 inoculated piglets post weaning. The study consisted of 52 weane...

  3. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of plant extracts traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Laura Lúcia; Monteiro, Cristina Leise Bastos; Miguel, Marilis Dallarmi; Miguel, Obdulio Gomes; Cunico, Miriam Machado; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; de Camargo, Eloá Ramalho; Kussen, Gislene Maria Botão; Nogueira, Keite da Silva; Costa, Libera Maria Dalla

    2010-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of plant extracts obtained from Bixa orellana L., Chamomilla recutita L., Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Malva sylvestris L., Plantago major L. and Rheum rhaponticum L. has been evaluated against two reference strains and eleven clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. All the plant species chosen are used in popular Brazilian cuisine and folk medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Initial screening was made by the disk diffusion test and then minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method. The results presented in this work demonstrated that among the plant preparations analyzed, B. orellana L., C. recutita L., I. paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. and M. sylvestris L. were capable of inhibiting the in vitro growth of H. pylori. PMID:24031496

  4. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of plant extracts traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lúcia Cogo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of plant extracts obtained from Bixa orellana L., Chamomilla recutita L., Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Malva sylvestris L., Plantago major L. and Rheum rhaponticum L. has been evaluated against two reference strains and eleven clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. All the plant species chosen are used in popular Brazilian cuisine and folk medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Initial screening was made by the disk diffusion test and then minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method. The results presented in this work demonstrated that among the plant preparations analyzed, B. orellana L., C. recutita L., I. paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. and M. sylvestris L. were capable of inhibiting the in vitro growth of H. pylori.

  5. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of plant extracts traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Laura Lúcia; Monteiro, Cristina Leise Bastos; Miguel, Marilis Dallarmi; Miguel, Obdulio Gomes; Cunico, Miriam Machado; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; de Camargo, Eloá Ramalho; Kussen, Gislene Maria Botão; Nogueira, Keite da Silva; Costa, Libera Maria Dalla

    2010-04-01

    The antibacterial activity of plant extracts obtained from Bixa orellana L., Chamomilla recutita L., Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Malva sylvestris L., Plantago major L. and Rheum rhaponticum L. has been evaluated against two reference strains and eleven clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. All the plant species chosen are used in popular Brazilian cuisine and folk medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Initial screening was made by the disk diffusion test and then minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method. The results presented in this work demonstrated that among the plant preparations analyzed, B. orellana L., C. recutita L., I. paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. and M. sylvestris L. were capable of inhibiting the in vitro growth of H. pylori.

  6. Antioxidant activity and fermentative metabolism in the plant Erythrina crista-galli L. under flood conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ferreira Larré

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the mechanisms of flood tolerance of the root system of Erythrina crista-galli L. plants by measuring the activity of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress components in the leaves and roots. Additionally, the activity of fermentation enzymes in the roots was measured. The following two treatments were used: plants with flooded roots, which were maintained at a given water level above the soil surface, and non-flooded plants, which were used as the control. The measurements were performed at 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 days after treatment. The following parameters were evaluated at each time-point: the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, the quantification of lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content in the leaves, roots, and adventitious roots, and the activities of lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase in both the primary and adventitious roots. There was an increase in the activity of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase in the leaves to maintain stable H2O2 levels, which reduced lipid peroxidation. In the roots, higher activity of all antioxidant enzymes was observed at up to 30 days of flooding, which favoured both reduced H2O2 levels and lipid peroxidation. Activity of the fermentation enzymes was observed in the primary roots from the onset of the stress conditions; however, their activity was necessary only in the adventitious roots during the final periods of flooding. In conclusion, E. crista-galli L. depends on adventitious roots and particularly on the use of the fermentation pathway to tolerate flood conditions.

  7. Phytate degrading activities of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damayanti, Ema; Ratisiwi, Febiyani Ndaru; Istiqomah, Lusty; Sembiring, Langkah; Febrisiantosa, Andi

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential of LAB with phytate degrading activity from fermented traditional food grain-based and legume-based. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from different sources of traditional fermented food from Gunungkidul Yogyakarta Indonesia such as gembus tempeh (tofu waste), soybean tempeh, lamtoro tempeh (Leucaena bean) and kara tempeh. Isolation of LAB was performed using Total Plate Count (TPC) on de Man Rogosa Sharpe Agar (MRSA) medium supplemented with CaCO3. They were screened for their ability to degrade myo-inositol hexaphosphate or IP6 by using qualitative streak platemethod with modified de Man Rogosa-MorpholinoPropanesulfonic Acid Sharpe (MRS-MOPS) medium contained sodium salt of phytic acid as substrate and cobalt chloride staining (plate assay) method. The selected isolates were further assayed for phytase activities using quantitative method with spectrophotometer and the two selected isolates growth were optimized. Furthermore, thhe isolates that shown the highest phytase activity was characterized and identified using API 50 CH kitand 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results showed that there were 18 LAB isolates obtained from samplesand 13 isolates were able to degrade sodium phytate based on qualitative screening. According to quantitative assay, the highest phytate degrading activities were found in TG-2(23.562 U/mL) and TG-1 (19.641 U/mL) isolated from gembus tempeh. The phytate activity of TG-2 was optimum at 37 °C with agitation, while the phytate activity of TG-1 was optimum at 45 °C without agitation. Characterization and identification of TG-2 isolate with the highest phytate degrading activity using API 50 CH and 16S rRNA showed that TG-2had homology with Lactobacillus fermentum. It could be concluded that LAB from from fermented traditional food grain-based and legume-based produced the extracellular phytase. Keywords: lactic acid bacteria, tempeh, phytatedegrading activity

  8. In vitro effects of Monascus purpureus on antioxidation activity during fermentation of Kinmen sorghum liquor waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chin-Shiu; Hu, Hung-Hsi; Tsai, Ya-Mei; Chang, Wen-Teish

    2013-04-01

    Monascus purpureus CWT715 is a strain of red yeast rice that can scavenge free radicals when fermented with residual sorghum from Kinmen sorghum liquor waste (KSL). This study used KSL as the primary nutrient source in the production of metabolites from M. purpureus CWT715, whose antioxidant activity was tested on mouse embryonic liver cells (BNL CL.2). Image analysis of a comet assay was performed to evaluate DNA strand breaks, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) analysis was used to measure lipid peroxidation. The results demonstrate that, compared with the control, M. purpureus CWT715 pretreated with 100 μg/ml of fermentation broth reduced DNA damage by 61% and lipid peroxidation by 51%. Thus, KSL shows considerable potential as an antioxidant in functional foods. This is the first report on the use of Monascus species in the conversion of KSL to produce antioxidants.

  9. The effect of probiotic fermented milk and inulin on the functions and microecology of the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairanen, Ulla; Piirainen, Laura; Gråsten, Soile; Tompuri, Tuomo; Mättö, Jaana; Saarela, Maria; Korpela, Riitta

    2007-08-01

    We investigated the effects of a probiotic fermented milk and inulin on gastrointestinal function and microecology. The study was double-blinded and comprised 66 healthy adults (22 male, 44 female), mean age 40 years (range, 22-60 years). After a 12-d baseline period the subjects were randomized to consume, for 3 weeks, 3x200 ml daily of either (1) a fermented milk with probiotics (Bifidobacterium longum BB536, Bifidobacterium spp. 420 and Lactobacillus acidophilus 145), (2) a fermented milk with the same probiotics plus 4 g inulin, or (3) a control fermented milk. During the last 7 d of the baseline and the intervention periods, the subjects kept a record of their defaecation frequency and gastrointestinal symptoms, and collected all their faeces. Intestinal transit time, stool weight and faecal enzyme activities were measured. Thirty-nine subjects were randomized to give faecal samples for analysis of pH and microbes, including lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Bacteroides and Clostridium perfringens. Consumption of fermented milk with probiotics or with probiotics and inulin increased the faecal number of lactobacilli (P=0.009, P=0.003) and bifidobacteria (P=0.046, P=0.038) compared with the baseline. Compared with the control fermented milk, both active products increased lactobacilli (P=0.005, ANCOVA). Subjects consuming fermented milk with probiotics and inulin suffered from gastrointestinal symptoms, especially flatulence, more than the others (P<0.001). In conclusion, the probiotic fermented milk product had a positive effect by increasing the number of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the colon. Inulin did not alter this effect but it increased gastrointestinal symptoms.

  10. An investigation of the effect of gastrointestinal microbial activity on oral arsenic bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Brian D; James, Kyle J; Van de Wiele, Tom R; Dodd, Matt; Casteel, Stan W; Wickstrom, Mark; Siciliano, Steven D

    2013-01-01

    In vitro gastrointestinal (GI) microbial activity in the colon compartment facilitates the arsenic release from soils into simulated GI fluids. Consequentially, it is possible that in vitro models that neglect to include microbial activity underestimate arsenic bioaccessibility when calculating oral exposure. However, the toxicological relevance of increased arsenic release due to microbial activity is contingent upon the subsequent absorption of arsenic solubilized in the GI lumen. The objectives of this research are to: (1) assess whether microbes in the in vitro small intestine affect arsenic solubilization from soils, (2) determine whether differences in the GI microbial community result in differences in the oral bioavailability of soil-borne arsenic. In vitro GI microbial activity in the distal small intestine increased arsenic release from soils; however, these effects were unlikely to be relevant since they were transient and demonstrated small effect sizes. In vivo arsenic absorption for juvenile swine was unaffected by antibiotic treatment. Therefore, it appears that microbial effects on arsenic release do not result in increased arsenic bioavailability. However, it remains to be seen whether the results for the limited set of soils described herein can be extrapolated to arsenic contaminated sites in general.

  11. Recovery of carboxylic acids produced during dark fermentation of food waste by adsorption on Amberlite IRA-67 and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Ahasa; Bonk, Fabian; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2016-10-01

    Amberlite IRA-67 and activated carbon were tested as promising candidates for carboxylic acid recovery by adsorption. Dark fermentation was performed without pH control and without addition of external inoculum at 37°C in batch mode. Lactic, acetic and butyric acids, were obtained, after 7days of fermentation. The maximum acid removal, 74%, from the Amberlite IRA-67 and 63% from activated carbon was obtained from clarified fermentation broth using 200gadsorbent/Lbroth at pH 3.3. The pH has significant effect and pH below the carboxylic acids pKa showed to be beneficial for both the adsorbents. The un-controlled pH fermentation creates acidic environment, aiding in adsorption by eliminating use of chemicals for efficient removal. This study proposes simple and easy valorization of waste to valuable chemicals.

  12. Antimutagenic activity of green tea and black tea extracts studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, C.A.M.; Luiten-Schuite, A.; Tenfelde, A.; Ommen, B. van; Verhagen, H.; Havenaar, R.

    2001-01-01

    An in vitro gastrointestinal model, which simulates the conditions in the human digestive tract, was used to determine potential antimutagenic activity of extracts of black tea and green tea. In this paper, results are presented on the availability for absorption of potential antimutagenic compounds

  13. Antimutagenic activity of green tea and black tea extracts studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, C.A.M.; Luiten-Schuite, A.; Tenfelde, A.; Ommen, B. van; Verhagen, H.; Havenaar, R.

    2001-01-01

    An in vitro gastrointestinal model, which simulates the conditions in the human digestive tract, was used to determine potential antimutagenic activity of extracts of black tea and green tea. In this paper, results are presented on the availability for absorption of potential antimutagenic compounds

  14. Antibacterial activity composition of the fermentation broth of Streptomyces djakartensis NW35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Wei, Shaopeng; Zhang, Jiwen; Wu, Wenjun

    2013-03-01

    The new compound Z-4-2 was isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces djakartensis NW35, together with the known compound N-acetyltryptamine (Z-9-2) by bioassay-guided fractionation. Its chemical structure was elucidated as (E)-2-methoxy-1,4 naphthoquinone-1-oxime (Z-4-2) mainly by NMR analyses and MS spectral data. Their antibacterial activities against bacteria were evaluated by the filter paper method. The results of indicated that these compounds possess significant antibacterial activities.

  15. Characterization of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activities of Red Radish Brines during Lactic Acid Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Jing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Red radish (Raphanus L. pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5–19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15–30 µg/mL. 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2–92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206–220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants.

  16. GASTROINTESTINAL EOSINOPHILIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Li; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2007-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Gastrointestinal eosinophilia, as a broad term for abnormal eosinophil accumulation in the GI tract, involves many different disease identities. These diseases include primary eosinophil associated gastrointestinal diseases, gastrointestinal eosinophilia in HES and all gastrointestinal eosinophilic states associated with known causes. Each of these diseases has its unique features but there is no absolute boundary between them. All three groups of GI eosinophila are described in this chapter although the focus is on primary gastrointestinal eosinophilia, i.e. EGID. PMID:17868858

  17. Exopolysaccharides from Pleurotus pulmonarius: Fermentation Optimization, Characterization and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Wen Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture conditions for exopolysaccharide (EPS production by Pleurotus pulmonarius in submerged culture are optimized. The suggested medium composition was as follows: 60 g/L of xylose, 6 g/L of soy extract, 5 mM of KH2PO4 and 5 mM of MgSO4. Under the optimized culture conditions in a 5-litre stirred tank fermentor, the maximum concentration of EPS was 6.36 g/L. Furthermore, the morphological parameters (i.e. average diameter, circularity, roughness and compactness of the pellets and the broth viscosity are characterized. It has been proven that mycelial morphology and broth viscosity may be the critical parameters affecting the EPS yield. After deproteinization using Sevag method, a group of EPS (designated as fraction was obtained from the culture filtrates by gel filtration chromatography. FT-IR analysis of the purified EPS revealed prominent characteristic groups corresponding to polyhydric alcohols. GC analysis showed that the purified EPS were mainly composed of galactose and glucose. Furthermore, thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the degradation temperature of the purified EPS was 217 °C. Finally, the antioxidant activity of the EPS fraction was investigated and the relationship with molecular properties was discussed as well.

  18. Effect of ferrous chloride on biogas production and enzymatic activities during anaerobic fermentation of cow dung and Phragmites straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huayong; Tian, Yonglan; Wang, Lijun; Mi, Xueyue; Chai, Yang

    2016-06-01

    The effect of ferrous (added as FeCl2) on the anaerobic co-digestion of Phragmites straw and cow dung was studied by investigating the biogas properties, pH values, organic matter degradation (COD) and enzyme activities (cellulase, protease and dehydrogenase) at different stages of mesophilic fermentation. The results showed that Fe(2+) addition increased the cumulative biogas yields by 18.1 % by extending the peak period with high daily biogas yields. Meanwhile, the methane (CH4) contents in the Fe(2+) added groups were generally higher than the control group before the 15th day. The pH values were not significantly impacted by Fe(2+) concentrations during the fermentation process. The COD concentrations, cellulase, protease and dehydrogenase activities varied with the added Fe(2+) concentrations and the stages of the fermentation process. At the beginning stage of fermentation (4th day), Fe(2+) addition increased the biogas production by improving the cellulase and dehydrogenase activities which caused a decline in COD. At the peak stage of fermentation (8th day), Fe(2+) addition enhanced the cellulase and protease activities, and resulted in lower COD contents than the control group. When the biogas yields decreased again (13th day), the COD contents varied similar with the protease and dehydrogenase activities, whilst cellulase activities were not sensitive to Fe(2+) concentrations. At the end of fermentation (26th day), Fe(2+) addition decreased the cellulase activities, led to lower COD contents and finally resulted the lower biogas yields than the control group. Taking the whole fermentation process into account, the promoting effect of Fe(2+) addition on biogas yields was mainly attributed to the extension of the gas production peak stage and the improvement of cellulase activities.

  19. Gingerol activates noxious cold ion channel TRPA1 in gastrointestinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Meng-Qi; YE Lin-Lan; LIU Xiao-Ling; QI Xiao-Ming; LV Jia-Di; WANG Gang; FARHAN Ulah-Khan

    2016-01-01

    TRPA1 channels are non-selective cation channels that could be activated by plant-derived pungent products,including gingerol,a main active constituent of ginger.Ginger could improve the digestive function;however whether ginger improves the digestive function through activating TRPA1 receptor in gastrointestinal tract has not been investigated.In the present study,gingerol was used to stimulate cell lines (RIN14B or STC-1) while depletion of extracellular calcium.TRPA1 inhibitor (rethenium red) and TRPA1 gene silencing via TRPAl-specific siRNA were also used for mechanistic studies.The intracellular calcium and secretion of serotonin or cholecystokinin were measured by fura-2/AM and ELISA.Stimulation of those cells with gingerol increased intracellular calcium levels and the serotonin or cholecystokinin secretion.The gingerol-induced intracellular calcium increase and secretion (serotonin or cholecystokinin) release were completely blocked by ruthenium red,EGTA,and TRPAl-specific siRNA.In summary,our results suggested that gingerol derived from ginger might improve the digestive function through secretion releasing from endocrine cells of the gut by inducing TRPA1-mediated calcium influx.

  20. Gastrointestinal Hormone Cholecystokinin Increases P-Glycoprotein Membrane Localization and Transport Activity in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Kentaro; Shimizu, Saori; Tomono, Takumi; Ogihara, Takuo

    2017-09-01

    It was reported that stimulation of taste receptor type 2 member 38 by a bitter substance, phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), increased P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mRNA level and transport activity via release of the gastrointestinal hormone cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) at 9 h. Therefore, we hypothesized that CCK-8 and PTC might also regulate P-gp activity more rapidly via a different mechanism. As a result, we found that the pretreatment of human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells with 10-mM PTC significantly decreased the intracellular accumulation of P-gp substrate rhodamine 123 (Rho123) compared with the control after 90-min incubation. Moreover, CCK-8 treatments significantly reduced the accumulation of Rho123 within 30 min, compared with the control. On the other hand, when Caco-2 cells were pretreated with PTC, the efflux ratio of Rho123 was significantly increased compared with control. The efflux ratio of Rho123 in CCK-8 treatment cells was also significantly increased compared with control. Furthermore, CCK-8 increased the phosphorylation of the scaffold proteins ezrin, radixin, and moesin, which regulate translocation of P-gp to the plasma membrane. Therefore, our results indicate that PTC induced release of CCK-8, which in turn induced the phosphorylation of ezrin, radixin, and moesin proteins, leading to upregulation of P-gp transport activity via increased membrane localization of P-gp. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fermented feed for laying hens: effect on egg production, egg quality, plumage condition and composition and activity of the intestinal microflora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Ricarda M; Hammershøj, M; Johansen, N F

    2009-01-01

    mash. Presumably because of an extended adaptation time to the feed, the onset of lay occurred later when hens were fed on fermented feed, resulting in non-significantly reduced total egg production (75 vs. 82%). 5. There was no significant difference between groups with respect to the total egg mass......1. An experiment with a total of 480 hens (Babcock) was carried out from 16 to 38 weeks of age to evaluate the suitability of wet fermented feed (feed water ratio, 1:1·2-1:1·4) for layers, taking aspects of nutrition and gastrointestinal health into consideration. The production performance, egg...... quite rapidly, resulting in a more aggressive behaviour and a poorer plumage condition than in birds given dry feed. The use of fermented feed reduced the litter DM content. 4. During the experimental period, the body weight gain of hens receiving fermented feed was 80 g higher than of hens fed the dry...

  2. Evaluation of γ- aminobutyric acid, phytate and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats (Avena sativa L.) prepared with different filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shengbao; Gao, Fengyi; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Ou; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Songjie; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2014-10-01

    Tempeh is a popular traditional fermented food in Asia. Many tempeh-like foods are made from cereal grains. However, the information of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in those tempeh-like cereal grains during fermentation is lacking. Meanwhile, little information is available on the anti-nutrient contents and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats. The aim of the present work was to study the changes of GABA, phytate, natural antioxidants and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats. As fermentation time progressed, the GABA, total phenolics content (TPC) and flavonoids increased rapidly. The Aspergillus oryzae-fermented oats had the highest GABA, whereas Rhizopus oryzae-fermented oats had the highest TPC. Phytate, an anti-nutrient component, was dramatically reduced in the fermented oats, especially those by A. oryzae (reduced by about 63 %). The antioxidant activities of fermented oats were also significantly enhanced after 72 h fermentation (p oats fermented by generally recognized as safe (GRAS) fungi can be recommended as tempeh-like functional foods with higher GABA, more natural antioxidants and lower phytate compared with native oats.

  3. Enhancement of aglycone, vitamin K2 and superoxide dismutase activity of black soybean through fermentation with Bacillus subtilis BCRC 14715 at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Hsuan; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2009-11-25

    In the present study, the change in the content and activity of some functional constituents including aglycone, the bioactive form of isoflavone, vitamin K2, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of black soybeans during their solid fermentation with Bacillus subtilis BCRC 14715 at different temperatures (35, 40, 45, and 50 degrees C) for 18 h was investigated. It was generally found that fermentation resulted in an enhancement of these constituents, regardless of fermentation temperature, while varying the fermentation temperature of black soybeans produced variations in the enhancement. The 50 degrees C -fermented black soybean showed the most marked increase in the content of daidzein and genistein aglycone. On the other hand, the highest SOD activity and vitamin K2 content were found in the black soybeans fermented at 45 and 40-45 degrees C, respectively. Thus functional properties of black soybeans can be further improved through fermentation with B. subtilis BCRC 14715.

  4. Transcriptional activator Cat8 is involved in regulation of xylose alcoholic fermentation in the thermotolerant yeast Ogataea (Hansenula) polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchala, Justyna; Kurylenko, Olena O; Soontorngun, Nitnipa; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2017-02-28

    Efficient xylose alcoholic fermentation is one of the key to a successful lignocellulosic ethanol production. However, regulation of this process in the native xylose-fermenting yeasts is poorly understood. In this work, we paid attention to the transcriptional factor Cat8 and its possible role in xylose alcoholic fermentation in Ogataea (Hansenula) polymorpha. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, organism, which does not metabolize xylose, gene CAT8 encodes a Zn-cluster transcriptional activator necessary for expression of genes involved in gluconeogenesis, respiration, glyoxylic cycle and ethanol utilization. Xylose is a carbon source that could be fermented to ethanol and simultaneously could be used in gluconeogenesis for hexose synthesis. This potentially suggests involvement of CAT8 in xylose metabolism. Here, the role of CAT8 homolog in the natural xylose-fermenting thermotolerant yeast O. polymorpha was characterized. The CAT8 ortholog was identified in O. polymorpha genome and deleted both in the wild-type strain and in advanced ethanol producer from xylose. Constructed cat8Δ strain isolated from wild strain showed diminished growth on glycerol, ethanol and xylose as well as diminished respiration on the last substrate. At the same time, cat8Δ mutant isolated from the best available O. polymorpha ethanol producer showed only visible defect in growth on ethanol. CAT8 deletant was characterized by activated transcription of genes XYL3, DAS1 and RPE1 and slight increase in the activity of several enzymes involved in xylose metabolism and alcoholic fermentation. Ethanol production from xylose in cat8Δ mutants in the background of wild-type strain and the best available ethanol producer from xylose increased for 50 and 30%, respectively. The maximal titer of ethanol during xylose fermentation was 12.5 g ethanol/L at 45 °C. Deletion of CAT8 did not change ethanol production from glucose. Gene CAT8 was also overexpressed under control of the strong constitutive

  5. Antioxidation, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity, nattokinase, and antihypertension of Bacillus subtilis (natto-fermented pigeon pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Hong Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries, traditional fermented foods from Asia have been increasingly investigated for antiatherosclerotic effects. This study investigated the production of nattokinase, a serine fibrinolytic enzyme, in pigeon pea by Bacillus subtilis fermentation. B. subtilis 14714, B. subtilis 14715, B. subtilis 14716, and B. subtilis 14718 were employed to produce nattokinase. The highest nattokinase activity in pigeon pea was obtained using B. subtilis 14715 fermentation for 32 hours. In addition, the levels of antioxidants (phenolics and flavonoids and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity were increased in B. subtilis 14715-fermented pigeon pea, compared with those in nonfermented pigeon pea. In an animal model, we found that both water extracts of pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight and water extracts of B. subtilis-fermented pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight significantly improved systolic blood pressure (21 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (30 mmHg in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These results suggest that Bacillus-fermented pigeon pea has benefits for cardiovascular health and can be developed as a new dietary supplement or functional food that prevents hypertension.

  6. Antioxidation, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity, nattokinase, and antihypertension of Bacillus subtilis (natto)-fermented pigeon pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bao-Hong; Lai, Yi-Syuan; Wu, She-Ching

    2015-12-01

    Because of the high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries, traditional fermented foods from Asia have been increasingly investigated for antiatherosclerotic effects. This study investigated the production of nattokinase, a serine fibrinolytic enzyme, in pigeon pea by Bacillus subtilis fermentation. B. subtilis 14714, B. subtilis 14715, B. subtilis 14716, and B. subtilis 14718 were employed to produce nattokinase. The highest nattokinase activity in pigeon pea was obtained using B. subtilis 14715 fermentation for 32 hours. In addition, the levels of antioxidants (phenolics and flavonoids) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity were increased in B. subtilis 14715-fermented pigeon pea, compared with those in nonfermented pigeon pea. In an animal model, we found that both water extracts of pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight) and water extracts of B. subtilis-fermented pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight) significantly improved systolic blood pressure (21 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (30 mmHg) in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These results suggest that Bacillus-fermented pigeon pea has benefits for cardiovascular health and can be developed as a new dietary supplement or functional food that prevents hypertension. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Lactic Acid Fermentation Improved Textural Behaviour, Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Chia (Salvia hispanica L. Dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Yanina Bustos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from chia (Salvia hispanica L. dough and selected on the basis of the kinetics of acidifi cation and proteolytic activity. Strain no. C8, identifi ed as Lactobacillus plantarum C8, was selected and used as starte r to obtain chia sourdough. Lactic acid fermentation increased the organic acid mass fractions (lactic, acetic and phenyl lactic acids to 12.3 g, 1.0 g and 23.8 μg per kg of dough respectively, and antioxidant activities, which increased by approx. 33–40 % compared to unfermented chia fl our dough. In addition, total phenolic content increased 25 % and its composition was strongly modifi ed aft er 24 h of fermentation by L. plantarum C8. Chlorogenic acid was only found in the fermented dough (2.5 mg/g, while ferulic acid was detected from the beginning of fermentation, being 32 % higher in chia sourdough (5.6 mg/g. The use of fermented chia sourdough improved the overall characteristics of white bread, including physical (e.g. reduced hardness and chewiness of the crumb and antioxidant properties (25 % on average, compared to the white bread. These results indicate that the use of chia sourdough could be a promising alternative to improve the technological and antioxidant properties of wheat bread. In addition, this work has shown, for the fi rst time, that lactic acid bacterium is able to ferment chia dough, improving its overall characteristics.

  8. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of pomegranate juice and whey based novel beverage fermented by kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabokbar, Nayereh; Khodaiyan, Faramarz

    2016-01-01

    Mixture of pomegranate juice and whey was evaluated as a potential substrate for production of a novel beverage by kefir grains. The effects of two different variables, fermentation, temperature (19 and 25 °C) and kefir grain amount (5 %w/v and 8 %w/v), on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities of beverage were examined during a fermentation time of 32 h. TPC and antioxidant activities including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power, inhibition effect upon linoleic acid autoxidation and inhibition effect upon ascorbate autoxidation increased significantly (p kefir grain amount of 8 %w/v were applied. Results proved antioxidant activities of beverages were desirable and fermentation by kefir grains has the ability to enhance these antioxidant activities, as compared with unfermented beverage. Also pomegranate juice and whey were suitable media for producing a novel dairy-juice beverage.

  9. Impact of extraction parameters on the recovery of lipolytic activity from fermented babassu cake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline N Silva

    Full Text Available Enzyme extraction from solid matrix is as important step in solid-state fermentation to obtain soluble enzymes for further immobilization and application in biocatalysis. A method for the recovery of a pool of lipases from Penicillium simplicissimum produced by solid-state fermentation was developed. For lipase recovery different extraction solution was used and phosphate buffer containing Tween 80 and NaCl showed the best results, yielding lipase activity of 85.7 U/g and 65.7 U/g, respectively. The parameters with great impacts on enzyme extraction detected by the Plackett-Burman analysis were studied by Central Composite Rotatable experimental designs where a quadratic model was built showing maximum predicted lipase activity (160 U/g at 25°C, Tween 80 0.5% (w/v, pH 8.0 and extraction solution 7 mL/g, maintaining constant buffer molarity of 0.1 M and 200 rpm. After the optimization process a 2.5 fold increase in lipase activity in the crude extract was obtained, comparing the intial value (64 U/g with the experimental design (160 U/g, thus improving the overall productivity of the process.

  10. Neutron activation analysis of cadmium bioremediation by yeast isolated from the fermentation of cachaca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Frederico H.; Moreira, Luciana M.C.; Porto, Barbara A.A.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C.; Amaral, Angela M.; Neves, Maria J. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: fhr@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal in urban environment is a final result of industrial waste discharges. The removal and recovery of heavy metals from contaminated water and wastewater is important in the protection of the environment and human health. There are several chemical technologies used to remove heavy metals. Most of these are ineffective or excessively expensive when the metal concentrations are less than 100 mgL{sup -1}. Biological treatment with bioremediation, is an innovative technology available for heavy metal polluted wastewaters. Brazil has a big production of yeast as a by-product of the fermentation of sugar cane for the production of ethanol or, for the production of artisanal cachaca, notedly in the state of Minas Gerais. Biological organisms remove metals through of two processes: bioaccumulation and biosorption. This research used neutron activation technique to determine the capacity of 10 isolated yeast of the fermentation for the withdrawal of cadmium. The efflux of ions K{sup +}, was also analyzed by the same technique after the incorporation of cadmium by cells. This work showed that the neutron activation analysis is a suitable technique to quantification the metal absorbed from liquid solution and that isolated strains of the fermentation of cachaca are more efficient in removing cadmium of the liquid solution that the laboratorial strain. The influences of the metals on the growth of the cells are also observed. The results obtained were compared with the yeast strain of laboratory, Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-WT. The tolerance of cadmium to concentration of 100 mgL{sup -1} was evaluated. (author)

  11. Functional Properties of Filamentous Fungi Isolated from the Indonesian Fermented Dried Cassava, with Particular Application on Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Yudiarti, Turrini; Isroli, Isroli

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the probiotic properties, antioxidant activity and fermentative capacity of Acremonium charticola and Rhizopus oryzae isolated from the Indonesian fermented dried cassava, with particular application on poultry. A. charticola inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Aspergillus flavus. A. charticola and R. oryzae grew in potato dextrose agar (PDA) adjusted to pH 3 and 8 or in PDA supplemented with bile salt up to 0.8%. After soaking for 8 hr, the survival rate of A. charticola in the simulated gastric juice (pH 2) and bile solutions (2% bile salt) was lower than that of R. oryzae. A. charticola and R. oryzae exhibited strong antioxidant activities. Compared to unfermented cassava pulp (control), the fibre content of cassava pulp tended to be lower after fermentation with A. charticola for 14 days. The populations of A. charticola and R. oryzae were significantly higher in fermented cassava pulp than in unfermented one. Coliform was higher in cassava pulp fermented with R. oryzae or A. charticola + R. oryzae compared to control after 7 days of fermentation, however, the bacteria were not different between A. charticola-fermented cassava pulp and control. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were higher in A. charticola- and R. oryzae-fermented cassava pulp than those in control, however, no difference of LAB was observed between A. charticola + R. oryzae-fermented cassava pulp and control. In conclusion, A. charticola exhibited antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity, gastrointestinal persistence and fermentative capacity that may be beneficial for poultry industry.

  12. BRAF-activated lncRNA predicts gastrointestinal cancer patient prognosis: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Wu, Miao-Jing; Lu, Shi-Gang; Zhu, Xin-Gen

    2017-01-01

    BRAF activated non-coding RNA (BANCR) is often dysregulated in cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to clarify its functions as a prognostic indicator in malignant tumors. We searched the PubMed, Medline, OVID, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases to identify BANCR-related studies. Nine original studies and 898 total patients were included in the meta-analysis. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were extracted from the included studies to determine the relationship between BANCR expression and patient overall survival (OS). Odds ratios (OR) were calculated using RevMan 5.3 software to assess associations between BANCR expression and pathological parameters. High BANCR expression correlated with lymph node metastasis (LNM) (OR = 3.41, 95% CI: 1.82–6.37, P = 0.0001), distant metastasis (DM) (OR = 2.98, 95% CI: 1.76–5.07, P < 0.0001), tumor stage (OR = 3.11, 95% CI: 1.89–5.12, Z = 3.25, P < 0.0001), and poor OS (pooled HR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.20–3.27, P = 0.008) in gastrointestinal (GI) cancer patients, but not in non-GI cancer patients. Our results support the notion that BANCR as a promising prognostic biomarker in Chinese patients with GI cancer. PMID:28009984

  13. Matrix Effects on the Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Red Cabbage Anthocyanins under Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Podsędek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red cabbage is, among different vegetables, one of the major sources of anthocyanins. In the present study an in vitro digestion method has been used to assay the influence of the physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine, as well as faecal microflora on anthocyanins stability in red cabbage and anthocyanin-rich extract. The recovery of anthocyanins during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was strongly influenced by food matrix. The results showed that other constituents present in cabbage enhanced the stability of anthocyanins during the digestion. The amount of anthocyanins (HPLC method and antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays strongly decreased after pancreatic-bile digestion in both matrices but total phenolics content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay in these digestions was higher than in initial samples. Incubation with human faecal microflora caused further decline in anthocyanins content. The results obtained suggest that intact anthocyanins in gastric and products of their decomposition in small and large intestine may be mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity and other physiological effects after consumption of red cabbage.

  14. Fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010 improves gastrointestinal well-being and digestive symptoms in women reporting minor digestive symptoms: a randomised, double-blind, parallel, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyonnet, Denis; Schlumberger, Armelle; Mhamdi, Leila; Jakob, Stefan; Chassany, Olivier

    2009-12-01

    The ability of probiotics to improve bowel habits or transit time has been shown in healthy populations. Additional data are required to support the use of specific probiotics to improve gastrointestinal (GI) well-being. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of consuming fermented milk (FM) on GI well-being, digestive symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) amongst women without diagnosed GI disorders. In this double-blind, controlled, parallel-design study, subjects were randomised to ingest daily either 2 x 125 g FM containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010 and yoghurt strains or a control non-fermented dairy product for 4 weeks followed by a 4-week wash-out period. GI well-being and digestive symptoms were assessed weekly. HRQoL was measured every 4 weeks. Data were analysed using analysis of covariance and logistic regression, correcting for baseline values on the full analysis set population of 197 women (aged 18-60 years). The percentage of women reporting an improvement in their GI well-being was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in the FM group v. the control group (OR 1.69; 95 % CI 1.17, 2.45). A significantly (P < 0.05) more pronounced decrease in the composite score of digestive symptoms was observed in the FM group when comparing with the control group (least squares mean - 0.57; 95 % CI - 1.12, - 0.02). Among HRQoL dimensions, the digestive comfort score was significantly (P < 0.05) improved in the FM group compared with the control group. The present study showed that the daily consumption of a specific FM is able to improve GI well-being and digestive symptoms in adult women without GI disorders.

  15. Gastrointestinal fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entero-enteral fistula; Enterocutaneous fistula; Fistula - gastrointestinal ... Most gastrointestinal fistulas occur after surgery. Other causes include: Blockage in the intestine Infection Crohn disease Radiation to the abdomen (most ...

  16. Functional diversity of carbohydrate-active enzymes enabling a bacterium to ferment plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutard, Magali; Cerisy, Tristan; Nogue, Pierre-Yves; Alberti, Adriana; Weissenbach, Jean; Salanoubat, Marcel; Tolonen, Andrew C

    2014-11-01

    Microbial metabolism of plant polysaccharides is an important part of environmental carbon cycling, human nutrition, and industrial processes based on cellulosic bioconversion. Here we demonstrate a broadly applicable method to analyze how microbes catabolize plant polysaccharides that integrates carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) assays, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), and anaerobic growth screening. We apply this method to study how the bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans ferments plant biomass components including glucans, mannans, xylans, galactans, pectins, and arabinans. These polysaccharides are fermented with variable efficiencies, and diauxies prioritize metabolism of preferred substrates. Strand-specific RNA-seq reveals how this bacterium responds to polysaccharides by up-regulating specific groups of CAZymes, transporters, and enzymes to metabolize the constituent sugars. Fifty-six up-regulated CAZymes were purified, and their activities show most polysaccharides are degraded by multiple enzymes, often from the same family, but with divergent rates, specificities, and cellular localizations. CAZymes were then tested in combination to identify synergies between enzymes acting on the same substrate with different catalytic mechanisms. We discuss how these results advance our understanding of how microbes degrade and metabolize plant biomass.

  17. Quantitation of selected odor-active constituents in dry fermented sausages prepared with different curing salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Aurora; Navarro, José Luis; Flores, Mónica

    2007-04-18

    The odor-active compounds of dry-fermented sausages with added nitrite or nitrate as curing agents were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) applying the detection frequency (DF) method. The quantification of these compounds in the sausage was determined by multiple headspace solid-phase microextraction (multiple HS-SPME). There were no specific odor-active compounds related to the use of nitrite or nitrate although there were differences in the DF value of several compounds. The nitrite-added sausages presented higher DF values for ethanol, 1-hexanol, propanoic acid, 2-heptenal, and nonanal while the nitrate-added sausages had higher DF values for phenylacetaldehyde and 3-methyl-butanal. Eighteen compounds were quantified by multiple HS-SPME. Most of them were above their air detection thresholds, but only hexanal, heptanal, and 1-octen-3-ol were in a concentration higher than their oil threshold values. These compounds would probably be the main contributors to the aroma of fermented sausages.

  18. Anti-cancer Activities of Ginseng Extract Fermented with Phellinus linteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Jin; Kwon, Ho-Kyun; Jung, In-Ho; Cho, Yong-Baik; Kim, Kyu-Joong; Kim, Jong-Lae

    2009-03-01

    In the present study, the anti-cancer effects of ginseng fermented with Phellinus linteus (GFPL) extract were examined through in vitro and in vivo assays. GFPL was produced by co-cultivating ginseng and Phellinus linteus together. Ginsenoside Rg3, Rh1 and Rh2 are important mediators of anti-angiogenesis and their levels in GFPL were enriched 24, 19 and 16 times, respectively, more than that of ginseng itself through the fermentation. GFPL exhibited distinct anti-cancer effects, including growth inhibition of the human lung carcinoma cell line A549, and promotion of immune activation by stimulating nitric oxide (NO) production in Raw 264.7 cells. Further evidence supporting anti-cancer effects of GFPL was its significant prolongment of the survival of B16F10 cancer cell-implanted mice. These results suggest that the GFPL may be a candidate for cancer prevention and treatment through immune activation and anti-angiogenic effects by enriching Rg3, Rh1 and Rh2.

  19. Effect of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on immunopotentiating activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Kai; Chang; Shu-Chen; Wang; Chih-Kwang; Chiu; Shih-Ying; Chen; Zong-Tsi; Chen; Pin-Der; Duh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on immunopotentiating activity Methods: One hundred and fifty nine strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Taiwan fermented mustard were evaluated for their immunopotentiating activity on a murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7.Results: Of the strains, pronounced increases in the levels of nitric oxide(NO), tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were observed in strains B0040, B0110 and B0145. Among them,strain B0145 had the highest NO and tumor necrosis factor-α generation in RAW 264.7 cells;strains B0040 and B0110 were also superior to that of Lactobacillus casei. These results demonstrated that NO and cytokines were effectively induced when the bacterial stimulants were treated with macrophages. In addition, strains B0040 and B0110 were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, and B0145 as Weissella cibaria using 16 S rDNA analysis.Conclusions: The results implicated selected strains may be regarded as a biological response modifier and had a broad application prospects in exploiting new functional food or as a feed additive.

  20. Functional diversity of carbohydrate-active enzymes enabling a bacterium to ferment plant biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Boutard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial metabolism of plant polysaccharides is an important part of environmental carbon cycling, human nutrition, and industrial processes based on cellulosic bioconversion. Here we demonstrate a broadly applicable method to analyze how microbes catabolize plant polysaccharides that integrates carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme assays, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq, and anaerobic growth screening. We apply this method to study how the bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans ferments plant biomass components including glucans, mannans, xylans, galactans, pectins, and arabinans. These polysaccharides are fermented with variable efficiencies, and diauxies prioritize metabolism of preferred substrates. Strand-specific RNA-seq reveals how this bacterium responds to polysaccharides by up-regulating specific groups of CAZymes, transporters, and enzymes to metabolize the constituent sugars. Fifty-six up-regulated CAZymes were purified, and their activities show most polysaccharides are degraded by multiple enzymes, often from the same family, but with divergent rates, specificities, and cellular localizations. CAZymes were then tested in combination to identify synergies between enzymes acting on the same substrate with different catalytic mechanisms. We discuss how these results advance our understanding of how microbes degrade and metabolize plant biomass.

  1. Antialcoholic liver activity of whey fermented by Lactobacillus casei isolated from koumiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z W; Pan, D D; Wu, Z; Sun, Y Y; Guo, Y X; Zeng, X Q

    2014-07-01

    Whey fermented liquid (WFL) was studied for its hepatoprotective effects by using chronic alcohol-induced mice. Whey fermented liquid, prepared by inoculating whey with 4% (vol/vol) Lactobacillus casei and then incubating at 41°C for 8h, was used to orally treat alcohol-induced mice at 3 dosages for 5 wk. Ethanol consumption significantly reduced the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, while lowering glutathione content and increasing levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total triglyceride, malondialdehyde, and cytochrome P450 2E1. Treatment with WFL significantly attenuated the increased levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride, and cytochrome P450 2E1, while decreasing superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, and glutathione levels. Pathological changes in the livers of mice who had ingested alcohol were improved by the administration of WFL. These results suggest that WFL may exert a protective effect against alcoholic liver disease by increasing antioxidant activity, which supports the use of WFL as an antialcoholic liver disease treatment.

  2. Mechanisms of electrical activation and conduction in the gastrointestinal system: lessons from cardiac electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eTse

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI tract is an electrically excitable organ system containing multiple cell types, which coordinate electrical activity propagating through this tract. Disruption in its normal electrophysiology is observed in a number of GI motility disorders. However, this is not well characterized and the field of GI electrophysiology is much less developed compared to the cardiac field. The aim of this article is to use the established knowledge of cardiac electrophysiology to shed light on the mechanisms of electrical activation and propagation along the GI tract, and how abnormalities in these processes lead to motility disorders and suggest better treatment options based on this improved understanding. In the first part of the article, the ionic contributions to the generation of GI slow wave and the cardiac action potential (AP are reviewed. Propagation of these electrical signals can be described by the core conductor theory in both systems. However, specifically for the GI tract, the following unique properties are observed: changes in slow wave frequency along its length, periods of quiescence, synchronization in short distances and desynchronization over long distances. These are best described by a coupled oscillator theory. Other differences include the diminished role of gap junctions in mediating this conduction in the GI tract compared to the heart. The electrophysiology of conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease and gastroparesis, and functional problems such as irritable bowel syndrome are discussed in detail, with reference to ion channel abnormalities and potential therapeutic targets. A deeper understanding of the molecular basis and physiological mechanisms underlying GI motility disorders will enable the development of better diagnostic and therapeutic tools and the advancement of this field.

  3. Anthelmintic Activity of a Herbal Formulation Against Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep

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    Muhammad Arfan Zaman*§, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Nisar Khan and Ghulam Muhammad1

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of a herbal formulation (HF based on aqueous extracts of leaves of Azadirachta indica and Nicotiana tabacum, flowers of Calotropis procera and seeds of Trachyspermum ammi. In vitro, eggs and adult Haemonchus contortus were exposed to different concentrations of HF following the standard procedures of egg hatch test (EHT; 50 to 0.024414 mg ml-1 and adult motility assay (AMA; 200-0.1953125mg ml-1, respectively. The reference drugs used in the study were oxfendazole (0.0056704 to 0.0000027 mg ml-1 and levamisole (1.50 mg ml-1 for EHT and AMA, respectively. In vivo, pre and post-treatment (4 mg, 2 mg and 500 µg kg-1 body weight fecal egg counts were determined following standard fecal egg count reduction test in sheep naturally parasitized with mixed species of gastrointestinal nematodes. In EHT, LC50 values of HF and oxfendazole (reference drug were 275.1 and 0.016 µg ml-1, respectively. In AMA, 100% mortality of H. contortus was observed 6 hr post-exposure to 3.125-200 mg ml-1 concentrations of HF and 2 hr post-exposure to levamisole. In vivo, maximum (96.2% fecal egg count (EPG reduction was recorded in sheep treated with HF @ 4 mg kg-1 body weight; whereas, 89.3% reduction in EPG was recorded in sheep treated with levamisole @ 7.5 mg kg-1 body weight. A graded dose response was noted in all the tests used in the present study to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of HF. Therefore, HF seems to be promising as an anthelmintic for animals. Large scale trials on efficacy and safety, however, are recommended before the HF is considered for commercialization in crude form.

  4. Improvement of alcoholic fermentation by calcium ions under enological conditions involves the increment of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyuan; Huang, Weidong; Wang, Xiuqin; Tang, Tian; Hua, Zhaozhe; Yan, Guoliang

    2010-07-01

    The effect of Ca(2+) on alcoholic fermentation and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity of wine yeast under enological conditions were investigated in this study. The results showed that fermentation rate, cell growth and ethanol production were improved by 0.5 and 1.5 mM Ca(2+) supplementation, which correlated well with the increment of ATPase activity and protein levels. Considering the important role of ATPase in the tolerance of yeast to ethanol, the improvement could be, at least partially, attributed to the increment of ATPase activity. No activation of ATPase by Ca(2+) was observed in the early phase of fermentation and the increment of activity was only observed when ethanol concentration exceeded 6.5%. Therefore, the enhancement of ATPase activity by Ca(2+) was ascribed to alleviating the inhibition of ATPase activity by ethanol through protection of membrane structure. Our results suggest that, besides maintenance of cell membrane structure, the increment of plasma membrane ATPase activity was also responsible for the improvement of alcoholic fermentation by Ca(2+) supplementation.

  5. Effect of a selective chloride channel activator, lubiprostone, on gastrointestinal transit, gastric sensory, and motor functions in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Bharucha, Adil E; Ueno, Ryuji; Burton, Duane; Thomforde, George M; Baxter, Kari; McKinzie, Sanna; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2006-05-01

    Chloride channels modulate gastrointestinal neuromuscular functions in vitro. Lubiprostone, a selective type 2 chloride channel (ClC-2) activator, induces intestinal secretion and has been shown to relieve constipation in clinical trials; however, the effects of lubiprostone on gastric function and whole gut transit in humans are unclear. Our aim was to compare the effects of the selective ClC-2 activator lubiprostone on maximum tolerated volume (MTV) of a meal, postprandial symptoms, gastric volumes, and gastrointestinal and colonic transit in humans. We performed a randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of lubiprostone (24 microg bid) in 30 healthy volunteers. Validated methods were used: scintigraphic gastrointestinal and colonic transit, SPECT to measure gastric volumes, and the nutrient drink ("satiation") test to measure MTV and postprandial symptoms. Lubiprostone accelerated small bowel and colonic transit, increased fasting gastric volume, and retarded gastric emptying. MTV values were reduced compared with placebo; however, the MTV was within the normal range for healthy adults in 13 of 14 participants, and there was no significant change compared with baseline measurements. Lubiprostone had no significant effect on postprandial gastric volume or aggregate symptoms but did decrease fullness 30 min after the fully satiating meal. Thus the ClC-2 activator lubiprostone accelerates small intestinal and colonic transit, which confers potential in the treatment of constipation.

  6. Starter Culture Selection for Making Chinese Sesame-Flavored Liquor Based on Microbial Metabolic Activity in Mixed-Culture Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientalis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The metabolic activity of each species in mixed and inoculated fermentations of liquor was investigated in 14 different cocultures that used different combinations of these species. The relationships between the microbial species and volatile metabolites were analyzed by partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. We found that S. cerevisiae was positively correlated to nonanal, and B. licheniformis was positively associated with 2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, guaiacol, and 4-vinyl guaiacol, while I. orientalis was positively correlated to butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, and 2,3-butanediol. These three species are excellent flavor producers for Chinese liquor. Although P. membranaefaciens and B. amyloliquefaciens were not efficient flavor producers, the addition of them alleviated competition among the other three species and altered their growth rates and flavor production. As a result, the coculture of all five dominant species produced the largest amount of flavor compounds. The result indicates that flavor producers and microbial interaction regulators are important for inoculated fermentation of Chinese sesame-flavored liquor. PMID:24814798

  7. Aroma-active compounds in jinhua ham produced with different fermentation periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Sheng; Liu, Jian-Bin; Yang, Zheng-Mao; Song, Huan-Lu; Liu, Ye; Zou, Ting-Ting

    2014-11-19

    The aroma-active compounds in Jinhua ham processed and stored for 9, 12, 15 and 18 months were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling (DHS) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS). In GC-O-MS, volatile compounds were identified based on their mass spectrum, linear retention index (LRI), odor properties, or reference compound comparisons. The results showed that a total number of 81 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-O-MS. Among them, acids (such as acetic acid, butanoic acid and 3-methylbutanoic acid), saturated aldehydes (such as hexanal, heptanal, octanal and 3-methylbutanal), benzene derivatives (such as benzeneacetic acid), ester and lactone (such as γ-nonalactone and γ-decalactone) were identified as critical compounds in Jinhua ham aroma. The results also indicated that the type and content of the odorants increased significantly with the duration of the fermentation period.

  8. Aroma-Active Compounds in Jinhua Ham Produced With Different Fermentation Periods

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    Xiao-Sheng Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aroma-active compounds in Jinhua ham processed and stored for 9, 12, 15 and 18 months were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling (DHS and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS. In GC-O-MS, volatile compounds were identified based on their mass spectrum, linear retention index (LRI, odor properties, or reference compound comparisons. The results showed that a total number of 81 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-O-MS. Among them, acids (such as acetic acid, butanoic acid and 3-methylbutanoic acid, saturated aldehydes (such as hexanal, heptanal, octanal and 3-methylbutanal, benzene derivatives (such as benzeneacetic acid, ester and lactone (such as γ-nonalactone and γ-decalactone were identified as critical compounds in Jinhua ham aroma. The results also indicated that the type and content of the odorants increased significantly with the duration of the fermentation period.

  9. Enhancement of antioxidant activity, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities by spontaneous and bacterial monoculture fermentation of Indonesian black grape juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frediansyah, Andri; Nurhayati, Rifa; Romadhoni, Fitrio

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitor activity of fermented black grape (Vitisvinifera) juice. In the present study black grape juice was prepared using spontaneous (SF) and monoculture fermentation (FL) of Lactobacillus plantarum FNCC 0027 and incubated for 48 h. The antioxidant capacity increased after fermentation. FL had the highest DPPH inhibition (81.32±3.45; p ≤ 0.05) compared to SF and unfermented (UF) black grape juice (75.17±1.47 and 65.63±1.02%, respectively). The pH values decreased during fermentation for both, SF and FL. M also had highest inhibition of α-glucosidase (80.15±3.23) and α-amylase (39.95±0.88). Fermentation of black grape juice using monoculture of L. plantarum has higher antioxidant activities and enzyme inhibitor effect than spontaneous and unfermented black grape juices (p ≤ 0.05). Thus fermented black grape juice may have the potential to serve as enhanced functional juice with anti-diabetic properties.

  10. Korean Ginseng Berry Fermented by Mycotoxin Non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae: Ginsenoside Analyses and Anti-proliferative Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Kim, Nam Yeon; Lee, Yu Na; Ji, Geun Eog

    2016-01-01

    To transform ginsenosides, Korean ginseng berry (KGB) was fermented by mycotoxin non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. Changes of ginsenoside profile and anti-proliferative activities were observed. Results showed that A. niger tended to efficiently transform protopanaxadiol (PPD) type ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rb2, Rd to compound K while A. oryzae tended to efficiently transform protopanaxatriol (PPT) type ginsenoside Re to Rh1 via Rg1. Butanol extracts of fermented KGB showed high cytotoxicity on human adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line while that of unfermented KGB showed little. The minimum effective concentration of niger-fermented KGB was less than 2.5 µg/mL while that of oryzae-fermented KGB was about 5 µg/mL. As A. niger is more inclined to transform PPD type ginsenosides, niger-fermented KGB showed stronger anti-proliferative activity than oryzae-fermented KGB.

  11. Changes in the fermentation end-product profile in the GIT of piglets during post-colostrum suckling period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awati, A.; Urso, D' S.; Williams, B.A.; Bosch, M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Pre-weaning development of microbial activity has an effect on post-weaning establishment of the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) microbiota. An in vivo study was conducted, to evaluate the effect of age on fermentation end-product profiles during the post-colostrum suckling period, as the variation in

  12. Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 Metabolic Products and Fermented Milk for Infant Formula Have Anti-Inflammatory Activity on Dendritic Cells In Vitro and Protective Effects against Colitis and an Enteric Pathogen In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Zagato; Erika Mileti; Lucia Massimiliano; Francesca Fasano; Andrea Budelli; Giuseppe Penna; Maria Rescigno

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of commercially available fermented food products raises important safety issues particularly when infant food is concerned. In many cases, the activity of the microorganisms used for fermentation as well as what will be the immunological outcome of fermented food intake is not known. In this manuscript we used complex in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems to study the immunomodulatory properties of probiotic-fermented products (culture supernatant and fermented milk witho...

  13. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Affects Acetic Acid Production during Anaerobic Fermentation of Waste Activated Sludge by Altering Activity and Viability of Acetogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingyang; Chen, Yinguang; Feng, Leiyu

    2016-07-05

    Till now, almost all the studies on anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) for bioproducts generation focused on the influences of operating conditions, pretreatment methods and sludge characteristics, and few considered those of widespread persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sludge, for example, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Herein, phenanthrene, which was a typical PAH and widespread in WAS, was selected as a model compound to investigate its effect on WAS anaerobic fermentation for short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation. Experimental results showed that the concentration of SCFAs derived from WAS was increased in the presence of phenanthrene during anaerobic fermentation. The yield of acetic acid which was the predominant SCFA in the fermentation reactor with the concentration of 100 mg/kg dry sludge was 1.8 fold of that in the control. Mechanism exploration revealed that the present phenanthrene mainly affected the acidification process of anaerobic fermentation and caused the shift of the microbial community to benefit the accumulation of acetic acid. Further investigation showed that both the activities of key enzymes (phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase) involved in acetic acid production and the quantities of their corresponding encoding genes were enhanced in the presence of phenanthrene. Viability tests by determining the adenosine 5'-triphosphate content and membrane potential confirmed that the acetogens were more viable in anaerobic fermentation systems with phenanthrene, which resulted in the increased production of acetic acid.

  14. Enhanced anti-inflammatory activities of Monascus pilosus fermented products by addition of ginger to the medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Chu; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Liao, Chen-Chung; Hu, Tzu-Jung; Kuo, Chia-Feng

    2010-11-24

    Hypercholesterolemia initiates the atherogenic process; however, chronic inflammation promotes atherogenesis. Monascus spp. fermented products are recognized for their anti-hypercholesterolemic effect, but their anti-inflammatory activity is not as significant as that of many plant-derived foods. To enhance the anti-inflammatory function of Monascus pilosus fermented products, ginger was added to the PDB medium at a ratio of 20% (v/v). The mycelia and broth were collected, freeze-dried, and extracted by ethanol for assays. Macrophage RAW264.7 was challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and coincubated with the extracts of fermented product cultured in ginger-supplemented medium (MPG) or extracts of fermented product cultured in regular PDB medium (MP) for 18 h. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell HUVEC was challenged with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and coincubated with the extracts of either MPG or MP for 6 h. The results showed that MPG significantly (pMonascus spp. fermented products as antiatherosclerotic nutraceuticals.

  15. Gallic Acid Content in Taiwanese Teas at Different Degrees of Fermentation and Its Antioxidant Activity by Inhibiting PKCδ Activation: In Vitro and in Silico Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeradate Kongpichitchoke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Teas can be classified according to their degree of fermentation, which has been reported to affect both the bioactive components in the teas and their antioxidative activity. In this study, four kinds of commercial Taiwanese tea at different degrees of fermentation, which include green (non-fermented, oolong (semi-fermented, black (fully fermented, and Pu-erh (post-fermented tea, were profiled for catechin levels by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The result indicated that the gallic acid content in tea was directly proportional to the degree of fermentation in which the lowest and highest gallic acid content were 1.67 and 21.98 mg/g from green and Pu-erh tea, respectively. The antioxidative mechanism of the gallic acid was further determined by in vitro and in silico analyses. In vitro assays included the use of phorbol ester-induced macrophage RAW264.7 cell model for determining the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and PKCδ and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase subunit (p47 activations. The results showed that only at a concentration of 5.00 μM could gallic acid significantly (p < 0.05 reduce ROS levels in phorbol ester-activated macrophages. Moreover, protein immunoblotting expressed similar results in which activations of PKCδ and p47 were only significantly (p < 0.05 attenuated by 5.00 μM treatment. Lastly, in silico experiments further revealed that gallic acid could block PKCδ activation by occupying the phorbol ester binding sites of the protein.

  16. Effects of Freeze-dried Mulberry on Antioxidant Activities and Fermented Characteristics of Yogurt during Refrigerated Storage

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of added freeze-dried mulberry fruit juice (FDMJ) (1, 3 and 5%) on the antioxidant activity and fermented characteristic of yogurt during refrigerated storage. A decrease in pH of yogurt and increase in acidity was observed during fermentation. The yogurts with FDMJ exhibited faster rate of pH reduction than control. Initial lactic acid bacteria count of yogurt was 6.49-6.94 Log CFU/g and increased above 9 Log CFU/g in control and 1% in FDMJ yogurt for 24 h....

  17. Anti-listerial Bactericidal Activity of Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 Isolated from Fermented Beverage Marcha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Deeplina; Goyal, Arun

    2013-09-01

    The strain Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 was isolated from fermented beverage Marcha of Sikkim and explored for its antagonistic activity against food-borne pathogens. The cell-free supernatant of L. plantarum DM5 showed antibacterial activity of 6,400 AU/mL in MRS medium (pH 6.0) against the indicator strain Staphylococcus aureus. MRS medium supplemented with 15 g/L of maltose at 37 °C under static condition yielded highest antimicrobial activity (6,400 AU/mL) with 3 % increase in specific activity when compared to 20 g/L glucose. The antimicrobial compound was heat stable (60 min at 100 °C) and was active over a wide pH range. It showed bactericidal effect on S. aureus and Listeria monocytogenes by causing 96 and 98 % of cell lysis, respectively. The cell morphology of the treated S. aureus and L. monocytogenes was completely deformed as revealed by scanning electron microscopy, suggesting the high potential of L. plantarum DM5 as natural preservatives in food industry. The antimicrobial compound was purified by 80 % ammonium sulphate precipitation and showed antimicrobial activity of 12,800 AU/mL with 19-fold purification and a molecular mass of 15.2 kDa, indicating the proteinaceous nature of the compound.

  18. Antioxidant activity of pea protein hydrolysates produced by batch fermentation with lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisavljević Nemanja S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine Lactobacillus strains known for surface proteinase activity were chosen from our collection and tested for their ability to grow in pea seed protein-based medium, and to hydrolyze purified pea proteins in order to produce peptides with antioxidant (AO activity. Two strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10 and Lactobacillus zeae LMG17315, exhibited strong proteolytic activity against pea proteins. The AO activity of the pea hydrolysate fraction, MW <10 kDa, obtained by the fermentation of purified pea proteins with Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10, was tested by standard spectrophotometric assays (DPPH, ABTS, Fe3+-reducing capacity and the recently developed direct current (DC polarographic assay. The low molecular weight fraction of the obtained hydrolysate was separated using ion exchange chromatography, while the AO activity of eluted fractions was determined by means of a sensitive DC polarographic assay without previous concentration of samples. Results revealed that the fraction present in low abundance that contained basic peptides possessed the highest antioxidant activity. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10 should be further investigated as a candidate strain for large-scale production of bioactive peptides from legume proteins. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173005 i br. 173026

  19. [Control of the fermentation activity during ensilage of Lolium italicum A. Br. and Medicago sativa L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozino Marletto, O I; Ambrosoli, R; Piccone, G; Biasiol, B

    1982-01-01

    Samples with different dry matter contents of Lolium italicum A. Br., Medicago sativa L., have been ensiled in hermetically sealed containers, in order to study the evolution of microflora and its activity. The principal microbial groups (coliforms, proteolytics , lactic acid bacteria, clostridia, yeasts) have been detected and enumerated, in anaerobic atmosphere, after ensiling periods of 3, 6, 10, 13, 20, 100 days. At the same time, the samples were chemically analyzed for the detection of: pH, moisture, ashes, total and ammoniacal nitrogen, total reducing sugars, lactic acid, volatile fatty acids, short chain alcohols. The relations found between chemical and microbiological data, show that a strong lactic fermentation is not enough for the inhibition of silage spoiling microorganisms, such as coliforms, yeasts, and (less) proteolytics . This phenomenon may be related to the "quality" of the lactic acid microflora, more than to the characteristics of the environment.

  20. D-Xylose fermentation, xylitol production and xylanase activities by seven new species of Sugiyamaella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Letícia M F; Morais, Camila G; Lopes, Mariana R; Santos, Renata O; Uetanabaro, Ana P T; Morais, Paula B; Vital, Marcos J S; de Morais, Marcos A; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    Sixteen yeast isolates identified as belonging to the genus Sugiyamaella were studied in relation to D-xylose fermentation, xylitol production, and xylanase activities. The yeasts were recovered from rotting wood and sugarcane bagasse samples in different Brazilian regions. Sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the D1/D2 domains of large subunit rRNA gene showed that these isolates belong to seven new species. The species are described here as Sugiyamaella ayubii f.a., sp. nov. (UFMG-CM-Y607(T) = CBS 14108(T)), Sugiyamaella bahiana f.a., sp. nov. (UFMG-CM-Y304(T) = CBS 13474(T)), Sugiyamaella bonitensis f.a., sp. nov. (UFMG-CM-Y608(T) = CBS 14270(T)), Sugiyamaella carassensis f.a., sp. nov. (UFMG-CM-Y606(T) = CBS 14107(T)), Sugiyamaella ligni f.a., sp. nov. (UFMG-CM-Y295(T) = CBS 13482(T)), Sugiyamaella valenteae f.a., sp. nov. (UFMG-CM-Y609(T) = CBS 14109(T)) and Sugiyamaella xylolytica f.a., sp. nov. (UFMG-CM-Y348(T) = CBS 13493(T)). Strains of the described species S. boreocaroliniensis, S. lignohabitans, S. novakii and S. xylanicola, isolated from rotting wood of Brazilian ecosystems, were also compared for traits relevant to xylose metabolism. S. valenteae sp. nov., S. xylolytica sp. nov., S. bahiana sp. nov., S. bonitensis sp. nov., S. boreocarolinensis, S. lignohabitans and S. xylanicola were able to ferment D-xylose to ethanol. Xylitol production was observed for all Sugiyamaella species studied, except for S. ayubii sp. nov. All species studied showed xylanolytic activity, with S. xylanicola, S. lignohabitans and S. valenteae sp. nov. having the highest values. Our results suggest these Sugiyamaella species have good potential for biotechnological applications.

  1. [Antimycoplasmic Activity of Fermentation Broth of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai F-180, an Organism Producing L-Lysine-α-Oxidase, an Antitumor and Antiviral Enzyme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, I P; Rakovskaya, I V

    2014-01-01

    A concentrate of the fermentation broth of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai F-180, an organism producing L-lysine-α-oxidase, an antitumor and antiviral enzyme, with the activity in the fermentation broth of 0.54-0.56 U/mI was recovered. The effect of the concentrate on the mycoplasmas growth was investigated for the first time. Two representatives of Mycoplasmafaceae, i.e. Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma fermentans and one representative of Aholeplasmataceae. i. e. Aholeplasma laidlawii were used. It was shown that the fermentation broth inhibited the growth of Mycoplasma hominis after the preliminary exposure. The inhibition rate depended on the mycoplasma inoculation dose and the fermentation broth concentration.

  2. Novel endomorphin-1 analogs with C-terminal oligoarginine-conjugation display systemic antinociceptive activity with less gastrointestinal side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang-lin; Qiu, Ting-ting; Diao, Yu-xiang; Zhang, Yao; Gu, Ning

    2015-09-01

    In recent study, in order to improve the bioavailability of endomorphin-1 (EM-1), we designed and synthesized a series of novel EM-1 analogs by replacement of L-Pro(2) by β-Pro, D-Ala or Sar, together with C-terminal oligoarginine-conjugation. Our results indicated that the introduction of D-Ala and β-Pro in position 2, along with oligoarginine-conjugation, didn't significantly decrease the μ-affinity and in vitro bioactivity, and the enhancement of arginine residues did not markedly influence the μ-affinity of these analogs. All analogs displayed a significant enhancement of stability, which may be due to increased resistance to proline-specific enzymatic degradation. Moreover, following intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration, analogs 1, 2, 4 and 5 produced significant antinociception and increased duration of action, with the ED50 values being about 1.8- to 4.2-fold less potent than that of EM-1. In addition, our results indicated that no significant antinociceptive activity of EM-1 was seen following subcutaneous (s.c.) injection, whereas analogs 1, 2, 4 and 5 with equimolar dose induced significant and prolonged antinociception by an opioid and central mechanism. Herein, we further examined the gastrointestinal transit and colonic propulsive latencies of EM-1 and its four analogs administered centrally and peripherally. I.c.v. administration of EM-1 and analogs 1, 2, 4 and 5 significantly delayed gastrointestinal transit and colonic bead propulsion in mice, but the inhibitory effects induced by these analogs were largely attenuated. It is noteworthy that no significant gastrointestinal side effects induced by these four analogs were observed after s.c. administration. Our results demonstrated that combined modifications of EM-1 with unnatural amino acid substitutions and oligoarginine-conjugation gave an efficient strategy to improve the analgesic profile of EM-1 analogs but with less gastrointestinal side effects when administered peripherally.

  3. The effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the anti-inflammatory activity of Vitis vinifera L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangiovanni, E; Di Lorenzo, C; Colombo, E; Colombo, F; Fumagalli, M; Frigerio, G; Restani, P; Dell'Agli, M

    2015-08-01

    Botanicals are widely consumed all over the world for health purposes, with increased usage in the general population, in many different types of products, including foods and plant food supplements. Several reports support for the beneficial effects of botanicals against gastrointestinal inflammation. However, no studies regarding the anti-inflammatory activity in the gastrointestinal tract of red vine leaves have been reported so far. The present work investigates the biological activity of Vitis vinifera L. water extract (VVWE) from dried leaves in two in vitro models of gastric and intestinal inflammation. The extract was characterized by a validated HPLC-DAD method, and tested on human epithelial gastric (AGS) and intestinal (Caco-2) cells with the aim to investigate the inhibitory effect on IL-8 secretion and promoter activity, before and after in vitro gastric or gastrointestinal digestion. Our results show that the water extract from red vine leaves inhibits TNFα-induced IL-8 secretion and expression in human gastric epithelial cells; the effect should be maintained, although to a lesser extent, after gastric digestion. In contrast, the effect after intestinal digestion is dramatically decreased since degradation of the active components in the gut does not allow the extract to efficiently counteract TNFα or IL-1β induced IL-8 expression and the NF-κB pathway. The main molecular target of VVWE at the gastric level includes TNFα-induced activation of NF-κB and occurs at concentrations easily reachable after PFS consumption based on red vine leaf water extract as the ingredient. Our findings suggest that PFS containing water extracts from Vitis vinifera L. leaves could be useful to inhibit/attenuate gastric inflammation inhibiting IL-8 secretion and expression through impairment of the NF-κB pathway.

  4. Localization and biological activities of melatonin in intact and diseased gastrointestinal tract (GIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konturek, S J; Konturek, P C; Brzozowska, I; Pawlik, M; Sliwowski, Z; Cześnikiewicz-Guzik, M; Kwiecień, S; Brzozowski, T; Bubenik, G A; Pawlik, W W

    2007-09-01

    application of Trp, the plasma MT increases in dose-dependent manner both in intact and pinealectomized animals and humans, indicating that GIT but not the pineal gland is a source of this indole. In GIT MT exhibits a wide spectrum of activities such as circadian entrainment, antioxidant and free radicals scavenging activity, Melatonin (MT), an indole formed enzymatically from L-trytophan (Trp), was first discovered in the bovine pineal gland in 1958 by Lerner et al. Melatonin is the most versatile and ubiquitous hormonal molecule produced not only in the pineal gland but also in various other tissues of invertebrates and vertebrates, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This review focuses on the localization, production, metabolism and the functions of MT in GIT and the duodenal unit (liver, biliary routes and pancreas), where multi-step biosynthetic pathways of this indole, similar to those in pinealocytes, have been identified. These biosynthetic steps of MT, including two major rate limiting enzymes; arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), transforming L-tryptophan (Trp), originally identified in pinealocytes, have been also detected in entero-endocrine (EE) cells of GIT, where this indole appears to act in endocrine, paracrine and/or luminal pathway directly or through G-protein coupled MT receptors. Studies of the distribution of MT in GIT mucosa showed that this indole is generated in GIT in much larger amounts than it is produced in the pineal gland. Melatonin acts in GIT, partly locally in paracrine fashion and is partly released into portal circulation, to be taken up by the liver. It is then metabolized and excreted with the bile to small bowel and finally returns to liver through entero-hepatic circulation. The production of MT by the pineal gland shows circadian rhythm with high night-time surge, especially at younger age, followed by the fall during the day-light time. As a highly lipophylic

  5. Nitrogenase diversity and activity in the gastrointestinal tract of the wood-eating catfish Panaque nigrolineatus

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Ryan; Zhang, Fan; Watts, Joy; Schreier, Harold

    2015-01-01

    The Amazonian catfish, Panaque nigrolineatus, consume large amounts of wood in their diets. The nitrogen-fixing community within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of these catfish was found to include nifH phylotypes that are closely related to Clostridium sp., Alpha and Gammaproteobacteria, and sequences associated with GI tracts of lower termites. Fish fed a diet of sterilized palm wood were found to contain nifH messenger RNA within their GI tracts, displaying high sequence similarity to the...

  6. Changes of gastrointestinal myoelectric activity and bile acid pool size after cholecystectomy in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Mei Zhang; Lei Dong; Li-Na Liu; Bi-Xia Chang; Qian He; Qian Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the bile acid pool size after cholecystectomy whether or not correlated to the gastrointestinal migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) in guinea pigs.METHODS: Gallbladder motilities were assessed before cholecystectomy. Furthermore, we continuously monitored interdigestive gastrointestinal motilities using bipolar electrodes in conscious guinea pigs before and after surgery at 4 wk in standard diet group and high cholesterol diet (cholesterol gallstone) group. Total bile acid pool sizes were measured by isotope dilution method at meantime.RESULTS: After cholecystectomy, there were parallel falls in duration of phase Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and MMC cycle duration but increase in amplitude in the guinea pigs with normal gallbladder function, and in the guinea pigs with cholesterol stones. However, There were not significantly differences. On the other hand, the bile acid pool was definitely small in the GS guinea pigs compared to normal guinea pigs and became slightly smaller after cholecystectomy. Similarly, bile acid in gallbladder bile, fecal bile acid was slightly increased in GS guinea pigs after cholecystectomy, to the same degree as normal. These differences, however, were not significant.CONCLUSION: It is concluded that in the guinea pigs with normal gallbladder function, and in the guinea pigs with cholesterol stones: (1) Cholecystectomy produce a similar but less marked trend in bile acid pool; and (2) MMC are linked to enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, rather than surgery, which is consistent with changes of the bile acid pool size. As a result, gastrointestinal dyskinesia is not involved in occurrence of postcholecystectomy syndrome.

  7. Feruloyl Esterase Activity from Coffee Pulp in Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Saucedo-Castañeda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxycinnamic acids (HAs have a potential application in the food and pharmaceutical industry because they are rich in phenolics. Feruloyl esterases release phenolic compounds from plant cell walls. Coffee pulp is rich in HAs linked to polysaccharides. A solvent extraction of free HAs was performed with aqueous methanol (80 %. A response surface methodology was applied to optimise the extraction of these compounds from coffee pulp, and the best results were obtained at 56 °C for 34 min. Alkaline and acid hydrolyses were performed to evaluate the content of linked HAs. Treated (extracted coffee pulp was used to produce feruloyl esterases in solid-state fermentation by Aspergillus tamarii V12307, previously selected by a hydrolysis plate assay. Different dilutions of a culture medium were added to the coffee pulp, and the diluted medium with half the nutrients allowed for higher CO2 production. A specific growth rate (μCO2 of 0.25 h^–1 and a lag phase (tlag of 14.3 h were observed under the selected conditions. Finally, enzymatic activities were 14.0 and 10.8 nkat per g of dried matter when methyl and ethyl ferulate were used as substrates, respectively. Productivities (9.3 and 7.2 nkat per g of dried matter per day, respectively were higher when compared to other studies carried out in solid-state fermentation. Utilisation of coffee pulp for enzyme production improves the added value of this abundant by-product of the coffee industry.

  8. Field-flow fractionation as analytical technique for the characterization of dry yeast: correlation with wine fermentation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Ramsés; Galceran, Ma Teresa; Puignou, Lluís

    2003-01-01

    Important oenological properties of wine depend on the winemaking yeast used in the fermentation process. There is considerable controversy about the quality of yeast, and a simple and cheap analytical methodology for quality control of yeast is needed. Gravitational field flow fractionation (GFFF) was used to characterize several commercial active dry wine yeasts from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus and to assess the quality of the raw material before use. Laboratory-scale fermentations were performed using two different S. cerevisiae strains as inocula, and GFFF was used to follow the behavior of yeast cells during alcoholic fermentation. The viable/nonviable cell ratio was obtained by flow cytometry (FC) using propidium iodide as fluorescent dye. In each experiment, the amount of dry wine yeast to be used was calculated in order to provide the same quantity of viable cells. Kinetic studies of the fermentation process were performed controlling the density of the must, from 1.071 to 0.989 (20/20 density), and the total residual sugars, from 170 to 3 g/L. During the wine fermentation process, differences in the peak profiles obtained by GFFF between the two types of commercial yeasts that can be related with the unlike cell growth were observed. Moreover, the strains showed different fermentation kinetic profiles that could be correlated with the corresponding fractograms monitored by GFFF. These results allow optimism that sedimentation FFF techniques could be successfully used for quality assessment of the raw material and to predict yeast behavior during yeast-based bioprocesses such as wine production.

  9. Cellulase Activity in Solid State Fermentation of Palm Kernel Cake with Trichoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massaud, M. B. N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effect of different types of fungal inocula to the cellulase activity measured on palm kernel cake (PKC was studied. Methodology and Results: Isolate Pro-A1 which was identified as Trichoderma sp. was selected as a potential producer of cellulase via solid state fermentation technique (SSF. Two types of PKCs were used; raw PKC (containing residual oil and defatted PKC. The PKCs were inoculated with different concentrations of conidia and varying amounts (g of solid mycelia plugs (SMP for SSF. The effect of ultrafiltered crude fungal filtrate (CFF as inocula was also being tested. The highest cellulase activity of 2.454 FPU/mL was detected with 60% (wt/wt SMP applied to the raw PKC. Conversely, 2.059 FPU/mL of cellulase activity was measured when 80% (wt/wt of SMP was applied to the defatted PKC which is 62.3% higher than the untreated defatted PKC; and more than 100% increase in enzymatic activity compared to raw PKC. The cellulase activity in the SSF inoculated with 8 x 106 conidia /mL and 12 x 106 conidia /mL were 1.704 FPU/mL for raw PKC and 1.856 FPU/mL for defatted PKC, an enhancement of about 46% from uninoculated batch. Inoculation with CFF bears corresponding maximum improvement of the cellulase activity on both PKCs of 13.58% (raw and 2.86% (defatted. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The current study proves that Trichoderma sp. in the form of SMP can enhance the cellulase activity on PKCs effectively with more than 100% increment. Fungal conidia are also a better choice in enhancing cellulase activity of Trichoderma sp. permitted that the PKC used is devoid of oil. From this study, Trichoderma sp. holds the potential of converting lignocellulosic materials into products of commercial and industrial values such as glucose and other biofuels.

  10. Maximizing the utilization of Laminaria japonica as biomass via improvement of alginate lyase activity in a two-phase fermentation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yuri; Xu, Xu; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Jong Moon

    2015-08-01

    Brown seaweed contains up to 67% of carbohydrates by dry weight and presents high potential as a polysaccharide feedstock for biofuel production. To effectively use brown seaweed as a biomass, degradation of alginate is the major challenge due to its complicated structure and low solubility in water. This study focuses on the isolation of alginate degrading bacteria, determining of the optimum fermentation conditions, as well as comparing the conventional single fermentation system with the two-phase fermentation system which is separately using alginate and mannitol extracted from Laminaria japonica. Maximum yield of organic acids production and volatile solids reduction obtained were 0.516 g/g and 79.7%, respectively, using the two-phase fermentation system in which alginate fermentation was carried out at pH 7 and mannitol fermentation at pH 8. The two-phase fermentation system increased the yield of organic acids production by 1.14 times and led to a 1.45-times reduction of VS when compared to the conventional single fermentation system at pH 8. The results show that the two-phase fermentation system improved the utilization of alginate by separating alginate from mannitol leading to enhanced alginate lyase activity.

  11. Assessment of Anti-nutritive Activity of Tannins in Tea By-products Based on Rumen Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kondo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nutritive values of green and black tea by-products and anti-nutritive activity of their tannins were evaluated in an in vitro rumen fermentation using various molecular weights of polyethylene glycols (PEG, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and polyvinyl polypyrrolidone as tannin-binding agents. Significant improvement in gas production by addition of PEG4000, 6000 and 20000 and PVP was observed only from black tea by-product, but not from green tea by-product. All tannin binding agents increased NH3-N concentration from both green and black tea by-products in the fermentation medium, and the PEG6000 and 20000 showed relatively higher improvement in the NH3-N concentration. The PEG6000 and 20000 also improved in vitro organic matter digestibility and metabolizable energy contents of both tea by-products. It was concluded that high molecular PEG would be suitable to assess the suppressive activity of tannins in tea by-products by in vitro fermentation. Higher responses to gas production and NH3-N concentration from black tea by-product than green tea by-product due to PEG indicate that tannins in black tea by-product could suppress rumen fermentation more strongly than that in green tea by-product.

  12. Investigation of lactic acid bacterial strains for meat fermentation and the product's antioxidant and angiotensin-I-converting-enzyme inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shiro; Matsufuji, Hisashi; Nakade, Koji; Takenoyama, Shin-Ichi; Ahhmed, Abdulatef; Sakata, Ryoichi; Kawahara, Satoshi; Muguruma, Michio

    2017-03-01

    In the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains screened from our LAB collection, Lactobacillus (L.) sakei strain no. 23 and L. curvatus strain no. 28 degraded meat protein and tolerated salt and nitrite in vitro. Fermented sausages inoculated strains no. 23 and no. 28 showed not only favorable increases in viable LAB counts and reduced pH, but also the degradation of meat protein. The sausages fermented with these strains showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than those without LAB or fermented by each LAB type strain. Angiotensin-I-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity was also significantly higher in the sausages fermented with strain no. 23 than in those fermented with the type strain. Higher ACE inhibitory activity was also observed in the sausages fermented with strain no. 28, but did not differ significantly from those with the type strain. An analysis of the proteolysis and degradation products formed by each LAB in sausages suggested that those bioactivities yielded fermentation products such as peptides. Therefore, LAB starters that can adequately ferment meat, such as strains no. 23 and no. 28, should contribute to the production of bioactive compounds in meat products. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. THE EFFECT OF PROBIOTIC FERMENTED MILK THAT INCLUDES BIFIDOBACTERIUM LACTIS CNCM I-2494 ON THE REDUCTION OF GASTROINTESTINAL DISCOMFORT AND SYMPTOMS IN ADULTS: A NARRATIVE REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitzberg, Dan L; Quilici, Flávio A; Michzputen, Sender; Friche Passos, Maria do Carmo

    2015-08-01

    Objetivo: determinar la eficacia de la leche fermentada con Bifidobacterium lactis CNCM I-2429 en la reducción de el malestar gastrointestinal (GI) en adultos sanos. Métodos: se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en la literatura para identificar estudios que informaron del uso de B. animalis spp. lactis para molestias/ confort GI en adultos sanos. Se identificaron un total de 5.329 registros, de estos se evaluaron 99 artículos de texto completo. Las búsquedas de ensayos adicionales se realizaron utilizando los nombres de los autores de cada estudio identificado y varias bases de datos relevantes. La selección de los estudios se llevó a cabo de acuerdo con las guías de Artículos de Información Preferidos para Revisiones Sistemáticas y Meta-Análisis (PRISMA). Los estudios eran incluidos si eran ensayos randomizados controlados, si los sujetos de estudio eran adultos sanos y si el grupo de intervención recibió B. lactis CNCM I-2494. Se excluyeron los estudios que no eran randomizados, que incluían adultos que no estaban sanos, que incluían el uso de cualquier otra intervención o si comparaban diferentes productos sin un grupo placebo. La calidad metodológica de los estudios se evaluó utilizando la Escala de Calidad de Oxford y la Evaluación Cochrane de ocultamiento. No fue posible un metaanálisis. Resultados: la estrategia de búsqueda identificó dos estudios que incluyeron un total de 538 mujeres sanas, con edades entre 18 a 60 años, de peso normal o sobrepeso (IMC de 18-30 kg/m2). En uno de los estudios las molestias GI disminuyeron significativamente en el grupo de probióticos frente al grupo control, sin diferencias en el otro. El porcentaje de respondedores para el bienestar GI fue mayor en el grupo de probióticos frente al grupo control en el primer estudio, pero no en el segundo. Los síntomas GI se redujeron significativamente en el grupo probiótico frente al grupo control en ambos estudios. La función intestinal solo se evaluó en

  14. Fermented Papaya Preparation Restores Age-Related Reductions in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Cytolytic Activity in Tube-Fed Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yuhzo; Tsuno, Haruo; Nakayama, Jiro

    2017-01-01

    Tube-fed elderly patients are generally supplied with the same type of nutrition over long periods, resulting in an increased risk for micronutrient deficiencies. Dietary polyphenols promote immunity and have anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-oxidative properties. Carica papaya Linn. is rich in several polyphenols; however, these polyphenols are poorly absorbed from the digestive tract in their original polymerized form. Therefore, we determined the molecular components of a fermented Carica papaya Linn. preparation, as well as its effects on immunity and the composition of gut microbiota in tube-fed patients. Different doses of the fermented C. papaya L. preparation were administered to three groups of tube-fed patients for 30 days. Its effects on fecal microbiota composition and immunity were assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and immune-marker analysis, respectively. The chemical composition of the fermented C. papaya L. preparation was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis- and liquid chromatography- time of flight mass spectrometry. The fermented C. papaya L. preparation restored peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytolytic activity; however, no other biomarkers of immunity were observed. Treatment with the preparation (9 g/day) significantly reduced the abundance of Firmicutes in the fecal microbiota. In particular, treatment reduced Clostridium scindens and Eggerthella lenta in most patients receiving 9 g/day. Chemical analysis identified low-molecular-weight phenolic acids as polyphenol metabolites; however, no polymerized, large-molecular-weight molecules were detected. Our study indicates that elderly patients who are tube-fed over the long-term have decreased PBMC cytolytic activity. In addition, low-molecular-weight polyphenol metabolites fermented from polymerized polyphenols restore PBMC cytolytic activity and modulate the composition of gut microbiota in tube-fed patients. PMID:28060858

  15. Simultaneous non-thermal saccharification of cassava pulp by multi-enzyme activity and ethanol fermentation by Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanachomsri, Ukrit; Tanapongpipat, Sutipa; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Champreda, Verawat

    2009-05-01

    Cassava pulp, a solid by-product from starch processing, is a promising and underused biomass that can be converted to biofuels and other value-added bio-products. In this study, an alternative cassava pulp saccharification process, which utilizes the multi-activity enzyme from Aspergillus niger BCC17849 and obviates the need for a pre-gelatinization step, was developed. The crude multi-enzyme composed of non-starch polysaccharide hydrolyzing enzyme activities, including cellulase, pectinase and hemicellulase act cooperatively to release the trapped starch granules from the fibrous cell wall structure for subsequent saccharification by raw starch degrading activity. A high yield of fermentable sugars, equivalent to 716 mg glucose and 67 mg xylose/g of cassava pulp, was obtained after 48 h incubation at 40 degrees C and pH 5 using the multi-enzyme, which was greater than the yield obtained from the optimized combinations of the corresponding commercial enzymes. The multi-enzyme saccharification reaction can be performed simultaneously with the ethanol fermentation process using a thermotolerant yeast Candida tropicalis BCC7755. The combined process produced 14.3 g/l ethanol from 4% (w/v) cassava pulp after 30 h of fermentation. The productivity rate of 0.48 g/l/h is equivalent to 93.7% of the theoretical yield based on total starch and cellulose, or 85.4% based on total fermentable sugars. The non-thermal enzymatic saccharification process described is more energy efficient and yields more fermentable sugar than the conventional enzymatic process. Furthermore, the process is applicable for production of various bio-products of economic importance.

  16. Bactericidal activity of soymilk fermentation broth by in vitro and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Yi-Ping; Tsui, Ko-Chung; Chen, Mei-Chieh; Wang, Cheng-Yi; Yang, Chin-Yuh; Lin, Yuh-Ling

    2012-06-01

    Soybean fermentation broth (SFB) exhibits potent antibacterial activity against different species of bacteria in in vitro assays and animal models. Four isoflavone compounds-daidzin, genistin, genistein, and daidzein-of SFB were analyzed and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. In the in vitro test, daidzin and daidzein had more potent antibacterial activity than genistin. The minimum inhibition concentration values for these bacteria of SFB ranged from 1.25% to 5%, and the minimum bactericidal concentration values of strains ranged from 2.5% to 10%, depending on the species or strain. Vancomycin-resistant Entercoccus faecalis (VRE) strains were also tested for susceptibility to SFB in two species of animal model: the Sprague-Dawley rat and the BALB/c mouse. SFB-fed Sprague-Dawley rats showed excellent elimination efficiency against VRE, close to 99% compared with the phosphate-buffered saline-fed control group. In the BALB/c mouse model, SFB antibacterial activity was 65-80% against VRE compared with the control. In conclusion, SFB contains natural antibacterial substances such as daidzin, genistin, and daidzein that inhibit bacterial growth.

  17. Biochemical studies on the Natamycin antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lydicus: Fermentation, extraction and biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Atta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Natamycin “polyene” antibiotic was isolated from the fermentation broth of a Streptomyces strain No. AZ-55. According to the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, strain AZ-55 was identified as Streptomyces lydicus. It is active in vitro against some microbial pathogens viz: Staphylococcus aureus, NCTC 7447; Bacillus subtilis, NCTC 1040; Bacillus pumilus, NCTC 8214 ; Micrococcus luteus, ATCC 9341; Escherichia coli, NCTC 10416; Klebsiella pneumonia, NCIMB 9111; Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ATCC 10145; S. cerevisiae, ATCC 9763; Candida albicans, IMRU 3669; Aspergillus flavus, IMI 111023; Aspergillus niger, IMI 31276; Aspergillus fumigatus, ATCC 16424; Fusarium oxysporum; Alternaria alternata and Rhizoctonia solani. The active metabolite was extracted using chloroform (1:1, v/v at pH 7.0. The separation of the active ingredient of the antifungal agent and its purification were performed using both thin layer chromatography (TLC and column chromatography (CC techniques. The physico-chemical characteristics of the purified antibiotic viz. color, melting point, solubility, elemental analysis (C, H, N, O and S and spectroscopic characteristics (UV absorbance and IR, mass & NMR spectra have been investigated. This analysis indicates a suggested empirical formula of C33H47NO13. The chemical structural analysis with spectroscopic characteristics confirmed that the compound produced by S. lydicus, AZ-55 is Natamycin “polyene” antibiotic.

  18. Relevance of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Plasminogen Binding Activity in the Human Gastrointestinal Microenvironment ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Centanni, Manuela; Fiori, Jessica; Bergmann, Simone; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    Human plasmin(ogen) is regarded as a component of the molecular cross talk between the probiotic species Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and the human host. However, up to now, only in vitro studies have been reported. Here, we demonstrate that the probiotic strain B. animalis subsp. lactis BI07 is capable of recruiting plasmin(ogen) present at physiological concentrations in crude extracts from human feces. Our results provide evidence that supports the significance of the B. lactis-plasmin(ogen) interaction in the human gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21821753

  19. Relevance of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis plasminogen binding activity in the human gastrointestinal microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Marco; Turroni, Silvia; Centanni, Manuela; Fiori, Jessica; Bergmann, Simone; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2011-10-01

    Human plasmin(ogen) is regarded as a component of the molecular cross talk between the probiotic species Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and the human host. However, up to now, only in vitro studies have been reported. Here, we demonstrate that the probiotic strain B. animalis subsp. lactis BI07 is capable of recruiting plasmin(ogen) present at physiological concentrations in crude extracts from human feces. Our results provide evidence that supports the significance of the B. lactis-plasmin(ogen) interaction in the human gastrointestinal tract.

  20. Lectin activity of species of genus Cerrena S.F. Gray (Aphyllophoromycetideae) in submerged fermentation of lignocellulosic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davitashvili, Elene; Kapanadze, Ekaterine; Kachlishvili, Eva; Elisashvili, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The capability of 5 strains of 2 species of genus Cerrena (Aphyllophoromycetideae) to express hemagglutinating activity (HA) was evaluated in submerged fermentation of 7 lignocellulosic materials of different chemical compositions. Among the lignocellulosic substrates tested, walnut pericarp, followed by mandarin and kiwi peels provided the highest specific HA of C. unicolor IBB 300; walnut leaves and pericarp appeared to be the best substrates for the accumulation of lectin by C. unicolor IBB 301, whereas the fermentation of kiwi peels ensured the highest HA of C. unicolor IBB 302. The highest HA was detected in C. maxima IBB 402 cultivation in submerged fermentation of walnut leaves (64103 U/mg), mandarin (33333 U/mg) and kiwi peels (28571 U/mg). Moreover, the fermentation of walnut pericarp and leaves provided the secretion of high lectin levels in culture liquid (9143 U/mg). The carbohydrate specificity of tested preparations significantly depended on both fungus strain and lignocellulosic growth substrate. By substitution of lignocellulosic material, it is possible to regulate lectin production and to obtain a preparation with different specificity toward carbohydrates.

  1. Identification of the transcriptional activator controlling the butanediol fermentation pathway in Klebsiella terrigena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, D; Schlensog, V; Böck, A

    1995-09-01

    The gene budR, whose product is responsible for induction of the butanediol formation pathway under fermentative growth conditions in Klebsiella terrigena, has been cloned and sequenced. This gene is separated from the budABC operon by a nontranslated region of 106 bp and transcribed in the opposite direction. budR codes for a protein of molecular weight 32,124, the sequence of which exhibits characteristics of regulators belonging to the LysR family. When transferred into the heterologous host Escherichia coli, budR activates expression of budA'-lacZ transcriptional and translational fusions with a regulatory pattern identical to that in K. terrigena, namely, induction by acetate, low pH, and anaerobiosis. Induction by acetate was specific, indicating that it is the physiological inducer. Primer extension analysis located the start site of transcription to two positions, 23 and 24 bp upstream of the budR initiation codon, and also showed that BudR strongly autoregulates its own expression. The products of fhlA, arcA, hip, ntrA, and katF did not influence expression of the bud operon. A mutation in fnr, however, led to a threefold increase in expression, indicating that Fnr acts as a repressor. The results support the notion that BudR coordinates the activity of the energy-conserving, nonreductive, but acidifying acetate formation pathway with the expression of the non-energy-conserving, reductive, but nonacidifying butanediol pathway.

  2. The antileukaemic cell cycle regulatory activities of swainsonine purified from Metarhizium anisopliae fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Digar; Kaur, Gurvinder

    2014-01-01

    Swainsonine is a Metarhizium secondary metabolite known differentially for its specific mannosidase inhibitory, toxic and therapeutic activities. Here, the standard and purified swainsonine from Metarhizium anisopliae fermentation broth were comparatively evaluated for their in situ antileukaemic activities in human promyelocytic cell line, HL-60. Both the standard (IC50 = 6.96 μM) and purified (IC50 = 9.50 μM) compounds inhibited the leukaemic cell proliferation without inflicting cell membrane disruption at 48 h of post-treatment incubation. The DNA cell cycle analysis showed approximately 48.81% and 60.72% of the treated cells arrested in the synthetic phase (S-phase) at 36 and 48 h, respectively, upon treatment with IC50 concentration of the purified swainsonine. However, only 29.62% of cells were arrested in S-phase with standard swainsonine at 48 h, suggesting the comprehensive action of certain other metabolites sharing the similar paradigm of antiproliferative properties in Metarhizium broth extract.

  3. A new method for monitoring the extracellular proteolytic activity of wine yeasts during alcoholic fermentation of grape must.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasseriaud, Laura; Miot-Sertier, Cécile; Coulon, Joana; Iturmendi, Nerea; Moine, Virginie; Albertin, Warren; Bely, Marina

    2015-12-01

    The existing methods for testing proteolytic activity are time consuming, quite difficult to perform, and do not allow real-time monitoring. Proteases have attracted considerable interest in winemaking and some yeast species naturally present in grape must, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima, are capable of expressing this activity. In this study, a new test is proposed for measuring proteolytic activity directly in fermenting grape must, using azocasein, a chromogenic substrate. Several yeast strains were tested and differences in proteolytic activity were observed. Moreover, analysis of grape must proteins in wines revealed that protease secreted by Metschnikowia strains may be active against wine proteins.

  4. Antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas albilineans and fermentation kinetics of a lactic acid bacterium isolated from the sugar cane crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Serna-Cock

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas albilineans is a pathogen that causes leaf scald disease in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. This disease causes the death of seedlings and consequently results in economic losses for sugarcane growers. The objective of this work was to isolate a lactic acid bacterium with antimicrobial activity against X. albilineans from sugarcane crops and to evaluate its antimicrobial activity and its lactic acid production kinetics, biomass yield, and substrate consumption in three different fermentation substrates. To isolate the lactic acid bacterium, samples were collected from different parts of infected and non-infected sugarcane plants of var. CC85-92. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis was isolated from the leaves of healthy crops, and showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against the pathogen. Batch fermentations of this isolate (at 32 °C, agitation of 100 rpm, and pH 6 were performed using a commercial substrate (MRS, a commercial substrate supplemented with glucose (MRSG, and a substrate produced from agricultural crop residues (ACR. The highest antimicrobial activity was 5.83 mm in the ACR substrate after 6 h of fermentation. The maximum biomass production of 3.37 g L-1 and the maximum lactic acid production of 12.1 g L-1 were obtained in the MRSG substrate. The lactic acid production did not show any significant differences between the substrates. This lactic acid bacterium showed antimicrobial activity against X. albilineans and is thus a biological alternative for the control of leaf scald disease in sugarcane.

  5. In vivo modulation of gastrointestinal motor activity by Met-enkephalin, morphine and enkephalin analogs in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, M; Martínez, V; Goñalons, E; Vergara, P

    1993-03-05

    The main objectives of this work have been to study (1) whether or not opioid effects on gastrointestinal motility in chicken are mediated through central or peripheral pathways; (2) the receptors involved; (3) the correlation of the motor response to the distribution of Met-enkephalin in the gastrointestinal tract and (4) to evaluate the physiological role of endogenous opioids in spontaneous MMCs. Intravenous infusion of Met-enkephalin and morphine (5 x 10(-7) mol/kg) induced gastric inhibition and a migrating intestinal hyperactivity. Induced intestinal activity was faster in vagotomized chickens. In the stomach there was a correlation between the duration of the inhibitory response and the affinity of the agonists for mu-receptors ([D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAGO) > morphine > Met-enkephalin > Tyr-D-Pen-Gly-Phe-D-Pen (DPDPE)). DPDPE induced duodenal hyperactivity which was not propagated. Immunohistochemistry showed that Met-ENK like material is mainly located at the myenteric plexus and the outer circular muscle in stomach. In the intestine, it was found in the myenteric and the deep muscular plexuses. When endogenous MMCs were studied, i.v. infusion of naloxone lengthened significantly their duration. In conclusion, the fact that Met-enkephalin and their analogs induced a migrating activity in the intestine and the lengthening of MMC by naloxone, suggest a physiological role for opioids on induction of MMC in birds, acting at peripheral level.

  6. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of Murraya koenigii against gastro-intestinal nematodes of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Sabir Hossen; Bandyopadhyay, Probir Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The present study have been conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of crude aqueous and crude methanolic leaf extracts of Murraya koenigii. Infection of ruminants with gastro-intestinal (GI) parasite has become a worldwide problem. The parasite causes economic losses in a variety of ways. Previously sheep producers relied heavily on anti-parasitic drugs to control gastro-intestinal parasites of the flocks. But due to misuse of these drugs the parasites become resistant to drugs. Thus created interest in studying medicinal plants as an alternative source of controlling the GI parasites. Adult motility assay (AMA) and egg hatch assay (EHA) have been done for in vitro study, and faecal egg count reduction (FECR) assay have been done for in vivo study. The in vitro study revealed anthelmintic effects of M. koenigii on Haemonchus contortus as evident from their paralytic condition and/or death at eight hour post exposure in different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50 mg/ml) of aqueous and methanolic extracts which exhibit to be dose-dependent. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of M. koenigii were found to have low percent inhibitory effect on egg hatching. It may be concluded that M. koenigii showed significant anthelmintic activity.

  7. Acceleration of yoghurt fermentation time by yeast extract and partial characterisation of the active components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Esti-Andrine; Myburgh, Jacobus; Osthoff, Gernot; de Wit, Maryna

    2014-11-01

    Water soluble autolysate of yeast, usually utilised for microbial growth support, was used as additive in yoghurt fermentation. The yeast extract (YE) resulted in a decrease of fermentation time by 21% to reach a pH of 4·6. However, the YE resulted in unacceptable flavour and taste. By size exclusion chromatography, a fraction of the YE was obtained that could account for the observed 21% decrease in fermentation time. The fraction contained molecules of low molecular weight, consisting of minerals, free amino acids and peptides. The acceleration of the yoghurt fermentation was ascribed to the short peptides in the fraction. It is proposed that the application of this extract in industrial yoghurt manufacture would result in savings for both the industry and the consumer.

  8. Gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, T A

    2011-11-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding remains one of the most important emergencies in gastroenterology. Despite this, only about 100 abstracts concerning gastrointestinal bleeding (excluding bleeding complicating endoscopic procedures) were presented at this year's Digestive Disease Week (DDW; 7-10 May 2011; Chicago, Illinois, USA), accounting for less than 2% of all presented lectures and posters. It seems that the number of such abstracts has been decreasing over recent years. This may be due in part to the high level of medical care already achieved, especially in the areas of pharmacotherapy and endoscopic treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding. In this review of gastrointestinal bleeding, priority has been given to large epidemiological studies reflecting "real life," and abstracts dealing more or less directly with endoscopic management. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Gastrointestinal bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sigmoidoscopy Alternative Names Lower GI bleeding; GI bleeding; Upper GI bleeding; Hematochezia Images GI bleeding - series Fecal occult blood test References Kovacs TO, Jensen DM. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  10. Gastrointestinal manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanowitz, H B; Simon, D; Weiss, L M; Noyer, C; Coyle, C; Wittner, M

    1996-11-01

    Gastrointestinal disease is a common problem in the setting of HIV-1 infection. As patients live longer and other opportunistic pathogens are suppressed, these problems are becoming even more important in the quality of life.

  11. Colour formation in fermented sausages by meat-associated staphylococci with different nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtterup, Jacob; Olsen, Karsten; Knøchel, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Three Staphylococcus strains, S. carnosus, S. simulans and S. saprophyticus, selected due to their varying nitrite and/or nitrate-reductase activities, were used to initiate colour formation during sausage fermentation. During fermentation of sausages with either nitrite or nitrate added, colour...... nitrate depended on the specific Staphylococcus strain. Strains with high nitrate-reductase activity showed a significantly faster rate of pigment formation, but other factors were of influence as well. Product stability for the sliced, packaged sausage was evaluated as surface colour and oxidation...... by autofluorescence and hexanal content, respectively. No significant direct effect of the Staphylococcus addition was observed, however, there was a clear correspondence between high initial amount of MbFeIINO in the different sausages and the colour stability during storage. Autofluorescence data correlated well...

  12. The influence of douchi starter cultures on the composition of extractive components, microbiological activity, and sensory properties of fermented fish pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasankala, Ladislaus M; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that douchi cultures could serve as a potential starter for enhancing the quality attributes of fermented silver carp meat. In experiment 1, an active, prefermented douchi culture was incorporated into a fish paste to aid in the fish fermentation (30 d) and facilitate biochemical production of extractive flavor components (PRF). In experiment 2, a fully fermented (30 d) douchi was added to a fish paste and the mixture was fermented for 30 d (PSF). In experiment 3, a fish paste without the douchi culture was fermented for 30 d (CF). Total extracted free amino acids increased by 68.0, 68.6, and 78.8% (P 100 mg/mL). The concentrations of both formaldehyde-reactive nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen extractives increased significantly (P PSF > CF. Low amounts of biogenic amines (ingredient commonly used in China, Japan, and other Asian countries. It is also used in many Chinese cuisines in the United States. On the other hand, fermented seafood made from freshwater fish such as silver carp is known to contain bioactive components believed to promote health. The findings from the present study indicated that douchi as a novel starter can be used to produce fermented silver carp fish pastes with excellent flavor and consumer acceptability. The results may be applicable to other fish species to produce similar fermentation products.

  13. Hypoglycemic and Hepatoprotective Activity of Fermented Fruit Juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shivananda Nayak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Morinda citrifolia is a medicinal plant used to treat diabetes and liver diseases. The fermented fruit juice of the M. Citrifolia (optical density = 1.25 was used to study the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective properties in diabetes-induced rats. The rats were randomly distributed into 4 groups (control, diabetic experimental, diabetic standard, and diabetic untreated of 6 each. Diabetes was induced by administering Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight. Fasting blood glucose, body mass, liver tissue glycogen content, and the extent of liver degeneration were assessed. Diabetic experimental animals were treated with M. citrifolia juice (2 ml/kg, twice a day and diabetic standard with reference hypoglycemic drug, glibenclamide orally for 20 days. Both the groups exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose level of 150 mg/dl ±15.88 and 125 mg/dl ±3.89, respectively, as compared to diabetic untreated with FBS = 360.0 mg/dl ±15.81, (<.003. On 10th day of experiment, diabetic experimental animals exhibited a decrease in body mass (10.2 g, 5.11% which increased significantly by the 20th day (6 g, 3.0%, <.022. Histological study of liver tissue obtained from untreated diabetic animals revealed significant fatty degeneration as compared to other three groups. The data of this study proved the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective activity of M. citrifolia.

  14. In vitro Screening of Essential Oil Active Compounds for Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation and Methane Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joch, M; Cermak, L; Hakl, J; Hucko, B; Duskova, D; Marounek, M

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 11 active compounds of essential oils (ACEO) on rumen fermentation characteristics and methane production. Two trials were conducted. In trial 1, ACEO (eugenol, carvacrol, citral, limonene, 1,4-cineole, p-cymene, linalool, bornyl acetate, α-pinene, and β-pinene) at a dose of 1,000 μL/L were incubated for 24 h in diluted rumen fluid with a 70:30 forage:concentrate substrate (16.2% crude protein; 36.6% neutral detergent fiber). Three fistulated Holstein cows were used as donors of rumen fluid. The reduction in methane production was observed with nine ACEO (up to 86% reduction) compared with the control (pproduction, and only bornyl acetate produced less methane per mol of VFA compared with the control (pproduction of two concentrations (500 and 2,000 μL/L) of bornyl acetate, the most promising ACEO from the first trial, were evaluated using the same in vitro incubation method that was used in the first trial. In trial 2, monensin was used as a positive control. Both doses of bornyl acetate decreased (pproduction and did not inhibit VFA production. Positive effects of bornyl acetate on methane and VFA production were more pronounced than the effects of monensin. These results confirm the ability of bornyl acetate to decrease methane production, which may help to improve the efficiency of energy use in the rumen.

  15. Determination of Harvesting Time and Fermentation Conditions of Coffee (Coffee sp Beans Based on the Fruit Pericarp Enzyme Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Said Didu

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Pectinase enzyme of coffee pericarp, containing pectinesterase and polymetilesterase, is potential to determine harvesting time or to classify coffee beans. The activity of the enzyme on the green fruit is higher than on the yellow one. When the fruit become light red, the activity increaed for the second time and then decrease when the fruit is overripe (dark coloredThe optimum fermentation condition of the fruit is depending on the maturation degree. Study on the fermentation process at 25oC, suggest sorting of harvesting fruits in three groups. (1 fruits are harvested 9-24 days after the fruits reach its yellowish green color, Ao, (2 25 - 32 days after Ao, and (3 33 - 38 days after Ao.Fermenting at 35o C grouping into four types of maturation degree. (1 9 - 11 days after Ao, (2 12 - 22 days after Ao, (3 23 - 30 days after Ao, and (4 24-36 days after Ao. The optimum harvesting time is when the beans reach light red until the color starts getting dark. The optimum activity of the enzyme pectinase is at 35oC.

  16. Enhancement of biomass and fermentation activity of surplus brewers' yeast in a fed-batch process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strel, B. (Ministry of Science and Technology, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Industrial Property Office); Grba, S.; Maric, V. (Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology)

    1993-04-01

    The growth of surplus brewers' yeast in a fedbatch process was studied with the aim of increasing the fermentation activity of the yeast cells and of optimizing the growth conditions: 20 h cultivation at 30deg C and pH 5.0-5.5 using beet molasses as substrate, with a regulated feeding rate, showed satisfactory results. Under the chosen conditions, the final amount of biomass increased more than fivefold, achieving a specific growth rate of 0.1 h[sup -1] and substrate yield coefficient of 0.54 g.g[sup -1]. The increase in fermentation activity of yeast cells during cultivation correlated very well with the concentration of reduced glutathione, which increased from 1.2 to 2.7 mg.g[sup -1] (dry matter). At the same time the fermentation activity increased fivefold, which related to the nitrogen content of the yeast cells. Ethanol formation throughout the cultivation did not exceed 0.5 g.l[sup -1]. (orig.).

  17. Effect of analgesic drugs on the electromyographic activity of the gastrointestinal tract and sphincter of Oddi and on biliary pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, J C; Senninger, N; Runkel, N; Herfarth, C; Messmer, K

    1986-01-01

    Continuous biliary pressure and electromyographic activity of the sphincter of Oddi and gastrointestinal tract were recorded in conscious opossums following administration of analgesic drugs. Morphine, meperidine, and pentazocin increased significantly the duration of the migrating motor complex (MMC) cycle. Periods of 1-2 minutes of intense burst of spike potentials were seen in the sphincter of Oddi and duodenum following administration of morphine (8 experiments), meperidine (6 experiments), and pentazocin (3 experiments). The biliary pressure in the control studies was similar to that following administration of all analgesics in the animals with gallbladder and following instillation of tramadol, metamizol, and acetylsalicylic acid in animals with no gallbladder. However, the biliary pressure was significantly higher following administration of morphine, meperidine, and pentazocin in the animals with no gallbladder. It is concluded from this study that morphine, meperidine, and pentazocin may cause important disturbances in the motility of the sphincter of Oddi and gastrointestinal tract. These myoelectric disturbances may cause an increase in the biliary pressure in animals that have been subjected to cholecystectomy, but not in animals with intact gallbladder. The gallbladder may accommodate the bile produced by the liver during periods of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction and thus impede an increase in the biliary pressure. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. FIGS. 3A and B. PMID:3729583

  18. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) immunoreactivity and mRNA expression in the duck gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabella, N; Squillacioti, C; Colitti, M; Germano, G; Pelagalli, A; Paino, G

    2002-06-01

    The presence and distribution of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) immunoreactivity were studied in the duck gastrointestinal tract using immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassays. Expression and distribution of PACAP mRNA were also studied using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and hybridization techniques. In addition, a partial coding sequence (cds) of the duck growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRF)/PACAP gene was identified. The presence of both PACAP-38 and PACAP-27 was demonstrated, the former being the predominant form. PACAP immunoreactivity was found in neurons and fibers of the enteric nervous system (ENS), in endocrine cells and in the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Double immunostaining showed that PACAP is almost completely colocalized with vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the ENS. Moreover, PACAP was also found in nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-containing neurons and nerve fibers. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) performed on denervated gut showed that more than one-half of the duodenal PACAP is extrinsic in origin. RT-PCR, Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization confirmed the immunohistochemical data. The findings of the present study suggest that, in birds, PACAP may have multiple roles in regulating gastrointestinal functions.

  19. Inhibitory activity in vitro of probiotic lactobacilli against oral Candida under different fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Q; Stamatova, I; Kari, K; Meurman, J H

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that probiotics positively affect oral health by decreasing gum bleeding and/or reducing salivary counts of certain oral pathogens. Our aim was to investigate the inhibitory effect of six probiotic lactobacilli against opportunistic oral Candida species. Sugar utilisation by both lactobacilli and Candida was also assessed. Agar overlay assay was utilised to study growth inhibition of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112, Lactobacillus brevis CD2, Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB86 and L. bulgaricus LB Lact. The inhibitory effect was measured at pH 5.5, 6.4, and 7.2, respectively, and in the presence of five different carbohydrates in growth medium (glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose, and sorbitol). Growth and final pH values were measured at two-hour time points to 24 h. L. rhamnosus GG showed the strongest inhibitory activity in fructose and glucose medium against C. albicans, followed by L. casei Shirota, L. reuteri SD2112 and L. brevis CD2. None of the lactobacilli tested affected the growth of C. krusei. Only L. rhamnosus GG produced slight inhibitory effect on C. glabrata. The lower pH values led to larger inhibition zones. Sugar fermentation profiles varied between the strains. L. casei Shirota grew in the presence of all sugars tested, whereas L. brevis CD2 could utilise only glucose and fructose. All Candida species metabolised the available sugars but the most rapid growth was observed with C. glabrata. The results suggest that commercially available probiotics differ in their inhibitory activity and carbohydrate utilisation; the above properties are modified by different pH values and sugars with more pronounced inhibition at lower pH.

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Exopolysaccharide with Immunomodulatory Activity from Fermentation Broth of Morchella Conica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-an Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of this study: Mushroom polysaccharides have traditionally been used for the prevention and treatment of a multitude of disorders like infectious illnesses, cancers and various autoimmune diseases. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Morchella conica (M. conica is a species of rare edible mushroom whose multiple medicinal functions have been proven. Thus, the objective of this study is to isolate and characterize of exopolysaccharide from submerged mycelial culture of M. conica, and to evaluate its immunomodulatory activity.MethodsA water-soluble Morchella conica Polysaccharides (MCP were extracted and isolated from the fermentation broth of M. conica through a combination of DEAE-cellulose and Sephacryl S-300 HR chromatograph. NMR and IR spectroscopy has played a developing role in identification of polysaccharide with different structure and composition from fungal and plant sources, as well as complex glycosaminoglycans of animal origin. Thus, NMR and IR spectroscopy were used to analyze the chemical structure and composition of the isolated polysaccharide. Moreover, the polysaccharide was tested for its immunomodulatory activity at different concentrations using in vitro model.ResultsThe results showed that MCP may significantly modulate nitric oxide production in macrophages, and promote splenocytes proliferation. Analysis from HPLC, infrared spectra and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that MCP was a homogeneous mannan with an average molecular weight of approximately 81.2 kDa. The glycosidic bond links is [rightwards arrow]6-alpha-D-Man p-(1[rightwards arrow].ConclusionThe results suggested that the extracted MCP may modulate nitric oxide production in macrophages and promote splenocytes proliferation, and it may act as a potent immunomodulatory agent.

  1. Pomegranate ellagitannins inhibit α-glucosidase activity in vitro and reduce starch digestibility under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellesia, Andrea; Verzelloni, Elena; Tagliazucchi, Davide

    2015-02-01

    Pomegranate extract was tested for its ability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity. Pomegranate extract strongly inhibited rat intestinal α-glucosidase in vitro whereas it was a weak inhibitor of porcine α-amylase. The inhibitory activity was recovered in an ellagitannins-enriched fraction and punicalagin, punicalin, and ellagic acid were identified as α-glucosidase inhibitors (IC(50) of 140.2, 191.4, and 380.9 μmol/L, respectively). Kinetic analysis suggested that the pomegranate extract and ellagitannins inhibited α-glucosidase activity in a mixed mode. The inhibitory activity was demonstrated using an in vitro digestion system, mimicking the physiological gastro-intestinal condition, and potatoes as food rich in starch. Pre-incubation between ellagitannins and α-glucosidase increased the inhibitory activity, suggesting that they acted by binding to α-glucosidase. During digestion punicalin and punicalagin concentration decreased. Despite this loss, the pomegranate extract retained high inhibitory activity. This study suggests that pomegranate ellagitannins may inhibit α-glucosidase activity in vitro possibly affecting in vivo starch digestion.

  2. Microbial network for waste activated sludge cascade utilization in an integrated system of microbial electrolysis and anaerobic fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenzong; He, Zhangwei; Yang, Chunxue

    2016-01-01

    and Parabacteroides, which showed a delayed contribution to the extracellular electron transport leading to a slow cascade utilization of WAS. Conclusions: Efficient pretreatment could supply more short-chain fatty acids and higher conductivities in the fermentative liquid, which facilitated mass transfer in anodic......Background: Bioelectrochemical systems have been considered a promising novel technology that shows an enhanced energy recovery, as well as generation of value-added products. A number of recent studies suggested that an enhancement of carbon conversion and biogas production can be achieved...... in an integrated system of microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) and anaerobic digestion (AD) for waste activated sludge (WAS). Microbial communities in integrated system would build a thorough energetic and metabolic interaction network regarding fermentation communities and electrode respiring communities...

  3. Enhanced natural killer cell activation by exopolysaccharides derived from yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Seiya; Sato, Asako; Goto, Ayako; Nakamura, Marie; Ogawa, Miho; Chiba, Yoshika; Hemmi, Jun; Kano, Hiroshi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Okumura, Ko; Asami, Yukio

    2016-02-01

    Yogurt is generally recognized as a beneficial food for our health, but research into its physiological effects has focused mainly on intestinal dysfunctions such as constipation and diarrhea. We previously found yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 (hereafter OLL1073R-1) could reduce risks of catching the common cold and flu in human trials. It was assumed that immunostimulatory exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced from OLL1073R-1 play an important role in this context. However, few studies have examined the immunostimulatory effects of traditional Bulgarian yogurts fermented with different strains of lactobacilli and their metabolites. Therefore, we screened 139 L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strains and identified OLL1073R-1 as the most robust producer of EPS. This strain was also the only strain that induced the production of IFN-γ in vitro. Oral administration of the EPS or yogurt fermented with OLL1073R-1 and Streptococcus thermophilus OLS3059 (OLL1073R-1 yogurt) augmented natural killer (NK) cell activity and induced IFN-γ production in spleen cells in mice, whereas 2 other yogurts fermented with other strains had no effect on NK cell activity. Cellular preparations of the OLL1073R-1 strain also slightly augmented NK cell activity, but were less effective than EPS itself. The EPS-dependent stimulation of NK cell activity was abrogated in IFN-γ knockout mice and in myeloid differentiation factor 88 knockout mice. Furthermore, IFN-γ production from spleen cells stimulated with EPS was completely blocked with both anti-IL-12 and anti-IL-18 antibodies in vitro. These findings suggest that NK cell activation by OLL1073R-1 yogurt is EPS-dependent, occurs via IL-12- and IL-18-mediated IFN-γ production, and requires myeloid differentiation factor 88. We showed that traditional Bulgarian yogurt could exert immunostimulatory effects by selecting starter strains and part of the mechanisms depend on IFN-γ inducible EPS produced

  4. Activated sludge-mediated biodegradation of dimethyl phthalate under fermentative conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Donglei; MAHMOODQaisar; Wu Lili; ZHENG Ping

    2008-01-01

    The biodegradation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) was investigated under fermentative conditions in this study. The nature of the intermediate compounds and the extent of mineralization were probed using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) [G1]methods. The fermentative bacteria were able to biodegrade the DMP under anaerobic conditions, with the biodegradation rate of 0.36 mg DMP/(L?h). The results demonstrated that the DMP degradation under fermentative conditions followed the modified Gompertz model with the correlation coefficient of 0.99. Monomethyl phthalate (MMP) and phthalic acid (PA) were detected as the intermediates of DMP biodegradation. During the experiment, MMP was rapidly produced and removed; however, PA accumulated as the biodegradation was slower throughout the course of the experiment. The CODCr concentration decreased from 245.06 to 72.01 mg/L after the experimental operation of 20 d. The volume of methane produced was 3.65 ml over a period of 20 d and the amount of methane recovered corresponded to 40.2% of the stoichiometric value. The CODCr variation and methane production showed that the DMP could not be completely mineralized under the fermentative conditions, which implied that the fermentative bacteria were not able to biodegrade DMP entirely.

  5. Microbial fermented tea - a potential source of natural food preservatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Chen, Z.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of microbial fermented tea are much less known than its health beneficial properties. These antimicrobial activities are generated in natural microbial fermentation process with tea leaves as substrates. The antimicrobial components produced during the fermentation process h

  6. Microbial fermented tea - a potential source of natural food preservatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Chen, Z.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of microbial fermented tea are much less known than its health beneficial properties. These antimicrobial activities are generated in natural microbial fermentation process with tea leaves as substrates. The antimicrobial components produced during the fermentation process

  7. Phytase in non-ruminant animal nutrition: a critical review on phytase activities in the gastrointestinal tract and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dersjant-Li, Yueming; Awati, Ajay; Schulze, Hagen; Partridge, Gary

    2015-03-30

    This review focuses on phytase functionality in the digestive tract of farmed non-ruminant animals and the factors influencing in vivo phytase enzyme activity. In pigs, feed phytase is mainly active in the stomach and upper part of the small intestine, and added phytase activity is not recovered in the ileum. In poultry, feed phytase activities are mainly found in the upper part of the digestive tract, including the crop, proventriculus and gizzard. For fish with a stomach, phytase activities are mainly in the stomach. Many factors can influence the efficiency of feed phytase in the gastrointestinal tract, and they can be divided into three main groups: (i) phytase related; (ii) dietary related and (iii) animal related. Phytase-related factors include type of phytase (e.g. 3- or 6-phytase; bacterial or fungal phytase origin), the pH optimum and the resistance of phytase to endogenous protease. Dietary-related factors are mainly associated with dietary phytate content, feed ingredient composition and feed processing, and total P, Ca and Na content. Animal-related factors include species, gender and age of animals. To eliminate the antinutritional effects of phytate (IP6), it needs to be hydrolyzed as quickly as possible by phytase in the upper part of the digestive tract. A phytase that works over a wide range of pH values and is active in the stomach and upper intestine (along with several other characteristics and in addition to being refractory to endogenous enzymes) would be ideal.

  8. Activity of luxabendazole against liver flukes, gastrointestinal roundworms, and lungworms in naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassai, T; Takáts, C; Fok, E; Redl, P

    1988-01-01

    The anthelmintic potential of luxabendazole was investigated in sheep harboring mixed naturally acquired helminth infections. Results were assessed by comparing worm counts of the treated groups (seven animals each) on days 7-8 posttreatment with those of the nontreated control group, except for protostrongylid lungworms, for which the changes in pre- and posttreatment group mean larval counts/g feces were assessed for intensity effect. A single oral treatment at doses of 10.0 or 12.5 mg/kg body wt removed 97.6% of the adult Fasciola hepatica and 63.2%-83.8% of the Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Luxabendazole at 7.5, 10.0, and 12.5 mg/kg proved 100% effective in removing adult worms of the genera Haemonchus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia and Nematodirus as well as tissue-associated larval stages of gastrointestinal nematodes of the abomasal mucosa. The drug showed an intensity effect of 79.7%-87.6% against Strongyloides papillosus. Luxabendazole removed all Dictyocaulus filaria and reduced the fecal excretion of larvae of protostrongylid species (Protostrongylus rufescens, Neostrongylus linearis, Cystocaulus ocreatus, Muellerius capillaris) by 97.8%-99.6%. The efficacy of luxabendazole compared favorably with that of Diplin Kombi (oxyclozanide and levamisole), which was used as a reference drug.

  9. Alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH3 activates glucose alcoholic fermentation in genetically engineered Dekkera bruxellensis yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Siurkus, Juozas; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2016-01-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis is a non-conventional Crabtree-positive yeast with a good ethanol production capability. Compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, its tolerance to acidic pH and its utilization of alternative carbon sources make it a promising organism for producing biofuel. In this study, we de......, respectively. The overexpression of ADH3 in D. bruxellensis also reduced the inhibition of fermentation by anaerobiosis, the "Custer effect". Thus, the fermentative capacity of D. bruxellensis could be further improved by metabolic engineering....

  10. Fermentation characteristics of several carbohydrate sources for dog diets using the in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Calabrò

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentable carbohydrates are an important part of the canine diet. They can improve gastrointestinal health by modifying gut microbial population and metabolic activity. The present study compared the fermentation characteristics and kinetic patterns of 10 carbohydrate sources using the in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT with dog faecal inoculum. The substrates tested were: pure cellulose (PC, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, sugar-cane fibre (SCF, beet pulp (BP, wheat bran (WB, fructooligosaccharides (FOS, inulin, yeast cell wall (YCW, ground psyllium seed (PS, pea hulls (PH. All substrates were incubated at 39°C under anaerobic conditions with faeces collected from dogs as microbial inoculum. Gas production of fermenting cultures was recorded and after 48 h, pH, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA and organic matter disappearance (OMD were determined. The results confirm high fermentation by dog faecal bacteria of FOS and inulin that produced high amounts of propionate and that underwent very rapid fermentation. Three substrates (SCF, CMC and PC were not able to support bacterial growth, with low gas and SCFA production, and high BCFA formation. PH and BP showed moderate OMD and SCFA production. Wheat bran B underwent rapid fermentation and generated a high proportion of butyrate. PS underwent slow fermentation with delayed gas production, supporting a high formation of SCFA, with an adequate amount of butyrate for bacterial growth while YCW, which showed a delayed fermentation, gave moderate SCFA production. The fermentation characteristics of PS and YCW suggest their potential use in promoting a more distal fermentation on intestinal tract.

  11. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of egg protein hydrolysates produced with gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sun-Jong; Wu, Jianping

    2011-08-01

    Egg is a well-known rich source of bioactive peptides. In this study, egg protein (egg white and egg yolk proteins) hydrolysates were produced with gastrointestinal enzymes (pepsin and pancreatin) or nongastrointestinal enzymes (thermolysin and alcalase), and fractionated by ultrafiltration and cation exchange chromatography. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities, amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution were studied, and the physicochemical properties were related with the bioactivities. Our results showed that egg protein hydrolysates produced with non-GI enzymes (thermolysin and alcalase) showed significantly higher ACE inhibitory activity, whereas similar or even lower antioxidative activities, than those of hydrolysates produced with GI enzymes. ACE-inhibitory activity significantly correlated with the amino acid composition, especially the proportion of positively charged amino acid, whereas antioxidant activities correlated with the proportion of low molecular weight peptides under 500 Da. Understanding the relationship between the bioactivities and physicochemical properties of the hydrolysates/fractions is important to facilitate the development technologies for preparing fractions with improved bioactivities. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 metabolic products and fermented milk for infant formula have anti-inflammatory activity on dendritic cells in vitro and protective effects against colitis and an enteric pathogen in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zagato

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of commercially available fermented food products raises important safety issues particularly when infant food is concerned. In many cases, the activity of the microorganisms used for fermentation as well as what will be the immunological outcome of fermented food intake is not known. In this manuscript we used complex in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems to study the immunomodulatory properties of probiotic-fermented products (culture supernatant and fermented milk without live bacteria to be used in infant formula. We found in vitro and ex-vivo that fermented products of Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 act via the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release leaving anti-inflammatory cytokines either unaffected or even increased in response to Salmonella typhimurium. These activities are not dependent on the inactivated bacteria but to metabolic products released during the fermentation process. We also show that our in vitro systems are predictive of an in vivo efficacy by the fermented products. Indeed CBA L74 fermented products (both culture medium and fermented milk could protect against colitis and against an enteric pathogen infection (Salmonella typhimurium. Hence we found that fermented products can act via the inhibition of immune cell inflammation and can protect the host from pathobionts and enteric pathogens. These results open new perspectives in infant nutrition and suggest that L. paracasei CBA L74 fermented formula can provide immune benefits to formula-fed infants, without carrying live bacteria that may be potentially dangerous to an immature infant immune system.

  13. Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 metabolic products and fermented milk for infant formula have anti-inflammatory activity on dendritic cells in vitro and protective effects against colitis and an enteric pathogen in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagato, Elena; Mileti, Erika; Massimiliano, Lucia; Fasano, Francesca; Budelli, Andrea; Penna, Giuseppe; Rescigno, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of commercially available fermented food products raises important safety issues particularly when infant food is concerned. In many cases, the activity of the microorganisms used for fermentation as well as what will be the immunological outcome of fermented food intake is not known. In this manuscript we used complex in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems to study the immunomodulatory properties of probiotic-fermented products (culture supernatant and fermented milk without live bacteria to be used in infant formula). We found in vitro and ex-vivo that fermented products of Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 act via the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release leaving anti-inflammatory cytokines either unaffected or even increased in response to Salmonella typhimurium. These activities are not dependent on the inactivated bacteria but to metabolic products released during the fermentation process. We also show that our in vitro systems are predictive of an in vivo efficacy by the fermented products. Indeed CBA L74 fermented products (both culture medium and fermented milk) could protect against colitis and against an enteric pathogen infection (Salmonella typhimurium). Hence we found that fermented products can act via the inhibition of immune cell inflammation and can protect the host from pathobionts and enteric pathogens. These results open new perspectives in infant nutrition and suggest that L. paracasei CBA L74 fermented formula can provide immune benefits to formula-fed infants, without carrying live bacteria that may be potentially dangerous to an immature infant immune system.

  14. Fermented milk containing Lactobacillus GG alleviated DSS-induced colitis in mice and activated epidermal growth factor receptor and Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoyo Yoda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was assessed for its ability to alleviate DSS-induced colitis in mice and activate epidermal growth factor receptor and Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells. In this study mice were treated with DSS to induce colitis and they were given Lactobacillus GG fermented milk to assess the effect of probiotic on colitis. Lactobacillus GG fermented milk significantly reduced the colitis associated changes suggesting a protective effect against DSS induced colitis.

  15. Gastrointestinal System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jepson, Mark A.; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) acts as a barrier to uptake of potentially dangerous material while allowing absorption of processed food. The gut may be exposed to a diverse range of engineered nanomaterials due to their deliberate addition to food and consumer products

  16. Anthelmintic activity of botanical extracts against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes, Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Elango, Gandhi; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz

    2011-07-01

    The source of chemical anthelmintics (levamisole, flubendazole, and thiabendazole) had limited the success of gastrointestinal nematodiasis control in sheep and goats and thus awakened interest in the study of medicinal plant extracts as alternative sources of anthelmintics. The egg hatching and larvicidal effect of indigenous plant extracts were investigated against the sheep parasite, Haemonchus contortus. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of leaf, bark, and seed ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Anisomeles malabarica (L.) R. Br., Annona squamosa L., Datura metel L., and Solanum torvum Swartz were tested against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA). The assays were run in 24-well cell culture plates at room temperature with five replicates. All plant extracts showed moderate parasitic effects after 48 and exposure for egg hatching and LDA, respectively; however, 100% egg hatching and larvicidal inhibition were found in the methanol extracts of A. paniculata, A. squamosa, D. metel, and S. torvum at 25 mg/ml and the effect was similar to positive control of Albendazole (0.075 mg/ml) and Ivermectin (0.025mg/ml) against H. contortus, respectively. The EHA result showed the ED(50) of methanol extracts of A. paniculata and D. metel, which were 2.90 and 3.08 mg/ml, and in larval development assay, the ED(50) was 4.26 and 3.86 mg/ml, respectively. These effects remain to be confirmed through in vivo studies.

  17. Alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH3 activates glucose alcoholic fermentation in genetically engineered Dekkera bruxellensis yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Siurkus, Juozas; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Joerck-Ramberg, Dorte; Ling, Zhihao; Zhou, Nerve; Blevins, James E; Sibirny, Andriy A; Piškur, Jure; Ishchuk, Olena P

    2016-04-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis is a non-conventional Crabtree-positive yeast with a good ethanol production capability. Compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, its tolerance to acidic pH and its utilization of alternative carbon sources make it a promising organism for producing biofuel. In this study, we developed an auxotrophic transformation system and an expression vector, which enabled the manipulation of D. bruxellensis, thereby improving its fermentative performance. Its gene ADH3, coding for alcohol dehydrogenase, was cloned and overexpressed under the control of the strong and constitutive promoter TEF1. Our recombinant D. bruxellensis strain displayed 1.4 and 1.7 times faster specific glucose consumption rate during aerobic and anaerobic glucose fermentations, respectively; it yielded 1.2 times and 1.5 times more ethanol than did the parental strain under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The overexpression of ADH3 in D. bruxellensis also reduced the inhibition of fermentation by anaerobiosis, the "Custer effect". Thus, the fermentative capacity of D. bruxellensis could be further improved by metabolic engineering.

  18. In vitro inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity of subfractions from ethanol extracts of fermented Oats (Avena sativa L.) and synergistic effect of three phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shengbao; Wang, Ou; Wang, Mengqian; He, Jianfeng; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of the present work is to study the pancreatic lipase inhibitory effects of different subfractions (n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol, and water) from ethanol extracts of nonfermented and fungi-fermented oats and to delineate the interactions of three primary phenolic acids in the EA subfractions. The EA subfraction showed the highest inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity at 1.5 mg/mL compared to the other subfractions, regardless of whether the oats were fermented. Meanwhile, both of the EA subfractions of two fungi-fermented oats demonstrated more effective inhibitory activity than that of nonfermented oats. A positive correlation between the total phenolics content and inhibitory activity was found. The inhibitory ability of the EA subfraction from nonfermented or fermented oats also displayed a dose-dependent effect. The standards of caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids, mainly included in EA subfractions of fermented oats, also displayed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect. A synergistic effect of each binary combination of p-coumaric, ferulic, and caffeic acids was observed, especially at 150.0 μg/mL. Those results indicate that fungi-fermented oats have a more effective inhibitory ability on pancreatic lipase and polyphenols may be the most effective component and could be potentially used for dietary therapy of obesity.

  19. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of extracts of Opuntia ficus-indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Féboli, Aline; Laurentiz, Antonio C; Soares, Suelen C S; Augusto, Jeferson G; Anjos, Luciano A; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Filardi, Rosemeire S; Laurentiz, Rosangela S

    2016-08-15

    This study describes the in vitro anthelmintic activity of extracts from Opuntia ficus indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. The anthelmintic activity was evaluated by inhibition of egg hatching, larval development and larval migration assays. The residual aqueous fractions from cladodes and fruits showed higher ovicidal activity with EC50 values of 7.2mg/mL and 1.5mg/mL, respectively. The aqueous, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions from fruits and the aqueous fraction from cladodes inhibited 100% of larval development at the lowest concentration tested (1.56mg/mL). The crude cladode and fruit ethanolic extracts inhibited larval migration and showed EC50 values of 0.74mg/mL and 0.27mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical screening detected high concentrations of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins in the fruits and cladodes. The results demonstrated that O. ficus exhibits anthelmintic activity in vitro, suggesting that, beyond its nutritional potential, this plant can also be an ally for parasite control in sheep.

  20. Phytase transgenic corn in nutrition of laying hens: residual phytase activity and phytate phosphorus content in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C Q; Ji, C; Zhao, L H; Zhang, J Y; Ma, Q G

    2013-11-01

    The residual activities of transgenic corn-derived and 2 commercial microbial phytases (PA and PB) along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of laying hens were compared to evaluate their relative resistance to hydrolysis in the GIT when added to P-deficient diets. The treatments consisted of a negative control (NC) diet containing 0.10 nonphytate P and an NC diet supplemented with transgenic corn-derived phytase (TCDP), PA, and PB at 500 to 5,000 FTU/kg of diet, respectively. Seven diets were fed to Hy-Line Brown laying hens (n = 504; 8 replicates of 9 hens per treatment) for 21 d. At the end of the experiment, the hens were killed and digesta samples from the crop, proventriculus and gizzard, jejunum, and ileum were collected and analyzed for residual phytase activities and phytate P content. Phytase activity in the transgenic corn was determined to be 8,980 FTU/kg of DM. The residual phytase activities along the GIT had increased (P corn is as efficacious as the commercial microbial phytases (PA and PB) in P-deficient diets for the improvement of phytate P digestibility, which would eliminate the need for supplemental phytase and corn separately in laying hen diets.

  1. Effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on gastrointestinal transit activity in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souli, Abdellaziz; Sebai, Hichem; Rtibi, Kaïs; Chehimi, Latifa; Sakly, Mohsen; Amri, Mohamed; El-Benna, Jamel

    2014-07-01

    The current study was performed to measure the chemical composition and the effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap on gastrointestinal transit (GIT) activity in healthy adult rats. In this respect, male Wistar rats fasted for 24 hours were used and received per orally (p.o.) sodium chloride (NaCl) (0,9%) (control group) or various doses of dates pulp extract (150 and 300 mg/kg, body weight [b.w.]) and palm sap (0.4 and 4 mL/kg, b.w.). Two other groups of rats (batch tests) received, respectively, clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, 1 mg/kg, b.w.) and yohimbine (an alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist, 2mg/kg, b.w.). Chemical analysis showed that the dates pulp extract is more rich in sugars and minerals, especially potassium and sucrose, as compared with palm sap composition. On the other hand, in vivo study showed that the aqueous dates pulp extract significantly, and dose dependently, increased the GIT activity while the palm sap slightly increased it. Moreover, a converse effect has been observed using clonidine (decreased 68%) and yohimbine (increased 33%) on the GIT activity. These findings suggest that dates pulp extract and palm sap have a stimulating effect on GIT activity in rats and confirm their use in traditional Tunisian medicine for the treatment of constipation.

  2. High-resolution mapping of in vivo gastrointestinal slow wave activity using flexible printed circuit board electrodes: methodology and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Peng; O'Grady, G; Egbuji, J U; Lammers, W J; Budgett, D; Nielsen, P; Windsor, J A; Pullan, A J; Cheng, L K

    2009-04-01

    High-resolution, multi-electrode mapping is providing valuable new insights into the origin, propagation, and abnormalities of gastrointestinal (GI) slow wave activity. Construction of high-resolution mapping arrays has previously been a costly and time-consuming endeavor, and existing arrays are not well suited for human research as they cannot be reliably and repeatedly sterilized. The design and fabrication of a new flexible printed circuit board (PCB) multi-electrode array that is suitable for GI mapping is presented, together with its in vivo validation in a porcine model. A modified methodology for characterizing slow waves and forming spatiotemporal activation maps showing slow waves propagation is also demonstrated. The validation study found that flexible PCB electrode arrays are able to reliably record gastric slow wave activity with signal quality near that achieved by traditional epoxy resin-embedded silver electrode arrays. Flexible PCB electrode arrays provide a clinically viable alternative to previously published devices for the high-resolution mapping of GI slow wave activity. PCBs may be mass-produced at low cost, and are easily sterilized and potentially disposable, making them ideally suited to intra-operative human use.

  3. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of the Beverage Obtained by Fermentation of Sweetened Lemon Balm
(Melissa officinalis L.) Tea with Symbiotic Consortium 
of Bacteria and Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Dragoljub D.; Markov, Siniša L.; Šaponjac, Vesna T. Tumbas; Vulić, Jelena J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage which is traditionally prepared by fermenting sweetened black or green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) with symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY). In this study, lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) was used as the only nitrogen source for kombucha fermentation. During the seven-day fermentation process, pH value, titratable acidity (TA), total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity against hydroxyl (˙OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radicals were measured to detect the connection between the fermentation time and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of lemon balm kombucha. Antibacterial activity of finished beverages with optimum acidity (TA=4–4.5 g/L), the value which is confirmed by long-time kombucha consumers, and enhanced acidity (TA=8.12 g/L) was tested against eleven wild bacterial strains. The results showed that lemon balm could be successfully used as an alternative to C. sinensis L. for kombucha fermentation. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals of lemon balm fermentation broth were higher than those of traditional kombucha. Rosmarinic acid is the main phenolic compound of the lemon balm-based kombucha that probably provides biological activity of the beverage. Judging from the EC50 values, kombucha beverages exhibited higher antioxidant activities compared with C. sinensis L. and M. officinalis L. infusions, which can probably be ascribed to SCOBY metabolites. Lemon balm kombucha with both optimum and enhanced acidity showed antibacterial activity, which can be primarily ascribed to acetic acid, but also to some other tea components and SCOBY metabolites. PMID:27904315

  4. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of the Beverage Obtained by Fermentation of Sweetened Lemon Balm (Melissa offi cinalis L. Tea with Symbiotic Consortium of Bacteria and Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoljub D. Cvetković

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage which is traditionally prepared by fermenting sweetened black or green tea (Camellia sinensis L. with symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY. In this study, lemon balm (Melissa offi cinalis L. was used as the only nitrogen source for kombucha fermentation. During the seven-day fermentation process, pH value, titratable acidity (TA, total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity against hydroxyl (˙OH and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH radicals were measured to detect the connection between the fermentation time and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of lemon balm kombucha. Antibacterial activity of fi nished beverages with optimum acidity (TA=4–4.5 g/L, the value which is confi rmed by long-time kombucha consumers, and enhanced acidity (TA=8.12 g/L was tested against eleven wild bacterial strains. The results showed that lemon balm could be successfully used as an alternative to C. sinensis L. for kombucha fermentation. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals of lemon balm fermentation broth were higher than those of traditional kombucha. Rosmarinic acid is the main phenolic compound of the lemon balm-based kombucha that probably provides biological activity of the beverage. Judging from the EC50 values, kombucha beverages exhibited higher antioxidant activities compared with C. sinensis L. and M. offi cinalis L. infusions, which can probably be ascribed to SCOBY metabolites. Lemon balm kombucha with both optimum and enhanced acidity showed antibacterial activity, which can be primarily ascribed to acetic acid, but also to some other tea components and SCOBY metabolites.

  5. Metabolic in Vivo Labeling Highlights Differences of Metabolically Active Microbes from the Mucosal Gastrointestinal Microbiome between High-Fat and Normal Chow Diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberbach, Andreas; Haange, Sven Bastiaan; Schlichting, Nadine; Heinrich, Marco; Lehmann, Stefanie; Till, Holger; Hugenholtz, Floor; Kullnick, Yvonne; Smidt, Hauke; Frank, Karin; Seifert, Jana; Jehmlich, Nico; Bergen, Von Martin

    2017-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota in the gut interacts metabolically and immunologically with the host tissue in the contact zone of the mucus layer. For understanding the details of these interactions and especially their dynamics it is crucial to identify the metabolically active subset of the micro

  6. Metabolic in Vivo Labeling Highlights Differences of Metabolically Active Microbes from the Mucosal Gastrointestinal Microbiome between High-Fat and Normal Chow Diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberbach, Andreas; Haange, Sven Bastiaan; Schlichting, Nadine; Heinrich, Marco; Lehmann, Stefanie; Till, Holger; Hugenholtz, Floor; Kullnick, Yvonne; Smidt, Hauke; Frank, Karin; Seifert, Jana; Jehmlich, Nico; Bergen, Von Martin

    2017-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota in the gut interacts metabolically and immunologically with the host tissue in the contact zone of the mucus layer. For understanding the details of these interactions and especially their dynamics it is crucial to identify the metabolically active subset of the

  7. [Antibacterial activity of lactic acid bacteria community SFC-2 used for fermentation of air-dried crop straws].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingjing; Wang, Xiaofen; Gao, Lijuan; Cui, Zongjun

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the antibacterial activity of lactic acid bacteria community SFC-2 in fermented crop straw. Total 13 isolates were obtained from spontaneous fermented rice straw by plating, paper diffusion and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. All these strains were used to determine the antibacterial activity of SFC-2. (1) Phylogenetic analysis of the 13 strains based on 16S rDNA gene sequence data indicated that 9 strains belong to Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacterfreundii, Klebsiella terrigena and Citrobacter sp., which were all common pathogens or opportunistic pathogens. (2) Indicating bacteria selected from the pathogens were used to detect antibacterial activity of SFC-2 cell-free culture supernatant. The results showed that: SFC-2 community had stronger antibacterial activity than isolated strains from SFC-2 community or man-made communities against indicating bacteria. (3) Antibacterial activities of seven different cell-free culture supernatants, which were extracted at intervals from the culture of SFC-2 community during 14-48 hours, were no obvious difference, but the content of organic acids were obvious differences during 14-48 hours; the antibacterial substances were stable after heating and sensitive partly to protease K.

  8. Effects of Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharides on bacterial growth, texture properties, proteolytic capacity, and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme-inhibitory activities of fermented milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siqian; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-05-01

    Pleurotus eryngii is one of the most favored oyster mushrooms and contains various beneficial bioactive compounds. Polysaccharide extracted from P. eryngii (PEPS) was added as a natural-source ingredient to milk before fermentation, and the effects of additional PEPS on fermented milk were investigated in this study. The PEPS were extracted and added to reconstituted skim milk (12%, wt/vol) at 0.5, 0.25, and 0.125% (wt/vol) and fermented by a non-exopolysaccharide-producing strain, Streptococcus thermophilus Australian Starter Culture Collection (ASCC) 1303 (ST 1303), or an exopolysaccharide-producing Strep. thermophilus ASCC 1275 (ST 1275). Bacterial growth, texture properties, microstructure, proteolytic capacity, and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme-inhibitory activities of fermented milk (FM) were determined during refrigerated storage at 4°C for 21d. Viable counts of starter bacteria in FM with 0.5% PEPS added were the highest. Changes in pH were consistent with changes in titratable acidities for all samples. The FM samples with added PEPS showed denser protein aggregates containing larger serum pores in confocal micrographs compared with those without PEPS at d 0 and 21during refrigerated storage. The values for spontaneous whey separation of FM with added PEPS were significantly higher than those of FM fermented by ST 1303 or ST 1275 without PEPS. The proteolytic activities of ST 1303 of FM with added PEPS were higher than those of FM fermented by ST 1303 without PEPS. The FM with added 0.125% PEPS had similar angiotensin-I-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity to that fermented by ST 1303 without PEPS; both were higher than those of other samples during refrigerated storage. Firmness and gumminess values of FM with added PEPS were higher than those of FM fermented by ST 1303 or ST 1275 without PEPS.

  9. Research on Antioxidant Activity of Brown Rice Ferment Extract%糙米酵素提取物抗氧化活性作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景松; 姜忠丽

    2015-01-01

    在发芽糙米中加入峰蜜,利用酵母发酵制备成糙米酵素,并对糙米酵素提取物的抗氧化活性进行研究。结果表明:糙米酵素提取物清除DPPH自由基、清除超氧阴离子及羟基自由基的能力较强,与常用抗氧化剂BHT相差不大。%In the article, it expounded the method of adding honey in germinated brown rice, used yeast fermentation to produce brown rice ferment, and studied antioxidant activity of brown rice ferment extract. The result showed that the clearance ability of brown rice ferment extract to DPPH free radical, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical is very strong and no big difference comparing to ordinary antioxidant BHT.

  10. Laccase and manganese peroxidase activities of Phellinus robustus and Ganoderma adspersum grown on food industry wastes in submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songulashvili, G; Elisashvili, V; Wasser, S; Nevo, E; Hadar, Y

    2006-09-01

    Phellinus robustus produced both laccase (700-4,000 U l(-1)) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) (1,000-11,300 U l(-1)) in fermentation of nine food wastes, whereas Ganoderma adspersum produced only laccase (600-34,000 U l(-1)). Glucose provided high laccase and MnP activity of P. robustus but repressed enzyme production by G. adspersum. Ammonium sulphate and ammonium tartrate increased the P. robustus laccase yield (3-fold), whereas the accumulation of MnP was not enhanced by additional nitrogen.

  11. Adsorption-desorption process using wood-based activated carbon for recovery of biosurfactant from fermented distillery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Kirti V; Juwarkar, Asha A; Singh, S K

    2005-01-01

    Methods used for biosurfactant recovery include solvent extraction, precipitation, crystallization, centrifugation and foam fractionation. These methods cannot be used when distillery wastewater (DW) is used as the nutrient medium for biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BS2, because recovery of biosurfactant by any of these methods imparts color to the biosurfactant. The biosurfactant has a nonaesthetic appearance with lowered surface active properties. These methods cannot be used for continuous recovery of biosurfactant during cultivation. Hence, a new downstream technique for biosurfactant recovery from fermented DW comprised of adsorption-desorption processes using wood-based activated carbon (WAC) was developed. This study involves batch experiments to standardize the factors affecting the rate of biosurfactant adsorption onto WAC. WAC was the most efficient adsorbent among various ones tested (i.e., silica gel, activated alumina and zeolite). The WAC (1% w v(-1)), equilibrium time (90 min), pH range of 5-10 and temperature of 40 degrees C were optimum to achieve 99.5% adsorption efficiency. Adsorption kinetics and intraparticle diffusion studies revealed the involvement of both boundary layer diffusion and intraparticle diffusion. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm of WAC indicated the formation of a monolayer coverage of the biosurfactant over a homogeneous carbon surface, while the Freundlich isotherm showed high adsorption at strong solute concentrations and low adsorption at dilute solute concentrations. WAC concentration of 4% w v(-1) facilitated complete removal of the biosurfactant from collapsed foam (contained 5-fold higher concentration of biosurfactant than was present in fermented DW). Biosurfactant adsorption was of chemisorption type. Acetone (polar solvent) was a specific viable eluant screened among various ones tested because it selectively facilitated maximum recovery, i.e., 89% biosurfactant from WAC. By acetone

  12. Nonstarch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes alter the microbial community and the fermentation patterns of barley cultivars and wheat products in an in vitro model of the porcine gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindelle, Jérôme; Pieper, Robert; Montoya, Carlos A; Van Kessel, Andrew G; Leterme, Pascal

    2011-06-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to assess how nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP)-degrading enzymes influence the fermentation of dietary fiber in the pig large intestine. Seven wheat and barley products and cultivars with differing carbohydrate fractions were hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin in the presence or not of NSP-degrading enzymes (xylanase and β-glucanase) and the filter retentate was subsequently fermented with sow fecal bacteria. Dry matter, starch, crude protein and β-glucan digestibilities during hydrolysis were measured. Fermentation kinetics of the hydrolyzed ingredients were modelled. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production and molar ratio were compared after 12, 24 and 72 h. Microbial communities were analyzed after 72 h of fermentation using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The results showed an increase of nutrient digestibility (Penzyme. SCFA and bacterial community profiles also indicated a shift from propionate to acetate and an increase in cellulolytic Ruminococcus- and xylanolytic Clostridium-like bacteria. This is explained by the increase in slowly fermentable insoluble carbohydrate and the lower proportion of rapidly fermentable β-glucan and starch in the retentate when grains were incubated with NSP-degrading enzymes. Shifts were also different for the four barley varieties investigated, showing that the efficiency of the enzymes depends on the structure of the carbohydrate fractions in cereal products and cultivars.

  13. Phytase in non-ruminant animal nutrition: a critical review on phytase activities in the gastrointestinal tract and influencing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dersjant-Li, Yueming; Awati, Ajay; Schulze, Hagen; Partridge, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on phytase functionality in the digestive tract of farmed non-ruminant animals and the factors influencing in vivo phytase enzyme activity. In pigs, feed phytase is mainly active in the stomach and upper part of the small intestine, and added phytase activity is not recovered in the ileum. In poultry, feed phytase activities are mainly found in the upper part of the digestive tract, including the crop, proventriculus and gizzard. For fish with a stomach, phytase activities are mainly in the stomach. Many factors can influence the efficiency of feed phytase in the gastrointestinal tract, and they can be divided into three main groups: (i) phytase related; (ii) dietary related and (iii) animal related. Phytase-related factors include type of phytase (e.g. 3- or 6-phytase; bacterial or fungal phytase origin), the pH optimum and the resistance of phytase to endogenous protease. Dietary-related factors are mainly associated with dietary phytate content, feed ingredient composition and feed processing, and total P, Ca and Na content. Animal-related factors include species, gender and age of animals. To eliminate the antinutritional effects of phytate (IP6), it needs to be hydrolyzed as quickly as possible by phytase in the upper part of the digestive tract. A phytase that works over a wide range of pH values and is active in the stomach and upper intestine (along with several other characteristics and in addition to being refractory to endogenous enzymes) would be ideal. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25382707

  14. Alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH3 activates glucose alcoholic fermentation in genetically engineered Dekkera bruxellensis yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Siurkus, Juozas; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2016-01-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis is a non-conventional Crabtree-positive yeast with a good ethanol production capability. Compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, its tolerance to acidic pH and its utilization of alternative carbon sources make it a promising organism for producing biofuel. In this study, we...... developed an auxotrophic transformation system and an expression vector, which enabled the manipulation of D. bruxellensis, thereby improving its fermentative performance. Its gene ADH3, coding for alcohol dehydrogenase, was cloned and overexpressed under the control of the strong and constitutive promoter...... TEF1. Our recombinant D. bruxellensis strain displayed 1.4 and 1.7 times faster specific glucose consumption rate during aerobic and anaerobic glucose fermentations, respectively; it yielded 1.2 times and 1.5 times more ethanol than did the parental strain under aerobic and anaerobic conditions...

  15. Effect of starter cultures combinations on lipolytic activity and ripening of dry fermented sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Baris Bingol

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of starter culture combinations on the quality of Turkish type dry fermented sausage (sucuk were evaluated during ripening and storage periods. Sucuk formulations were produced without (control and with three different starter culture combinations; i Staphylococcus carnosus+Pediococcus pentosaceus, ii Staphylococcus carnosus+ Lactobacillus sakei, and iii Staphylococcus carnosus+Pediococcus pentosaceus+Lactobacillus sakei. Analysis of microbiological, physico-chemical and lipase enzyme levels of samples were conducted until the 60th day. Interactions among the presence of lipolytic starter cultures, lipase enzyme levels and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were also evaluated both in ripening and drying periods. There were apparent differences on microbiological and chemical properties between samples prepared with starters and control. It has been concluded that the use of lipolytic starter cultures in suitable combination would have positive effect on the acceleration of ripening and improvement of the quality of dry fermented sausages.

  16. Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide (OATP)2B1 Contributes to Gastrointestinal Toxicity of Anticancer Drug SN-38, Active Metabolite of Irinotecan Hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Daichi; Saito, Yoshimasa; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal toxicity, such as late-onset diarrhea, is a significant concern in irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11)-containing regimens. Prophylaxis of late-onset diarrhea has been reported with use of Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine containing baicalin and with the antibiotic cefixime, and this has been explained in terms of inhibition of bacterial deconjugation of SN-38-glucuronide since unconjugated SN-38 (active metabolite of CPT-11) is responsible for the gastrointestinal toxicity. It is also prerequisite for SN-38 to be accumulated in intestinal tissues to exert toxicity. Based on the fact that liver-specific organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1, a member of the same family as OATP2B1, is known to be involved in hepatic transport of SN-38, we hypothesized that intestinal transporter OATP2B1 contributes to the accumulation of SN-38 in gastrointestinal tissues, and its inhibition would help prevent associated toxicity. We found that uptake of SN-38 by OATP2B1-expressing Xenopus oocytes was significantly higher than that by control oocytes. OATP2B1-mediated uptake of SN-38 was saturable, pH dependent, and decreased in the presence of baicalin, cefixime, or fruit juices such as apple juice. In vivo gastrointestinal toxicity of SN-38 in mice caused by oral administration for consecutive 5 days was prevented by coingestion of apple juice. Thus, OATP2B1 contributes to the uptake of SN-38 by intestinal tissues, triggering gastrointestinal toxicity. So, in addition to the reported inhibition of bacterial β-glucuronidase by cefixime or baicalin, inhibition of OATP2B1 may also contribute to prevention of gastrointestinal toxicity. Apple juice may be helpful for prophylaxis of late-onset diarrhea observed in CPT-11 therapy without disturbance of the intestinal microflora.

  17. Antifungal Hydroxy Fatty Acids Produced during Sourdough Fermentation: Microbial and Enzymatic Pathways, and Antifungal Activity in Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Brenna A.; Zannini, Emanuele; Curtis, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to hydroxy fatty acids; however, this conversion has not been demonstrated in food fermentations and it remains unknown whether hydroxy fatty acids produced by lactobacilli have antifungal activity. This study aimed to determine whether lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to metabolites with antifungal activity and to assess whether this conversion can be employed to delay fungal growth on bread. Aqueous and organic extracts from seven strains of lactobacilli grown in modified De Man Rogosa Sharpe medium or sourdough were assayed for antifungal activity. Lactobacillus hammesii exhibited increased antifungal activity upon the addition of linoleic acid as a substrate. Bioassay-guided fractionation attributed the antifungal activity of L. hammesii to a monohydroxy C18:1 fatty acid. Comparison of its antifungal activity to those of other hydroxy fatty acids revealed that the monohydroxy fraction from L. hammesii and coriolic (13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic) acid were the most active, with MICs of 0.1 to 0.7 g liter−1. Ricinoleic (12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic) acid was active at a MIC of 2.4 g liter−1. L. hammesii accumulated the monohydroxy C18:1 fatty acid in sourdough to a concentration of 0.73 ± 0.03 g liter−1 (mean ± standard deviation). Generation of hydroxy fatty acids in sourdough also occurred through enzymatic oxidation of linoleic acid to coriolic acid. The use of 20% sourdough fermented with L. hammesii or the use of 0.15% coriolic acid in bread making increased the mold-free shelf life by 2 to 3 days or from 2 to more than 6 days, respectively. In conclusion, L. hammesii converts linoleic acid in sourdough and the resulting monohydroxy octadecenoic acid exerts antifungal activity in bread. PMID:23315734

  18. Antifungal hydroxy fatty acids produced during sourdough fermentation: microbial and enzymatic pathways, and antifungal activity in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Brenna A; Zannini, Emanuele; Curtis, Jonathan M; Gänzle, Michael G

    2013-03-01

    Lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to hydroxy fatty acids; however, this conversion has not been demonstrated in food fermentations and it remains unknown whether hydroxy fatty acids produced by lactobacilli have antifungal activity. This study aimed to determine whether lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to metabolites with antifungal activity and to assess whether this conversion can be employed to delay fungal growth on bread. Aqueous and organic extracts from seven strains of lactobacilli grown in modified De Man Rogosa Sharpe medium or sourdough were assayed for antifungal activity. Lactobacillus hammesii exhibited increased antifungal activity upon the addition of linoleic acid as a substrate. Bioassay-guided fractionation attributed the antifungal activity of L. hammesii to a monohydroxy C(18:1) fatty acid. Comparison of its antifungal activity to those of other hydroxy fatty acids revealed that the monohydroxy fraction from L. hammesii and coriolic (13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic) acid were the most active, with MICs of 0.1 to 0.7 g liter(-1). Ricinoleic (12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic) acid was active at a MIC of 2.4 g liter(-1). L. hammesii accumulated the monohydroxy C(18:1) fatty acid in sourdough to a concentration of 0.73 ± 0.03 g liter(-1) (mean ± standard deviation). Generation of hydroxy fatty acids in sourdough also occurred through enzymatic oxidation of linoleic acid to coriolic acid. The use of 20% sourdough fermented with L. hammesii or the use of 0.15% coriolic acid in bread making increased the mold-free shelf life by 2 to 3 days or from 2 to more than 6 days, respectively. In conclusion, L. hammesii converts linoleic acid in sourdough and the resulting monohydroxy octadecenoic acid exerts antifungal activity in bread.

  19. [Gastrointestinal bezoars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza González, Ricardo

    2016-08-01

    Gastrointestinal bezoars are a concretion of indigested material that can be found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and some animals. This material forms an intraluminal mass, more commonly located in the stomach. During a large period of history animal bezoars were considered antidotes to poisons and diseases. We report a historical overview since bezoars stones were thought to have medicinal properties. This magic conception was introduced in South America by Spanish conquerors. In Chile, bezoars are commonly found in a camelid named guanaco (Lama guanicoe). People at Central Chile and the Patagonia believed that bezoar stones had magical properties and they were traded at very high prices. In Santiago, during the eighteenth century the Jesuit apothecary sold preparations of bezoar stones. The human bezoars may be formed by non-digestible material like cellulose (phytobezoar), hair (trichobezoar), conglomerations of medications or his vehicles (pharmacobezoar or medication bezoar), milk and mucus component (lactobezoar) or other varieties of substances. This condition may be asymptomatic or can produce abdominal pain, ulceration, gastrointestinal bleeding, gastric outlet obstruction, perforation and mechanical intestinal obstruction. We report their classification, diagnostic modalities and treatment.

  20. Changes of Constituents and Activity to Apoptosis and Cell Cycle During Fermentation of Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tea is believed to be beneficial for health, and the effects of the fermentation process on its contributions to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of gastric cancer cells have not been completely investigated. In this study, the chemical components in green tea, black tea and pu-erh tea aqueous extracts were analyzed and compared. The polysaccharide and caffeine levels were substantially higher in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, while the polyphenol level was higher in the unfermented green tea. Hence, a treatment of tea aqueous extract and the components, which are emerging as promising anticancer agents, were pursued to determine whether this treatment could lead to enhance apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. In the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901, the cell viability and flow cytometry analysis for apoptotic cells indicated effects in a dose-dependent inhibition manner for the three tea treatment groups. The apoptosis rates were found to be elevated after 48 h of treatment with 31.2, 125, and 500 μg/mL of green tea extract, the higher catechins content may be involved in the mechanism. Cell cycle was arrested in S phase in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, and the populations were significantly decreased in G2/M phases, possibly due to the oxidation of tea polyphenols, which causes an increase of theabrownins. CCC-HEL-1 normal cells were not sensitive to tea extract. These findings suggest that the fermentation process causes changes of the compounds which might be involved in the changes of cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest.

  1. Influence of fermentation conditions on polysaccharide production and the activities of enzymes involved in the polysaccharide synthesis of Cordyceps militaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Liu, Xiao-Cui; Dong, Feng-Ying; Guo, Ming-Zhu; Wang, Xiao-Ting; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2016-05-01

    The influence of different fermentation conditions on intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) production and activities of the phosphoglucomutase (PGM), UDPG-pyrophosphorylase (UGP), phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), UDPG-dehydrogenase (UGD), and glucokinase (GK) implicated in metabolite synthesis in Cordyceps militaris was evaluated. The highest IPS production (327.57 ± 6.27 mg/100 mL) was obtained when the strain was grown in the optimal medium containing glucose (40 g · L(-1)), beef extract (10 g · L(-1)), and CaCO3 (0.5 g · L(-1)), and the initial pH and temperature were 7 and 25 °C, respectively. The activities of PGM, UGP, and PGI were proved to be influenced by the fermentation conditions. A strong correlation between the activities of these enzymes and the production of IPS was found. The transcription level of the pgm gene (encoding PGM) was 1.049 times and 1.467 times compared to the ugp gene and pgi gene (encoding UGP and PGI), respectively, in the optimal culture medium. This result indicated that PGM might be the highly key enzyme to regulate the biosynthesis of IPS of C. militaris in a liquid-submerged culture. Our study might be helpful for further research on the pathway of polysaccharide biosynthesis aimed to improve the IPS production of C. militaris.

  2. Production of bioactive polysaccharides by Inonotus obliquus under submerged fermentation supplemented with lignocellulosic biomass and their antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangqun; Hu, Yan; Quan, Lili

    2014-12-01

    The effect of lignocellulose degradation in wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse on the accumulation and antioxidant activity of extra- (EPS) and intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) of Inonotus obliquus under submerged fermentation were first evaluated. The wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse increased the EPS accumulation by 91.4, 78.6, and 74.3 % compared with control, respectively. The EPS and IPS extracts from the three lignocellulose media had significantly higher hydroxyl radical- and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity than those from the control medium. Of the three materials, wheat straw was the most effective lignocellulose in enhancing the mycelia growth, accumulation and antioxidant activity of I. obliquus polysaccharides (PS). The carbohydrate and protein content, as well as the monosaccharide compositions of the EPS and IPS extracts, were correlated with sugar compositions and dynamic contents during fermentation of individual lignocellulosic materials. The enhanced accumulation of bioactive PS of cultured I. obliquus supplemented with rice straw, wheat straw, and bagasse was evident.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF KAPOK (Ceiba pentandra SEED OIL SUPPLEMENTATION ON CELLULOLYTIC ENZYME AND RUMEN MICROBIAL FERMENTATION ACTIVITY OF LOCAL SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Widiyanto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the influence of kapok seed oil (KSO supplementation oncellulolytic enzyme and microbial fermentation activity. Sheep rumen fluid was used as enzyme sourceand inoculant, whereas carboxymethylcellulose (CMC was used as the substrate. There were 4 levels ofKSO supplementation as treatment, i.e. : 0% (T0, 5% (T1, 10% (T2, and 15% (T3. Two measuredvariables were reduced sugar production rate and gas fermentation production. The data were analyzedby analysis of variance in completely randomized design. The result showed that reduced sugarproduction rate in T0, T1, T2 and T3 treatment groups were 2.58; 2.93; 2.08 and 1.58 mg/gCMC/minute, respectively, whereas gas production were : 15.97; 13.26; 10.54 and 7.57 mg/g CMC,respectively. Kapok seed oil supplementation up to 5% DM of cellulose substrate (CMC did notinfluence the ruminal cellulolytic enzyme activity. The KSO supplementation level 10% - 15%decreased the ruminal cellulolytic enzyme activity.

  4. Aqueous Extracts from Tunisian Diplotaxis: Phenol Content, Antioxidant and Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Activities, and Impact of Exposure to Simulated Gastrointestinal Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Bahloul

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants have been considered essential for preventing cell damage by scavenging deleterious free radicals. The consumption of antioxidant-rich plants is associated with a reduced risk of some chronic diseases. This study evaluates the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities of aqueous extracts obtained from different parts of Diplotaxis simplex and Diplotaxis harra from Tunisia. The study also aimed to investigate the action of simulated gastrointestinal juice on antioxidant activities of both extracts. The total phenolic, flavone and flavonol, and flavanone and dihydroflavonol contents were determined by Folin–Ciocalteau, aluminum chloride and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine colorimetric methods, respectively. The metal ion chelating activity, acetylcholinesterase inhibition capacity, and free radical scavenging potential of the extracts towards ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide and nitric oxide were also evaluated. The action of simulated gastro-intestinal fluids on the flavone and flavonol content and total antioxidant activity of the flower extracts was surveyed. Extracts from the seeds and flowers of D. simplex and D. harra displayed the highest amounts of phenols (2691.7 and 2694.5 mg Caffeic Acid Equivalent (CAE/100 mg; 3433.4 and 2647.2 mg CAE/100 mg, respectively and flavonols/flavones (2144.4 and 2061.1 mg Rutin Equivalent (RE/100 g; 1922.6 and 1461.1 mg RE/100 g, respectively. The flower and seed extracts exhibited the highest rates of antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities. A decrease in the flavonoid content and antioxidant activity was observed after extract exposure to simulated saliva. Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities were noted to depend on plant species and plant parts. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion is useful in assessing the bio-accessibility of compounds with

  5. The extent of fermentative transformation of phenolic compounds in the bioanode controls exoelectrogenic activity in a microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaofei; Collins, Maya A; Borole, Abhijeet P; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2017-02-01

    Phenolic compounds in hydrolysate/pyrolysate and wastewater streams produced during the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production present a significant challenge in downstream processes. Bioelectrochemical systems are increasingly recognized as an alternative technology to handle biomass-derived streams and to promote water reuse in biofuel production. Thus, a thorough understanding of the fate of phenolic compounds in bioanodes is urgently needed. The present study investigated the biotransformation of three structurally similar phenolic compounds (syringic acid, SA; vanillic acid, VA; 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, HBA), and their individual contribution to exoelectrogenesis in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) bioanode. Fermentation of SA resulted in the highest exoelectrogenic activity among the three compounds tested, with 50% of the electron equivalents converted to current, compared to 12 and 9% for VA and HBA, respectively. The biotransformation of SA, VA and HBA was initiated by demethylation and decarboxylation reactions common to all three compounds, resulting in their corresponding hydroxylated analogs. SA was transformed to pyrogallol (1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene), whose aromatic ring was then cleaved via a phloroglucinol pathway, resulting in acetate production, which was then used in exoelectrogenesis. In contrast, more than 80% of VA and HBA was converted to catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) and phenol (hydroxybenzene) as their respective dead-end products. The persistence of catechol and phenol is explained by the fact that the phloroglucinol pathway does not apply to di- or mono-hydroxylated benzenes. Previously reported, alternative ring-cleaving pathways were either absent in the bioanode microbial community or unfavorable due to high energy-demand reactions. With the exception of acetate oxidation, all biotransformation steps in the bioanode occurred via fermentation, independently of exoelectrogenesis. Therefore, the observed

  6. Stem cell factor-mediated wild-type KIT receptor activation is critical for gastrointestinal stromal tumor cell growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Guang Bai; Xiao-Wei Hou; Feng Wang; Cen Qiu; Yan Zhu; Ling Huang; Jing Zhao

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To clarify the biological role of stem cell factor (SCF)-mediated wild-type KIT receptor activation in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) growth.METHODS:The co-expression of wild-type KIT receptor and SCF was evaluated in 51 GIST samples using mutation analysis and immunohistochemistry,and the results were correlated with clinicopathological parameters,including the mitotic count,proliferative index (Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining),mitotic index (phospho-histone H3 immunohistochemical staining)and apoptotic index (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling).Using primary cultured GIST cells,the effect of SCF-mediated wild-type KIT receptor activation was determined by western blotting,methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT),and apoptosis assays.RESULTS:We found that wild-type KIT receptor and SCF protein were expressed in 100% and 76.5% of the 51 GIST samples,respectively,and the co-expression of wild-type KIT receptor and SCF was associated with known indicators of poor prognosis,including larger tumor size (P =0.0118),higher mitotic count (P =0.0058),higher proliferative index (P =0.0012),higher mitotic index (P =0.0282),lower apoptosis index (P =0.0484),and increased National Institutes of Health risk level (P =0.0012).We also found that the introduction of exogenous SCF potently increased KIT kinase activity,stimulated cell proliferation (P < 0.01) and inhibited apoptosis (P < 0.01) induced by serum starvation,while a KIT immunoblocking antibody suppressed proliferation (P =0.01) and promoted apoptosis (P < 0.01)in cultured GIST cells.CONCLUSION:SCF-mediated wild-type KIT receptor activation plays an important role in GIST cell growth.The inhibition of SCF-mediated wild-type KIT receptor activation may prove to be particularly important for GIST therapy.

  7. The Clinical Outcomes of Transcatheter Microcoil Embolization in Patients with Active Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding in the Small Bowel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Hyo Sung; Han, Young Min; Lee, Soo Teik [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    To assess the clinical outcomes of the transcatheter microcoil embolization in patients with active lower gastrointestinal (LGI) bleeding in the small bowel, as well as to compare the mortality rates between the two groups based on the visualization or non-visualization of the bleeding focus determined by an angiography. We retrospectively evaluated all of the consecutive patients who underwent an angiography for treatment of acute LGI bleeding between January 2003 and October 2007. In total, the study included 36 patients who underwent a colonoscopy and were diagnosed to have an active bleeding in the LGI tracts. Based on the visualization or non-visualization of the bleeding focus, determined by an angiography, the patients were classified into two groups. The clinical outcomes included technical success, clinical success (no rebleeding within 30 days), delayed rebleeding (> 30 days), as well as the major and minor complication rates. Of the 36 patients, 17 had angiography-proven bleeding that was distal to the marginal artery. The remaining 19 patients did not have a bleeding focus based on the angiography results. The technical and clinical success rates of performing transcatheter microcoil embolizations in patients with active bleeding were 100% and 88%, respectively (15 of 17). One patient died from continued LGI bleeding and one patient received surgery to treat the continued bleeding. There was no note made on the delayed bleeding or on the major or minor complications. Of the 19 patients without active bleeding, 16 (84%) did not have recurrent bleeding. One patient died due to continuous bleeding and multi-organ failure. The superselective microcoil embolization can help successfully treat patients with active LGI bleeding in the small bowel, identified by the results of an angiography. The mortality rate is not significantly different between the patients of the visualization and non-visualization groups on angiography.

  8. Use of Probiotics in Fermented Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Palamutoğlu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a negative judgements among consumers about meat and meat products, in human nutrition meat and meat products are important for nutrient components which they contain essential nutrients. Intensively produced fermented meat product such as sucuk in our country and lactic acid bacteria (LAB are used for production of various fermented sausages all over the world. LAB primarily used in order to increase the food safety of such products. LAB with probiotic properties have effect on product taste, flavour and aroma as well as the positive effects on functional and physiological properties. Positive effects of probiotics in human health and product properties in the absence of any adverse effects various cultures have been used for the production of probiotic fermented meat products. In the production of such products prepared dough which have meat and fat in the matrix form a suitable vehicle for probiotic cells. During production of products formation of lactic acid reduced the pH, during ripening conditions water activity reduced so these factors adversely affect viability of probiotic cells. For this reason protecting probiotic cultures from negative effects during exposure in the product and vitality of cells in human gastro-intestinal system to continue operating for consumption to be provided during the order process the cells are coated with microencapsuation. The use of probiotic microorganisms isolated from various foods is being investigated for the production of sausages. Studies on the effects of probiotics on human health of meat products are also needed. In this study the probiotic microorganisms used in the production of probiotic fermented sausages were investigated.

  9. Solid-substrate fermentation of wheat grains by mycelia of indigenous species of the genus Ganoderma (higher Basidiomycetes) to enhance the antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Sarasvathy; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Tan, Yee Shin

    2014-01-01

    Species of the genus Ganoderma are a cosmopolitan wood decaying white rot fungi, which has been used by the Asians for therapeutic purposes for centuries. In the present study, solid-substrate fermentation (SSF) of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) was carried out with indigenous Ganoderma australe (KUM60813) and G. neo-japonicum (KUM61076) selected based on ethnomycological knowledge. G. lucidum (VITA GL) (a commercial strain) was also included in the study. Antioxidant activities of the crude ethanol and aqueous extracts of the fermented and unfermented wheat grains were investigated by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability, and lipid peroxidation assay. Among the six mycelia extracts tested, the ethanol extract from wheat fermented with KUM61076 mycelia showed the most potent antioxidant activities, whereas the ethanol extract of wheat grains fermented with KUM60813 mycelia has a good potential in protecting frying oils against oxidation. Total phenolic content (TPC) in the ethanol extracts were higher than that in the aqueous extract. The wheat grains fermented with G. australe (KUM60813) and G. neo-japonicum KUM61076 have greater antioxidant potential compared to the commercially available G. lucidum (VITA GL). The antioxidant activities of the mycelia extracts had a positive correlation with their phenolic contents. Thus phenolic compounds may play a vital role in the antioxidant activities of the selected Ganoderma spp.

  10. Gastrointestinal motility and functional gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Motoyasu; Hosaka, Hiroko; Kawada, Akiyo; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Zai, Hiroaki; Kawamura, Osamu; Yamada, Masanobu

    2014-01-01

    Digestive tract motility patterns are closely related to the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGID), and these patterns differ markedly between the interdigestive period and the postprandial period. The characteristic motility pattern in the interdigestive period is so-called interdigestive migrating contraction (IMC). IMCs have a housekeeping role in the intestinal tract, and could also be related to FGID. IMCs arising from the stomach are called gastrointestinal IMCs (GI-IMC), while IMCs arising from the duodenum without associated gastric contractions are called intestinal IMCs (I-IMC). It is thought that I-IMCs are abnormal in FGID. Transport of food residue to the duodenum via gastric emptying is one of the most important postprandial functions of the stomach. In patients with functional dyspepsia (FD), abnormal gastric emptying is a possible mechanism of gastric dysfunction. Accordingly, delayed gastric emptying has attracted attention, with prokinetic agents and herbal medicines often being administered in Japan to accelerate gastric emptying in patients who have anorexia associated with dyspepsia. Recently, we found that addition of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) to a high-calorie liquid diet rich in casein promoted gastric emptying in healthy men. Therefore, another potential method of improving delayed gastric emptying could be activation of chemosensors that stimulate the autonomic nervous system of the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting a role for MSG in the management of delayed gastric emptying in patients with FD.

  11. Proteolytic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains associated with Italian dry-fermented sausages in a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-López, Clemencia; Paparella, Antonello; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2011-10-17

    Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from Italian salami were screened for proteolytic activity in a model system containing sarcoplasmic (SMS) or myofibrillar (MMS) proteins, at 20°C for 14days, to evaluate the possible influence on the proteolysis of fermented sausages. SDS-PAGE revealed that 14 of the most osmotolerant strains were responsible for the extensive hydrolysis of the main myofibrillar proteins, while only one strain was able to hydrolyze sarcoplasmic proteins. Free amino acids (FAA) accumulated during proteolysis were strain-dependent with different patterns from sarcoplasmic or myofibrillar protein fraction. In general, proteolysis lead Cys, Glu, Lys and Val as the most abundant FAA in the inoculated MMS samples. Volatile compound analysis, determined by SPME-GC-MS, evidenced 3-methyl butanol in MMS, and 2-methyl propanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol in SMS as major compounds. Our findings highlight that S. cerevisiae could influence the composition in amino acids and volatile compounds in fermented sausages, with a strain-dependent activity.

  12. Food-grade argan oil supplementation in molasses enhances fermentative performance and antioxidant defenses of active dry wine yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Torrellas, Max; Rábena, María Teresa; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Aranda, Agustín; Matallana, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to desiccation is important for the use of this microorganism in the wine industry, since active dry yeast (ADY) is routinely used as starter for must fermentations. Both biomass propagation and dehydration cause cellular oxidative stress, therefore negatively affecting yeast performance. Protective treatments against oxidative damage, such as natural antioxidants, may have important biotechnological implications. In this study we analysed the antioxidant capacity of pure chemical compounds (quercetin, ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, oleic acid, and glutathione) added to molasses during biomass propagation, and we determine several oxidative damage/response parameters (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, protective metabolites and enzymatic activities) to assess their molecular effects. Supplementation with ascorbic, caffeic or oleic acids diminished the oxidative damage associated to ADY production. Based on these results, we tested supplementation of molasses with argan oil, a natural food-grade ingredient rich in these three antioxidants, and we showed that it improved both biomass yield and fermentative performance of ADY. Therefore, we propose the use of natural, food-grade antioxidant ingredients, such as argan oil, in industrial processes involving high cellular oxidative stress, such as the biotechnological production of the dry starter.

  13. Antibacterial, Antifungal and Anticancer Activity of Five Strains of Soil Microorganisms Isolated From Tangkuban Perahu Mountain by Fermentation

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    Desak Gede Sri Andayani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms were isolated from soil taken from Tangkuban Perahu mountain. Five strains were investigated in this study, designated TP1, TP2, TP3, TP4, and TP5, respectively. Morphological, biochemical and molecular identifications were conducted for all five strains. These isolates were shown to be closely related to Nocardia sp. YIM 65630 (90%, Streptomyces galbus (99%, Aspergillus unguis (86%, Paecilomyces marquandii (100% and Nocardia niigatensis (95%, respectively. Production of antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer metabolites was done by fermentation. Screening for bioactivity of five isolates was done by testing the fermentation broth against resistant and pathogenic bacteria, fungi and T47D breast cancer cell line. TP2 strain showed the best bioactivity; the metabolite was purified by extraction with ethyl acetate. Antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer activities from the ethyl acetate extract of TP2 strain were tested by agar diffusion, microdilution and MTT. The extract was shown to be active against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus, methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus, vancomycin resistant Enterococcus, Escherichia coli, Microsforum gypseum with the minimum inhibitory concentration (μg/mL and diameter of inhibition (mm: 150, 35; 150, 30; 300, 35; 300, 35; 300, 29; 4.7, 36, respectively. The IC50 value of the T47D cell line was 457 μg/mL.

  14. Optimization of processing conditions to improve antioxidant activities of apple juice and whey based novel beverage fermented by kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabokbar, Nayereh; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Moosavi-Nasab, Marzieh

    2015-06-01

    A central composite design (CCD) was used to evaluate the effects of fermentation temperature (20-30 ºC) and kefir grains amount (2-8%w/v) on total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of apple juice and whey based novel beverage fermented by kefir grains. The response surface methodology (RSM) showed that the significant second-order polynomial regression equation with high R(2) (>0.86) was successfully fitted for all response as function of independent variable. The overall optimum region was found to be at the combined level of 7.56%w/v kefir grains and temperature of 24.82 ºC with the highest value for total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities. At this optimum point TPC, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, metal chelating effect, reducing power, inhibition of linoleic acid autoxidation and inhibition of ascorbate autoxidation were 165.02 mgGA/l, 0.38 ml/1 ml, 0.757 (absorbance at 700 nm), 46.12 %, 65.33 % and 21 %, respectively. No significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between actual values and predicated values.

  15. Hypocholesterolemic Activity of Monascus Fermented Product in the Absence of Monacolins with Partial Purification for Functional Food Applications

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    Zahra Ajdari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most common chronic diseases in human. Along with chemical therapy traditional medication is used as hypocholesterolemic remedy, however, with unfavorable side effects. Recently, Monascus fermented product (MFP has become a popular hypocholesterolemic natural supplement. In the present study, the hypocholesterolemic activity of Monascus purpureus FTC5391 fermented product ethanolic extract (MFPe was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Results showed that MFPe not only reduced the serum total cholesterol (TC, LDL-C, TG concentration, and TC/HDL-C ratio but also increased the HDL-C. Further, solid phase extraction (SPE was carried out to obtain the hypocholesterolemic bioactive fraction. The high polar fraction of SPE increased the HDL-C (42% and decreased the TC (53.3%, LDL-C (47%, and TG (50.7% levels as well as TC/HDL-C ratio (69.1% in serum. The GC-MS results of the active fraction revealed two main compounds, isosorbide and erythritol, which act as coronary vasodilator compounds.

  16. Hypocholesterolemic activity of monascus fermented product in the absence of monacolins with partial purification for functional food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdari, Zahra; Abd Ghani, Maaruf; Khan Ayob, Mohd; Bayat, Saadi; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Abbasiliasi, Sahar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Ajdari, Daniel; Ariff, Arbakariya B

    2014-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most common chronic diseases in human. Along with chemical therapy traditional medication is used as hypocholesterolemic remedy, however, with unfavorable side effects. Recently, Monascus fermented product (MFP) has become a popular hypocholesterolemic natural supplement. In the present study, the hypocholesterolemic activity of Monascus purpureus FTC5391 fermented product ethanolic extract (MFPe) was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Results showed that MFPe not only reduced the serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, TG concentration, and TC/HDL-C ratio but also increased the HDL-C. Further, solid phase extraction (SPE) was carried out to obtain the hypocholesterolemic bioactive fraction. The high polar fraction of SPE increased the HDL-C (42%) and decreased the TC (53.3%), LDL-C (47%), and TG (50.7%) levels as well as TC/HDL-C ratio (69.1%) in serum. The GC-MS results of the active fraction revealed two main compounds, isosorbide and erythritol, which act as coronary vasodilator compounds.

  17. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of condensed tannins on gastrointestinal nematode infestations in sheep (Ovis aries

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    Eidi Yoshihara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Infestations of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes in sheep result in significant costs to farmers. These infestations are controlled using synthetic anthelmintic treatments, which can result in the development of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes. The use of plants rich in condensed tannins (CTs is a promising alternative for controlling infestations of harmful parasites in sheep, and could allow reduction of the chemical products used. This study investigated the in vitro effect of CTs from Acacia mearnsii extract (AE on egg hatching and motility of third-stage larvae. Egg-hatching rate was measured after incubation with extracts for 48 h at 27 °C. The egg hatch test was performed with dilutions of 0.09, 0.19, 0.39, 0.78, 1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg mL-1. Distilled water was used as the negative control. The corresponding egg hatching inhibition percentages were 22.3, 32.3, 39.2, 49.1, 56.7, 59.0, 62.3, 77.3, 92.7, 98.3, and 100%. The concentration required to inhibit egg hatching in 50% of eggs (LC50 was 2.85 mg mL-1. The inhibition achieved with the negative control was 7.06%. A larval migration inhibition test was carried out after incubation with the extracts for 48 h at 27 oC, with AE and distilled water used in dilutions of 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg mL-1. The corresponding percentages of migration inhibition were 16.5, 37.0, 56.3, 79.4, 91.8, and 97.1%. The concentration required to inhibit migration of 50% of larvae (LC50 was 12.45 mg mL-1. The inhibition achieved with the negative control was 8.53%. The in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of CTs from AE indicate the anthelmintic effect of AE, suggesting the potential of CT extracts to be used as alternatives for controlling gastrointestinal nematode infestations in small ruminants.

  18. Enhancement of Antioxidative and Intestinal Anti-inflammatory Activities of Glycated Milk Casein after Fermentation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus 4B15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Nam Su; Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun

    2017-06-14

    In this study, we investigated the glycoproteomics of glycated milk casein (GMC) and GMC fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus 4B15 (FGMC) and determined their biological implications. There was a significant increase in the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of GMC with galactose, which were higher than those of GMC with glucose (GMC-glc). Furthermore, the fermentation of GMC by L. rhamnosus 4B15 synergistically enhanced the above activities compared to those of unfermented GMC. Especially, fermented GMC-glc (FGMC-glc) possessed remarkably improved reducing power and radical scavenging activities. Moreover, FGMC-glc ameliorated the inflammatory response and tight junction-related intestinal epithelial dysfunction. Additionally, hexose-derived glycation and modification sites in protein sequences of GMC were identified. In particular, glycosylation and sulfation of serine and threonine residues were observed, and distinct modification sites were detected after fermentation. Therefore, these results indicated that glycation-induced modification of casein and fermentation correlated strongly with the enhanced functional properties.

  19. Bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds in frozen pulps of Brazilian exotic fruits exposed to simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Rodrigo Luiz Targino; Dantas, Aline Macedo; Marques, Débora de Araújo; Batista, Jéssica Dayanne Ferreira; Meireles, Bruno Raniere Lins de Albuquerque; de Magalhães Cordeiro, Ângela Maria Tribuzy; Magnani, Marciane; Borges, Graciele da Silva Campelo

    2017-10-01

    This study characterized the phenolic profile in siriguela, umbu-cajá and mangaba, as well in their frozen pulps (FPs). The bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of the FP dialysates were determined following exposure to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The profile of phenolic compounds identified in fruit and FPs were relatively similar. After pulp processing, increases of 33.60% and 68.72% in free phenolics were observed for mangaba and umbu-cajá, respectively, whereas in siriguela, the free phenolic was reduced by 56.55%. Generally, phenolic levels decreased after exposure to simulated gastric conditions in all FPs. The bioaccessibility of phenolics varied among the evaluated FPs. The highest bioaccessibility was observed for gallic acid in the umbu-cajá FP (73.92%) and the lowest for gentisic acid in the mangaba FP (8.71%). Siriguela and umbu-cajá FP dialysates presented the highest capacity for the capture of the radical 2,2'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate, whereas the mangaba FP dialysate demonstrated the highest iron reducing capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of a novel dehydroergosterol enhancing microglial anti-inflammatory activity in a dairy product fermented with Penicillium candidum.

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    Yasuhisa Ano

    Full Text Available Despite the ever-increasing number of dementia patients worldwide, fundamental therapeutic approaches to treat this disease remain to be established. Preventive approaches such as diet, exercise and learning attract attention. Several epidemiological studies suggest that ingestion of fermented dairy products prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. These reports indicate that specific ingredients in the fermented dairy products elicit an anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidative activity that facilitates neuroprotection. The responsible components remain to be investigated. A number of studies have shown that inflammation caused by microglia is closely related to exaggeration of the pathology and cognitive decline seen in the elderly. Many researchers have proposed that controlling microglial activities could be effective in preventing and possibly curing dementia. In the present study, to elucidate specific compounds that regulate microglial activity from dairy products, repeated purification by HPLC, combined with evaluation using primary microglia, facilitated the identification of dehydroergosterol (DHE as a novel component of the extract that enhances microglial anti-inflammatory activity. DHE contains three conjugated double bonds in a steroid ring system and is an analogue of ergosterol. Despite their related chemical structures, the anti-inflammatory activity of DHE is markedly stronger than that of ergosterol. P. candidum for camembert cheese produces DHE, but P. Roqueforti for blue cheese and Aspergillus do not. DHE also induces CD11b-positive microglia cells into CD206-positive M2 type microglia. Neurotoxicity and neuronal cell death induced by excessively activated microglia is suppressed by treatment with DHE. Thus, this is the first report to demonstrate that DHE, identified as a responsible compound in dairy products, can induce microglia into a preferable phenotype for our brain environment and can be safely introduced into the body

  1. gastrointestinal tract

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    Rolandas Vaicekauskas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Accurate diagnosis of subepithelial lesions (SELs in the gastrointestinal tract depends on a variety of methods: endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound and different types of biopsy. Making an error-free diagnosis is vital for the subsequent application of an appropriate treatment. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of deep biopsy via the endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD technique for SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Material and methods: It was a case series study. Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was completed in 38 patients between November 2012 and October 2014. Thirty-eight SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract of varying size (very small ≤ 1 cm, small 1–2 cm and large ≥ 2 cm by means of the ESD technique after an incision with an electrosurgical knife of the overlying layers and revealing a small part of the lesion were biopsied under direct endoscopic view. Results: Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was diagnostic in 28 of 38 patients (73.3%; 95% CI: 59.7–89.7%. The diagnostic yield for SELs with a clear endophytic shape increased to 91.3%. An evident endophytic appearance of a subepithelial lesion, the mean number of biopsied samples (6.65 ±1.36 and the total size in length of all samples per case (19.88 ±8.07 mm were the main criteria influencing the positiveness of deep biopsy in the diagnostic group compared to the nondiagnostic one (p = 0.001; p = 0.025; p = 0.008. Conclusions : Deep biopsy via the ESD technique is an effective and safe method for the diagnosis of SELs especially with a clear endophytic appearance in a large number of biopsied samples.

  2. Prebiotics, Fermentable Dietary Fiber, and Health Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcour, Jan A; Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term "dietary fiber" groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the "fiber gap"-that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer.

  3. Effects of Feed Fermentation on Enzyme Activities in Anaerobic Composting Fermentation of Pig Feces%饲料发酵对猪粪厌氧堆肥发酵过程中酶活的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛清凯; 夏冬; 孟宪利; 韩红; 赵红波; 李祥明

    2016-01-01

    为促进种养结合,研究饲料发酵对猪粪堆肥厌氧发酵的影响。试验分为三组,对照组为饲喂干粉料的母猪粪,试验Ⅰ组为干粉料母猪粪+混合菌(枯草芽孢杆菌和植物乳杆菌),试验Ⅱ组为饲喂混合菌厌氧发酵饲料的母猪粪。不同猪粪分别与小麦壳混匀后堆积厌氧发酵。结果表明:饲料发酵使饲料和新鲜猪粪中乳酸菌增加,大肠杆菌减少(P <0.01),纤维素酶活性增加(P <0.05);堆肥过程中,试验Ⅰ组和Ⅱ组纤维素酶、蛋白酶、脲酶的活性先降低然后逐渐升高,两组变化趋势相似(P <0.05)。饲料发酵影响堆肥中酶的活性,发酵饲料猪粪容易腐熟,枯草芽孢杆菌可能在生猪饲料发酵及堆肥发酵整个过程中发挥作用。%To promote the combination of cropping and livestock farming,the effects of feed fermentation on enzyme activities in pig feces during anaerobic composting fermentation were investigated.The test con-tained three groups,the control group was feces of sows fed with dry mash,the group Ⅰ was feces added mixed bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus plantarum),and the group Ⅱ was feces of sows fed with wet diet anaerobically fermented by mixed bacteria.The feces were respectively anaerobically fermented after mixed with wheat shells.The results showed that feed fermentation increased the lactic acid bacteria contents in feed and fresh feces,while the E.coli contents decreased (P <0.01),and the cellulase activity increased (P <0.05).The variation trends of cellulase,protease and urease in group Ⅰ and Ⅱ were similar during the composting process (P <0.05).The results indicated that feed fermentation affected the enzyme activities in composting,the feces of fermented feed was easy to compost and Bacillus subtilis might play a key role in the whole process of feed fermentation and composting fermentation.

  4. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

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    Jyoti Prakash Tamang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers.

  5. Loss of Pancreas upon Activated Wnt Signaling Is Concomitant with Emergence of Gastrointestinal Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Martin, Griselda; Puri, Sapna; Taketo, Makoto Mark; Rojas, Anabel; Hebrok, Matthias; Cano, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Organ formation is achieved through the complex interplay between signaling pathways and transcriptional cascades. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway plays multiple roles during embryonic development including patterning, proliferation and differentiation in distinct tissues. Previous studies have established the importance of this pathway at multiple stages of pancreas formation as well as in postnatal organ function and homeostasis. In mice, gain-of-function experiments have demonstrated that activation of the canonical Wnt pathway results in pancreatic hypoplasia, a phenomenon whose underlying mechanisms remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that ectopic activation of epithelial canonical Wnt signaling causes aberrant induction of gastric and intestinal markers both in the pancreatic epithelium and mesenchyme, leading to the development of gut-like features. Furthermore, we provide evidence that β -catenin-induced impairment of pancreas formation depends on Hedgehog signaling. Together, our data emphasize the developmental plasticity of pancreatic progenitors and further underscore the key role of precise regulation of signaling pathways to maintain appropriate organ boundaries. PMID:27736991

  6. Effect of per-fermentation conditions on quality and anti-α-glucosidase activity of fermented soya beans%前酵条件对豆豉品质和α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁娜; 胡会萍; 马艳莉; 屈欢; 李里特

    2011-01-01

    选用米曲霉、少孢根霉和雅致放射毛霉进行纯种前酵制作豆豉,分别选取36、48、60h和72h4个前酵时间的豆豉曲进行后酵,比较前酵时间不同的3种霉菌型豆豉的品质和α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制活性。结果表明,米曲霉型豆豉感官品质和理化特性最好,α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制活性最高;前酵72h的3种霉菌型豆豉α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制活性均高于其他前酵时间的豆豉。综合来看,前酵时间为60、72h的米曲霉型豆豉的品质和降血糖功能性最佳。%Aspergillus oryzae,Rhizopus Oligosporus and Actinomucor elegans were used respectively for fermented soya beans per-fermentation,mold culture of which by four different per-fermentation time were further fermented.The quality and anti-α-glucosidase activity of fermented soya beans by different moulds and per-fermentation time were compared.The results showed that sensory and phy-chemical quality and anti-α-glucosidase activity of fermented soya beans by Aspergillus oryzae was best,when they were per-fermented for 72 hours,fermented soya beans product of all the three moulds obtained the highest anti-α-glucosidase activity.Taken together,fermented soya beans by Aspergillus oryzae had the best quality and hypoglycemic activity,which was per-fermented for 60 hours a 72 hours.

  7. Nitrogen removal from wastewater and external waste activated sludge reutilization/reduction by simultaneous sludge fermentation, denitrification and anammox (SFDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Peng, Yongzhen; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Mengyue; Wang, Shuying

    2016-08-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneous nitrogen removal and external waste activated sludge (WAS) reutilization/reduction by using the synergy of sludge fermentation, denitrification and anammox processes in up-flow reactors (SFDA). Pre-treated domestic wastewater and synthetic wastewater (containing nitrite ∼20mg/L, ammonium ∼10mg/L in both) were fed to 1# and 2# SFDA, respectively. Long-term operation of 1# SFDA was investigated with achieving the peak ammonium removal rate of 0.021 and nitrite removal rate of 0.081kgN/(m(3)d) as nitrogen loading rate elevated from 0.075 to 0.106kgN/(m(3)d). Negative effect of dissolved oxygen on anammox or fermentation in the 2# SFDA was demonstrated negligible due to rapid depletion by microorganisms. Furthermore, a "net" sludge reduction of 38.8% was obtained due to sludge decay and organics consumption by denitrification. The SFDA process was expected to potentially be used for nitrogen removal and WAS reutilization/reduction in full-scale application.

  8. Optimization of the fermentation process of Cordyceps sobolifera Se-CEPS and its anti-tumor activity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengli; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Cordyceps sobolifera (C. sobolifera) isolated from cicadae was used as the starting fungus to produce selenium-enriched C. sobolifera extracellular polysaccharide (Se-CEPS). An orthogonal experimental design based on a single-factor experiment was used to optimize the C. sobolifera fermentation conditions, including the potato juice, peptone, and KH2PO4 concentrations. Ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) analyses of CEPS and Se-CEPS were conducted, as well as an in vivo anti-tumor analysis. Under optimal conditions (i.e., 40 potato juice, 0.4 KH2PO4, and 0.5 % peptone), the fermentation yield of Se-CEPS was 5.64 g/L. UV and IR spectra showed that Se-CEPS contained a characteristic absorption peak of a selenite Se = O double bond, demonstrating the successful preparation of Se-CEPS. Activity tests showed that Se-CEPS improved the immune organ index, serum cytokine content, and CD8(+) and CD4(+) T lymphocyte ratio in colon cancer CT26 tumor-bearing mice, thereby inhibiting tumor growth. When combined with 5-FU, Se-CEPS reduced the toxicity and enhanced the function of 5-FU. The result of these experiments indicated that orthogonal experimental design is a promising method for the optimization of Se-CEPS production, and the Se-CEPS from C. sobolifera can improve the anti-tumor capacity of mice.

  9. Culture-Independent Analyses Reveal Novel Anaerolineaceae as Abundant Primary Fermenters in Anaerobic Digesters Treating Waste Activated Sludge

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    Simon J. McIlroy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion for biogas production is reliant on the tightly coupled synergistic activities of complex microbial consortia. Members of the uncultured A6 phylotype, within the phylum Chloroflexi, are among the most abundant genus-level-taxa of mesophilic anaerobic digester systems treating primary and surplus sludge from wastewater treatment plants, yet are known only by their 16S rRNA gene sequence. This study applied metagenomics to obtain a complete circular genome (2.57 Mbp from a representative of the A6 taxon. Preliminary annotation of the genome indicates these organisms to be anaerobic chemoorganoheterotrophs with a fermentative metabolism. Given their observed abundance, they are likely important primary fermenters in digester systems. Application of fluorescence in situ hybridisation probes designed in this study revealed their morphology to be short filaments present within the flocs. The A6 were sometimes co-located with the filamentous Archaea Methanosaeta spp. suggesting potential undetermined synergistic relationships. Based on its genome sequence and morphology we propose the species name Brevefilum fermentans gen. nov. sp. nov.

  10. Antihypertriglyceridemia and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Monascus-Fermented Dioscorea in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Yeu-Ching Shi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The rice fermented by Monascus, called red mold rice (RMR, and has a long tradition in East Asia as a dietary staple. Monascus-fermented dioscorea called red mold dioscorea (RMD contains various metabolites to perform the ability of reducing oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory response. We used Wistar rats and induced diabetes by injecting streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg i.p.. RMD was administered daily starting six weeks after disease onset. Throughout the experimental period, significantly (<.05 lowered plasma glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, free fatty acid and low density lipoprotein levels were observed in the RMD-treated groups. The RMD-treated diabetic rats showed higher activities of glutathione disulfide reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase and superoxide dismutase (<.05 in the pancreas compared with the diabetic control rats. RMD also inhibited diabetes-induced elevation in the levels of interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. Pancreatic β-cells damaged by STZ in the RMD supplemented groups were ameliorated. The results of this study clearly demonstrated that RMD possesses several treatment-oriented properties, including the control of hyperglycemia, antioxidant effects, pancreatic β-cell protection and anti-inflammatory effects. Considering these observations, it appears that RMD may be a useful supplement to delay the development of diabetes and its complications.

  11. FERMENTED MILK AS A FUNCTIONAL FOOD

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    Irena Rogelj

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain foods have been associated with health benefits for many years; fermented milks and yoghurt are typical examples. The health properties of these dairy products were a part of folklore until the concept of probiotics emerged, and the study of fermented milks and yoghurt containing probiotic bacteria has become more systematic. Functional foods have thus developed as a food, or food ingredient, with positive effects on host health and/or well-being beyond their nutritional value, and fermented milk with probiotic bacteria has again become the prominent representative of this new category of food. Milk alone is much more than the sum of its nutrients. It contains an array of bioactivities: modulating digestive and gastrointestinal functions, haemodynamics, controlling probiotic microbial growth, and immunoregulation. When fermented milk is enriched with probiotic bacteria and prebiotics it meets all the requirements of functional food. The possible positive effects of enriched fermented milk on host health will be reviewed.

  12. Nonstarch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes alter the microbial community and the fermentation patterns of barley cultivars and wheat products in an in vitro model of the porcine gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bindelle, J.; Pieper, R.; Montoya, C.A.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.; Leterme, P.

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to assess how nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP)-degrading enzymes influence the fermentation of dietary fiber in the pig large intestine. Seven wheat and barley products and cultivars with differing carbohydrate fractions were hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreati

  13. Anti-infective activities of lactobacillus strains in the human intestinal microbiota: from probiotics to gastrointestinal anti-infectious biotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Servin, Alain L

    2014-04-01

    A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract.

  14. GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMOR (GIST

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    Luigi eTornillo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild-type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other entities, have been discovered (e.g. succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data.

  15. Inoculum pre-treatment affects the fermentative activity of hydrogen-producing communities in the presence of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Micol; Botticella, Giuseppe; Francavilla, Matteo; Beneduce, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the productivity of mixed microbial cultures for fermentative bio-hydrogen production, chemical-physical pre-treatments of the original seed are needed to suppress the activity of hydrogen (H2)-consuming microbes. This approach might influence negatively the composition and diversity of the hydrogen-producing community with consequences on the functional stability of the H2-producing systems in case of perturbations. In this study, we aimed at investigating the effect of different types of pre-treatment on the performance of hydrogen production systems in the presence of an inhibitor, such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The efficiency and the microbial community structure of batch reactors amended with HMF and inoculated with non-pretreated and pretreated (acid, heat shock, and aeration) anaerobic sludge were evaluated and compared with control systems. The type of pre-treatments influenced the microbial community assembly and activity in inhibited systems, with significant effect on the performance. Cumulative H2 production tests showed that the pre-aerated systems (control and HMF inhibited) were the most efficient, while the difference of the lag phase of the pre-acidified control and HMF-added test was negligible. Analyses of the structure of the enriched microbial community in the systems through PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) followed by band sequencing revealed that the differences in performance were mostly related to shifts in the metabolic pathways rather than in the predominant species. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the use of specific inoculum pre-treatment could contribute to regulate the metabolic activity of the fermentative H2-producing bacteria in order to enhance the bio-energy production.

  16. Jaeumganghwa-Tang Induces Apoptosis via the Mitochondrial Pathway and Lactobacillus Fermentation Enhances Its Anti-Cancer Activity in HT1080 Human Fibrosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Aeyung; Im, Minju; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Yang, Hye Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    Jaeumganghwa-tang (JGT, Zi-yin-jiang-huo-tang in Chinese and Jiin-koka-to in Japanese) is an oriental herbal formula that has long been used as a traditional medicine to treat respiratory and kidney diseases. Recent studies revealed that JGT exhibited potent inhibitory effects on allergies, inflammation, pain, convulsions, and prostate hyperplasia. Several constituent herbs in JGT induce apoptotic cancer cell death. However, the anti-cancer activity of JGT has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of JGT using highly tumorigenic HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. In addition, we examined whether the Lactobacillus fermentation of JGT enhanced its anti-cancer activity using an in vivo xenograft model because fermentation of herbal extracts is thought to strengthen their therapeutic effects. Data revealed that JGT suppressed the growth of cancer cells efficiently by stimulating G1 cell cycle arrest and then inducing apoptotic cell death by causing mitochondrial damage and activating caspases. The phosphorylation of p38 and ERK also played a role in JGT-induced cell death. In vitro experiments demonstrated that JGT fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus, designated fJGT162, elicited similar patterns of cell death as did non-fermented JGT. Meanwhile, the daily oral administration of 120 mg/kg fJGT162 to HT1080-bearing BALB/c nude mice suppressed tumor growth dramatically (up to 90%) compared with saline treatment, whereas the administration of non-fermented JGT suppressed tumor growth by ~70%. Collectively, these results suggest that JGT and fJGT162 are safe and useful complementary and alternative anti-cancer herbal therapies, and that Lactobacillus fermentation improves the in vivo anti-cancer efficacy of JGT significantly.

  17. Jaeumganghwa-Tang Induces Apoptosis via the Mitochondrial Pathway and Lactobacillus Fermentation Enhances Its Anti-Cancer Activity in HT1080 Human Fibrosarcoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeyung Kim

    Full Text Available Jaeumganghwa-tang (JGT, Zi-yin-jiang-huo-tang in Chinese and Jiin-koka-to in Japanese is an oriental herbal formula that has long been used as a traditional medicine to treat respiratory and kidney diseases. Recent studies revealed that JGT exhibited potent inhibitory effects on allergies, inflammation, pain, convulsions, and prostate hyperplasia. Several constituent herbs in JGT induce apoptotic cancer cell death. However, the anti-cancer activity of JGT has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of JGT using highly tumorigenic HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. In addition, we examined whether the Lactobacillus fermentation of JGT enhanced its anti-cancer activity using an in vivo xenograft model because fermentation of herbal extracts is thought to strengthen their therapeutic effects. Data revealed that JGT suppressed the growth of cancer cells efficiently by stimulating G1 cell cycle arrest and then inducing apoptotic cell death by causing mitochondrial damage and activating caspases. The phosphorylation of p38 and ERK also played a role in JGT-induced cell death. In vitro experiments demonstrated that JGT fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus, designated fJGT162, elicited similar patterns of cell death as did non-fermented JGT. Meanwhile, the daily oral administration of 120 mg/kg fJGT162 to HT1080-bearing BALB/c nude mice suppressed tumor growth dramatically (up to 90% compared with saline treatment, whereas the administration of non-fermented JGT suppressed tumor growth by ~70%. Collectively, these results suggest that JGT and fJGT162 are safe and useful complementary and alternative anti-cancer herbal therapies, and that Lactobacillus fermentation improves the in vivo anti-cancer efficacy of JGT significantly.

  18. Acupuncture and the relaxation response for treating gastrointestinal symptoms in HIV patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bei-Hung; Sommers, Elizabeth

    2011-09-01

    To examine the effect of acupuncture and the relaxation response (RR) for treating gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in HIV patients who are using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The authors conducted a 4-arm 2×2 double-blind randomised controlled trial in an acupuncture clinic in the USA. Sham acupuncture and health education were used as the control conditions of real acupuncture and RR elicitation, respectively. Enrolled patients were randomised to real acupuncture+RR (AR), sham acupuncture+RR (SR), real acupuncture+health education (AE) or sham acupuncture+health education (SE) study arm. Participants listened to CDs with RR-eliciting instructions or health education while receiving acupuncture intervention. Interventions were provided twice weekly for 4 weeks and once weekly for another 4 weeks. Participants used daily diaries to record GI symptom severity ratings (0-10). The authors estimated the intervention effect as the changes in symptom rating per intervention session increase using a mixed-effects regression model. A total of 130 people with HIV/AIDS who were on HAART and had persistent GI symptoms were enrolled and 115 started the study intervention. The AR group had greater intervention effects for loose stools symptoms than the other three groups (β=-0.149, -0.151 and -0.144, p value=0.013, 0.013 and 0.018 comparing AR to AE, SR and SE, respectively). The AR group also had significant intervention effects on reducing nausea symptoms when the intervention was given twice per week (β=-0.218, p=0.001). Our trial provided preliminary data demonstrating the potential synergistic effects of acupuncture and RR for treating GI symptoms in HIV patients on HAART.

  19. Antioxidative Activity of Exopolysaccharide Extract from Fermented Wheat Distillers’dried Grains Using UV-Irradiation Degradation Pretreatment by Preussia aemulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shili Meng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available novel approach for utilizing wheat Dried Distillers’ Grains with Solubles (DDGS to produce exopolysaccharide by Preussia aemulans was explored. For degrading the insoluble polymer of wheat DDGS, the UV-irradiation method was used. After irradiation of 24 h, the soluble saccharide content of wheat DDGS medium was increased by 67%. The optimum fermentation conditions were: 5% (w/v of fructose, 0.5% (w/v of yeast extract, 7.5 of pH value, 5% (v/v of the inoculum size, 60 rpm of shaking condition and 5 days of the fermentation time. The maximum exopolysaccharides yield of fermented broth under the optimum fermentation conditions was 3.51±0.24 g/L. Comparing with the unfermented wheat DDGS water extract, the exopolysaccharide yield of fermented broth was increased by 36%. The crude exopolysaccharide (EPS indicated remarkable antioxidative activities though four antioxidant assays. Therefore, the crude EPS could be utilized as antioxidative food additives and functional feed in the future.

  20. Production of volatile fatty acids by fermentation of waste activated sludge pre-treated in full-scale thermal hydrolysis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Sagastume, F; Pratt, S; Karlsson, A; Cirne, D; Lant, P; Werker, A

    2011-02-01

    This work focuses on fermentation of pre-treated waste activated sludge (WAS) to generate volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Pre-treatment by high-pressure thermal hydrolysis (HPTH) was shown to aid WAS fermentation. Compared to fermentation of raw WAS, pre-treatment enabled a 2-5x increase in VFA yield (gVFA(COD)gTCOD(-1)) and 4-6x increase in VFA production rate (gVFA(COD) L(-1) d(-1)). Three sludges, pre-treated in full-scale HPTH plants, were fermented. One was from a plant processing a mix of primary sludge and WAS and the other two from plants processing solely WAS. The HPTH plants solubilised suspended matter, evidenced by a 20-30% decrease in suspended solids and an increase of soluble COD : total COD from 0.04 to 0.4. Fermentation of the three sludges yielded similar VFA concentrations (15-20gVFA(COD) L(-1)). The yields were largely independent of retention time (1 d-6 d) and temperature (42°C, 55°C). Also, the product spectrum depended mostly on the composition of the sludge rather than on operating conditions.

  1. Hepatoprotective Activity of Dried- and Fermented-Processed Virgin Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Z. A.; Rofiee, M. S.; Somchit, M. N.; Zuraini, A.; Sulaiman, M. R.; Teh, L. K.; Salleh, M. Z.; Long, K.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the hepatoprotective effect of MARDI-produced virgin coconut oils, prepared by dried- or fermented-processed methods, using the paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Liver injury induced by 3 g/kg paracetamol increased the liver weight per 100 g bodyweight indicating liver damage. Histological observation also confirms liver damage indicated by the presence of inflammations and necrosis on the respective liver section. Interestingly, pretreatment of the rats with 10, but not 1 and 5, mL/kg of both VCOs significantly (P < .05) reduced the liver damage caused by the administration of paracetamol, which is further confirmed by the histological findings. In conclusion, VCO possessed hepatoprotective effect that requires further in-depth study. PMID:21318140

  2. Hepatoprotective Activity of Dried- and Fermented-Processed Virgin Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Zakaria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the hepatoprotective effect of MARDI-produced virgin coconut oils, prepared by dried- or fermented-processed methods, using the paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Liver injury induced by 3 g/kg paracetamol increased the liver weight per 100 g bodyweight indicating liver damage. Histological observation also confirms liver damage indicated by the presence of inflammations and necrosis on the respective liver section. Interestingly, pretreatment of the rats with 10, but not 1 and 5, mL/kg of both VCOs significantly (P<.05 reduced the liver damage caused by the administration of paracetamol, which is further confirmed by the histological findings. In conclusion, VCO possessed hepatoprotective effect that requires further in-depth study.

  3. The influence of Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37 on selected properties of fermented sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Mati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermented sausages rank among non-heat-treated meat products. Their nutritional properties are similar to the raw material, simultaneously their microbial safety and stability is ensured using additives and specific microbial cultures. The use of probiotic cultures can positively affect the processing of fermented sausages, resulting in the new technological properties and beneficial effect on human health. However, commercial application of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausages is not common yet. Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37 is a gram-positive, non-spore forming, homofermentative rod, which according to studies may modulate immune responses in human organism and survives the passage through the gastrointestinal tract. The main object of this work was to evaluate technological properties of L. paracasei LPC-37, which have not been fully examined. Two groups of fermented sausages were analysed in this work. The first group of fermented sausages was prepared using lyophilized starter culture (Lyocarni RHM-33. The second group of fermented sausages was prepared by the combination of lyophilized starter culture and potential probiotic culture Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37. The processing and ripening of sausages were carried out in meat processing plant to simulate real conditions of production. The changes of the products (water activity, pH, concentration of organic acids and microbial growth were evaluated during ripening (3 weeks, while sensory analysis was carried out in the final stage of the process and during storage (3 weeks. It was found that the environment of raw-fermented sausages is suitable for the growth and survival of Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37 and the microbiological quality of the final product was very good (absence of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. The counts of lactobacilli reached 107 CFU/g of the product, which meet the requirements for functional foods. The results of the sensory evaluation showed

  4. Comparison of adsorption equilibrium and kinetic models for a case study of pharmaceutical active ingredient adsorption from fermentation broths: parameter determination, simulation, sensitivity analysis and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Likozar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models for a batch process were developed to predict concentration distributions for an active ingredient (vancomycin adsorption on a representative hydrophobic-molecule adsorbent, using differently diluted crude fermentation broth with cells as the feedstock. The kinetic parameters were estimated using the maximization of the coefficient of determination by a heuristic algorithm. The parameters were estimated for each fermentation broth concentration using four concentration distributions at initial vancomycin concentrations of 4.96, 1.17, 2.78, and 5.54 g l−¹. In sequence, the models and their parameters were validated for fermentation broth concentrations of 0, 20, 50, and 100% (v/v by calculating the coefficient of determination for each concentration distribution at the corresponding initial concentration. The applicability of the validated models for process optimization was investigated by using the models as process simulators to optimize the two process efficiencies.

  5. Gamma irradiation of sorghum flour: Effects on microbial inactivation, amylase activity, fermentability, viscosity and starch granule structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukisa, Ivan M.; Muyanja, Charles M. B. K.; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B.; Schüller, Reidar B.; Langsrud, Thor; Narvhus, Judith A.

    2012-03-01

    Malted and un-malted sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) flour was gamma irradiated with a dose of 10 kGy and then re-irradiated with 25 kGy. The effects of irradiation on microbial decontamination, amylase activity, fermentability (using an amylolytic L. plantarum MNC 21 strain), starch granule structure and viscosity were determined. Standard methods were used during determinations. The 10 kGy dose had no effect on microbial load of un-malted flour but reduced that of malted flour by 3 log cycles. Re-irradiation resulted in complete decontamination. Irradiation of malt caused a significant ( pgelatinization. Production of high dry matter density porridge (200 g dry matter/L) with a viscosity of 3500 cP was achieved by irradiation of un-malted flout at 10 kGy. Gamma irradiation can be used to decontaminate flours and could be utilized to produce weaning porridge from sorghum.

  6. Influence of pH on Inhibitory Activity of Acetic Acid on Osmophilic Yeasts Used in Brine Fermentation of Soy Sauce

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Fumio; Hayashi, Kazuya; Mizunuma, Takeji

    1982-01-01

    The inhibitory activity of acetic acid on osmophilic yeasts (Saccharomyces rouxii and Torulopsis versatilis) used for the brine fermentation of soy sauce increased remarkably as the pH of the medium was lowered. This increased toxicity could not be attributed to a hydrogen ion effect alone.

  7. Effects of hindgut fermentation of non-starch polysaccharides on the stability of blood glucose and insulin levels and physical activity in empty sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    A fermentable non-starch polysaccharides (fNSP)-rich diet was previously shown to stabilise glucose and insulin levels and reduce physical activity in restricted-fed sows. Stable glucose levels may prevent interprandial hunger. Aim of the present study was to elucidate the specific role of fermentat

  8. Assessing the zearalenone-binding activity of adsorbent materials during passage through a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avantaggiato, G.; Havenaar, R.; Visconti, A.

    2003-01-01

    A novel approach is presented herein to study the intestinal absorption of mycotoxins by using a laboratory model that mimics the metabolic processes of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of healthy pigs. This model was used to evaluate the small-intestinal absorption of zearalenone from contaminated w

  9. Assessing the zearalenone-binding activity of adsorbent materials during passage through a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avantaggiato, G.; Havenaar, R.; Visconti, A.

    2003-01-01

    A novel approach is presented herein to study the intestinal absorption of mycotoxins by using a laboratory model that mimics the metabolic processes of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of healthy pigs. This model was used to evaluate the small-intestinal absorption of zearalenone from contaminated

  10. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Kitaibelia vitifolia extract as alternative to the added nitrite in fermented dry sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurćubić, Vladimir S; Mašković, Pavle Z; Vujić, Jelena M; Vranić, Danijela V; Vesković-Moračanin, Slavica M; Okanović, Đorđe G; Lilić, Slobodan V

    2014-08-01

    Fermented dry sausages (FDS) without nitrite added, fortified with bioactive phenol and flavonoid compounds originating from the ethanol extract of Kitaibelia vitifolia were food matrix for investigation of its antioxidant and antimicrobial potency. These activities were researched in order to improve the sausages' shelf-life, safety, and provide health benefits to consumers as well. The oxidative stability of the FDS, containing two different levels of natural preservative, was evaluated using five different contemporary methods for antioxidative activity. The activity was tested on the 20th day of the refrigerated storage. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the sausage extract were determined against six microorganisms, using a micro dilution method. Determined optimal effective concentration of dissolved K. vitifolia extract (12.5 g/kg of meat dough) revealed strong antioxidant activity, and moderate antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (minimum inhibitory concentrations=15.625 μg/mL). The modified sausages had typical chemical-physical characteristics of FDS, controlled on 0, 13, 26 d of ripening and 20, 40 and 60 d of storage.

  11. Antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Anna; Ku, Taekyu; Yoo, Ilsou

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mango (Mangifera indica) leaves were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic leaf extracts that were lyophilized were subsequently fermented with either Lactobacillus casei or effective microorganisms (EM) such as probiotic bacteria and/or other anaerobic organisms. Antioxidant properties were measured as a function of the mango leaf extract concentration in the fermentation broth. Tests for radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher antioxidant activity for Lactobacillus- and EM-fermented mango leaf extracts than for the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Antioxidant activity generally increased with increasing fermented extract concentration as did the fermented extracts' polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Fermented extracts reduced reactive oxygen species generation by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells when measured via fluorescence of dichlorodihydrofluorescein acetate treated cells using flow cytometry. RAW 264.7 cells also showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of the fermented extracts using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthialol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity as well as nitrite scavenging by the fermented extracts increased as fermented extract concentrations increased. Tyrosinase activity was assayed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate. Nitrite scavenging was assessed via measurement of inhibition of chromophore production from nitrite-naphthylamine-sulfanilic acid mixtures. The antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts suggest the fermented extracts may be useful in developing health food and fermentation-based beauty products.

  12. [Microbiota and gastrointestinal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco Allué, I

    2015-12-01

    The bacterial colonisation is established immediately after birth, through direct contact with maternal microbiota, and may be influenced during lactation. There is emerging evidence indicating that quantitative and qualitative changes on gut microbiota contribute to alterations in the mucosal activation of the immune system, leading to intra- or extra-intestinal diseases. A balance between pathogenic and beneficial microbiota throughout childhood and adolescence is important to gastrointestinal health, including protection against pathogens, inhibition of pathogens, nutrient processing (synthesis of vitamin K), stimulation of angiogenesis, and regulation of host fat storage. Probiotics can promote an intentional modulation of intestinal microbiota favouring the health of the host. A review is presented on the modulation of intestinal microbiota on prevention, and adjuvant treatment of some paediatric gastrointestinal diseases. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrogen and methane production by co-digestion of waste activated sludge and food waste in the two-stage fermentation process: substrate conversion and energy yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyuan; Li, Ruying; Ji, Min; Han, Li

    2013-10-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to produce hydrogen and methane from waste activated sludge and food waste by two-stage mesophilic fermentation. Hydrogen and methane production, energy yield, soluble organic matters, volatile solid removal efficiency and carbon footprint were investigated during two-stage digestion at various food waste proportions. The highest energy yield reached 14.0 kJ/g-VS at the food waste proportion of 85%, with hydrogen and methane yields of 106.4 ml-H2/g-VS and 353.5 ml-CH4/g-VS respectively. The dominant VFA composition was butyrate for co-digestion and sole food waste fermentation, whereas acetate was dominate in VFA for sole waste activated sludge fermentation. The VS removal efficiencies of co-digestion were 10-77% higher than that of waste activated sludge fermentation. Only 0.1-3.2% of the COD in feedstock was converted into hydrogen, and 14.1-40.9% to methane, with the highest value of 40.9% in methane achieved at food waste proportion of 85%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An efficient and green pretreatment to stimulate short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge anaerobic fermentation using free nitrous acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jianwei; Wang, Dongbo; Yang, Qi; Xu, Qiuxiang; Deng, Yongchao; Yang, Weiqiang; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-02-01

    Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production from waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic fermentation is often limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and poor substrate availability, thus a long fermentation time is required. This paper reports a new pretreatment approach, i.e., using free nitrous acid (FNA) to pretreat sludge, for significantly enhanced SCFA production. Experimental results showed the highest SCFA production occurred at 1.8 mg FNA/L with time of day 6, which was 3.7-fold of the blank at fermentation time of day 12. Mechanism studies revealed that FNA pretreatment accelerated disruption of both extracellular polymeric substances and cell envelope. It was also found that FNA pretreatment benefited hydrolysis and acidification processes but inhibited the activities of methanogens, thereby promoting the yield of SCFA. In addition, the FNA pretreatment substantially stimulated the activities of key enzymes responsible for hydrolysis and acidification, which were consistent with the improvement of solubilization, hydrolysis and acidification of WAS anaerobic fermentation.

  15. Of the major phenolic acids formed during human microbial fermentation of tea, citrus, and soy flavonoid supplements, only 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid has antiproliferative activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, K.; Xu, A.; Krul, C.A.M.; Venema, K.; Liu, Y.; Niu, Y.; Lu, J.; Bensoussan, L.; Seeram, N.P.; Heber, D.; Henning, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary flavonoids are poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Colonic bacteria convert flavonoids into smaller phenolic acids (PA), which can be absorbed into the circulation and may contribute to the chemopreventive activity of the parent compounds. The purpose of our study was to

  16. Of the major phenolic acids formed during human microbial fermentation of tea, citrus, and soy flavonoid supplements, only 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid has antiproliferative activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, K.; Xu, A.; Krul, C.A.M.; Venema, K.; Liu, Y.; Niu, Y.; Lu, J.; Bensoussan, L.; Seeram, N.P.; Heber, D.; Henning, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary flavonoids are poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Colonic bacteria convert flavonoids into smaller phenolic acids (PA), which can be absorbed into the circulation and may contribute to the chemopreventive activity of the parent compounds. The purpose of our study was to determi

  17. Immunomodulatory Activity of Lactococcus lactis A17 from Taiwan Fermented Cabbage in OVA-Sensitized BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ching Mei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From fermented Taiwan foods, we have isolated numerous lactic acid bacteria (LAB of plant origin and investigated their biological activities. This study aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effect and mechanism of Lactococcus lactis A17 (A17, isolated from Taiwan fermented cabbage, on ovalbumin (OVA-sensitized mice. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used to verify immune responses of A17 by IFN-γ production. Live (A17-A and heat-killed A17 (A17-H were orally administered to OVA-sensitized BALB/c mice to investigate their effects on immunoglobulin (Ig and cytokine production. The mRNA expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR and nucleotide binding oligomerization domain (NOD-like protein receptors in spleen cells was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Both live and heat-killed A17 modulate OVA-induced allergic effects. B-cell response was modulated by diminishing IgE production and raising OVA-specific IgG2a production, while T-cell response was modulated by increasing IFN-γ production and decreasing IL-4 production. The mRNA expression of NOD-1, NOD-2, and TLR-4 was down-regulated by A17 as well. This is the first report to describe a naïve Lactococcus lactis A17 strain as a promising candidate for prophylactic and therapeutic treatments of allergic diseases via oral administration. Our results suggest the ameliorative effects of A17 may be caused by modulating NOD-1 NOD-2, and TLR-4 expression.

  18. In vitro safety assessments and antimicrobial activities of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains isolated from a fermented mare's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryantini, Ni Putu Desy; Yamasaki, Eiki; Kurazono, Hisao; Sujaya, I Nengah; Urashima, Tadasu; Fukuda, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    Safety and probiotic characteristics such as antimicrobial activities of three Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains, FSMM15, FSMM22 and FSMM26, previously isolated as potential probiotics from fermented mare's milk were investigated. The three FSMM strains were susceptible to ampicillin, gentamycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, whereas they were resistant to erythromycin (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 4-8 µg/mL) and clindamycin (MIC = 4 µg/mL); bioconversion of bile salts, hemolytic activity and mucin degradation activity were negative; enzymatic activities of α-chymotrypsin and β-glucosidase were detected, but those of α-galactosidase, β-glucuronidase and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, were undetectable. Among the strains, strain FSMM15 was chosen as a safer probiotic candidate due mainly to the lack of plasminogen binding ability. Despite lower acid production of strain FSMM15 than others, its cell-free culture supernatant inhibited growths of Salmonella Typhimurium LT-2, Shigella sonnei, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157 with comparable levels of ampicillin, suggesting a favorable aspect of strain FSMM15 as a probiotic strain. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Preventive effects of a fermented dairy product against Alzheimer's disease and identification of a novel oleamide with enhanced microglial phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity.

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    Yasuhisa Ano

    Full Text Available Despite the ever-increasing number of patients with dementia worldwide, fundamental therapeutic approaches to this condition have not been established. Epidemiological studies suggest that intake of fermented dairy products prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. However, the active compounds responsible for the effect remain to be elucidated. The present study aims to elucidate the preventive effects of dairy products on Alzheimer's disease and to identify the responsible component. Here, in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (5xFAD, intake of a dairy product fermented with Penicillium candidum had preventive effects on the disease by reducing the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ and hippocampal inflammation (TNF-α and MIP-1α production, and enhancing hippocampal neurotrophic factors (BDNF and GDNF. A search for preventive substances in the fermented dairy product identified oleamide as a novel dual-active component that enhanced microglial Aβ phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity towards LPS stimulation in vitro and in vivo. During the fermentation, oleamide was synthesized from oleic acid, which is an abundant component of general dairy products owing to lipase enzymatic amidation. The present study has demonstrated the preventive effect of dairy products on Alzheimer's disease, which was previously reported only epidemiologically. Moreover, oleamide has been identified as an active component of dairy products that is considered to reduce Aβ accumulation via enhanced microglial phagocytosis, and to suppress microglial inflammation after Aβ deposition. Because fermented dairy products such as camembert cheese are easy to ingest safely as a daily meal, their consumption might represent a preventive strategy for dementia.

  20. Central effect of SNC 80, a selective and systemically active delta-opioid receptor agonist, on gastrointestinal propulsion in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccardo, M; Improta, G; Tabacco, A

    1998-01-26

    We investigated the effects of SNC 80 ((+)-4-[alphaR)-alpha-((2S,5R)-4-ally1-2,5-dimethyl-1-pipera zinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide), a new highly selective, non-peptidic and systemically active delta-opioid receptor agonist, on gastrointestinal and colonic propulsion in mice. Intraperitoneally (i.p.) SNC 80 (1, 10 and 30 mg/kg) significantly decreased gastrointestinal propulsion measured as transit of an orally administered charcoal meal. Pretreatment with the delta-opioid receptor antagonist, naltrindole (1 mg/kg) subcutaneously (s.c.), with the non-selective opioid antagonist, naloxone (5 mg/kg, s.c.) or the mu1-opioid receptor antagonist, naloxonazine (10 mg/kg, i.p.), significantly decreased the antitransit effect of SNC 80 but pretreatment with the non-selective opioid antagonist, naloxone methiodide (5 mg/kg, s.c.), a quaternary salt of naloxone that does not cross the blood-brain barrier, did not. SNC 80 (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.), produced dose-related inhibition of colonic propulsion measured as the increase in mean expulsion time of a 3 mm glass bead placed in the distal colon. Naloxone (5 mg/kg, s.c.) and naltrindole (1 mg/kg, s.c.), completely antagonized the colonic antipropulsive effect of SNC 80. In contrast, naloxone methiodide (5 mg/kg, s.c.), left the inhibitory effect of i.p. SNC 80 on colonic function unchanged. These results suggest that peripherally injected SNC 80 inhibits gastrointestinal transit and colonic propulsion. It does so mainly through a central mechanism. Although the gastrointestinal antitransit effect of SNC 80 is naltrindole- and naloxonazine-sensitive, we cannot exclude an opioid-independent mechanism. The colonic antipropulsive effect of SNC 80 confirms the inhibitory role of the central delta-opioid receptor system on colonic motility.

  1. Short communication: Antioxidative and antibacterial activities on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H4 in milk with added ginseng marc extract fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum KCCM 11613P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, S J; Hwang, J E; Jung, J; Jee, H-S; Kim, K-T; Paik, H-D

    2017-08-09

    Ginseng marc, a by-product of the extraction of fresh ginseng, is known to have bioactive compounds, but is frequently discarded as agriculture waste. The objectives of our study were to assess the antioxidative activity of fermented ginseng marc extract using Lactobacillus plantarum KCCM 11613P and to evaluate antibacterial activity of fermented milk with added ginseng marc extract during fermentation. After 24 h of fermentation of ginseng marc extract, the viable cell number was increased to 7.7 ± 0.1 log cfu/mL, and the pH and total titratable acidity were 4.2 ± 0.4 and 0.6% lactic acid, respectively. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of fermented ginseng marc extract increased by 32.4 and 23.3%, respectively. Higher antioxidative activity of fermented ginseng marc extract was obtained in the β-carotene bleaching, ferric-reducing ability of plasma, and ferric thiocyanate assays than the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy assay. However, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy scavenging effect decreased due to lowered pH. During production of fermented milk with ginseng, inhibition rate of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were 9.7 and 2.3%, respectively. The present study shows the possibilities of Lactobacillus plantarum KCCM 11613P used as a fermentation strain and ginseng marc used as a functional supplement in milk. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of autochthonous starter cultures and protease EPg222 in dry-fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Margarita; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Benito, María José; Martín, Alberto; Hernández, Alejandro; Córdoba, María de Guía

    2016-05-18

    This work studied the presence of nitrogen compounds with bioactive properties in Iberian pork sausages that were manufactured using different autochthonous starter cultures (Pediococcus acidilactici MS200 and Staphylococcus vitulus RS34) and protease EPg222. Nitrogen compounds were extracted and evaluated for their antimicrobial effect against spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, such as Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, and antiproliferative activity on the HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cell line. Dry-fermented sausages elaborated with starter cultures P200S34 and protease EPg222 generate extracts that cause inhibition of the growth of pathogens reaching 25% inhibition of Bacillus cereus, making this a promising tool for biocontrol in the meat industry. On the other hand, the inoculation of well-adapted starter cultures with high proteolytic activity also increased the antiproliferative activity of these extracts, around 45% inhibition at 72 h, mainly due to an increase in free amino acids, such as Lys and Pro, but also small peptides.

  3. Characterization of lignocellulolytic activities from a moderate halophile strain of Aspergillus caesiellus isolated from a sugarcane bagasse fermentation.

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    Ramón Alberto Batista-García

    Full Text Available A moderate halophile and thermotolerant fungal strain was isolated from a sugarcane bagasse fermentation in the presence of 2 M NaCl that was set in the laboratory. This strain was identified by polyphasic criteria as Aspergillus caesiellus. The fungus showed an optimal growth rate in media containing 1 M NaCl at 28°C and could grow in media added with up to 2 M NaCl. This strain was able to grow at 37 and 42°C, with or without NaCl. A. caesiellus H1 produced cellulases, xylanases, manganese peroxidase (MnP and esterases. No laccase activity was detected in the conditions we tested. The cellulase activity was thermostable, halostable, and no differential expression of cellulases was observed in media with different salt concentrations. However, differential band patterns for cellulase and xylanase activities were detected in zymograms when the fungus was grown in different lignocellulosic substrates such as wheat straw, maize stover, agave fibres, sugarcane bagasse and sawdust. Optimal temperature and pH were similar to other cellulases previously described. These results support the potential of this fungus to degrade lignocellulosic materials and its possible use in biotechnological applications.

  4. Lipolytic activity of the yeast species associated with the fermentation/storage phase of ripe olive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Arroyo-López, F N; López-López, A; Bautista-Gallego, J; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2010-08-01

    Ripe olives account for ca. 30% of the world's table olive production. Fruits intended for this type of product are preserved in an aqueous solution (acidic water or brine) for several months, where they may undergo a spontaneous fermentation. Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria were not detected in the present survey during storage. Thus, the work focused on studying the yeast microflora associated with the ripe olive storage of Manzanilla and Hojiblanca cultivars in acidified brines. A total of 90 yeast isolates were identified by means of molecular methods using RFLP analysis of the 5.8S-ITS rDNA region and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rDNA gene. The two most important species identified in both cultivars were Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia galeiformis, which were present throughout the storage period, while Candida boidinii was detected during the later stages of the process. The species Pichia membranifaciens was detected only in the early stages of the Hojiblanca cultivar. The lipase assays performed with both extracellular and whole cell fractions of the yeast isolates showed that neither of the S. cerevisiae and P. galeiformis species had lipase activity, while the P. membranifaciens isolates showed a weak activity. On the contrary, all C. boidinii isolates gave a strong lipase activity. Change in olive fat acidity was markedly higher in the presence of the yeast population than in sterile storage, indicating that lipases produced by these microorganisms modify the characteristics of the fat in the fruit.

  5. γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Production and Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activity of Fermented Soybean Containing Sea Tangle by the Co-Culture of Lactobacillus brevis with Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Kyeong; Kim, Nam Yeun; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Ji, Geun Eog

    2015-08-01

    To enhance the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content, the optimized fermentation of soybean with added sea tangle extract was evaluated at 30°C and pH 5.0. The medium was first inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae strain FMB S46471 and fermented for 3 days, followed by the subsequent inoculation with Lactobacillus brevis GABA 100. After fermentation for 7 days, the fermented soybean showed approximately 1.9 g/kg GABA and exhibited higher ACE inhibitory activity than the traditional soybean product. Furthermore, several peptides in the fraction containing the highest ACE inhibitory activity were identified. The novel fermented soybean enriched with GABA and ACE inhibitory components has great pharmaceutical and functional food values.

  6. Isolation and identification of microorganisms and antibacterial activity of Laban Zeer, an Egyptian traditional fermented milk product

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    Farag Ali Saleh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Laban Zeer is a traditional Egyptian fermented milk product. The microorganisms of Laban Zeer were isolated and identified to species level, as well as the antibacterial activity of Laban Zeer was also studied against pathogenic bacteria. Total viable microorganisms, including, lactic acid bacteria (LAB, aerobic mesophilic bacterial, Enterococus and Enterobacteriaceae were enumerated. A total forty eight LAB and twenty eight yeast isolates were isolated from four Laban Zeer samples and identified by API 50 CHL and API 20C AUX identification system, respectively. The avenger of LAB counts were 7.4 cfu/g, while yeast and Enterococus counts were 4.67 and 4.39 cfu/g, respectively. It is noted that the count of bacteria belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae was not detected in all tested samples. The LAB species were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris, Lb. rhamnosus, Lb.  plantarum, Lb. paracasei subsp paracasei, Lb. delbercii subsp bulgaricus, Lb. curvatus subsp curvatus and Lb acidophilus. The isolated yeasts were identified as Sccharomyces cervisiae, Candida kefyr, Candida utilis and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. The most frequently isolated species was found to be Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris (37.5%, Lb. rhamnosus (20.8%, Sccharomyces cervisiae (41.9% and Candida kefyr (29.0%.  The antimicrobial activities of Laban Zeer were evaluated in vitro using an agar well diffusion method and in situ method. The major supernatants of Laban Zeer samples inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria, belonging to Escherichia, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Listeria and Staphylococcus genera in various degrees. The in situ method was performed by the inoculation of Staph. aureus and E. coli in Laban Zeer samples separately at an initial level around of 6 log cfu/ml. The count of Staph. aureus and E. coli were not detected after 12 and 3 days of refrigerated storage period,  respectively in samples number 2 and 3. Laban Zeer is

  7. In-vitro antimicrobial activity screening of some ethnoveterinary medicinal plants traditionally used against mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal tract complication in Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayou, Shewit; Haileselassie, Mekonnen; Gebre-egziabher, Gebremedhin; Tiku'e, Tsegay; Sahle, Samson; Taddele, Habtamu; Ghezu, Mussie

    2012-01-01

    Objective To screen the antibacterial activity of nine ethnoveterinary plants traditionally used for the treatment of mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal complications. Methods Hydroalcoholic exctracts of medicinal plants namely, Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera) L. (Family Asparagaceae), Ficus caria (F. caria) (Family Moraceae), Malvi parviflora (M. parviflora) (Family Malvaceae), Vernonia species (V. species) (local name Alakit, Family Asteraceae), Solanum hastifolium (S. hastifolium) (Family Solanaceae), Calpurinia aurea (C. aurea) (Ait) Benth (Family Fabaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (N. tabacum) L. (Family Solanaceae), Ziziphus spina-christi (Z. spina-christi) (Family Rhamnaceae), Croton macrostachys (C. macrostachys) (Family Euphorbiaceae), were screened against clinical bacterial isolates of veterinary importance from October 2007 to April 2009. The antibacterial activity was tested using disc diffusion at two concentrations (200 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL) and broth dilution methods using 70% methanol macerated leaf extracts. Results With the exception of S. hastifolium all plant extracts exhibited antibacterial activity. Among the medicinal plants tested C. aurea, C. macrostachyus, A. aspera, N. tabacum and vernonia species (Alakit) showed the most promising antimicrobial properties. Conclusions It can be concluded that many of the tested plants have antibacterial activity and supports the traditional usage of the plants for mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal complications treatment. Further studies into their toxicity and phytochemistry is advocated. PMID:23569962

  8. In-vitro antimicrobial activity screening of some ethnoveterinary medicinal plants traditionally used against mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal tract complication in Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shewit Kalayou; Mekonnen Haileselassie; Gebremedhin Gebre-egziabher; Tsegay Tikue; Samson Sahle; Habtamu Taddele; Mussie Ghezu

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To screen the antibacterial activity of nine ethnoveterinary plants traditionally used for the treatment of mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal complications. Methods:Hydroalcoholic exctracts of medicinal plants namely, Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera) L. (Family Asparagaceae), Ficus caria (F. caria) (Family Moraceae), Malvi parviflora (M. parviflora) (Family Malvaceae), Vernonia species (V. species) (local name Alakit, Family Asteraceae), Solanum hastifolium (S. hastifolium) (Family Solanaceae), Calpurinia aurea (C. aurea) (Ait) Benth (Family Fabaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (N. tabacum) L. (Family Solanaceae), Ziziphus spina-christi (Z. spina-christi) (Family Rhamnaceae), Croton macrostachys (C. macrostachys) (Family Euphorbiaceae), were screened against clinical bacterial isolates of veterinary importance from October 2007 to April 2009. The antibacterial activity was tested using disc diffusion at two concentrations (200 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL) and broth dilution methods using 70%methanol macerated leaf extracts. Results:With the exception of S. hastifolium all plant extracts exhibited antibacterial activity. Among the medicinal plants tested C. aurea, C. macrostachyus, A. aspera, N. tabacum and vernonia species (Alakit) showed the most promising antimicrobial properties. Conclusions:It can be concluded that many of the tested plants have antibacterial activity and supports the traditional usage of the plants for mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal complications treatment. Further studies into their toxicity and phytochemistry is advocated.

  9. Estimating the non-thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in fermented sausages relative to temperature, pH and water activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataragas, M; Rantsioua, K; Alessandria, V; Cocolin, L

    2015-02-01

    Data relative to in situ Listeria monocytogenes inactivation in fermented sausages were collected from 13 individual studies found in the literature. Inactivation rates were extrapolated and used to develop a predictive model to evaluate the relative effects of pH, water activity (a(w)) and temperature on L. monocytogenes fate during fermentation and ripening. Temperature explained ca. 60% of the data variability, while pH and a(w) only a small part. Temperature alone may not be sufficient to cause pathogen's inactivation, but inactivation rate is dominated by temperature when pH and a(w) are in the range which prevent L. monocytogenes growth. A predictive model based on two Arrhenius equations (ln[inactivation rate]=-25.71-[-0.6829 / (8.314 × T)] for fermentation; and ln[inactivation rate]=-44.86-[-1.219/(8.314 × T)] for ripening)was developed. The model can be used to quantify the effect of temperature and/or time changes on fermented sausage safety. The advantages and limitations of the model are discussed.

  10. Enzyme activity of β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis and Aspergillus oryzae on simulated conditions of human gastrointestinal system

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    Alessandra Bosso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An alternative to relieve the symptoms of lactose intolerance is the intake of the enzyme β-galactosidase in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The ability of β-galactosidase produced by Kluyveromyces lactis and Aspergillus oryzae to hydrolyze lactose in simulated conditions of the human gastrointestinal tract was investigated. The experiment was carried out in the optimum temperature for each enzyme activity, 40 and 55°C, respectively, and at the normal human body temperature (37°C at concentrations of 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 g/L (enzyme from A. oryzae or mL/L (enzyme from K. lactis. Both enzymes were completely inactivated under simulated gastric conditions (pH 2. When the enzymes were subjected to simulated small intestine conditions (pH 7.4, lactose hydrolysis has occurred, but at 37°C the percentage was lower than that under the optimal temperatures. At concentrations of 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mL/L the enzyme from K. lactis hydrolyzed 76.63%, 88.91% and 94.80% of lactose at 40°C, and 55.99%, 80.91% and 81.53% at 37°C, respectively. In contrast, the enzyme from A. oryzae hydrolyzed 7.11%, 16.18% and 21.29% at 55°C, and 8.4%, 11.85% and 16.43% at 37°C. It was observed that under simulated intestinal conditions, the enzyme from K. lactis was more effective on lactose hydrolysis as compared to the enzyme from A. oryzae. Considering the findings of this study, it is extremely necessary to use an enteric coating on β-galactosidase capsules so that this enzyme is released only in the small intestine, which is its site of action, thus not suffering the action of the stomach pH.Keywords: Lactase. Hydrolysis. Lactose intolerance. Gastrointestinal tract. RESUMOAtividade de β-galactosidase de Kluyveromyces lactis e Aspergillus oryzae, em condições simuladas do sistema gastrintestinal humanoUma das alternativas para amenizar os sintomas da intolerância à lactose é a ingestão de β-galactosidase em formas farmacêuticas. Neste trabalho avaliou-se a

  11. 蜂巢醋液态发酵工艺及其抗氧化活性研究%Liquid fermentation technology and antioxidant activity of honeycomb vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振斌; 孙平; 王林; 姜美花; 夏蓉

    2012-01-01

    研究首次将蜂巢引入食醋的液态发酵工艺,优化获得了蜂巢醋液态发酵的最佳工艺条件:起始糖度5.33%,酵母活化液0.10%,酒精度5.0%,醋酸发酵温度35℃。在此条件下制备的蜂巢醋由于发酵原料和菌种单一,在可溶性固形物、总糖、香气、滋味等方面低于传统固态发酵产品,而在色泽、体态和风味典型性等方面较优。此外,该蜂巢醋DPPH自由基清除能力(33.29%)和总抗氧化能力(2252.63mmol·g-1)均显著低于固态发酵(66.25%,5092.63mmol·g-1)产品,这主要归因于和固态发酵峰巢醋总黄酮和总多酚(0.71%,2.33%)相比,液态发酵蜂巢醋总黄酮和总多酚含量(0.38%,1.20%)较低。%. Honeycomb was used as raw material in the liquid fermentation of vinegar for the first time in this paper. The fermentation process was optimized and the optimum conditions was obtained: 5.33% of initial sugar degree, 0.10% of yeast activated liquid,5.0% of alcohol degree,35℃ of acetate fermentation temperature. Under the conditions,compared to solid-state fermentation the honeycomb vinegar was lower in soluble solids,total sugar,aroma,taste,but was higher in color,posture,flavor typicality. These results could be attributed to the single materials and strain in liquid fermentation of honeycomb vinegar. Moreover,DPPH radical scavenging activity (33.29%) and total antioxidant capacity(2252.63mmol.g-1) of the honeycomb vinegar by liquid fermentation were significantly lower than that of solid-state fermentation(66.25% ,5092.63mmol.g-1) ,due to the lower content of flavonoids and polyphenol (0.38%, 1.20%) compared to solid-state fermentation (0.71%, 2.33%).

  12. Exploitation of fermented shrimp-shells hydrolysate as functional food: assessment of antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic and prebiotic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Suman Kumar; Adak, Atanu; Maity, Chiranjit; Jana, Arijit; Das, Arpan; Paul, Tanmay; Ghosh, Kuntal; Das Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar; Pati, Bikas Ranjan; Mondal, Keshab Chandra

    2013-11-01

    In the present study the bioactivities of chitooligosaccharides of fermented shrimp-shell hydrolysate (SSH) in respect to hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant and prebiotic activity were tested in male albino rat. Rats were treated with four different diets, viz., (i) cholesterol-rich (5%) basal diet (ChB), (ii) ChB+10% chitin, (iii) ChB+10% SSH and (iv) control group (without cholesterol). After 4 weeks of treatment, body mass index, liver weight, serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in groups (ii) and (iii) were decreased significantly than group (i). SSH supplementation significantly resists oxidative stress by reducing the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and by increasing catalase, superoxide dismutase and free radical scavenging activity. The colonization of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium population in small and large intestine were more in group (iii) than other groups. Reduction of Clostridium perfringens population and non-significant changes of E. coli was also noted in SSH supplement group. Histological study revealed that the villus height and villus:crypt of the small intestine were increased significantly in SSH supplemented group (iii) without any diarrheal symptoms. The results demonstrated that the shrimp-shells hydrolysate has hypocholesterolemic effect, can resist lipid peroxidation and can influence the growth of health beneficial microbes, hence can be used as functional food for hypercholesterolemic patients.

  13. Detectionn and activity of plantaricin OL15 a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum OL15 isolated from Algerian fermented olives.

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    Nour-Eddine, Karam

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum OL15 previously isolated from Algerian fermented green olives produces antimicrobial conpounds in its culture medium. Inhibitory action against other strains of Lactobacillus, Lactococcus , and Propionibacterium was observed . Activity was completely or partially inactivated by proteolytic enzymes, stable at pH values ranging from 3.0 to 8.0, and heat stable even after autoclaving at 121 °C for 15 min. The bacteriocin activity was able to pass through cellulose membranes with 100,000 but not through 10,000 molecular weight cut-off.Lactobacillus plantarum OL15, aislado de aceitunas verdes argelinas, produce un compuesto antimicrobiano en el medio de cultivo, observándose un efecto inhibidor frente a otras cepas de Lactobacillus, Lactococcus y Propionibacterium . Dicha actividad desaparece completa o parcialmente después del tratamiento con enzimas proteolíticas, es estable al pH en el rango de 3,0 a 8,0 y es, asimismo estable al calor incluso después de someterla a un proceso térmico de 121 ºC durante 15 minutos. La bacteriocina pasa a través de membranas de celulosa de corte molecular de 1000.000 pero no a través de las de 10.000.

  14. TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS OF LESOTHO

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    Tendekayi H. Gadaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the traditional methods of preparing fermented foods and beverages of Lesotho. Information on the preparation methods was obtained through a combination of literature review and face to face interviews with respondents from Roma in Lesotho. An unstructured questionnaire was used to capture information on the processes, raw materials and utensils used. Four products; motoho (a fermented porridge, Sesotho (a sorghum based alcoholic beverage, hopose (sorghum fermented beer with added hops and mafi (spontaneously fermented milk, were found to be the main fermented foods prepared and consumed at household level in Lesotho. Motoho is a thin gruel, popular as refreshing beverage as well as a weaning food. Sesotho is sorghum based alcoholic beverage prepared for household consumption as well as for sale. It is consumed in the actively fermenting state. Mafi is the name given to spontaneously fermented milk with a thick consistency. Little research has been done on the technological aspects, including the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of fermented foods in Lesotho. Some of the traditional aspects of the preparation methods, such as use of earthenware pots, are being replaced, and modern equipment including plastic utensils are being used. There is need for further systematic studies on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of these these products.

  15. Fermented Aloreña table olives as a source of potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus strains

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    Beatriz Pérez Montoro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A collection of 31 Lactobacillus pentosus strains isolated from naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives were screened in depth in the present study for their probiotic potential. Several strains could be considered promising probiotic candidates since they showed good growth capacity and survival under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions (acidic pH of 1.5, up to 4% of bile salts and 5 mM of nitrate, good ability to auto-aggregate which may facilitate their adhesion to host cells as multiple aggregates and the subsequent displacement of pathogens. Moreover, co-aggregation of lactobacilli with pathogenic bacteria was shown with Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella Enteriditis as good defense strategy against gut and food pathogens. Furthermore, they exhibited adherence to intestinal and vaginal cell lines, such property could be reinforced by their capacity of biofilm formation which is also important in food matrices such as the olive surface. Their antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria by means of acids and plantaricins, and also their different functional properties may determine their efficacy not only in the gastro-intestinal tract but also in food matrices. Besides their ability to ferment several prebiotics, the new evidence in the present study was their capacity to ferment lactose which reinforces their use in different food matrices including dairy as a dietary adjunct to improve lactose digestibility. Lactobacillus pentosus CF2-10N was selected to have best probiotic profile being of great interest in further studies. In conclusion, spontaneous fermented Aloreña table olives are considered a natural source of potential probiotic Lb. pentosus to be included as adjunct functional cultures in different fermented foods.

  16. Fermented Aloreña Table Olives as a Source of Potential Probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Beatriz Pérez; Benomar, Nabil; Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Castillo Gutiérrez, Sonia; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2016-01-01

    A collection of 31 Lactobacillus pentosus strains isolated from naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives were screened in depth in the present study for their probiotic potential. Several strains could be considered promising probiotic candidates since they showed good growth capacity and survival under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions (acidic pH of 1.5, up to 4% of bile salts and 5 mM of nitrate), good ability to auto-aggregate which may facilitate their adhesion to host cells as multiple aggregates and the subsequent displacement of pathogens. Moreover, co-aggregation of lactobacilli with pathogenic bacteria was shown with Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Enteritidis as good defense strategy against gut and food pathogens. Furthermore, they exhibited adherence to intestinal and vaginal cell lines, such property could be reinforced by their capacity of biofilm formation which is also important in food matrices such as the olive surface. Their antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria by means of acids and plantaricins, and also their different functional properties may determine their efficacy not only in the gastro-intestinal tract but also in food matrices. Besides their ability to ferment several prebiotics, the new evidence in the present study was their capacity to ferment lactose which reinforces their use in different food matrices including dairy as a dietary adjunct to improve lactose digestibility. Lactobacillus pentosus CF2-10N was selected to have the best probiotic profile being of great interest in further studies. In conclusion, spontaneous fermented Aloreña table olives are considered a natural source of potential probiotic L. pentosus to be included as adjunct functional cultures in different fermented foods. PMID:27774088

  17. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory Activity and ACE Inhibitory Peptides of Salmon (Salmo salar Protein Hydrolysates Obtained by Human and Porcine Gastrointestinal Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Darewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were two-fold: first, to detect whether salmon protein fractions possess angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory properties and whether salmon proteins can release ACE inhibitory peptides during a sequential in vitro hydrolysis (with commercial porcine enzymes and ex vivo digestion (with human gastrointestinal enzymes. Secondly, to evaluate the ACE inhibitory activity of generated hydrolysates. A two-step ex vivo and in vitro model digestion was performed to simulate the human digestion process. Salmon proteins were degraded more efficiently by porcine enzymes than by human gastrointestinal juices and sarcoplasmic proteins were digested/hydrolyzed more easily than myofibrillar proteins. The ex vivo digested myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic duodenal samples showed IC50 values (concentration required to decrease the ACE activity by 50% of 1.06 and 2.16 mg/mL, respectively. The in vitro hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic samples showed IC50 values of 0.91 and 1.04 mg/mL, respectively. Based on the results of in silico studies, it was possible to identify 9 peptides of the ex vivo hydrolysates and 7 peptides of the in vitro hydrolysates of salmon proteins of 11 selected peptides. In both types of salmon hydrolysates, ACE-inhibitory peptides IW, IY, TVY and VW were identified. In the in vitro salmon protein hydrolysates an ACE-inhibitory peptides VPW and VY were also detected, while ACE-inhibitory peptides ALPHA, IVY and IWHHT were identified in the hydrolysates generated with ex vivo digestion. In our studies, we documented ACE inhibitory in vitro effects of salmon protein hydrolysates obtained by human and as well as porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

  18. Screening of phospholipase A activity and its production by new actinomycete strains cultivated by solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Sutto-Ortiz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Novel microbial phospholipases A (PLAs can be found in actinomycetes which have been poorly explored as producers of this activity. To investigate microbial PLA production, efficient methods are necessary such as high-throughput screening (HTS assays for direct search of PLAs in microbial cultures and cultivation conditions to promote this activity. About 200 strains isolated with selected media for actinomycetes and mostly belonging to Streptomyces (73% and Micromonospora (10% genus were first screened on agar-plates containing the fluorophore rhodamine 6G and egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (PC to detect strains producing phospholipase activity. Then, a colorimetric HTS assay for general PLA activity detection (cHTS-PLA using enriched PC (≈60% as substrate and cresol red as indicator was developed and applied; this cHTS-PLA assay was validated with known PLAs. For the first time, actinomycete strains were cultivated by solid-state fermentation (SSF using PC as inductor and sugar-cane bagasse as support to produce high PLA activity (from 207 to 2,591 mU/g of support. Phospholipase activity of the enzymatic extracts from SSF was determined using the implemented cHTS-PLA assay and the PC hydrolysis products obtained, were analyzed by TLC showing the presence of lyso-PC. Three actinomycete strains of the Streptomyces genus that stood out for high accumulation of lyso-PC, were selected and analyzed with the specific substrate 1,2-α-eleostearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (EEPC in order to confirm the presence of PLA activity in their enzymatic extracts. Overall, the results obtained pave the way toward the HTS of PLA activity in crude microbial enzymatic extracts at a larger scale. The cHTS-PLA assay developed here can be also proposed as a routine assay for PLA activity determination during enzyme purification,directed evolution or mutagenesis approaches. In addition, the production of PLA activity by actinomycetes using SSF allow find and

  19. Structural characterization and antioxidant activity of a novel heteropolysaccharide from the submerged fermentation mycelia of Ganoderma capense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yating; Li, Naisheng; Wan, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Dezhi; Yan, Chunyan

    2015-12-10

    A novel heteropolysaccharide (GCPB-2) with a molecular mass of 1.03×10(5)Da was isolated from the submerged fermentation culturing mycelia powder of Lingzhi, Ganoderma capense, by DEAE-52 cellulose, DEAE Sepharose CL-6B, and Sephadex G-75 column chromatography. Its chemical structure was characterized for the first time. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by two antioxidant assay methods. The result of this study introduced G. capense as a possible valuable source that helped to exhibit some antioxidant properties. The homogeneous polysaccharide was composed of xylose and arabinose in the molar ratio of 1:1, and showed a specific optical rotation of [α]D(25)=+161° (c 1.0, H2O). Monosaccharide analysis, partial acid hydrolysis, periodic acid oxidation, methylation analysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C, HMQC and HMBC) were conducted to elucidate its structure. The backbone of GCPB-2 was composed of (1 → 4)-linked-β-D-xylopyranose residues which branched at O-3. The two branches consisted of (1 → 3)-linked-β-L-arabinopyranose terminated with β-D-xylopyranose residues, and (1 → 4)-linked-β-L-arabinopyranose terminated with β-D-arabinopyranose residues. In the in vitro antioxidant assay, GCPB-2 was found to possess 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity with an EC50 value of 0.379 μM. The findings of this study indicated that GCPB-2 possesses the hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, which provided an experimental evidence to support the G. capense as functional foods in some Asian countries. To understand better the bioactivity of GCPB-2, the antioxidant activity should be further investigated to find out its mechanism in future work.

  20. Evaluation of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Fermented Plant Products for Antagonistic Activity Against Urinary Tract Pathogen Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Chih; Lai, Tzu-Min; Lin, Pei-Pei; Hsieh, You-Miin

    2017-08-05

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common infectious diseases in infants and the elderly; they are also the most common among nosocomial infections. The treatment of UTIs usually involves a short-term course of antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to identify the strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that can inhibit the urinary tract pathogen Staphylococcus saprophyticus, as alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, we collected 370 LAB strains from fermented plant products and reference strains from the Bioresources Collection and Research Center (BCRC). Using spent culture supernatants (SCS), we then screened these LAB strains with for antimicrobial effects on urinary tract pathogens by the well-diffusion assay. Seven LAB strains-PM2, PM68, PM78, PM201, PM206, PM229, and RY2-exhibited inhibitory activity and were evaluated for anti-growth activity against urinary tract pathogens by the co-culture inhibition assay. Anti-adhesion and anti-invasion activities against urinary tract pathogens were evaluated using the SV-HUC-1 urothelial cell cultures. The results revealed that the survival rate of S. saprophyticus ranged from 0.9-2.96%, with the pH continuously decreasing after co-culture with LAB strains for 4 h. In the competitive adhesion assay, the exclusion and competition groups performed better than the displacement group. In the SV-HUC-1 cell invasion assay, PM201, PM206, PM229, and RY2 were found to inhibit the invasion of SV-HUC-1 cells by S. saprophyticus BCRC 10786. To conclude, RY2, PM229, and PM68 strains exhibited inhibitory activity against the urinary tract pathogen S. saprophyticus.

  1. Optimization of Hyaluronidase Inhibition Activity from Prunus davidiana (Carriere) Franch Fruit Extract Fermented by its Isolated Bacillus subtilis Strain SPF4211.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Baek; Park, So Hae; Koo, Kyoung Yoon; Kim, Bo Ram; Kim, Minji; Lee, Heeseob

    2016-09-28

    Strain SPF4211, having hyaluronidase (HAase) inhibition activity, was isolated from P. davidiana (Carriere) Franch fruit (PrDF) sugar extract. The phenotypic and biochemical properties based on 16S rDNA sequencing and an API 50 CHB kit suggested that the organism was B. subtilis. To optimize the HAase inhibition activity of PrDF extract by fermentation of strain SPF4211, a central composite design (CCD) was introduced based on three variables: concentration of PrDF extract (X₁: 1-5%), amount of starter culture (X₂: 1-5%), and fermentation time (X₃: 0-7 days). The experimental data were fitted with quadratic regression equations, and the accuracy of the equations was analyzed by ANOVA. The statistical model predicted the highest HAase inhibition activity of 37.936% under the optimal conditions of X₁ = 1%, X₂ = 2.53%, and X₃ = 7 days. The optimized conditions were validated by observation of an actual HAase inhibition activity of 38.367% from extract of PrDF fermented by SPF4211. These results agree well with the predicted model value.

  2. Effectiveness of Higher Fatty Acids C8, C10 and C12, Dimethyl Dicarbonate and Sulphur Dioxide for Inhibition of Re-fermentation and Malolactic Activities in Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojmír Baroň

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of preventing the re-fermentation and protection against undesirable malolactic fermentation (MLF in order to safe content of acids in wine is very complicated. In this paper the saturated higher fatty acids (HFA – C8, C10 and C12, dimethyldicarbonate (DMDC and sulphur dioxide (SO2 were tested. The re-fermentation test showed the strongest inhibition power at ratio 2:8, 1:9 and 0:10 as C8:C10 acids – 65 days without re-fermentation. MLF experiments confirmed that addition of SO2 into the fermenting media causes rapid inhibition of lactic acid bacteria metabolic activity. Malic acid concentrations were proportionally decreasing during 6 days of experiment and at the end the content of this acid varied between 0.16 and 0.22 g/L, the only exception formed a variant with the addition of SO2 (1.57 g/L of malic acid. After calculation of the average consumption rate of malic acid, the results showed the inhibition power – SO2 (81.05% followed by variant of 40 mg/L mixture of HFA (40.76%, a variant of 200 mg/L of DMDC (31.98% and a variant of 20 mg/L mixture of HFA (12.59%. The addition of HFA can significantly reduce the dosage of other preservatives, especially SO2. Based on results, this method can be recommend in the production of wines with residual sugar and also wines made from over-mature material to prevent undesirable MLF.

  3. In Vivo Immunomodulation and Lipid Peroxidation Activities Contributed to Chemoprevention Effects of Fermented Mung Bean against Breast Cancer

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    Swee Keong Yeap

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mung bean has been reported to have antioxidant, cytotoxic, and immunomodulatory effects in vitro. Fermented products are reported to have enhanced immunomodulation and cancer chemopreventive effects. In this study, fermented mung bean treatments in vivo were studied by monitoring tumor development, spleen immunity, serum cytokine (interleukin 2 and interferon gamma levels, and spleen/tumor antioxidant levels after injection with low and high risk 4T1 breast cancer cells. Pretreatment with fermented mung bean was associated with delayed tumor formation in low risk mice. Furthermore, this treatment was connected with higher serum anticancer cytokine levels, spleen T cell populations, splenocyte cytotoxicity, and spleen/tumor antioxidant levels. Histopathological evaluation of fermented mung bean treated tumor revealed lower event of mitotic division. On the other hand, antioxidant and nitric oxide levels that were significantly increased in the untreated mice were inhibited in the fermented mung bean treated groups. These results suggested that fermented mung bean has potential cancer chemoprevention effects through the stimulation of immunity, lipid peroxidation, and anti-inflammation.

  4. Fermentation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Fermentation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Food Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Vos, de W.M.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this book is on state of the art technologies and scientific developments in academia and industry that contribute to the characterization and specification of fermentation starter microorganisms, to the present-day experimental approaches in product and process development and control,

  7. Enhanced Anti-Obesity Activities of Red Mold Dioscorea When Fermented Using Deep Ocean Water as the Culture Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Ming Pan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep ocean water (DOW has, in previous studies, been found to be a novel anti-obesity drink and useful in raising Monascus-produced monascin and ankaflavin levels. This may resolve the limited anti-obesity ability of red mold dioscorea (RMD known as the Monascus purpureus-fermented Disocorea batatas. This study aims to compare the anti-obesity effect of DOW-cultured RMD (DOW-RMD and ultra-pure water-cultured RMD (UPW-RMD in rats fed on a high fat diet. Moreover, the effect of ions composition of DOW and DOW-influenced functional metabolites change of RMD on the differentiation and lipogenesis regulation were investigated using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. In the animal test, compared to UPW-RMD, DOW-RMD possessed better ability to inhibit increases in weight gain, and better feed efficiency, body-fat pad and cross-sectional area of adipocytes. In the cell test, the anti-obesity abilities of DOW-RMD in inhibiting PPARγ and C/EBPα expression in differentiation and lipoprotein lipase activity in lipogenesis were contributed to by the DOW-increased monascin and ankaflavin levels and the ions of DOW, respectively.

  8. Antitumor activity of fermented noni exudates (fNE) and its fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia) has been extensively used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2000 years and recent studies have shown that noni has a wide spectrum of therapeutic activities including inhibition of angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory effects, and anti-cancer activities. We recently repor...

  9. Novel Method of Lactic Acid Production by Electrodialysis Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Hongo, Motoyoshi; Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi

    1986-01-01

    In lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus delbrueckii, the produced lactic acid affected the lactic acid productivity. Therefore, for the purpose of alleviating this inhibitory effect, an electrodialysis fermentation method which can continuously remove produced lactic acid from the fermentation broth was applied to this fermentation process. As a result, the continuation of fermentation activity was obtained, and the productivity was three times higher than in non-pH-controlled fermentati...

  10. Gastrointestinal events with clopidogrel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Würtz, Morten; Schwarz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events.......Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events....

  11. CTHRC1 Acts as a Prognostic Factor and Promotes Invasiveness of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors by Activating Wnt/PCP-Rho Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ze Ma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are the major gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors with a variable malignancy ranging from a curable disorder to highly malignant sarcomas. Metastasis and recurrence are the main causes of death in GIST patients. To further explore the mechanism of metastasis and to more accurately estimate the recurrence risk of GISTs after surgery, the clinical significance and functional role of collagen triple helix repeat containing-1 (CTHRC1 in GIST were investigated. We found that CTHRC1 expression was gradually elevated as the risk grade of NIH classification increased, and was closely correlated with disease-free survival and overall survival in 412 GIST patients. In vitro experiments showed that recombinant CTHRC1 protein promoted the migration and invasion capacities of primary GIST cells. A luciferase reporter assay and pull down assay demonstrated that recombinant CTHRC1 protein activated noncanonical Wnt/PCP-Rho signaling but inhibited canonical Wnt signaling. The pro-motility effect of CTHRC1 on GIST cells was reversed by using a Wnt5a neutralizing antibody and inhibitors of Rac1 or ROCK. Taken together, these data indicate that CTHRC1 may serve as a new predictor of recurrence risk and prognosis in post-operative GIST patients and may play an important role in facilitating GIST progression. Furthermore, CTHRC1 promotes GIST cell migration and invasion by activating Wnt/PCP-Rho signaling, suggesting that the CTHRC1-Wnt/PCP-Rho axis may be a new therapeutic target for interventions against GIST invasion and metastasis.

  12. In vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Oily Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Aqueous Extracts of Nicotiana tabacum on Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Zapata Salas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes are the most common parasites found in ruminants in the world. These parasites cause parasitic gastroenteritis and have a negative effect on productivity. Nematode control has been based on the use of anthelmintic chemicals—against which nematodes have developed a certain degree of resistance—which have been rated as residual substances in goat products that may cause adverse effects on the final consumer. As a result, the study of plant components has been proposed as a sustainable alternative to control nematodosis in goats. The anthelmintic potential of aqueous extracts of Nicotiana tabacum and oily extracts of Azadirachta indica on gastrointestinal nematodes affecting the goat chain was evaluated in vitro in this study. Nematicidal activity tests were performed on stool samples from goats with a high parasite load (trichostrongyles, by performing dose/ response curves. Percent inhibition in egg hatch for the aqueous extract of N. tabacum and the oily extract of A. indica was 99% and 80%, respectively. Extracts showed an effect on larva 3 (infective stage, with a mean lethal time of 8 ± 1 minutes for extracts of N. Tabacum, and of 8 ± 1 minutes for extract of A. indica. The in vitro results of the nematicidal activity show that N. tabacum and A. indica extracts can be a promising alternative for controlling nematodes in ruminants.

  13. In vitro activity of Pithecellobium dulce and Lysiloma acapulcensis on exogenous development stages of sheep gastrointestinal strongyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Olmedo-Juárez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two lyophilised aqueous extracts of Lysiloma acapulcensis (LAE and Phitecellobium dulce (PDE tree leaves on in vitro assessment of hatching of eggs, larval development and migration of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep using a general linear model. Treatments contained extracts from both species at concentrations of 0, 125, 250 and 500 μg/mL. Both albendazole and levamisole were used at a level of 1% as positive control. The extract of LAE, compared to PDE, showed better inhibition (P<0.05 of egg hatching. Different doses of both the LAE and PDE extracts showed a larvicidal effect (P<0.05 on all larvae exposed to different doses of the extracts. In the larval migration assay, a similar effect with levamisole at doses of 250 and 500 μg/mL occurred with the LAE extract. The extract of P. dulce had a lower larvicidal effect (P<0.05 than levamisole and L. acapulcensis extracts. Using aqueous extracts of both species of L. acapulcensis and P. dulce could be a promising alternative to synthetic anthelmintics as treatments of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in organic and conventional production systems under subtropical conditions.

  14. Comprehensive analysis of fungal diversity and enzyme activity in nuruk, a Korean fermenting starter, for acquiring useful fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Emily; Trinh, Tran Ngoc; Son, Hokyoung; Lee, Yin-Won; Seo, Jeong-Ah

    2017-05-01

    Nuruk is a fermenting starter that is involved in the production of alcoholic beverages, and has been used in South Korea for a very long time. To analyze the fungal diversity, we collected a total of 59 nuruk samples from several companies and persons in 2013 to 2014, and obtained 364 isolates. All of the single isolated fungi were identified, both morphologically and molecularly, based on the sequences of ribosomal RNA gene [18S, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, and 26S (D1/D2 region)]. In 46 nuruk samples out of 59 (78%), Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, a dimorphic yeast, was most frequently isolated. Among the filamentous fungi, Aspergillus and Lichtheimia were found in more than 50% of the samples with lower colony forming unit (CFU/g of sample) than those of yeasts. The yeasts S. fibuligera and Wickerhamomyces anomalus were counted with maximum 1.3-1.8 × 10(8) CFU/g. Among Mucorales fungi, Lichtheimia and Mucor were isolated in much higher numbers than Rhizopus and Rhizomucor. Overall, the home-made nuruks tend to contain more diverse filamentous fungi than the commercial nuruks. To acquire industrially useful filamentous fungi and yeasts, we analyzed the enzyme activities of α-amylase, glucoamylase and acid protease associated with brewing properties for 131 strains. Aspergillus oryzae and S. fibuligera had high α- and glucoamylase activities and most isolates of Lichtheimia ramosa had high acid protease activity. For further applications, 27 fungal strains were chosen based on isolation frequencies from nuruk, and the ability to produce useful enzyme.

  15. A Comparison between the Contents of Water-Soluble Active Substances from Fermented and Non-Fermented Scorpion Powder%发酵前后全蝎粉中水溶性活性物质的含量比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马明珠; 郭欣; 管仁浩; 李欣芮; 孙林; 王庆中; 王集会

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To compare the contents of water-soluble active substances from the fermented and non-fermented scorpion powders. Methods:Through ultrasonic-assisted extraction,the contents of water-soluble active substance from fermented and non-fermented scorpion powder were measured with improved Lowry protein assay to determine the protein content,phenol-sulfuric acid method to determine the polysaccharide content,phosphorus assay to determine phosphorus content and to determine nucleotides content by calculation. Results:The protein content of the non-fermented scorpion powders was 136.332 mg/g,and the fermented was 33.885 mg·g-1;the polysaccharides content of the non-fermented scorpion powder was 5.832 mg·g-1, and the fermented was 12.024 mg·g-1;the nucleic acid content of the non-fermented scorpion powder was 24.789 mg·g-1, and the fermented was 58.034 mg·g-1. Conclusion:The protein content of the non-fermented scorpion powder was higher and the polysaccharide and nucleic acid contents of the fermented scorpion powders was higher.%目的:对全蝎粉发酵前后水溶性活性物质的含量进行比较.方法:全蝎粉、发酵全蝎粉经过超声水提,分别采用改良Lowry法测定蛋白质的含量、苯酚-硫酸法测定多糖的含量、磷测定法测定磷的含量进而计算出核酸的含量.结果:全蝎粉发酵前蛋白含量为136.332 mg·g-1,发酵后33.885 mg·g-1;全蝎粉发酵前多糖含量为5.832 mg·g-1,发酵后为12.024 mg·g-1;而全蝎粉发酵前核酸含量为24.789 mg·g-1,发酵后为58.034 mg·g-1.结论:全蝎发酵前的蛋白含量较高,而全蝎发酵后的多糖和核酸含量较高.

  16. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels in feed on microbial composition and activity in gastrointestinal tract of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Vahjen, W; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Villodre, C; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-06-01

    Thermal treatments of feed and organic acids are known to affect the gastrointestinal microbiota in chickens. The present study evaluated the effect of different thermal processes including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), expanding at 110°C (E110), and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) as well as organic acid (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) inclusion levels (0, 0.75, and 1.5%) on gastrointestinal microbiota in broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. At d 35, bacterial cell numbers in the crop, ileum, and cecum, and bacterial metabolites in the crop, gizzard, ileum, and cecum were determined. The inclusion of 1.5% organic acids increased cell numbers of all clostridial clusters in the crop. The organic acid supplementation increased the propionic acid concentration in the crop and gizzard and there was a decrease in lactic acid concentration. In the ileum, the 0% organic acid group had the highest numbers of Lactobacillus spp. and enterobacteria. Inclusion of 1.5% organic acids increased ileal acetate concentration. Increasing the feed processing temperature led to an increase of lactobacilli in the crop and ileum, whereas clostridia and enterobacteria seemed unaffected. Similarly, lactate concentrations increased in the ileum, but short-chain fatty acids remained identical. In the crop, an increase for acetate was found for the E130 group compared with all other thermal treatments. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that thermal treatments and organic acid supplementation to broiler diets more markedly influenced the bacterial status of the crop compared with the downstream segments and their effects decreased along the length of gastrointestinal tract. Whereas organic acids markedly modified bacterial composition and activity in the crop, expansion increased lactobacilli and lactate in the crop and ileum.

  17. What Are Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... system, also known as the digestive system. The gastrointestinal system The gastrointestinal (GI) system (or digestive system) processes ... in “ How are gastrointestinal stromal tumors diagnosed? ” Other gastrointestinal tract cancers It is important to understand that GISTs ...

  18. Fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from fermenting musts of Mezcal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    Fructanase and fructosyltransferase are interesting for the tequila process and prebiotics production (functional food industry). In this study, one hundred thirty non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from "Mezcal de Oaxaca" were screened for fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity. On solid medium, fifty isolates grew on Agave tequilana fructans (ATF), inulin or levan. In liquid media, inulin and ATF induced fructanase activities of between 0.02 and 0.27U/ml depending of yeast isolate. High fructanase activity on sucrose was observed for Kluyveromyces marxianus and Torulaspora delbrueckii, while the highest fructanase activity on inulin and ATF was observed for Issatchenkia orientalis, Cryptococcus albidus, and Candida apicola. Zygosaccharomyces bisporus and Candida boidinii had a high hydrolytic activity on levan. Sixteen yeasts belonging to K. marxianus, T. delbrueckii and C. apicola species were positive for fructosyltransferase activity. Mezcal microbiota proved to showed to be a source for new fructanase and fructosyltransferases with potential application in the tequila and food industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Technology and potential applications of probiotic encapsulation in fermented milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, Siavash; Korbekandi, Hassan; Mirmohammadi, Seyed Vahid

    2015-08-01

    Fermented milk products containing probiotics and prebiotics can be used in management, prevention and treatment of some important diseases (e.g., intestinal- and immune-associated diseases). Microencapsulation has been used as an efficient method for improving the viability of probiotics in fermented milks and gastrointestinal tract. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacterial cells provides shelter against adverse conditions during processing, storage and gastrointestinal passage. Important challenges in the field include survival of probiotics during microencapsulation, stability of microencapsulated probiotics in fermented milks, sensory quality of fermented milks with microencapsulated probiotics, and efficacy of microencapsulation to deliver probiotics and their controlled or targeted release in the gastrointestinal tract. This study reviews the current knowledge, and the future prospects and challenges of microencapsulation of probiotics used in fermented milk products. In addition, the influence of microencapsulation on probiotics viability and survival is reviewed.

  20. INFLUENCIA DE LA AIREACIÓN EN LA ACTIVIDAD FERMENTATIVA DE Kloeckera apiculata DURANTE LA FERMENTACIÓN DE JUGO DE MANZANA Influence of Aeration in the Fermentative Activity of Kloeckera apiculata during Fermentation of Apple Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALDIR D ESTELA-ESCALANTE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado la influencia de la aireación en la actividad fermentativa de Kloeckera apiculata RIVE 9-2-1 con el objetivo de evaluar la producción de metabolitos de la fermentación. Para ello, la cepa se cultivó en frascos Erlenmeyer conteniendo jugo de manzana esterilizado y sin aroma, y los compuestos químicos producidos durante la fermentación en cultivo agitado (200 min-1 y estático (sin agitación se determinaron. Los resultados mostraron que la agitación del medio de cultivo incrementa la producción de alcoholes superiores (hasta 591,0 mg/L comparado al cultivo estático, mientras que por el contrario, la producción de ácido acético, etil acetato y glicerol (260,0 ± 11,0 mg/L, 196,0 ± 10,0 mg/L y 2,6 ± 0,2 g/L resultaron ser mayores que en cultivo agitado (222,0 ± 8,0 mg/L, 96,0 ± 4,5 mg/L y 1,8 ± 0,2 g/L respectivamente. Cultivos bacth realizados en biorreactor con un flujo de aire de 25 L/h reportaron una tasa de crecimiento (µ de 0,17 h-1, producción de etanol (12,5 ± 2,0 g/L y otros compuestos típicamente producidos durante la fermentación alcohólica. La concentración de oxígeno disuelto en el medio de fermentación afecta su metabolismo así, cantidades insuficientes de oxígeno provocaría un metabolismo respirofermentativo. Los mejores resultados en términos de calidad organoléptica de la bebida fermentada en lo referente al aroma, sabor y olor se obtuvieron en la fermentación en cultivo estático. El control de la aireación del medio de fermentación puede ser usado para controlar la síntesis de compuestos químicos de impacto sensorial en la producción de bebidas fermentadas.The influence of aireation on the fermentative activity of Kloeckera apiculata RIVE 9-2-1 was studied in order to evaluate the production of metabolites of the fermentation. To achieve this, the strain was cultured in Erlenmeyer flasks containing sterilized and aroma removed apple juice, and the chemical compounds produced

  1. Technology and potential applications of probiotic encapsulation in fermented milk products

    OpenAIRE

    Iravani, Siavash; Korbekandi, Hassan; Mirmohammadi, Seyed Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Fermented milk products containing probiotics and prebiotics can be used in management, prevention and treatment of some important diseases (e.g., intestinal- and immune-associated diseases). Microencapsulation has been used as an efficient method for improving the viability of probiotics in fermented milks and gastrointestinal tract. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacterial cells provides shelter against adverse conditions during processing, storage and gastrointestinal passage. Important c...

  2. Cancer stem cells in human gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Moriya, Chiharu; Igarashi, Hisayoshi; Saitoh, Anri; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Yasushi; Imai, Kohzoh

    2016-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to be responsible for tumor initiation, drug and radiation resistance, invasive growth, metastasis, and tumor relapse, which are the main causes of cancer-related deaths. Gastrointestinal cancers are the most common malignancies and still the most frequent cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Because gastrointestinal CSCs are also thought to be resistant to conventional therapies, an effective and novel cancer treatment is imperative. The first reported CSCs in a gastrointestinal tumor were found in colorectal cancer in 2007. Subsequently, CSCs were reported in other gastrointestinal cancers, such as esophagus, stomach, liver, and pancreas. Specific phenotypes could be used to distinguish CSCs from non-CSCs. For example, gastrointestinal CSCs express unique surface markers, exist in a side-population fraction, show high aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 activity, form tumorspheres when cultured in non-adherent conditions, and demonstrate high tumorigenic potential in immunocompromised mice. The signal transduction pathways in gastrointestinal CSCs are similar to those involved in normal embryonic development. Moreover, CSCs are modified by the aberrant expression of several microRNAs. Thus, it is very difficult to target gastrointestinal CSCs. This review focuses on the current research on gastrointestinal CSCs and future strategies to abolish the gastrointestinal CSC phenotype.

  3. Possible anti-tumour-promoting activity of components in Japanese soybean fermented food, Natto: effect on gap junctional intercellular communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, C; Kikuchi, N; Katou, N; Miki, T; Yanagida, F; Umeda, M

    1995-03-01

    In order to detect any protective agent against tumor formation, we examined the anti-tumor-promoting effect of a Japanese traditional soybean fermented food, Natto. Dye transfer was employed as an assay method. When fluorescent dye was microinjected into cultured BALB/3T3 cells, the dye was transformed into the neighboring cells through the gap junction. This dye transfer was blocked by the treatment with the tumor promoters 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a high concentration of NaCl and lithocholic acid (LCA). This reduction of the dye transfer by TPA treatment was not observed when the cells were pretreated with retinoic acid, an anti-tumor promoter. Thus, the recovery of the dye transfer in TPA-treated BALB/3T3 cells was proven to ge a good indicator for detecting some possible anti-tumor promoters. After extraction and fractionation of Natto, we obtained an active fraction (H1) which showed recovery of the dye transfer in TPA-treated cells. The fraction contained straight-chain saturated hydrocarbons. A comparison of the fraction and the authentic samples by GC analysis suggests that the H1 fraction contained straight-chain saturated hydrocarbons from around C30 to C32. Among these hydrocarbons, hentriacontane (C31) was found at the highest concentrations, and was shown to have the highest activity. Hentriacontane at a very low concentration of 0.65 ng/ml was shown to recover the dye transfer inhibited by the treatment with TPA as well as with NaCl and LCA.

  4. Research on adaptive segmentation and activity classification method of filamentous fungi image in microbe fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaochun; Hu, Yihua; Wang, Peng; Sun, Dujuan; Hu, Guilan

    2009-10-01

    The paper presents an adaptive segmentation and activity classification method for filamentous fungi image. Firstly, an adaptive structuring element (SE) construction algorithm is proposed for image background suppression. Based on watershed transform method, the color labeled segmentation of fungi image is taken. Secondly, the fungi elements feature space is described and the feature set for fungi hyphae activity classification is extracted. The growth rate evaluation of fungi hyphae is achieved by using SVM classifier. Some experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective for filamentous fungi image processing.

  5. Microbiological analysis and antibacterial effects of the indigenous fermented Puer tea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Xu, X.Q.; Yan, M.C.; Yang Zhu, Yang

    2005-01-01

    Microbiological analysis was done on samples from an indigenously fermented tea - Puer. Microbial counting and identification revealed that Aspergillus niger was the dominating microorganism during the fermentation. Antimicrobial activity of fermentation samples showed inhibitory effect on several f

  6. Volatile fatty acids productions by mesophilic and thermophilic sludge fermentation: Biological responses to fermentation temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jiuxiao; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) productions, as well as hydrolases activities, microbial communities, and homoacetogens, of mesophilic and thermophilic sludge anaerobic fermentation were investigated to reveal the microbial responses to different fermentation temperatures. Thermophilic fermentation led to 10-fold more accumulation of VFAs compared to mesophilic fermentation. α-glucosidase and protease had much higher activities in thermophilic reactor, especially protease. Illumina sequencing manifested that raising fermentation temperature increased the abundances of Clostridiaceae, Microthrixaceae and Thermotogaceae, which could facilitate either hydrolysis or acidification. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that under thermophilic condition the relative abundance of homoacetogens increased in batch tests and reached higher level at stable fermentation, whereas under mesophilic condition it only increased slightly in batch tests. Therefore, higher fermentation temperature increased the activities of key hydrolases, raised the proportions of bacteria involved in hydrolysis and acidification, and promoted the relative abundance of homoacetogens, which all resulted in higher VFAs production.

  7. MAGNETIC FIELD EFFECT ON YEAST Saccharomyces cerevisiae ACTIVITY AT GRAPE MUST FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bayraktar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of yeast cultures using magnetic fields enables us to gain a better understanding of the magnetic fields’ action on enzyme activity and the fluctuation of macro- and micro-element concentrations within yeast cultures. For this purpose, the two following groups of yeast were studied: laboratory yeast cultures isolated from regional grape must and commercial yeast cultures that are commonly used in the wine industry. Both yeast groups were biochemically tested with and without magnetic field treatment exposure. We used the following parameters of magnetic field frequency: 160 Hz with an intensity of 5 mT and an exposure time of 30 minutes. Based on our laboratory tests, the yeast cultures that were not exposed to magnetic field treatment had a high correlation between the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and cocarboxylase. The groups of yeast that underwent magnetic field treatment had a high correlation between the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, amylase and phosphatase. Study of the morphology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast followed by magnetic field treatment illustrated that between 30 and 70% of the magnetic field treated yeast died. The surviving yeast cultures in the grape must (confirmed by Gram staining revealed increased enzymatic activity and a high correlation between levels of potassium and calcium, as well as between levels of potassium and magnesium.

  8. In situ production of human β defensin-3 in lager yeasts provides bactericidal activity against beer-spoiling bacteria under fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, T C; Gallagher, L; Titze, J; Bourke, P; Kavanagh, J; Arendt, E; Bond, U

    2014-02-01

    To examine the use of a natural antimicrobial peptide, human β-defensin-3 (HBD3), as a means of preventing spoilage from bacterial contamination in brewery fermentations and in bottled beer. A chemically synthesised HBD3 peptide was tested for bactericidal activity against common Gram-positive and Gram-negative beer-spoiling bacteria, including species of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Pectinatus. The peptide was effective at the μmol l(-1) range in vitro, reducing bacterial counts by 95%. A gene construct encoding a secretable form of HBD3 was integrated into the genome of the lager yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus strain CMBS-33. The integrated gene was expressed under fermentation conditions and was secreted from the cell into the medium, but a significant amount remains associated with yeast cell surface. We demonstrate that under pilot-scale fermentation conditions, secreted HBD3 possesses bactericidal activity against beer-spoiling bacteria. Furthermore, when added to bottled beer, a synthetic form of HBD3 reduces the growth of beer-spoiling bacteria. Defensins provide prophylactic protection against beer-spoiling bacteria under brewing conditions and also in bottled beer. The results have direct application to the brewing industry where beer spoilage due to bacterial contamination continues to be a major problem in breweries around the world. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Fermentation and complex enzyme hydrolysis enhance total phenolics and antioxidant activity of aqueous solution from rice bran pretreated by steaming with α-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Ruifen; Deng, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Juan; Huang, Fei; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-04-15

    In this study, rice bran was successively steamed with α-amylase, fermented with lactic acid bacteria, and hydrolyzed with complex enzymes. The changes in phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of the corresponding aqueous solutions from three stages were investigated. Compared to the first stage, fermentation and complex enzyme hydrolysis significantly increased the total phenolics, total flavonoids, total FRAP and ORAC values by 59.2%, 56.6%, 73.6% and 45.4%, respectively. Twelve individual phenolics present in free or soluble conjugate forms were also analyzed during the processing. Ferulic acid was released in the highest amount among different phenolics followed by protocatechuic acid. Moreover, a major proportion of phenolics existed as soluble conjugates. The results showed that fermentation and complex enzyme hydrolysis enhanced total phenolics and antioxidant activities of aqueous solution from rice bran pretreated by steaming with α-amylase. This research could provide basis for the processing of rice bran beverage rich in phenolics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antifungal activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Lactobacillus plantarum during sourdough fermentation: identification of novel compounds and long-term effect during storage of wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Rossana; Cassone, Angela; Rizzello, Carlo G; Nionelli, Luana; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the antifungal activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and sourdough lactic acid bacteria to extend the shelf life of wheat flour bread. The antifungal activity was assayed by agar diffusion, growth rate inhibition, and conidial germination assays, using Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Sourdough fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum 1A7 (S1A7) and dough fermented by W. anomalus LCF1695 (D1695) were selected and characterized. The water/salt-soluble extract of S1A7 was partially purified, and several novel antifungal peptides, encrypted into sequences of Oryza sativa proteins, were identified. The water/salt-soluble extract of D1695 contained ethanol and, especially, ethyl acetate as inhibitory compounds. As shown by growth inhibition assays, both water/salt-soluble extracts had a large inhibitory spectrum, with some differences, toward the most common fungi isolated from bakeries. Bread making at a pilot plant was carried out with S1A7, D1695, or a sourdough started with a combination of both strains (S1A7-1695). Slices of the bread manufactured with S1A7-1695 did not show contamination by fungi until 28 days of storage in polyethylene bags at room temperature, a level of protection comparable to that afforded by 0.3% (wt/wt) calcium propionate. The effect of sourdough fermentation with W. anomalus LCF1695 was also assessed based on rheology and sensory properties.

  11. Effects of Iron on Hydrogen-producing Capacity,Hydrogenase and NADH-fd Reductase Activities of a Fermentative Hydrogen-producing Bacterial Strain B49

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiangjing(王相晶); Ren Nanqi; Xiang Wensheng

    2004-01-01

    Iron plays an important role in hydrogen production, cell growth, hydrogenase and NADH-fd reductase activities of hydrogen-producing bacterial strain B49 (AF481148 in EMBL). At the end of fermentation from 10 g/L glucose, for the culture containing 10 mg/L FeSO4*7H2O the cell growth in terms of optical density (OD) at 600nm was 1.13, the ratio of ethanol amount (mg/L) to acetate amount (mg/L) was 1.55, and the accumulated hydrogen volume was 1816.3 ml H2/L culture; whereas for the culture of 80 mg/L FeSO4*7H2O OD600nm was increased to 1.34, the accumulated hydrogen volume was increased to 2360.5 ml H2/L culture, and the ratio of ethanol amount (mg/L) to acetate amount (mg/L) decreased to 1.31. Moreover, the iron addition to the medium at different fermentation time could affect hydrogen-producing ability. However, the later the addition time of FeSO4*7H2O was postponed, the less the effect on hydrogen evolution was. In the course of fermentation, the specific activities of hydrogenase and NADH-fd reductase of hydrogen-producing bacterial strain B49 decreased with the consumption of iron.

  12. Production and anti-diabetic activity of soluble dietary fiber from apricot pulp by Trichoderma viride fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jie; Gu, Xin; Zhang, Qiaohui; Ou, Yangjie; Wang, Jianzhong

    2015-05-01

    Soluble dietary fiber (SDF) was prepared by Trichoderma viride fermentation by using apricot pulp as the raw material. A four-factor and three-level response surface methodology was applied to optimize the fermentation conditions affecting the extraction rate of SDF. The optimum fermentation conditions were listed: crude enzyme volume, 9.59 mL g(-1); fermentation temperature, 43 °C; initial pH, 5.36; fermentation time, 6.47 h. Under these conditions, 15.69% yield was obtained and its relative error with the predicted theoretical value (15.87%) was 1.14%. The dietary fiber content of SDF was 84.0% whereas it was found to be 43.1% in apricot pulp flour. The anti-diabetic effect of apricot pulp SDF on rat models of diabetes was investigated. Both the blood glucose level and body weight were significantly changed in apricot pulp SDF-treated groups compared with the diabetic group (p pulp SDF relieved the symptoms of diabetic rats.

  13. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics.

  14. Comparison of laxative and antioxidant activities of raw, processed and fermented Polygoni Multiflori Radix%何首乌、制何首乌及何首乌发酵炮制品致泻作用与抗氧化活性的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞捷; 谢洁; 毛晓健; 卫华; 赵声兰; 马雅鸽; 李娜; 赵荣华

    2012-01-01

    目的:比较何首乌生品、传统炮制品及发酵炮制品的抗氧化活性及致泻副作用的差异,评价发酵法在何首乌炮制中的应用.方法:利用铁离子还原抗氧化法(FRAP法)评价何首乌生品与不同炮制品的抗氧化活性.利用小鼠粪便色点法及炭末推进法评价何首乌生品与不同炮制品的泻下副作用.结果:各种炮制方法均可显著降低何首乌的致泻副作用.其中用Rhizopus sp.发酵的何首乌(FB)可显著降低何首乌致稀便的次数及时间,传统法炮制的何首乌及用Rhizopus oryzae发酵的何首乌(FA)可显著减弱小鼠肠道运动.同时,在50%和95%乙醇提取物组,发酵品FA和FB的抗氧化活性都强于传统方法炮制的何首乌.经传统方法炮制后何首乌中二苯乙烯苷含量降低,但发酵炮制品FA中二苯乙烯苷的含量无明显变化,传统方法炮制品及发酵炮制品FA中大黄素及大黄素甲醚含量均增加.结论:何首乌的传统炮制法及发酵炮制法在降低何首乌致泻副作用的同时也会不同程度地减弱其抗氧化活性.其中,利用米根霉Rhizopus oryzae发酵得到的何首乌可在降低致泻副作用的同时最大程度地保留何首乌的抗氧化活性,该发酵法可能成为何首乌炮制方法中新的研究方向.%AIM:To observe the anti-oxidative activity and adverse laxative effect of raw,traditional processed and fermented products of Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR),and furthermore,to evaluate the fermentation method used in the processing procedure of PMR.METHODS:In vitro ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay was carried out to evaluate the anti-oxidative activity.Modulation of normal defecation and effect on gastrointestinal motility in mice were carried out to investigate their adverse laxative effect.RESULTS:Fermented PMR induced less severe laxative adverse effect than Polygoni Multiflori Radix Praeparata (PMRP).PMR fermented with Rhizopus sp.(FB) could modulate

  15. MAGNETIC FIELD EFFECT ON YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVIISIIAE ACTIVITY AT GRAPE MUST FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bayraktar, V.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of yeast cultures using magnetic fields enables us to gain a better understanding of the magnetic fields’ action on enzyme activity and the fluctuation of macroand micro-element concentrations within yeast cultures. For this purpose, the two following groups of yeast were studied: laboratory yeast cultures isolated from regional grape must and commercial yeast cultures that are commonly used in the wine industry. Both yeast groups were biochemically tested with and without magnetic ...

  16. Hydrogen production from molasses by anaerobic fermentation in an activated sludge immobilized bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, W.; Yao, X.; Chen, H.; Yue, L.R. [Northeast Forestry Univ., Harbin (China). Forestry School; Li, Y.F. [Shanghai Univ. of Engineering and Science (China). School of Chemical Engineering; Northeast Forestry Univ., Harbin (China). Forestry School

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the use of granular activated carbon as a support material for the production of biohydrogen in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with 5.4 L of molasses as a substrate. The CSTR contained both granular activated carbon and pre-treated sludge operating and was operated at a temperature of 36 degrees C with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 hours. The procedure increased both biogas and hydrogen yields. The biogas was principally comprised of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). The H{sub 2} percentage ranged from 38.4 per cent to 41 per cent. The maximum H{sub 2} production rate of 3.56 L was obtained at an OLR of 24 kg/m{sup t}d. H{sub 2} yield was influenced by the presence of ethanol to acetic acid in the liquid phase. Maximum H{sub 2} production rates occurred when the ratio of ethanol to acetic acid was close to 1. The study indicated that granular activated carbon can help to stabilize H{sub 2} production systems.

  17. Effects of two different dietary fermentable carbohydrates on activity and heat production in group-housed growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnen, M M J A; Verstegen, M W A; Heetkamp, M J W; Schrama, J W

    2003-05-01

    The effects of two sources of dietary fiber (DF) on behavior and heat production (HP) in group-housed growing pigs were studied. Twenty clusters of 14 barrows (50 kg) were fed one of 10 diets. Diets differed mainly in type and content of fermentable DF (fDF) and in content of digestible starch. Five diets contained solvent-extracted coconut meal (SECM) and five diets contained soybean hulls (SBH) as the main fDF source. On an as-fed basis, pigs received 3.5, 13.2, 23.0, 32.7, or 42.4 g x kg(-0.75) x d(-1) of SECM or SBH. A total of 280 crossbred growing pigs were used, divided into clusters of 14 pigs each. Pigs were group-housed and fed at 2.5 times the assumed maintenance energy requirements. All clusters were fed similar amounts of NE, ileal-digestible protein and amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. Consequently, DMI differed among diets because NE content decreased with increasing DF content. After a 32-d preliminary period, HP was measured per cluster during a 7-d experimental period in environmentally controlled respiration chambers. Behavior of the pigs was recorded using time-lapse video recordings during two different days within the experimental period. Intake of digestible starch and fDF was different (P average, pigs spent 153 min standing, 42 min sitting, 202 min lying on their chest, and 1,043 min lying on their flanks each day. Pigs fed SECM diets spent, on average, less time (P time spent on physical activity (i.e., standing plus sitting, 195 min/d) was not affected by diet. Total HP and resting HP were affected by diet and were on average lower (P averaged 65 kJ x kg(-0.75) x d(-1) and was not affected by diet. There was a linear relationship (P < 0.001) between fDF intake and HP, but there was no relationship between fDF intake and AHP. During different parts of the day, fDF intake also affected HP. The saving effect of physical activity on the NE values of fDF from SECM and SBH were 0.56 and 0.84 kJ/g of fDF intake, respectively. Neither of

  18. Evaluation of antagonistic activity of milk fermented with kefir grains of different origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Victorino Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential of kefir grains, obtained from three different towns/cities in the Southeast Region of Brazil to inhibit the growth of the five pathogenic microorganisms was evaluated. The samples showed the growth inhibition from 42.80-69.15 for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, 30.73-59.89 for Escherichia coli ATCC 11229, 44.99-73.05 for Salmonela typhi ATCC 6539, 41.45-54.18 for Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313 and 70.38-86.80 for Bacillus cereus RIBO 1222-173-S4. These results indicated that the kefir grains evaluated had antagonistic activity toward the different pathogens tested. The ability to inhibit, although differently depending on the regional microbiota, indicated a potential for their use as a functional food.

  19. Microbial short-chain fatty acid production and extracellular enzymes activities during in vitro fermentation of polysaccharides from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. treated with microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie-Lun; Nie, Shao-Ping; Li, Chang; Fu, Zhi-Hong; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2013-06-26

    Effects of microwave irradiation on microbial short-chain fatty acid production and the activites of extracellular enzymes during in vitro fermentation of the polysaccharide from Plantago asiatica L. were investigated in this study. It was found that the apparent viscosity, average molecular weight, and particle size of the polysaccharide decreased after microwave irradiation. Reducing sugar amount increased with molecular weight decrease, suggesting the degradation may derive from glycosidic bond rupture. The polysaccharide surface topography was changed from large flakelike structure to smaller chips. FT-IR showed that microwave irradiation did not alter the primary functional groups in the polysaccharide. However, short-chain fatty acid productions of the polysaccharide during in vitro fermentation significantly increased after microwave irradiation. Activities of microbial extracellular enzymes xylanase, arabinofuranosidase, xylosidase, and glucuronidase in fermentation cultures supplemented with microwave irradiation treated polysaccharide were also generally higher than those of untreated polysaccharide. This showed that microwave irradiation could be a promising degradation method for the production of value-added polysaccharides.

  20. A Jejunal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour: an unusual cause of massive acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage with emphasis on pre intervention MDCT

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) most commonly arise from the stomach followed by the small intestine and are common cause for an occult gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. We present an unusual case of a jejunal GIST, which presented as an acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage. This case highlights the importance of an intravenous contrast enhanced abdominal CT with neutral oral contrast for the assessment of gastrointestinal bleeding where non-obstructive enhancing tumour, active extravasati...

  1. Prebiotics, Fermentable Dietary Fiber, and Health Claims12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term “dietary fiber” groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the “fiber gap”—that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer. PMID:26773010

  2. Reactivity-activity relationships of oral anti-diabetic vanadium complexes in gastrointestinal media: an X-ray absorption spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, Aviva; McLeod, Andrew I; Kremer, Lauren E; Aitken, Jade B; Glover, Christopher J; Johannessen, Bernt; Lay, Peter A

    2014-10-01

    The reactions of oral V(V/IV) anti-diabetic drugs within the gastrointestinal environment (particularly in the presence of food) are a crucial factor that affects their biological activities, but to date these have been poorly understood. In order to build up reactivity-activity relationships, the first detailed study of the reactivities of typical V-based anti-diabetics, Na3V(V)O4 (A), [V(IV)O(OH2)5](SO4) (B), [V(IV)O(ma)2] (C, ma = maltolato(-)) and (NH4)[V(V)(O)2(dipic)] (D, dipic = pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylato(2-)) with simulated gastrointestinal (GI) media in the presence or absence of food components has been performed by the use of XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) spectroscopy. Changes in speciation under conditions that simulate interactions in the GI tract have been discerned using correlations of XANES parameters that were based on a library of model V(V), V(IV), and V(III) complexes for preliminary assessment of the oxidation states and coordination numbers. More detailed speciation analyses were performed using multiple linear regression fits of XANES from the model complexes to XANES obtained from the reaction products from interactions with the GI media. Compounds B and D were relatively stable in the gastric environment (pH ∼ 2) in the absence of food, while C was mostly dissociated, and A was converted to [V10O28](6-). Sequential gastric and intestinal digestion in the absence of food converted A, B and D to poorly absorbed tetrahedral vanadates, while C formed five- or six-coordinate V(V) species where the maltolato ligands were likely to be partially retained. XANES obtained from gastric digestion of A-D in the presence of typical food components converged to that of a mixture of V(IV)-aqua, V(IV)-amino acid and V(III)-aqua complexes. Subsequent intestinal digestion led predominantly to V(IV) complexes that were assigned as citrato or complexes with 2-hydroxyacidato donor groups from other organic compounds, including certain

  3. Nutritional Guidelines and Fermented Food Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Victoria; Ferrão, Jorge; Fernandes, Tito

    2017-01-01

    This review examines different nutritional guidelines, some case studies, and provides insights and discrepancies, in the regulatory framework of Food Safety Management of some of the world’s economies. There are thousands of fermented foods and beverages, although the intention was not to review them but check their traditional and cultural value, and if they are still lacking to be classed as a category on different national food guides. For understanding the inconsistencies in claims of concerning fermented foods among various regulatory systems, each legal system should be considered unique. Fermented foods and beverages have long been a part of the human diet, and with further supplementation of probiotic microbes, in some cases, they offer nutritional and health attributes worthy of recommendation of regular consumption. Despite the impact of fermented foods and beverages on gastro-intestinal wellbeing and diseases, their many health benefits or recommended consumption has not been widely translated to global inclusion in world food guidelines. In general, the approach of the legal systems is broadly consistent and their structures may be presented under different formats. African traditional fermented products are briefly mentioned enhancing some recorded adverse effects. Knowing the general benefits of traditional and supplemented fermented foods, they should be a daily item on most national food guides. PMID:28783111

  4. Optimization of fermentation process of Cordyceps militaris and antitumor activities of polysaccharides in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of medium composition and cultural conditions on simultaneous yield of mycelia, intracellular polysaccharide, adenosine, and mannitol by Cordyceps militaris CGMCC 2909 was investigated with desirability functions in this study. An optimization strategy based on the desirability function approach, together with response surface methodology (RSM has been used to optimize medium composition, and the optimal medium was obtained via the desirability as follows: yeast extract 10.33 g/L, sucrose 27.24 g/L, KH2PO4 5.60 g/L and the optimal culture conditions are initial pH 6, 25°C, rotation speed 150 r/minute, inoculum size 4%(v/v, and medium capacity 40 mL/250 mL. Under these conditions, the yield of mycelia, intracellular polysaccharide, adenosine and mannitol reached 12.19 g/L, 0.6 g/L, 61.84 mg/L, and 1.38 g/L, respectively, and the D value was 0.77. Furthermore, the polysaccharides showed significant antitumor activities against HeLa and HepG2 in vitro in a dose-dependent manner in 72 hours. At a concentration of 1000 mg/mL, the inhibition rate of polysaccharides was 92.38% and 98.79%. The IC50 for HeLa and HepG2 were 70.91 μg/mL and 97.63 μg/mL, respectively.

  5. Effects of two different dietary fermentable carbohydrates on activity and heat production in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, M.M.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Schrama, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of two sources of dietary fiber (DF) on behavior and heat production (HP) in group-housed growing pigs were studied. Twenty clusters of 14 barrows (50 kg) were fed one of 10 diets. Diets differed mainly in type,and content of fermentable DF (fDF) and in content of digestible starch. Five

  6. Effect of carob bean gum, spray dried porcine plasma and sanuinarine on fermentation activity in the gut of weanling pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellikaan, W.F.; Andres-Elias, N.; Durand, A.; Bongers, L.J.G.M.; Laar-van Schuppen, van S.; Torrallardona, D.

    2010-01-01

    Sixty landrace piglets received either a control diet or a control diet with added carob bean gum (CBG), spray dried porcine plasma (SDPP) or sanguinarine, to test the effects on fermentation end-product profiles along the GI tract. After animals were euthanized digesta samples were obtained from th

  7. Biological activities of thermo-tolerant microbes from fermented rice bran as an alternative microbial feed additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, J H; Suh, H J

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the commercial potential of new microbial feed additive, Issatchenkia orientalis Y266 and Bacillus subtilis B266 from commercial fermented rice bran were tested for their tolerance or resistance to pH, bile, oxgall, and temperature. It was found that the strains grew very well up to pH 3.0 and resistant to relatively high concentrations of bile salt and oxgall. I. orientalis and B. subtilis are extremely tolerant in range of 70-90 degrees C in solid medium. B. subtilis B266 also has excellent tolerant property up to 90 degrees C in liquid medium. The health indexes (the microflora in the small intestines and the antibody titer to Newcastle disease virus) of chicks were significantly improved in the fermented rice bran with these strains (0.25% addition to diet) in comparison with the Avilamycin (20 mg/kg diet)-fed group (p fermented rice bran-fed group showed a better microbial flora in the small intestines. Accordingly, it would appear that the fermented rice bran with these strains may be a potential candidate for an alternative microbial feed additive.

  8. Effects of two different dietary fermentable carbohydrates on activity and heat production in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, M.M.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Schrama, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of two sources of dietary fiber (DF) on behavior and heat production (HP) in group-housed growing pigs were studied. Twenty clusters of 14 barrows (50 kg) were fed one of 10 diets. Diets differed mainly in type,and content of fermentable DF (fDF) and in content of digestible starch. Five

  9. Application of an object-oriented programming paradigm in three-dimensional computer modeling of mechanically active gastrointestinal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashev, P Z; Mintchev, M P; Bowes, K L

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel three-dimensional (3-D) object-oriented modeling approach incorporating knowledge of the anatomy, electrophysiology, and mechanics of externally stimulated excitable gastrointestinal (GI) tissues and emphasizing the "stimulus-response" principle of extracting the modeling parameters. The modeling method used clusters of class hierarchies representing GI tissues from three perspectives: 1) anatomical; 2) electrophysiological; and 3) mechanical. We elaborated on the first four phases of the object-oriented system development life-cycle: 1) analysis; 2) design; 3) implementation; and 4) testing. Generalized cylinders were used for the implementation of 3-D tissue objects modeling the cecum, the descending colon, and the colonic circular smooth muscle tissue. The model was tested using external neural electrical tissue excitation of the descending colon with virtual implanted electrodes and the stimulating current density distributions over the modeled surfaces were calculated. Finally, the tissue deformations invoked by electrical stimulation were estimated and represented by a mesh-surface visualization technique.

  10. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of fruit juices enriched with Pycnogenol® in colon carcinoma cells. The effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; López-Nicolás, Rubén; González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Peso-Echarri, Patricia; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Martínez-Graciá, Carmen; Canali, Raffaella; Virgili, Fabio

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant and antiproliferative effect of fruit juices enriched with Pycnogenol® (0.5 g/L) on a colon carcinoma cell line (Caco-2). The total phenolic concentration (TPC), antioxidant activity and inhibition cell growth were studied in fresh and digested pineapple juice and red fruits juice (both enriched with pine bark extract and not). After in vitro digestion the level of detectable phenolic compounds (expressed as gallic acid equivalent) was higher in both pineapple and red fruits juices enriched with Pycnogenol® than in non-enriched commercial juices (155.6 mg/100 mL vs 94.6 mg/100 mL and 478.5 mg/100 mL vs 406.9 mg/100 mL, respectively). Increased antioxidant activity (measured by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC) methods) was observed in digested enriched juices with respect to the same samples before digestion. Pycnogenol® enrichment led to a high antiproliferative effect between 24 and 72 h of incubation with undigested pineapple juice compared with the non-enriched juice. It can be concluded that enrichment of fruit juices with Pycnogenol® provides a source of phenolic compounds with high stability to in vitro gastrointestinal conditions; however, the antioxidant properties of fruit juices were affected to a different extent.

  11. The switch from fermentation to respiration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by the Ert1 transcriptional activator/repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Najla; Jacques, Pierre-Etienne; Klimova, Natalia; Guo, Xiao; Ricciardi, Alessandra; Robert, François; Turcotte, Bernard

    2014-10-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fermentation is the major pathway for energy production, even under aerobic conditions. However, when glucose becomes scarce, ethanol produced during fermentation is used as a carbon source, requiring a shift to respiration. This adaptation results in massive reprogramming of gene expression. Increased expression of genes for gluconeogenesis and the glyoxylate cycle is observed upon a shift to ethanol and, conversely, expression of some fermentation genes is reduced. The zinc cluster proteins Cat8, Sip4, and Rds2, as well as Adr1, have been shown to mediate this reprogramming of gene expression. In this study, we have characterized the gene YBR239C encoding a putative zinc cluster protein and it was named ERT1 (ethanol regulated transcription factor 1). ChIP-chip analysis showed that Ert1 binds to a limited number of targets in the presence of glucose. The strongest enrichment was observed at the promoter of PCK1 encoding an important gluconeogenic enzyme. With ethanol as the carbon source, enrichment was observed with many additional genes involved in gluconeogenesis and mitochondrial function. Use of lacZ reporters and quantitative RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that Ert1 regulates expression of its target genes in a manner that is highly redundant with other regulators of gluconeogenesis. Interestingly, in the presence of ethanol, Ert1 is a repressor of PDC1 encoding an important enzyme for fermentation. We also show that Ert1 binds directly to the PCK1 and PDC1 promoters. In summary, Ert1 is a novel factor involved in the regulation of gluconeogenesis as well as a key fermentation gene.

  12. 兰索拉唑治疗胃镜下活动性非静脉曲张性上消化道出血的疗效观察%The Clinical Curative Effect Observation of Lansoprazole in Therapy of Active Non-Variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding after Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何灏澜

    2012-01-01

      Objective To observe the homeostasis effect of Lansoprazole in the therapy of active non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding after gastrointestinal endoscopy examination. Methods 70 cases with active non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding after gastrointestinal endoscopy examination were randomly divided into two groups. The therapy group was used Lansoprazole, the control group was used Omeprazole.Results In the therapy group, the significant effective cases,effective cases were 31, 5, respectively, and the total effective ratio was 97.30%. And in the control group, the significant effective cases,effective cases were 14, 13, respectively, and the total effective ratio was 81.81%. And there was statistical significance. In both groups, no side effect was found. Conclusion Early use Lansoprazole in the therapy of active non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding after gastrointestinal endoscopy examination, the incidence rate of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and mortality can be lower markedly.%  目的观察应用兰索拉唑对胃镜下活动性非静脉曲张性上消化道出血的治疗作用.方法将70例胃镜下活动性非静脉曲张性上消化道出血患者随机分为两组.治疗组应用兰索拉唑;对照组应用奥美拉唑.结果治疗组显效31例,有效5例,总有效率为97.30%;对照组分别为14例,13例及81.81%,两组间差异有统计学意义.两组均无明显不良反应.结论胃镜下活动性非静脉曲张性上消化道出血患者早期应用兰索拉唑,可显著降低消化道出血的发生率,降低病死率,值得临床推广.

  13. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); Golzarian, Jafar [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  14. Gastrointestinal Morbidity in Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Andres; Camilleri, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a complex disease that results from increased energy intake and decreased energy expenditure. The gastrointestinal system plays a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity and facilitates caloric imbalance. Changes in gastrointestinal hormones and the inhibition of mechanisms that curtail caloric intake result in weight gain. It is not clear if the gastrointestinal role in obesity is a cause or an effect of this disease. Obesity is often associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Obesity is also associated with gastrointestinal disorders, which are more frequent and present earlier than T2DM and CVD. Diseases such as gastro-esophageal reflux disease, cholelithiasis or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are directly related to body weight and abdominal adiposity. Our objective is to assess the role of each gastrointestinal organ in obesity and the gastrointestinal morbidity resulting in those organs from effects of obesity. PMID:24602085

  15. European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - Establishing the key unanswered research questions within gastrointestinal endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, Colin J; Ngu, Wee Sing; Regula, Jaroslaw

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aim: Gastrointestinal endoscopy is a rapidly evolving research field. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) plays a key role in shaping opinion and endoscopy activity throughout Europe and further afield. Establishing key unanswered questions within the fi...

  16. Novel antimicrobial activities of a peptide derived from a Japanese soybean fermented food, Natto, against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis group strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Manabu; Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Yamamoto, Soh; Kutomi, Ryosuke; Ohkoshi, Yasuo; Sato, Toyotaka; Wakui, Hideki; Itoh, Hideaki; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Yokota, Shin-Ichi

    2017-12-01

    We recently isolated a tumoricidal peptide from Natto, a Japanese traditional fermented food. In the present study, antimicrobial activity of the Natto peptide was examined. The peptide consisted of 45 amino acid residues, and its structure was predicted to be rich in α-helix. It excreted antimicrobial activity only against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis group (B. subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, and Bacillus licheniformis). Lesser antimicrobial activity was observed for Streptococcus species other than S. pneumoniae. Hemolysate or hemin was required for the antimicrobial activity of the peptide. The Natto peptide damages the cell membrane of B. subtilis. On the other hand, chain morphology was induced in S. pneumoniae, which is naturally diplococcus, during the early phases of the Natto peptide treatment; following that the cells were rapidly lysed. This suggested that the Natto peptide displayed a novel narrow spectrum of bactericidal activity and inhibited cell separation during cell division of S. pneumoniae.

  17. PKCθ activation in pancreatic acinar cells by gastrointestinal hormones/neurotransmitters and growth factors is needed for stimulation of numerous important cellular signaling cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Veronica; Berna, Marc J.; Thill, Michelle; Jensen, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    The novel PKCθ isoform is highly expressed in T-cells, brain and skeletal muscle and originally thought to have a restricted distribution. It has been extensively studied in T-cells and shown to be important for apoptosis, T-cell activation and proliferation. Recent studies showed its presence in other tissues and importance in insulin signaling, lung surfactant secretion, intestinal barrier permeability, platelet and mast-cell functions. However, little information is available for PKCθ activation by gastrointestinal(GI) hormones/neurotransmitters and growth factors. In the present study we used rat pancreatic acinar cells to explore their ability to activate PKCθ and the possible interactions with important cellular mediators of their actions. Particular attention was paid to cholecystokinin(CCK), a physiological regulator of pancreatic function and important in pathological processes affecting acinar function, like pancreatitis. PKCθ-protein/mRNA were present in the pancreatic acini, and T538-PKCθ phosphorylation/activation was stimulated only by hormones/neurotransmitters activating phospholipase C. PKCθ was activated in time- and dose-related manner by CCK, mediated 30% by high-affinity CCKA-receptor activation. CCK stimulated PKCθ translocation from cytosol to membrane. PKCθ inhibition (by pseudostrate-inhibitor or dominant negative) inhibited CCK- and TPA-stimulation of PKD, Src, RafC, PYK2, p125FAK and IKKα/β, but not basal/stimulated enzyme secretion. Also CCK- and TPA-induced PKCθ activation produced an increment in PKCθ’s direct association with AKT, RafA, RafC and Lyn. These results show for the first time PKCθ presence in pancreatic acinar cells, its activation by some GI hormones/neurotransmitters and involvement in important cell signaling pathways mediating physiological responses (enzyme secretion, proliferation, apoptosis, cytokine expression, and pathological responses like pancreatitis and cancer growth). PMID:21810446

  18. Fermentation of Green Tea with 2% Aquilariae lignum Increases the Anti-Diabetic Activity of Green Tea Aqueous Extracts in the High Fat-Fed Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Anti-diabetic effects on the metabolomic differences between green tea (GT and Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea (fGT were investigated in the high fat-fed mouse. To prove the differences, hypoglycemic (blood glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels, pancreas weights and histopathological-immunohistochemistrical analysis of pancreas–insulin/glucagon cells, hepato- and nephron-protective (the changes in liver and kidney weight, histopathology of liver and kidney, serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT levels, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels, and hypolipidemic (the changes of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein levels with fecal total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG contents effects were evaluated. In addition, liver lipid peroxidation, the glutathione contents, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were measured according to the hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities of glucokinase (GK, glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK for action mechanisms. As a result, fGT showed a stronger hypoglycemic, hepato- and nephron-protective, hypolipidemic, and anti-oxidant effect than GT in high fat-fed mice. In addition, fGT-treated mice exerted more favorable inhibitory activities against GK, G6pase, PERCK activities as compared to GT-treated mice. Taken together, fGT fermented with Aquilariae lignum, 1:49 (2%; g/g has a stronger effect compared with GT. Therefore, fGT has the potential to increase bioactivity against type 2 diabetics.

  19. Effects of long period feeding pistachio by-product silage on chewing activity, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation parameters of Holstein male calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, P; Riasi, A; Alikhani, M

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pistachio by-product silage (PBPS) as a partial replacement for corn silage (CS) on chewing activity, nutrients digestibility and ruminal fermentation parameters in Holstein male calves over a 6-month assay. For this purpose, 24 Holstein male calves (4 to 5 months of age and 155.6±13.5 kg BW) were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments (n=6). In these treatments, CS was substituted with different levels of PBPS (0%, 6%, 12% and 18% of dry matter (DM)). Nutrient digestibility was measured at the end of the experimental period (days 168 to 170). Ruminal fermentation parameters were determined on days 90 and 180 and chewing activity was determined on days 15 of the 3rd and 6th month of the experiment. Results showed that calves fed rations containing 6% PBPS spent more time ruminating (P<0.05) than the control group on the 3rd and 6th months. Feeding PBPS was found to have no effects on DM, organic matter (OM), ether extract or ash digestibility, but apparent digestibility of CP, NDFom and ADFom linearly decreased (P<0.01) with increasing substitutions. On days 90 and 180, ruminal concentrations of volatile fatty acids and NH3-N linearly decreased (P<0.01) with increasing levels of PBPS in the diets; however, ruminal pH and molar proportions of acetate, propionate and butyrate were similar across the treatments. It was concluded that partial substitution of CS with PBPS (6% or 12%) would have no adverse effects on nutrient digestibility, total chewing activity and ruminal fermentation parameters.

  20. Phytase in non-ruminant animal nutrition: a critical review on phytase activities in the gastrointestinal tract and influencing factors

    OpenAIRE

    Dersjant-Li, Yueming; Awati, Ajay; Schulze, Hagen; Partridge, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on phytase functionality in the digestive tract of farmed non-ruminant animals and the factors influencing in vivo phytase enzyme activity. In pigs, feed phytase is mainly active in the stomach and upper part of the small intestine, and added phytase activity is not recovered in the ileum. In poultry, feed phytase activities are mainly found in the upper part of the digestive tract, including the crop, proventriculus and gizzard. For fish with a stomach, phytase activities...

  1. IMPORTANCE OF PROTEATIC ENZYMES IN FERMENTED MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem SERDAROĞLU

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The formation of aroma and taste in fermented sausages is based on proteolytic breakdown. Proteolysis during fermentation and ripening is reflected in an increase in non-protein nitrogen compounds. The fermenting sausage provides optimal conditions for proteolytic enzymes. Muscle proteinases are mainly active during initial fermentation, involuing degradation of myosin and actin, bacterial proteases are more important during the drying period. Added proteolytic enzymes to fermented meat products for increasing proteolysis involves to shorten the ripening period and decreases the costs of storing. Also, organoleptically, fermented meats manufactured with proteinases could yield unique sensory characteristics.

  2. Effect of transportation on fecal bacterial communities and fermentative activities in horses: impact of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077 supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubladier, C; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; da Veiga, L; Julliand, V

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of transportation on fecal bacterial communities and activities in horses with or without supplementation of live yeast and attempted to link those effects with changes in blood stress markers. Four mature horses were assigned to a crossover design and fed a basal diet (60:40 forage to concentrate; 1.45% BW on a DM basis), with or without supplementation, of 2 × 10(10) cfu/d of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077. After a 14-d adaptation to dietary treatments, the 5-d experiment started 1 d before transportation (d -1). At d 0, horses were simultaneously transported in a truck for 2 h. Feces were sampled 4 h after the morning meal of concentrate at d -1, 0 (immediately after transportation), and 3 for enumeration of the main functional bacterial groups and determination of fermentative variables. Within each dietary treatment, feces were pooled before DNA extraction and molecular analysis of the bacterial communities, using temporal temperature gradient electrophoreses (TTGE). Blood samples were collected at the same time for determination of white blood cells (WBC) counts and glucose and total protein concentrations. Regardless of dietary treatment, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio increased during transportation (P horses were stressed. In both treatments, TTGE profiles were clearly different before and 3 d after transportation, and the percentage of similarity between profiles at d -1 and 3 was greater in supplemented horses compared with the controls. From d 0 to 3, the molar percentage of propionate increased and total concentration of VFA and the acetate + butyrate to propionate ratio decreased, regardless of dietary treatment (P horses (P = 0.03). Regardless of day of sampling, fecal concentrations of lactate-utilizing bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria were greater in supplemented horses than in control horses (P = 0.04 and 0.08, respectively). Our results indicate that transportation for 2 h disturbed the fecal bacterial

  3. Enzymatic Activity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Pimelodus maculatus (Teleostei, Siluriformes) in Two Neotropical Reservoirs with Different Trophic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Duarte; Marcelo Bemquerer; Francisco Gerson de Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic activities for digestion of proteins and carbohydrates were compared among three organs of the digestive system of Pimelodus maculatus in two reservoirs with different trophic conditions during the winter of 2006. The aim was to test the hypothesis that enzymatic activity for the digestion of proteins and carbohydrates differed among organs and that such activities differ between the trophic state of the environment. Enzymatic activities were determined through the assays of specifi...

  4. A new process for efficiently producing methane from waste activated sludge: alkaline pretreatment of sludge followed by treatment of fermentation liquid in an EGSB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Chen, Yinguang; Zhao, Yuxiao; Ye, Zhengxiang

    2011-01-15

    In the literature the production of methane from waste activated sludge (WAS) was usually conducted in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) after sludge was pretreated. It was reported in our previous publication that compared with other pretreatment methods the methane production in CSTR could be significantly enhanced when sludge was pretreated by NaOH at pH 10 for 8 days. In order to further improve methane production, this study reported a new process for efficiently producing methane from sludge, that is, sludge was fermented at pH 10 for 8 days, which was adjusted by Ca(OH)(2), and then the fermentation liquid was treated in an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) for methane generation. First, for comparing the methane production observed in this study with that reported in the literature, the conventional operational model was applied to produce methane from the pH 10 pretreated sludge, that is, directly using the pH 10 pretreated sludge to produce methane in a CSTR. It was observed that the maximal methane production was only 0.61 m(3)CH(4)/m(3)-reactor/day. Then, the use of fermentation liquid of pH 10 pretreated sludge to produce methane in the reactors of up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) and EGSB was compared. The maximal methane production in UASB, ASBR, and EGSB reached 1.41, 3.01, and 12.43 m(3)CH(4)/m(3)-reactor/day, respectively. Finally, the mechanisms for EGSB exhibiting remarkably higher methane production were investigated by enzyme, adenosine-triphosphate (ATP), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses. It was found that the granular sludge in EGSB had the highest conversion efficiency of acetic acid to methane, and the greatest activity of hydrolysis and acidification enzymes and general physiology with much more Methanosarcinaceae.

  5. 裂蹄木层孔菌发酵产物抑菌活性的研究%Study on the Antimicrobial Activity from Phellinus linteus Fermentation Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹莉; 谭昀; 杨民宝

    2013-01-01

      为了研究裂蹄木层孔菌发酵产物对植物病原菌的抑菌活性。采用菌丝生长速率法测定裂蹄木层孔菌不同发酵时间的产物对7种供试病原菌的抑制作用,将裂蹄木层孔菌的发酵产物进行不同的处理,分级纯化抑菌活性多糖,比较其抑菌活性。结果表明:裂蹄木层孔菌发酵产物对7种病原菌均有抑制作用;发酵时间为20天的裂蹄木层孔菌发酵产物对杨树烂皮病的抑制率最高;裂蹄木层孔菌发酵产物的主要抑菌活性物质存在于发酵上清液醇提物中;醇沉级别为30%(浓度为50 mg/mL)醇提物中的多糖对病原菌的抑制率为供试醇沉级别中最高。说明裂蹄木层孔菌含有抑制病原菌的有效成分,具备成为新型生物农药的潜力。%To discover the antifungal activity of the extracts from Phellinus linteus. We used the growth rate method measuring antifungal action to seven kinds of plant pathogen by Phellinus linteus different fermentation time fermentation product, the fermentation product was treated by different way, get the polysaccharide from the ethanol concentration, compare to antifungal activity. The results showed that antibacterial substances from Phellinus linteus had growth inhibitory effects on seven pathogenic bacteria;fermentation time was 20 d, the antibiotic compound had the highest inhibitory rate to Cytospora chrysosperma. The antibiotic compound from Phellinus linteus almost existed in supernatant of acoparia-alcohol extract;30%alcohol-precipitation concentration (concentration was 50 mg/mL) was highest in all. Phellinus linteus contained the antifungal activity component and had the potential became the new biological pesticide.

  6. Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prasanna Ghimire; Guang-Yao Wu; Ling Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract is the most common extranodal site involved by lymphoma with the majority being non-Hodgkin type. Although lymphoma can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract, the most frequent sites in order of its occurrence are the stomach followed by small intestine and ileocecal region. Gastrointestinal tract lymphoma is usually secondary to the widespread nodal diseases and primary gastrointestinal tract lymphoma is relatively rare. Gastrointestinal lymphomas are usually not clinically specific and indistinguishable from other benign and malignant conditions. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common pathological type of gastrointestinal lymphoma in essentially all sites of the gastrointestinal tract, although recently the frequency of other forms has also increased in certain regions of the world. Although some radiological features such as bulky lymph nodes and maintenance of fat plane are more suggestive of lymphoma, they are not specific,thus mandating histopathological analysis for its definitive diagnosis. There has been a tremendous leap in the diagnosis, staging and management of gastrointestinal lymphoma in the last two decades attributed to a better insight into its etiology and molecular aspect as well as the knowledge about its critical signaling pathways.

  7. Fermentation of corn starch to ethanol with genetically engineered yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inlow, D; McRae, J; Ben-Bassat, A

    1988-07-05

    Expression of the glucoamylase gene from Aspergillus awamori by laboratory and distiller's strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae allowed them to ferment soluble starch. Approximately 95% of the carbohydrates in the starch were utilized. Glycerol production was significantly decreased when soluble starch was used instead of glucose. Ethanol yield on soluble starch was higher than that on glucose. The rate of starch fermentation was directly related to the level of glucoamylase activity. Strains with higher levels of glucoamylase expression fermented starch faster. The decline in starch fermentation rates toward the end of the fermentation was associated with accumulation of disaccharides and limit dextrins, poor substrates for glucoamylase. The buildup of these products in continuous fermentations inhibited glucoamylase activity and complete utilization of the starch. Under these conditions maltose-fermenting strains had a significant advantage over nonfermenting strains. The synthesis and secretion of glucoamylase showed no deleterious effects on cell growth rates, fermetation rates, and fermentation products.

  8. Human in vivo study of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the sympathetic activity after 8 weeks daily intake of fermented milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Ibsen, Hans; Linneberg, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Milk fermented by lactic acid bacteria is suggested to have antihypertensive effect in humans. In vitro and animal studies have established an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor effect of peptides in fermented milk. However, other modes of action must be considered, because until today...... no human studies have confirmed an ACE inhibition in relation to the intake of fermented milk....

  9. Dose-dependent adsorptive capacity of activated charcoal for gastrointestinal decontamination of a simulated paracetamol overdose in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Anne-Bolette Jill; Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Angelo, Helle Riis; Christensen, Hanne Rolighed

    2010-05-01

    The amount of activated charcoal needed to treat drug overdoses has arbitrarily been set at a charcoal-drug ratio of 10:1. Recent in vitro studies have shown a larger adsorptive capacity for activated charcoal when used in a model of paracetamol overdose. In the present study, we investigated whether this reserve capacity exists in vivo. This is clinically relevant in cases of large overdoses or if the full standard dose of 50 g activated charcoal cannot be administered. We performed a randomized, cross-over study (n = 16). One hour after a standard breakfast, 50 mg/kg paracetamol was administered, followed 1 hr later by an activated charcoal-Water slurry containing 50 (control), 25 or 5 g activated charcoal. The areas under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) for paracetamol were used to estimate the efficacy of each activated charcoal dose. The AUC of the 25-g dose was found to be of similar size compared to the control, although statistics were weak. The AUC of the 5-g dose was 59% larger than the AUC of the 50-g dose (p = 0.0003). The terminal elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of paracetamol was 1.6 (CI 1.4-2.0) and 1.9 (CI 1.5-2.4) hr for 50 and 25 g, respectively (NS), and 2.5 (CI 1.8-3.0) hr for the 5-g dose (p = 0.003). The decrease in t(1/2) of paracetamol for the two larger activated charcoal doses indicates a possible effect of activated charcoal on paracetamol clearance and warrants further investigation. The large adsorptive reserve capacity of activated charcoal in vitro could not be reproduced for the smallest dose of activated charcoal. An activated charcoal-drug ratio of 10:1 is therefore still recommendable.

  10. Dose-dependent adsorptive capacity of activated charcoal for gastrointestinal decontamination of a simulated paracetamol overdose in human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gude, Anne-Bolette Jill; Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Riis Angelo, Helle

    2010-01-01

    The amount of activated charcoal needed to treat drug overdoses has arbitrarily been set at a charcoal-drug ratio of 10:1. Recent in vitro studies have shown a larger adsorptive capacity for activated charcoal when used in a model of paracetamol overdose. In the present study, we investigated...

  11. Activation of hindbrain neurons in response to gastrointestinal lipid is attenuated by high fat, high energy diets in mice prone to diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Michael J; Paulino, Gabriel; Raybould, Helen E

    2009-01-12

    Food intake is controlled by peripheral signals from the gastrointestinal tract and adipocytes, which are integrated within the central nervous system. There is evidence that signals from the GI tract are modulated by long term changes in diet, possibly leading to hyperphagia and increased body weight. We tested the hypothesis that diet-induced obese-prone (DIO-P) and obese-resistant (DIO-R) mice strains differ in the long term adaptive response of the gut-brain pathway to a high fat diet. Immunochemical detection of Fos protein was used as a measure of neuronal activation in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in response to intragastric administration of lipid in DIO-P (C57Bl6) and DIO-R (129sv) mouse strains maintained on chow or high fat, high energy diets (45% or 60% kcal from fat). Intragastric lipid administration activated neurons in the NTS in both DIO-P and DIO-R mice; the number of activated neurons was significantly greater in DIO-P than in DIO-R mice (P<0.001). However, lipid-induced activation of NTS neurons in DIO-P mice was attenuated by approximately 30% after maintenance on either 45% or 60% HF diet, for 4 or 8 weeks, compared to chow fed controls (P<0.05). In contrast, in DIO-R mice, maintenance on a HF diet (45% or 60%) had no effect on lipid-induced activation of NTS neurons. These results demonstrate that DIO-P and DIO-R mice strains differ in the adaptation of the pathway to long term ingestion of high fat diets, which may contribute to decrease satiation and increased food intake.

  12. Antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of pig meat before and after cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion: Comparison between Italian autochthonous pig Suino Nero Lucano and a modern crossbred pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio; Perna, Annamaria

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of Longissimus dorsi muscle from Suino Nero Lucano (SNL) and a modern crossbred (CG) pigs, before and after cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Pig meat showed antioxidative and antihypertensive activities, heat treatment decreased the thiols content but at the same time increased angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion enhanced the biological activity of meat. Autochthonous SNL meat showed a higher nutraceutical quality compared to CG meat, highlighting a greater potential beneficial physiological effect on human health. The results of this study indicate that the pig meat, in particular autochthonous pig meat, may be considered a functional food since it is a good source of antioxidative and antihypertensive peptides.

  13. New roles in hemicellulosic sugar fermentation for the uncultivated Bacteroidetes family BS11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solden, Lindsey M; Hoyt, David W; Collins, William B; Plank, Johanna E; Daly, Rebecca A; Hildebrand, Erik; Beavers, Timothy J; Wolfe, Richard; Nicora, Carrie D; Purvine, Sam O; Carstensen, Michelle; Lipton, Mary S; Spalinger, Donald E; Firkins, Jeffrey L; Wolfe, Barbara A; Wrighton, Kelly C

    2017-03-01

    Ruminants have co-evolved with their gastrointestinal microbial communities that digest plant materials to provide energy for the host. Some arctic and boreal ruminants have already shown to be vulnerable to dietary shifts caused by changing climate, yet we know little about the metabolic capacity of the ruminant microbiome in these animals. Here, we use meta-omics approaches to sample rumen fluid microbial communities from Alaskan moose foraging along a seasonal lignocellulose gradient. Winter diets with increased hemicellulose and lignin strongly enriched for BS11, a Bacteroidetes family lacking cultivated or genomically sampled representatives. We show that BS11 are cosmopolitan host-associated bacteria prevalent in gastrointestinal tracts of ruminants and other mammals. Metagenomic reconstruction yielded the first four BS11 genomes; phylogenetically resolving two genera within this previously taxonomically undefined family. Genome-enabled metabolic analyses uncovered multiple pathways for fermenting hemicellulose monomeric sugars to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), metabolites vital for ruminant energy. Active hemicellulosic sugar fermentation and SCFA production was validated by shotgun proteomics and rumen metabolites, illuminating the role BS11 have in carbon transformations within the rumen. Our results also highlight the currently unknown metabolic potential residing in the rumen that may be vital for sustaining host energy in response to a changing vegetative environment.

  14. Antioxidant Activity in Vitro of Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermented Purple Sweet Potato%紫甘薯乳酸发酵醪体外抗氧化性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐长亮; 张村雪; 郭秋实; 汤琳

    2012-01-01

    Five different fermentation broths were prepared by fermentation of purple sweet potato, red-core sweet potato, red jujube, apple juice or apple pomace by lactic acid bacteria. The total antioxidant capacity and DPPH free radical scavenging capacity of the fermentation broths and purple sweet potato vinegar were tested. Lactic acid bacteria fermentation resulted in a slight increase in the antioxidant activity of purple sweet potato. The total antioxidant capacity was increased to 200.18 mg/mL. The DPPH radical scavenging rate of fermented purple sweet potato was 96.99% at the dosage of 100 IzL, which was comparable to that of purple sweet potato vinegar. Purple sweet potato fermentation broth exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity among the five fermentation broths.%测定5种乳酸发酵醪和紫甘薯醋的总抗氧化能力和对二苯代苦昧酰基(DPPH)自由基清除率,结果表明紫:甘薯乳酸发酵后抗氧化能力轻微增强,总抗氧化能力达200.18mg/mL,添加量为100μL时对DPPH自由基清除率达96.99%,与紫甘薯醋抗氧化能力相当。5种乳酸发酵醪中,紫甘薯乳酸发酵醪抗氧化能力最强。

  15. Adaptation of faecal microbiota in sows after diet changes and consequences for in vitro fermentation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappok, M A; Peréz Gutiérrez, O; Smidt, H; Pellikaan, W F; Verstegen, M W A; Bosch, G; Hendriks, W H

    2015-09-01

    In vitro gas production studies are routinely used to assess the metabolic capacity of intestinal microbiota to ferment dietary fibre sources. The faecal inocula used during the in vitro gas production procedure are most often obtained from animals adapted to a certain diet. The present study was designed to assess whether 19 days of adaptation to a diet are sufficient for faecal inocula of pigs to reach a stable microbial composition and activity as determined by in vitro gas production. Eighteen multiparous sows were allotted to one of two treatments for three weeks: a diet high in fibre (H) or a diet low in fibre (L). After this 3-week period, the H group was transferred to the low fibre diet (HL-treatment) while the L group was transferred to the diet high in fibre (LH-treatment). Faecal samples were collected from each sow at 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16 and 19 days after the diet change and prepared as inoculum used for incubation with three contrasting fermentable substrates: oligofructose, soya pectin and cellulose. In addition, inocula were characterised using a phylogenetic microarray targeting the pig gastrointestinal tract microbiota. Time after diet change had an effect (Pmicrobiota and in composition of the microbiota over time. Adaptation of the microbiota as assessed by gas production occurred faster for LH-animals for fast fermentable substrates compared with HL-animals. Overall, adaptation of the large intestinal microbiota of sows as a result of ingestion of low and high fibre diets seems to take longer than 19 days, especially for the ability to ferment slowly fermentable substrates.

  16. Variation in phenolic content and antioxidant activity of fermented rooibos herbal tea infusions: role of production season and quality grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Elizabeth; Beelders, Theresa; de Beer, Dalene; Malherbe, Christiaan J; de Villiers, André J; Sigge, Gunnar O

    2012-09-12

    Data are required to calculate the dietary exposure to rooibos herbal tea flavonoids and phenolic acids. Representative content values for the principal phenolic compounds and total antioxidant capacity of fermented rooibos infusion, taking into account variation caused by production seasons (2009, 2010, and 2011) and quality grades (A, B, C, and D), were determined for samples (n = 114) from different geographical areas and producers. The major phenolic constituents were isoorientin and orientin (>10 mg/L), with quercetin-3-O-robinobioside, phenylpyruvic acid glucoside, and aspalathin present at >5 mg/L. Isovitexin, vitexin, and hyperoside were present at antioxidant capacity within production seasons and quality grades.

  17. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in fermented rice (Oryza sativa bran Compostos fenólicos e atividade antioxidante em farelo de arroz (Oryza sativa fermentado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa dos Santos Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in fermented rice bran in order to evaluate the effect of solid state fermentation on these properties. The process was performed with the fungus Rhizopus oryzae CTT 1217 in tray reactors at 30 °C for 120 hours. Samples of fermented rice bran were collected every 24 hours. Antioxidant property was evaluated by the diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method and through the inhibition of enzymatic oxidation and lipid peroxidation of olive oil. The methanol extract of the biomass obtained at 96 hours of fermentation inactivated 50% of free radical in 15 minutes. The same extract reduced the peroxide value in the olive oil by 57% after 30 days of storage. The aqueous extract of the biomass obtained at 120 hours was the most efficient inhibitor of the darkening reaction catalyzed by peroxidase.Este trabalho investigou o conteúdo de compostos fenólicos totais e a atividade antioxidante em farelo de arroz fermentado, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da fermentação em estado sólido nessas propriedades. O processo foi realizado com o fungo Rhizopus oryzae CTT 1217 em reatores de bandeja a 30 °C por 120 horas. Amostras de farelo de arroz fermentado foram coletadas a cada 24 horas. A capacidade antioxidante foi avaliada pelo método do sequestro do radical livre difenil-1-picrilhidrazil e também por meio da inibição da oxidação enzimática e da peroxidação lipídica do óleo de oliva. O extrato metanólico produzido com a biomassa de 96 horas sequestrou 50% do radical livre em 15 minutos. O mesmo extrato reduziu o índice de peróxido no óleo em 57% após 30 dias de armazenamento. O extrato aquoso obtido da biomassa de 120 horas foi o inibidor mais eficiente da reação de escurecimento enzimático catalisada pela peroxidase.

  18. CtBP and associated LSD1 are required for transcriptional activation by NeuroD1 in gastrointestinal endocrine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Subir K; Li, H Joyce; Metzger, Eric; Schüle, Roland; Leiter, Andrew B

    2014-06-01

    Gene expression programs required for differentiation depend on both DNA-bound transcription factors and surrounding histone modifications. Expression of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein NeuroD1 is restricted to endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, where it is important for endocrine differentiation. RREB1 (RAS-responsive element binding protein 1), identified as a component of the CtBP corepressor complex, binds to nearby DNA elements to associate with NeuroD and potentiate transcription of a NeuroD1 target gene. Transcriptional activation by RREB1 depends on recruitment of CtBP with its associated proteins, including LSD1, through its PXDLS motifs. The mechanism of transcriptional activation by CtBP has not been previously characterized. Here we found that activation was dependent on the histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) demethylase activity of LSD1, which removes repressive methyl marks from dimethylated H3K9 (H3K9Me2), to facilitate subsequent H3K9 acetylation by the NeuroD1-associated histone acetyltransferase, P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF). The secretin, β-glucokinase, insulin I, and insulin II genes, four known direct targets of NeuroD1 in intestinal and pancreatic endocrine cells, all show similar promoter occupancy by CtBP-associated proteins and PCAF, with acetylation of H3K9. This work may indicate a mechanism for selective regulation of transcription by CtBP and LSD1 involving their association with specific transcription factors and cofactors to drive tissue-specific transcription.

  19. Quality control in gastrointestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Barba, Ector Jaime; Arenas-Moya, Diego; Vázquez-Guerrero, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the Mexican legal framework, identifying the vectors that characterize quality and control in gastrointestinal surgery. Quality is contemplated in the health protection rights determined according to the Mexican Constitution, established in the general health law and included as a specific goal in the actual National Development Plan and Health Sector Plan. Quality control implies planning, verification and application of corrective measures. Mexico has implemented several quality strategies such as certification of hospitals and regulatory agreements by the General Salubrity Council, creation of the National Health Quality Committee, generation of Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Certification of Medical Specialties, among others. Quality control in gastrointestinal surgery must begin at the time of medical education and continue during professional activities of surgeons, encouraging multidisciplinary teamwork, knowledge, abilities, attitudes, values and skills that promote homogeneous, safe and quality health services for the Mexican population.

  20. Effects of solid-state fermentation with two filamentous fungi on the total phenolic contents, flavonoids, antioxidant activities and lipid fractions of plum fruit (Prunus domestica L.) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Socaciu, Carmen

    2016-10-15

    Evolutions of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities during solid-state fermentation (SSF) of plum pomaces (from the juice industry) and brandy distillery wastes with Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oligosporus were investigated. The effect of fermentation time on the oil content and major lipid classes in the plum kernels was also studied. Results showed that total phenolic (TP) amounts increased by over 30% for SSF with Rhizopus oligosporus and by >21% for SSF with A. niger. The total flavonoid contents presented similar tendencies to those of the TPs. The free radical scavenging activities of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis showed that quercetin-3-glucoside was the major phenolic compound in both fermented plum by-products. The results also demonstrated that SSF not only helped to achieve higher lipid recovery from plum kernels, but also resulted in oils with better quality attributes (high sterol ester and n-3 PUFA-rich polar lipid contents).

  1. The influence of saccharin and sorbitol upon the BB-12® activity in milk and the rheological characteristics of fermented products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa PRICOPE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available studied related to the activity of the probiotic culture BB-12® in milk. Sweeteners concentrations used in the experiments were chosen based on the results of a preferential sensorial analysis. The acidity and pH dynamics monitored during bifidobacteria incubation at 37°C showed that BB-12® behaves in a similar way in milk and milk sweetened with saccharin (0.05‰ or sorbitol (1.5%. Also it was noticed that the fermentation starts without a lag phase in the presence of sorbitol. The bifidobacteria maintained their viability at a level of 109 viable count during 14 days of storage at 4°C. Sweetened fermented milk samples showed higher consistency index compared to the control sample. More than that, after 7 days of storage (4ºC it was observed an increase of the k-value for thesaccharin and sorbitol samples, while for the control sample the consistency index has a 85% decrease. After 7 days of storage the sweetened samples maintained the same viscoelastic behavior.The study was performed in order to collect scientific evidences on the possibility to obtain probiotic dairy products sweetened with alternative sweeteners.

  2. A novel laccase with inhibitory activity towards HIV-I reverse transcriptase and antiproliferative effects on tumor cells from the fermentation broth of mushroom Pleurotus cornucopiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangli; Huang, Chenyang; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Hexiang; Zhang, Jinxia

    2014-04-01

    A novel laccase with a molecular mass of 67 kDa was isolated from the fermentation broth of Pleurotus cornucopiae through ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The optimal pH and temperature for the laccase was pH 4.2 and 30°C, respectively. The laccase activity was remarkably inhibited by Fe(3+) and Hg(2+) , while it was stimulated by Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) . It inhibited proliferation of the hepatoma cells HepG2 and the breast cancer cells MCF-7, and the activity of HIV-I reverse transcriptase with IC50 values of 3.9, 7.6 and 3.7 μM, respectively. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Marcie; Haut, Elliott R

    2014-02-01

    This article examines causes of occult, moderate and severe lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. The difference in the workup of stable vs unstable patients is stressed. Treatment options ranging from minimally invasive techniques to open surgery are explored.

  4. Functional role of the Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup −} channel DOG1/TMEM16A in gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Erik, E-mail: erik.berglund@ki.se [Endocrine and Sarcoma Surgery Unit, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Akcakaya, Pinar [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Cancer Center Karolinska, Stockholm (Sweden); Berglund, David [Section for Transplantation Surgery, Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Karlsson, Fredrik [Endocrine and Sarcoma Surgery Unit, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Vukojević, Vladana [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Lee, Linkiat [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Cancer Center Karolinska, Stockholm (Sweden); Bogdanović, Darko [Endocrine and Sarcoma Surgery Unit, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Lui, Weng-Onn; Larsson, Catharina [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Cancer Center Karolinska, Stockholm (Sweden); Zedenius, Jan [Endocrine and Sarcoma Surgery Unit, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Fröbom, Robin [Endocrine and Sarcoma Surgery Unit, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Bränström, Robert [Endocrine and Sarcoma Surgery Unit, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-08-15

    DOG1, a Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup −} channel (CaCC), was identified in 2004 to be robustly expressed in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). It was rapidly included as a tumor marker in routine diagnostics, but the functional role remained unknown. CaCCs are important regulators of normal physiological functions, but also implicated in tumorigenesis, cancer progression, metastasis, cell migration, apoptosis, proliferation and viability in several malignancies. We therefore investigated whether DOG1 plays a role in the three latter in GIST by utilizing in vitro cell model systems. Confocal microscopy identified different subcellular localizations of DOG1 in imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant cells. Electrophysiological studies confirmed that DOG1-specific pharmacological agents possess potent activating and inhibiting properties. Proliferation assays showed small effects up to 72 h, and flow cytometric analysis of adherent cells with 7-AAD/Annexin V detected no pharmacological effects on viable GIST cells. However, inhibition of DOG1 conveyed pro-apoptotic effects among early apoptotic imatinib-resistant cells. In conclusion, DOG1 generates Cl{sup −} currents in GIST that can be regulated pharmacologically, with small effects on cell viability and proliferation in vitro. Inhibition of DOG1 might act pro-apoptotic on some early apoptotic GIST cell populations. Further studies are warranted to fully illuminate the function of DOG1 and its potential as therapeutic target. - Highlights: • Subcellular DOG1 localization varies between GIST cells. • DOG1 in GIST is voltage- and Ca{sup 2+}-activated. • Known TMEM16A modulators, like A01 and Eact, modulate DOG1. • DOG1 has small effects on cell viability and proliferation in vitro. • DOG1 impact early apoptotic GIST cells to undergo late apoptosis.

  5. Influence of orange cultivar and mandarin postharvest storage on polyphenols, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity during gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ancos, Begoña; Cilla, Antonio; Barberá, Reyes; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Cano, M Pilar

    2017-06-15

    Polyphenols, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant activity of two sweet oranges (Navel-N and Cara Cara-CC) and mandarin (Clementine-M) as well as their bioaccessibilities were evaluated in pulps and compared to those in fresh juice. Thus, pulps of oranges and mandarins displayed higher hesperidin (HES), narirutin (NAR), total flavonoids (TF), total phenols (TP) and antioxidant activity (AAC) than their corresponding juices. Also, CC products presented higher bioactive compounds content than N ones. Bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds and AAC were higher in pulps of both oranges and mandarin than in their corresponding juices. Oranges (N and CC) pulps and juices presented higher bioaccessibilities than mandarin ones. The postharvest storage of mandarin at 12°C during 5weeks not only produced a significant increase of the bioactive compounds but also an increase of their bioaccessibility. The bioaccessibility of Citrus bioactive compounds is necessary for calculating more accurately their daily intake amount.

  6. Phenotypic assessment of the ovicidal activity of monepantel and monepantel sulfone on gastro-intestinal nematode eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, D J; Meslé, M; Donegan, H; Devin, L; Morrison, A A

    2016-04-15

    The in vitro ovicidal activity of the amino acetonitrile derivative, monepantel (MPTL) and its active metabolite monepantel sulfone (MPTL-SO2) were assessed against a number of commercially important nematode species of ruminants, namely Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus axei. An egg hatch test (EHT) was used to make the assessment of both drug sensitive and drug resistant isolates. Both MPTL and MPTL-SO2 showed moderate ovicidal activity in vitro against all of the species examined, although species specific differences as measured by inhibitory concentration were observed. Analysis of the drug sensitive isolates showed H. contortus to be the most sensitive to both MPTL and MPTL-SO2 (ED50 1.7 and 2.7 μg/ml respectively) followed by T. circumcincta (ED50 2.1 and 2.7 μg/ml respectively) followed by T. axei (ED50 68.7 and 60.1 μg/ml respectively). Overall the EHT results would suggest no "global" in vitro discriminatory dose for detection of MPTL resistance is likely to be achievable, using the egg hatch test, due to large inherent variability observed between species. The test identified a dose dependent increase in MPTL and MPTL-SO2 sensitivity in two MPTL resistant T. circumcincta isolates and therefore offers to be a promising tool for the phenotypic characterisation of MPTL sensitivity, allowing exploration into the mechanisms involved in selection and development of MPTL resistance.

  7. Selection for autochthonous bifidobacteial isolates adapted to simulated gastrointestinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Jamalifar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and the purpose of the study: Bifidobacterial strains are excessively sensitive to acidic conditions and this can affect their living ability in the stomach and fermented foods, and as a result, restrict their use as live probiotic cultures. The aim of the present study was to obtain bifidobacterial isolates with augmented tolerance to simulated gastrointestinal condition using cross-protection method. "nMethods: Individual bifidobacterial strains were treated in acidic environment and also in media containing bile salts and NaCl. Viability of the acid and acid-bile-NaCl tolerant isolates was further examined in simulated gastric and small intestine by subsequent incubation of the probiotic bacteria in the corresponding media for 120 min. Antipathogenic activities of the adapted isolates were compared with those of the original strains. "nResults and major conclusion: The acid and acid-bile-NaCl adapted isolates showed improved viabilities significantly (p<0.05 in simulated gastric fluid compared to their parent strains. The levels of reduction in bacterial count (Log cfu/ml of the acid and acid-bile-NaCl adapted isolates obtained in simulated gastric fluid ranged from 0.64-3.06 and 0.36-2.43 logarithmic units after 120 min of incubation. There was no significant difference between the viability of the acid-bile-NaCl-tolerant isolates and the original strains in simulated small intestinal condition except for Bifidobacterium adolescentis (p<0.05. The presence of 15 ml of supernatants of acid-bile-NaCl-adapted isolates and also those of the initial Bifidobacterium strains inhibited pathogenic bacterial growth for 24 hrs. Probiotic bacteria with improved ability to survive in harsh gastrointestinal environment could be obtained by subsequent treatment of the strains in acid, bile salts and NaCl environments.

  8. Dual-source dual-energy CT angiography with virtual non-enhanced images and iodine map for active gastrointestinal bleeding: Image quality, radiation dose and diagnostic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hao, E-mail: sunhao_robert@126.com [Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan No. 1, Wangfujing Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Hou, Xin-Yi, E-mail: hxy_pumc@126.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Xue, Hua-Dan, E-mail: bjdanna95@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan No. 1, Wangfujing Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Xiao-Guang, E-mail: xglee88@126.com [Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan No. 1, Wangfujing Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Jin, Zheng-Yu, E-mail: zhengyu_jin@126.com [Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan No. 1, Wangfujing Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Qian, Jia-Ming, E-mail: qjiaming57@gmail.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Yu, Jian-Chun, E-mail: yu-jch@163.com [Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhu, Hua-Dong, E-mail: huadongzhu@hotmail.com [Department of Emergency, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • GIB is a common gastrointestinal emergency with a high mortality rate. • Detection and localization of GIB source are important for imaging modality. • DSDECTA using a dual-phase scan protocol is clinically feasible. • DSDECTA with VNE and iodine map images can diagnose the active GIB source accurately. • DSDECTA can reduce radiation dose compared with conventional CT examination in GIB. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the clinical feasibility of dual-source dual-energy CT angiography (DSDECTA) with virtual non-enhanced images and iodine map for active gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). Methods: From June 2010 to December 2012, 112 consecutive patients with clinical signs of active GIB underwent DSDECTA with true non-enhanced (TNE), arterial phase with single-source mode, and portal-venous phase with dual-energy mode (100 kVp/230 mAs and Sn 140 kVp/178 mAs). Virtual non-enhanced CT (VNE) image sets and iodine map were reformatted from ‘Liver VNC’ software. The mean CT number, noise, signal to noise ratio (SNR), image quality and radiation dose were compared between TNE and VNE image sets. Two radiologists, blinded to clinical data, interpreted images from DSDECTA with TNE (protocol 1), and DSDECTA with VNE and iodine map (protocol 2) respectively, with discordant interpretation resolved by consensus. The standards of reference included digital subtraction angiography, endoscopy, surgery, or final pathology reports. Receiver–operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was undertaken and the area under the curve (AUC) calculated for CT protocols 1 and 2, respectively. Results: There was no significant difference in mean CT numbers of all organs (including liver, pancreas, spleen, kidney, abdominal aorta, and psoas muscle) (P > 0.05). Lower noise and higher SNR were found on VNE images than TNE images (P < 0.05). Image quality of VNE was lower than that of TNE without significant difference (P > 0.05). The active GIB source was identified

  9. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  10. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity in food model system of fish peptides released during simulated gastrointestinal digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieva-Echevarria, B.; Jacobsen, Charlotte; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús

    In the last decade, increasing evidences of the occurrence of lipid oxidation during digestion have been reported, in either in vivo or in vitro studies (1,2,3). As a result, the nutritional quality and safety of foodstuffs could be affected by the decrease of certain lipidic compounds of interest...... on these aspects, in vitro digestates of European sea bass were submitted to ultrafiltration using membranes with different cut off size. Afterwards, the potential antioxidant activity of the peptide fractions obtained was evaluated by comparing the oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions (5...

  11. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Tamime

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  12. Cell proliferation in gastrointestinal mucosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, W M; Wright, N A

    1999-01-01

    Gastrointestinal cell proliferation plays an important role in the maintenance of the integrity of the gastrointestinal system. The study of gastrointestinal proliferation kinetics allows a better understanding of the complexity of the system, and also has important implications for the study of gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Gastrointestinal stem cells are shown to be pluripotential and to give rise to all cell lineages in the epithelium. Carcinogenesis in the colon occurs through sequenti...

  13. Probiotic fermented sausage: viability of probiotic microorganisms and sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhi, M; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are from functional foods that bring health benefits for humans. Nowadays, a major development in functional foods is related to food containing probiotic cultures, mainly lactic acid bacteria or bifidobacteria. Probiotics must be alive and ingested in sufficient amounts to exert the positive effects on the health and the well-being of the host. Therefore, viability of probiotic products (the minimum viable probiotic cells in each gram or milliliter of product till the time of consumption) is their most important characteristic. However, these organisms often show poor viability in fermented products due to their detrimental conditions. Today, the variety of fermented meat products available around the world is nearly equal to that of cheese. With meat products, raw fermented sausages could constitute an appropriate vehicle for such microorganisms into the human gastrointestinal tract. In present article, the viability of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausage, the main factors affect their viability, and the sensorial characteristics of final product are discussed.

  14. Metabolic in Vivo Labeling Highlights Differences of Metabolically Active Microbes from the Mucosal Gastrointestinal Microbiome between High-Fat and Normal Chow Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbach, Andreas; Haange, Sven-Bastiaan; Schlichting, Nadine; Heinrich, Marco; Lehmann, Stefanie; Till, Holger; Hugenholtz, Floor; Kullnick, Yvonne; Smidt, Hauke; Frank, Karin; Seifert, Jana; Jehmlich, Nico; von Bergen, Martin

    2017-04-07

    The gastrointestinal microbiota in the gut interacts metabolically and immunologically with the host tissue in the contact zone of the mucus layer. For understanding the details of these interactions and especially their dynamics it is crucial to identify the metabolically active subset of the microbiome. This became possible by the development of stable isotope probing techniques, which have only sparsely been applied to microbiome research. We applied the in vivo stable isotope approach using (15)N-labeled diet with subsequent identification of metabolically active bacterial species. Four-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to chow diet (CD, n =15) and high-fat diet (HFD, n =15). After 11 weeks, three animals from each group were sacrificed for baseline characterization of anthropometric and metabolic obesity. The remaining animals were exposed to either a (15)N-labeled (n =9) or a (14)N-unlabeled experimental diet (n =3). Three rats from each cohort (HFD and CD) were sacrificed at 12, 24, and 72 h. The remaining three animals from each cohort, which received the (14)N-unlabeled diet, were sacrificed after 72 h. The colon was harvested and divided into three equal sections (proximal, medial, and distal), and the mucus layer of each specimen was sampled by scraping. We identified the active subset in an HFD model of obesity in comparison with lean controls rats using metaproteomics. In addition, all samples were investigated by 16S rRNA amplicon gene sequencing. The active microbiome of the HFD group showed an increase in bacterial taxa for Verrucomicrobia and Desulfovibrionaceae. In contrast with no significant changes in alpha diversity, time- and localization-dependent effects in beta-diversity were clearly observed. In terms of enzymatic functions the HFD group showed strong affected metabolic pathways such as energy production and carbohydrate metabolism. In vivo isotope labeling combined with metaproteomics provides a valuable method to

  15. Fermented milk for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle...... interventions, such as fermented milk, would be of great importance....

  16. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance.

  17. Antimicrobial Activity and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Three Isolates of Lactic Acid Bacteria From Fermented Fish Product, Budu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liasi, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB from the fermented food product, Budu, were identified as genus lactobacillus (Lactobacillus casei LA17, Lactobacillus plantarum LA22 and L. paracasei LA02, and the highest population was Lb. paracasei LA02. The antibacterial agent produced by the isolates inhibited the growth of a range of gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Antimicrobial sensitivity test to 18 different types of antibiotic were evaluated using the disc diffusion method. Inhibition zone diameter was measured and calculated from the means of five determinations and expressed in terms of resistance or susceptibility. All the LAB isolates were resistant to colestin sulphate, streptomycin, amikacin, norfloxacin, nalidixic acid, mecillinam, sulphanethoxazole/ trimethoprim, kanamycin, neomycin, bacitracin and gentamycin but susceptible to erythromycin, penicillin G, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ampicillin and nitrofurantion.

  18. Five new alkaloids from Coptidis Rhizoma-Euodiae Fructus couple and their cytotoxic activities against gastrointestinal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ping; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2014-03-01

    A new indoloquinazoline alkaloid, 10-methoxywuchuyuamide I (1), three new benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, named as coptichic aldehyde (2), coptichine (3) and 13-carboxaldehyde-8-oxocoptisine (4), and a new isoindoline alkaloid, named as coptichinamide (5), together with two known alkaloids, wuchuyuamide I (6) and 8-oxocoptisine (7) were isolated from the Coptidis Rhizoma-Euodiae Fructus couple. Their chemical structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including IR, UV, EI-MS, HRESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR data ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC and HMBC). Cytotoxicities of the isolated alkaloids against NCI-N87 and Caco-2 cell lines were evaluated. Four benzylisoquinoline alkaloids 2-4 and 7 showed inhibitory activities against NCI-N87 cell with IC50 values range from 8.92 to 35.98 μM. The alkaloid 3 was a new antiproliferation compound against NCI-N87 cells. The results provided valuable information for further investigation of alkaloid 3 as a chemopreventive agent.

  19. Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization ofBacillusSpecies Exhibiting Strong Proteolytic Activity Isolated fromTerasi, An Indonesian Fermented Seafood Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ekachai Chukeatirote; Novi Arfarita; Piyanuch Niamsup; Anittaya Kanghae

    2015-01-01

    In this study, twoBacillistrains namely S2-3 and S4-5, isolated fromTerasi, a traditional fermented seafood product of Indonesia, were studied in terms of their phenotypic and genotypic properties. Both strains are of great interests due to their high proteolytic activity. Initially, they were subjected to morphological determination and a series of biochemical tests. These bacteria were gram-positive, endospore-formingBacilli. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the identities of the strains S2-3 and S4-5 were confirmed asBacillus thuringiensisandB. subtilis, respectively. Additionally, the two strains were also evaluated for their antibiogram profiles. It was found that they were susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, kanamycin, tetracycline and vancomycin and resistant to ampicillin and intermediately susceptible to bacitracin.

  20. Impact of quorum sensing on the quality of fermented foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Pernille; Jespersen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    The quality of fermented food highly dependents on the microorganisms involved, their metabolic activities and interactions. Recently, focus has been on quorum sensing (QS) being a cell density-dependent mechanism allowing adaptive responses. Specific QS molecules in prokaryotes and eukaryotes......, respectively, mediate the transcriptional changes. For food-borne microorganisms QS regulated traits include biofilm formation, acid stress tolerance, bacteriocin production, competence, adhesion, morphological switches and oriented growth. QS has been reported for microorganisms involved in the production...... of a number of different fermented foods such as fermented vegetables, sourdough, dairy products, wine, and so on suggesting that QS plays a role in the fermentation of these fermented foods....

  1. Fermented liquid feed for pigs: an ancient technique for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missotten, Joris Am; Michiels, Joris; Degroote, Jeroen; De Smet, Stefaan

    2015-01-01

    Fermented liquid feed is feed that has been mixed with water at a ratio ranging from 1:1.5 to 1:4. By mixing with water, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts naturally occurring in the feed proliferate and produce lactic acid, acetic acid and ethanol which reduces the pH of the mixture. This reduction in pH inhibits pathogenic organisms from developing in the feed. In addition, when this low pH mixture is fed, it reduces the pH in the stomach of pigs and prevents the proliferation of pathogens such as coliforms and Salmonella in the gastrointestinal tract. For piglets, the use of fermented liquid feed offers the possibility of simultaneously providing feed and water, which may facilitate an easier transition from sow's milk to solid feed. Secondly, offering properly produced fermented liquid feed may strengthen the role of the stomach as the first line of defense against possible pathogenic infections by lowering the pH in the gastrointestinal tract thereby helping to exclude enteropathogens. Finally, feeding fermented liquid feed to pigs has been shown to improve the performance of suckling pigs, weaner pigs and growing-finishing pigs. In this review, current knowledge about the use of fermented liquid feed in pig diets will be discussed. This will include a discussion of the desirable properties of fermented liquid feed and factors affecting fermentation. In addition, advantages and disadvantages of fermented liquid feed will be discussed including its effects on gastrointestinal health, intestinal pH and the types of bacteria found in the gastrointestinal tract as well as the effects of fermented liquid feeds on pig performance.

  2. Purification and characterization of xylitol dehydrogenase with l-arabitol dehydrogenase activity from the newly isolated pentose-fermenting yeast Meyerozyma caribbica 5XY2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukpipat, Wiphat; Komeda, Hidenobu; Prasertsan, Poonsuk; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2017-01-01

    Meyerozyma caribbica strain 5XY2, which was isolated from an alcohol fermentation starter in Thailand, was found to catabolize l-arabinose as well as d-glucose and d-xylose. The highest production amounts of ethanol from d-glucose, xylitol from d-xylose, and l-arabitol from l-arabinose were 0.45 g/g d-glucose, 0.60 g/g d-xylose, and 0.61 g/g l-arabinose with 21.7 g/L ethanol, 20.2 g/L xylitol, and 30.3 g/l l-arabitol, respectively. The enzyme with l-arabitol dehydrogenase (LAD) activity was purified from the strain and found to exhibit broad specificity to polyols, such as xylitol, d-sorbitol, ribitol, and l-arabitol. Xylitol was the preferred substrate with Km=16.1 mM and kcat/Km=67.0 min(-1)mM(-1), while l-arabitol was also a substrate for the enzyme with Km=31.1 mM and kcat/Km=6.5 min(-1) mM(-1). Therefore, this enzyme from M. caribbica was named xylitol dehydrogenase (McXDH). McXDH had an optimum temperature and pH at 40°C and 9.5, respectively. The McXDH gene included a coding sequence of 1086 bp encoding a putative 362 amino acid protein of 39 kDa with an apparent homopentamer structure. Native McXDH and recombinant McXDH exhibited relative activities toward l-arabitol of approximately 20% that toward xylitol, suggesting the applicability of this enzyme with the functions of XDH and LAD to the development of pentose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  3. New advances in gastrointestinal motility research

    CERN Document Server

    Pullan, A; Farrugia, G

    2013-01-01

    Research into gastrointestinal motility has received renewed interest in part due to recent advances in the techniques for measuring the structure and function of gastrointestinal cells, tissue and organs. The integration of this wealth of data into biophysically based computation models can aid in interpretation of experimental and clinical measurements and the refinement of measurement techniques. The contents of this book span multiple scales - from cell, tissue, organ, to whole body and is divided into four broad sections covering: i) gastrointestinal cellular activity and tissue structure; (ii) techniques for measuring, analyzing and visualizing high-resolution extra-cellular recordings; (iii) methods for sensing gastroelectrical activity using non-invasive bio-electro-magnetic fields and for modulating the underlying gastric electrical activity, and finally; (iv) methods for assessing manometric and videographic motility patterns and the application of these data for predicting the flow and mixing behav...

  4. Comparative study of the effects of solid-state fermentation with three filamentous fungi on the total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of subfractions from oats (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shengbao; Wang, Ou; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Songjie; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping; Gao, Fengyi; Zhang, Di; Liu, Jia; Cheng, Qian

    2012-01-11

    The aim of present work was to investigate the effect of solid-state fermentation with filamentous fungi (Aspergillus oryzae var. effuses, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus niger) on total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of four subfractions of oat, namely, n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol, and water, and compare them to their corresponding subfractions of unfermented oat. The TPC and total flavonoids increased dramatically, especially in EA subfractions (p < 0.05). The levels of antioxidant activity of subfractions were also significantly enhanced (p < 0.05). The highest antioxidant activities were also found in the EA subfractions. The polyphenols in EA were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography at 280 nm. Most polyphenols were increased remarkably, especially ferulic and caffeic acids. There was a clear correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activity. In conclusion, fungi fermentation is a potential bioprocess for increasing the TPC, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of oat-based food.

  5. Obesity and gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Binkowska-Borgosz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is a significant public health problem in the 21st century due to its scale, common existence and its cause-effect association with multiple diseases. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in humans is regarded as a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and skeletal diseases. However, data from recent years have revealed that obesity is also strongly associated with increased risk of the majority of cancers in humans, including those originating from the gastrointestinal tract. During the last few year this association has been thoroughly proven and supported by several epidemiological analyses. The authors present i the current state of knowledge regarding key (pathomechanisms that link metabolism of human adipose tissue to development/progression of neoplasms (especially in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as ii the results of selected clinical studies in which the influence of obesity on risk of gastrointestinal cancer development has been addressed.

  6. Obesity and gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Binkowska-Borgosz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is a significant public health problem in the 21st century due to its scale, common existence and its cause-effect association with multiple diseases. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in humans is regarded as a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and skeletal diseases. However, data from recent years have revealed that obesity is also strongly associated with increased risk of the majority of cancers in humans, including those originating from the gastrointestinal tract. During the last few year this association has been thoroughly proven and supported by several epidemiological analyses. The authors present i the current state of knowledge regarding key (pathomechanisms that link metabolism of human adipose tissue to development/progression of neoplasms (especially in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as ii the results of selected clinical studies in which the influence of obesity on risk of gastrointestinal cancer development has been addressed.

  7. Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for the Production of Bacteriocin Fermentate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-30

    FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ” by Anthony Sikes Wayne Muller and Claire Lee March 2015...From - To) October 2010 – November 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPTIMIZATION OF FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ...nisin and pediocin. Whey + yeast extract was the best performing whey fermentation media. The nisin producer strain Lactococcus. lactis ssp. lactis was

  8. The association between farming activities, precipitation, and the risk of acute gastrointestinal illness in rural municipalities of Quebec, Canada: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselin Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing livestock density and animal manure spreading, along with climate factors such as heavy rainfall, may increase the risk of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI. In this study we evaluated the association between farming activities, precipitation and AGI. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey of randomly selected residents (n = 7006 of 54 rural municipalities in Quebec, Canada, was conducted between April 2007 and April 2008. AGI symptoms and several risk factors were investigated using a phone questionnaire. We calculated the monthly prevalence of AGI, and used multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for several demographic and risk factors, to evaluate the associations between AGI and both intensive farming activities and cumulative weekly precipitation. Cumulative precipitation over each week, from the first to sixth week prior to the onset of AGI, was analyzed to account for both the delayed effect of precipitation on AGI, and the incubation period of causal pathogens. Cumulative precipitation was treated as a four-category variable: high (≥90th percentile, moderate (50th to th percentile, low (10th to th percentile, and very low (th percentile precipitation. Results The overall monthly prevalence of AGI was 5.6% (95% CI 5.0%-6.1%, peaking in winter and spring, and in children 0-4 years old. Living in a territory with intensive farming was negatively associated with AGI: adjusted odds ratio (OR = 0.70 (95% CI 0.51-0.96. Compared to low precipitation periods, high precipitation periods in the fall (September, October, November increased the risk of AGI three weeks later (OR = 2.20; 95% CI 1.09-4.44 while very low precipitation periods in the summer (June, July, August increased the risk of AGI four weeks later (OR = 2.19; 95% CI 1.02-4.71. Further analysis supports the role of water source on the risk of AGI. Conclusions AGI poses a significant burden in Quebec rural municipalities with a peak in winter

  9. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to duodenal stromal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parreira José Gustavo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor represents a rare neoplasm that originates in the muscular wall of the hollow viscera. AIM: To report gastrointestinal stromal tumor as a source of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, which required urgent surgical control. PATIENT/METHOD: A man with 61 years old was admitted to the emergency service sustaining hematemesis and melena. Endoscopy showed active bleeding from a tumor in the second portion of the duodenum, which was controlled by heater probe cauterization. Surgery was performed through a median laparotomy. A local resection of a 4 cm tumor in the second portion of the duodenum was carried out, together with a primary end-to-end anastomosis and a duodenal diverticulization. No complications happened during the post-operative period. Morphologic examination showed gastrointestinal stromal tumor with no atypical mitosis and a preserved capsule. CONCLUSION: Albeit not being common, gastrointestinal stromal tumors can represent a source of substantial gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

  10. Health Benefits of Fiber Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Wendy J; Agro, Nicole C; Eliasson, Åsa M; Mialki, Kaley L; Olivera, Joseph D; Rusch, Carley T; Young, Carly N

    2017-02-01

    Although fiber is well recognized for its effect on laxation, increasing evidence supports the role of fiber in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the health benefits of fiber and its fermentation, and describe how the products of fermentation may influence disease risk and treatment. Higher fiber intakes are associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer. Fiber may also have a role in lowering blood pressure and in preventing obesity by limiting weight gain. Fiber is effective in managing blood glucose in type 2 diabetes, useful for weight loss, and may provide therapeutic adjunctive roles in kidney and liver disease. In addition, higher fiber diets are not contraindicated in inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome and may provide some benefit. Common to the associations with disease reduction is fermentation of fiber and its potential to modulate microbiota and its activities and inflammation, specifically the production of anti-inflammatory short chain fatty acids, primarily from saccharolytic fermentation, versus the deleterious products of proteolytic activity. Because fiber intake is inversely associated with all-cause mortality, mechanisms by which fiber may reduce chronic disease risk and provide therapeutic benefit to those with chronic disease need further elucidation and large, randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm causality.Teaching Points• Strong evidence supports the association between higher fiber diets and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer.• Higher fiber intakes are associated with lower body weight and body mass index, and some types of fiber may facilitate weight loss.• Fiber is recommended as an adjunctive medical nutritional therapy for type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and certain liver diseases.• Fermentation and the resulting shifts in

  11. Supplementation strategies for gastrointestinal distress in endurance athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Ximeno Duarte

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in the endurance athlete is about 25% to 70%. Even though it is recognized that the etiology of exercise-induced gastrointestinal distress is multifactorial, blood flow redistribution during physical activity and therefore gastrointestinal ischemia is often acknowledged as the main pathophysiology mechanism for the onset of symptoms. This review will provide an overview to the recent research on gastrointestinal function during strenuous exercise. In addition, we consider different nutritional interventions that could be evaluated for preventive or treatment interventions founding that ever though there is some research in the area, the scientific evidence does not support its use in athlete population.

  12. Expression of serine protease SNC19/matriptase and its inhibitor hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 in normal and malignant tissues of gastrointestinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zeng; Jiang Cao; Xing Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To provide the expression profile of serine protease SNC19/matriptase and its inhibitor hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1) in normal and malignant tissues of gastrointestinal tract at mRNA level for further study on their correlations with tumor progression and metastasis.METHODS: Total RNAs were prepared from 37 samples of colorectal cancer tissues, 40 samples of gastric cancer tissues, and their adjacent normal tissues. The expression of SNC19/matriptase and HAI-1 in these samples was detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as internal standard, and the clinical significance for the correlation with clinicopathological parameters was evaluated.RESULTS: In gastric cancer tissues the expression of HAI-1and SNC19/matriptase was significantly lower than that in the corresponding adjacent normal tissues (Z= -3.280,P= 0.006; Z= -4.651, P= 0.000). HAI-1:SNC19/matriptase ratio showed no difference between normal and malignant tissues (P>0.05). Analysis of clinicopathological parameters showed decreased expression of HAI-1 and HAI-1 :SNC19/matriptase ratio associated with stage Ⅲ/Ⅳ gastric tumors as compared to stage Ⅰ/Ⅱ ones (Z= -2.140, P = 0.031;Z = -2.155, P = 0.031), and with lymph node-positive gastric cancer tissues as compared to lymph node-negative ones (Z= -2.081, P= 0.036; Z= -2.686, P = 0.006). The expression of SNC19/matriptase had no relationship with stages and lymph node metastasis (P>0.05). The expression of HAI-1 and HAI-1:SNC19/matriptase ratio increased in well-differentiated gastric cancer tissues, but there was no statistical significance (P>0.05). The difference of SNC19/matriptase expression was not significant in gastric cancer tissues of different histological differentiation status (P>0.05). In colorectal cancer tissues, the expression of HAI-1 and SNC19/matriptase was also markedly lower than that in their adjacent normal tissues (Z= -3.100, P

  13. Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syed Irfan-Ur; Saeian, Kia

    2016-04-01

    In the intensive care unit, vigilance is needed to manage nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A focused history and physical examination must be completed to identify inciting factors and the need for hemodynamic stabilization. Although not universally used, risk stratification tools such as the Blatchford and Rockall scores can facilitate triage and management. Urgent evaluation for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeds requires prompt respiratory assessment, and identification of hemodynamic instability with fluid resuscitation and blood transfusions if necessary. Future studies are needed to evaluate the indication, safety, and efficacy of emerging endoscopic techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimization of the solid-state fermentation and properties of a polysaccharide from Paecilomyces cicadae (Miquel Samson and its antioxidant activities in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyong Ren

    Full Text Available The culture conditions for the yield of a polysaccharide (PCPS produced by Paecilomyces cicadae (Miquel Samson on solid-state fermentation were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM. Plackett-Burman design (PBD was applied to screen out significant factors, followed by the paths of steepest ascent to move to the nearest region of maximum response. Then Box-Behnken design (BBD was conducted to optimize the final levels of the culture conditions. After analyzing the regression equation and the response surface contour plots, relative humidity 56.07%, inoculum 13.51 mL/100 g and temperature 27.09°C were found to be the optimal key parameters for PCPS production. The maximum predicted yield of PCPS was 10.76 mg/g under the optimized conditions. The resulting PCPS (FPCPS generated at optimal conditions was purified by chromatography column and found to be composed of mannose (43.2%, rhamnose (32.1%, xylose (14.5% and arabinose (10.2%. Based on the size exclusion chromatography combined with multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS analysis, FPCPS adopted a Gaussian coil conformation in 0.1 M NaNO3 solution with 3.75 × 10(6 g/mol of the weight-average molar mass (Mw and 41.1 nm of the root-mean square radius (Rg(2z (1/2. Furthermore, both of the polysaccharides were revealed to have strong antioxidant activities by evaluating in DPPH radical, superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radical assay. These data suggest the polysaccharides of Paecilomyces cicadae (Miquel Samson produced by solid-state fermentation could be explored as potential natural antioxidants.

  15. Kinetics of wheat straw solid-state fermentation with Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus - lignin and polysaccharide alteration and production of related enzymatic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valmaseda, M.; Martinez, M.J.; Martinez, A.T. (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain). Centro des Investigaciones Biologicas)

    1991-09-01

    The kinetics of straw solid-state fermentation (SSF) with Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus was investigated to characterize the delignification processes by these white-rot fungi. Two sucessive phases could be defined during straw transformation, characterized by changes in respiratory activity, changes in lignin and polysaccharide content and composition, increase in in-vitro digestibility, and enzymatic activities produced by the fungi. Lignin composition was analysed after CuO alkaline degradation, and decreases in syringyl/guaiacyl and syringyl/p-hydroxyphenyl ratios and cinnamic acid content were observed during the fungal treatment. An increase in the phenolic acid yield, revealing fungal degradation of sidechains in lignin, was produced by P. ostreatus. The highest xylanase level was produced by P. ostreatus, and exocellulase activity was nearly absent from straw treated with this fungus. Laccase activity was found in straw treated with both fungi, but lignin peroxidase was only detected during the initial phase of straw transformation with T. versicolor. High levels of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-producing acryl-alcohol oxidase occurred throughout the straw SSF with P. ostreatus. (orig.).

  16. Optimization of Fermentation Media for Enhancing Nitrite-oxidizing Activity by Artificial Neural Network Coupling Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗剑飞; 林炜铁; 蔡小龙; 李敬源

    2012-01-01

    Two artificial intelligence techniques, artificial neural network and genetic algorithm, were applied to optimize the fermentation medium for improving the nitrite oxidization rate of nitrite oxidizing bacteria. Experiments were conducted with the composition of medium components obtained by genetic algorithm, and the experimental data were used to build a BP (back propagation) neural network model. The concentrations of six medium components were used as input vectors, and the nitrite oxidization rate was used as output vector of the model. The BP neural network model was used as the objective function of genetic algorithm to find the optimum medium composition for the maximum nitrite oxidization rate. The maximum nitrite oxidization rate was 0.952 g 2 NO-2-N·(g MLSS)-1·d-1 , obtained at the genetic algorithm optimized concentration of medium components (g·L-1 ): NaCl 0.58, MgSO 4 ·7H 2 O 0.14, FeSO 4 ·7H 2 O 0.141, KH 2 PO 4 0.8485, NaNO 2 2.52, and NaHCO 3 3.613. Validation experiments suggest that the experimental results are consistent with the best result predicted by the model. A scale-up experiment shows that the nitrite degraded completely after 34 h when cultured in the optimum medium, which is 10 h less than that cultured in the initial medium.

  17. Fermentation characteristics in stirred-tank reactor of exopolysaccharides with hypolipidemic activity produced by Pleurotus geesteranus 5#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAO DUOBIN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the hypolipidemic effect of exopolysaccharides (EPS from Pleurotus geesteranus 5# fermenting liquor by the optimal culture conditions in a 5-L stirred-tank reactor was investigated. The hypolipidemic effect of the polysaccharide, investigated in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice, decreased plasma glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations by 17.1 %, 18.8 % and 12.0 %, respectively. The results of the present investigation strongly demonstrate the potential of this polysaccharide to prevent hyperglycemia in the experimental animals. Under optimal culture conditions, the maximum concentrations of mycelial and EPS were 22.63 g/L after 7 d cultivation and 11.09 g/L after 10 d, respectively. Furthermore, the morphological parameters (i.e. mean diameter, circularity, roughness and compactness of the pellets and the broth viscosity were characterized. It was proved that compactness of the pellet morphology (R2=0.963, p<0.01 was significantly and positively determined with mycelial biomass. Moreover, mean diameter (R2=93.3, p<0.01 and broth viscosity (R2=0.950, p<0.01 were significantly and positively determined with EPS content.

  18. Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia annua L. extracts in vitro and the effect of an aqueous extract and artemisinin in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no effective natural alternative control for gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants, with Haemonchus contortus being the most economically important GIN. Despite frequent reports of multidrug-resistant GIN, there is no new commercial anthelmintic to substitute failing ones. Alt...

  19. A low dose of fermented soy germ alleviates gut barrier injury, hyperalgesia and faecal protease activity in a rat model of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Moussa

    Full Text Available Pro-inflammatory cytokines like macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF, IL-1β and TNF-α predominate in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD and TNBS colitis. Increased levels of serine proteases activating protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2 are found in the lumen and colonic tissue of IBD patients. PAR-2 activity and pro-inflammatory cytokines impair epithelial barrier, facilitating the uptake of luminal aggressors that perpetuate inflammation and visceral pain. Soy extracts contain phytoestrogens (isoflavones and serine protease inhibitors namely Bowman-Birk Inhibitors (BBI. Since estrogens exhibit anti-inflammatory and epithelial barrier enhancing properties, and that a BBI concentrate improves ulcerative colitis, we aimed to evaluate if a fermented soy germ extract (FSG with standardized isoflavone profile and stable BBI content exert cumulative or synergistic protection based on protease inhibition and estrogen receptor (ER-ligand activity in colitic rats. Female rats received orally for 15 d either vehicle or FSG with or without an ER antagonist ICI 182.780 before TNBS intracolonic instillation. Macroscopic and microscopic damages, myeloperoxidase activity, cytokine levels, intestinal paracellular permeability, visceral sensitivity, faecal proteolytic activity and PAR-2 expression were assessed 24 h, 3 d and 5 d post-TNBS. FSG treatment improved the severity of colitis, by decreasing the TNBS-induced rise in gut permeability, visceral sensitivity, faecal proteolytic activity and PAR-2 expression at all post-TNBS points. All FSG effects were reversed by the ICI 182.780 except the decrease in faecal proteolytic activity and PAR-2 expression. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory properties of FSG treatment result from two distinct but synergic pathways i.e an ER-ligand and a PAR-2 mediated pathway, providing rationale for potential use as adjuvant therapy in IBD.

  20. Effect of ultrasonic extraction conditions on antioxidative and immunomodulatory activities of a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide originated from fermented soybean curd residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Min; Yang, Yingnan; Hu, Xuansheng; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-07-15

    A crude Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLPL) was extracted from fermented soybean curd residue by ultrasonic assisted extraction. The optimal extraction conditions were 30 min at 80 °C with 80 W and water to solid ratio of 10, and with this method 115.47 ± 2.95 mg/g of GLPL yield was obtained. Additionally, the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of GLPL were investigated. The results showed that GLPL exhibited strong antioxidant effects, which included scavenging activities against DPPH radicals, hydrogen oxide and ABTS radicals with IC50 values of 0.23, 0.48 and 0.69 mg/mL, respectively. For immunomodulatory activities, GLPL was shown to strongly stimulate the proliferation of macrophages (158.02 ± 13.12%), the production of nitric oxide and phagocytosis (21.16 ± 1.65 μM), and, at 40.00 μg/mL, protected macrophage from Doxorubicin (DOX) (0.16 ± 0.003).

  1. The gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has always been and remains a major source of interest in terms of both its function, and its malfunction. Our current knowledge of age-related changes in this system, as well as drug-food interactions, however, remains relatively limited. Paradoxically, the GIT i...

  2. The gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has always been and remains a major source of interest in terms of both its function, and its malfunction. Our current knowledge of age-related changes in this system, as well as drug-food interactions, however, remains relatively limited. Paradoxically, the GIT i...

  3. Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the scope and importance of gastrointestinal bleeding in runners and other athletes, discussing causes, sites, and implications of exercise-related bleeding. Practical tips to mitigate the problem, potentially more troublesome in women because of lower iron stores, are presented (e.g., gradual conditioning and avoidance of prerace…

  4. Avaliação da atividade mioelétrica do trato gastrointestinal em cães: avaliação de um sistema de fixação de eletrodos na parede abdominal Gastrointestinal myoelectric activity in dogs: evaluation of a fixation system of electrodes on the abdominal wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Antônio Bandeira Ferraz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A implantação de eletrodos intra-abdominais para captura de sinais de onda elétrica constitui instrumento de estudo da atividade mioelétrica do tubo gastrointestinal. O deslocamento destes eletrodos do local de implantação ocorre com certa freqüência em animais de experimentação não anestesiados, devido aos movimentos da musculatura diafragmática, abdominal, do peristaltismo gastrintestinal e sobretudo aos hábitos inerentes à espécie de animal estudada, particularmente presentes em caninos. No referido estudo foi proposto um procedimento que proporciona es