WorldWideScience

Sample records for activities gastrointestinal fermentation

  1. Comparative in vitro fermentation activity in the canine distal gastrointestinal tract and fermentation kinetics of fiber sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Rutten, P.G.P.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the variation in fermentation activity along the distal canine gastrointestinal tract (GIT, Exp. 1). It also aimed to assess fermentation kinetics and end product profiles of 16 dietary fibers for dog foods using canine fecal inoculum (Exp. 2). For Exp. 1, digesta

  2. Persistence of anticancer activity in berry extracts after simulated gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma M Brown

    Full Text Available Fruit and vegetable consumption is associated at the population level with a protective effect against colorectal cancer. Phenolic compounds, especially abundant in berries, are of interest due to their putative anticancer activity. After consumption, however, phenolic compounds are subject to digestive conditions within the gastrointestinal tract that alter their structures and potentially their function. However, the majority of phenolic compounds are not efficiently absorbed in the small intestine and a substantial portion pass into the colon. We characterized berry extracts (raspberries, strawberries, blackcurrants produced by in vitro-simulated upper intestinal tract digestion and subsequent fecal fermentation. These extracts and selected individual colonic metabolites were then evaluated for their putative anticancer activities using in vitro models of colorectal cancer, representing the key stages of initiation, promotion and invasion. Over a physiologically-relevant dose range (0-50 µg/ml gallic acid equivalents, the digested and fermented extracts demonstrated significant anti-genotoxic, anti-mutagenic and anti-invasive activity on colonocytes. This work indicates that phenolic compounds from berries undergo considerable structural modifications during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract but their breakdown products and metabolites retain biological activity and can modulate cellular processes associated with colon cancer.

  3. Impact of microbial transformation of food on health - from fermented foods to fermentation in the gastro-intestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E T; Veiga, Patrick; Zhang, Chenhong; Derrien, Muriel; Zhao, Liping

    2011-04-01

    Fermentation of food components by microbes occurs both during certain food production processes and in the gastro-intestinal tract. In these processes specific compounds are produced that originate from either biotransformation reactions or biosynthesis, and that can affect the health of the consumer. In this review, we summarize recent advances highlighting the potential to improve the nutritional status of a fermented food by rational choice of food-fermenting microbes. The vast numbers of microbes residing in the human gut, the gut microbiota, also give rise to a broad array of health-active molecules. Diet and functional foods are important modulators of the gut microbiota activity that can be applied to improve host health. A truly multidisciplinary approach is required to increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying health beneficial effects that arise from the interaction of diet, microbes and the human body. PMID:21247750

  4. Characterisation of the gastrointestinal bacterial community in pigs fed fermented liquid feed and dry feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Ole; Knudsen, B.; Canibe, N.;

    2001-01-01

    Feeding pigs with fermented liquid feed (FLF) has been shown to reduce the number of enteropathogens such as Salmonella and Brachyospira hyodysenteriae as well as coliform bacteria in general in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Also the commensal bacterial populations have been shown to respond ...

  5. SUPPLEMENTATION OF COFFEE HUSK FERMENTED WITH Pleurotus ostreatus: EFFECT ON PERFORMANCE AND BLOOD PROFILE OF GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES INFECTED GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Badarina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the potency of coffee husk fermented with P.ostreatus as a natural anthelmintic supplement by measuring the performance and blood profile of goat suffered gastrointestinal nematodes infection. Eighteen local male goats of Kacang goat with body weight of 9.23 ± 1.71 kg and aged at ± 10 months were arranged into three treatments in completely randomized design. The treatments were T0 (group without chemical anthelmintic treatment and no supplementation of fermented coffee husk, T1 (without chemical anthelmintic treatment, but supplied with fermented coffee husk and T2 (group with chemical anthelmintic and no supplementation of fermented coffee husk. All goats were offered a basal diet in the ratio of 60% natural grasses along with 40% concentrate. Fermented coffee husk was added in the diet as much as 6% from the dry matter need. The result showed that there were no significant effect to dry matter intake, daily weight gain, PCV value and eosinophil counts (P>0.05. The supplementation of fermented coffee husk (T1 enhanced Hb and red blood cell (RBC value (P<0.05 while no significant difference to T2. There were no nematodes infection in T1 and T2 with the eggs count were zero while the animals in T0 were still infected. This result indicated that fermented coffee husk can be used as a promising natural anthelmintic supplement with the improvement of Hb value, RBC, egg counts and daily weight gain.

  6. Gastrointestinal inflammation and associated immune activation in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Severance, Emily G.; Alaedini, Armin; Yang, Shuojia; Halling, Meredith; Gressitt, Kristin L.; Stallings, Cassie R.; Origoni, Andrea E.; Vaughan, Crystal; Khushalani, Sunil; Leweke, F. Markus; Dickerson, Faith B.; Yolken, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Immune factors are implicated in normal brain development and in brain disorder pathogenesis. Pathogen infection and food antigen penetration across gastrointestinal barriers are means by which environmental factors might affect immune-related neurodevelopment. Here, we test if gastrointestinal inflammation is associated with schizophrenia and therefore, might contribute to bloodstream entry of potentially neurotropic milk and gluten exorphins and/or immune activation by food antigens. IgG an...

  7. Evaluation of the effect of supplementing fermented milk with quinoa flour on probiotic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarotti, Sabrina N; Carneiro, Bruno M; Penna, Ana Lúcia B

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we investigated the effect of supplementing fermented milk with quinoa flour as an option to increase probiotic activity during fermented milk production and storage. Fermented milk products were produced with increasing concentrations of quinoa flour (0, 1, 2, or 3g/100g) and submitted to the following analyses at 1, 14, and 28 d of refrigerated storage: postacidification, bacterial viability, resistance of probiotics to simulated gastrointestinal (GI) conditions, and adhesion of probiotics to Caco-2 cells in vitro. The kinetics of acidification were measured during the fermentation process. The time to reach maximum acidification rate, time to reach pH 5.0, and time to reach pH 4.6 (end of fermentation) were similar for all treatments. Adding quinoa flour had no effect on fermentation time; however, it did contribute to postacidification of the fermented milk during storage. Quinoa flour did not affect counts of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 or Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 during storage, it did not protect the probiotic strains during simulated GI transit, and it did not have a positive effect on the adhesion of probiotic bacteria to Caco-2 cells in vitro. Additionally, the adhesion of strains to Caco-2 cells decreased during refrigerated storage of fermented milk. Although the addition of up to 3% quinoa flour had a neutral effect on probiotic activity, its incorporation to fermented milk can be recommended because it is an ingredient with high nutritive value, which may increase the appeal of the product to consumers. PMID:25087036

  8. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefiak, D; Kierończyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, R M; Højberg, O

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG was affected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as

  9. FERMENTATION ACTIVITY OF LACTOSE-FERMENTATION YEAST IN WHEY-MALT WORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Greek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main parameters of fermentation of whey-malt wort with the use of different strains of lactose-fermentation yeast was investigated experimentally. According to the findings of investigation of fermentive activity for different types of lactose-fermentation microorganisms in whey-malt wort it was found that the most active spirituous fermentation for all parameters was in wort fermented by microorganisms Zygosaccharomyces lactis 868-K and Saccharomyces lactis 95. High capacity for utilization of malt carbohydrates represented by easily metabolized carbohydrates of malt extract was determined. Also organoleptic analysis of fermented whey drinks derived from the renewed mixtures of dry whey and fermented malt and yeast Zygosaccharomyces lactis 868-K and Saccharomyces lactis 95 was carried out. It was found that the drink fermented with yeast Zygosaccharomyces lactis 868-K had intense refreshing flavor of rye bread with fruit tones. Intensity growth of aromatization for complex of sample with microorganisms Saccharomyces lactis 95, indicating high organoleptic indexes of the drink was observed.

  10. Extracellular enzyme activities during cassava fermentation for 'fufu' production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewole, O B; Odunfa, S A

    1992-01-01

    Amylase and pectin methyl esterase activities increased rapidly during the early period of the fermentation of cassava for 'fufu' production, attaining their peak activities after 12 and 24h, respectively. Cellulase activity was lower and approximately constant for most of the fermentation period.

  11. Influence of aeration in the fermentative activity of Kloeckera apiculata during fermentation of apple juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of aeration on the fermentative activity of Kloeckera apiculata RIVE 9-2-1 was studied in order to evaluate the production of metabolites of the fermentation. To achieve this, the strain was cultured in Erlenmeyer flasks containing sterilized and aroma removed apple juice, and the chemical compounds produced during fermentation in shaken (200 min-1) and static (without agitation) cultivation were determined. The results showed that the agitation of the culture medium increases production of higher alcohols (till 591.0 mg/L) compared to static cultivation, whereas on the contrary, the production of acetic acid, ethyl acetate and glycerol (260.0 ± 11.0 mg/L, 196.0 ± 10.0 mg/L y 2.6±0.2 g/L) were higher compared to shaken cultivation (222.0 ± 8.0 mg/L, 96.0 ± 4.5 mg/L and 1.8 ± 0.2 g/L) respectively. Batch cultivations carried out in bioreactor with air flux of 25 l/h reported a growth rate μ of 0.17 h-1, production of ethanol (12.5 ± 2.0 g/L) and other compounds typically produced during alcoholic fermentation. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the fermentation medium affects its metabolism thus; insufficient amounts of oxygen would provoke a respirofermentative metabolism. The best results in terms of organoleptic quality of the fermented beverage regarding to aroma, taste and flavor was obtained when fermented in static cultivation. The control of aeration during fermentation can be used to control the synthesis of chemical compounds of sensory impact in the production of fermented beverages.

  12. Biologically active amines in fermented and non-fermented commercial soybean products from the Spanish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Funes, N; Bosch-Fuste, J; Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2015-04-15

    Biologically active amines were determined in commercial soybean products. The antioxidant polyamines were found in both non-fermented and fermented soybean products. Natto and tempeh showed the highest content of polyamines (75-124 and 11-24 mg/kg of spermidine and spermine, respectively). On the other hand, the bacterial-related biogenic amines, tyramine, histamine, tryptamine and β-phenylethylamine, were detected in practically all fermented products with a high variability. The highest contents were found in sufu, tamari and soybean paste. Extremely high tyramine and histamine contents, 1700 and 700 mg/kg, respectively, found in some sufu samples could be unhealthy. However, biogenic amines observed in the other soybean products should not be a risk for healthy consumers. However, individuals who take monoamine and diamine oxidase inhibitors drugs should be strongly recommended to avoid this kind of products in order to suffer no adverse health effects. These biogenic amines were not detected in non-fermented soybean products.

  13. Deoxynivalenol (DON) degradation and peroxidase enzyme activity in submerged fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Jaqueline Garda-Buffon; Larine Kupski; Eliana Badiale-Furlong

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to evaluate deoxynivalenol degradation by Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae in a submerged fermentation system and to correlate it to the activity of oxydo-reductase enzymes. The submerged medium consisted of sterile distilled water contaminated with 50 μg of DON and 4 × 10(6) spore.mL-1 inoculum of Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae species, respectively in each experiment. Sampling was performed every 24 hours for monitoring the peroxidase specific activity, and ever...

  14. Anthelmintic activity of albendazole against gastrointestinal nematodes in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, G W; Ernst, J V

    1977-09-01

    Anthelmintic activities of albendazole were evaluated in a controlled experiment. Forty calves experimentally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were allotted to 4 groups. Calves in group 1 were used as nonmedicated controls; calves in groups 2, 3, and 4 were given (by oral route) a suspension containing albendazole at dose concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mg/kg of body weight on the 35th day after administration of infective nematode larvae. In groups 2, 3, and 4 calves, average overall reductions (based on geometric means) were 77.1, 93.6, and 98.1%, respectively. These reductions were highly significant (P less than 0.01) in calves given doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg, and were significant (P less than 0.05) in calves given the 2.5-mg/kg dose. Ostertagia ostertagi, Trichostrongylus axei, Cooperia onchophora, Cooperia punctata, and Oesophagostomum radiatum removals at the 5.0- and 7.5-mg/kg dose levels were all highly significant (P less than 0.01); whereas, removals of Haemonchus contortus were not significant, even at the 7.5-mg/kg dose level. PMID:921039

  15. Electrodermal screening of biologically active points for upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ying-Jung; Hu, Wen-Long; Hung, I-Ling; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Hung, Yu-Chiang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the relationship between the electrical resistance of the skin at biologically active points (BAPs) on the main meridians and upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). Electrical resistance to direct current at 20 BAPs on the fingers and toes of 100 patients with (38 men, 12 women; mean age [range], 58.20 ± 19.62 [18-83] years) and without (27 men, 23 women; 49.54 ± 12.12 [22-74] years) UGIB was measured through electrodermal screening (EDS), based on the theory of electroacupuncture according to Voll (EAV). Data were compared through analysis of variance (ANOVA), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and logistic regression. The initial readings were lower in the UGIB group, indicating blood and energy deficiency due to UGIB. Significant differences in indicator drop values were observed at nine BAPs (p < 0.05) on the bilateral small intestine, bilateral stomach, bilateral circulation, bilateral fibroid degeneration, and right lymph meridians. The area under the ROC curve values of the BAPs on the bilateral small intestine and stomach meridians were larger than 0.5, suggesting the diagnostic accuracy of EDS for UGIB on the basis of the indicator drop of these BAPs. Logistic regression revealed that when the indicator drop of the BAP on the left stomach meridian increased by one score, the risk of UGIB increased by about 1.545-3.523 times. In conclusion, the change in the electrical resistance of the skin measured by EDS at the BAPs on the bilateral small intestine and stomach meridians provides specific information on UGIB.

  16. A Review on the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pomegranate in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Colombo; Enrico Sangiovanni; Mario Dell'Agli

    2013-01-01

    Several biological activities of pomegranate have been widely described in the literature, but the anti-inflammatory effect in the gastrointestinal tract has not been reviewed till now. The aim of the present paper is to summarize the evidence for or against the efficacy of pomegranate for coping with inflammatory conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract. The paper has been organized in three parts: (1) the first one is devoted to the modifications of pomegranate active compounds in the gast...

  17. Mycelial fermentation characteristics and antiproliferative activity of Phellinus vaninii Ljup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mycelial fermentation of higher fungi were investigated to posses various bioactivities. Materials and Methods: The mycelial growth and pellet morphology in a 5-L bioreactor were investigated. The mycelial broth containing biomass and extracellular products harvested from the fermentor was tested for antiproliferative activity of colon cancer LoVo cells using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide assay. Results: The maximum mycelial concentration in a 5-L bioreactor was 12.5 g/L after 8 days cultivation. Further investigation in the mycelial pellets during the fermentation period revealed that the mean diameter of the pellet morphology was positively correlated with mycelial biomass (R2 = 0.82, P < 0.05 and broth viscosity (R2 = 0.90, P < 0.01, significantly. The ethyl acetate extract showed the most significant effects, increasing the inhibition rate up to 87.5% after 48 h at concentration of 1000 μg/mL. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the feasibility of P. vaninii Ljup mycelial fermentation for large-scale production of bioactive and medicinal compounds.

  18. Inhibitory effect of pinaverium bromide on gastrointestinal contractile activity in conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Z; Takahashi, I

    1981-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of 4-(6-bromoveratryl)-4-(2-[2-(6,6-dimethyl-2-norpinyl)-ethoxy]-ethyl)-morpholinium hydroxide (pinaverium bromide), a quaternary ammonium derivative, on the contractile activity of the gastrointestinal tract from the stomach to the colon was investigated in six conscious dogs. Gastrointestinal motor activity was monitored by means of chronically implanted force transducers. Pinaverium bromide was continuously administered i.v. for 30 min in doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg/h during both the digestive and interdigestive states. It was found that pinaverium bromide strongly inhibited gastrointestinal contractile activity during both the digestive and interdigestive states; contractions in the stomach were most strongly inhibited; however, those in the small and large bowels were also significantly inhibited. No significant side effects in the circulatory and respiratory systems and the gastrointestinal tract such as nausea, vomiting or diarrhea were observed during and after the infusion of this agent. PMID:7197953

  19. Application of pure strains to standardize the acidification process and the amylolytic activity in cassava fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes some aspects of the optimization of the traditional fermentation of cassava and potential role of the acidification process in the development of microflora at the different stages of the fermentation. It was shown that the inoculation of the cassava fermenting pulp by pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus cellobiosus and L. plantarum had resulted in sufficient acceleration of the fermentation process and the desired condition of the fermented end-product could reach in 7-24 hours instead of 72 hours (natural fermentation). The effects similar to these were obtained in the experiments on inoculation of cassava with the fermented mass (or with drained liquor) from the previous bath. The optimal condition for the exhibition of the amylolytic activity in fresh cassava was: pH 6,0 at 40 deg. C, out of this range the activity falls down sharply. (author). 22 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Computed tomography angiography in patients with active gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Fatima Regina Silva; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: fatima.rsreis@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Cardia, P.P. [Hospital Vera Cruz, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Gastrointestinal bleeding represents a common medical emergency, with considerable morbidity and mortality rates, and a prompt diagnosis is essential for a better prognosis. In such a context, endoscopy is the main diagnostic tool; however, in cases where the gastrointestinal hemorrhage is massive, the exact bleeding site might go undetected. In addition, a trained professional is not always present to perform the procedure. In an emergency setting, optical colonoscopy presents limitations connected with the absence of bowel preparation, so most of the small bowel cannot be assessed. Scintigraphy cannot accurately demonstrate the anatomic location of the bleeding and is not available at emergency settings. The use of capsule endoscopy is inappropriate in the acute setting, particularly in the emergency department at night, and is a highly expensive method. Digital angiography, despite its high sensitivity, is invasive, presents catheterization-related risks, in addition to its low availability at emergency settings. On the other hand, computed tomography angiography is fast, widely available and minimally invasive, emerging as a promising method in the diagnostic algorithm of these patients, being capable of determining the location and cause of bleeding with high accuracy. Based on a critical literature review and on their own experience, the authors propose a computed tomography angiography protocol to assess the patient with gastrointestinal bleeding. (author)

  1. Computed tomography angiography in patients with active gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Regina Silva Reis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gastrointestinal bleeding represents a common medical emergency, with considerable morbidity and mortality rates, and a prompt diagnosis is essential for a better prognosis. In such a context, endoscopy is the main diagnostic tool; however, in cases where the gastrointestinal hemorrhage is massive, the exact bleeding site might go undetected. In addition, a trained professional is not always present to perform the procedure. In an emergency setting, optical colonoscopy presents limitations connected with the absence of bowel preparation, so most of the small bowel cannot be assessed. Scintigraphy cannot accurately demonstrate the anatomic location of the bleeding and is not available at emergency settings. The use of capsule endoscopy is inappropriate in the acute setting, particularly in the emergency department at night, and is a highly expensive method. Digital angiography, despite its high sensitivity, is invasive, presents catheterization-related risks, in addition to its low availability at emergency settings. On the other hand, computed tomography angiography is fast, widely available and minimally invasive, emerging as a promising method in the diagnostic algorithm of these patients, being capable of determining the location and cause of bleeding with high accuracy. Based on a critical literature review and on their own experience, the authors propose a computed tomography angiography protocol to assess the patient with gastrointestinal bleeding.

  2. FERMENTABILITY AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LACTOPEROXIDASE ACTIVATED BUFFALO MILK YOGHURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz H. Soomro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study was planned to produce and evaluate the coagulum from buffalo milk preserved with the activation of its lactoperoxidase system (LPO-system. A total of 10 trials were conducted and in each trial milk base was equally divided into three parts, two of which were treated with 20 mg/L (A and 30 mg/L (B solution of Sodium thiocyanate + Hydrogen peroxide and third part was kept as control (C. All the samples were analyzed for fermentability trend, pH, acidity, viscosity, specific gravity, syneresis and organoleptic properties. The decreasing trend in pH during fermentation period was comparatively slow in LPO-system activated milk A and B (4h and 5h as compared to control yoghurt (3h. The titratable acidity (% lactic acid of A, B and C yoghurt was 0.86±0.022, 0.85±0.025 and 0.89±0.024, respectively. The viscosity and specific gravity of control yoghurt was significantly (P0.05 were observed in the total solids, fat, ash, lactose and protein contents among the control, A and B yoghurt. Two week stored samples of control yoghurt received lower sensory score for appearance, flavor, body/texture and overall acceptability as compared to fresh control yoghurt. Simultaneously, LPO-system treated A and B yoghurt received high score during storage period than the control yoghurt.

  3. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Activity on Egg Albumen Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Nahariah, N.; A M Legowo; Abustam, E.; Hintono, A.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is used for fermentation of fish products, meat and milk. However, the utilization of these bacteria in egg processing has not been done. This study was designed to evaluate the potential of fermented egg albumen as a functional food that is rich in angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitors activity (ACE-inhibitor activity) and is antihypertensive. A completely randomized design was used in this study with six durations of fermentation (6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 h) as...

  4. Milk fermentation products of L. helveticus R389 activate calcineurin as a signal to promote gut mucosal immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perdigón Gabriela

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Fermented milks containing probiotic bacteria are a way of delivering bioactive constituents to targets in the gastrointestinal tract. We reported previously that the fermentation of milk at constant pH 6 by L. helveticus R389 increased its content of peptide fractions, and the oral administration of the non-bacterial fraction (FMSpH6 to mice increased total secretory IgA in the intestinal lumen and enhanced the number of IgA and various cytokines producing cells as well as the secretion of IL-6 by small intestine epithelial cells. We also demonstrated that this FMSpH6 was effective for the prevention of Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice. In this work, we studied in mice the impact of the oral administration of the supernatant of milk fermented by L. helveticus R389 on the gut physiology by measuring parameters such as calcium channels and E-cadherin expression, the activation of the biological signal calcineurin and mast and goblet cells, as a way to determine some mechanisms involved in the immunomodulating effects of the milk fermentation products, observed in previous studies. We analyzed the impact of the supernatant of milk fermented by L. helveticus R389 at pH6-controlled on the expression of calcineurin and on the reinforcement of the ephitelial barrier, measuring parameters such as calcium channels and E-cadherin expression and in the reinforcement of the non-specific immunity determining mast cells and goblet cells associated to the gut. Results We observed an enhanced expression of TRPV6 channels in the duodenum, indicating an improved capacity for dietary Ca2+ uptake. We demonstrated an enhanced expression of calcineurin in the small intestine, able to upregulate immune parameters such as IL-2 and TNF production, with an increase in the number of these cytokines secreting cells. We determined an increase in the number of mucosal mast cells and goblet cells, which would mean an improved state of mucosal surveillance

  5. A comparison of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of sword beans and soybeans fermented with Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seon Su; Hur, Sun Jin; Lee, Si Kyung

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of non-fermented or Bacillus subtilis-fermented soybeans and sword beans (red and white). The total flavonoid content in both sword bean types was higher (1.9-2.5-fold) than that in soybeans. The total phenolic content in fermented red sword beans was 2.5-fold greater than that in non-fermented red sword beans. HPLC profiles revealed that gallic acid, methyl gallate, and ellagic acid were major phenolic components of non-fermented/fermented red sword beans. DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power were higher in fermented red sword beans than in other beans. Non-fermented/fermented red sword beans had higher nitrite scavenging activity than butylated hydroxytoluene and non-fermented/fermented soybeans. The hyaluronidase inhibitory activity of non-fermented/fermented red sword beans was higher (1.5-2.6-fold) than that of non-fermented/fermented soybeans. These results suggest that B. subtilis-fermented sword beans are potential natural antioxidant sources and anti-inflammatory agents for the food industry. PMID:26149963

  6. Evaluation of In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activities and Protective Effect of Fermented Preparations of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae on Intestinal Barrier Function against Lipopolysaccharide Insult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shambhunath Bose

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a potent inducer of systemic inflammatory responses, is known to cause impairment of intestinal barrier function. Here, we evaluated the in vitro protective effect of an unfermented formulation of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (RAM, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine widely used in the treatment of many digestive and gastrointestinal disorders, and two fermented preparations of RAM, designated as FRAM-1 (prepared in Luria-Bertani broth and FRAM-2 (prepared in glucose, on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs against LPS insult. In general, fermented formulations, especially FRAM-2, but not unfermented RAM, exerted an appreciable protective effect on IECs against LPS-induced perturbation of membrane resistance and permeability. Both fermented formulations exhibited appreciable anti-inflammatory activities in terms of their ability to inhibit LPS-induced gene expression and induced production of a number of key inflammatory mediators and cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. However, in most cases, FRAM-2 exhibited stronger anti-inflammatory effects than FRAM-1. Our findings also suggest that suppression of nuclear factor-κβ (NF-κβ activity might be one of the possible mechanisms by which the fermented RAM exerts its anti-inflammatory effects. Collectively, our results highlight the benefits of using fermented products of RAM to protect against LPS-induced inflammatory insult and impairment in intestinal barrier function.

  7. Anticancer activity of botanical compounds in ancient fermented beverages (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, P E; Christofidou-Solomidou, M; Wang, W; Dukes, F; Davidson, T; El-Deiry, W S

    2010-07-01

    Humans around the globe probably discovered natural remedies against disease and cancer by trial and error over the millennia. Biomolecular archaeological analyses of ancient organics, especially plants dissolved or decocted as fermented beverages, have begun to reveal the preliterate histories of traditional pharmacopeias, which often date back thousands of years earlier than ancient textual, ethnohistorical, and ethnological evidence. In this new approach to drug discovery, two case studies from ancient Egypt and China illustrate how ancient medicines can be reconstructed from chemical and archaeological data and their active compounds delimited for testing their anticancer and other medicinal effects. Specifically, isoscopoletin from Artemisia argyi, artemisinin from Artemisia annua, and the latter's more easily assimilated semi-synthetic derivative, artesunate, showed the greatest activity in vitro against lung and colon cancers. In vivo tests of these compounds previously unscreened against lung and pancreatic cancers are planned for the future.

  8. Anticancer activity of botanical compounds in ancient fermented beverages (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, P E; Christofidou-Solomidou, M; Wang, W; Dukes, F; Davidson, T; El-Deiry, W S

    2010-07-01

    Humans around the globe probably discovered natural remedies against disease and cancer by trial and error over the millennia. Biomolecular archaeological analyses of ancient organics, especially plants dissolved or decocted as fermented beverages, have begun to reveal the preliterate histories of traditional pharmacopeias, which often date back thousands of years earlier than ancient textual, ethnohistorical, and ethnological evidence. In this new approach to drug discovery, two case studies from ancient Egypt and China illustrate how ancient medicines can be reconstructed from chemical and archaeological data and their active compounds delimited for testing their anticancer and other medicinal effects. Specifically, isoscopoletin from Artemisia argyi, artemisinin from Artemisia annua, and the latter's more easily assimilated semi-synthetic derivative, artesunate, showed the greatest activity in vitro against lung and colon cancers. In vivo tests of these compounds previously unscreened against lung and pancreatic cancers are planned for the future. PMID:20514391

  9. Effect of γ-rays Co60 on the fermentation activity of Saccharomyces Vini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fermentation activity of the local strains of yeast Saccharomyces vini, irradiated with the doses of 150-200 Krad of Co gamma-rays is studied. The strains effective for viniculture have been selected. It is noted that in irradiated yeast at the dose of 200 krad fermentation activity is enhanced, i.e. the rate and the energy of fermentation are increased. It has been found that irradiated yeast strains will completely ferment grape 24 hours earlier than in the control group. Wine prepared with irradiated strains by organoleptic indices is better than wine made with the Rkatsiteli-6 control industrial race

  10. Effect of fermentation of cereals on the degradation of polysaccharides and other macronutrients in the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sholly, D.M.; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Sutton, A.L.;

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the present investigation was to study the impact of fermentation of cereals on the degradation of polysaccharides and other macronutrients in the small intestine and total tract of growing pigs. Eight pigs (initial BW, 34.5 ± 0.9 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin.......243) on the fecal digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides in either of the cereals but their digestibility was 10.0% greater (P ... of polysaccharides and other macronutrients at the ileum and in feces to a larger extent for barley than wheat....

  11. Screening of immunomodulatory and adhesive Lactobacillus with antagonistic activities against Salmonella from fermented vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Junchang; Liu, Pilong; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Xin

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) by their in vitro adhesive and immunomodulatory properties for potential use as probiotics. In this study, 16 randomly selected LAB strains from fermented vegetables (sauerkraut, bean and cabbage) were first screened for their tolerance to acid, bile salts, pepsin and pancreatin, bacterial inhibitory activities and abilities to adherence to Caco-2 cells. Then, 4 strains with the highest adhesion abilities were selected for further studies of their immunomodulatory properties and inhibitory effects against Salmonella adhesion and invasion to Caco-2 cells in vitro. The results showed that these 16 LAB strains effectively survived in simulated gastrointestinal condition and inhibited growth of six tested pathogens. Lactobacillus rhamnosus P1, Lactobacillus plantarum P2, Lactobacillus rhamnosus P3 and Lactobacillus casei P4 had the highest abilities to adhere to Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, L. plantarum P2 strain showed higher abilities to induce expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-12 by splenic monocytes and strongly inhibited the adhesion and invasion of S. enteritidis ATCC13076 to Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that Lactobacillus strains P2 could be used as a probiotic candidate in food against Salmonella infection.

  12. Influence of electrochemically activated water on fermentation activity of alcoholic yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Паньків, Наталія Олегівна; Паляниця, Любов Ярославівна; Косів, Руслана Богданівна; Березовська, Наталія Іванівна

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays a lot of researches are devoted to various methods of activation of water and aqueous solutions. Activated water has other specific properties. Under the influence of this water the fermentation activity increases and accumulation of biomass organisms improves, metabolism enhances, extraction properties improve and its antibacterial and antioxidant properties become apparent.One of the methods of water treatment, which belongs to the physical, is an electrochemical activation. It is ...

  13. The antioxidant activity of kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle and winter savory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitas Jasmina S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antioxidant activity of fermented milk products obtained by kombucha fermentation. Two starter cultures were used as follows: starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened stinging nettle extract; as well as starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened winter savory extract. The starters were added to milk with 0.8, 1.6 and 2.8% milk fat. Fermentation was carried out at 37, 40 and 43oC and stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Antioxidant activity to hydroxyl and DPPH radicals was monitored using response surface methodology. Kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle (KSN and with winter savory (KWS showed the same antioxidant response to hydroxyl and different response to DPPH radicals. Synergetic effect of milk fat and fermentation temperature to antioxidant activity to hydroxyl radicals for both types of kombucha fermented milk products (KSN and KWS was established. Optimum processing conditions in term of antioxidant activity are: milk fat around 2.8% and process temperature around 41 and 43°C for KSN and KWS respectively.

  14. Probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in a fermented milk product with added fruit preparation reduce antibiotic associated diarrhea and Helicobacter pylori activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrese, Michael; Kristen, Holger; Rautenberg, Peter; Laue, Christiane; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2011-11-01

    To investigate matrix-specifity of probiotic effects and particularly of the reduction of antibiotics-associated diarrhea, a controlled, randomized, double-blind study was performed, in which 88 Helicobacter pylori-infected but otherwise healthy subjects were given for eight weeks either a) a probiotic fruit yoghurt "mild" containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 plus Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12, n = 30), b) the same product but pasteurized after fermentation (n = 29) or c) milk acidified with lactic acid (control, n = 29). During week five, a Helicobacter eradication therapy was performed. Helicobacter activity was measured via 13C-2-urea breath tests and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and other gastrointestinal complaints were recorded by validated questionnaires. In intervention group a, b and c the mean number of days with diarrhoea was 4, 10 and 10 (Pantibiotics treatment was -1·4 ± 1·1, -1·2 ± 1·1, 2·6 ± 1·1 points/four weeks (Pprobiotic bacteria but (rather) to components of acidified milk (most probably lactic acid). Fruit-yogurt-like fermented milk products with living probiotic bacteria significantly shorten the duration of antibiotics-associated diarrhoea and improve gastrointestinal complaints. Fruit yogurt-like fermented milk is a matrix suitable for probiotic bacteria.

  15. Anthelmintic activity of medicinal plants extract against gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, goat farming, either as a full-time or part-time activity, is in increasingly being recognized as an economically beneficial livestock enterprise in tropical and sub tropical countries. Despite this popularity of goat industry, several constraints have limited the full potential of this farming activity in these countries. Among the multitude of impediments, which limit the development of the goat industry, gastrointestinal nematode infection represents a major constraint in Sri Lanka like in other parts of the tropics. Recent studies in Sri Lanka have shown, gastrointestinal nematode infections decrease the productivity, particularly weight gain in meat goats in the dry zone. The work done in dry zone of Sri Lanka has indicated that an overwhelming majority (99%) of goats were affected by a moderate to high gastrointestinal nematode infection. Successful control gastrointestinal nematodiasis infection is important for the sustainable productivity of the goat industry. The control of gastrointestinal nematodiasis is usually performed using synthetic anthelmintics. The appearance of nematode resistance to these anthelmintics and several other factors highlight the need to developing alternatives. This stimulated the research of alternatives, such as medicinal plants to control gastrointestinal nematodiasis. According to circumstances and depending on their efficacy, naturally produced plant anthelmintics offer an alternative that can overcome some of these problems and is both sustainable and environmentally acceptable. Fifteen plant extracts were screened using an in vitro larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay. Out of the fifteen crude extracts Azadiractha indica (neem) seed (NS), Areca catechu(areca-nut) unripe fruit kernel(AUFK), Adhatoda vasica (pavatta-adathoda) leaves (PL), caused a significant(P 0.05). ANUFK and PL extracts at the dose rates used was effective in controlling the GI nematodiasis in goats. ANUFK and PL could be used in control

  16. Activity change of serum ferments at irradiated rabbits on lead mumio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter author made conclusion that prescription of mumio preparation after irradiation promote reconstruction of nucleic, albuminous and mineral exchanges and also promote the activeness of serum and cellular ferments

  17. Production of Cold-Active Bacterial Lipases through Semisolid State Fermentation Using Oil Cakes

    OpenAIRE

    Babu Joseph; Supriya Upadhyaya; Pramod Ramteke

    2011-01-01

    Production of cold active lipase by semisolid state fermentation involves the use of agroindustrial residues. In the present study, semisolid state fermentation was carried out for the production of cold active lipase using Micrococcus roseus, isolated from soil samples of Gangotri glaciers, Western Himalayas. Among various substrate tested, groundnut oil cake (GOC) favored maximal yield of lipases at 15 ± 1°C within 48 h. Supplementation of glucose 1% (w/v) as additional carbon source and am...

  18. PROTEOLYTIC AND FIBRINOLYTIC ACTIVITIES OF HALOPHILIC LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FROM TWO INDONESIAN FERMENTED FOODS

    OpenAIRE

    Prihanto, Asep A.; Darius; Muhamad Firdaus

    2013-01-01

    Exploration of fermented foods as sources of fibrinolytic enzymes is increased in the last decades. Terasi and Jambal roti is Indonesian traditional fermented fish products, which were famous in Java Island. Both are important products in Indonesian dishes, especially in Java. Investigation on halophilic lactic acid bacteria using MRS and M-17 agar obtained seventy four isolated strains. Their proteolytic and fibrinolytic activities were determined using skim milk agar and plasminogen-free fi...

  19. Solid-state fermentation: modelling fungal growth and activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    In solid-state fermentation (SSF) research, it is not possible to separate biomass quantitatively from the substrate. The evolution of biomass dry weight in time can therefore not be measured. Of the aiternatives to dry weight available, glucosamine content is most promising.Glucosamine is the monom

  20. Antioxidant activity and fatty acid profile of fermented milk prepared by Pediococcus pentosaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Gayathri; Agrawal, Renu

    2014-12-01

    Probiotics are the class of beneficial microorganisms that have positive influence on the health when ingested in adequate amounts. Probiotic fermented milk is one of the dairy products that is prepared by using probiotic lactic acid bacteria. The study comprised preparation of fermented milk from various sources such as cow, goat and camel. Pediococcus pentosaceus which is a native laboratory isolate from cheese was utilized for the product formation. Changes in functional properties in the fermented milks obtained from three different species were evaluated. Antioxidant activity determined by DPPH assay showed activity in probiotic fermented milk obtained from all the products being highest in goat milk (93 %) followed by product from camel milk (86 %) and then product from cow milk (79 %). The composition of beneficial fatty acids such as stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid were higher in fermented milk than the unfermented ones. Results suggested that probiotic bacteria are able to utilize the nutrients in goat and camel milk more efficiently compared to cow milk. Increase in antioxidant activity and fatty acid profile of fermented milks enhances the therapeutic value of the products. PMID:25477694

  1. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in fermented rice (Oryza sativa bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa dos Santos Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in fermented rice bran in order to evaluate the effect of solid state fermentation on these properties. The process was performed with the fungus Rhizopus oryzae CTT 1217 in tray reactors at 30 °C for 120 hours. Samples of fermented rice bran were collected every 24 hours. Antioxidant property was evaluated by the diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method and through the inhibition of enzymatic oxidation and lipid peroxidation of olive oil. The methanol extract of the biomass obtained at 96 hours of fermentation inactivated 50% of free radical in 15 minutes. The same extract reduced the peroxide value in the olive oil by 57% after 30 days of storage. The aqueous extract of the biomass obtained at 120 hours was the most efficient inhibitor of the darkening reaction catalyzed by peroxidase.

  2. Removal of the Fermentation Inhibitor, Furfural, Using Activated Carbon in Cellulosic-Ethanol Production

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Kuang

    2011-12-21

    Ethanol can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass through fermentation; however, some byproducts from lignocellulosics, such as furfural compounds, are highly inhibitory to the fermentation and can substantially reduce the efficiency of ethanol production. In this study, commercial and polymer-derived activated carbons were utilized to selectively remove the model fermentation inhibitor, furfural, from water solution during bioethanol production. The oxygen functional groups on the carbon surface were found to influence the selectivity of sorbents between inhibitors and sugars during the separation. After inhibitors were selectively removed from the broth, the cell growth and ethanol production efficiency was recovered noticeably in the fermentation. A sorption/desorption cycle was designed, and the sorbents were regenerated in a fixed-bed column system using ethanol-containing standard solution. Dynamic mass balance was obtained after running four or five cycles, and regeneration results were stable even after twenty cycles. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  3. Antigenotoxic activity of lactic acid bacteria, prebiotics, and products of their fermentation against selected mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Adriana; Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Otlewska, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Dietary components such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and prebiotics can modulate the intestinal microbiota and are thought to be involved in the reduction of colorectal cancer risk. The presented study measured, using the comet assay, the antigenotoxic activity of both probiotic and non-probiotic LAB, as well as some prebiotics and the end-products of their fermentation, against fecal water (FW). The production of short chain fatty acids by the bacteria was quantified using HPLC. Seven out of the ten tested viable strains significantly decreased DNA damage induced by FW. The most effective of them were Lactobacillus mucosae 0988 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb-12, leading to a 76% and 80% decrease in genotoxicity, respectively. The end-products of fermentation of seven prebiotics by Lactobacillus casei DN 114-001 exhibited the strongest antigenotoxic activity against FW, with fermented inulin reducing genotoxicity by 75%. Among the tested bacteria, this strain produced the highest amounts of butyrate in the process of prebiotic fermentation, and especially from resistant dextrin (4.09 μM/mL). Fermented resistant dextrin improved DNA repair by 78% in cells pre-treated with 6.8 μM methylnitronitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Fermented inulin induced stronger DNA repair in cells pre-treated with mutagens (FW, 25 μM hydrogen peroxide, or MNNG) than non-fermented inulin, and the efficiency of DNA repair after 120 min of incubation decreased by 71%, 50% and 70%, respectively. The different degrees of genotoxicity inhibition observed for the various combinations of bacteria and prebiotics suggest that this effect may be attributable to carbohydrate type, SCFA yield, and the ratio of the end-products of prebiotic fermentation. PMID:26404012

  4. Antigenotoxic activity of lactic acid bacteria, prebiotics, and products of their fermentation against selected mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Adriana; Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Otlewska, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Dietary components such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and prebiotics can modulate the intestinal microbiota and are thought to be involved in the reduction of colorectal cancer risk. The presented study measured, using the comet assay, the antigenotoxic activity of both probiotic and non-probiotic LAB, as well as some prebiotics and the end-products of their fermentation, against fecal water (FW). The production of short chain fatty acids by the bacteria was quantified using HPLC. Seven out of the ten tested viable strains significantly decreased DNA damage induced by FW. The most effective of them were Lactobacillus mucosae 0988 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb-12, leading to a 76% and 80% decrease in genotoxicity, respectively. The end-products of fermentation of seven prebiotics by Lactobacillus casei DN 114-001 exhibited the strongest antigenotoxic activity against FW, with fermented inulin reducing genotoxicity by 75%. Among the tested bacteria, this strain produced the highest amounts of butyrate in the process of prebiotic fermentation, and especially from resistant dextrin (4.09 μM/mL). Fermented resistant dextrin improved DNA repair by 78% in cells pre-treated with 6.8 μM methylnitronitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Fermented inulin induced stronger DNA repair in cells pre-treated with mutagens (FW, 25 μM hydrogen peroxide, or MNNG) than non-fermented inulin, and the efficiency of DNA repair after 120 min of incubation decreased by 71%, 50% and 70%, respectively. The different degrees of genotoxicity inhibition observed for the various combinations of bacteria and prebiotics suggest that this effect may be attributable to carbohydrate type, SCFA yield, and the ratio of the end-products of prebiotic fermentation.

  5. Physical Activity and Gastrointestinal Cancers: Primary and Tertiary Preventive Effects and Possible Biological Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Steindorf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal cancers account for 37% of all cancer deaths worldwide, underlining the need to further investigate modifiable factors for gastrointestinal cancer risk and prognosis. This review summarizes the corresponding evidence for physical activity (PA, including, briefly, possible biological mechanisms. Despite high public health relevance, there is still a scarcity of studies, especially for tertiary prevention. Besides the convincing evidence of beneficial effects of PA on colon cancer risk, clear risk reduction for gastroesophageal cancer was identified, as well as weak indications for pancreatic cancer. Inverse associations were observed for liver cancer, yet based on few studies. Only for rectal cancer, PA appeared to be not associated with cancer risk. With regard to cancer-specific mortality of the general population, published data were rare but indicated suggestive evidence of protective effects for colon and liver cancer, and to a lesser extent for rectal and gastroesophageal cancer. Studies in cancer patients on cancer-specific and total mortality were published for colorectal cancer only, providing good evidence of inverse associations with post-diagnosis PA. Overall, evidence of associations of PA with gastrointestinal cancer risk and progression is promising but still limited. However, the already available knowledge further underlines the importance of PA to combat cancer.

  6. Dietary supplementation with fermented legumes modulate hyperglycemia and acetylcholinesterase activities in Streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L

    2015-12-01

    The study investigated the hypoglycemic and anticholinesterase activities of some fermented legumes (bambara groundnut and locust bean) in Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The rats were made diabetic by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (35mg/kg b.w.) and were fed diets containing fermented legumes (10% inclusion) for 14 days. The effect of the diets on blood glucose, pancreatic glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, α-amylase, intestinal α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase activities were studied. Significant (Pglucose, pancreatic MDA, α-amylase, intestinal α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase activities with concomitant decrease in pancreatic GPx and GSH contents were observed in diabetic rats. However, this trend was reversed in rats fed fermented legumes supplemented diets for 14 days. The HPLC-DAD finger printing revealed the presence of gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, epicatechin, rutin, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin and kaempferol as the dominant phenolic compounds of the fermented legumes. However, possible contributing role of some bioactive peptides could not be ruled out. Hence, the hypoglycemic and antiacetylcholinesterase activities of the fermented legume condiments could be attributed to their constituent phytochemicals. PMID:26349771

  7. Influence of addition of amylase preparation to dough on fermentative activity of baker's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodić Jelena M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dough samples with different content of amylases were investigated immediately after mixing and after 7, 14 and 30 days of frozen storage. The obtained results show that the fermentation time is shorter, both in fresh and frozen samples, when amylase sample 1 was added, compared to dough without enzymes. The addition of amylase 2 to dough resulted in minimal decrease of "rising" time, both is frozen and fresh dough samples. The rising time of fresh samples was shorter when amylase 3 was added to dough. The specific fermentative activity of fresh dough samples is increasing by about 10% compared to the control sample, for all amounts of amylase 1 and 2 added to the do- ugh. The fermentative activity of yeast in frozen samples increased by 5-10%, after keeping of dough with the addition of amylase 1 for 14 days. The specific fermentative activity of fresh dough samples increased compared to the control, for all amounts of added amylase 3 to the dough. In frozen dough samples the fermentative activity of yeast decreased by 10% for all added amounts of amylase 3. Baked goods made of fresh and frozen dough, prepared with the addition of amylase 1, are better than the ones made of control dough sample, considering all evaluated parameters.

  8. Colonic Fermentation: A Neglected Topic in Human Physiology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeur, Jorgen; Berstad, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    Human physiology textbooks tend to limit their discussion of colonic functions to those of absorbing water and electrolytes and storing waste material. However, the colon is a highly active metabolic organ, containing an exceedingly complex society of microbes. By means of fermentation, gastrointestinal microbes break down nutrients that cannot be…

  9. Activation of intestinal epithelial Stat3 orchestrates tissue defense during gastrointestinal infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Wittkopf

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal infections with EHEC and EPEC are responsible for outbreaks of diarrheal diseases and represent a global health problem. Innate first-line-defense mechanisms such as production of mucus and antimicrobial peptides by intestinal epithelial cells are of utmost importance for host control of gastrointestinal infections. For the first time, we directly demonstrate a critical role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells upon infection of mice with Citrobacter rodentium - a murine pathogen that mimics human infections with attaching and effacing Escherichia coli. C. rodentium induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-22 in gut samples of mice and was associated with activation of the transcription factor Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells. C. rodentium infection induced expression of several antimicrobial peptides such as RegIIIγ and Pla2g2a in the intestine which was critically dependent on Stat3 activation. Consequently, mice with specific deletion of Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells showed increased susceptibility to C. rodentium infection as indicated by high bacterial load, severe gut inflammation, pronounced intestinal epithelial cell death and dissemination of bacteria to distant organs. Together, our data implicate an essential role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells during C. rodentium infection. Stat3 concerts the host response to bacterial infection by controlling bacterial growth and suppression of apoptosis to maintain intestinal epithelial barrier function.

  10. Active gastrointestinal bleeding:Use of hemostatic forceps beyond endoscopic submucosal dissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dimitri; Coumaros; Niki; Tsesmeli

    2010-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge,this is the f irst report of the application of hemostatic forceps in active gastrointestinal(GI) bleeding that is not related to endoscopic submucosal dissection.An 86-year-old woman with chronic intake of low-dose aspirin had a Dieulafoy's lesion of the third duodenal portion.Bleeding control with epinephrine injection was unsuccessful.A 60-year-old man presented with a bleeding ulcer in the duodenal bulb.Ten days after combined endotherapy,he had recurrent bleeding from two m...

  11. Effects of motilin and ursodeoxycholic acid on gastrointestinal myoelectric activity of different origins in fasted rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Fang; Lei Dong; Jin-Yan Luo; Xiao-Long Wan; Ke-Xin Du; Ning-Li Chai

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate gastrointestinal migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) and the effects of porcine motilin and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on MMC of gastrointestinaltract of different origins in fasted rats. METHODS: Three bipolar silver electrodes were chronically implanted on the antrum, duodenum and jejunum. Seven days later 24 experimental rats were divided into 2 groups.One group was injected with porcine motilin via sublingual vein at a dose of 20 μg/kg, the other group was perfused into stomach with UDCA. The gastrointestinal myoelectric activity was recorded 1 h before and 2 h after the test substance infusions into the rats.RESULTS: In all fasted rats a typical pattern of MMC was observed. Among the totally 68 activity fronts recorded in fasted rats under control, 67% started in duodenum, and 33% in antrum. MMC cycle duration and duration of phase Ⅲ of antral origin were longer than those of duodenal origin. Administration of 20 μg/kg porcine motilin induced a premature antral phase Ⅲ of antral origin. But perfusion into stomach with UDCA resulted in shorter MMC cycle duration, longer duration of phase Ⅲ of duodenal origin,which were followed with shorter cycle duration and duration of antral phase Ⅲ.CONCLUSION: In fasted rats, MMC could originate from antrum and duodenum respectively. The characteristics of MMC of different origins may contribute to the large variations within subjects. The mechanisms of different origins of phase Ⅲ may be different. Porcine motilin and UDCA could affect MMC of different origins of the gastrointestinal tract in fasted state, respectively.

  12. Improving the antioxidant activity and enriching salvianolic acids by the fermentation of Salvia miltiorrhizae with Geomyces luteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yun; Cai, Le; Yin, Tian-Peng; Chen, Yang; Yu, Jing; Wang, Ya-Rong; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2016-05-01

    The antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of fermented Salvia miltiorrhiza with fungus Geomyces luteus were investigated. The results revealed that G. luteus fermentation could significantly improve the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of S. miltiorrhiza. The main antioxidant constituents were characterized by spectroscopic analysis as salvianolic acids. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantification also showed the enhanced content of salvianolic acid B after fermentation. The present study suggests that G. luteus fermentations are effective in the S. miltiorrhiza salvianolic acids' enrichment process. PMID:27143267

  13. Impact of Extraction Parameters on the Recovery of Lipolytic Activity from Fermented Babassu Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Jaqueline N.; Godoy, Mateus G.; Melissa L. E. Gutarra; Freire, Denise M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme extraction from solid matrix is as important step in solid-state fermentation to obtain soluble enzymes for further immobilization and application in biocatalysis. A method for the recovery of a pool of lipases from Penicillium simplicissimum produced by solid-state fermentation was developed. For lipase recovery different extraction solution was used and phosphate buffer containing Tween 80 and NaCl showed the best results, yielding lipase activity of 85.7 U/g and 65.7 U/g, respective...

  14. Polyol accumulation by Aspergillus oryzae at low water activity in solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, G.J.G.; Visser, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2004-01-01

    Polyol accumulation and metabolism were examined in Aspergillus oryzae cultured on whole wheat grains or on wheat dough as a model for solid-state culture. In solid-state fermentation (SSF), water activity (a(w)) is typically low resulting in osmotic stress. In addition to a high level of mannitol,

  15. Lactic acid bacteria active during the fermentation of wheat silage in small scale silos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, N.J.; Parker, J.A.; Moon, L.C.; Ely, L.O.

    1981-01-01

    Wheat was ensiled and periodically analyzed for lactic acid bacteria present. Initially Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus cellobiosus and Streptococcus lactis predominated. After two to four days enterococci including S. faecium and S. bovis were present in high populations as well as Lactobacillus plantarum. It was concluded that mixed populations of enterococci and L. plantarum are active in the successful fermentation of wheat silage.

  16. Mesophilic and thermophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge for hydrogen production: Focusing on homoacetogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Jingjing; Jing, Yuhang; Zhang, Shicheng;

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the mesophilic and thermophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) for hydrogen production with focus on homoacetogenesis, which mediated the consumption of H2 and CO2 for acetate production. Batch experiments showed that hydrogen yield of WAS increased...

  17. Radiological study of gastrointestinal motor activity after acute cisplatin in the rat. Temporal relationship with pica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezos, Pablo Antonio; Vera, Gema; Castillo, Mónica; Fernández-Pujol, Ramón; Martín, María Isabel; Abalo, Raquel

    2008-08-18

    Nausea and vomiting are amongst the most severe dose-limiting side effects of chemotherapy. Emetogenic activity in rats can only be evaluated by indirect markers, such as pica (kaolin intake), or delay in gastric emptying. The aim of this work was to study, by radiological methods, the alterations in gastrointestinal motility induced by acute cisplatin in the rat, and to compare them with the development of pica. Rats received cisplatin (0-6 mg kg(-1)) at day 0. In the pica study, individual food ingestion and kaolin intake were measured each day (from day -3 to day 3). In the radiological study, conscious rats received an intragastric dose of medium contrast 0, 24 or 48 h after cisplatin injection, and serial X-rays were taken 0-24 h after contrast. Cisplatin dose-dependently induced both gastric stasis and stomach distension, showing a strict temporal relationship with the induction of both acute and delayed pica. Radiological methods, which are non-invasive and preserve animals' welfare, are useful to study the effect of emetogenic drugs in the different gastrointestinal regions and might speed up the search for new anti-emetics. PMID:18579450

  18. Antioxidant activity and nutrient release from polyphenol-enriched cheese in a simulated gastrointestinal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Sophie; Langlois, Ariane; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2016-03-01

    Green tea polyphenols are recognized for their antioxidant properties and their effects on lipid digestion kinetics. Polyphenols are sensitive to degradation in the intestinal environment. Interactions with dairy proteins could modulate the stability and biological activity of polyphenols during digestion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the release of nutrients (polyphenols, fatty acids and peptides) and the antioxidant activity in polyphenol-enriched cheese containing different levels of calcium in a simulated gastrointestinal environment. The relationship between cheese matrix texture, matrix degradation and nutrient release during digestion was also studied. Green tea extract was added to milk at 0% or 0.1%, and cheeses were produced on a laboratory scale. The level of available calcium was adjusted to low (Ca(low)), regular (Ca(reg)) or high (Ca(high)) during the salting step of the cheese-making process. Cheeses were subjected to simulated digestion. The rate and extent of fatty acid release were 21% lower for Ca(low) cheese than for Ca(reg) and Ca(high) cheeses. The greater adhesiveness of Ca(low) cheese, which resulted in lower rates of matrix degradation and proteolysis, contributed to the reduced rate of lipolysis. The presence of green tea extract in cheese reduced the release of free fatty acids at the end of digestion by 7%. The addition of green tea extract increased cheese hardness but did not influence matrix degradation or proteolysis profiles. The formation of complexes between tea polyphenols and proteins within the cheese matrix resulted in a more than twofold increase in polyphenol recovery in the intestinal phase compared with the control (tea polyphenol extract incubated with polyphenol-free cheese). Antioxidant activity was 14% higher in the digest from polyphenol-enriched cheese than in the control. These results suggest that cheese is an effective matrix for the controlled release of nutrients and for the protection of green

  19. Tyrosinase Inhibitory Effect and Antioxidative Activities of Fermented and Ethanol Extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Shuen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study to investigate the biological activities of fermented extracts of Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae and Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae. Alcaligenes piechaudii CC-ESB2 fermented and ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica were prepared and the antioxidative activities of different concentrations of samples were evaluated using in vitro antioxidative assays. Tyrosinase inhibition was determined by using the dopachrome method with L-DOPA as substrate. The results demonstrated that inhibitory effects (ED50 values on mushroom tyrosinase of fermented Rhodiola rosea, fermented Lonicera japonica, ethanol extract of Lonicera japonica, and ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea were 0.78, 4.07, 6.93, and >10 mg/ml, respectively. The DPPH scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea (ED50 = 0.073 mg/ml and fermented Lonicera japonica (ED50 = 0.207 mg/ml were stronger than effects of their respective ethanol extracts. Furthermore, the scavenging effect increases with the presence of high content of total phenol. However, the superoxide scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea was less than effects of fermented Lonicera japonica. The results indicated that fermentation of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica can be considered as an effective biochemical process for application in food, drug, and cosmetics.

  20. Effect of yeast storage temperature and flour composition on fermentative activities of baker's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Dušanka J.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Baker's yeast is a set of living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It contains around 70-72% of water, 42-45% of proteins, around 40% of carbohydrates, around 7.5% of lipids (based on dry matter, and vitamin B-complex. On the basis of yeast cell analysis it can be concluded that yeast is a complex biological system which changes in time. The intensity of the changes depends on temperature. Yeast sample was stored at 4°C i 24°C for 12 days. During storage at 4°C, the content of total carbohydrates decreased from 48.81% to 37.50% (dry matter, whereas carbohydrate loss ranged from 40.81% to 29.28% at 24°C. The content of trehalose was 12.33% in the yeast sample stored at 4°C and 0.24% at 24°C. Loss of fermentative activity was 81.76% in the sample stored at 24°C for 12 days. The composition of five samples of 1st category flour was investigated. It was found that flours containing more reducing sugars and maltose enable higher fermentation activities. The flours with higher ash content (in the range 0.5-0.94% had higher contents of phytic acid. Higher ash and phytic contents in flour increased the yeast fermentative efficiency. In bakery industry, a range of ingredients has been applied to improve the product's quality such as surface active substances (emulsifiers, enzymes, sugars and fats. In the paper, the effect of some ingredients added to dough (margarine, saccharose, sodium chloride and malted barley on the yeast fermentative activity was studied. The mentioned ingredients were added to dough at different doses: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0%, flour basis. It was found that the investigated ingredients affected the fermentative activity of yeast and improved the bread quality.

  1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of milk fermented by wild and industrial Lactococcus lactis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Figueroa, J C; Reyes-Díaz, R; González-Córdova, A F; Troncoso-Rojas, R; Vargas-Arispuro, I; Vallejo-Cordoba, B

    2010-11-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory (ACEI) activity was evaluated and compared in milk fermented by wild and commercial starter culture Lactococcus lactis strains after 48 h of incubation. The highest ACEI activities were found in WSE from milk inoculated with wild L. lactis strains isolated from artisanal dairy products and commercial starter cultures. On the other hand, the lowest ACEI activities were found in WSE from milk inoculated with wild strains isolated from vegetables. Moreover, the IC(50) values (concentration that inhibits 50% activity) of WSE from artisanal dairy products were the lowest, indicating that these fractions were the most effective in inhibiting 50% of ACE activity. In fact, a strain isolated from artisanal cheese presented the lowest IC(50) (13 μg/mL). Thus, it appears that wild L. lactis strains isolated from artisanal dairy products and commercial starter cultures showed good potential for the production of fermented dairy products with ACEI properties. PMID:20965317

  2. Antioxidative and Anticanceric Activities of Magnolia (Magnolia denudata Flower Petal Extract Fermented by Pediococcus acidilactici KCCM 11614

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Park

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of magnolia (Magnolia (M. denudata extract fermentation in increasing the extract’s antioxidative and anticancer activities were investigated. Magnolia was fermented by Pediococcus acidilactici KCCM 11614. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu’s method and the antioxidative effects by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy (DPPH and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP assay. Anticancer activity against cancer and normal cells was determined using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT. Total phenolic content during fermentation increased from 38.1 to 47.0 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g of solid matter. The radical scavenging activity was 91.4% after 72 h fermentation. Fermented magnolia’s antioxidative effect was threefold higher than that of the (non-fermented control. Fermentation (48 h increased anticanceric activity against AGS, LoVo, and MCF-7 cancer cells 1.29- to 1.36-fold compared with that of the control, but did not affect MRC-5 (normal cells, suggesting that fermented magnolia could be used as a natural antioxidative and anticancer agent.

  3. Effect of fermentation with Monascus pilosus on the antioxidant activities and phenolic acid contents of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhua Cheng; Sung-Kwon Lee; Joo-Won Suh; Seung HwanYang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To enhance physiological activities of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) via fermentation with Monascus pilosus (M. pilosus). Methods: The adzuki bean fermentation conditions with M. pilosus were optimized, and the effect of Monascus-fermentation on the antioxidant capacity and phenolic acid contents of adzuki bean was investigated. Results: Optimal fermentation conditions were determined by the production of monacolin K. The highest monacolin K production was observed in 5% inoculum sized on day 15 in fermentation. Free and bound phenolic acids were isolated from native and fermented adzuki bean. A 1.9-fold decrease was observed in bound p-coumaric acid content, whereas the contents of bound ferulic and sinapic acids were increased by 28- and 1.7-fold, respectively. However, the contents of free phenolic acids such as p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids were increased by 2.6-, 5.2-, and 7.2-fold, respectively. The fermentation of adzuki bean by M. pilosus enhanced the activities of DPPH· radical scavenging, ferrous ion-chelating, nitric oxide scavenging, and ferric antioxidant reducing activities 2.2-, 1.7-, 1.2-, and 1.8-fold, respectively. Conclusions: Results from our study suggest that the contents of p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids in adzuki bean were highly increased by fermentation with M. pilosus, resulting in enhanced various antioxidant activities.

  4. Anatomically realistic multiscale models of normal and abnormal gastrointestinal electrical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Leo K; Komuro, Rie; Austin, Travis M; Buist, Martin L; Pullan, Andrew J

    2007-03-01

    One of the major aims of the International Union of Physiological Sciences (IUPS) Physiome Project is to develop multiscale mathematical and computer models that can be used to help understand human health. We present here a small facet of this broad plan that applies to the gastrointestinal system. Specifically, we present an anatomically and physiologically based modelling framework that is capable of simulating normal and pathological electrical activity within the stomach and small intestine. The continuum models used within this framework have been created using anatomical information derived from common medical imaging modalities and data from the Visible Human Project. These models explicitly incorporate the various smooth muscle layers and networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) that are known to exist within the walls of the stomach and small bowel. Electrical activity within individual ICCs and smooth muscle cells is simulated using a previously published simplified representation of the cell level electrical activity. This simulated cell level activity is incorporated into a bidomain representation of the tissue, allowing electrical activity of the entire stomach or intestine to be simulated in the anatomically derived models. This electrical modelling framework successfully replicates many of the qualitative features of the slow wave activity within the stomach and intestine and has also been used to investigate activity associated with functional uncoupling of the stomach.

  5. Anatomically realistic multiscale models of normal and abnormal gastrointestinal electrical activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leo K Cheng; Rie Komuro; Travis M Austin; Martin L Buist; Andrew J Pullan

    2007-01-01

    One of the major aims of the Tnternational Union of Physiological Sciences (IUPS) Physiome Project is to develop multiscale mathematical and computer models that can be used to help understand human health.We present here a small facet of this broad plan that applies to the gastrointestinal system. Specifically,we present an anatomically and physiologically based modelling framework that is capable of simulating normal and pathological electrical activity within the stomach and small intestine. The continuum models used within this framework have been created using anatomical information derived from common medical imaging modalities and data from the Visible Human Project. These models explicitly incorporate the various smooth muscle layers and networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) that are known to exist within the walls of the stomach and small bowel. Electrical activity within individual ICCs and smooth muscle cells is simulated using a previously published simplified representation of the cell level electrical activity. This simulated cell level activity is incorporated into a bidomain representation of the tissue, allowing electrical activity of the entire stomach or intestine to be simulated in the anatomically derived models. This electrical modelling framework successfully replicates many of the qualitative features of the slow wave activity within the stomach and intestine and has also been used to investigate activity associated with functional uncoupling of the stomach.

  6. Estimation of the antioxidant activity of the commercially available fermented milks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Najgebauer-Lejko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Free radicals are connected with the increased risk of certain diseases, especially cancers. There is some scientific evidence that antioxidant-rich diet may inhibit the negative impact of free radicals. The aim of the present study was to analyse the antioxidant capacity of the selected commercial natural and flavoured fermented milks offered in Poland, derived from different producers. Material and methods. The following commercially available natural fermented milks: 12 yoghurts, 12 kefirs, 2 butter milks, 2 cultured milks, Turkish yoghurt drink (ayran and the following flavoured fermented milks: 22 yoghurts, 2 acidophillus milks, 2 kefirs, butter milk and vegetable flavoured fermented milk were analysed for their antioxidant potential. The antioxidant capacity was assessed, in two replicates and twice for each product, by means of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and DPPH radical scavenging ability (expressed as ARP – anti radical power methods. Results. Among all analysed plain products, yoghurts and kefirs were characterised by the highest antioxi- dant activity. The presence of probiotic Lactobacillus casei strains in the product positively affected both FRAP and ARP values. Antioxidant capacity of the flavoured fermented milks was primarily affected by the type and quality (e.g. fruit concentration of the added flavouring preparation. The most valuable regarding the estimated parameters were chocolate, coffee, grapefruit with green tea extract as well as bilberry, forest fruits, strawberry and cherry with blackcurrant fillings. Conclusions. Protein content, inclusion of probiotic microflora as well as type and quality of flavouring preparations are the main factors affecting antioxidant properties of fermented milks.

  7. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of plant extracts traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lúcia Cogo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of plant extracts obtained from Bixa orellana L., Chamomilla recutita L., Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Malva sylvestris L., Plantago major L. and Rheum rhaponticum L. has been evaluated against two reference strains and eleven clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. All the plant species chosen are used in popular Brazilian cuisine and folk medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Initial screening was made by the disk diffusion test and then minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method. The results presented in this work demonstrated that among the plant preparations analyzed, B. orellana L., C. recutita L., I. paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. and M. sylvestris L. were capable of inhibiting the in vitro growth of H. pylori.

  8. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of plant extracts traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Laura Lúcia; Monteiro, Cristina Leise Bastos; Miguel, Marilis Dallarmi; Miguel, Obdulio Gomes; Cunico, Miriam Machado; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; de Camargo, Eloá Ramalho; Kussen, Gislene Maria Botão; Nogueira, Keite da Silva; Costa, Libera Maria Dalla

    2010-04-01

    The antibacterial activity of plant extracts obtained from Bixa orellana L., Chamomilla recutita L., Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Malva sylvestris L., Plantago major L. and Rheum rhaponticum L. has been evaluated against two reference strains and eleven clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. All the plant species chosen are used in popular Brazilian cuisine and folk medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Initial screening was made by the disk diffusion test and then minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method. The results presented in this work demonstrated that among the plant preparations analyzed, B. orellana L., C. recutita L., I. paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. and M. sylvestris L. were capable of inhibiting the in vitro growth of H. pylori.

  9. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of plant extracts traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Laura Lúcia; Monteiro, Cristina Leise Bastos; Miguel, Marilis Dallarmi; Miguel, Obdulio Gomes; Cunico, Miriam Machado; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; de Camargo, Eloá Ramalho; Kussen, Gislene Maria Botão; Nogueira, Keite da Silva; Costa, Libera Maria Dalla

    2010-04-01

    The antibacterial activity of plant extracts obtained from Bixa orellana L., Chamomilla recutita L., Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Malva sylvestris L., Plantago major L. and Rheum rhaponticum L. has been evaluated against two reference strains and eleven clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. All the plant species chosen are used in popular Brazilian cuisine and folk medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Initial screening was made by the disk diffusion test and then minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method. The results presented in this work demonstrated that among the plant preparations analyzed, B. orellana L., C. recutita L., I. paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. and M. sylvestris L. were capable of inhibiting the in vitro growth of H. pylori. PMID:24031496

  10. Molecular Monitoring of Wine Fermentations Conducted by Active Dry Yeast Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Querol, Amparo; Barrio, Eladio; Huerta, Tomás; Ramón, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    A simple and rapid method of yeast strain characterization based on mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis was applied to the control of wine fermentations conducted by active dry yeast strains. This molecular approach allows us to understand several important aspects of this process, such as the role of the active dry yeast strain and that of the natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae flora during vinification. In this paper, we demonstrate that the inoculated strain is really responsible for the ...

  11. Plasticity in gastrointestinal morphology and enzyme activity in lactating striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Ying; Zhao, Xiao-Ya; Wen, Jing; Tan, Song; Zhao, Zhi-Jun

    2016-05-01

    In small mammals, marked phenotypic plasticity of digestive physiology has been shown to make it easier for them to cope with energetically stressful periods, such as lactation. It has been proposed that the capacity of the gut to digest and absorb food is not the limiting factor to sustained energy intake (SusEI) during peak lactation. In this study, plasticity in energy intake and gastrointestinal morphology was examined in striped hamsters at different stages of reproduction and when raising litters of different sizes. Mechanisms associated with digestive enzymes and neuroendocrine hormones underpinning the plasticity were also examined. Females significantly increased energy intake, digestibility, digestive tract mass and the activity of stomach pepsin and small intestine maltase, sucrase and aminopeptidase in peak lactation compared with the non-productive and post-lactating periods. Further, females raising large litters significantly increased energy intake, digestibility, gastrointestinal mass and activity of digestive enzymes, and weaned heavier offspring compared with those nursing small and medium litters, indicating that the significant plasticity of digestive physiology increased reproductive performance. Agouti-related protein (AgRP) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus was up-regulated significantly in females raising large litters relative to those raising small litters. Serum leptin levels, and mRNA expression of hypothalamus neuropeptide Y (NPY) and the anorexigenic neuropeptides pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) did not differ among females raising small, medium and large litters. Leptin levels in lactation may only reflect a state of energy balance rather than being the prime driver of hyperphagia. Some hypothalamic neuropeptides, such as NPY, POMC and CART, may be involved in the limits to the SusEI during lactation. PMID:26944487

  12. Fermentation characteristics of several carbohydrate sources for dog diets using the in vitro gas production technique

    OpenAIRE

    Serena Calabrò; Aulus C. Carciofi; Nadia Musco; Raffaella Tudisco; Gomes, Marcia O. S.; Monica I. Cutrignelli

    2013-01-01

    Fermentable carbohydrates are an important part of the canine diet. They can improve gastrointestinal health by modifying gut microbial population and metabolic activity. The present study compared the fermentation characteristics and kinetic patterns of 10 carbohydrate sources using the in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT) with dog faecal inoculum. The substrates tested were: pure cellulose (PC), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), sugar-cane fibre (SCF), beet pulp (BP), wheat bran (WB), fruc...

  13. PROTEOLYTIC AND FIBRINOLYTIC ACTIVITIES OF HALOPHILIC LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FROM TWO INDONESIAN FERMENTED FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep A. Prihanto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of fermented foods as sources of fibrinolytic enzymes is increased in the last decades. Terasi and Jambal roti is Indonesian traditional fermented fish products, which were famous in Java Island. Both are important products in Indonesian dishes, especially in Java. Investigation on halophilic lactic acid bacteria using MRS and M-17 agar obtained seventy four isolated strains. Their proteolytic and fibrinolytic activities were determined using skim milk agar and plasminogen-free fibrin plate. Twenty five isolates showed protease activities, while only four of them secreted fibrinolitic enzyme. The highest proteolytic and fibrinolytic activity was shown by TB1 strain, which is identified as Bacillus coagulans. The 16s rDNA is still in investigating to confirm the TB1 strain identity.

  14. Chronic Response of Waste Activated Sludge Fermentation to Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinguang Chen; Hui Mu; Xiong Zheng⁎

    2014-01-01

    Due to the large-scale production and wide applications, many nanoparticles (NPs) enter wastewater treatment plants and accumulate in activated sludge. It is reported that titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs show severe damage to many model microbes. However, it is stil unknown whether the long-term (e.g., 100 d) presence of TiO2 NPs would affect the performance of sludge fermentation. In this study, long-term exposure experiments (105 d) were conducted to investigate the potential risk of TiO2 NPs to sludge fermentation system. It is found that the presence of environmental y relevant [6 mg·(g TSS)−1] and higher [150 mg·(g TSS)−1] concentrations of TiO2 NPs does not affect methane production from sludge fermentation. The analysis of fluorescence in situ hybridiza-tion indicates that these concentrations of TiO2 NPs present marginal influences on abundances of bacteria and methanogenic archaea in sludge fermentation system. The viability of sludge microorganisms and activities of key enzymes related to methane production such as protease, acetate kinase, and coenzyme F420 are unchanged by the long-term presence of 6 and 150 mg·(g TSS)−1 of TiO2 NPs. Further investigations reveal that the insolu-bility of NPs and the protection role of sludge extracellular polymeric substances are the main reasons for the marginal influence of TiO2 NPs on sludge fermentation.

  15. Application of Lactobacillus immobilized by Activated Carbon Fiber in Fermentation of Lactic Acid in Starch Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Peng; Chi, Guoda; Huang, Chenyong

    2010-11-01

    Activated carbon fibers (ACF) as the carrier of Lactobacillus was introduced into fermenting system, and a method of modifying the surface of ACF by HNO3-Fe (III) was established. Factors that affect ACF carrier's effect on immobilization of Lactobacillus were studied. HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 and FeCl3 solutions were respectively used to modify the surface properties of ACF. The amount of Fe (III) carried on ACF surface was 0.1563 mol/kg after ACF surface was modified by HNO3 for 5 h and then by 0.1 mol/L FeCl3 for 4 h, when the thickness of Lactobacillus on a single silk of carrier reached 40 μm. When ACF modified by HNO3-Fe (III) was applied in the fermentation of lactic acid in starch industry wastewater, the fermentation period reduced by 8 h and the output of L-lactic acid was 65.5 g/L, which was 3.3% more than that fermented without the carrier.

  16. The Eschericia coli Growth Inhibition Activity of Some Fermented Medicinal Plant Leaf Extract from the Karo Highland, North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOVIK NURHIDAYAT

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A lot of traditional medicinal plant has antibacterial acitivities. Most of these plants are freshly chewed or grounded and used directly to treat infectious bacterial deseases. However, some practices employ a traditionally spontaneous fermentation on boiled extracted leaf, root or other parts of the plant. This work reports a laboratory stimulated spontaneous fermentation of leaf extracts from selected medicinal plants collected from the Karo Higland. The spontaenous fermentation was stimulated to be carried out by the Acetobacter xylinum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The anti-infectious agent activity was assayed on the Eschericia coli growth inhibition. A complementary non fermented leaf extract was also made and assayed as a comparative measure. Indeed, the fermented leaf extract of bitter bush (Eupatorium pallescens, cacao (Theobroma cacao, avocado (Persia gratissima, passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, cassava (Cassava utillissima, diamond flower (Hedyotis corymbosa, periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus, and gandarusa (Justicia gendarussa have relatively higher anti-E.coli acitivity than those of non fermented ones. However, there were no anti-E.coli activity was detected in both fermented and non fermented leaf extract of the guava (Psidium guajava and common betel (Piper nigrum.

  17. Treatment of massive gastrointestinal bleeding occurred during autologous stem cell transplantation with recombinant activated factor VII and octreotide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erman Atas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, patients may suffer from bleeding. One of the bleeding type is gastrointestinal (GI which has serious morbidity and mortality in children with limited treatment options. Herein, we presented a child with upper GI bleeding post autologous HSCT controlled successfully by using recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa and octreotide infusion.

  18. Antimutagenic activity of green tea and black tea extracts studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, C.A.M.; Luiten-Schuite, A.; Tenfelde, A.; Ommen, B. van; Verhagen, H.; Havenaar, R.

    2001-01-01

    An in vitro gastrointestinal model, which simulates the conditions in the human digestive tract, was used to determine potential antimutagenic activity of extracts of black tea and green tea. In this paper, results are presented on the availability for absorption of potential antimutagenic compounds

  19. Fermented feed for laying hens: effect on egg production, egg quality, plumage condition and composition and activity of the intestinal microflora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Ricarda M; Hammershøj, M; Johansen, N F;

    2009-01-01

    1. An experiment with a total of 480 hens (Babcock) was carried out from 16 to 38 weeks of age to evaluate the suitability of wet fermented feed (feed water ratio, 1:1·2-1:1·4) for layers, taking aspects of nutrition and gastrointestinal health into consideration. The production performance, egg ...

  20. Effects of mill stream flours technological quality on fermentative activity of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Katarina V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work in concerned with the interdependence between technological quality of mill stream flours and fermentative activity of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each mill stream flour has its own specific properties, determined by the particle size, technological phase of its formation and part of the wheat kernel it consists of. Biochemical complexity of dough during examination of fermentative activity of baker's yeast confirmed the influence of a number of physical and biochemical flour properties, such as ash content, wet gluten content, rheological flour properties, phytic acid content and amylograph peak viscosity. Abudance of significant flour characteristic, their interaction and different behavior in the presence of the yeast, showed diversity and variation of result within the same category of the mill stream flour.

  1. Lactic acid bacteria active during the fermentation of wheat silage in small scale silos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, N.J.; Moon, L.C.; Ely, L.O.; Parker, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Wheat was ensiled and periodically analyzed for lactic acid bacteria present. Initially Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus cellobiosus and Streptococcus lactis predominated. After two to four days enterococci including S. faecium and S. bovis were present in high populations as well as Lactobacillus plantarum. It was concluded that mixed populations of enterococci and L. plantarum are active in the successful fermentation of wheat silage. (Refs. 5).

  2. Fermented Ginseng Contains an Agonist of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors α and γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igami, Kentaro; Shimojo, Yosuke; Ito, Hisatomi; Miyazaki, Toshitsugu; Nakano, Fusako; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) is a nuclear receptor that is one of the transcription factors regulating lipid and glucose metabolism. Fermented ginseng (FG) is a ginseng fermented by Lactobacillus paracasei A221 containing minor ginsenosides and metabolites of fermentation. DNA microarray analysis of rat liver treated with FG indicated that FG affects on lipid metabolism are mediated by PPAR-α. To identify a PPAR-α agonist in FG, PPAR-α transcription reporter assay-guided fractionation was performed. The fraction obtained from the MeOH extract of FG, which showed potent transcription activity of PPAR-α, was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography into 16 subfractions, and further separation and crystallization gave compound 1 together with four known constituents of ginseng, including 20(R)- and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol, and 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh1. The structure of compound 1 was identified as 10-hydroxy-octadecanoic acid by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra and by EI-MS analysis of the methyl ester of 1. Compound 1 demonstrated much higher transcription activity of PPAR-α than the other isolated compounds. In addition, compound 1 also showed 5.5-fold higher transcription activity of PPAR-γ than vehicle at the dose of 20 μg/mL. In the present study, we identified 10-hydroxy-octadecanoic acid as a dual PPAR-α/γ agonist in FG. Our study suggested that metabolites of fermentation, in addition to ginsenosides, contribute to the health benefits of FG. PMID:27627700

  3. In Vitro Rumen Fermentation and Anti Mastitis Bacterial Activity of Diet Containing Betel Leaf Meal (Piper betle L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Yamin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this experiment was to study the inhibition effect of betel leaf meal (BLM addition into concentrate diet on mastitis causing bacteria and on rumen fermentation condition. The study consisted of five dietary treatments of BLM level in concentrate feed, i.e., 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% and four replicates of each treatment. The treatment diets together with napier grass in ratio of 40 : 60 were fermented using rumen liquor. All treatments were examined their antibacterial activity before and after fermentation. After four hours fermentation, supernatant of each samples were analyzed for VFA, NH3, number of bacteria and protozoa. Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility were analyzed after 48 h fermentation. The results showed that before fermentation, 8% BLM addition caused the bigest (P<0.05 inhibition diameter of Staphylococcus spp. growth compared to other lower levels. However after fermentation there were no significant differences among the addition levels of BLM. Two per cent of BLM addition produced higher VFA (P<0.05 than the other addition levels. Ammonia concentration, dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility were not different among the treatments. Addition of BLM significantly (P<0.01 decreased protozoa number, but did not affect bacterial count. It is concluded that the addition of 2% BLM in concentrate feed can be used effectively to inhibit the growth of mastitis causing bacteria (Staphylococcus spp. and does not disturb rumen fermentation condition.

  4. Activity of lysosomal and mitochondrial ferments in serum and liver tissue at controlled and treated by leukotitin animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter author describes the experiments on rats and gives the information on activity of lysosomal and mitochondrial ferments in serum and liver tissue at controlled and treated by leukotitin animals

  5. Antioxidant Activity of Peptides from Fermented Milk with Mix Culture of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the production of antioxidant peptides during milk fermentation with co-culture of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB and yeast. Five LAB strains, previously screened with higher hydrolysis activity and Debaryomyces hansenii H2 which isolated from Tibet kefir were used in the study. The peptides separated from fermented milk were analysed antioxidant activity with DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, chelation of metal ions and reducing power assays. The growth of Streptococcus. thermophilus Lactobacillus. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Lactococcus. lactis was enhanced with co-cultures and L. acidophilus was inhibited in co-culture with yeast. In co-culture with yeast, a significant decrease of the acidity was observed among all the fermentation and the pH reached higher values than in single LAB cultures. Except for L.delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, there was no significant difference of protein hydrolysis with other test LAB strains between co-culture and single culture. The co-incubation of LAB with the yeast developed a stronger antioxidant activity in DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging and no significant (p>0.05 difference in chelation of metal ions. The reducing power of L.delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and L. helveticus in co-culture was significant higher than those of single culture.

  6. Determination of Harvesting Time and Fermentation Conditions of Coffee (Coffee sp) Beans Based on the Fruit Pericarp Enzyme Activity)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Said Didu

    2001-01-01

    Pectinase enzyme of coffee pericarp, containing pectinesterase and polymetilesterase, is potential to determine harvesting time or to classify coffee beans. The activity of the enzyme on the green fruit is higher than on the yellow one. When the fruit become light red, the activity increaed for the second time and then decrease when the fruit is overripe (dark colored)The optimum fermentation condition of the fruit is depending on the maturation degree. Study on the fermentation process at 25...

  7. The effect of probiotic fermented milk and inulin on the functions and microecology of the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairanen, Ulla; Piirainen, Laura; Gråsten, Soile; Tompuri, Tuomo; Mättö, Jaana; Saarela, Maria; Korpela, Riitta

    2007-08-01

    We investigated the effects of a probiotic fermented milk and inulin on gastrointestinal function and microecology. The study was double-blinded and comprised 66 healthy adults (22 male, 44 female), mean age 40 years (range, 22-60 years). After a 12-d baseline period the subjects were randomized to consume, for 3 weeks, 3x200 ml daily of either (1) a fermented milk with probiotics (Bifidobacterium longum BB536, Bifidobacterium spp. 420 and Lactobacillus acidophilus 145), (2) a fermented milk with the same probiotics plus 4 g inulin, or (3) a control fermented milk. During the last 7 d of the baseline and the intervention periods, the subjects kept a record of their defaecation frequency and gastrointestinal symptoms, and collected all their faeces. Intestinal transit time, stool weight and faecal enzyme activities were measured. Thirty-nine subjects were randomized to give faecal samples for analysis of pH and microbes, including lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Bacteroides and Clostridium perfringens. Consumption of fermented milk with probiotics or with probiotics and inulin increased the faecal number of lactobacilli (P=0.009, P=0.003) and bifidobacteria (P=0.046, P=0.038) compared with the baseline. Compared with the control fermented milk, both active products increased lactobacilli (P=0.005, ANCOVA). Subjects consuming fermented milk with probiotics and inulin suffered from gastrointestinal symptoms, especially flatulence, more than the others (P<0.001). In conclusion, the probiotic fermented milk product had a positive effect by increasing the number of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the colon. Inulin did not alter this effect but it increased gastrointestinal symptoms.

  8. Gastrointestinal ecosystem and immunological responses in E.coli challenged pigs after weaning fed liquid diets containing whey permeate fermented with different lactic acid bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2015-01-01

    with Lactobacillus plantarum (INF+WP+LAB2); and (6) infection and WP fermented with Weissella viridescens (INF+WP+LAB3). Piglets in groups 2 to 6 were inoculated with E. coli F4 on day 2 and 3 after weaning. Faeces were collected on days 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8 and the pigs were sacrificed on day 11. Digesta and mucosa...

  9. Fermentative characteristics and fibrolytic activities of anaerobic gut fungi isolated from wild and domestic ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Shyam S; Kamra, Devki N; Sastry, Vadali R B

    2010-08-01

    Fermentative characteristics and fibrolytic enzyme activities of anaerobic gut fungi from wild (17 isolates) and domestic ruminants (15 isolates) were examined. In a medium containing 0.5% wheat straw and 0.02% cellobiose as energy source, activities of carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), avicelase, xylanase, acetyl esterase and protease produced by the fungal isolates were investigated. Average activity of CMCase (17.4 vs. 8.25 mIU ml(-1)), acetyl esterase (134 vs. 57 mIU ml(-1)) and protease (4400 vs. 1683 mIU ml(-1)) were significantly higher in isolates from wild ruminants than those from domestic ruminants. Xylanase and avicelase activities were comparable. When compared irrespective of source, fungal isolates having monocentric growth pattern produced more fibrolytic enzymes than isolates having polycentric growth pattern. CMCase, xylanase, avicelase activities were highest in Neocallimastix isolates. Acetyl esterase activity was highest in Piromyces and Neocallimastix isolates. Protease activity was highest in Piromyces isolates followed closely by Neocallimastix isolates. Between isolates from wild and domestic ruminants few differences were observed in pattern of carbohydrate utilisation and end products of fermentation. Inter-strain differences in the end product formation were apparent. All of the isolates produced acetate, lactate and formate; only a few isolates produced succinate. For isolation of superior fibrolytic isolates of anaerobic fungi, greater emphasis should be given to the screening of enzyme activities of isolates of genera Neocallimastix and Piromyces. PMID:20722299

  10. Matrix Effects on the Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Red Cabbage Anthocyanins under Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Podsędek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red cabbage is, among different vegetables, one of the major sources of anthocyanins. In the present study an in vitro digestion method has been used to assay the influence of the physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine, as well as faecal microflora on anthocyanins stability in red cabbage and anthocyanin-rich extract. The recovery of anthocyanins during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was strongly influenced by food matrix. The results showed that other constituents present in cabbage enhanced the stability of anthocyanins during the digestion. The amount of anthocyanins (HPLC method and antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays strongly decreased after pancreatic-bile digestion in both matrices but total phenolics content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay in these digestions was higher than in initial samples. Incubation with human faecal microflora caused further decline in anthocyanins content. The results obtained suggest that intact anthocyanins in gastric and products of their decomposition in small and large intestine may be mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity and other physiological effects after consumption of red cabbage.

  11. Recovery of carboxylic acids produced during dark fermentation of food waste by adsorption on Amberlite IRA-67 and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Ahasa; Bonk, Fabian; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2016-10-01

    Amberlite IRA-67 and activated carbon were tested as promising candidates for carboxylic acid recovery by adsorption. Dark fermentation was performed without pH control and without addition of external inoculum at 37°C in batch mode. Lactic, acetic and butyric acids, were obtained, after 7days of fermentation. The maximum acid removal, 74%, from the Amberlite IRA-67 and 63% from activated carbon was obtained from clarified fermentation broth using 200gadsorbent/Lbroth at pH 3.3. The pH has significant effect and pH below the carboxylic acids pKa showed to be beneficial for both the adsorbents. The un-controlled pH fermentation creates acidic environment, aiding in adsorption by eliminating use of chemicals for efficient removal. This study proposes simple and easy valorization of waste to valuable chemicals. PMID:26898679

  12. Characterization of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activities of Red Radish Brines during Lactic Acid Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Jing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Red radish (Raphanus L. pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5–19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15–30 µg/mL. 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2–92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206–220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants.

  13. Production and regulation of lipase activity from Penicillium restrictum in submerged and solid-state fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azeredo, Luciana A I; Gomes, Patrícia M; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L; Castilho, Leda R; Freire, Denise M G

    2007-05-01

    Different carbon (C) sources, mainly carbohydrates and lipids, have been screened for their capacity to support growth and lipase production by Penicillium restrictum in submerged fermentation (SmF) and in solid-state fermentation (SSF). Completely different physiological behaviors were observed after the addition of easily (oleic acid and glucose) and complex (olive oil and starch) assimilable C sources to the liquid and solid media. Maximal lipolytic activities (12.1 U/mL and 17.4 U/g) by P. restrictum were obtained with olive oil in SmF and in SSF, respectively. Biomass levels in SmF (12.2-14.1 mg/mL) and SSF (7.0-8.0 mg/g) did not varied greatly with the distinct C sources used. High lipase production (12.3 U/g) using glucose was only attained in SSF, perhaps due to the ability of this fermentation process to minimize catabolite repression. PMID:17457647

  14. Red Wine Tannin Structure-Activity Relationships during Fermentation and Maceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacco, Ralph S; Watrelot, Aude A; Kennedy, James A

    2016-02-01

    The correlation between tannin structure and corresponding activity was investigated by measuring the thermodynamics of interaction between tannins isolated from commercial red wine fermentations and a polystyrene divinylbenzene HPLC column. Must and/or wine samples were collected throughout fermentation/maceration from five Napa Valley wineries. By varying winery, fruit source, maceration time, and cap management practice, it was considered that a reasonably large variation in commercially relevant tannin structure would result. Tannins were isolated from samples collected using low pressure chromatography and were then characterized by gel permeation chromatography and acid-catalyzed cleavage in the presence of excess phloroglucinol (phloroglucinolysis). Corresponding tannin activity was determined using HPLC by measuring the thermodynamics of interaction between isolated tannin and a polystyrene divinylbenzene HPLC column. This measurement approach was designed to determine the ability of tannins to hydrophobically interact with a hydrophobic surface. The results of this study indicate that tannin activity is primarily driven by molecular size. Compositionally, tannin activity was positively associated with seed tannins and negatively associated with skin and pigmented tannins. Although measured indirectly, the extent of tannin oxidation as determined by phloroglucinolysis conversion yield suggests that tannin oxidation at this stage of production reduces tannin activity. Based upon maceration time, this study indicates that observed increases in perceived astringency quality, if related to tannin chemistry, are driven by tannin molecular mass as opposed to pigmented tannin formation or oxidation. Overall, the results of this study give new insight into tannin structure-activity relationships which dominate during extraction. PMID:26766301

  15. Enzyme activities of lactic acid bacteria from a pearl millet fermented gruel (ben-saalga) of functional interest in nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Songre Ouattara, L. T.; Mouquet Rivier, Claire; Icard-Vernière, Christèle; Humblot, Christèle; Diawara, B.; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria responsible for the fermentation of a pearl-millet based fermented gruel, ben-saalga. were investigated for enzyme activity in relation with the nutritional characteristics of gruels used as complementary foods for young children. Thirty pre-selected LAB from a set of 155 isolates were characterized principally for their ability to produce amylase, phytase and alpha-galactosidase. Two Lactobacillus plantarum strains (4.4 and 6.1) and three Lactobacillus fermentum strains ...

  16. In Vitro Rumen Fermentation and Anti Mastitis Bacterial Activity of Diet Containing Betel Leaf Meal (Piper betle L.)

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Yamin; A. Sudarman; D. Evvyernie

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this experiment was to study the inhibition effect of betel leaf meal (BLM) addition into concentrate diet on mastitis causing bacteria and on rumen fermentation condition. The study consisted of five dietary treatments of BLM level in concentrate feed, i.e., 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% and four replicates of each treatment. The treatment diets together with napier grass in ratio of 40 : 60 were fermented using rumen liquor. All treatments were examined their antibacterial activity be...

  17. Anthelmintic Activity of a Herbal Formulation Against Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arfan Zaman*§, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Nisar Khan and Ghulam Muhammad1

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of a herbal formulation (HF based on aqueous extracts of leaves of Azadirachta indica and Nicotiana tabacum, flowers of Calotropis procera and seeds of Trachyspermum ammi. In vitro, eggs and adult Haemonchus contortus were exposed to different concentrations of HF following the standard procedures of egg hatch test (EHT; 50 to 0.024414 mg ml-1 and adult motility assay (AMA; 200-0.1953125mg ml-1, respectively. The reference drugs used in the study were oxfendazole (0.0056704 to 0.0000027 mg ml-1 and levamisole (1.50 mg ml-1 for EHT and AMA, respectively. In vivo, pre and post-treatment (4 mg, 2 mg and 500 µg kg-1 body weight fecal egg counts were determined following standard fecal egg count reduction test in sheep naturally parasitized with mixed species of gastrointestinal nematodes. In EHT, LC50 values of HF and oxfendazole (reference drug were 275.1 and 0.016 µg ml-1, respectively. In AMA, 100% mortality of H. contortus was observed 6 hr post-exposure to 3.125-200 mg ml-1 concentrations of HF and 2 hr post-exposure to levamisole. In vivo, maximum (96.2% fecal egg count (EPG reduction was recorded in sheep treated with HF @ 4 mg kg-1 body weight; whereas, 89.3% reduction in EPG was recorded in sheep treated with levamisole @ 7.5 mg kg-1 body weight. A graded dose response was noted in all the tests used in the present study to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of HF. Therefore, HF seems to be promising as an anthelmintic for animals. Large scale trials on efficacy and safety, however, are recommended before the HF is considered for commercialization in crude form.

  18. Mechanisms of electrical activation and conduction in the gastrointestinal system: lessons from cardiac electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eTse

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI tract is an electrically excitable organ system containing multiple cell types, which coordinate electrical activity propagating through this tract. Disruption in its normal electrophysiology is observed in a number of GI motility disorders. However, this is not well characterized and the field of GI electrophysiology is much less developed compared to the cardiac field. The aim of this article is to use the established knowledge of cardiac electrophysiology to shed light on the mechanisms of electrical activation and propagation along the GI tract, and how abnormalities in these processes lead to motility disorders and suggest better treatment options based on this improved understanding. In the first part of the article, the ionic contributions to the generation of GI slow wave and the cardiac action potential (AP are reviewed. Propagation of these electrical signals can be described by the core conductor theory in both systems. However, specifically for the GI tract, the following unique properties are observed: changes in slow wave frequency along its length, periods of quiescence, synchronization in short distances and desynchronization over long distances. These are best described by a coupled oscillator theory. Other differences include the diminished role of gap junctions in mediating this conduction in the GI tract compared to the heart. The electrophysiology of conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease and gastroparesis, and functional problems such as irritable bowel syndrome are discussed in detail, with reference to ion channel abnormalities and potential therapeutic targets. A deeper understanding of the molecular basis and physiological mechanisms underlying GI motility disorders will enable the development of better diagnostic and therapeutic tools and the advancement of this field.

  19. Antioxidant defense parameters as predictive biomarkers for fermentative capacity of active dried wine yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Matallana, Emilia

    2014-08-01

    The production of active dried yeast (ADY) is a common practice in industry for the maintenance of yeast starters and as a means of long term storage. The process, however, causes multiple cell injuries, with oxidative damage being one of the most important stresses. Consequentially, dehydration tolerance is a highly appreciated property in yeast for ADY production. In this study we analyzed the cellular redox environment in three Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains, which show markedly different fermentative capacities after dehydration. To measure/quantify the effect of dehydration on the S. cerevisiae strains, we used: (i) fluorescent probes; (ii) antioxidant enzyme activities; (ii) intracellular damage; (iii) antioxidant metabolites; and (iv) gene expression, to select a minimal set of biochemical parameters capable of predicting desiccation tolerance in wine yeasts. Our results show that naturally enhanced antioxidant defenses prevent oxidative damage after wine yeast biomass dehydration and improve fermentative capacity. Based on these results we chose four easily assayable parameters/biomarkers for the selection of industrial yeast strains of interest for ADY production: trehalose and glutathione levels, and glutathione reductase and catalase enzymatic activities. Yeast strains selected in accordance with this process display high levels of trehalose, low levels of oxidized glutathione, a high induction of glutathione reductase activity, as well as a high basal level and sufficient induction of catalase activity, which are properties inherent in superior ADY strains.

  20. Influence of activated carbon amended ASBR on anaerobic fermentative hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Li; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Qi;

    2013-01-01

    The effect of activated carbon amended ASBR on fermentative bio-hydgrogen production from glucose was evaluated at hydraulic retention time (HRTs) ranging from 48 h to 12 h with initial pH of 6.0 at the system temperature of 60°C. Experimental results showed that the performance of activated carbon...... amended anazrobic seguencs batch reactor (ASBRs) was more stable than that of ASBRs without activated carbon addition regarding on hydrogen production and pH. Higher hydrogen yield(HY) and hydrogen producing rate(HPR) were observed in the activated carbon amended ASBRs, with 65%, 63%, 54%, 56% enhancement...... of hydrogen yield in smaller size activated carbon amended reactor under the tested HRT ranges, and the maximum HPR of (7.09±0.31)L·(L·d)-1 and HY of (1.42±0.03) mol·mol-1 was obtained at HRT of 12h. The major soluble products form hydrogen fermentation were n-butyric acid and acetic acid, accounting for 46...

  1. Antioxidant defense parameters as predictive biomarkers for fermentative capacity of active dried wine yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Matallana, Emilia

    2014-08-01

    The production of active dried yeast (ADY) is a common practice in industry for the maintenance of yeast starters and as a means of long term storage. The process, however, causes multiple cell injuries, with oxidative damage being one of the most important stresses. Consequentially, dehydration tolerance is a highly appreciated property in yeast for ADY production. In this study we analyzed the cellular redox environment in three Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains, which show markedly different fermentative capacities after dehydration. To measure/quantify the effect of dehydration on the S. cerevisiae strains, we used: (i) fluorescent probes; (ii) antioxidant enzyme activities; (ii) intracellular damage; (iii) antioxidant metabolites; and (iv) gene expression, to select a minimal set of biochemical parameters capable of predicting desiccation tolerance in wine yeasts. Our results show that naturally enhanced antioxidant defenses prevent oxidative damage after wine yeast biomass dehydration and improve fermentative capacity. Based on these results we chose four easily assayable parameters/biomarkers for the selection of industrial yeast strains of interest for ADY production: trehalose and glutathione levels, and glutathione reductase and catalase enzymatic activities. Yeast strains selected in accordance with this process display high levels of trehalose, low levels of oxidized glutathione, a high induction of glutathione reductase activity, as well as a high basal level and sufficient induction of catalase activity, which are properties inherent in superior ADY strains. PMID:24644263

  2. Improvement of the fermentative activity of lactic acid bacteria starter culture by the addition of Mn²⁺.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xin; Dong, Ying; Su, Ping; Xiao, Xiang

    2014-11-01

    Production of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter with raw material has received much scientific investigation, but little information is available on the influences of some trace elements on the growth and fermentative activity of LAB. Based on this fact, this paper aimed to investigate the effects of Mn(2+) on the performance of Lactobacillus plantarum CX-15 starter with Jerusalem artichoke (JA) as the main medium substrate. The results showed that Mn(2+) addition had a significant beneficial affect on the fermentative activity of L. plantarum CX-15 starter. In contrast, the lack of Mn(2+) would cause the subsequent fermentation significantly slower, whether the cell density in starter culture was higher or lower. The possible mechanism of these phenomenons was further elucidated by the time course analysis of the specific activities of metabolism key enzymes during the culture processes of L. plantarum CX-15 starter. Compared to the fermentation processes without Mn(2+) addition, it was found that Mn(2+) addition would enhance the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity but reduce the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and ATPase activity. Therefore, it could be concluded that the improvement of L. plantarum starter fermentative activity was probably a consequence of Mn(2+) acting as "metabolic switch," which regulated the metabolic flux from pyruvic acid to lactic acid and other metabolism pathway. PMID:25146195

  3. Evaluation of γ- aminobutyric acid, phytate and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats (Avena sativa L.) prepared with different filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shengbao; Gao, Fengyi; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Ou; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Songjie; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2014-10-01

    Tempeh is a popular traditional fermented food in Asia. Many tempeh-like foods are made from cereal grains. However, the information of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in those tempeh-like cereal grains during fermentation is lacking. Meanwhile, little information is available on the anti-nutrient contents and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats. The aim of the present work was to study the changes of GABA, phytate, natural antioxidants and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats. As fermentation time progressed, the GABA, total phenolics content (TPC) and flavonoids increased rapidly. The Aspergillus oryzae-fermented oats had the highest GABA, whereas Rhizopus oryzae-fermented oats had the highest TPC. Phytate, an anti-nutrient component, was dramatically reduced in the fermented oats, especially those by A. oryzae (reduced by about 63 %). The antioxidant activities of fermented oats were also significantly enhanced after 72 h fermentation (p oats fermented by generally recognized as safe (GRAS) fungi can be recommended as tempeh-like functional foods with higher GABA, more natural antioxidants and lower phytate compared with native oats.

  4. In vitro Screening of Essential Oil Active Compounds for Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation and Methane Mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Joch, M.; Cermak, L.; Hakl, J.; Hucko, B.; Duskova, D.; Marounek, M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 11 active compounds of essential oils (ACEO) on rumen fermentation characteristics and methane production. Two trials were conducted. In trial 1, ACEO (eugenol, carvacrol, citral, limonene, 1,4-cineole, p-cymene, linalool, bornyl acetate, α-pinene, and β-pinene) at a dose of 1,000 μL/L were incubated for 24 h in diluted rumen fluid with a 70:30 forage:concentrate substrate (16.2% crude protein; 36.6% neutral detergent fiber). Three...

  5. Polyol accumulation by Aspergillus oryzae at low water activity in solid-state fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ruijter, G J G; J. Visser; Rinzema, A.

    2004-01-01

    Polyol accumulation and metabolism were examined in Aspergillus oryzae cultured on whole wheat grains or on wheat dough as a model for solid-state culture. In solid-state fermentation (SSF), water activity (a(w)) is typically low resulting in osmotic stress. In addition to a high level of mannitol, which is always present in the cells, A. oryzae accumulated high concentrations of glycerol, erythritol and arabitol at relatively low a(w) (0(.)96-0(.)97) in SSF. Accumulation of such a mixture of...

  6. Use of the dynamic gastro-intestinal model TIM to explore the survival of the yogurt bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus and the metabolic activities induced in the simulated human gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriot, Ophélie; Galia, Wessam; Awussi, Ahoefa Ablavi; Perrin, Clarisse; Denis, Sylvain; Chalancon, Sandrine; Lorson, Emilie; Poirson, Chantal; Junjua, Maira; Le Roux, Yves; Alric, Monique; Dary, Annie; Blanquet-Diot, Stéphanie; Roussel, Yvonne

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus, a lactic acid bacterium used to produce yogurts and cheeses is more and more considered for its potential probiotic properties. This implies that additional information should be obtained regarding its survival and metabolic activity in the human Gastro-Intestinal Tract (GIT). In this study, we screened 30 S. thermophilus strains for urease, small heat shock protein, and amino-acid decarboxylase functions which may play a role in survival in the upper part of the GIT. The survival kinetics of 4 strains was investigated using the TIM, a physiologically relevant in vitro dynamic gastric and small intestinal model. The three strains LMD9, PB18O and EBLST20 showed significantly higher survival than CNRZ21 in all digestive compartments of the TIM, which may be related to the presence of urease and heat shock protein functions. When LMD9 bacterial cells were delivered in a fermented milk formula, a significant improvement of survival in the TIM was observed compared to non-fermented milk. With the RIVET (Recombinase In Vivo Expression Technology) method applied to the LMD9 strain, a promoter located upstream of hisS, responsible for the histidyl-transfer RNA synthesis, was found to be specifically activated in the artificial stomach. The data generated on S. thermophilus survival and its adaptation capacities to the digestive tract are essential to establish a list of biomarkers useful for the selection of probiotic strains.

  7. In–vitro antimicrobial activity screening of some ethnoveterinary medicinal plants traditionally used against mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal tract complication in Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shewit Kalayou

    2012-07-01

    Conclusions: It can be concluded that many of the tested plants have antibacterial activity and supports the traditional usage of the plants for mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal complications treatment. Further studies into their toxicity and phytochemistry is advocated.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GROWTH AND LACCASE ACTIVITY OF STRAINS OF PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS IN SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Tomasini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic parameters of growth and laccase activity of five ATCC strains of Pleurotus ostreatus in submerged fermentation were evaluated. The best strain for laccase production and the time of maximum laccase activity were also determined. The greatest laccase activity (37490 U/L, laccase productivity (78 U/L h, specific growth rate (0.026/h, and specific rate of laccase production (119 U/gX h were observed with the strain of P. ostreatus ATCC 32783. In general, the isoenzyme patterns were different in all the cases; however, all the strains showed two laccase bands in the same position in the gel. Not all strains responded in the same way to the addition of Cu in the culture medium. In general, the sensitivity to Cu could be used to select strains having high laccase activity for commercial exploitation.

  9. Impact of Extraction Parameters on the Recovery of Lipolytic Activity from Fermented Babassu Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jaqueline N.; Godoy, Mateus G.; Gutarra, Melissa L. E.; Freire, Denise M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme extraction from solid matrix is as important step in solid-state fermentation to obtain soluble enzymes for further immobilization and application in biocatalysis. A method for the recovery of a pool of lipases from Penicillium simplicissimum produced by solid-state fermentation was developed. For lipase recovery different extraction solution was used and phosphate buffer containing Tween 80 and NaCl showed the best results, yielding lipase activity of 85.7 U/g and 65.7 U/g, respectively. The parameters with great impacts on enzyme extraction detected by the Plackett-Burman analysis were studied by Central Composite Rotatable experimental designs where a quadratic model was built showing maximum predicted lipase activity (160 U/g) at 25°C, Tween 80 0.5% (w/v), pH 8.0 and extraction solution 7 mL/g, maintaining constant buffer molarity of 0.1 M and 200 rpm. After the optimization process a 2.5 fold increase in lipase activity in the crude extract was obtained, comparing the intial value (64 U/g) with the experimental design (160 U/g), thus improving the overall productivity of the process. PMID:25090644

  10. Impact of extraction parameters on the recovery of lipolytic activity from fermented babassu cake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline N Silva

    Full Text Available Enzyme extraction from solid matrix is as important step in solid-state fermentation to obtain soluble enzymes for further immobilization and application in biocatalysis. A method for the recovery of a pool of lipases from Penicillium simplicissimum produced by solid-state fermentation was developed. For lipase recovery different extraction solution was used and phosphate buffer containing Tween 80 and NaCl showed the best results, yielding lipase activity of 85.7 U/g and 65.7 U/g, respectively. The parameters with great impacts on enzyme extraction detected by the Plackett-Burman analysis were studied by Central Composite Rotatable experimental designs where a quadratic model was built showing maximum predicted lipase activity (160 U/g at 25°C, Tween 80 0.5% (w/v, pH 8.0 and extraction solution 7 mL/g, maintaining constant buffer molarity of 0.1 M and 200 rpm. After the optimization process a 2.5 fold increase in lipase activity in the crude extract was obtained, comparing the intial value (64 U/g with the experimental design (160 U/g, thus improving the overall productivity of the process.

  11. Impact of extraction parameters on the recovery of lipolytic activity from fermented babassu cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jaqueline N; Godoy, Mateus G; Gutarra, Melissa L E; Freire, Denise M G

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme extraction from solid matrix is as important step in solid-state fermentation to obtain soluble enzymes for further immobilization and application in biocatalysis. A method for the recovery of a pool of lipases from Penicillium simplicissimum produced by solid-state fermentation was developed. For lipase recovery different extraction solution was used and phosphate buffer containing Tween 80 and NaCl showed the best results, yielding lipase activity of 85.7 U/g and 65.7 U/g, respectively. The parameters with great impacts on enzyme extraction detected by the Plackett-Burman analysis were studied by Central Composite Rotatable experimental designs where a quadratic model was built showing maximum predicted lipase activity (160 U/g) at 25°C, Tween 80 0.5% (w/v), pH 8.0 and extraction solution 7 mL/g, maintaining constant buffer molarity of 0.1 M and 200 rpm. After the optimization process a 2.5 fold increase in lipase activity in the crude extract was obtained, comparing the intial value (64 U/g) with the experimental design (160 U/g), thus improving the overall productivity of the process. PMID:25090644

  12. Quantitation of selected odor-active constituents in dry fermented sausages prepared with different curing salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Aurora; Navarro, José Luis; Flores, Mónica

    2007-04-18

    The odor-active compounds of dry-fermented sausages with added nitrite or nitrate as curing agents were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) applying the detection frequency (DF) method. The quantification of these compounds in the sausage was determined by multiple headspace solid-phase microextraction (multiple HS-SPME). There were no specific odor-active compounds related to the use of nitrite or nitrate although there were differences in the DF value of several compounds. The nitrite-added sausages presented higher DF values for ethanol, 1-hexanol, propanoic acid, 2-heptenal, and nonanal while the nitrate-added sausages had higher DF values for phenylacetaldehyde and 3-methyl-butanal. Eighteen compounds were quantified by multiple HS-SPME. Most of them were above their air detection thresholds, but only hexanal, heptanal, and 1-octen-3-ol were in a concentration higher than their oil threshold values. These compounds would probably be the main contributors to the aroma of fermented sausages.

  13. Effect of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on immunopotentiating activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Kai; Chang; Shu-Chen; Wang; Chih-Kwang; Chiu; Shih-Ying; Chen; Zong-Tsi; Chen; Pin-Der; Duh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on immunopotentiating activity Methods: One hundred and fifty nine strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Taiwan fermented mustard were evaluated for their immunopotentiating activity on a murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7.Results: Of the strains, pronounced increases in the levels of nitric oxide(NO), tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were observed in strains B0040, B0110 and B0145. Among them,strain B0145 had the highest NO and tumor necrosis factor-α generation in RAW 264.7 cells;strains B0040 and B0110 were also superior to that of Lactobacillus casei. These results demonstrated that NO and cytokines were effectively induced when the bacterial stimulants were treated with macrophages. In addition, strains B0040 and B0110 were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, and B0145 as Weissella cibaria using 16 S rDNA analysis.Conclusions: The results implicated selected strains may be regarded as a biological response modifier and had a broad application prospects in exploiting new functional food or as a feed additive.

  14. Evaluation of γ- aminobutyric acid, phytate and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats (Avena sativa L.) prepared with different filamentous fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Shengbao; Gao, Fengyi; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Ou; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Songjie; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2012-01-01

    Tempeh is a popular traditional fermented food in Asia. Many tempeh-like foods are made from cereal grains. However, the information of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in those tempeh-like cereal grains during fermentation is lacking. Meanwhile, little information is available on the anti-nutrient contents and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats. The aim of the present work was to study the changes of GABA, phytate, natural antioxidants and antioxidant activity of tempe...

  15. The correlation between mannanase and cellulase activities towards fibre content of palm oil sludge fermented with Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Purwadaria

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme (mannanase and cellulase activities and fibre (hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin contents were determined during the fermentation course of palm oil sludge with Aspergillus niger TL (wild type and A. niger ES I (an asporogenous mutant. The analyses were carried out at the incubation time of 3 and 4 days of aerobic fennentation and at 2 days of anaerobic fermentation afterward. The correlations between mamlanase activity with hemicellulose content and cellulose activity with cellulose content were calculated by linear regression . The activities of matutanase and cellulase are increasing during the aerobic fennentation, while in the anaerobic fennentation the enzyme activities are decreasing due to instability of the enzymes. The enzyme activities of ESI are higher than the TL. The regression coefficient is highly significant for correlation between mamlanase and hemicellulose content of fermented product by ESI (r = 0.83; P0 .05 . Marutanase and cellulase activities were also detected after the fermented product dried at 60°C which indicated the enzymes are quite stable .

  16. Changes of gastrointestinal myoelectric activity and bile acid pool size after cholecystectomy in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Mei Zhang; Lei Dong; Li-Na Liu; Bi-Xia Chang; Qian He; Qian Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the bile acid pool size after cholecystectomy whether or not correlated to the gastrointestinal migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) in guinea pigs.METHODS: Gallbladder motilities were assessed before cholecystectomy. Furthermore, we continuously monitored interdigestive gastrointestinal motilities using bipolar electrodes in conscious guinea pigs before and after surgery at 4 wk in standard diet group and high cholesterol diet (cholesterol gallstone) group. Total bile acid pool sizes were measured by isotope dilution method at meantime.RESULTS: After cholecystectomy, there were parallel falls in duration of phase Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and MMC cycle duration but increase in amplitude in the guinea pigs with normal gallbladder function, and in the guinea pigs with cholesterol stones. However, There were not significantly differences. On the other hand, the bile acid pool was definitely small in the GS guinea pigs compared to normal guinea pigs and became slightly smaller after cholecystectomy. Similarly, bile acid in gallbladder bile, fecal bile acid was slightly increased in GS guinea pigs after cholecystectomy, to the same degree as normal. These differences, however, were not significant.CONCLUSION: It is concluded that in the guinea pigs with normal gallbladder function, and in the guinea pigs with cholesterol stones: (1) Cholecystectomy produce a similar but less marked trend in bile acid pool; and (2) MMC are linked to enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, rather than surgery, which is consistent with changes of the bile acid pool size. As a result, gastrointestinal dyskinesia is not involved in occurrence of postcholecystectomy syndrome.

  17. A study of the structure-activity relationship of oligomeric ellagitannins on ruminal fermentation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Nicolas; Pellikaan, Wilbert F; Karonen, Maarit; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the degree of oligomerization of ellagitannins (ET) influences their ability to alter ruminal fermentation. Dimeric to heptameric ET were isolated from rosebay willowherb (Epilobium angustifolium) flowers and purified. Ellagitannins were tested in vitro on a mixture of grass silage and buffered rumen fluid. Total gas production was measured in real time using an automated pressure evaluation system. Methane production was monitored at regular interval by gas chromatography for 72h. The effect of ET was evaluated on 2 sources of rumen fluid using a randomized block design. Ammonia nitrogen, volatile fatty acid concentration, and pH were measured at the end of the experiment. Results show that oligomeric ET decreased gas production and total volatile fatty acid concentration proportionally to their degree of oligomerization. Methane production was also decreased by all the tested compounds and dimer was less effective than the larger ET, which showed similar levels of activity. Additionally, willowherb's oligomeric ET decreased ammonia-nitrogen and branched-chain volatile fatty acid concentrations, thus indicating reduced protein degradation by ruminal bacteria. This effect showed a quadratic relationship with the degree of oligomerization and was maximal with the tetramer. In conclusion, this study shows that the degree of oligomerization of ET has more than a simple linear effect on fermentation parameters in vitro. Large oligomers, in fact, have more detrimental effects on volatile fatty acid and gas production than small ones, while being similarly effective at inhibiting methane production. PMID:27522412

  18. Effect of polyhydroxyalkanoates on dark fermentative hydrogen production from waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongbo; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Yinguang; Li, Xiaoming

    2015-04-15

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), an intracellular energy and carbon storage polymer, can be accumulated in activated sludge in substantial quantities under wastewater dynamic treatment (i.e., substrate feast-famine) conditions. However, its influence on hydrogen production has never been investigated before. This study therefore evaluated the influences of PHA level and composition in waste activated sludge (WAS) on hydrogen production. The results showed that with the increase of sludge PHA content from 25 to 178 mg per gram volatile suspended solids (VSS) hydrogen production from WAS alkaline anaerobic fermentation increased from 26.5 to 58.7 mL/g VSS. The composition of PHA was also found to affect hydrogen production. When the dominant composition shifted from polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) to polyhydroxyvalerate (PHV), the amount of generated hydrogen decreased from 51.2 to 41.1 mL/g VSS even under the same PHA level (around 130 mg/g VSS). The mechanism studies exhibited that the increased PHA content accelerated both the cell solubilization and the hydrolysis process of solubilized substrates. Compared with the PHB-dominant sludge, the increased PHV fraction not only slowed the hydrolysis process but also caused more propionic acid production, with less theoretical hydrogen generation in this fermentation type. It was also found that the increased PHA content enhanced the soluble protein conversion of non-PHA biomass. Further investigations with enzyme analyses showed that both the key hydrolytic enzyme activities and hydrogen-forming enzyme activities were in the sequence of the PHB-dominant sludge > the PHV-dominant sludge > the low PHA sludge, which was in accord with the observed order of hydrogen yield. PMID:25697693

  19. Determination of yeast killer activity in fermenting sugarcane juice using selected ethanol-making strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Ceccato-Antonini

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four yeasts out of 342 isolated from the fermentative process showed killer activity and three of them were selected for the fermentative efficiency evaluation in batch system with cell recycle, flask and fermentor experiments. The selected three killer strains did not present similar results to those of pressed (baking yeast concerning ethanol (0.07-0.18; 0.12-0.20; 0.10-0.13; 0.22-0.25 g/g, respectively and biomass (0.19-0.26; 0.33-0.39; 0.13-0.27; 0.47-0.61 g/g, respectively yields and fermentative efficiency (12.3-36.3; 21.0-40.0; 19.3-26.3; 47.6-54.0 %, respectively in sugarcane juice, in flasks. In fermentor, similar behaviour was observed. However, the selected strains showed high cellular viability and killer activity (using cell-free filtrate along the fermentative cycles, in spite of the unfavourable conditions of the medium, like high pH variation of the medium (from 5.5-6.0 to 3.0-4.0, low aeration and higher temperature (30º C, which were not the ideal ones for the production/activity of killer toxins. A Pichia strain (CCA 510 showed the best results among the killer yeasts tested, exhibiting a killer activity against 92% of isolated fermentative yeasts of the process and against the pressed (baking ferment. It also demonstrated killer activity (using crude toxin preparation at higher temperatures (38ºC and low pH (4.0 after 72 hours of incubation, under proliferative and non-proliferative conditions. The results indicated that the killer activity should be a characteristic to be looked for in the strain selection for ethanolic fermentation, beside other important productivity-based characteristics, since it assure the permanence of the selected strain during the process.A atividade 'killer' poderia garantir às leveduras fermentativas uma vantagem competitiva sobre outras linhagens durante a fermentação etanólica, no entanto, pouco se sabe sobre o papel do sistema 'killer' nesse tipo de fermentação alcoólica. A sele

  20. Shedding of Clostridium difficile, fecal beta-lactamase activity, and gastrointestinal symptoms in 51 volunteers treated with oral cefixime.

    OpenAIRE

    Chachaty, E; Bourneix, C; Renard, S; Bonnay, M.; Andremont, A

    1993-01-01

    Microbial changes including the shedding of Clostridium difficile, fecal beta-lactamase activity, and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed in 51 healthy volunteers given 200 mg of cefixime twice daily for 8 days. The number of organisms of the family Enterobacteriaceae (means +/- standard deviations) dropped from 6.9 +/- 1.1 to 3.9 +/- 1.8 log CFU/g of feces (P < 0.01), whereas counts of enterococci rose from 7.0 +/- 1.5 to 9.0 +/- 1.0 log CFU/g of feces (P < 0.01). Both counts returned to...

  1. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Affects Acetic Acid Production during Anaerobic Fermentation of Waste Activated Sludge by Altering Activity and Viability of Acetogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingyang; Chen, Yinguang; Feng, Leiyu

    2016-07-01

    Till now, almost all the studies on anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) for bioproducts generation focused on the influences of operating conditions, pretreatment methods and sludge characteristics, and few considered those of widespread persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sludge, for example, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Herein, phenanthrene, which was a typical PAH and widespread in WAS, was selected as a model compound to investigate its effect on WAS anaerobic fermentation for short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation. Experimental results showed that the concentration of SCFAs derived from WAS was increased in the presence of phenanthrene during anaerobic fermentation. The yield of acetic acid which was the predominant SCFA in the fermentation reactor with the concentration of 100 mg/kg dry sludge was 1.8 fold of that in the control. Mechanism exploration revealed that the present phenanthrene mainly affected the acidification process of anaerobic fermentation and caused the shift of the microbial community to benefit the accumulation of acetic acid. Further investigation showed that both the activities of key enzymes (phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase) involved in acetic acid production and the quantities of their corresponding encoding genes were enhanced in the presence of phenanthrene. Viability tests by determining the adenosine 5'-triphosphate content and membrane potential confirmed that the acetogens were more viable in anaerobic fermentation systems with phenanthrene, which resulted in the increased production of acetic acid. PMID:27267805

  2. Gastrointestinal tract radionuclide activity on In-111 labeled leukocyte imaging: clinical significance in patients with fever of unknown origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency and clinical significance of indium-111 labeled leukocyte activity in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of patients with fever of unknown origin, we reviewed 312 leukocyte studies involving 271 patients. Radionuclide activity was noted in the bowel in 59 cases. Of these, only 27 were due to the infection or inflammatory disease that caused the patient's fever. The 32 false-positive results were due primarily to swallowed leukocytes or bleeding. In two cases, no explanation was found for the activity in the GI tract. We conclude that bowel activity on In-111 labeled leukocyte scans in patients with fever of unknown origin often does not correlate with the true cause of the patient's fever

  3. NaCl-activated extracellular proteinase from Virgibacillus sp. SK37 isolated from fish sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsuwan, S; Rodtong, S; Yongsawatdigul, J

    2007-06-01

    Virgibacillus sp. SK37 exhibited high extracellular proteolytic activity in skim milk broth containing 10% NaCl. Optimum conditions of the crude proteinase were at pH 8.0 and 65 degrees C. The proteinase was strongly inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and preferably hydrolyzed Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-AMC, suggesting the serine proteinase with a subtilisin-like characteristic. Proteolytic activity increased with NaCl concentration up to 20%. Ca(2+) activated the enzyme activity but reduced enzyme stability at 65 degrees C. Several proteinases with dominant molecular mass (MW) of 81, 67, 63, 50, 38, and 18 kDa were detected on native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native-PAGE) activity staining in the absence and presence of 25% NaCl. These results demonstrated that Virgibacillus sp. SK37 produced salt-activated extracellular proteinases. Virgibacillus sp. SK37 could be a promising strain for starter culture development used in fish sauce fermentation. PMID:17995713

  4. Antioxidant activity of pea protein hydrolysates produced by batch fermentation with lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisavljević Nemanja S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine Lactobacillus strains known for surface proteinase activity were chosen from our collection and tested for their ability to grow in pea seed protein-based medium, and to hydrolyze purified pea proteins in order to produce peptides with antioxidant (AO activity. Two strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10 and Lactobacillus zeae LMG17315, exhibited strong proteolytic activity against pea proteins. The AO activity of the pea hydrolysate fraction, MW <10 kDa, obtained by the fermentation of purified pea proteins with Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10, was tested by standard spectrophotometric assays (DPPH, ABTS, Fe3+-reducing capacity and the recently developed direct current (DC polarographic assay. The low molecular weight fraction of the obtained hydrolysate was separated using ion exchange chromatography, while the AO activity of eluted fractions was determined by means of a sensitive DC polarographic assay without previous concentration of samples. Results revealed that the fraction present in low abundance that contained basic peptides possessed the highest antioxidant activity. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10 should be further investigated as a candidate strain for large-scale production of bioactive peptides from legume proteins. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173005 i br. 173026

  5. Gallic Acid Content in Taiwanese Teas at Different Degrees of Fermentation and Its Antioxidant Activity by Inhibiting PKCδ Activation: In Vitro and in Silico Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeradate Kongpichitchoke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Teas can be classified according to their degree of fermentation, which has been reported to affect both the bioactive components in the teas and their antioxidative activity. In this study, four kinds of commercial Taiwanese tea at different degrees of fermentation, which include green (non-fermented, oolong (semi-fermented, black (fully fermented, and Pu-erh (post-fermented tea, were profiled for catechin levels by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The result indicated that the gallic acid content in tea was directly proportional to the degree of fermentation in which the lowest and highest gallic acid content were 1.67 and 21.98 mg/g from green and Pu-erh tea, respectively. The antioxidative mechanism of the gallic acid was further determined by in vitro and in silico analyses. In vitro assays included the use of phorbol ester-induced macrophage RAW264.7 cell model for determining the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and PKCδ and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase subunit (p47 activations. The results showed that only at a concentration of 5.00 μM could gallic acid significantly (p < 0.05 reduce ROS levels in phorbol ester-activated macrophages. Moreover, protein immunoblotting expressed similar results in which activations of PKCδ and p47 were only significantly (p < 0.05 attenuated by 5.00 μM treatment. Lastly, in silico experiments further revealed that gallic acid could block PKCδ activation by occupying the phorbol ester binding sites of the protein.

  6. Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 Metabolic Products and Fermented Milk for Infant Formula Have Anti-Inflammatory Activity on Dendritic Cells In Vitro and Protective Effects against Colitis and an Enteric Pathogen In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Zagato; Erika Mileti; Lucia Massimiliano; Francesca Fasano; Andrea Budelli; Giuseppe Penna; Maria Rescigno

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of commercially available fermented food products raises important safety issues particularly when infant food is concerned. In many cases, the activity of the microorganisms used for fermentation as well as what will be the immunological outcome of fermented food intake is not known. In this manuscript we used complex in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems to study the immunomodulatory properties of probiotic-fermented products (culture supernatant and fermented milk witho...

  7. Optimization of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of exopolysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus in submerged fermentation using response surface methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.; Xu, X.; Zhu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of fermentation medium on the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of exopolysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus by response surface methodology (RSM). A two-level fractional factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of different comp

  8. THE EFFECT OF PROBIOTIC FERMENTED MILK THAT INCLUDES BIFIDOBACTERIUM LACTIS CNCM I-2494 ON THE REDUCTION OF GASTROINTESTINAL DISCOMFORT AND SYMPTOMS IN ADULTS: A NARRATIVE REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitzberg, Dan L; Quilici, Flávio A; Michzputen, Sender; Friche Passos, Maria do Carmo

    2015-08-01

    Objetivo: determinar la eficacia de la leche fermentada con Bifidobacterium lactis CNCM I-2429 en la reducción de el malestar gastrointestinal (GI) en adultos sanos. Métodos: se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en la literatura para identificar estudios que informaron del uso de B. animalis spp. lactis para molestias/ confort GI en adultos sanos. Se identificaron un total de 5.329 registros, de estos se evaluaron 99 artículos de texto completo. Las búsquedas de ensayos adicionales se realizaron utilizando los nombres de los autores de cada estudio identificado y varias bases de datos relevantes. La selección de los estudios se llevó a cabo de acuerdo con las guías de Artículos de Información Preferidos para Revisiones Sistemáticas y Meta-Análisis (PRISMA). Los estudios eran incluidos si eran ensayos randomizados controlados, si los sujetos de estudio eran adultos sanos y si el grupo de intervención recibió B. lactis CNCM I-2494. Se excluyeron los estudios que no eran randomizados, que incluían adultos que no estaban sanos, que incluían el uso de cualquier otra intervención o si comparaban diferentes productos sin un grupo placebo. La calidad metodológica de los estudios se evaluó utilizando la Escala de Calidad de Oxford y la Evaluación Cochrane de ocultamiento. No fue posible un metaanálisis. Resultados: la estrategia de búsqueda identificó dos estudios que incluyeron un total de 538 mujeres sanas, con edades entre 18 a 60 años, de peso normal o sobrepeso (IMC de 18-30 kg/m2). En uno de los estudios las molestias GI disminuyeron significativamente en el grupo de probióticos frente al grupo control, sin diferencias en el otro. El porcentaje de respondedores para el bienestar GI fue mayor en el grupo de probióticos frente al grupo control en el primer estudio, pero no en el segundo. Los síntomas GI se redujeron significativamente en el grupo probiótico frente al grupo control en ambos estudios. La función intestinal solo se evaluó en

  9. Antioxidant activity in plasma and rumen papillae development in lambs fed fermented apple pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Muela, C; Rodríguez, H E; Arzola, C; Díaz-Plascencia, D; Ramírez-Godínez, J A; Flores-Mariñelarena, A; Mancillas-Flores, P F; Corral, G

    2015-05-01

    The effect of fermented apple pomace (FAP) on animal health, antioxidant activity (AA), hematic biometry (HBm) and the development of ruminal epithelium were investigated in a study with 24 finishing lambs (BW = 25.4 ± 3.3 Kg). Lambs were grouped by sex (12 male and 12 female) and fed (n = 6 per group of treatment) a basal fattening diet (Control diet, T1) or the basal diet supplemented to include 10.91% of fermented apple pomace (FAP diet, T2). The animals were kept 56 d in individual metabolic cages, with ad libitum access to water and feed. Two blood samples were collected from each animal on d 0, 28, and 56 to determine AA in plasma and hematic biometry (HBm). Four samples of ruminal tissue were taken postmortem to evaluate the development of ruminal epithelium based on the length (LP) and width (WP) of papillae. AA and HBm data were analyzed with a mixed model (fixed effects: diet, sampling, sex, and their interaction; using the experimental unit nested in the effect of the diet as the random effect). LP and WP were analyzed with a hierarchical model, as simple and nested effects in the sampling site, where the fixed effects were the diet and the sex of the animal and their interaction. There was an effect of diet on AA, which was higher (P animals in the experiment, with a marked increased (P 0.05) for the other indicators of HBm. Males' LP was higher in T2 than in T1 (P benefits on animal health and the development of rumen epithelium by improving antioxidant activity in plasma and stimulating the growth of papillae. PMID:26020331

  10. [Gastrointestinal bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanas, Ángel

    2015-09-01

    In the Digestive Disease Week in 2015 there have been some new contributions in the field of gastrointestinal bleeding that deserve to be highlighted. Treatment of celecoxib with a proton pump inhibitor is safer than treatment with nonselective NSAID and a proton pump inhibitor in high risk gastrointestinal and cardiovascular patients who mostly also take acetylsalicylic acid. Several studies confirm the need to restart the antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy at an early stage after a gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The need for urgent endoscopy before 6-12 h after the onset of upper gastrointestinal bleeding episode may be beneficial in patients with hemodynamic instability and high risk for comorbidity. It is confirmed that in Western but not in Japanese populations, gastrointestinal bleeding episodes admitted to hospital during weekend days are associated with a worse prognosis associated with delays in the clinical management of the events. The strategy of a restrictive policy on blood transfusions during an upper GI bleeding event has been challenged. Several studies have shown the benefit of identifying the bleeding vessel in non varicose underlying gastric lesions by Doppler ultrasound which allows direct endoscopic therapy in the patient with upper GI bleeding. Finally, it has been reported that lower gastrointestinal bleeding diverticula band ligation or hemoclipping are both safe and have the same long-term outcomes. PMID:26520197

  11. Influence of solid state fermentation by Trichoderma spp. on solubility, phenolic content, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of commercial turmeric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Saleh A; Saleh, Rashad M; Kabli, Saleh A; Al-Garni, Saleh M

    2016-05-01

    The influence of solid state fermentation (SSF) by Trichoderma spp. on the solubility, total phenolic content, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of turmeric was determined and compared with unfermented turmeric. The solubility of turmeric was monitored by increase in its phenolic content. The total phenolic content of turmeric extracted by 80% methanol and water after SSF by six species of Trichoderma spp. increased significantly from 2.5 to 11.3-23.3 and from 0.5 to 13.5-20.4 GAE/g DW, respectively. The antioxidant activities of fermented turmeric were enhanced using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The antibacterial activity of fermented turmeric against human-pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Entreococcus faecalis, Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosae showed a broad spectrum inhibitory effect. In conclusion, the results indicated the potentials of using fermented turmeric as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial material for food applications. PMID:27023794

  12. Terpenoid bioactive compound from Streptomyces rochei (M32): taxonomy, fermentation and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazhanimurugan, Raasaiyah; Radhakrishnan, Manikkam; Shanmugasundaram, Thangavel; Gopikrishnan, Venugopal; Balagurunathan, Ramasamy

    2016-10-01

    The present study emphasized the production of biologically active terpenoid compound from Streptomyces rochei M32, which was isolated from Western Ghats ecosystem, South India. The presence of resistant genes like mecA, vanA of Staphylococcus aureus and bla SHV, bla TEM of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was confirmed by molecular studies. The isolated compound from Streptomyces rochei M32 inhibited wide range of standard and clinical drug resistant pathogens and enteric pathogens. The rice bran supplemented basal medium influenced the active compound production on 8th day of fermentation and yielded 1875 mg of crude extract from 10 g of rice bran substrate. Purification and characterization of crude ethyl acetate extract was achieved by preparative thin layer chromatography. The active fraction was identified as terpenoid class compound by chemical screening. Based on the results of spectral studies (NMR, LC-MS, FTIR, etc.), the active compound was tentatively identified as 1, 19-bis (3-hydroxyazetidin-1-yl) nonadeca-5, 14-diene-1, 8, 12, 19-tetraone with molecular weight 462.41 g/mol. Minimum inhibitory concentration value ranges between 7.6 and 31.2 µg/mL against test organisms was observed. The cytotoxicity results on cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line showed IC50 value of 2.034 µg/mL. The corresponding compound is not previously reported from any microbial resources. PMID:27562595

  13. In vitro Screening of Essential Oil Active Compounds for Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation and Methane Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joch, M; Cermak, L; Hakl, J; Hucko, B; Duskova, D; Marounek, M

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 11 active compounds of essential oils (ACEO) on rumen fermentation characteristics and methane production. Two trials were conducted. In trial 1, ACEO (eugenol, carvacrol, citral, limonene, 1,4-cineole, p-cymene, linalool, bornyl acetate, α-pinene, and β-pinene) at a dose of 1,000 μL/L were incubated for 24 h in diluted rumen fluid with a 70:30 forage:concentrate substrate (16.2% crude protein; 36.6% neutral detergent fiber). Three fistulated Holstein cows were used as donors of rumen fluid. The reduction in methane production was observed with nine ACEO (up to 86% reduction) compared with the control (p<0.05). Among these, only limonene, 1,4-cineole, bornyl acetate, and α-pinene did not inhibit volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, and only bornyl acetate produced less methane per mol of VFA compared with the control (p<0.05). In a subsequent trial, the effects on rumen fermentation and methane production of two concentrations (500 and 2,000 μL/L) of bornyl acetate, the most promising ACEO from the first trial, were evaluated using the same in vitro incubation method that was used in the first trial. In trial 2, monensin was used as a positive control. Both doses of bornyl acetate decreased (p<0.05) methane production and did not inhibit VFA production. Positive effects of bornyl acetate on methane and VFA production were more pronounced than the effects of monensin. These results confirm the ability of bornyl acetate to decrease methane production, which may help to improve the efficiency of energy use in the rumen. PMID:26954157

  14. Cellulase Activity in Solid State Fermentation of Palm Kernel Cake with Trichoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massaud, M. B. N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effect of different types of fungal inocula to the cellulase activity measured on palm kernel cake (PKC was studied. Methodology and Results: Isolate Pro-A1 which was identified as Trichoderma sp. was selected as a potential producer of cellulase via solid state fermentation technique (SSF. Two types of PKCs were used; raw PKC (containing residual oil and defatted PKC. The PKCs were inoculated with different concentrations of conidia and varying amounts (g of solid mycelia plugs (SMP for SSF. The effect of ultrafiltered crude fungal filtrate (CFF as inocula was also being tested. The highest cellulase activity of 2.454 FPU/mL was detected with 60% (wt/wt SMP applied to the raw PKC. Conversely, 2.059 FPU/mL of cellulase activity was measured when 80% (wt/wt of SMP was applied to the defatted PKC which is 62.3% higher than the untreated defatted PKC; and more than 100% increase in enzymatic activity compared to raw PKC. The cellulase activity in the SSF inoculated with 8 x 106 conidia /mL and 12 x 106 conidia /mL were 1.704 FPU/mL for raw PKC and 1.856 FPU/mL for defatted PKC, an enhancement of about 46% from uninoculated batch. Inoculation with CFF bears corresponding maximum improvement of the cellulase activity on both PKCs of 13.58% (raw and 2.86% (defatted. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The current study proves that Trichoderma sp. in the form of SMP can enhance the cellulase activity on PKCs effectively with more than 100% increment. Fungal conidia are also a better choice in enhancing cellulase activity of Trichoderma sp. permitted that the PKC used is devoid of oil. From this study, Trichoderma sp. holds the potential of converting lignocellulosic materials into products of commercial and industrial values such as glucose and other biofuels.

  15. Interventional nutrition for gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, M A

    1998-11-01

    Nutritional intervention plays a key role in the successful management of gastrointestinal disease. This article focuses on several novel areas of nutritional intervention that are becoming increasingly important in gastrointestinal disease, including short-chain fatty acids, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and glutamine. Short-chain fatty acids are the principal end-products of bacterial fermentation of dietary fibers and have profound effects on normal intestinal cell metabolism and proliferation. Short-chain fatty acids have the potential to improve overall intestinal health, stimulate intestinal healing, and decrease intestinal inflammation. Omega-3 fatty acids, from dietary sources or supplements, may also be useful in decreasing intestinal inflammation and in preventing intestinal cancer. Finally, glutamine also may play an important role in the nutritional management of gastrointestinal disease. PMID:9842113

  16. Antifungal Hydroxy Fatty Acids Produced during Sourdough Fermentation: Microbial and Enzymatic Pathways, and Antifungal Activity in Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Brenna A.; Zannini, Emanuele; Curtis, Jonathan M.; Gänzle, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to hydroxy fatty acids; however, this conversion has not been demonstrated in food fermentations and it remains unknown whether hydroxy fatty acids produced by lactobacilli have antifungal activity. This study aimed to determine whether lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to metabolites with antifungal activity and to assess whether this conversion can be employed to delay fungal growth on bread. Aqueous and organic extracts from seven strains of lactobacilli...

  17. Enhancement of antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of black soybeans by solid state fermentation with Bacillus subtilis BCRC 14715.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Ming-Yen; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, a solid state fermentation of black soybeans with Bacillus subtilis BCRC 14715 was performed. The effect of fermentation on the changes of total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activities including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effect, and Fe(2+)-chelating ability exerted by various solvent (water, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% acetone) extracts of black soybeans was examined. It was found that fermentation enhanced the total phenolic and flavonoid content as well as antioxidant activity of the black soybean extract. Among the various extracts examined, the acetone extract of fermented black soybeans showed the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content. The acetone extract and the methanol extract of fermented black soybeans showed the highest DPPH free radical-scavenging effect and Fe(2+)-chelating ability, respectively. Analysis of extraction yields showed that the active principle associated with the DPPH radical-scavenging effect was most efficiently extracted from black soybeans using water, regardless of fermentation. Water and methanol effectively extract the Fe(2+)-chelating principles from non-fermented and fermented black soybeans, respectively. PMID:20510775

  18. Fermented milks and milk products as functional foods--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiby, V K; Mishra, H N

    2013-01-01

    Fermented foods and beverages possess various nutritional and therapeutic properties. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a major role in determining the positive health effects of fermented milks and related products. The L. acidophilus and Bifidobacteria spp are known for their use in probiotic dairy foods. Cultured products sold with any claim of health benefits should meet the criteria of suggested minimum number of more than 10⁶ cfu/g at the time of consumption. Yoghurt is redefined as a probiotic carrier food. Several food powders like yoghurt powder and curd (dahi) powder are manufactured taking into consideration the number of organisms surviving in the product after drying. Such foods, beverages and powders are highly acceptable to consumers because of their flavor and aroma and high nutritive value. Antitumor activity is associated with the cell wall of starter bacteria and so the activity remains even after drying. Other health benefits of fermented milks include prevention of gastrointestinal infections, reduction of serum cholesterol levels and antimutagenic activity. The fermented products are recommended for consumption by lactose intolerant individuals and patients suffering from atherosclerosis. The formulation of fermented dietetic preparations and special products is an expanding research area. The health benefits, the technology of production of fermented milks and the kinetics of lactic acid fermentation in dairy products are reviewed here. PMID:23391015

  19. Antagonistic activities of some Bifidobacterium sp. strains isolated from resident infant gastrointestinal microbiota on Gram-negative enteric pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcaru, Cristina; Alexandru, Ionela; Podgoreanu, Paulina; Cristea, Violeta Corina; Bleotu, Coralia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Lazar, Veronica

    2016-06-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota contributes to the consolidation of the anti-infectious barrier against enteric pathogens. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of Bifidobacterium sp. strains, recently isolated from infant gastrointestinal microbiota on the in vitro growth and virulence features expression of enteropathogenic bacterial strains. The antibacterial activity of twelve Bifidobacterium sp. strains isolated from human feces was examined in vitro against a wide range of Gram negative pathogenic strains isolated from 30 infant patients (3 days to 5 years old) with diarrhea. Both potential probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium ruminantium) and enteropathogenic strains (EPEC, EIEC, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella sp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were identified by MALDI-TOF and confirmed serologically when needed. The bactericidal activity, growth curve, adherence to the cellular HEp-2 substratum and production of soluble virulence factors have been assessed in the presence of different Bifidobacterium sp. cultures and fractions (whole culture and free-cell supernatants). Among the twelve Bifidobacterium sp. strains, the largest spectrum of antimicrobial activity against 9 of the 18 enteropathogenic strains was revealed for a B. breve strain recently isolated from infant intestinal feces. The whole culture and free-cell supernatant of B. breve culture decreased the multiplication rate, shortened the log phase and the total duration of the growth curve, with an earlier entrance in the decline phase and inhibited the adherence capacity to a cellular substratum and the swimming/swarming motility too. These results indicate the significant probiotic potential of the B. breve strain. PMID:26921694

  20. Effects of Flavonoids on Rumen Fermentation Activity, Methane Production, and Microbial Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Oskoueian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the effects of flavone, myricetin, naringin, catechin, rutin, quercetin, and kaempferol at the concentration of 4.5% of the substrate (dry matter basis on the rumen microbial activity in vitro. Mixture of guinea grass and concentrate (60 : 40 was used as the substrate. The results showed that all the flavonoids except naringin and quercetin significantly ( decreased the dry matter degradability. The gas production significantly ( decreased by flavone, myricetin, and kaempferol, whereas naringin, rutin, and quercetin significantly ( increased the gas production. The flavonoids suppressed methane production significantly (. The total VFA concentration significantly ( decreased in the presence of flavone, myricetin, and kaempferol. All flavonoids except naringin and quercetin significantly ( reduced the carboxymethyl cellulase, filter paperase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase activities, purine content, and the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis. Flavone, myricetin, catechin, rutin, and kaempferol significantly ( reduced the population of rumen microbes. Total populations of protozoa and methanogens were significantly ( suppressed by naringin and quercetin. The results of this research demonstrated that naringin and quercetin at the concentration of 4.5% of the substrate (dry matter basis were potential metabolites to suppress methane production without any negative effects on rumen microbial fermentation.

  1. Antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas albilineans and fermentation kinetics of a lactic acid bacterium isolated from the sugar cane crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Serna-Cock

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas albilineans is a pathogen that causes leaf scald disease in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. This disease causes the death of seedlings and consequently results in economic losses for sugarcane growers. The objective of this work was to isolate a lactic acid bacterium with antimicrobial activity against X. albilineans from sugarcane crops and to evaluate its antimicrobial activity and its lactic acid production kinetics, biomass yield, and substrate consumption in three different fermentation substrates. To isolate the lactic acid bacterium, samples were collected from different parts of infected and non-infected sugarcane plants of var. CC85-92. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis was isolated from the leaves of healthy crops, and showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against the pathogen. Batch fermentations of this isolate (at 32 °C, agitation of 100 rpm, and pH 6 were performed using a commercial substrate (MRS, a commercial substrate supplemented with glucose (MRSG, and a substrate produced from agricultural crop residues (ACR. The highest antimicrobial activity was 5.83 mm in the ACR substrate after 6 h of fermentation. The maximum biomass production of 3.37 g L-1 and the maximum lactic acid production of 12.1 g L-1 were obtained in the MRSG substrate. The lactic acid production did not show any significant differences between the substrates. This lactic acid bacterium showed antimicrobial activity against X. albilineans and is thus a biological alternative for the control of leaf scald disease in sugarcane.

  2. The DREAM complex in anti-tumor activity of imatinib mesylate in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCaprio, James A.; Duensing, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Although most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) respond well to treatment with the small molecule kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (Gleevec), the majority of patients achieve disease stabilization and complete remissions are rare. Furthermore, discontinuation of treatment in the presence of residual tumor mass almost inevitably leads to tumor progression. These observations suggest that a subset of tumor cells not only persists under imatinib treatment, but remains viable. The current article reviews the molecular basis for these findings and explores strategies to exploit them therapeutically. Recent findings Although imatinib can induce apoptosis in a subset of GIST cells, it can induce a reversible exit from the cell division cycle and entry into G0, a cell cycle state called quiescence, in the remaining cells. Mechanistically, this process involves the DREAM complex, a newly identified key regulator of quiescence. Interfering with DREAM complex formation either by siRNA-mediated knockdown or by pharmacological inhibition of the regulatory kinase DYRK1A was shown to enhance imatinib-induced GIST cell death. Summary Targeting the DREAM complex and imatinib-induced quiescence could provide opportunities for future therapeutic interventions toward more efficient imatinib responses. PMID:24840522

  3. Activity of luxabendazole against liver flukes, gastrointestinal roundworms, and lungworms in naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassai, T; Takáts, C; Fok, E; Redl, P

    1988-01-01

    The anthelmintic potential of luxabendazole was investigated in sheep harboring mixed naturally acquired helminth infections. Results were assessed by comparing worm counts of the treated groups (seven animals each) on days 7-8 posttreatment with those of the nontreated control group, except for protostrongylid lungworms, for which the changes in pre- and posttreatment group mean larval counts/g feces were assessed for intensity effect. A single oral treatment at doses of 10.0 or 12.5 mg/kg body wt removed 97.6% of the adult Fasciola hepatica and 63.2%-83.8% of the Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Luxabendazole at 7.5, 10.0, and 12.5 mg/kg proved 100% effective in removing adult worms of the genera Haemonchus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia and Nematodirus as well as tissue-associated larval stages of gastrointestinal nematodes of the abomasal mucosa. The drug showed an intensity effect of 79.7%-87.6% against Strongyloides papillosus. Luxabendazole removed all Dictyocaulus filaria and reduced the fecal excretion of larvae of protostrongylid species (Protostrongylus rufescens, Neostrongylus linearis, Cystocaulus ocreatus, Muellerius capillaris) by 97.8%-99.6%. The efficacy of luxabendazole compared favorably with that of Diplin Kombi (oxyclozanide and levamisole), which was used as a reference drug.

  4. Acceleration of yoghurt fermentation time by yeast extract and partial characterisation of the active components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Esti-Andrine; Myburgh, Jacobus; Osthoff, Gernot; de Wit, Maryna

    2014-11-01

    Water soluble autolysate of yeast, usually utilised for microbial growth support, was used as additive in yoghurt fermentation. The yeast extract (YE) resulted in a decrease of fermentation time by 21% to reach a pH of 4·6. However, the YE resulted in unacceptable flavour and taste. By size exclusion chromatography, a fraction of the YE was obtained that could account for the observed 21% decrease in fermentation time. The fraction contained molecules of low molecular weight, consisting of minerals, free amino acids and peptides. The acceleration of the yoghurt fermentation was ascribed to the short peptides in the fraction. It is proposed that the application of this extract in industrial yoghurt manufacture would result in savings for both the industry and the consumer.

  5. Antioxidant activity and fatty acid profile of fermented milk prepared by Pediococcus pentosaceus

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishnan, Gayathri; Agrawal, Renu

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics are the class of beneficial microorganisms that have positive influence on the health when ingested in adequate amounts. Probiotic fermented milk is one of the dairy products that is prepared by using probiotic lactic acid bacteria. The study comprised preparation of fermented milk from various sources such as cow, goat and camel. Pediococcus pentosaceus which is a native laboratory isolate from cheese was utilized for the product formation. Changes in functional properties in the ...

  6. Hydrolytic activity of Virgibacillus sp. SK37, a starter culture of fish sauce fermentation, and its cell-bound proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsuwan, Sornchai; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2012-08-01

    Fish sauce production relies on a natural fermentation process requiring 12-18 months for process completion. Virgibacillus sp. SK37 has been shown to be a potential strain for fish sauce acceleration. However, hydrolytic activity of proteinases bound at cell surface of this strain has not been well elucidated. Addition of 0.2 % CaCl(2) (w/w) in conjunction with starter cultures of Virgibacillus sp. SK 37 increased protein hydrolysis as measured by α-amino group content throughout fermentation (P Virgibacillus sp. SK 37 were extracted into a free form by incubating the washed cells in Ca(2+)-free buffer at 37 °C for 2 h. Cell-bound proteinases revealed molecular mass of 19, 20, 22, 32, 34, and 44 kDa based on a synthetic peptide zymogram. The proteinases showed subtilisin-like serine characteristics with the highest activity at 50 °C and pH 8 and 11. Activity of the extracted proteinases increased ~4 times at ≥100 mM CaCl(2). In addition, CaCl(2) enhanced thermal stability of the extracted proteinases. Enzymes showed proteolytic activity in either the absence or presence of 10 and 25 % NaCl toward fish muscle, soy protein isolate, and casein substrates. Cell-bound proteinases were likely to play an important role in protein hydrolysis during fish sauce fermentation. PMID:22806191

  7. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    OpenAIRE

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This study describes effects of fermented soya beans on gastrointestinal physiology and addresses digestion, absorption and diarrhoea.Using an in vitro digestion model it appeared that fermentation increased solubil...

  8. Colour formation in fermented sausages by meat-associated staphylococci with different nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtterup, Jacob; Olsen, Karsten; Knøchel, Susanne;

    2008-01-01

    Three Staphylococcus strains, S. carnosus, S. simulans and S. saprophyticus, selected due to their varying nitrite and/or nitrate-reductase activities, were used to initiate colour formation during sausage fermentation. During fermentation of sausages with either nitrite or nitrate added, colour...... nitrate depended on the specific Staphylococcus strain. Strains with high nitrate-reductase activity showed a significantly faster rate of pigment formation, but other factors were of influence as well. Product stability for the sliced, packaged sausage was evaluated as surface colour and oxidation...... by autofluorescence and hexanal content, respectively. No significant direct effect of the Staphylococcus addition was observed, however, there was a clear correspondence between high initial amount of MbFeIINO in the different sausages and the colour stability during storage. Autofluorescence data correlated well...

  9. Levansucrase optimization using solid state fermentation and levan biological activities studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esawy, Mona A; Abdel-Fattah, Azza M; Ali, Mamdouh M; Helmy, Wafaa A; Salama, Bassem M; Taie, Hanan A A; Hashem, Amal M; Awad, Ghada E A

    2013-07-01

    Bacillus subtilis NRC1aza produced levansucrase under solid state fermentation using starch as support. A sequential optimization strategy, based on statistical experimental designs is employed to enhance enzyme productivity. First, a 2-level Plackett-Burman design was applied for bioprocess parameters screen that significantly increase levansucrase production. Second optimization step was performed using fractional factorial design in order to optimize the amounts of highest positive variables that had significant effect on levansucrase productivity. Maximal enzyme productivity of 170 U/gds was achieved in presence of glucose, yeast extract, and pH 8. In vitro, experiments confirmed that LevCR and LevQT had an antitumor activity against different animal and human cancer cell lines by demonstrating inhibitory effects on growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell line, human MCF-7 breast and liver HepG2 cancer cell lines, in particular LevQT was found to be efficacious compared to anticancer drug, cisplatin. Result focused in LevCR as strong fibrinolytic agent. PMID:23688489

  10. Hypoglycemic and Hepatoprotective Activity of Fermented Fruit Juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) in Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, B. Shivananda; Marshall, Julien R.; Isitor, Godwin; Adogwa, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Morinda citrifolia is a medicinal plant used to treat diabetes and liver diseases. The fermented fruit juice of the M. Citrifolia (optical density = 1.25) was used to study the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective properties in diabetes-induced rats. The rats were randomly distributed into 4 groups (control, diabetic experimental, diabetic standard, and diabetic untreated) of 6 each. Diabetes was induced by administering Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). Fasting blood glucose, body mass, liver tissue glycogen content, and the extent of liver degeneration were assessed. Diabetic experimental animals were treated with M. citrifolia juice (2 ml/kg, twice a day) and diabetic standard with reference hypoglycemic drug, glibenclamide orally for 20 days. Both the groups exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose level of 150 mg/dl ±15.88 and 125 mg/dl ±3.89, respectively, as compared to diabetic untreated with FBS = 360.0 mg/dl ±15.81, (P < .003). On 10th day of experiment, diabetic experimental animals exhibited a decrease in body mass (10.2 g, 5.11%) which increased significantly by the 20th day (6 g, 3.0%, P < .022). Histological study of liver tissue obtained from untreated diabetic animals revealed significant fatty degeneration as compared to other three groups. The data of this study proved the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective activity of M. citrifolia. PMID:20981320

  11. Hypoglycemic and Hepatoprotective Activity of Fermented Fruit Juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shivananda Nayak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Morinda citrifolia is a medicinal plant used to treat diabetes and liver diseases. The fermented fruit juice of the M. Citrifolia (optical density = 1.25 was used to study the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective properties in diabetes-induced rats. The rats were randomly distributed into 4 groups (control, diabetic experimental, diabetic standard, and diabetic untreated of 6 each. Diabetes was induced by administering Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight. Fasting blood glucose, body mass, liver tissue glycogen content, and the extent of liver degeneration were assessed. Diabetic experimental animals were treated with M. citrifolia juice (2 ml/kg, twice a day and diabetic standard with reference hypoglycemic drug, glibenclamide orally for 20 days. Both the groups exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose level of 150 mg/dl ±15.88 and 125 mg/dl ±3.89, respectively, as compared to diabetic untreated with FBS = 360.0 mg/dl ±15.81, (<.003. On 10th day of experiment, diabetic experimental animals exhibited a decrease in body mass (10.2 g, 5.11% which increased significantly by the 20th day (6 g, 3.0%, <.022. Histological study of liver tissue obtained from untreated diabetic animals revealed significant fatty degeneration as compared to other three groups. The data of this study proved the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective activity of M. citrifolia.

  12. Microbial network for waste activated sludge cascade utilization in an integrated system of microbial electrolysis and anaerobic fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenzong; He, Zhangwei; Yang, Chunxue;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bioelectrochemical systems have been considered a promising novel technology that shows an enhanced energy recovery, as well as generation of value-added products. A number of recent studies suggested that an enhancement of carbon conversion and biogas production can be achieved...... in an integrated system of microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) and anaerobic digestion (AD) for waste activated sludge (WAS). Microbial communities in integrated system would build a thorough energetic and metabolic interaction network regarding fermentation communities and electrode respiring communities...

  13. Overexpression of the transcription activator Msn2 enhances the fermentation ability of industrial baker's yeast in frozen dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Ohtsu, Iwao; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We constructed a self-cloning diploid baker's yeast strain that overexpressed the transcription activator Msn2. It showed higher tolerance to freeze-thaw stress and higher intracellular trehalose level than observed in the wild-type strain. Overexpression of Msn2 also enhanced the fermentation ability of baker's yeast cells in frozen dough. Hence, Msn2-overexpressing baker's yeast should be useful in frozen-dough baking. PMID:22451415

  14. The influence of douchi starter cultures on the composition of extractive components, microbiological activity, and sensory properties of fermented fish pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasankala, Ladislaus M; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that douchi cultures could serve as a potential starter for enhancing the quality attributes of fermented silver carp meat. In experiment 1, an active, prefermented douchi culture was incorporated into a fish paste to aid in the fish fermentation (30 d) and facilitate biochemical production of extractive flavor components (PRF). In experiment 2, a fully fermented (30 d) douchi was added to a fish paste and the mixture was fermented for 30 d (PSF). In experiment 3, a fish paste without the douchi culture was fermented for 30 d (CF). Total extracted free amino acids increased by 68.0, 68.6, and 78.8% (P 100 mg/mL). The concentrations of both formaldehyde-reactive nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen extractives increased significantly (P PSF > CF. Low amounts of biogenic amines (ingredient commonly used in China, Japan, and other Asian countries. It is also used in many Chinese cuisines in the United States. On the other hand, fermented seafood made from freshwater fish such as silver carp is known to contain bioactive components believed to promote health. The findings from the present study indicated that douchi as a novel starter can be used to produce fermented silver carp fish pastes with excellent flavor and consumer acceptability. The results may be applicable to other fish species to produce similar fermentation products. PMID:21535644

  15. The influence of douchi starter cultures on the composition of extractive components, microbiological activity, and sensory properties of fermented fish pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasankala, Ladislaus M; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that douchi cultures could serve as a potential starter for enhancing the quality attributes of fermented silver carp meat. In experiment 1, an active, prefermented douchi culture was incorporated into a fish paste to aid in the fish fermentation (30 d) and facilitate biochemical production of extractive flavor components (PRF). In experiment 2, a fully fermented (30 d) douchi was added to a fish paste and the mixture was fermented for 30 d (PSF). In experiment 3, a fish paste without the douchi culture was fermented for 30 d (CF). Total extracted free amino acids increased by 68.0, 68.6, and 78.8% (P 100 mg/mL). The concentrations of both formaldehyde-reactive nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen extractives increased significantly (P PSF > CF. Low amounts of biogenic amines (ingredient commonly used in China, Japan, and other Asian countries. It is also used in many Chinese cuisines in the United States. On the other hand, fermented seafood made from freshwater fish such as silver carp is known to contain bioactive components believed to promote health. The findings from the present study indicated that douchi as a novel starter can be used to produce fermented silver carp fish pastes with excellent flavor and consumer acceptability. The results may be applicable to other fish species to produce similar fermentation products.

  16. Enhancement of biomass and fermentation activity of surplus brewers' yeast in a fed-batch process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strel, B. (Ministry of Science and Technology, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Industrial Property Office); Grba, S.; Maric, V. (Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology)

    1993-04-01

    The growth of surplus brewers' yeast in a fedbatch process was studied with the aim of increasing the fermentation activity of the yeast cells and of optimizing the growth conditions: 20 h cultivation at 30deg C and pH 5.0-5.5 using beet molasses as substrate, with a regulated feeding rate, showed satisfactory results. Under the chosen conditions, the final amount of biomass increased more than fivefold, achieving a specific growth rate of 0.1 h[sup -1] and substrate yield coefficient of 0.54 g.g[sup -1]. The increase in fermentation activity of yeast cells during cultivation correlated very well with the concentration of reduced glutathione, which increased from 1.2 to 2.7 mg.g[sup -1] (dry matter). At the same time the fermentation activity increased fivefold, which related to the nitrogen content of the yeast cells. Ethanol formation throughout the cultivation did not exceed 0.5 g.l[sup -1]. (orig.).

  17. Determination of Harvesting Time and Fermentation Conditions of Coffee (Coffee sp Beans Based on the Fruit Pericarp Enzyme Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Said Didu

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Pectinase enzyme of coffee pericarp, containing pectinesterase and polymetilesterase, is potential to determine harvesting time or to classify coffee beans. The activity of the enzyme on the green fruit is higher than on the yellow one. When the fruit become light red, the activity increaed for the second time and then decrease when the fruit is overripe (dark coloredThe optimum fermentation condition of the fruit is depending on the maturation degree. Study on the fermentation process at 25oC, suggest sorting of harvesting fruits in three groups. (1 fruits are harvested 9-24 days after the fruits reach its yellowish green color, Ao, (2 25 - 32 days after Ao, and (3 33 - 38 days after Ao.Fermenting at 35o C grouping into four types of maturation degree. (1 9 - 11 days after Ao, (2 12 - 22 days after Ao, (3 23 - 30 days after Ao, and (4 24-36 days after Ao. The optimum harvesting time is when the beans reach light red until the color starts getting dark. The optimum activity of the enzyme pectinase is at 35oC.

  18. Effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on gastrointestinal transit activity in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souli, Abdellaziz; Sebai, Hichem; Rtibi, Kaïs; Chehimi, Latifa; Sakly, Mohsen; Amri, Mohamed; El-Benna, Jamel

    2014-07-01

    The current study was performed to measure the chemical composition and the effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap on gastrointestinal transit (GIT) activity in healthy adult rats. In this respect, male Wistar rats fasted for 24 hours were used and received per orally (p.o.) sodium chloride (NaCl) (0,9%) (control group) or various doses of dates pulp extract (150 and 300 mg/kg, body weight [b.w.]) and palm sap (0.4 and 4 mL/kg, b.w.). Two other groups of rats (batch tests) received, respectively, clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, 1 mg/kg, b.w.) and yohimbine (an alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist, 2mg/kg, b.w.). Chemical analysis showed that the dates pulp extract is more rich in sugars and minerals, especially potassium and sucrose, as compared with palm sap composition. On the other hand, in vivo study showed that the aqueous dates pulp extract significantly, and dose dependently, increased the GIT activity while the palm sap slightly increased it. Moreover, a converse effect has been observed using clonidine (decreased 68%) and yohimbine (increased 33%) on the GIT activity. These findings suggest that dates pulp extract and palm sap have a stimulating effect on GIT activity in rats and confirm their use in traditional Tunisian medicine for the treatment of constipation.

  19. Phytase transgenic corn in nutrition of laying hens: residual phytase activity and phytate phosphorus content in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C Q; Ji, C; Zhao, L H; Zhang, J Y; Ma, Q G

    2013-11-01

    The residual activities of transgenic corn-derived and 2 commercial microbial phytases (PA and PB) along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of laying hens were compared to evaluate their relative resistance to hydrolysis in the GIT when added to P-deficient diets. The treatments consisted of a negative control (NC) diet containing 0.10 nonphytate P and an NC diet supplemented with transgenic corn-derived phytase (TCDP), PA, and PB at 500 to 5,000 FTU/kg of diet, respectively. Seven diets were fed to Hy-Line Brown laying hens (n = 504; 8 replicates of 9 hens per treatment) for 21 d. At the end of the experiment, the hens were killed and digesta samples from the crop, proventriculus and gizzard, jejunum, and ileum were collected and analyzed for residual phytase activities and phytate P content. Phytase activity in the transgenic corn was determined to be 8,980 FTU/kg of DM. The residual phytase activities along the GIT had increased (P corn is as efficacious as the commercial microbial phytases (PA and PB) in P-deficient diets for the improvement of phytate P digestibility, which would eliminate the need for supplemental phytase and corn separately in laying hen diets.

  20. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of extracts of Opuntia ficus-indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Féboli, Aline; Laurentiz, Antonio C; Soares, Suelen C S; Augusto, Jeferson G; Anjos, Luciano A; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Filardi, Rosemeire S; Laurentiz, Rosangela S

    2016-08-15

    This study describes the in vitro anthelmintic activity of extracts from Opuntia ficus indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. The anthelmintic activity was evaluated by inhibition of egg hatching, larval development and larval migration assays. The residual aqueous fractions from cladodes and fruits showed higher ovicidal activity with EC50 values of 7.2mg/mL and 1.5mg/mL, respectively. The aqueous, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions from fruits and the aqueous fraction from cladodes inhibited 100% of larval development at the lowest concentration tested (1.56mg/mL). The crude cladode and fruit ethanolic extracts inhibited larval migration and showed EC50 values of 0.74mg/mL and 0.27mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical screening detected high concentrations of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins in the fruits and cladodes. The results demonstrated that O. ficus exhibits anthelmintic activity in vitro, suggesting that, beyond its nutritional potential, this plant can also be an ally for parasite control in sheep.

  1. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of extracts of Opuntia ficus-indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Féboli, Aline; Laurentiz, Antonio C; Soares, Suelen C S; Augusto, Jeferson G; Anjos, Luciano A; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Filardi, Rosemeire S; Laurentiz, Rosangela S

    2016-08-15

    This study describes the in vitro anthelmintic activity of extracts from Opuntia ficus indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. The anthelmintic activity was evaluated by inhibition of egg hatching, larval development and larval migration assays. The residual aqueous fractions from cladodes and fruits showed higher ovicidal activity with EC50 values of 7.2mg/mL and 1.5mg/mL, respectively. The aqueous, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions from fruits and the aqueous fraction from cladodes inhibited 100% of larval development at the lowest concentration tested (1.56mg/mL). The crude cladode and fruit ethanolic extracts inhibited larval migration and showed EC50 values of 0.74mg/mL and 0.27mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical screening detected high concentrations of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins in the fruits and cladodes. The results demonstrated that O. ficus exhibits anthelmintic activity in vitro, suggesting that, beyond its nutritional potential, this plant can also be an ally for parasite control in sheep. PMID:27514886

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Exopolysaccharide with Immunomodulatory Activity from Fermentation Broth of Morchella Conica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-an Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of this study: Mushroom polysaccharides have traditionally been used for the prevention and treatment of a multitude of disorders like infectious illnesses, cancers and various autoimmune diseases. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Morchella conica (M. conica is a species of rare edible mushroom whose multiple medicinal functions have been proven. Thus, the objective of this study is to isolate and characterize of exopolysaccharide from submerged mycelial culture of M. conica, and to evaluate its immunomodulatory activity.MethodsA water-soluble Morchella conica Polysaccharides (MCP were extracted and isolated from the fermentation broth of M. conica through a combination of DEAE-cellulose and Sephacryl S-300 HR chromatograph. NMR and IR spectroscopy has played a developing role in identification of polysaccharide with different structure and composition from fungal and plant sources, as well as complex glycosaminoglycans of animal origin. Thus, NMR and IR spectroscopy were used to analyze the chemical structure and composition of the isolated polysaccharide. Moreover, the polysaccharide was tested for its immunomodulatory activity at different concentrations using in vitro model.ResultsThe results showed that MCP may significantly modulate nitric oxide production in macrophages, and promote splenocytes proliferation. Analysis from HPLC, infrared spectra and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that MCP was a homogeneous mannan with an average molecular weight of approximately 81.2 kDa. The glycosidic bond links is [rightwards arrow]6-alpha-D-Man p-(1[rightwards arrow].ConclusionThe results suggested that the extracted MCP may modulate nitric oxide production in macrophages and promote splenocytes proliferation, and it may act as a potent immunomodulatory agent.

  3. Inhibitory activity in vitro of probiotic lactobacilli against oral Candida under different fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Q; Stamatova, I; Kari, K; Meurman, J H

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that probiotics positively affect oral health by decreasing gum bleeding and/or reducing salivary counts of certain oral pathogens. Our aim was to investigate the inhibitory effect of six probiotic lactobacilli against opportunistic oral Candida species. Sugar utilisation by both lactobacilli and Candida was also assessed. Agar overlay assay was utilised to study growth inhibition of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112, Lactobacillus brevis CD2, Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB86 and L. bulgaricus LB Lact. The inhibitory effect was measured at pH 5.5, 6.4, and 7.2, respectively, and in the presence of five different carbohydrates in growth medium (glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose, and sorbitol). Growth and final pH values were measured at two-hour time points to 24 h. L. rhamnosus GG showed the strongest inhibitory activity in fructose and glucose medium against C. albicans, followed by L. casei Shirota, L. reuteri SD2112 and L. brevis CD2. None of the lactobacilli tested affected the growth of C. krusei. Only L. rhamnosus GG produced slight inhibitory effect on C. glabrata. The lower pH values led to larger inhibition zones. Sugar fermentation profiles varied between the strains. L. casei Shirota grew in the presence of all sugars tested, whereas L. brevis CD2 could utilise only glucose and fructose. All Candida species metabolised the available sugars but the most rapid growth was observed with C. glabrata. The results suggest that commercially available probiotics differ in their inhibitory activity and carbohydrate utilisation; the above properties are modified by different pH values and sugars with more pronounced inhibition at lower pH.

  4. Activated sludge-mediated biodegradation of dimethyl phthalate under fermentative conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Donglei; MAHMOODQaisar; Wu Lili; ZHENG Ping

    2008-01-01

    The biodegradation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) was investigated under fermentative conditions in this study. The nature of the intermediate compounds and the extent of mineralization were probed using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) [G1]methods. The fermentative bacteria were able to biodegrade the DMP under anaerobic conditions, with the biodegradation rate of 0.36 mg DMP/(L?h). The results demonstrated that the DMP degradation under fermentative conditions followed the modified Gompertz model with the correlation coefficient of 0.99. Monomethyl phthalate (MMP) and phthalic acid (PA) were detected as the intermediates of DMP biodegradation. During the experiment, MMP was rapidly produced and removed; however, PA accumulated as the biodegradation was slower throughout the course of the experiment. The CODCr concentration decreased from 245.06 to 72.01 mg/L after the experimental operation of 20 d. The volume of methane produced was 3.65 ml over a period of 20 d and the amount of methane recovered corresponded to 40.2% of the stoichiometric value. The CODCr variation and methane production showed that the DMP could not be completely mineralized under the fermentative conditions, which implied that the fermentative bacteria were not able to biodegrade DMP entirely.

  5. Enhanced natural killer cell activation by exopolysaccharides derived from yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Seiya; Sato, Asako; Goto, Ayako; Nakamura, Marie; Ogawa, Miho; Chiba, Yoshika; Hemmi, Jun; Kano, Hiroshi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Okumura, Ko; Asami, Yukio

    2016-02-01

    Yogurt is generally recognized as a beneficial food for our health, but research into its physiological effects has focused mainly on intestinal dysfunctions such as constipation and diarrhea. We previously found yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 (hereafter OLL1073R-1) could reduce risks of catching the common cold and flu in human trials. It was assumed that immunostimulatory exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced from OLL1073R-1 play an important role in this context. However, few studies have examined the immunostimulatory effects of traditional Bulgarian yogurts fermented with different strains of lactobacilli and their metabolites. Therefore, we screened 139 L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strains and identified OLL1073R-1 as the most robust producer of EPS. This strain was also the only strain that induced the production of IFN-γ in vitro. Oral administration of the EPS or yogurt fermented with OLL1073R-1 and Streptococcus thermophilus OLS3059 (OLL1073R-1 yogurt) augmented natural killer (NK) cell activity and induced IFN-γ production in spleen cells in mice, whereas 2 other yogurts fermented with other strains had no effect on NK cell activity. Cellular preparations of the OLL1073R-1 strain also slightly augmented NK cell activity, but were less effective than EPS itself. The EPS-dependent stimulation of NK cell activity was abrogated in IFN-γ knockout mice and in myeloid differentiation factor 88 knockout mice. Furthermore, IFN-γ production from spleen cells stimulated with EPS was completely blocked with both anti-IL-12 and anti-IL-18 antibodies in vitro. These findings suggest that NK cell activation by OLL1073R-1 yogurt is EPS-dependent, occurs via IL-12- and IL-18-mediated IFN-γ production, and requires myeloid differentiation factor 88. We showed that traditional Bulgarian yogurt could exert immunostimulatory effects by selecting starter strains and part of the mechanisms depend on IFN-γ inducible EPS produced

  6. Optimization of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of exo-polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus in submerged fermentation using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Xu, Xiangqun; Zhu, Yang

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of fermentation medium on the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of exo-polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus by response surface methodology. A two-level fractional factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of different components of medium. Corn flour, peptone, and KH2PO4 were important factors significantly affecting hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. These selected variables were subsequently optimized using path of steepest ascent (descent), a central composite design, and response surface analysis. The optimal medium composition was (% w/v): corn flour 5.30, peptone 0.32, KH2PO4 0.26, MgSO4 0.02, and CaCl2 0.01. Under the optimal condition, the hydroxyl radical scavenging rate (49.4%) was much higher than that using either basal fermentation medium (10.2%) and single variable optimization of fermentation medium (35.5%). The main monosaccharides components of the RSM optimized polysaccharides are rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose with molar proportion at 1.45%, 3.63%, 2.17%, 15.94%, 50.00%, and 26.81%. PMID:20467262

  7. Shedding of Clostridium difficile, fecal beta-lactamase activity, and gastrointestinal symptoms in 51 volunteers treated with oral cefixime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachaty, E; Bourneix, C; Renard, S; Bonnay, M; Andremont, A

    1993-07-01

    Microbial changes including the shedding of Clostridium difficile, fecal beta-lactamase activity, and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed in 51 healthy volunteers given 200 mg of cefixime twice daily for 8 days. The number of organisms of the family Enterobacteriaceae (means +/- standard deviations) dropped from 6.9 +/- 1.1 to 3.9 +/- 1.8 log CFU/g of feces (P < 0.01), whereas counts of enterococci rose from 7.0 +/- 1.5 to 9.0 +/- 1.0 log CFU/g of feces (P < 0.01). Both counts returned to their initial levels 50 days after the cessation of treatment. Cefixime did not significantly modify the frequency of fecal excretion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus spp., yeasts, or members of the Enterobacteriaceae resistant to ceftazidime or ampicillin. The proportion of subjects shedding C. difficile rose from 6% before treatment to 57% (P < 0.01) at the end of treatment but returned to 8% 50 days thereafter. No case of pseudomembranous colitis was observed. Stool changes occurred in 13 volunteers during treatment (25%) and in 2 others more than 10 days after the end of treatment (4%). These changes were not significantly associated with the shedding of toxigenic strains of C. difficile or with the presence of toxin A in feces. By contrast, during treatment, stool changes occurred in 8 of the 18 volunteers (44%) who had antibiotic activity in their feces but in only 5 of the 33 (15%) for whom no such activity was found (P < 0.05). The absence of antibiotic activity in the feces was itself linked with the presence of beta-lactamase activity in the feces. Since we had found earlier that fecal beta-lactamase activity afforded protection against alteration in stool consistency during treatments with oral cephalosporins, the present study confirmed our previous preliminary results in this respect. PMID:8363371

  8. [The antihypertensive effect of fermented milks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez González, Karina N; Cruz Guerrero, Alma E; Márquez, Humberto González; Gómez Ruiz, Lorena C; García-Garibay, Mariano; Rodríguez Serrano, Gabriela M

    2014-01-01

    There is a great variety of fermented milks containing lactic acid bacteria that present health-promoting properties. Milk proteins are hydrolyzed by the proteolytic system of these microorganisms producing peptides which may also perform other functions in vivo. These peptides are encrypted within the primary structure of proteins and can be released through food processing, either by milk fermentation or enzymatic hydrolysis during gastrointestinal transit. They perform different activities, since they act in the cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, immune and nervous systems. Bioactive peptides that have an antihypertensive, antithrombotic, antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic effect on the cardiovascular system can reduce the risk factors for chronic disease manifestation and help improve human health. Most studied bioactive peptides are those which exert an antihypertensive effect by inhibiting the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Recently, the study of these peptides has focused on the implementation of tests to prove that they have an effect on health. This paper focuses on the production of ACEinhibitory antihypertensive peptides from fermented milks, its history, production and in vivo tests on rats and humans, on which its hypotensive effect has been shown. PMID:24721277

  9. Alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH3 activates glucose alcoholic fermentation in genetically engineered Dekkera bruxellensis yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Siurkus, Juozas; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam;

    2016-01-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis is a non-conventional Crabtree-positive yeast with a good ethanol production capability. Compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, its tolerance to acidic pH and its utilization of alternative carbon sources make it a promising organism for producing biofuel. In this study, we de......, respectively. The overexpression of ADH3 in D. bruxellensis also reduced the inhibition of fermentation by anaerobiosis, the "Custer effect". Thus, the fermentative capacity of D. bruxellensis could be further improved by metabolic engineering....

  10. Fermentation characteristics of several carbohydrate sources for dog diets using the in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Calabrò

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentable carbohydrates are an important part of the canine diet. They can improve gastrointestinal health by modifying gut microbial population and metabolic activity. The present study compared the fermentation characteristics and kinetic patterns of 10 carbohydrate sources using the in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT with dog faecal inoculum. The substrates tested were: pure cellulose (PC, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, sugar-cane fibre (SCF, beet pulp (BP, wheat bran (WB, fructooligosaccharides (FOS, inulin, yeast cell wall (YCW, ground psyllium seed (PS, pea hulls (PH. All substrates were incubated at 39°C under anaerobic conditions with faeces collected from dogs as microbial inoculum. Gas production of fermenting cultures was recorded and after 48 h, pH, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA and organic matter disappearance (OMD were determined. The results confirm high fermentation by dog faecal bacteria of FOS and inulin that produced high amounts of propionate and that underwent very rapid fermentation. Three substrates (SCF, CMC and PC were not able to support bacterial growth, with low gas and SCFA production, and high BCFA formation. PH and BP showed moderate OMD and SCFA production. Wheat bran B underwent rapid fermentation and generated a high proportion of butyrate. PS underwent slow fermentation with delayed gas production, supporting a high formation of SCFA, with an adequate amount of butyrate for bacterial growth while YCW, which showed a delayed fermentation, gave moderate SCFA production. The fermentation characteristics of PS and YCW suggest their potential use in promoting a more distal fermentation on intestinal tract.

  11. Gastrointestinal motility and functional gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Motoyasu; Hosaka, Hiroko; Kawada, Akiyo; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Zai, Hiroaki; Kawamura, Osamu; Yamada, Masanobu

    2014-01-01

    Digestive tract motility patterns are closely related to the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGID), and these patterns differ markedly between the interdigestive period and the postprandial period. The characteristic motility pattern in the interdigestive period is so-called interdigestive migrating contraction (IMC). IMCs have a housekeeping role in the intestinal tract, and could also be related to FGID. IMCs arising from the stomach are called gastrointestinal IMCs (GI-IMC), while IMCs arising from the duodenum without associated gastric contractions are called intestinal IMCs (I-IMC). It is thought that I-IMCs are abnormal in FGID. Transport of food residue to the duodenum via gastric emptying is one of the most important postprandial functions of the stomach. In patients with functional dyspepsia (FD), abnormal gastric emptying is a possible mechanism of gastric dysfunction. Accordingly, delayed gastric emptying has attracted attention, with prokinetic agents and herbal medicines often being administered in Japan to accelerate gastric emptying in patients who have anorexia associated with dyspepsia. Recently, we found that addition of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) to a high-calorie liquid diet rich in casein promoted gastric emptying in healthy men. Therefore, another potential method of improving delayed gastric emptying could be activation of chemosensors that stimulate the autonomic nervous system of the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting a role for MSG in the management of delayed gastric emptying in patients with FD.

  12. The Clinical Outcomes of Transcatheter Microcoil Embolization in Patients with Active Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding in the Small Bowel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Hyo Sung; Han, Young Min; Lee, Soo Teik [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    To assess the clinical outcomes of the transcatheter microcoil embolization in patients with active lower gastrointestinal (LGI) bleeding in the small bowel, as well as to compare the mortality rates between the two groups based on the visualization or non-visualization of the bleeding focus determined by an angiography. We retrospectively evaluated all of the consecutive patients who underwent an angiography for treatment of acute LGI bleeding between January 2003 and October 2007. In total, the study included 36 patients who underwent a colonoscopy and were diagnosed to have an active bleeding in the LGI tracts. Based on the visualization or non-visualization of the bleeding focus, determined by an angiography, the patients were classified into two groups. The clinical outcomes included technical success, clinical success (no rebleeding within 30 days), delayed rebleeding (> 30 days), as well as the major and minor complication rates. Of the 36 patients, 17 had angiography-proven bleeding that was distal to the marginal artery. The remaining 19 patients did not have a bleeding focus based on the angiography results. The technical and clinical success rates of performing transcatheter microcoil embolizations in patients with active bleeding were 100% and 88%, respectively (15 of 17). One patient died from continued LGI bleeding and one patient received surgery to treat the continued bleeding. There was no note made on the delayed bleeding or on the major or minor complications. Of the 19 patients without active bleeding, 16 (84%) did not have recurrent bleeding. One patient died due to continuous bleeding and multi-organ failure. The superselective microcoil embolization can help successfully treat patients with active LGI bleeding in the small bowel, identified by the results of an angiography. The mortality rate is not significantly different between the patients of the visualization and non-visualization groups on angiography.

  13. Stem cell factor-mediated wild-type KIT receptor activation is critical for gastrointestinal stromal tumor cell growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Guang Bai; Xiao-Wei Hou; Feng Wang; Cen Qiu; Yan Zhu; Ling Huang; Jing Zhao

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To clarify the biological role of stem cell factor (SCF)-mediated wild-type KIT receptor activation in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) growth.METHODS:The co-expression of wild-type KIT receptor and SCF was evaluated in 51 GIST samples using mutation analysis and immunohistochemistry,and the results were correlated with clinicopathological parameters,including the mitotic count,proliferative index (Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining),mitotic index (phospho-histone H3 immunohistochemical staining)and apoptotic index (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling).Using primary cultured GIST cells,the effect of SCF-mediated wild-type KIT receptor activation was determined by western blotting,methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT),and apoptosis assays.RESULTS:We found that wild-type KIT receptor and SCF protein were expressed in 100% and 76.5% of the 51 GIST samples,respectively,and the co-expression of wild-type KIT receptor and SCF was associated with known indicators of poor prognosis,including larger tumor size (P =0.0118),higher mitotic count (P =0.0058),higher proliferative index (P =0.0012),higher mitotic index (P =0.0282),lower apoptosis index (P =0.0484),and increased National Institutes of Health risk level (P =0.0012).We also found that the introduction of exogenous SCF potently increased KIT kinase activity,stimulated cell proliferation (P < 0.01) and inhibited apoptosis (P < 0.01) induced by serum starvation,while a KIT immunoblocking antibody suppressed proliferation (P =0.01) and promoted apoptosis (P < 0.01)in cultured GIST cells.CONCLUSION:SCF-mediated wild-type KIT receptor activation plays an important role in GIST cell growth.The inhibition of SCF-mediated wild-type KIT receptor activation may prove to be particularly important for GIST therapy.

  14. Microbial fermented tea - a potential source of natural food preservatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Chen, Z.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of microbial fermented tea are much less known than its health beneficial properties. These antimicrobial activities are generated in natural microbial fermentation process with tea leaves as substrates. The antimicrobial components produced during the fermentation process h

  15. Ferulic acid release and 4-vinylguaiacol formation during brewing and fermentation: indications for feruloyl esterase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghe, Stefan; Benoot, Koen; Delvaux, Filip; Vanderhaegen, Bart; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2004-02-11

    The release of ferulic acid and the subsequent thermal or enzymatic decarboxylation to 4-vinylguaiacol are inherent to the beer production process. Phenolic, medicinal, or clove-like flavors originating from 4-vinylguaiacol frequently occur in beer made with wheat or wheat malt. To evaluate the release of ferulic acid and the transformation to 4-vinylguaiacol, beer was brewed with different proportions of barley malt, wheat, and wheat malt. Ferulic acid as well as 4-vinylguaiacol levels were determined by HPLC at several stages of the beer production process. During brewing, ferulic acid was released at the initial mashing phase, whereas moderate levels of 4-vinylguaiacol were formed by wort boiling. Higher levels of the phenolic flavor compound were produced during fermentations with brewery yeast strains of the Pof(+) phenotype. In beer made with barley malt, ferulic acid was mainly released during the brewing process. Conversely, 60-90% of ferulic acid in wheat or wheat malt beer was hydrolyzed during fermentation, causing higher 4-vinylguaiacol levels in these beers. As cereal enzymes are most likely inactivated during wort boiling, the additional release of ferulic acid during fermentation suggests the activity of feruloyl esterases produced by brewer's yeast. PMID:14759156

  16. Ethanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The inulin of chicory slices was hydrolyzed enzymically and fermented to ethanol. Maximum ethanol yield was achieved with fermentation combined with saccharification, using cellulase and inulinase for saccharification. The fermenting organism was Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kluyveromyces fragilis, containing endogenous inulinase, was also used, but with lower yield.

  17. Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 metabolic products and fermented milk for infant formula have anti-inflammatory activity on dendritic cells in vitro and protective effects against colitis and an enteric pathogen in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zagato

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of commercially available fermented food products raises important safety issues particularly when infant food is concerned. In many cases, the activity of the microorganisms used for fermentation as well as what will be the immunological outcome of fermented food intake is not known. In this manuscript we used complex in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems to study the immunomodulatory properties of probiotic-fermented products (culture supernatant and fermented milk without live bacteria to be used in infant formula. We found in vitro and ex-vivo that fermented products of Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 act via the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release leaving anti-inflammatory cytokines either unaffected or even increased in response to Salmonella typhimurium. These activities are not dependent on the inactivated bacteria but to metabolic products released during the fermentation process. We also show that our in vitro systems are predictive of an in vivo efficacy by the fermented products. Indeed CBA L74 fermented products (both culture medium and fermented milk could protect against colitis and against an enteric pathogen infection (Salmonella typhimurium. Hence we found that fermented products can act via the inhibition of immune cell inflammation and can protect the host from pathobionts and enteric pathogens. These results open new perspectives in infant nutrition and suggest that L. paracasei CBA L74 fermented formula can provide immune benefits to formula-fed infants, without carrying live bacteria that may be potentially dangerous to an immature infant immune system.

  18. Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 metabolic products and fermented milk for infant formula have anti-inflammatory activity on dendritic cells in vitro and protective effects against colitis and an enteric pathogen in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagato, Elena; Mileti, Erika; Massimiliano, Lucia; Fasano, Francesca; Budelli, Andrea; Penna, Giuseppe; Rescigno, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of commercially available fermented food products raises important safety issues particularly when infant food is concerned. In many cases, the activity of the microorganisms used for fermentation as well as what will be the immunological outcome of fermented food intake is not known. In this manuscript we used complex in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems to study the immunomodulatory properties of probiotic-fermented products (culture supernatant and fermented milk without live bacteria to be used in infant formula). We found in vitro and ex-vivo that fermented products of Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 act via the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release leaving anti-inflammatory cytokines either unaffected or even increased in response to Salmonella typhimurium. These activities are not dependent on the inactivated bacteria but to metabolic products released during the fermentation process. We also show that our in vitro systems are predictive of an in vivo efficacy by the fermented products. Indeed CBA L74 fermented products (both culture medium and fermented milk) could protect against colitis and against an enteric pathogen infection (Salmonella typhimurium). Hence we found that fermented products can act via the inhibition of immune cell inflammation and can protect the host from pathobionts and enteric pathogens. These results open new perspectives in infant nutrition and suggest that L. paracasei CBA L74 fermented formula can provide immune benefits to formula-fed infants, without carrying live bacteria that may be potentially dangerous to an immature infant immune system. PMID:24520333

  19. In vitro anthelmintic activity of the Zizyphus joazeiro bark against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and its cytotoxicity on Vero cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Danilo Cavalcanti; de Lima, Hélimar Gonçalves; Vaz, Ariádne Vieira; Santos, Nathália Silva; Santos, Francianne Oliveira; Dias, Êuder Reis; Botura, Mariana Borges; Branco, Alexsandro; Batatinha, Maria José Moreira

    2016-08-15

    This study examined the in vitro effect of the Zizyphus joazeiro bark against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and its cytotoxicity on Vero cells. The ovicidal activity of the crude hydroethanolic extract (CE), its partitioned hexane (HE) and aqueous extract (AE) and saponins fraction (SF), including betulinic acid (BA), a biogenetic compound from this plant found in HE, were investigated using the inhibition of egg hatch assay (EHA). Thereafter, the extracts and the SF were evaluated through the larval motility assay (LMA) and larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA). The AE and SF promoted a complete inhibition of the egg hatch, and the effective concentration to inhibit 50% (EC50) values was 1.9 and 1.3mg/mL, respectively. The highest percentages of inhibition in EHA observed after treatments with CE, HE and BA corresponded to 79, 48 and 17%, respectively. The extracts and SF did not show larvicidal activity in LMA and LMIA. The AE and SF demonstrated cytotoxic effects in 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl, 2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and trypan blue tests; however, SF was more toxic (50% inhibitory concentration, IC50=0.20mg/mL). The chemical characterization of the SF was made through Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) analyses, which led to the identification of two saponins known as Joazeiroside B and Lotoside A. The results obtained from the research of this saponin content provide important information about the biological activity, especially the anthelmintic effect present in the plant investigated. That also suggests the types of bioactive compounds that may be responsible for this antiparasitic activity exhibited by the plant extracts. PMID:27514875

  20. In vitro inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity of subfractions from ethanol extracts of fermented Oats (Avena sativa L.) and synergistic effect of three phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shengbao; Wang, Ou; Wang, Mengqian; He, Jianfeng; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of the present work is to study the pancreatic lipase inhibitory effects of different subfractions (n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol, and water) from ethanol extracts of nonfermented and fungi-fermented oats and to delineate the interactions of three primary phenolic acids in the EA subfractions. The EA subfraction showed the highest inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity at 1.5 mg/mL compared to the other subfractions, regardless of whether the oats were fermented. Meanwhile, both of the EA subfractions of two fungi-fermented oats demonstrated more effective inhibitory activity than that of nonfermented oats. A positive correlation between the total phenolics content and inhibitory activity was found. The inhibitory ability of the EA subfraction from nonfermented or fermented oats also displayed a dose-dependent effect. The standards of caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids, mainly included in EA subfractions of fermented oats, also displayed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect. A synergistic effect of each binary combination of p-coumaric, ferulic, and caffeic acids was observed, especially at 150.0 μg/mL. Those results indicate that fungi-fermented oats have a more effective inhibitory ability on pancreatic lipase and polyphenols may be the most effective component and could be potentially used for dietary therapy of obesity.

  1. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of condensed tannins on gastrointestinal nematode infestations in sheep (Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eidi Yoshihara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Infestations of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes in sheep result in significant costs to farmers. These infestations are controlled using synthetic anthelmintic treatments, which can result in the development of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes. The use of plants rich in condensed tannins (CTs is a promising alternative for controlling infestations of harmful parasites in sheep, and could allow reduction of the chemical products used. This study investigated the in vitro effect of CTs from Acacia mearnsii extract (AE on egg hatching and motility of third-stage larvae. Egg-hatching rate was measured after incubation with extracts for 48 h at 27 °C. The egg hatch test was performed with dilutions of 0.09, 0.19, 0.39, 0.78, 1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg mL-1. Distilled water was used as the negative control. The corresponding egg hatching inhibition percentages were 22.3, 32.3, 39.2, 49.1, 56.7, 59.0, 62.3, 77.3, 92.7, 98.3, and 100%. The concentration required to inhibit egg hatching in 50% of eggs (LC50 was 2.85 mg mL-1. The inhibition achieved with the negative control was 7.06%. A larval migration inhibition test was carried out after incubation with the extracts for 48 h at 27 oC, with AE and distilled water used in dilutions of 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg mL-1. The corresponding percentages of migration inhibition were 16.5, 37.0, 56.3, 79.4, 91.8, and 97.1%. The concentration required to inhibit migration of 50% of larvae (LC50 was 12.45 mg mL-1. The inhibition achieved with the negative control was 8.53%. The in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of CTs from AE indicate the anthelmintic effect of AE, suggesting the potential of CT extracts to be used as alternatives for controlling gastrointestinal nematode infestations in small ruminants.

  2. 发酵豆粕替代鱼粉对黑鲷胃肠道和血清指标的影响%Effects of fermented soybean meal replacing fish meal on gastrointestinal tract and serum indexes in black sea bream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭翔; 宋文新; 周凡; 肖金星; 章亭洲; 邵庆均

    2012-01-01

    采用室内流水养殖系统饲养黑鲷(Acanthopagrus schlegelii)幼鱼56d,研究了黑鲷饲粮中发酵豆柏替代鱼粉的效果.选取初始体重为(11.82±0.32)g的健康黑鲷,随机分为6组,每组3个重复,每个重复25尾.用发酵豆粕分别替代0(S0)、10% (S10)、20%(S20)30%(S30)40%(S40)和50% (S50)的鱼粉蛋白质.结果表明,S0、S10和S20组中黑鲷的胃肠组织结构没有明显损伤,替代水平高于20%则出现不同程度的胃肠结构损伤,S40组中肠结构严重损伤,S50组前肠和中肠结构严重损伤.S10、S20组蛋白酶和脂肪酶活性显著提高,各组淀粉酶活性变化不大.随着发酵豆粕替代水平的增加,血清葡萄糖(GLU)含量、过氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性、溶菌酶(LZ)含量逐渐降低,而胆固醇(T-CHO)、谷草转氨酶(GOT)和谷丙转氨酶(GPT)含量逐渐升高.结果提示,饲粮中发酵豆粕替代20%鱼粉蛋白质可提高蛋白酶和脂肪酶活性,增强黑鲷抗氧化和免疫力,对消化道无不良影响.%An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of fish meal (FM) substitution with fermented soybean meal (FSBM) in the diets of black sea bream(Acanthopagrus schlegelii), in 18 indoor flow-through fiberglass tanks (25 fish per tank). The healthy black sea bream [ (11.82±0.32) g, mean initial body weight] was selected and divided randomly into six groups and each group in triplicate tanks with 25 fish. Six experimental diets were formulated according to FSBM protein replacing fish meal protein at 0(S0) , 10% (S10), 20%(S20), 30%(S30), 40% (S40) , 50% (S50) levels, respectively. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of fish twice daily. The results showed that there was no significant damage to the structure of gastrointestinal tract in SO, S10 and S20 groups, but damage appeared with the substitution level more than 20%. Midgut had a serious damage in S40 group as well as foregut and midgut in S50 group. There were

  3. Functional role of the Ca2+-activated Cl− channel DOG1/TMEM16A in gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOG1, a Ca2+-activated Cl− channel (CaCC), was identified in 2004 to be robustly expressed in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). It was rapidly included as a tumor marker in routine diagnostics, but the functional role remained unknown. CaCCs are important regulators of normal physiological functions, but also implicated in tumorigenesis, cancer progression, metastasis, cell migration, apoptosis, proliferation and viability in several malignancies. We therefore investigated whether DOG1 plays a role in the three latter in GIST by utilizing in vitro cell model systems. Confocal microscopy identified different subcellular localizations of DOG1 in imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant cells. Electrophysiological studies confirmed that DOG1-specific pharmacological agents possess potent activating and inhibiting properties. Proliferation assays showed small effects up to 72 h, and flow cytometric analysis of adherent cells with 7-AAD/Annexin V detected no pharmacological effects on viable GIST cells. However, inhibition of DOG1 conveyed pro-apoptotic effects among early apoptotic imatinib-resistant cells. In conclusion, DOG1 generates Cl− currents in GIST that can be regulated pharmacologically, with small effects on cell viability and proliferation in vitro. Inhibition of DOG1 might act pro-apoptotic on some early apoptotic GIST cell populations. Further studies are warranted to fully illuminate the function of DOG1 and its potential as therapeutic target. - Highlights: • Subcellular DOG1 localization varies between GIST cells. • DOG1 in GIST is voltage- and Ca2+-activated. • Known TMEM16A modulators, like A01 and Eact, modulate DOG1. • DOG1 has small effects on cell viability and proliferation in vitro. • DOG1 impact early apoptotic GIST cells to undergo late apoptosis

  4. Gamma irradiation of sorghum flour: Effects on microbial inactivation, amylase activity, fermentability, viscosity and starch granule structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malted and un-malted sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) flour was gamma irradiated with a dose of 10 kGy and then re-irradiated with 25 kGy. The effects of irradiation on microbial decontamination, amylase activity, fermentability (using an amylolytic L. plantarum MNC 21 strain), starch granule structure and viscosity were determined. Standard methods were used during determinations. The 10 kGy dose had no effect on microbial load of un-malted flour but reduced that of malted flour by 3 log cycles. Re-irradiation resulted in complete decontamination. Irradiation of malt caused a significant (p<0.05) reduction in alpha and beta amylase activity (22% and 32%, respectively). Irradiation of un-malted flour increased the rates of utilization of glucose and maltose by 53% and 100%, respectively, during fermentation. However, microbial growth, rate of lactic acid production, final lactic acid concentration and pH were not affected. Starch granules appeared normal externally even after re-irradiation, however, granules ruptured and dissolved easily after hydration and gelatinization. Production of high dry matter density porridge (200 g dry matter/L) with a viscosity of 3500 cP was achieved by irradiation of un-malted flout at 10 kGy. Gamma irradiation can be used to decontaminate flours and could be utilized to produce weaning porridge from sorghum. - Highlights: ► Malted and un-malted Sorghum flours irradiated (10 kGy) and re-irradiated (25 kGy). ► Complete decontamination only achieved after re-irradiation. ► Significant reduction (p<0.05) in malt amylase activity. ► Microbial growth, starch breakdown and acidification unaffected during fermentation. ► Viscosity of sorghum porridge lowered due to weakened starch granules.

  5. Mesophilic and thermophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge for hydrogen production: Focusing on homoacetogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jingjing; Jing, Yuhang; Zhang, Shicheng; Angelidaki, Irini; Luo, Gang

    2016-10-01

    The present study compared the mesophilic and thermophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) for hydrogen production with focus on homoacetogenesis, which mediated the consumption of H2 and CO2 for acetate production. Batch experiments showed that hydrogen yield of WAS increased from 19.2 mL H2/gVSS at 37 °C and pH 10-80.1 mL H2/gVSS at 55 °C and pH 10. However, the production of volatile fatty acids (mainly acetate) was higher at 37 °C and pH 10 by comparison with 55 °C and pH 10. Hydrogen consumption due to homoacetogenesis was observed at 37 °C and pH 10 but not 55 °C and pH 10. Higher expression levels of genes relating with homoacetogenesis and lower expression levels of genes relating with hydrogen production were found at 37 °C and pH 10 compared to 55 °C and pH 10. The continuous experiment demonstrated the steady-state hydrogen yield of WAS was comparable to that obtained from batch experiments at 55 °C and pH 10, and homoacetogenesis was still inhibited. However, the steady-state hydrogen yield of WAS (6.5 mL H2/gVSS) was much lower than that (19.2 mL H2/gVSS) obtained from batch experiments at 37 °C and pH 10 due to the gradual enrichment of homoacetogens as demonstrated by qPCR analysis. The high-throughput sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that the abundance of genus Clostridium, containing several homoacetogens, was 5 times higher at 37 °C and pH 10 than 55 °C and pH 10. PMID:27420808

  6. Fermented Broth in Tyrosinase- and Melanogenesis Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Feng Chan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fermented broth has a long history of applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Recently, the use of fermented broth in skin care products is in ascendance. This review investigates the efficacy of fermented broth in inhibiting tyrosinase and melanogenesis. Possible active ingredients and hypopigmentation mechanisms of fermented broth are discussed, and potential applications of fermented broth in the cosmetic industry are also addressed.

  7. Korean Ginseng Berry Fermented by Mycotoxin Non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae: Ginsenoside Analyses and Anti-proliferative Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Kim, Nam Yeon; Lee, Yu Na; Ji, Geun Eog

    2016-01-01

    To transform ginsenosides, Korean ginseng berry (KGB) was fermented by mycotoxin non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. Changes of ginsenoside profile and anti-proliferative activities were observed. Results showed that A. niger tended to efficiently transform protopanaxadiol (PPD) type ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rb2, Rd to compound K while A. oryzae tended to efficiently transform protopanaxatriol (PPT) type ginsenoside Re to Rh1 via Rg1. Butanol extracts of fermented KGB showed high cytotoxicity on human adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line while that of unfermented KGB showed little. The minimum effective concentration of niger-fermented KGB was less than 2.5 µg/mL while that of oryzae-fermented KGB was about 5 µg/mL. As A. niger is more inclined to transform PPD type ginsenosides, niger-fermented KGB showed stronger anti-proliferative activity than oryzae-fermented KGB. PMID:27582326

  8. Effect of starter cultures combinations on lipolytic activity and ripening of dry fermented sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Baris Bingol

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of starter culture combinations on the quality of Turkish type dry fermented sausage (sucuk were evaluated during ripening and storage periods. Sucuk formulations were produced without (control and with three different starter culture combinations; i Staphylococcus carnosus+Pediococcus pentosaceus, ii Staphylococcus carnosus+ Lactobacillus sakei, and iii Staphylococcus carnosus+Pediococcus pentosaceus+Lactobacillus sakei. Analysis of microbiological, physico-chemical and lipase enzyme levels of samples were conducted until the 60th day. Interactions among the presence of lipolytic starter cultures, lipase enzyme levels and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were also evaluated both in ripening and drying periods. There were apparent differences on microbiological and chemical properties between samples prepared with starters and control. It has been concluded that the use of lipolytic starter cultures in suitable combination would have positive effect on the acceleration of ripening and improvement of the quality of dry fermented sausages.

  9. GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMOR (GIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eTornillo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild-type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other entities, have been discovered (e.g. succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data.

  10. Antifungal hydroxy fatty acids produced during sourdough fermentation: microbial and enzymatic pathways, and antifungal activity in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Brenna A; Zannini, Emanuele; Curtis, Jonathan M; Gänzle, Michael G

    2013-03-01

    Lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to hydroxy fatty acids; however, this conversion has not been demonstrated in food fermentations and it remains unknown whether hydroxy fatty acids produced by lactobacilli have antifungal activity. This study aimed to determine whether lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to metabolites with antifungal activity and to assess whether this conversion can be employed to delay fungal growth on bread. Aqueous and organic extracts from seven strains of lactobacilli grown in modified De Man Rogosa Sharpe medium or sourdough were assayed for antifungal activity. Lactobacillus hammesii exhibited increased antifungal activity upon the addition of linoleic acid as a substrate. Bioassay-guided fractionation attributed the antifungal activity of L. hammesii to a monohydroxy C(18:1) fatty acid. Comparison of its antifungal activity to those of other hydroxy fatty acids revealed that the monohydroxy fraction from L. hammesii and coriolic (13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic) acid were the most active, with MICs of 0.1 to 0.7 g liter(-1). Ricinoleic (12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic) acid was active at a MIC of 2.4 g liter(-1). L. hammesii accumulated the monohydroxy C(18:1) fatty acid in sourdough to a concentration of 0.73 ± 0.03 g liter(-1) (mean ± standard deviation). Generation of hydroxy fatty acids in sourdough also occurred through enzymatic oxidation of linoleic acid to coriolic acid. The use of 20% sourdough fermented with L. hammesii or the use of 0.15% coriolic acid in bread making increased the mold-free shelf life by 2 to 3 days or from 2 to more than 6 days, respectively. In conclusion, L. hammesii converts linoleic acid in sourdough and the resulting monohydroxy octadecenoic acid exerts antifungal activity in bread.

  11. Hypoglycemic and Hepatoprotective Activity of Fermented Fruit Juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) in Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Adogwa; Godwin Isitor; Marshall, Julien R.; B Shivananda Nayak

    2011-01-01

    Morinda citrifolia is a medicinal plant used to treat diabetes and liver diseases. The fermented fruit juice of the M. Citrifolia (optical density = 1.25) was used to study the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective properties in diabetes-induced rats. The rats were randomly distributed into 4 groups (control, diabetic experimental, diabetic standard, and diabetic untreated) of 6 each. Diabetes was induced by administering Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). Fasting blood glucose, body mass, li...

  12. Enzyme Activities and Substrate Degradation by Fungal Isolates on Cassava Waste During Solid State Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Pothiraj, C.; Eyini, M.

    2007-01-01

    The growth and bioconversion potential of selected strains growing on cassava waste substrate during solid state fermentation were assessed. Rhizopus stolonifer showed the highest and the fastest utilization of starch and cellulose in the cassava waste substrate. It showed 70% starch utilization and 81% cellulose utilization within eight days. The release of reducing sugars indicating the substrate saccharification or degradation potential of the organisms reached the highest value of 406.5 m...

  13. Influence of addition of amylase preparation to dough on fermentative activity of baker's yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Dodić Jelena M.; Pejin Dušanka J.; Popov Stevan D.; Dodić Siniša N.; Mastilović Jasna S.; Popov-Raljić Jovanka V.

    2005-01-01

    Dough samples with different content of amylases were investigated immediately after mixing and after 7, 14 and 30 days of frozen storage. The obtained results show that the fermentation time is shorter, both in fresh and frozen samples, when amylase sample 1 was added, compared to dough without enzymes. The addition of amylase 2 to dough resulted in minimal decrease of "rising" time, both is frozen and fresh dough samples. The rising time of fresh samples was shorter when amylase 3 was added...

  14. Fermentation of quinoa and wheat slurries by Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 778: proteolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallagnol, Andrea Micaela; Pescuma, Micaela; De Valdez, Graciela Font; Rollán, Graciela

    2013-04-01

    Quinoa fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is an interesting alternative to produce new bakery products with high nutritional value; furthermore, they are suitable for celiac patients because this pseudo-cereal contains no gluten. Growth and lactic acid production during slurry fermentations by Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 778 were greater in quinoa (9.8 log cfu/mL, 23.1 g/L) than in wheat (8.9 log cfu/mL, 13.9 g/L). Lactic fermentation indirectly stimulated flour protein hydrolysis by endogenous proteases of both slurries. However, quinoa protein hydrolysis was faster, reaching 40-100% at 8 h of incubation, while wheat protein hydrolysis was only 0-20%. In addition, higher amounts of peptides (24) and free amino acids (5 g/L) were determined in quinoa compared to wheat. Consequently, greater concentrations (approx. 2.6-fold) of the antifungal compounds (phenyllactic and hydroxyphenyllactic acids) were synthesized from Phe and Tyr in quinoa by L. plantarum CRL 778, an antifungal strain. These promising results suggest that this LAB strain could be used in the formulation of quinoa sourdough to obtain baked goods with improved nutritional quality and shelf life, suitable for celiac patients. PMID:23129182

  15. Production of bioactive polysaccharides by Inonotus obliquus under submerged fermentation supplemented with lignocellulosic biomass and their antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangqun; Hu, Yan; Quan, Lili

    2014-12-01

    The effect of lignocellulose degradation in wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse on the accumulation and antioxidant activity of extra- (EPS) and intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) of Inonotus obliquus under submerged fermentation were first evaluated. The wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse increased the EPS accumulation by 91.4, 78.6, and 74.3 % compared with control, respectively. The EPS and IPS extracts from the three lignocellulose media had significantly higher hydroxyl radical- and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity than those from the control medium. Of the three materials, wheat straw was the most effective lignocellulose in enhancing the mycelia growth, accumulation and antioxidant activity of I. obliquus polysaccharides (PS). The carbohydrate and protein content, as well as the monosaccharide compositions of the EPS and IPS extracts, were correlated with sugar compositions and dynamic contents during fermentation of individual lignocellulosic materials. The enhanced accumulation of bioactive PS of cultured I. obliquus supplemented with rice straw, wheat straw, and bagasse was evident. PMID:24890137

  16. Influence of fermentation conditions on polysaccharide production and the activities of enzymes involved in the polysaccharide synthesis of Cordyceps militaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Liu, Xiao-Cui; Dong, Feng-Ying; Guo, Ming-Zhu; Wang, Xiao-Ting; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2016-05-01

    The influence of different fermentation conditions on intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) production and activities of the phosphoglucomutase (PGM), UDPG-pyrophosphorylase (UGP), phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), UDPG-dehydrogenase (UGD), and glucokinase (GK) implicated in metabolite synthesis in Cordyceps militaris was evaluated. The highest IPS production (327.57 ± 6.27 mg/100 mL) was obtained when the strain was grown in the optimal medium containing glucose (40 g · L(-1)), beef extract (10 g · L(-1)), and CaCO3 (0.5 g · L(-1)), and the initial pH and temperature were 7 and 25 °C, respectively. The activities of PGM, UGP, and PGI were proved to be influenced by the fermentation conditions. A strong correlation between the activities of these enzymes and the production of IPS was found. The transcription level of the pgm gene (encoding PGM) was 1.049 times and 1.467 times compared to the ugp gene and pgi gene (encoding UGP and PGI), respectively, in the optimal culture medium. This result indicated that PGM might be the highly key enzyme to regulate the biosynthesis of IPS of C. militaris in a liquid-submerged culture. Our study might be helpful for further research on the pathway of polysaccharide biosynthesis aimed to improve the IPS production of C. militaris. PMID:26685672

  17. Production of bioactive polysaccharides by Inonotus obliquus under submerged fermentation supplemented with lignocellulosic biomass and their antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangqun; Hu, Yan; Quan, Lili

    2014-12-01

    The effect of lignocellulose degradation in wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse on the accumulation and antioxidant activity of extra- (EPS) and intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) of Inonotus obliquus under submerged fermentation were first evaluated. The wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse increased the EPS accumulation by 91.4, 78.6, and 74.3 % compared with control, respectively. The EPS and IPS extracts from the three lignocellulose media had significantly higher hydroxyl radical- and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity than those from the control medium. Of the three materials, wheat straw was the most effective lignocellulose in enhancing the mycelia growth, accumulation and antioxidant activity of I. obliquus polysaccharides (PS). The carbohydrate and protein content, as well as the monosaccharide compositions of the EPS and IPS extracts, were correlated with sugar compositions and dynamic contents during fermentation of individual lignocellulosic materials. The enhanced accumulation of bioactive PS of cultured I. obliquus supplemented with rice straw, wheat straw, and bagasse was evident.

  18. Anti-infective activities of lactobacillus strains in the human intestinal microbiota: from probiotics to gastrointestinal anti-infectious biotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Servin, Alain L

    2014-04-01

    A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract.

  19. Prebiotics, Fermentable Dietary Fiber, and Health Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcour, Jan A; Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term "dietary fiber" groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the "fiber gap"-that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer.

  20. Food-grade argan oil supplementation in molasses enhances fermentative performance and antioxidant defenses of active dry wine yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Torrellas, Max; Rábena, María Teresa; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Aranda, Agustín; Matallana, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to desiccation is important for the use of this microorganism in the wine industry, since active dry yeast (ADY) is routinely used as starter for must fermentations. Both biomass propagation and dehydration cause cellular oxidative stress, therefore negatively affecting yeast performance. Protective treatments against oxidative damage, such as natural antioxidants, may have important biotechnological implications. In this study we analysed the antioxidant capacity of pure chemical compounds (quercetin, ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, oleic acid, and glutathione) added to molasses during biomass propagation, and we determine several oxidative damage/response parameters (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, protective metabolites and enzymatic activities) to assess their molecular effects. Supplementation with ascorbic, caffeic or oleic acids diminished the oxidative damage associated to ADY production. Based on these results, we tested supplementation of molasses with argan oil, a natural food-grade ingredient rich in these three antioxidants, and we showed that it improved both biomass yield and fermentative performance of ADY. Therefore, we propose the use of natural, food-grade antioxidant ingredients, such as argan oil, in industrial processes involving high cellular oxidative stress, such as the biotechnological production of the dry starter.

  1. Food-grade argan oil supplementation in molasses enhances fermentative performance and antioxidant defenses of active dry wine yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Torrellas, Max; Rábena, María Teresa; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Aranda, Agustín; Matallana, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to desiccation is important for the use of this microorganism in the wine industry, since active dry yeast (ADY) is routinely used as starter for must fermentations. Both biomass propagation and dehydration cause cellular oxidative stress, therefore negatively affecting yeast performance. Protective treatments against oxidative damage, such as natural antioxidants, may have important biotechnological implications. In this study we analysed the antioxidant capacity of pure chemical compounds (quercetin, ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, oleic acid, and glutathione) added to molasses during biomass propagation, and we determine several oxidative damage/response parameters (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, protective metabolites and enzymatic activities) to assess their molecular effects. Supplementation with ascorbic, caffeic or oleic acids diminished the oxidative damage associated to ADY production. Based on these results, we tested supplementation of molasses with argan oil, a natural food-grade ingredient rich in these three antioxidants, and we showed that it improved both biomass yield and fermentative performance of ADY. Therefore, we propose the use of natural, food-grade antioxidant ingredients, such as argan oil, in industrial processes involving high cellular oxidative stress, such as the biotechnological production of the dry starter. PMID:26621111

  2. Hypocholesterolemic Activity of Monascus Fermented Product in the Absence of Monacolins with Partial Purification for Functional Food Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ajdari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most common chronic diseases in human. Along with chemical therapy traditional medication is used as hypocholesterolemic remedy, however, with unfavorable side effects. Recently, Monascus fermented product (MFP has become a popular hypocholesterolemic natural supplement. In the present study, the hypocholesterolemic activity of Monascus purpureus FTC5391 fermented product ethanolic extract (MFPe was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Results showed that MFPe not only reduced the serum total cholesterol (TC, LDL-C, TG concentration, and TC/HDL-C ratio but also increased the HDL-C. Further, solid phase extraction (SPE was carried out to obtain the hypocholesterolemic bioactive fraction. The high polar fraction of SPE increased the HDL-C (42% and decreased the TC (53.3%, LDL-C (47%, and TG (50.7% levels as well as TC/HDL-C ratio (69.1% in serum. The GC-MS results of the active fraction revealed two main compounds, isosorbide and erythritol, which act as coronary vasodilator compounds.

  3. Change in Flavonoid Composition and Antioxidative Activity during Fermentation of Onion (Allium cepa L.) by Leuconostoc mesenteroides with Different Salt Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Geon; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Young-Min; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the change in flavonoid composition and antioxidative activity during fermentation of onion (Allium cepa L.) by Leuconostoc mesenteroides with different NaCl concentrations. In order to qualify and quantify the flavonoids during fermentation of onion, 7 flavonoids, [quercetin 3,7-O-β-d-diglucopyranoside (Q3,7G), quercetin 3,4'-O-β-d-diglucopyranoside (Q3,4'G), quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (Q3G), quercetin 4'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (Q4'G), isorhamnetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (IR3G), quercetin (Q), and isorhamnetin (IR)], were isolated and identified from onion. During fermentation, the contents of flavonoid glucosides (Q3,7G, Q3,4'G, Q3G, Q4'G, and IR3G) gradually decreased, whereas the contents of flavonoid aglycones (Q, IR) gradually increased. Decline rates of the flavonoid glucosides increased with the addition of L. mesenteroides. Furthermore, the activity of β-glucosidase, which is produced by L. mesenteroides, is dose-dependently inhibited with different NaCl concentrations during fermentation. The presence of L. mesenteroides enhanced the antioxidative activity of onion as demonstrated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and reducing power assays. The enhancement of antioxidative activity was considered because the content of flavonoid aglycones increased during fermentation. However, the addition of NaCl may decrease the antioxidative activity; we surmise that this phenomenon occurs because of the inhibition of β-glucosidase by NaCl. Therefore, we conclude that the addition of NaCl may be useful for the regulation of antioxidative activity via the control of β-glucosidase action, during the fermentation of flavonoid glucoside-rich foods. PMID:27175820

  4. Assessing the zearalenone-binding activity of adsorbent materials during passage through a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avantaggiato, G.; Havenaar, R.; Visconti, A.

    2003-01-01

    A novel approach is presented herein to study the intestinal absorption of mycotoxins by using a laboratory model that mimics the metabolic processes of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of healthy pigs. This model was used to evaluate the small-intestinal absorption of zearalenone from contaminated w

  5. Biodiversity and fermentative activity of caecal microbial communities in wild and farm rabbits from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, L; Rodríguez-Romero, N; Yañez-Ruiz, D R; Fondevila, M

    2012-06-01

    In order to study the microbial caecal ecosystem of wild and domestic rabbits through the fermentation characteristics and concentration and diversity of bacterial and archaeal communities, caecal samples from sixteen wild rabbits (WR) were contrasted with two groups (n = 4) of farm rabbits receiving low (LSF) or high (HSF) soluble fibre diets from 28 (weaning) to 51 days of age. DNA was extracted for quantifying bacteria and Archaea by qPCR and for biodiversity analysis of microbial communities by DGGE. Samples from WR had lower caecal pH and ammonia and higher volatile fatty acids concentration than farm animals. Lower acetate and higher butyrate proportions were detected in WR. Bacterial and archaeal DGGE profiles were clearly different between wild and farm rabbits, and diet-affected population of farm rabbits. Similarity index of bacteria was lower than 0.40 among WR, and 0.52 among farm rabbits. In conclusion, caecal fermentation characteristics differ between wild and farm rabbits, which harbour clearly different bacterial and archaeal communities. In farm rabbits, diversity is influenced by the dietary level of soluble fibre.

  6. A comparison of endogenous and microbial proteolytic activities during fast fermentation of silver carp inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Xia, Wen-Shui; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Xu, Yan-Shun; Jiang, Qi-Xing

    2016-09-15

    The study was aimed to investigate different roles of endogenous and Lactobacillus plantarum proteases during fast fermentation of silver carp. The results show that endogenous proteases could degrade both sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins. In contrast, L. plantarum had low proteinase activities and could only hydrolyze sarcoplasmic peptides. This indicates that gel properties could be mainly affected by endogenous proteolysis while microbial proteolysis contributed to the production of smaller peptides and free amino acids which may be related to flavor and taste. Texture and free amino acid analyses verified these hypotheses. It shows that endogenous lysosomal proteases were the major contributors for the decrease of gel strength while L. plantarum proteolytic activities could lead to the increase of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and alanine, which may result in umami and sweet taste; and also lead to a rise in some amino acids which were volatile compounds precursors. PMID:27080883

  7. Antihypertriglyceridemia and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Monascus-Fermented Dioscorea in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeu-Ching Shi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The rice fermented by Monascus, called red mold rice (RMR, and has a long tradition in East Asia as a dietary staple. Monascus-fermented dioscorea called red mold dioscorea (RMD contains various metabolites to perform the ability of reducing oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory response. We used Wistar rats and induced diabetes by injecting streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg i.p.. RMD was administered daily starting six weeks after disease onset. Throughout the experimental period, significantly (<.05 lowered plasma glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, free fatty acid and low density lipoprotein levels were observed in the RMD-treated groups. The RMD-treated diabetic rats showed higher activities of glutathione disulfide reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase and superoxide dismutase (<.05 in the pancreas compared with the diabetic control rats. RMD also inhibited diabetes-induced elevation in the levels of interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. Pancreatic β-cells damaged by STZ in the RMD supplemented groups were ameliorated. The results of this study clearly demonstrated that RMD possesses several treatment-oriented properties, including the control of hyperglycemia, antioxidant effects, pancreatic β-cell protection and anti-inflammatory effects. Considering these observations, it appears that RMD may be a useful supplement to delay the development of diabetes and its complications.

  8. Effect of per-fermentation conditions on quality and anti-α-glucosidase activity of fermented soya beans%前酵条件对豆豉品质和α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁娜; 胡会萍; 马艳莉; 屈欢; 李里特

    2011-01-01

    选用米曲霉、少孢根霉和雅致放射毛霉进行纯种前酵制作豆豉,分别选取36、48、60h和72h4个前酵时间的豆豉曲进行后酵,比较前酵时间不同的3种霉菌型豆豉的品质和α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制活性。结果表明,米曲霉型豆豉感官品质和理化特性最好,α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制活性最高;前酵72h的3种霉菌型豆豉α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制活性均高于其他前酵时间的豆豉。综合来看,前酵时间为60、72h的米曲霉型豆豉的品质和降血糖功能性最佳。%Aspergillus oryzae,Rhizopus Oligosporus and Actinomucor elegans were used respectively for fermented soya beans per-fermentation,mold culture of which by four different per-fermentation time were further fermented.The quality and anti-α-glucosidase activity of fermented soya beans by different moulds and per-fermentation time were compared.The results showed that sensory and phy-chemical quality and anti-α-glucosidase activity of fermented soya beans by Aspergillus oryzae was best,when they were per-fermented for 72 hours,fermented soya beans product of all the three moulds obtained the highest anti-α-glucosidase activity.Taken together,fermented soya beans by Aspergillus oryzae had the best quality and hypoglycemic activity,which was per-fermented for 60 hours a 72 hours.

  9. FERMENTED MILK AS A FUNCTIONAL FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Rogelj

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain foods have been associated with health benefits for many years; fermented milks and yoghurt are typical examples. The health properties of these dairy products were a part of folklore until the concept of probiotics emerged, and the study of fermented milks and yoghurt containing probiotic bacteria has become more systematic. Functional foods have thus developed as a food, or food ingredient, with positive effects on host health and/or well-being beyond their nutritional value, and fermented milk with probiotic bacteria has again become the prominent representative of this new category of food. Milk alone is much more than the sum of its nutrients. It contains an array of bioactivities: modulating digestive and gastrointestinal functions, haemodynamics, controlling probiotic microbial growth, and immunoregulation. When fermented milk is enriched with probiotic bacteria and prebiotics it meets all the requirements of functional food. The possible positive effects of enriched fermented milk on host health will be reviewed.

  10. Inoculum pre-treatment affects the fermentative activity of hydrogen-producing communities in the presence of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Micol; Botticella, Giuseppe; Francavilla, Matteo; Beneduce, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the productivity of mixed microbial cultures for fermentative bio-hydrogen production, chemical-physical pre-treatments of the original seed are needed to suppress the activity of hydrogen (H2)-consuming microbes. This approach might influence negatively the composition and diversity of the hydrogen-producing community with consequences on the functional stability of the H2-producing systems in case of perturbations. In this study, we aimed at investigating the effect of different types of pre-treatment on the performance of hydrogen production systems in the presence of an inhibitor, such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The efficiency and the microbial community structure of batch reactors amended with HMF and inoculated with non-pretreated and pretreated (acid, heat shock, and aeration) anaerobic sludge were evaluated and compared with control systems. The type of pre-treatments influenced the microbial community assembly and activity in inhibited systems, with significant effect on the performance. Cumulative H2 production tests showed that the pre-aerated systems (control and HMF inhibited) were the most efficient, while the difference of the lag phase of the pre-acidified control and HMF-added test was negligible. Analyses of the structure of the enriched microbial community in the systems through PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) followed by band sequencing revealed that the differences in performance were mostly related to shifts in the metabolic pathways rather than in the predominant species. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the use of specific inoculum pre-treatment could contribute to regulate the metabolic activity of the fermentative H2-producing bacteria in order to enhance the bio-energy production. PMID:26428244

  11. Inoculum pre-treatment affects the fermentative activity of hydrogen-producing communities in the presence of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Micol; Botticella, Giuseppe; Francavilla, Matteo; Beneduce, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the productivity of mixed microbial cultures for fermentative bio-hydrogen production, chemical-physical pre-treatments of the original seed are needed to suppress the activity of hydrogen (H2)-consuming microbes. This approach might influence negatively the composition and diversity of the hydrogen-producing community with consequences on the functional stability of the H2-producing systems in case of perturbations. In this study, we aimed at investigating the effect of different types of pre-treatment on the performance of hydrogen production systems in the presence of an inhibitor, such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The efficiency and the microbial community structure of batch reactors amended with HMF and inoculated with non-pretreated and pretreated (acid, heat shock, and aeration) anaerobic sludge were evaluated and compared with control systems. The type of pre-treatments influenced the microbial community assembly and activity in inhibited systems, with significant effect on the performance. Cumulative H2 production tests showed that the pre-aerated systems (control and HMF inhibited) were the most efficient, while the difference of the lag phase of the pre-acidified control and HMF-added test was negligible. Analyses of the structure of the enriched microbial community in the systems through PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) followed by band sequencing revealed that the differences in performance were mostly related to shifts in the metabolic pathways rather than in the predominant species. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the use of specific inoculum pre-treatment could contribute to regulate the metabolic activity of the fermentative H2-producing bacteria in order to enhance the bio-energy production.

  12. Total antioxidant capacity of new natural powdered seasonings after gastrointestinal and colonic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino-García, Raquel; González-SanJosé, María L; Rivero-Pérez, María D; García-Lomillo, Javier; Muñiz, Pilar

    2016-11-15

    New powdered seasonings, rich in natural antioxidant compounds, have successfully been applied recently in different food matrices. Once ingested, the antioxidants contained in these seasonings may exert protective effects against oxidative stress along the gastrointestinal tract. This fact was evaluated by submitting the different seasonings under study to simulated digestion followed by assessing the reducing and antiradical capacities of the digested fractions. Enzymatic gastrointestinal digestion enhanced 2-3 times both antioxidant activities and colonic fermentation increased more than 10-fold the radical scavenging ability of digested fractions compared with undigested seasonings. Digested fractions derived from the seedless wine pomace seasoning presented generally the highest antioxidant properties. The results were evaluated considering bioaccessibility factors to have a more realistic overview of the potential antioxidant capacities of the seasonings and of the probable beneficial effects of their consumption on the prevention of oxidative damage along the gut. PMID:27283687

  13. Hepatoprotective Activity of Dried- and Fermented-Processed Virgin Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Zakaria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the hepatoprotective effect of MARDI-produced virgin coconut oils, prepared by dried- or fermented-processed methods, using the paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Liver injury induced by 3 g/kg paracetamol increased the liver weight per 100 g bodyweight indicating liver damage. Histological observation also confirms liver damage indicated by the presence of inflammations and necrosis on the respective liver section. Interestingly, pretreatment of the rats with 10, but not 1 and 5, mL/kg of both VCOs significantly (P<.05 reduced the liver damage caused by the administration of paracetamol, which is further confirmed by the histological findings. In conclusion, VCO possessed hepatoprotective effect that requires further in-depth study.

  14. Gastrointestinal transit measurements in mice with 99mTc-DTPA-labeled activated charcoal using NanoSPECT-CT

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Grosse, Johannes; Asad, Abu Bakar Md Ali; Radda, George K.; Golay, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders are commonly associated with chronic conditions such as diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Direct consequences are obstipation or diarrhea as opposite aspects of the irritable bowel syndrome, and more indirectly, alteration of appetite, feeling of fullness, flatulence, bloatedness, and eventually leading to altered absorption of nutrients. Moreover, GI retention and passage times have been recognized as important factors in determining the release ...

  15. Jaeumganghwa-Tang Induces Apoptosis via the Mitochondrial Pathway and Lactobacillus Fermentation Enhances Its Anti-Cancer Activity in HT1080 Human Fibrosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Aeyung; Im, Minju; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Yang, Hye Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    Jaeumganghwa-tang (JGT, Zi-yin-jiang-huo-tang in Chinese and Jiin-koka-to in Japanese) is an oriental herbal formula that has long been used as a traditional medicine to treat respiratory and kidney diseases. Recent studies revealed that JGT exhibited potent inhibitory effects on allergies, inflammation, pain, convulsions, and prostate hyperplasia. Several constituent herbs in JGT induce apoptotic cancer cell death. However, the anti-cancer activity of JGT has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of JGT using highly tumorigenic HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. In addition, we examined whether the Lactobacillus fermentation of JGT enhanced its anti-cancer activity using an in vivo xenograft model because fermentation of herbal extracts is thought to strengthen their therapeutic effects. Data revealed that JGT suppressed the growth of cancer cells efficiently by stimulating G1 cell cycle arrest and then inducing apoptotic cell death by causing mitochondrial damage and activating caspases. The phosphorylation of p38 and ERK also played a role in JGT-induced cell death. In vitro experiments demonstrated that JGT fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus, designated fJGT162, elicited similar patterns of cell death as did non-fermented JGT. Meanwhile, the daily oral administration of 120 mg/kg fJGT162 to HT1080-bearing BALB/c nude mice suppressed tumor growth dramatically (up to 90%) compared with saline treatment, whereas the administration of non-fermented JGT suppressed tumor growth by ~70%. Collectively, these results suggest that JGT and fJGT162 are safe and useful complementary and alternative anti-cancer herbal therapies, and that Lactobacillus fermentation improves the in vivo anti-cancer efficacy of JGT significantly. PMID:26020238

  16. Jaeumganghwa-Tang Induces Apoptosis via the Mitochondrial Pathway and Lactobacillus Fermentation Enhances Its Anti-Cancer Activity in HT1080 Human Fibrosarcoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeyung Kim

    Full Text Available Jaeumganghwa-tang (JGT, Zi-yin-jiang-huo-tang in Chinese and Jiin-koka-to in Japanese is an oriental herbal formula that has long been used as a traditional medicine to treat respiratory and kidney diseases. Recent studies revealed that JGT exhibited potent inhibitory effects on allergies, inflammation, pain, convulsions, and prostate hyperplasia. Several constituent herbs in JGT induce apoptotic cancer cell death. However, the anti-cancer activity of JGT has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of JGT using highly tumorigenic HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. In addition, we examined whether the Lactobacillus fermentation of JGT enhanced its anti-cancer activity using an in vivo xenograft model because fermentation of herbal extracts is thought to strengthen their therapeutic effects. Data revealed that JGT suppressed the growth of cancer cells efficiently by stimulating G1 cell cycle arrest and then inducing apoptotic cell death by causing mitochondrial damage and activating caspases. The phosphorylation of p38 and ERK also played a role in JGT-induced cell death. In vitro experiments demonstrated that JGT fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus, designated fJGT162, elicited similar patterns of cell death as did non-fermented JGT. Meanwhile, the daily oral administration of 120 mg/kg fJGT162 to HT1080-bearing BALB/c nude mice suppressed tumor growth dramatically (up to 90% compared with saline treatment, whereas the administration of non-fermented JGT suppressed tumor growth by ~70%. Collectively, these results suggest that JGT and fJGT162 are safe and useful complementary and alternative anti-cancer herbal therapies, and that Lactobacillus fermentation improves the in vivo anti-cancer efficacy of JGT significantly.

  17. Of the major phenolic acids formed during human microbial fermentation of tea, citrus, and soy flavonoid supplements, only 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid has antiproliferative activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, K.; Xu, A.; Krul, C.A.M.; Venema, K.; Liu, Y.; Niu, Y.; Lu, J.; Bensoussan, L.; Seeram, N.P.; Heber, D.; Henning, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary flavonoids are poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Colonic bacteria convert flavonoids into smaller phenolic acids (PA), which can be absorbed into the circulation and may contribute to the chemopreventive activity of the parent compounds. The purpose of our study was to determi

  18. The influence of Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37 on selected properties of fermented sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Mati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermented sausages rank among non-heat-treated meat products. Their nutritional properties are similar to the raw material, simultaneously their microbial safety and stability is ensured using additives and specific microbial cultures. The use of probiotic cultures can positively affect the processing of fermented sausages, resulting in the new technological properties and beneficial effect on human health. However, commercial application of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausages is not common yet. Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37 is a gram-positive, non-spore forming, homofermentative rod, which according to studies may modulate immune responses in human organism and survives the passage through the gastrointestinal tract. The main object of this work was to evaluate technological properties of L. paracasei LPC-37, which have not been fully examined. Two groups of fermented sausages were analysed in this work. The first group of fermented sausages was prepared using lyophilized starter culture (Lyocarni RHM-33. The second group of fermented sausages was prepared by the combination of lyophilized starter culture and potential probiotic culture Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37. The processing and ripening of sausages were carried out in meat processing plant to simulate real conditions of production. The changes of the products (water activity, pH, concentration of organic acids and microbial growth were evaluated during ripening (3 weeks, while sensory analysis was carried out in the final stage of the process and during storage (3 weeks. It was found that the environment of raw-fermented sausages is suitable for the growth and survival of Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37 and the microbiological quality of the final product was very good (absence of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. The counts of lactobacilli reached 107 CFU/g of the product, which meet the requirements for functional foods. The results of the sensory evaluation showed

  19. Antioxidative Activity of Exopolysaccharide Extract from Fermented Wheat Distillers’dried Grains Using UV-Irradiation Degradation Pretreatment by Preussia aemulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shili Meng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available novel approach for utilizing wheat Dried Distillers’ Grains with Solubles (DDGS to produce exopolysaccharide by Preussia aemulans was explored. For degrading the insoluble polymer of wheat DDGS, the UV-irradiation method was used. After irradiation of 24 h, the soluble saccharide content of wheat DDGS medium was increased by 67%. The optimum fermentation conditions were: 5% (w/v of fructose, 0.5% (w/v of yeast extract, 7.5 of pH value, 5% (v/v of the inoculum size, 60 rpm of shaking condition and 5 days of the fermentation time. The maximum exopolysaccharides yield of fermented broth under the optimum fermentation conditions was 3.51±0.24 g/L. Comparing with the unfermented wheat DDGS water extract, the exopolysaccharide yield of fermented broth was increased by 36%. The crude exopolysaccharide (EPS indicated remarkable antioxidative activities though four antioxidant assays. Therefore, the crude EPS could be utilized as antioxidative food additives and functional feed in the future.

  20. Gamma irradiation of sorghum flour: Effects on microbial inactivation, amylase activity, fermentability, viscosity and starch granule structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukisa, Ivan M.; Muyanja, Charles M. B. K.; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B.; Schüller, Reidar B.; Langsrud, Thor; Narvhus, Judith A.

    2012-03-01

    Malted and un-malted sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) flour was gamma irradiated with a dose of 10 kGy and then re-irradiated with 25 kGy. The effects of irradiation on microbial decontamination, amylase activity, fermentability (using an amylolytic L. plantarum MNC 21 strain), starch granule structure and viscosity were determined. Standard methods were used during determinations. The 10 kGy dose had no effect on microbial load of un-malted flour but reduced that of malted flour by 3 log cycles. Re-irradiation resulted in complete decontamination. Irradiation of malt caused a significant ( pporridge (200 g dry matter/L) with a viscosity of 3500 cP was achieved by irradiation of un-malted flout at 10 kGy. Gamma irradiation can be used to decontaminate flours and could be utilized to produce weaning porridge from sorghum.

  1. The Eschericia coli Growth Inhibition Activity of Some Fermented Medicinal Plant Leaf Extract from the Karo Highland, North Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    NOVIK NURHIDAYAT; EVI TRIANA

    2009-01-01

    A lot of traditional medicinal plant has antibacterial acitivities. Most of these plants are freshly chewed or grounded and used directly to treat infectious bacterial deseases. However, some practices employ a traditionally spontaneous fermentation on boiled extracted leaf, root or other parts of the plant. This work reports a laboratory stimulated spontaneous fermentation of leaf extracts from selected medicinal plants collected from the Karo Higland. The spontaenous fermentation was stimul...

  2. In-vitro antimicrobial activity screening of some ethnoveterinary medicinal plants traditionally used against mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal tract complication in Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shewit Kalayou; Mekonnen Haileselassie; Gebremedhin Gebre-egziabher; Tsegay Tikue; Samson Sahle; Habtamu Taddele; Mussie Ghezu

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To screen the antibacterial activity of nine ethnoveterinary plants traditionally used for the treatment of mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal complications. Methods:Hydroalcoholic exctracts of medicinal plants namely, Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera) L. (Family Asparagaceae), Ficus caria (F. caria) (Family Moraceae), Malvi parviflora (M. parviflora) (Family Malvaceae), Vernonia species (V. species) (local name Alakit, Family Asteraceae), Solanum hastifolium (S. hastifolium) (Family Solanaceae), Calpurinia aurea (C. aurea) (Ait) Benth (Family Fabaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (N. tabacum) L. (Family Solanaceae), Ziziphus spina-christi (Z. spina-christi) (Family Rhamnaceae), Croton macrostachys (C. macrostachys) (Family Euphorbiaceae), were screened against clinical bacterial isolates of veterinary importance from October 2007 to April 2009. The antibacterial activity was tested using disc diffusion at two concentrations (200 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL) and broth dilution methods using 70%methanol macerated leaf extracts. Results:With the exception of S. hastifolium all plant extracts exhibited antibacterial activity. Among the medicinal plants tested C. aurea, C. macrostachyus, A. aspera, N. tabacum and vernonia species (Alakit) showed the most promising antimicrobial properties. Conclusions:It can be concluded that many of the tested plants have antibacterial activity and supports the traditional usage of the plants for mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal complications treatment. Further studies into their toxicity and phytochemistry is advocated.

  3. Enzyme activity of β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis and Aspergillus oryzae on simulated conditions of human gastrointestinal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Bosso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An alternative to relieve the symptoms of lactose intolerance is the intake of the enzyme β-galactosidase in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The ability of β-galactosidase produced by Kluyveromyces lactis and Aspergillus oryzae to hydrolyze lactose in simulated conditions of the human gastrointestinal tract was investigated. The experiment was carried out in the optimum temperature for each enzyme activity, 40 and 55°C, respectively, and at the normal human body temperature (37°C at concentrations of 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 g/L (enzyme from A. oryzae or mL/L (enzyme from K. lactis. Both enzymes were completely inactivated under simulated gastric conditions (pH 2. When the enzymes were subjected to simulated small intestine conditions (pH 7.4, lactose hydrolysis has occurred, but at 37°C the percentage was lower than that under the optimal temperatures. At concentrations of 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mL/L the enzyme from K. lactis hydrolyzed 76.63%, 88.91% and 94.80% of lactose at 40°C, and 55.99%, 80.91% and 81.53% at 37°C, respectively. In contrast, the enzyme from A. oryzae hydrolyzed 7.11%, 16.18% and 21.29% at 55°C, and 8.4%, 11.85% and 16.43% at 37°C. It was observed that under simulated intestinal conditions, the enzyme from K. lactis was more effective on lactose hydrolysis as compared to the enzyme from A. oryzae. Considering the findings of this study, it is extremely necessary to use an enteric coating on β-galactosidase capsules so that this enzyme is released only in the small intestine, which is its site of action, thus not suffering the action of the stomach pH.Keywords: Lactase. Hydrolysis. Lactose intolerance. Gastrointestinal tract. RESUMOAtividade de β-galactosidase de Kluyveromyces lactis e Aspergillus oryzae, em condições simuladas do sistema gastrintestinal humanoUma das alternativas para amenizar os sintomas da intolerância à lactose é a ingestão de β-galactosidase em formas farmacêuticas. Neste trabalho avaliou-se a

  4. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Kitaibelia vitifolia extract as alternative to the added nitrite in fermented dry sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurćubić, Vladimir S; Mašković, Pavle Z; Vujić, Jelena M; Vranić, Danijela V; Vesković-Moračanin, Slavica M; Okanović, Đorđe G; Lilić, Slobodan V

    2014-08-01

    Fermented dry sausages (FDS) without nitrite added, fortified with bioactive phenol and flavonoid compounds originating from the ethanol extract of Kitaibelia vitifolia were food matrix for investigation of its antioxidant and antimicrobial potency. These activities were researched in order to improve the sausages' shelf-life, safety, and provide health benefits to consumers as well. The oxidative stability of the FDS, containing two different levels of natural preservative, was evaluated using five different contemporary methods for antioxidative activity. The activity was tested on the 20th day of the refrigerated storage. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the sausage extract were determined against six microorganisms, using a micro dilution method. Determined optimal effective concentration of dissolved K. vitifolia extract (12.5 g/kg of meat dough) revealed strong antioxidant activity, and moderate antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (minimum inhibitory concentrations=15.625 μg/mL). The modified sausages had typical chemical-physical characteristics of FDS, controlled on 0, 13, 26 d of ripening and 20, 40 and 60 d of storage.

  5. Detergent-Stable Salt-Activated Proteinases from Virgibacillus halodenitrificans SK1-3-7 Isolated from Fish Sauce Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montriwong, Aungkawipa; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2015-05-01

    The NaCl-activated and detergent-stable proteinases from Virgibacillus halodenitrificans SK1-3-7 isolated from fish sauce fermentation were purified and characterized. The enzymes with molecular masses of 20 and 36 kDa showed caseinolytic activity on a zymogram. Optimum azocaseinolytic activity was at 60 °C and pH 9. The proteolytic activity increased in the presence of 10 mM CaCl2 and 0.5 M NaCl and showed high stability at 0-2 M NaCl. The enzymes were stable at pH 4-10 and 10-50 °C. The enzymes preferably hydrolyzed Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA and were completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), showing subtilisin-like characteristics. Activity and stability remained high in the presence of H2O2 and various surfactants. The enzymes exhibited high stability (>95%) in various organic solvents (DMSO, butanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetonitrile) at concentration of 50%. The V. halodenitrificans SK1-3-7 proteinases showed potential as a biocatalyst in aqueous-organic solvent systems and as an additive in laundry detergent. PMID:25820449

  6. An efficient and green pretreatment to stimulate short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge anaerobic fermentation using free nitrous acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jianwei; Wang, Dongbo; Yang, Qi; Xu, Qiuxiang; Deng, Yongchao; Yang, Weiqiang; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-02-01

    Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production from waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic fermentation is often limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and poor substrate availability, thus a long fermentation time is required. This paper reports a new pretreatment approach, i.e., using free nitrous acid (FNA) to pretreat sludge, for significantly enhanced SCFA production. Experimental results showed the highest SCFA production occurred at 1.8 mg FNA/L with time of day 6, which was 3.7-fold of the blank at fermentation time of day 12. Mechanism studies revealed that FNA pretreatment accelerated disruption of both extracellular polymeric substances and cell envelope. It was also found that FNA pretreatment benefited hydrolysis and acidification processes but inhibited the activities of methanogens, thereby promoting the yield of SCFA. In addition, the FNA pretreatment substantially stimulated the activities of key enzymes responsible for hydrolysis and acidification, which were consistent with the improvement of solubilization, hydrolysis and acidification of WAS anaerobic fermentation. PMID:26363316

  7. An efficient and green pretreatment to stimulate short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge anaerobic fermentation using free nitrous acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jianwei; Wang, Dongbo; Yang, Qi; Xu, Qiuxiang; Deng, Yongchao; Yang, Weiqiang; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-02-01

    Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production from waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic fermentation is often limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and poor substrate availability, thus a long fermentation time is required. This paper reports a new pretreatment approach, i.e., using free nitrous acid (FNA) to pretreat sludge, for significantly enhanced SCFA production. Experimental results showed the highest SCFA production occurred at 1.8 mg FNA/L with time of day 6, which was 3.7-fold of the blank at fermentation time of day 12. Mechanism studies revealed that FNA pretreatment accelerated disruption of both extracellular polymeric substances and cell envelope. It was also found that FNA pretreatment benefited hydrolysis and acidification processes but inhibited the activities of methanogens, thereby promoting the yield of SCFA. In addition, the FNA pretreatment substantially stimulated the activities of key enzymes responsible for hydrolysis and acidification, which were consistent with the improvement of solubilization, hydrolysis and acidification of WAS anaerobic fermentation.

  8. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory Activity and ACE Inhibitory Peptides of Salmon (Salmo salar Protein Hydrolysates Obtained by Human and Porcine Gastrointestinal Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Darewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were two-fold: first, to detect whether salmon protein fractions possess angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory properties and whether salmon proteins can release ACE inhibitory peptides during a sequential in vitro hydrolysis (with commercial porcine enzymes and ex vivo digestion (with human gastrointestinal enzymes. Secondly, to evaluate the ACE inhibitory activity of generated hydrolysates. A two-step ex vivo and in vitro model digestion was performed to simulate the human digestion process. Salmon proteins were degraded more efficiently by porcine enzymes than by human gastrointestinal juices and sarcoplasmic proteins were digested/hydrolyzed more easily than myofibrillar proteins. The ex vivo digested myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic duodenal samples showed IC50 values (concentration required to decrease the ACE activity by 50% of 1.06 and 2.16 mg/mL, respectively. The in vitro hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic samples showed IC50 values of 0.91 and 1.04 mg/mL, respectively. Based on the results of in silico studies, it was possible to identify 9 peptides of the ex vivo hydrolysates and 7 peptides of the in vitro hydrolysates of salmon proteins of 11 selected peptides. In both types of salmon hydrolysates, ACE-inhibitory peptides IW, IY, TVY and VW were identified. In the in vitro salmon protein hydrolysates an ACE-inhibitory peptides VPW and VY were also detected, while ACE-inhibitory peptides ALPHA, IVY and IWHHT were identified in the hydrolysates generated with ex vivo digestion. In our studies, we documented ACE inhibitory in vitro effects of salmon protein hydrolysates obtained by human and as well as porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

  9. Antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Anna; Ku, Taekyu; Yoo, Ilsou

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mango (Mangifera indica) leaves were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic leaf extracts that were lyophilized were subsequently fermented with either Lactobacillus casei or effective microorganisms (EM) such as probiotic bacteria and/or other anaerobic organisms. Antioxidant properties were measured as a function of the mango leaf extract concentration in the fermentation broth. Tests for radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher antioxidant activity for Lactobacillus- and EM-fermented mango leaf extracts than for the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Antioxidant activity generally increased with increasing fermented extract concentration as did the fermented extracts' polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Fermented extracts reduced reactive oxygen species generation by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells when measured via fluorescence of dichlorodihydrofluorescein acetate treated cells using flow cytometry. RAW 264.7 cells also showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of the fermented extracts using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthialol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity as well as nitrite scavenging by the fermented extracts increased as fermented extract concentrations increased. Tyrosinase activity was assayed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate. Nitrite scavenging was assessed via measurement of inhibition of chromophore production from nitrite-naphthylamine-sulfanilic acid mixtures. The antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts suggest the fermented extracts may be useful in developing health food and fermentation-based beauty products.

  10. Antimicrobial Activity of Lactobacillus Isolated From Kashk-e Zard and Tarkhineh, Two Iranian Traditional Fermented Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Nowadays, microbial food safety is an increasing public health concern worldwide, especially in developing countries. Objectives The aim of this study was to apply established in vitro tests to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the Lactobacilli. isolated from two traditional Iranian fermented dairy-cereal based foods. Materials and Methods A total of 23 samples of Kashk-e Zard and 27 samples of Tarkhineh were collected from different regions of Iran. Lactobacillus spp. was isolated and identified by standard methods. The antibacterial effects of Lactobacillus isolates were implemented by well diffusion method. Kinetic study was conducted with a bacteriostatic activity in vitro in the presence of Lactobacillus supernatants. Results The results showed an antimicrobial activity of the Lactobacillus strains isolated from Kashk-e Zard and Tarkhineh against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium according to agar well diffusion test. In addition, kinetic study revealed a significant bacteriostatic activity of Lactobacillus supernatants. Conclusions Kashk-e Zard and Tarkhineh seemed to have probiotic properties, deserving further studies.

  11. Gastrointestinal events with clopidogrel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Würtz, Morten; Schwarz, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events.......Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events....

  12. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sonja; Skrovanek; Katherine; DiGuilio; Robert; Bailey; William; Huntington; Ryan; Urbas; Barani; Mayilvaganan; Giancarlo; Mercogliano; James; M; Mullin

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases.

  13. Preventive effects of a fermented dairy product against Alzheimer's disease and identification of a novel oleamide with enhanced microglial phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhisa Ano

    Full Text Available Despite the ever-increasing number of patients with dementia worldwide, fundamental therapeutic approaches to this condition have not been established. Epidemiological studies suggest that intake of fermented dairy products prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. However, the active compounds responsible for the effect remain to be elucidated. The present study aims to elucidate the preventive effects of dairy products on Alzheimer's disease and to identify the responsible component. Here, in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (5xFAD, intake of a dairy product fermented with Penicillium candidum had preventive effects on the disease by reducing the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ and hippocampal inflammation (TNF-α and MIP-1α production, and enhancing hippocampal neurotrophic factors (BDNF and GDNF. A search for preventive substances in the fermented dairy product identified oleamide as a novel dual-active component that enhanced microglial Aβ phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity towards LPS stimulation in vitro and in vivo. During the fermentation, oleamide was synthesized from oleic acid, which is an abundant component of general dairy products owing to lipase enzymatic amidation. The present study has demonstrated the preventive effect of dairy products on Alzheimer's disease, which was previously reported only epidemiologically. Moreover, oleamide has been identified as an active component of dairy products that is considered to reduce Aβ accumulation via enhanced microglial phagocytosis, and to suppress microglial inflammation after Aβ deposition. Because fermented dairy products such as camembert cheese are easy to ingest safely as a daily meal, their consumption might represent a preventive strategy for dementia.

  14. Preventive effects of a fermented dairy product against Alzheimer's disease and identification of a novel oleamide with enhanced microglial phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ano, Yasuhisa; Ozawa, Makiko; Kutsukake, Toshiko; Sugiyama, Shinya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Aruto; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ever-increasing number of patients with dementia worldwide, fundamental therapeutic approaches to this condition have not been established. Epidemiological studies suggest that intake of fermented dairy products prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. However, the active compounds responsible for the effect remain to be elucidated. The present study aims to elucidate the preventive effects of dairy products on Alzheimer's disease and to identify the responsible component. Here, in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (5xFAD), intake of a dairy product fermented with Penicillium candidum had preventive effects on the disease by reducing the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and hippocampal inflammation (TNF-α and MIP-1α production), and enhancing hippocampal neurotrophic factors (BDNF and GDNF). A search for preventive substances in the fermented dairy product identified oleamide as a novel dual-active component that enhanced microglial Aβ phagocytosis and anti-inflammatory activity towards LPS stimulation in vitro and in vivo. During the fermentation, oleamide was synthesized from oleic acid, which is an abundant component of general dairy products owing to lipase enzymatic amidation. The present study has demonstrated the preventive effect of dairy products on Alzheimer's disease, which was previously reported only epidemiologically. Moreover, oleamide has been identified as an active component of dairy products that is considered to reduce Aβ accumulation via enhanced microglial phagocytosis, and to suppress microglial inflammation after Aβ deposition. Because fermented dairy products such as camembert cheese are easy to ingest safely as a daily meal, their consumption might represent a preventive strategy for dementia. PMID:25760987

  15. In vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Oily Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Aqueous Extracts of Nicotiana tabacum on Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Zapata Salas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes are the most common parasites found in ruminants in the world. These parasites cause parasitic gastroenteritis and have a negative effect on productivity. Nematode control has been based on the use of anthelmintic chemicals—against which nematodes have developed a certain degree of resistance—which have been rated as residual substances in goat products that may cause adverse effects on the final consumer. As a result, the study of plant components has been proposed as a sustainable alternative to control nematodosis in goats. The anthelmintic potential of aqueous extracts of Nicotiana tabacum and oily extracts of Azadirachta indica on gastrointestinal nematodes affecting the goat chain was evaluated in vitro in this study. Nematicidal activity tests were performed on stool samples from goats with a high parasite load (trichostrongyles, by performing dose/ response curves. Percent inhibition in egg hatch for the aqueous extract of N. tabacum and the oily extract of A. indica was 99% and 80%, respectively. Extracts showed an effect on larva 3 (infective stage, with a mean lethal time of 8 ± 1 minutes for extracts of N. Tabacum, and of 8 ± 1 minutes for extract of A. indica. The in vitro results of the nematicidal activity show that N. tabacum and A. indica extracts can be a promising alternative for controlling nematodes in ruminants.

  16. In vitro activity of Pithecellobium dulce and Lysiloma acapulcensis on exogenous development stages of sheep gastrointestinal strongyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Olmedo-Juárez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two lyophilised aqueous extracts of Lysiloma acapulcensis (LAE and Phitecellobium dulce (PDE tree leaves on in vitro assessment of hatching of eggs, larval development and migration of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep using a general linear model. Treatments contained extracts from both species at concentrations of 0, 125, 250 and 500 μg/mL. Both albendazole and levamisole were used at a level of 1% as positive control. The extract of LAE, compared to PDE, showed better inhibition (P<0.05 of egg hatching. Different doses of both the LAE and PDE extracts showed a larvicidal effect (P<0.05 on all larvae exposed to different doses of the extracts. In the larval migration assay, a similar effect with levamisole at doses of 250 and 500 μg/mL occurred with the LAE extract. The extract of P. dulce had a lower larvicidal effect (P<0.05 than levamisole and L. acapulcensis extracts. Using aqueous extracts of both species of L. acapulcensis and P. dulce could be a promising alternative to synthetic anthelmintics as treatments of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in organic and conventional production systems under subtropical conditions.

  17. Characterization of Lignocellulolytic Activities from a Moderate Halophile Strain of Aspergillus caesiellus Isolated from a Sugarcane Bagasse Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Miranda, Estefan; Sánchez-Reyes, Ayixón; Cuervo-Soto, Laura; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise; Atriztán-Hernández, Karina; Morales-Herrera, Catalina; Rodríguez-Hernández, Rocío; Folch-Mallol, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    A moderate halophile and thermotolerant fungal strain was isolated from a sugarcane bagasse fermentation in the presence of 2 M NaCl that was set in the laboratory. This strain was identified by polyphasic criteria as Aspergillus caesiellus. The fungus showed an optimal growth rate in media containing 1 M NaCl at 28°C and could grow in media added with up to 2 M NaCl. This strain was able to grow at 37 and 42°C, with or without NaCl. A. caesiellus H1 produced cellulases, xylanases, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and esterases. No laccase activity was detected in the conditions we tested. The cellulase activity was thermostable, halostable, and no differential expression of cellulases was observed in media with different salt concentrations. However, differential band patterns for cellulase and xylanase activities were detected in zymograms when the fungus was grown in different lignocellulosic substrates such as wheat straw, maize stover, agave fibres, sugarcane bagasse and sawdust. Optimal temperature and pH were similar to other cellulases previously described. These results support the potential of this fungus to degrade lignocellulosic materials and its possible use in biotechnological applications. PMID:25162614

  18. Characterization of lignocellulolytic activities from a moderate halophile strain of Aspergillus caesiellus isolated from a sugarcane bagasse fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Alberto Batista-García

    Full Text Available A moderate halophile and thermotolerant fungal strain was isolated from a sugarcane bagasse fermentation in the presence of 2 M NaCl that was set in the laboratory. This strain was identified by polyphasic criteria as Aspergillus caesiellus. The fungus showed an optimal growth rate in media containing 1 M NaCl at 28°C and could grow in media added with up to 2 M NaCl. This strain was able to grow at 37 and 42°C, with or without NaCl. A. caesiellus H1 produced cellulases, xylanases, manganese peroxidase (MnP and esterases. No laccase activity was detected in the conditions we tested. The cellulase activity was thermostable, halostable, and no differential expression of cellulases was observed in media with different salt concentrations. However, differential band patterns for cellulase and xylanase activities were detected in zymograms when the fungus was grown in different lignocellulosic substrates such as wheat straw, maize stover, agave fibres, sugarcane bagasse and sawdust. Optimal temperature and pH were similar to other cellulases previously described. These results support the potential of this fungus to degrade lignocellulosic materials and its possible use in biotechnological applications.

  19. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels in feed on microbial composition and activity in gastrointestinal tract of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Vahjen, W; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Villodre, C; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-06-01

    Thermal treatments of feed and organic acids are known to affect the gastrointestinal microbiota in chickens. The present study evaluated the effect of different thermal processes including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), expanding at 110°C (E110), and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) as well as organic acid (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) inclusion levels (0, 0.75, and 1.5%) on gastrointestinal microbiota in broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. At d 35, bacterial cell numbers in the crop, ileum, and cecum, and bacterial metabolites in the crop, gizzard, ileum, and cecum were determined. The inclusion of 1.5% organic acids increased cell numbers of all clostridial clusters in the crop. The organic acid supplementation increased the propionic acid concentration in the crop and gizzard and there was a decrease in lactic acid concentration. In the ileum, the 0% organic acid group had the highest numbers of Lactobacillus spp. and enterobacteria. Inclusion of 1.5% organic acids increased ileal acetate concentration. Increasing the feed processing temperature led to an increase of lactobacilli in the crop and ileum, whereas clostridia and enterobacteria seemed unaffected. Similarly, lactate concentrations increased in the ileum, but short-chain fatty acids remained identical. In the crop, an increase for acetate was found for the E130 group compared with all other thermal treatments. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that thermal treatments and organic acid supplementation to broiler diets more markedly influenced the bacterial status of the crop compared with the downstream segments and their effects decreased along the length of gastrointestinal tract. Whereas organic acids markedly modified bacterial composition and activity in the crop, expansion increased lactobacilli and lactate in the crop and ileum. PMID:24879694

  20. γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Production and Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activity of Fermented Soybean Containing Sea Tangle by the Co-Culture of Lactobacillus brevis with Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Kyeong; Kim, Nam Yeun; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Ji, Geun Eog

    2015-08-01

    To enhance the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content, the optimized fermentation of soybean with added sea tangle extract was evaluated at 30°C and pH 5.0. The medium was first inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae strain FMB S46471 and fermented for 3 days, followed by the subsequent inoculation with Lactobacillus brevis GABA 100. After fermentation for 7 days, the fermented soybean showed approximately 1.9 g/kg GABA and exhibited higher ACE inhibitory activity than the traditional soybean product. Furthermore, several peptides in the fraction containing the highest ACE inhibitory activity were identified. The novel fermented soybean enriched with GABA and ACE inhibitory components has great pharmaceutical and functional food values.

  1. Fermented Aloreña Table Olives as a Source of Potential Probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Beatriz Pérez; Benomar, Nabil; Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Castillo Gutiérrez, Sonia; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2016-01-01

    A collection of 31 Lactobacillus pentosus strains isolated from naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives were screened in depth in the present study for their probiotic potential. Several strains could be considered promising probiotic candidates since they showed good growth capacity and survival under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions (acidic pH of 1.5, up to 4% of bile salts and 5 mM of nitrate), good ability to auto-aggregate which may facilitate their adhesion to host cells as multiple aggregates and the subsequent displacement of pathogens. Moreover, co-aggregation of lactobacilli with pathogenic bacteria was shown with Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Enteritidis as good defense strategy against gut and food pathogens. Furthermore, they exhibited adherence to intestinal and vaginal cell lines, such property could be reinforced by their capacity of biofilm formation which is also important in food matrices such as the olive surface. Their antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria by means of acids and plantaricins, and also their different functional properties may determine their efficacy not only in the gastro-intestinal tract but also in food matrices. Besides their ability to ferment several prebiotics, the new evidence in the present study was their capacity to ferment lactose which reinforces their use in different food matrices including dairy as a dietary adjunct to improve lactose digestibility. Lactobacillus pentosus CF2-10N was selected to have the best probiotic profile being of great interest in further studies. In conclusion, spontaneous fermented Aloreña table olives are considered a natural source of potential probiotic L. pentosus to be included as adjunct functional cultures in different fermented foods.

  2. TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS OF LESOTHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendekayi H. Gadaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the traditional methods of preparing fermented foods and beverages of Lesotho. Information on the preparation methods was obtained through a combination of literature review and face to face interviews with respondents from Roma in Lesotho. An unstructured questionnaire was used to capture information on the processes, raw materials and utensils used. Four products; motoho (a fermented porridge, Sesotho (a sorghum based alcoholic beverage, hopose (sorghum fermented beer with added hops and mafi (spontaneously fermented milk, were found to be the main fermented foods prepared and consumed at household level in Lesotho. Motoho is a thin gruel, popular as refreshing beverage as well as a weaning food. Sesotho is sorghum based alcoholic beverage prepared for household consumption as well as for sale. It is consumed in the actively fermenting state. Mafi is the name given to spontaneously fermented milk with a thick consistency. Little research has been done on the technological aspects, including the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of fermented foods in Lesotho. Some of the traditional aspects of the preparation methods, such as use of earthenware pots, are being replaced, and modern equipment including plastic utensils are being used. There is need for further systematic studies on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of these these products.

  3. Fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from fermenting musts of Mezcal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    Fructanase and fructosyltransferase are interesting for the tequila process and prebiotics production (functional food industry). In this study, one hundred thirty non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from "Mezcal de Oaxaca" were screened for fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity. On solid medium, fifty isolates grew on Agave tequilana fructans (ATF), inulin or levan. In liquid media, inulin and ATF induced fructanase activities of between 0.02 and 0.27U/ml depending of yeast isolate. High fructanase activity on sucrose was observed for Kluyveromyces marxianus and Torulaspora delbrueckii, while the highest fructanase activity on inulin and ATF was observed for Issatchenkia orientalis, Cryptococcus albidus, and Candida apicola. Zygosaccharomyces bisporus and Candida boidinii had a high hydrolytic activity on levan. Sixteen yeasts belonging to K. marxianus, T. delbrueckii and C. apicola species were positive for fructosyltransferase activity. Mezcal microbiota proved to showed to be a source for new fructanase and fructosyltransferases with potential application in the tequila and food industry.

  4. A comparative study of the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extracts from fruit bodies and fermented mycelia of caterpillar medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Cai-Hong; Yang, Tao; Lian, Tiantian

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is one of the most popular mushrooms and nutraceuticals in Eastern Asia. This study assayed and compared the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties of the methanol extracts from fruiting bodies and fermented mycelia of C. militaris, as well as the contents of total phenol, flavonoids, and cordycepin. The results showed that the extracts from fruiting bodies possessed broad antimicrobial activities against all microorganisms tested (both bacteria and fungi), whereas that from the fermented mycelia showed selective activity. The antioxidant potential of two extracts is significant in the four tested systems in vitro, including total antioxidant capacity, scavenging abilities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radicals, reducing power, and chelating ability on ferrous ions. The fruiting bodies had stronger DPPH· radical scavenging activity, whereas the fermented mycelia had stronger total antioxidant capacity, chelating ability, and reducing power, which suggested that they had their own role and worked in different ways. Both extracts present strong activities against tumor cell line A549. The results obtained indicated that extracts from C. militaris might be valuable antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic natural sources and seemed to be applicable in health and medicine as well as in the food industry. PMID:25271983

  5. Antitumor activity of fermented noni exudates (fNE) and its fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia) has been extensively used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2000 years and recent studies have shown that noni has a wide spectrum of therapeutic activities including inhibition of angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory effects, and anti-cancer activities. We recently repor...

  6. In Vivo Immunomodulation and Lipid Peroxidation Activities Contributed to Chemoprevention Effects of Fermented Mung Bean against Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee Keong Yeap

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mung bean has been reported to have antioxidant, cytotoxic, and immunomodulatory effects in vitro. Fermented products are reported to have enhanced immunomodulation and cancer chemopreventive effects. In this study, fermented mung bean treatments in vivo were studied by monitoring tumor development, spleen immunity, serum cytokine (interleukin 2 and interferon gamma levels, and spleen/tumor antioxidant levels after injection with low and high risk 4T1 breast cancer cells. Pretreatment with fermented mung bean was associated with delayed tumor formation in low risk mice. Furthermore, this treatment was connected with higher serum anticancer cytokine levels, spleen T cell populations, splenocyte cytotoxicity, and spleen/tumor antioxidant levels. Histopathological evaluation of fermented mung bean treated tumor revealed lower event of mitotic division. On the other hand, antioxidant and nitric oxide levels that were significantly increased in the untreated mice were inhibited in the fermented mung bean treated groups. These results suggested that fermented mung bean has potential cancer chemoprevention effects through the stimulation of immunity, lipid peroxidation, and anti-inflammation.

  7. Stimulatory Agents Simultaneously Improving the Production and Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenols from Inonotus obliquus by Submerged Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangqun; Shen, Mengwei; Quan, Lili

    2015-07-01

    Polyphenols are important secondary metabolites from the edible and medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus. Both the rarity of I. obliquus fruit body and the low efficiency of current method of submerged fermentation lead to a low yield of polyphenols. This study was aimed to determine the effect of applying stimulatory agents to liquid cultured I. obliquus on the simultaneous accumulation of exo-polyphenols (EPC) and endo-polyphenols (IPC). Linoleic acid was the most effective out of the 17 tested stimulatory agents, the majority of which increased the EPC and IPC production. The result was totally different from the stimulatory effect of Tween 80 for polysaccharide production in previous studies. The addition of 1.0 g/L linoleic acid on day 0 resulted in 7-, 14-, and 10-fold of increase (p < 0.05) in the production of EPC extracted by ethyl acetate (EA-EPC), EPC extracted by n-butyl alcohol (NB-EPC), and IPC, and significantly increased the production of ferulic acid, gallic acid, epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), phelligridin G, inoscavin B, and davallialactone. The EA-EPC, BA-EPC, and IPC from the linoleic acid-containing medium had significantly (p < 0.05) stronger scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH), which was attributed to the higher content of these bioactive polyphenols. PMID:25951778

  8. Enhanced Anti-Obesity Activities of Red Mold Dioscorea When Fermented Using Deep Ocean Water as the Culture Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Ming Pan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep ocean water (DOW has, in previous studies, been found to be a novel anti-obesity drink and useful in raising Monascus-produced monascin and ankaflavin levels. This may resolve the limited anti-obesity ability of red mold dioscorea (RMD known as the Monascus purpureus-fermented Disocorea batatas. This study aims to compare the anti-obesity effect of DOW-cultured RMD (DOW-RMD and ultra-pure water-cultured RMD (UPW-RMD in rats fed on a high fat diet. Moreover, the effect of ions composition of DOW and DOW-influenced functional metabolites change of RMD on the differentiation and lipogenesis regulation were investigated using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. In the animal test, compared to UPW-RMD, DOW-RMD possessed better ability to inhibit increases in weight gain, and better feed efficiency, body-fat pad and cross-sectional area of adipocytes. In the cell test, the anti-obesity abilities of DOW-RMD in inhibiting PPARγ and C/EBPα expression in differentiation and lipoprotein lipase activity in lipogenesis were contributed to by the DOW-increased monascin and ankaflavin levels and the ions of DOW, respectively.

  9. Disorders of gastrointestinal hypomotility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielefeldt, Klaus; Tuteja, Ashok; Nusrat, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Ingestion and digestion of food as well as expulsion of residual material from our gastrointestinal tract requires normal propulsive, i.e. motor, function. Hypomotility refers to inherited or acquired changes that come with decreased contractile forces or slower transit. It not only often causes symptoms but also may compromise nutritional status or lead to other complications. While severe forms, such as pseudo-obstruction or ileus, may have a tremendous functional impact, the less severe forms of hypomotility may well be more relevant, as they contribute to common disorders, such as functional dyspepsia, gastroparesis, chronic constipation, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Clinical testing can identify changes in contractile activity, defined by lower amplitudes or abnormal patterns, and the related effects on transit. However, such biomarkers show a limited correlation with overall symptom severity as experienced by patients. Similarly, targeting hypomotility with pharmacological interventions often alters gut motor function but does not consistently improve symptoms. Novel diagnostic approaches may change this apparent paradox and enable us to obtain more comprehensive information by integrating data on electrical activity, mechanical forces, patterns, wall stiffness, and motions with information of the flow of luminal contents. New drugs with more selective effects or more specific delivery may improve benefits and limit adverse effects. Lastly, the complex regulation of gastrointestinal motility involves the brain-gut axis as a reciprocal pathway for afferent and efferent signaling. Considering the role of visceral input in emotion and the effects of emotion on visceral activity, understanding and managing hypomotility disorders requires an integrative approach based on the mind-body continuum or biopsychosocial model of diseases. PMID:27583135

  10. Preventive Effects of a Fermented Dairy Product against Alzheimer’s Disease and Identification of a Novel Oleamide with Enhanced Microglial Phagocytosis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Ano, Yasuhisa; Ozawa, Makiko; Kutsukake, Toshiko; Sugiyama, Shinya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Aruto; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ever-increasing number of patients with dementia worldwide, fundamental therapeutic approaches to this condition have not been established. Epidemiological studies suggest that intake of fermented dairy products prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. However, the active compounds responsible for the effect remain to be elucidated. The present study aims to elucidate the preventive effects of dairy products on Alzheimer’s disease and to identify the responsible component. Here,...

  11. Immunostimulatory activity of isoflavone-glycosides and ethanol extract from a fermented soybean product in human primary immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Ho; Chung, Mi Ja; Jeong, Do-Youn; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2014-10-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine is a major branch of Korean traditional oriental medicine. Constitutions of Sasang medicine are classified into Taeyangin, Taeumin, Soyangin, and Soumin. We investigated immunostimulatory activities of fermented soybean product (FSP) extracts and their major bioactive compounds, isoflavone glycosides in primary immune cells isolated from the blood of Soyangin, Taeumin, and Soeumin volunteers. Results showed that the cell proliferation, nitrite, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA, interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA, TNF-α protein, and IL-6 protein production of immune cells treated with a 70% ethanol Doenjang extract (DJ), a 70% ethanol Kochujang extract (KCJ), and a 70% ethanol Cheonggukjang extract (CGJ), respectively, were significantly increased, and its immunostimulatory activities by both DJ and CGJ was higher than that of KCJ in primary immune cells isolated from the blood of Soyangin volunteers. However, the cell proliferation, nitrite, TNF-α mRNA, IL-6 mRNA, iNOS mRNA, COX-2 mRNA, TNF-α protein, and IL-6 protein production by both KCJ and CGJ was higher than that of DJ in primary immune cells isolated from the blood of Taeumin and Soeumin volunteers. The major bioactive compounds, isoflavone-glycosides, in FSP were daidzin, glycitin, and genistin. Daidzin, glycitin, and genistin were used to treat primary immune cells in the same condition, the cell proliferation; iNOS mRNA expression and nitrite concentration of daidzin, glycitin, or genistin-treated immune cells isolated from the blood of Soyangin volunteers was higher than that of Taeumin and Soeumin volunteers. The effect of DJ and isoflavone glycosides on immunostimulatory activities showed similar trends. PMID:25230138

  12. Lipolytic activity of the yeast species associated with the fermentation/storage phase of ripe olive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Arroyo-López, F N; López-López, A; Bautista-Gallego, J; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2010-08-01

    Ripe olives account for ca. 30% of the world's table olive production. Fruits intended for this type of product are preserved in an aqueous solution (acidic water or brine) for several months, where they may undergo a spontaneous fermentation. Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria were not detected in the present survey during storage. Thus, the work focused on studying the yeast microflora associated with the ripe olive storage of Manzanilla and Hojiblanca cultivars in acidified brines. A total of 90 yeast isolates were identified by means of molecular methods using RFLP analysis of the 5.8S-ITS rDNA region and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rDNA gene. The two most important species identified in both cultivars were Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia galeiformis, which were present throughout the storage period, while Candida boidinii was detected during the later stages of the process. The species Pichia membranifaciens was detected only in the early stages of the Hojiblanca cultivar. The lipase assays performed with both extracellular and whole cell fractions of the yeast isolates showed that neither of the S. cerevisiae and P. galeiformis species had lipase activity, while the P. membranifaciens isolates showed a weak activity. On the contrary, all C. boidinii isolates gave a strong lipase activity. Change in olive fat acidity was markedly higher in the presence of the yeast population than in sterile storage, indicating that lipases produced by these microorganisms modify the characteristics of the fat in the fruit. PMID:20510778

  13. Reactivity-activity relationships of oral anti-diabetic vanadium complexes in gastrointestinal media: an X-ray absorption spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, Aviva; McLeod, Andrew I; Kremer, Lauren E; Aitken, Jade B; Glover, Christopher J; Johannessen, Bernt; Lay, Peter A

    2014-10-01

    The reactions of oral V(V/IV) anti-diabetic drugs within the gastrointestinal environment (particularly in the presence of food) are a crucial factor that affects their biological activities, but to date these have been poorly understood. In order to build up reactivity-activity relationships, the first detailed study of the reactivities of typical V-based anti-diabetics, Na3V(V)O4 (A), [V(IV)O(OH2)5](SO4) (B), [V(IV)O(ma)2] (C, ma = maltolato(-)) and (NH4)[V(V)(O)2(dipic)] (D, dipic = pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylato(2-)) with simulated gastrointestinal (GI) media in the presence or absence of food components has been performed by the use of XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) spectroscopy. Changes in speciation under conditions that simulate interactions in the GI tract have been discerned using correlations of XANES parameters that were based on a library of model V(V), V(IV), and V(III) complexes for preliminary assessment of the oxidation states and coordination numbers. More detailed speciation analyses were performed using multiple linear regression fits of XANES from the model complexes to XANES obtained from the reaction products from interactions with the GI media. Compounds B and D were relatively stable in the gastric environment (pH ∼ 2) in the absence of food, while C was mostly dissociated, and A was converted to [V10O28](6-). Sequential gastric and intestinal digestion in the absence of food converted A, B and D to poorly absorbed tetrahedral vanadates, while C formed five- or six-coordinate V(V) species where the maltolato ligands were likely to be partially retained. XANES obtained from gastric digestion of A-D in the presence of typical food components converged to that of a mixture of V(IV)-aqua, V(IV)-amino acid and V(III)-aqua complexes. Subsequent intestinal digestion led predominantly to V(IV) complexes that were assigned as citrato or complexes with 2-hydroxyacidato donor groups from other organic compounds, including certain

  14. Reactivity-activity relationships of oral anti-diabetic vanadium complexes in gastrointestinal media: an X-ray absorption spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, Aviva; McLeod, Andrew I; Kremer, Lauren E; Aitken, Jade B; Glover, Christopher J; Johannessen, Bernt; Lay, Peter A

    2014-10-01

    The reactions of oral V(V/IV) anti-diabetic drugs within the gastrointestinal environment (particularly in the presence of food) are a crucial factor that affects their biological activities, but to date these have been poorly understood. In order to build up reactivity-activity relationships, the first detailed study of the reactivities of typical V-based anti-diabetics, Na3V(V)O4 (A), [V(IV)O(OH2)5](SO4) (B), [V(IV)O(ma)2] (C, ma = maltolato(-)) and (NH4)[V(V)(O)2(dipic)] (D, dipic = pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylato(2-)) with simulated gastrointestinal (GI) media in the presence or absence of food components has been performed by the use of XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) spectroscopy. Changes in speciation under conditions that simulate interactions in the GI tract have been discerned using correlations of XANES parameters that were based on a library of model V(V), V(IV), and V(III) complexes for preliminary assessment of the oxidation states and coordination numbers. More detailed speciation analyses were performed using multiple linear regression fits of XANES from the model complexes to XANES obtained from the reaction products from interactions with the GI media. Compounds B and D were relatively stable in the gastric environment (pH ∼ 2) in the absence of food, while C was mostly dissociated, and A was converted to [V10O28](6-). Sequential gastric and intestinal digestion in the absence of food converted A, B and D to poorly absorbed tetrahedral vanadates, while C formed five- or six-coordinate V(V) species where the maltolato ligands were likely to be partially retained. XANES obtained from gastric digestion of A-D in the presence of typical food components converged to that of a mixture of V(IV)-aqua, V(IV)-amino acid and V(III)-aqua complexes. Subsequent intestinal digestion led predominantly to V(IV) complexes that were assigned as citrato or complexes with 2-hydroxyacidato donor groups from other organic compounds, including certain

  15. Gastrointestinal hormones regulating appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhri, Owais; Small, Caroline; Bloom, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The role of gastrointestinal hormones in the regulation of appetite is reviewed. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body. Gut hormones function to optimize the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients by the gut. In this capacity, their local effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion have been well characterized. By altering the rate at which nutrients are delivered to compartments of the alimentary canal, the control of food intake arguably cons...

  16. Gastrointestinal bleeding under dabigatran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Stöllberger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dabigatran-absorption is dependent on the intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp-system, and P-gp activity is modulated by several drugs. We report an 83-old female with atrial fibrillation who developed gastrointestinal bleeding. She was under a therapy with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID and P-gp-modulating drugs and renal function was impaired. We conclude that NSAID and P-gp-modulating drugs should be avoided in dabigatran-treated patients. If renal function deteriorates the dabigatran-dosage should be reduced or the therapy should be stopped. There is an urgent need to increase knowledge about drug interactions with dabigatran.

  17. [Obesity and gastrointestinal motility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon Seong

    2006-08-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) motility has a crucial role in the food consumption, digestion and absorption, and also controls the appetite and satiety. In obese patients, various alterations of GI motility have been investigated. The prevalence of GERD and esophageal motor disorders in obese patients are higher than those of general population. Gastric emptying of solid food is generally accelerated and fasting gastric volume especially in distal stomach is larger in obese patients without change in accommodation. Contractile activity of small intestine in fasting period is more prominent, but orocecal transit is delayed. Autonomic dysfunction is frequently demonstrated in obese patients. These findings correspond with increased appetite and delayed satiety in obese patients, but causes or results have not been confirmed. Therapeutic interventions of these altered GI motility have been developed using botulinum toxin, gastric electrical stimulation in obese patients. Novel agents targeted for GI hormone modulation (such as ghrelin and leptin) need to be developed in the near future. PMID:16929152

  18. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of fruit juices enriched with Pycnogenol® in colon carcinoma cells. The effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; López-Nicolás, Rubén; González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Peso-Echarri, Patricia; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Martínez-Graciá, Carmen; Canali, Raffaella; Virgili, Fabio

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant and antiproliferative effect of fruit juices enriched with Pycnogenol® (0.5 g/L) on a colon carcinoma cell line (Caco-2). The total phenolic concentration (TPC), antioxidant activity and inhibition cell growth were studied in fresh and digested pineapple juice and red fruits juice (both enriched with pine bark extract and not). After in vitro digestion the level of detectable phenolic compounds (expressed as gallic acid equivalent) was higher in both pineapple and red fruits juices enriched with Pycnogenol® than in non-enriched commercial juices (155.6 mg/100 mL vs 94.6 mg/100 mL and 478.5 mg/100 mL vs 406.9 mg/100 mL, respectively). Increased antioxidant activity (measured by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC) methods) was observed in digested enriched juices with respect to the same samples before digestion. Pycnogenol® enrichment led to a high antiproliferative effect between 24 and 72 h of incubation with undigested pineapple juice compared with the non-enriched juice. It can be concluded that enrichment of fruit juices with Pycnogenol® provides a source of phenolic compounds with high stability to in vitro gastrointestinal conditions; however, the antioxidant properties of fruit juices were affected to a different extent. PMID:21887808

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of fruit juices enriched with Pycnogenol® in colon carcinoma cells. The effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; López-Nicolás, Rubén; González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Peso-Echarri, Patricia; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Martínez-Graciá, Carmen; Canali, Raffaella; Virgili, Fabio

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant and antiproliferative effect of fruit juices enriched with Pycnogenol® (0.5 g/L) on a colon carcinoma cell line (Caco-2). The total phenolic concentration (TPC), antioxidant activity and inhibition cell growth were studied in fresh and digested pineapple juice and red fruits juice (both enriched with pine bark extract and not). After in vitro digestion the level of detectable phenolic compounds (expressed as gallic acid equivalent) was higher in both pineapple and red fruits juices enriched with Pycnogenol® than in non-enriched commercial juices (155.6 mg/100 mL vs 94.6 mg/100 mL and 478.5 mg/100 mL vs 406.9 mg/100 mL, respectively). Increased antioxidant activity (measured by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC) methods) was observed in digested enriched juices with respect to the same samples before digestion. Pycnogenol® enrichment led to a high antiproliferative effect between 24 and 72 h of incubation with undigested pineapple juice compared with the non-enriched juice. It can be concluded that enrichment of fruit juices with Pycnogenol® provides a source of phenolic compounds with high stability to in vitro gastrointestinal conditions; however, the antioxidant properties of fruit juices were affected to a different extent.

  20. Novel Method of Lactic Acid Production by Electrodialysis Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Hongo, Motoyoshi; Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi

    1986-01-01

    In lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus delbrueckii, the produced lactic acid affected the lactic acid productivity. Therefore, for the purpose of alleviating this inhibitory effect, an electrodialysis fermentation method which can continuously remove produced lactic acid from the fermentation broth was applied to this fermentation process. As a result, the continuation of fermentation activity was obtained, and the productivity was three times higher than in non-pH-controlled fermentati...

  1. INFLUENCIA DE LA AIREACIÓN EN LA ACTIVIDAD FERMENTATIVA DE Kloeckera apiculata DURANTE LA FERMENTACIÓN DE JUGO DE MANZANA Influence of Aeration in the Fermentative Activity of Kloeckera apiculata during Fermentation of Apple Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALDIR D ESTELA-ESCALANTE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado la influencia de la aireación en la actividad fermentativa de Kloeckera apiculata RIVE 9-2-1 con el objetivo de evaluar la producción de metabolitos de la fermentación. Para ello, la cepa se cultivó en frascos Erlenmeyer conteniendo jugo de manzana esterilizado y sin aroma, y los compuestos químicos producidos durante la fermentación en cultivo agitado (200 min-1 y estático (sin agitación se determinaron. Los resultados mostraron que la agitación del medio de cultivo incrementa la producción de alcoholes superiores (hasta 591,0 mg/L comparado al cultivo estático, mientras que por el contrario, la producción de ácido acético, etil acetato y glicerol (260,0 ± 11,0 mg/L, 196,0 ± 10,0 mg/L y 2,6 ± 0,2 g/L resultaron ser mayores que en cultivo agitado (222,0 ± 8,0 mg/L, 96,0 ± 4,5 mg/L y 1,8 ± 0,2 g/L respectivamente. Cultivos bacth realizados en biorreactor con un flujo de aire de 25 L/h reportaron una tasa de crecimiento (µ de 0,17 h-1, producción de etanol (12,5 ± 2,0 g/L y otros compuestos típicamente producidos durante la fermentación alcohólica. La concentración de oxígeno disuelto en el medio de fermentación afecta su metabolismo así, cantidades insuficientes de oxígeno provocaría un metabolismo respirofermentativo. Los mejores resultados en términos de calidad organoléptica de la bebida fermentada en lo referente al aroma, sabor y olor se obtuvieron en la fermentación en cultivo estático. El control de la aireación del medio de fermentación puede ser usado para controlar la síntesis de compuestos químicos de impacto sensorial en la producción de bebidas fermentadas.The influence of aireation on the fermentative activity of Kloeckera apiculata RIVE 9-2-1 was studied in order to evaluate the production of metabolites of the fermentation. To achieve this, the strain was cultured in Erlenmeyer flasks containing sterilized and aroma removed apple juice, and the chemical compounds produced

  2. Martinomycin, a new polyether antibiotic produced by Streptomyces salvialis. I. Taxonomy, fermentation and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernan, V S; Montenegro, D A; Goodman, J J; Alluri, M R; Carter, G T; Abbanat, D R; Pearce, C J; Maiese, W M; Greenstein, M

    1994-12-01

    Actinomycete culture LL-D37187 has been found to produce the new polyether antibiotic martinomycin. Taxonomic studies, including morphological, physiological, and cell wall chemistry analyses, revealed that culture LL-D37187 is a novel streptomycete species, and the proposed name is Streptomyces salvialis. Martinomycin exhibits activity against the Southern Army Worm (Spodoptera eridania) and Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:7844037

  3. Effect of beta-glucans contained in barley- and oat-based diets and exogenous enzyme supplementation on gastrointestinal fermentation of finisher pigs and subsequent manure odor and ammonia emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, C J; Sweeney, T; Lynch, M B; Gahan, D A; Callan, J J; O'Doherty, J V

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the current experiment was to evaluate the influence of dietary cereal sources of beta(1,3)(1,4)-d-glucan (beta-glucan) and enzyme supplementation on indices of environmental pollution from finisher pigs. An experiment with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was initiated to investigate the effect of dietary source of beta-glucan (barley vs. oats) and enzyme supplementation (no vs. yes) on nutrient digestibility, N utilization, intestinal fermentation, and manure odor and ammonia emissions from finisher boars (n = 4; BW = 73.9 kg; SD = 4.7). Sixteen boars were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (n = 4/treatment): 1) barley-based diet, 2) barley-based diet + exogenous enzyme, 3) oat-based diet, and 4) oat-based diet + enzyme. The enzyme supplement used contained endo-1,3(4)-beta-glucanase and endo-1,4-beta-xylanase. Experimental diets were formulated to contain similar concentrations of DE (13.5 MJ/kg) and digestible lysine (8.8 g/kg). Pigs offered oat-based diets had reduced digestibility of DM (0.795 vs. 0.849; SEM 0.007; P = 0.001), OM (0.808 vs. 0.865; SEM 0.007; P = 0.001), GE (0.806 vs. 0.845; SEM 0.006; P = 0.002), and NDF (0.233 vs. 0.423; SEM 0.033; P effect of enzyme inclusion on oat-based diets. In conclusion, pigs offered oat-based diets harbored increased Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. populations in the proximal colon and had decreased manure odor emissions compared with those offered barley-based diets. Enzyme inclusion had no effect on manure ammonia emissions from pigs offered oat-based diets. PMID:20023128

  4. Antifungal activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Lactobacillus plantarum during sourdough fermentation: identification of novel compounds and long-term effect during storage of wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Rossana; Cassone, Angela; Rizzello, Carlo G; Nionelli, Luana; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the antifungal activity of Wickerhamomyces anomalus and sourdough lactic acid bacteria to extend the shelf life of wheat flour bread. The antifungal activity was assayed by agar diffusion, growth rate inhibition, and conidial germination assays, using Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Sourdough fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum 1A7 (S1A7) and dough fermented by W. anomalus LCF1695 (D1695) were selected and characterized. The water/salt-soluble extract of S1A7 was partially purified, and several novel antifungal peptides, encrypted into sequences of Oryza sativa proteins, were identified. The water/salt-soluble extract of D1695 contained ethanol and, especially, ethyl acetate as inhibitory compounds. As shown by growth inhibition assays, both water/salt-soluble extracts had a large inhibitory spectrum, with some differences, toward the most common fungi isolated from bakeries. Bread making at a pilot plant was carried out with S1A7, D1695, or a sourdough started with a combination of both strains (S1A7-1695). Slices of the bread manufactured with S1A7-1695 did not show contamination by fungi until 28 days of storage in polyethylene bags at room temperature, a level of protection comparable to that afforded by 0.3% (wt/wt) calcium propionate. The effect of sourdough fermentation with W. anomalus LCF1695 was also assessed based on rheology and sensory properties.

  5. Effects of Iron on Hydrogen-producing Capacity,Hydrogenase and NADH-fd Reductase Activities of a Fermentative Hydrogen-producing Bacterial Strain B49

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiangjing(王相晶); Ren Nanqi; Xiang Wensheng

    2004-01-01

    Iron plays an important role in hydrogen production, cell growth, hydrogenase and NADH-fd reductase activities of hydrogen-producing bacterial strain B49 (AF481148 in EMBL). At the end of fermentation from 10 g/L glucose, for the culture containing 10 mg/L FeSO4*7H2O the cell growth in terms of optical density (OD) at 600nm was 1.13, the ratio of ethanol amount (mg/L) to acetate amount (mg/L) was 1.55, and the accumulated hydrogen volume was 1816.3 ml H2/L culture; whereas for the culture of 80 mg/L FeSO4*7H2O OD600nm was increased to 1.34, the accumulated hydrogen volume was increased to 2360.5 ml H2/L culture, and the ratio of ethanol amount (mg/L) to acetate amount (mg/L) decreased to 1.31. Moreover, the iron addition to the medium at different fermentation time could affect hydrogen-producing ability. However, the later the addition time of FeSO4*7H2O was postponed, the less the effect on hydrogen evolution was. In the course of fermentation, the specific activities of hydrogenase and NADH-fd reductase of hydrogen-producing bacterial strain B49 decreased with the consumption of iron.

  6. Hydrogen production from molasses by anaerobic fermentation in an activated sludge immobilized bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, W.; Yao, X.; Chen, H.; Yue, L.R. [Northeast Forestry Univ., Harbin (China). Forestry School; Li, Y.F. [Shanghai Univ. of Engineering and Science (China). School of Chemical Engineering; Northeast Forestry Univ., Harbin (China). Forestry School

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the use of granular activated carbon as a support material for the production of biohydrogen in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with 5.4 L of molasses as a substrate. The CSTR contained both granular activated carbon and pre-treated sludge operating and was operated at a temperature of 36 degrees C with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 hours. The procedure increased both biogas and hydrogen yields. The biogas was principally comprised of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). The H{sub 2} percentage ranged from 38.4 per cent to 41 per cent. The maximum H{sub 2} production rate of 3.56 L was obtained at an OLR of 24 kg/m{sup t}d. H{sub 2} yield was influenced by the presence of ethanol to acetic acid in the liquid phase. Maximum H{sub 2} production rates occurred when the ratio of ethanol to acetic acid was close to 1. The study indicated that granular activated carbon can help to stabilize H{sub 2} production systems.

  7. Investigation and control of fermentation processes using fermenter calorimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Meier-Schneiders, Martin; Grosshans, Ulrich; Busch, Claudia; Eigenberger, Gerhart

    1992-01-01

    It is well known, that heat generation and total metabolic activity in biological systems are strongly correlated. Thus the heat production can provide important information for the study, supervision and control of biological fermentations. Microcalorimeters are widely used for studies concerning physiology, ecology, and pharmacology. They are very sensitive, but the measuring principle exhibits methodical disadvantages for its application in biotechnology (direct control of the fermentation...

  8. Motor activity of the gallbladder and gastrointestinal tract as determinants of enterohepatic circulation. A scintigraphic and manometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qvist, N. [Odense University Hospital, Dept. of Surgical Gastroenterology and Clinical Physiology, Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Odense (Denmark)

    1995-12-31

    The aims of the study were to describe the dynamics of the enterohepatic circulation in relation to gallbladder and gastrointestinal motility in the interdigestive as well as the postprandial period. Furthermore, to investigate the level of circulating cholecystokinin, secretin, pancreatic polypeptide, motilin and bile acids in relation to gallbladder motility and MMC during the interdigestive period. All investigations were carried out on healthy male volunteers aged 18-40 years. The most suitable method for studying various characteristics of the enterohepatic circulation, and especially gallbladder motility in humans, is scintigraphy. It is non-invasive, and allows a continuing dynamic investigation of the partitioning of the radioactive marker between the various compartment. Two entirely different pharmacological substances may be use. HIDA (diethyl-acetanilide-iminodiacetic acid) which is semisynthetic and closely related to lidocaine forms a chelate with {sup 99m}Tc for intravenous administration only. The transport of {sup 99m}Tc-HIDA across the hepatocyte is a carrier-mediated organic anion pathway, similar to the hepatic handling of bilirubin. Homocholic-acid-taurine (HCAT) is a synthetic bile acid analogue, corresponding to the naturally occurring bile acid cholic acid-taurine. It is marked with {sup 75}Se and is available for peroral use only. The {sup 75}SeHCAT is adsorbed in the same manner as the naturally occurring conjugated trihydroxy bile acids, involving specific carrier systems for absorption and secretion, i.e. with a high first pass extraction and a secretory rate proportional to the blood concentration. (EG) 24 refs.

  9. Effects of Flavonoids on Rumen Fermentation Activity, Methane Production, and Microbial Population

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Oskoueian; Norhani Abdullah; Armin Oskoueian

    2013-01-01

    This research was carried out to evaluate the effects of flavone, myricetin, naringin, catechin, rutin, quercetin, and kaempferol at the concentration of 4.5% of the substrate (dry matter basis) on the rumen microbial activity in vitro. Mixture of guinea grass and concentrate (60 : 40) was used as the substrate. The results showed that all the flavonoids except naringin and quercetin significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the dry matter degradability. The gas production significantly (P < 0.05) d...

  10. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics.

  11. Microbiological analysis and antibacterial effects of the indigenous fermented Puer tea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Xu, X.Q.; Yan, M.C.; Yang Zhu, Yang

    2005-01-01

    Microbiological analysis was done on samples from an indigenously fermented tea - Puer. Microbial counting and identification revealed that Aspergillus niger was the dominating microorganism during the fermentation. Antimicrobial activity of fermentation samples showed inhibitory effect on several f

  12. Study of the fermentative activity of Hansenula anomala and production of chemical compounds of sensory importance Estudio de la actividad fermentativa de Hansenula anomala y producción de compuestos químicos de importancia sensorial

    OpenAIRE

    Waldir Estela Escalante; Mojmír Rychtera; Karel Melzoch; Elena Quillama Polo; Beatriz Hatta Sakoda

    2012-01-01

    The fermentative behaviour of Hansenula anomala RIVE 7-1-5 was studied in order to evaluate the production of chemical compounds of sensory importance. The results demonstrated that the strain ferments very well monosaccharides and also sucrose and maltose. Its fermentative activity was inhibited at concentrations of 100 mg/L of sodium metabisulphite in the medium. Furthermore, it was able to produce 5,81±0,1% (v/v) of ethanol. Agitation of the culture medium increases the production of highe...

  13. Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prasanna Ghimire; Guang-Yao Wu; Ling Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract is the most common extranodal site involved by lymphoma with the majority being non-Hodgkin type. Although lymphoma can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract, the most frequent sites in order of its occurrence are the stomach followed by small intestine and ileocecal region. Gastrointestinal tract lymphoma is usually secondary to the widespread nodal diseases and primary gastrointestinal tract lymphoma is relatively rare. Gastrointestinal lymphomas are usually not clinically specific and indistinguishable from other benign and malignant conditions. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common pathological type of gastrointestinal lymphoma in essentially all sites of the gastrointestinal tract, although recently the frequency of other forms has also increased in certain regions of the world. Although some radiological features such as bulky lymph nodes and maintenance of fat plane are more suggestive of lymphoma, they are not specific,thus mandating histopathological analysis for its definitive diagnosis. There has been a tremendous leap in the diagnosis, staging and management of gastrointestinal lymphoma in the last two decades attributed to a better insight into its etiology and molecular aspect as well as the knowledge about its critical signaling pathways.

  14. Feasibility study of recycling cephalosporin C fermentation dregs using co-composting process with activated sludge as co-substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yao; Wen, Qinxue; Zhang, Shihua; Yang, Lian

    2016-09-01

    Composting is a potential alternative for cephalosporin C fermentation dregs (CCFDs) compared with incineration process or landfill because of its advantage of recovering nutrients. In this research, CCFDs and activated sludge (AS) were co-composted to analyze the feasibility of recycling the nutrients in CCFDs. A pilot-scale aerobic composting system with an auto-control system was used in this research, and the maturity and security of the compost product were evaluated. The temperature of the composting mixtures was maintained above 55°C for more than 3 days during the composting, indicating that co-composting of CCFDs and AS could reach the compost maturity standard, and the seeds germination index (GI) increased from 17.61% to 68.93% by the end of the composting process (28 days). However, the degradation rate of cephalosporin C (CPC) was only 6.58% during the composting process. Monitoring the quality of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the composts showed that the log copy of blaTEM in the composts increased from 2.15 in the initial phase to 6.37 after 28 days. Long-term investigation of CPC degradation and ARGs variation was conducted for the composts; CPC could still be detected after the maturity phases. A removal efficiency of 49.10% could be achieved in 110 days, while the log copy of ARGs increased to 7.93. Although a higher GI value (>80.00%) was observed, the risk of recycling the CCFDs compost product into land is still high. PMID:26828961

  15. Evaluation of antagonistic activity of milk fermented with kefir grains of different origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Victorino Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential of kefir grains, obtained from three different towns/cities in the Southeast Region of Brazil to inhibit the growth of the five pathogenic microorganisms was evaluated. The samples showed the growth inhibition from 42.80-69.15 for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, 30.73-59.89 for Escherichia coli ATCC 11229, 44.99-73.05 for Salmonela typhi ATCC 6539, 41.45-54.18 for Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313 and 70.38-86.80 for Bacillus cereus RIBO 1222-173-S4. These results indicated that the kefir grains evaluated had antagonistic activity toward the different pathogens tested. The ability to inhibit, although differently depending on the regional microbiota, indicated a potential for their use as a functional food.

  16. Studies on Possible Activation of Microbial Inulinase Production Using Gamma Radiation Under Solid State Fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    optimization of different parameters affecting productivity of inulinase/invertase enzyme by Penicillium chrysogenum was studied. Optimized media used was Wheat bran: Jerusalem artichoke (4:1) 66% moisture content acidified mineral solution (ph 4.9). spore suspension 1.8 x 107 spores/ml irradiated with 1.00 kGy of gamma radiation. distilled water ph 6 (extracting solvent), corn steep liquor 0.6%, Corn oil, SDS and CaCl2 with incubation temperature 35°C for 72 hr. Immobilization of a partially purified inulinase enzyme from a local gamma irradiated strain of Penicillium chrysogenum on cheap immobilization supports was carried out. Highest inulinase immobilized activity was maintained on Ca- alginate beads. The immobilized enzyme showed a marked enhancement with temperature, ph optima, and thermostability, thus suggesting a promising industrial production of fructose syrup using the immobilized enzyme.

  17. Visceral Pain and Gastrointestinal Microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Chichlowski, Maciej; Rudolph, Colin

    2015-01-01

    A complex set of interactions between the microbiome, gut and brain modulate responses to visceral pain. These interactions occur at the level of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and via local neural, endocrine or immune activity; as well as by the production of factors transported through the circulatory system, like bacterial metabolites or hormones. Various psychological, infectious and other stressors can disrupt this harmonious relationship and alter both the microbiome and visceral pain res...

  18. GEIS 2013 guidelines for gastrointestinal sarcomas (GIST)

    OpenAIRE

    Poveda, Andrés; del Muro, Xavier García; López-Guerrero, Jose Antonio; Martínez, Virginia; Romero, Ignacio; Valverde, Claudia; Cubedo, Ricardo; Martín-Broto, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal soft tissue sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract. Correct diagnosis with thorough use of pathologic and molecular tools of GIST mutations has been of the foremost importance. GIST are usually (95 %) KIT positive and harbor frequent KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor α-activating mutations. This deep molecular understanding has allowed the correct classification into risk groups with implications regarding prog...

  19. Impact of galacto-oligosaccharides on the gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity upon antibiotic treatment during in vitro fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladirat, S.E.; Schuren, F.H.J.; Schoterman, M.H.C.; Nauta, A.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    Prebiotics are considered to have potential to reduce disturbances in the gut microbiota induced by antibiotics. Results in literature are, however, not consistent. The current in vitro study conducted in a fermentation screening platform allowed to unambiguously compare the impact of galacto-oligos

  20. Influence of dietary protein content and source on colonic fermentative activity in dogs differing in body size and digestive tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, J; Goudez, R; Biourge, V; Tournier, C; Leray, V; Martin, L; Thorin, C; Nguyen, P; Dumon, H

    2012-08-01

    Low-consistency, high-moisture feces have been observed in large dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), compared with small dogs, and particularly in sensitive breeds (e.g., German Shepherd dogs). The aim of this work was to determine if greater colonic protein fermentation is responsible for poorer fecal quality in large sensitive dogs. Twenty-seven bitches were allotted to 4 groups based on size and digestive sensitivity: small, medium, large tolerant, and large sensitive. Five experimental diets varying in protein source [highly digestible wheat gluten (WG) vs. medium digestible poultry meal (PM), and protein concentration from 21.4 to 21.6 (LP) to 38.2 to 39.2% CP (HP)] were tested. Diets were fed for 14 d and followed by a 12-d transition period. Digestive fermentation by-products were investigated in fresh stools [ammonia, phenol, indole, and short chain fatty acids including acetate, propionate, and butyrate (C2 to C4 SCFA), branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), and valerate] and in urine (phenol and indole). Bacterial populations in feces were identified. The PM diets resulted in greater fecal concentrations of ammonia, BCFA, valerate, indole, and C2 to C4 SCFA than WG diets (P = 0.002, P fermentation products in feces together with improved fecal quality in dogs, especially in large sensitive ones. Poor fecal quality in large sensitive dogs could be partly related to the pattern of protein fermentation in the hindgut. PMID:22328724

  1. Antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of pig meat before and after cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion: Comparison between Italian autochthonous pig Suino Nero Lucano and a modern crossbred pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio; Perna, Annamaria

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of Longissimus dorsi muscle from Suino Nero Lucano (SNL) and a modern crossbred (CG) pigs, before and after cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Pig meat showed antioxidative and antihypertensive activities, heat treatment decreased the thiols content but at the same time increased angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion enhanced the biological activity of meat. Autochthonous SNL meat showed a higher nutraceutical quality compared to CG meat, highlighting a greater potential beneficial physiological effect on human health. The results of this study indicate that the pig meat, in particular autochthonous pig meat, may be considered a functional food since it is a good source of antioxidative and antihypertensive peptides. PMID:27374572

  2. Fermentability of an enzymatically modified solubilised potato polysaccharide (SPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M.; Gudmand-Høyer, E.; Bergsøe, Merete Norsker;

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study processing and fermentability in the human gastro-intestinal tract of a newly isolated, enzymatically modified, soluble, and highly concentrated (> 80% dietary fibres) solubilised potato fibre (SPP). SETTING: Gastroenterological laboratory. DESIGN, SUBJECTS AND INTERVENTIONS...... was used to evaluate oro-coecal transit time (OCTT) and fermentation. RESULTS: Fermentation of SPP yielded a measurable increase in end-expiratory H2. The total incremental increase in end expiratory H2 due to SPP was unaffected of whether SPP was served alone, as the raw flour served with bread, or baked...... of a meal. CONCLUSIONS: SPP is a fermentable, highly concentrated soluble fibre source. Baking SPP did not interfere with the fermentable properties. Thus, SPP may be interesting as a fibre-supplement in fibre-poor diets. The change in oro-coecal transit time for SPP, depending on the composition...

  3. Fermentation of Green Tea with 2% Aquilariae lignum Increases the Anti-Diabetic Activity of Green Tea Aqueous Extracts in the High Fat-Fed Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Anti-diabetic effects on the metabolomic differences between green tea (GT and Aquilariae lignum-fermented green tea (fGT were investigated in the high fat-fed mouse. To prove the differences, hypoglycemic (blood glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels, pancreas weights and histopathological-immunohistochemistrical analysis of pancreas–insulin/glucagon cells, hepato- and nephron-protective (the changes in liver and kidney weight, histopathology of liver and kidney, serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT levels, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels, and hypolipidemic (the changes of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein levels with fecal total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG contents effects were evaluated. In addition, liver lipid peroxidation, the glutathione contents, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were measured according to the hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities of glucokinase (GK, glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK for action mechanisms. As a result, fGT showed a stronger hypoglycemic, hepato- and nephron-protective, hypolipidemic, and anti-oxidant effect than GT in high fat-fed mice. In addition, fGT-treated mice exerted more favorable inhibitory activities against GK, G6pase, PERCK activities as compared to GT-treated mice. Taken together, fGT fermented with Aquilariae lignum, 1:49 (2%; g/g has a stronger effect compared with GT. Therefore, fGT has the potential to increase bioactivity against type 2 diabetics.

  4. Effects of long period feeding pistachio by-product silage on chewing activity, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation parameters of Holstein male calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, P; Riasi, A; Alikhani, M

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pistachio by-product silage (PBPS) as a partial replacement for corn silage (CS) on chewing activity, nutrients digestibility and ruminal fermentation parameters in Holstein male calves over a 6-month assay. For this purpose, 24 Holstein male calves (4 to 5 months of age and 155.6±13.5 kg BW) were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments (n=6). In these treatments, CS was substituted with different levels of PBPS (0%, 6%, 12% and 18% of dry matter (DM)). Nutrient digestibility was measured at the end of the experimental period (days 168 to 170). Ruminal fermentation parameters were determined on days 90 and 180 and chewing activity was determined on days 15 of the 3rd and 6th month of the experiment. Results showed that calves fed rations containing 6% PBPS spent more time ruminating (P<0.05) than the control group on the 3rd and 6th months. Feeding PBPS was found to have no effects on DM, organic matter (OM), ether extract or ash digestibility, but apparent digestibility of CP, NDFom and ADFom linearly decreased (P<0.01) with increasing substitutions. On days 90 and 180, ruminal concentrations of volatile fatty acids and NH3-N linearly decreased (P<0.01) with increasing levels of PBPS in the diets; however, ruminal pH and molar proportions of acetate, propionate and butyrate were similar across the treatments. It was concluded that partial substitution of CS with PBPS (6% or 12%) would have no adverse effects on nutrient digestibility, total chewing activity and ruminal fermentation parameters.

  5. CtBP and associated LSD1 are required for transcriptional activation by NeuroD1 in gastrointestinal endocrine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Subir K; Li, H Joyce; Metzger, Eric; Schüle, Roland; Leiter, Andrew B

    2014-06-01

    Gene expression programs required for differentiation depend on both DNA-bound transcription factors and surrounding histone modifications. Expression of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein NeuroD1 is restricted to endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, where it is important for endocrine differentiation. RREB1 (RAS-responsive element binding protein 1), identified as a component of the CtBP corepressor complex, binds to nearby DNA elements to associate with NeuroD and potentiate transcription of a NeuroD1 target gene. Transcriptional activation by RREB1 depends on recruitment of CtBP with its associated proteins, including LSD1, through its PXDLS motifs. The mechanism of transcriptional activation by CtBP has not been previously characterized. Here we found that activation was dependent on the histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) demethylase activity of LSD1, which removes repressive methyl marks from dimethylated H3K9 (H3K9Me2), to facilitate subsequent H3K9 acetylation by the NeuroD1-associated histone acetyltransferase, P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF). The secretin, β-glucokinase, insulin I, and insulin II genes, four known direct targets of NeuroD1 in intestinal and pancreatic endocrine cells, all show similar promoter occupancy by CtBP-associated proteins and PCAF, with acetylation of H3K9. This work may indicate a mechanism for selective regulation of transcription by CtBP and LSD1 involving their association with specific transcription factors and cofactors to drive tissue-specific transcription.

  6. Regulation of skeletal muscle sucrose, non-fermenting 1/AMP-activated protein kinase-related kinase (SNARK) by metabolic stress and diabetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Rune, A.; Osler, M. E.; Fritz, T.; Zierath, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Sucrose, non-fermenting 1/AMP-activated protein kinase-related kinase (SNARK) is involved in cellular stress responses linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes. We determined the role of SNARK in response to metabolic stress and insulin action on glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. Methods Vastus lateralis skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from normal glucose tolerant (n = 35) and type 2 diabetic (n = 31) men and women for SNARK expression studies. Primary myotu...

  7. Endoscopic Gastrointestinal Laser Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Buchi, Kenneth N.

    1985-01-01

    The development of flexible fibers for the delivery of laser energy led to the first endoscopic laser applications in humans in the early 1970s. Since that time, much has been learned about applications throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The risks appear to be minimal. The coagulative effect of laser energy is used to treat gastrointestinal hemorrhage and small, benign mucosal lesions. The ablative effect of the Nd:YAG laser on tissue is used for palliative therapy for malignant gastroint...

  8. Crude goat whey fermentation by Kluyveromyces marxianus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus: contribution to proteolysis and ACE inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamme, Vanessa; Sannier, Frederic; Piot, Jean-Marie; Didelot, Sandrine; Bordenave-Juchereau, Stephanie

    2009-05-01

    Unsupplemented acid goat whey containing 0.96% protein and 2.76% lactose was fermented aerobically with 32 microflora extracted from various raw milk cheeses and dairy products. These microflora were screened for their ability to hydrolyse whey proteins (alpha-lactalbumin and/or beta-lactoglobulin) and to generate peptides inhibitors of Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme. Five microflora were able to degrade whey protein. The most efficient microflora was able to fully hydrolyse alpha-lactalbumin and to a lesser extend beta-lactoglobulin. It was extracted from Bamalou des Pyrenées cheese. Micro-organisms involved consisted of yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus and lactobacillus Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Both were able to produce ACE inhibitory peptides after whey fermentation. PMID:19121243

  9. In Vitro and In Vivo Assessment of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activity of Fermented Soybean Milk by Lactobacillus casei Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhijie; Chi, Yujie

    2016-08-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of fermented soybean milk (FSM) by Lactobacillus casei strains in vitro was investigated in this study. Effects of fermented soybean milk administration by gavage on systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was also evaluated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) rats and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Results showed that, CICC 20280 and CICC 23184 FSM showed high ACE inhibitory activity in vitro test and ACE inhibitory activity of CICC 23184 FSM was higher than CICC 20280 FSM. The bioactive substances of FSM were peptide and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Their contents in CICC 20280 FSM and CICC 23184 FSM were 3.97 ± 0.67 mg/ml (peptide), 1.71 ± 0.36 mg/ml (GABA) and 5.17 ± 0.22 mg/ml (peptide), 1.57 ± 0.21 mg/ml (GABA), respectively. Moreover, CICC 20280 and CICC 23184 FSM administration by gavage could effectively lower the blood pressure of SHR to a normal level, while there was no effect on blood pressure of WKY rats. This result indicated that the bioactive substances could play an antihypertensive role when the blood pressure was not within the normal levels (high levels). PMID:27139252

  10. A new process for efficiently producing methane from waste activated sludge: alkaline pretreatment of sludge followed by treatment of fermentation liquid in an EGSB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Chen, Yinguang; Zhao, Yuxiao; Ye, Zhengxiang

    2011-01-15

    In the literature the production of methane from waste activated sludge (WAS) was usually conducted in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) after sludge was pretreated. It was reported in our previous publication that compared with other pretreatment methods the methane production in CSTR could be significantly enhanced when sludge was pretreated by NaOH at pH 10 for 8 days. In order to further improve methane production, this study reported a new process for efficiently producing methane from sludge, that is, sludge was fermented at pH 10 for 8 days, which was adjusted by Ca(OH)(2), and then the fermentation liquid was treated in an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) for methane generation. First, for comparing the methane production observed in this study with that reported in the literature, the conventional operational model was applied to produce methane from the pH 10 pretreated sludge, that is, directly using the pH 10 pretreated sludge to produce methane in a CSTR. It was observed that the maximal methane production was only 0.61 m(3)CH(4)/m(3)-reactor/day. Then, the use of fermentation liquid of pH 10 pretreated sludge to produce methane in the reactors of up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) and EGSB was compared. The maximal methane production in UASB, ASBR, and EGSB reached 1.41, 3.01, and 12.43 m(3)CH(4)/m(3)-reactor/day, respectively. Finally, the mechanisms for EGSB exhibiting remarkably higher methane production were investigated by enzyme, adenosine-triphosphate (ATP), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses. It was found that the granular sludge in EGSB had the highest conversion efficiency of acetic acid to methane, and the greatest activity of hydrolysis and acidification enzymes and general physiology with much more Methanosarcinaceae.

  11. 裂蹄木层孔菌发酵产物抑菌活性的研究%Study on the Antimicrobial Activity from Phellinus linteus Fermentation Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹莉; 谭昀; 杨民宝

    2013-01-01

      为了研究裂蹄木层孔菌发酵产物对植物病原菌的抑菌活性。采用菌丝生长速率法测定裂蹄木层孔菌不同发酵时间的产物对7种供试病原菌的抑制作用,将裂蹄木层孔菌的发酵产物进行不同的处理,分级纯化抑菌活性多糖,比较其抑菌活性。结果表明:裂蹄木层孔菌发酵产物对7种病原菌均有抑制作用;发酵时间为20天的裂蹄木层孔菌发酵产物对杨树烂皮病的抑制率最高;裂蹄木层孔菌发酵产物的主要抑菌活性物质存在于发酵上清液醇提物中;醇沉级别为30%(浓度为50 mg/mL)醇提物中的多糖对病原菌的抑制率为供试醇沉级别中最高。说明裂蹄木层孔菌含有抑制病原菌的有效成分,具备成为新型生物农药的潜力。%To discover the antifungal activity of the extracts from Phellinus linteus. We used the growth rate method measuring antifungal action to seven kinds of plant pathogen by Phellinus linteus different fermentation time fermentation product, the fermentation product was treated by different way, get the polysaccharide from the ethanol concentration, compare to antifungal activity. The results showed that antibacterial substances from Phellinus linteus had growth inhibitory effects on seven pathogenic bacteria;fermentation time was 20 d, the antibiotic compound had the highest inhibitory rate to Cytospora chrysosperma. The antibiotic compound from Phellinus linteus almost existed in supernatant of acoparia-alcohol extract;30%alcohol-precipitation concentration (concentration was 50 mg/mL) was highest in all. Phellinus linteus contained the antifungal activity component and had the potential became the new biological pesticide.

  12. Effects of Phytoecdysteroids (PEDS) Extracted from Cyanotis arachnoidea on Rumen Fermentation, Enzyme Activity and Microbial Efficiency in a Continuous-Culture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deyong; Zhang, Yawei; Cui, Zhenliang; He, Liwen; Chen, Wanbao; Meng, Qingxiang; Ren, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of phytoecdysteroids (PEDS) extracted from Cyanotis arachnoidea on rumen fermentation, enzymes activity and microbial efficiency in a dual flow continuous-culture system. A single-factor experimental design was used with twelve fermenters in 4 groups with 3 replicates each. Fermenters were incubated for a total of 7 days that included first 4 days for adaptation and last 3 days for sampling. PEDS was added at levels of zero (as control), 5, 10, and 15 mg/g of the substrate (DM). The results showed that increasing supplementation levels of PEDS resulted in incremental digestibility of dry matter (DMD) (quadratic, P = 0.001) and organic matter (OMD) (quadratic, P = 0.031), but unchanged digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDFD), crude protein (CPD) and acid detergent acid (ADFD). As supplementation levels of PEDS increased, there were decreased response in the concentration of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) (linear, P = 0.015) and increased response in molar proportions of butyrate (linear, P = 0.004), but unchanged response in total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and the molar proportion of acetate and propionate, respectively. Increasing PEDS supplementation levels decreased the ratio of acetate to propionate (linear, P = 0.038), suggesting an alteration of rumen fermentation pattern occurring due to PEDS supplementation in the diet. Supplementation of PEDS significantly increased activities of glutamate dehydrogenase (quadratic, P = 0.001), alanine dehydrogenase (quadratic, P = 0.004), glutamate synthase (linear, P = 0.038), glutamine synthetase (quadratic, P = 0.011), respectively. There were no discernible differences in the activity of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCase), xylanase and protease regardless of the treatments. The daily production of microbial nitrogen (linear, P = 0.002) and microbial efficiency (MOEEF) (linear, P = 0.001) increased linearly as supplementation levels of PEDS

  13. Functional role of the Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup −} channel DOG1/TMEM16A in gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Erik, E-mail: erik.berglund@ki.se [Endocrine and Sarcoma Surgery Unit, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Akcakaya, Pinar [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Cancer Center Karolinska, Stockholm (Sweden); Berglund, David [Section for Transplantation Surgery, Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Karlsson, Fredrik [Endocrine and Sarcoma Surgery Unit, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Vukojević, Vladana [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Lee, Linkiat [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Cancer Center Karolinska, Stockholm (Sweden); Bogdanović, Darko [Endocrine and Sarcoma Surgery Unit, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Lui, Weng-Onn; Larsson, Catharina [Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Cancer Center Karolinska, Stockholm (Sweden); Zedenius, Jan [Endocrine and Sarcoma Surgery Unit, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Fröbom, Robin [Endocrine and Sarcoma Surgery Unit, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Bränström, Robert [Endocrine and Sarcoma Surgery Unit, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-08-15

    DOG1, a Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup −} channel (CaCC), was identified in 2004 to be robustly expressed in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). It was rapidly included as a tumor marker in routine diagnostics, but the functional role remained unknown. CaCCs are important regulators of normal physiological functions, but also implicated in tumorigenesis, cancer progression, metastasis, cell migration, apoptosis, proliferation and viability in several malignancies. We therefore investigated whether DOG1 plays a role in the three latter in GIST by utilizing in vitro cell model systems. Confocal microscopy identified different subcellular localizations of DOG1 in imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant cells. Electrophysiological studies confirmed that DOG1-specific pharmacological agents possess potent activating and inhibiting properties. Proliferation assays showed small effects up to 72 h, and flow cytometric analysis of adherent cells with 7-AAD/Annexin V detected no pharmacological effects on viable GIST cells. However, inhibition of DOG1 conveyed pro-apoptotic effects among early apoptotic imatinib-resistant cells. In conclusion, DOG1 generates Cl{sup −} currents in GIST that can be regulated pharmacologically, with small effects on cell viability and proliferation in vitro. Inhibition of DOG1 might act pro-apoptotic on some early apoptotic GIST cell populations. Further studies are warranted to fully illuminate the function of DOG1 and its potential as therapeutic target. - Highlights: • Subcellular DOG1 localization varies between GIST cells. • DOG1 in GIST is voltage- and Ca{sup 2+}-activated. • Known TMEM16A modulators, like A01 and Eact, modulate DOG1. • DOG1 has small effects on cell viability and proliferation in vitro. • DOG1 impact early apoptotic GIST cells to undergo late apoptosis.

  14. Dose-dependent adsorptive capacity of activated charcoal for gastrointestinal decontamination of a simulated paracetamol overdose in human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gude, Anne-Bolette Jill; Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Riis Angelo, Helle;

    2010-01-01

    The amount of activated charcoal needed to treat drug overdoses has arbitrarily been set at a charcoal-drug ratio of 10:1. Recent in vitro studies have shown a larger adsorptive capacity for activated charcoal when used in a model of paracetamol overdose. In the present study, we investigated...... to be of similar size compared to the control, although statistics were weak. The AUC of the 5-g dose was 59% larger than the AUC of the 50-g dose (p = 0.0003). The terminal elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of paracetamol was 1.6 (CI 1.4-2.0) and 1.9 (CI 1.5-2.4) hr for 50 and 25 g, respectively (NS), and 2.5 (CI 1...

  15. Dual-source dual-energy CT angiography with virtual non-enhanced images and iodine map for active gastrointestinal bleeding: Image quality, radiation dose and diagnostic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • GIB is a common gastrointestinal emergency with a high mortality rate. • Detection and localization of GIB source are important for imaging modality. • DSDECTA using a dual-phase scan protocol is clinically feasible. • DSDECTA with VNE and iodine map images can diagnose the active GIB source accurately. • DSDECTA can reduce radiation dose compared with conventional CT examination in GIB. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the clinical feasibility of dual-source dual-energy CT angiography (DSDECTA) with virtual non-enhanced images and iodine map for active gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). Methods: From June 2010 to December 2012, 112 consecutive patients with clinical signs of active GIB underwent DSDECTA with true non-enhanced (TNE), arterial phase with single-source mode, and portal-venous phase with dual-energy mode (100 kVp/230 mAs and Sn 140 kVp/178 mAs). Virtual non-enhanced CT (VNE) image sets and iodine map were reformatted from ‘Liver VNC’ software. The mean CT number, noise, signal to noise ratio (SNR), image quality and radiation dose were compared between TNE and VNE image sets. Two radiologists, blinded to clinical data, interpreted images from DSDECTA with TNE (protocol 1), and DSDECTA with VNE and iodine map (protocol 2) respectively, with discordant interpretation resolved by consensus. The standards of reference included digital subtraction angiography, endoscopy, surgery, or final pathology reports. Receiver–operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was undertaken and the area under the curve (AUC) calculated for CT protocols 1 and 2, respectively. Results: There was no significant difference in mean CT numbers of all organs (including liver, pancreas, spleen, kidney, abdominal aorta, and psoas muscle) (P > 0.05). Lower noise and higher SNR were found on VNE images than TNE images (P < 0.05). Image quality of VNE was lower than that of TNE without significant difference (P > 0.05). The active GIB source was identified

  16. Dual-source dual-energy CT angiography with virtual non-enhanced images and iodine map for active gastrointestinal bleeding: Image quality, radiation dose and diagnostic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hao, E-mail: sunhao_robert@126.com [Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan No. 1, Wangfujing Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Hou, Xin-Yi, E-mail: hxy_pumc@126.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Xue, Hua-Dan, E-mail: bjdanna95@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan No. 1, Wangfujing Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Xiao-Guang, E-mail: xglee88@126.com [Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan No. 1, Wangfujing Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Jin, Zheng-Yu, E-mail: zhengyu_jin@126.com [Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shuaifuyuan No. 1, Wangfujing Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Qian, Jia-Ming, E-mail: qjiaming57@gmail.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Yu, Jian-Chun, E-mail: yu-jch@163.com [Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhu, Hua-Dong, E-mail: huadongzhu@hotmail.com [Department of Emergency, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • GIB is a common gastrointestinal emergency with a high mortality rate. • Detection and localization of GIB source are important for imaging modality. • DSDECTA using a dual-phase scan protocol is clinically feasible. • DSDECTA with VNE and iodine map images can diagnose the active GIB source accurately. • DSDECTA can reduce radiation dose compared with conventional CT examination in GIB. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the clinical feasibility of dual-source dual-energy CT angiography (DSDECTA) with virtual non-enhanced images and iodine map for active gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). Methods: From June 2010 to December 2012, 112 consecutive patients with clinical signs of active GIB underwent DSDECTA with true non-enhanced (TNE), arterial phase with single-source mode, and portal-venous phase with dual-energy mode (100 kVp/230 mAs and Sn 140 kVp/178 mAs). Virtual non-enhanced CT (VNE) image sets and iodine map were reformatted from ‘Liver VNC’ software. The mean CT number, noise, signal to noise ratio (SNR), image quality and radiation dose were compared between TNE and VNE image sets. Two radiologists, blinded to clinical data, interpreted images from DSDECTA with TNE (protocol 1), and DSDECTA with VNE and iodine map (protocol 2) respectively, with discordant interpretation resolved by consensus. The standards of reference included digital subtraction angiography, endoscopy, surgery, or final pathology reports. Receiver–operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was undertaken and the area under the curve (AUC) calculated for CT protocols 1 and 2, respectively. Results: There was no significant difference in mean CT numbers of all organs (including liver, pancreas, spleen, kidney, abdominal aorta, and psoas muscle) (P > 0.05). Lower noise and higher SNR were found on VNE images than TNE images (P < 0.05). Image quality of VNE was lower than that of TNE without significant difference (P > 0.05). The active GIB source was identified

  17. New advances in gastrointestinal motility research

    CERN Document Server

    Pullan, A; Farrugia, G

    2013-01-01

    Research into gastrointestinal motility has received renewed interest in part due to recent advances in the techniques for measuring the structure and function of gastrointestinal cells, tissue and organs. The integration of this wealth of data into biophysically based computation models can aid in interpretation of experimental and clinical measurements and the refinement of measurement techniques. The contents of this book span multiple scales - from cell, tissue, organ, to whole body and is divided into four broad sections covering: i) gastrointestinal cellular activity and tissue structure; (ii) techniques for measuring, analyzing and visualizing high-resolution extra-cellular recordings; (iii) methods for sensing gastroelectrical activity using non-invasive bio-electro-magnetic fields and for modulating the underlying gastric electrical activity, and finally; (iv) methods for assessing manometric and videographic motility patterns and the application of these data for predicting the flow and mixing behav...

  18. Enhanced Anti-Obesity Activities of Red Mold Dioscorea When Fermented Using Deep Ocean Water as the Culture Water

    OpenAIRE

    Tzu-Ming Pan; Chun-Lin Lee; Jyh-Jye Wang; Tsung-Yu Tsai; Bai-Luh Wei; Yi-Hsin Kung; Tzu-Ying Lung; Li-Chun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Deep ocean water (DOW) has, in previous studies, been found to be a novel anti-obesity drink and useful in raising Monascus-produced monascin and ankaflavin levels. This may resolve the limited anti-obesity ability of red mold dioscorea (RMD) known as the Monascus purpureus-fermented Disocorea batatas. This study aims to compare the anti-obesity effect of DOW-cultured RMD (DOW-RMD) and ultra-pure water-cultured RMD (UPW-RMD) in rats fed on a high fat diet. Moreover, the effect of ions composi...

  19. Immobilized cells in meat fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, A J; Champagne, C P

    1994-01-01

    The immobilization of microbial cells can contribute to fermented meat technology at two basic levels. First, the solid/semisolid nature (low available water) of the substrate restricts the mobility of cells and results in spatial organizations based on "natural immobilization" within the fermentation matrix. The microniches formed influence the fermentation biochemistry through mass transfer limitations and the subsequent development and activity of the microflora. This form of immobilization controls the nature of competition between subpopulations within the microflora and ultimately exerts an effect on the ecological competence (ability to survive and compete) of the various cultures present. Second, immobilized cell technology (ICT) can be used to enhance the ecological competence of starter cultures added to initiate the fermentation. Immobilization matrices such as alginate can provide microniches or microenvironments that protect the culture during freezing or lyophilization, during subsequent rehydration, and when in competition with indigenous microflora. The regulated release of cells from the microenvironments can also contribute to competitive ability. The regulation of both immobilization processes can result in enhanced fermentation activity. PMID:8069934

  20. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in fermented rice (Oryza sativa bran Compostos fenólicos e atividade antioxidante em farelo de arroz (Oryza sativa fermentado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa dos Santos Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in fermented rice bran in order to evaluate the effect of solid state fermentation on these properties. The process was performed with the fungus Rhizopus oryzae CTT 1217 in tray reactors at 30 °C for 120 hours. Samples of fermented rice bran were collected every 24 hours. Antioxidant property was evaluated by the diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method and through the inhibition of enzymatic oxidation and lipid peroxidation of olive oil. The methanol extract of the biomass obtained at 96 hours of fermentation inactivated 50% of free radical in 15 minutes. The same extract reduced the peroxide value in the olive oil by 57% after 30 days of storage. The aqueous extract of the biomass obtained at 120 hours was the most efficient inhibitor of the darkening reaction catalyzed by peroxidase.Este trabalho investigou o conteúdo de compostos fenólicos totais e a atividade antioxidante em farelo de arroz fermentado, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da fermentação em estado sólido nessas propriedades. O processo foi realizado com o fungo Rhizopus oryzae CTT 1217 em reatores de bandeja a 30 °C por 120 horas. Amostras de farelo de arroz fermentado foram coletadas a cada 24 horas. A capacidade antioxidante foi avaliada pelo método do sequestro do radical livre difenil-1-picrilhidrazil e também por meio da inibição da oxidação enzimática e da peroxidação lipídica do óleo de oliva. O extrato metanólico produzido com a biomassa de 96 horas sequestrou 50% do radical livre em 15 minutos. O mesmo extrato reduziu o índice de peróxido no óleo em 57% após 30 dias de armazenamento. O extrato aquoso obtido da biomassa de 120 horas foi o inibidor mais eficiente da reação de escurecimento enzimático catalisada pela peroxidase.

  1. Antioxidant Activity in Vitro of Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermented Purple Sweet Potato%紫甘薯乳酸发酵醪体外抗氧化性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐长亮; 张村雪; 郭秋实; 汤琳

    2012-01-01

    Five different fermentation broths were prepared by fermentation of purple sweet potato, red-core sweet potato, red jujube, apple juice or apple pomace by lactic acid bacteria. The total antioxidant capacity and DPPH free radical scavenging capacity of the fermentation broths and purple sweet potato vinegar were tested. Lactic acid bacteria fermentation resulted in a slight increase in the antioxidant activity of purple sweet potato. The total antioxidant capacity was increased to 200.18 mg/mL. The DPPH radical scavenging rate of fermented purple sweet potato was 96.99% at the dosage of 100 IzL, which was comparable to that of purple sweet potato vinegar. Purple sweet potato fermentation broth exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity among the five fermentation broths.%测定5种乳酸发酵醪和紫甘薯醋的总抗氧化能力和对二苯代苦昧酰基(DPPH)自由基清除率,结果表明紫:甘薯乳酸发酵后抗氧化能力轻微增强,总抗氧化能力达200.18mg/mL,添加量为100μL时对DPPH自由基清除率达96.99%,与紫甘薯醋抗氧化能力相当。5种乳酸发酵醪中,紫甘薯乳酸发酵醪抗氧化能力最强。

  2. Obesity and gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Binkowska-Borgosz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is a significant public health problem in the 21st century due to its scale, common existence and its cause-effect association with multiple diseases. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in humans is regarded as a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and skeletal diseases. However, data from recent years have revealed that obesity is also strongly associated with increased risk of the majority of cancers in humans, including those originating from the gastrointestinal tract. During the last few year this association has been thoroughly proven and supported by several epidemiological analyses. The authors present i the current state of knowledge regarding key (pathomechanisms that link metabolism of human adipose tissue to development/progression of neoplasms (especially in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as ii the results of selected clinical studies in which the influence of obesity on risk of gastrointestinal cancer development has been addressed.

  3. Supplementation strategies for gastrointestinal distress in endurance athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Ximeno Duarte

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in the endurance athlete is about 25% to 70%. Even though it is recognized that the etiology of exercise-induced gastrointestinal distress is multifactorial, blood flow redistribution during physical activity and therefore gastrointestinal ischemia is often acknowledged as the main pathophysiology mechanism for the onset of symptoms. This review will provide an overview to the recent research on gastrointestinal function during strenuous exercise. In addition, we consider different nutritional interventions that could be evaluated for preventive or treatment interventions founding that ever though there is some research in the area, the scientific evidence does not support its use in athlete population.

  4. Heritable Gastrointestinal Cancer Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Elena M

    2016-09-01

    Although almost all gastrointestinal cancers develop from sporadic genomic events, approximately 5% arise from germline mutations in genes associated with cancer predisposition. The number of these genes continues to increase. Tumor phenotypes and family history provide the framework for identifying at-risk individuals. The diagnosis of a hereditary cancer syndrome has implications for management of patients and their families. Systematic approaches that integrate family history and molecular characterization of tumors and polyps facilitate identification of individuals with this genetic predisposition. This article summarizes diagnosis and management of hereditary cancer syndromes associated with gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:27546846

  5. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria exhibiting high scavenging activity for environmental hydrogen peroxide from fermented foods and its two scavenging enzymes for hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akio; Kaneko, Chiaki; Hamada, Yasuhiro; Takeda, Kouji; Kimata, Shinya; Matsumoto, Takashi; Abe, Akira; Tanaka, Naoto; Okada, Sanae; Uchino, Masataka; Satoh, Junichi; Nakagawa, Junichi; Niimura, Youichi

    2016-01-01

    To obtain lactic acid bacteria that scavenge environmental hydrogen peroxide, we developed a specialized enrichment medium and successfully isolated Pediococcus pentosaceus Be1 strain from a fermented food. This strain showed vigorous environmental hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity over a wide range of hydrogen peroxide concentrations. High Mn-catalase and NADH peroxidase activities were found in the cell-free extract of the P. pentosaceus Be1 strain, and these two hydrogen peroxide scavenging enzymes were purified from the cell-free extract of the strain. Mn-catalase has been purified from several microorganisms by several researchers, and the NADH peroxidase was first purified from the original strain in this report. After cloning the genes of the Mn-catalase and the NADH peroxidase, the deduced amino acid sequences were compared with those of known related enzymes. PMID:27118075

  6. The influence of saccharin and sorbitol upon the BB-12® activity in milk and the rheological characteristics of fermented products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa PRICOPE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available studied related to the activity of the probiotic culture BB-12® in milk. Sweeteners concentrations used in the experiments were chosen based on the results of a preferential sensorial analysis. The acidity and pH dynamics monitored during bifidobacteria incubation at 37°C showed that BB-12® behaves in a similar way in milk and milk sweetened with saccharin (0.05‰ or sorbitol (1.5%. Also it was noticed that the fermentation starts without a lag phase in the presence of sorbitol. The bifidobacteria maintained their viability at a level of 109 viable count during 14 days of storage at 4°C. Sweetened fermented milk samples showed higher consistency index compared to the control sample. More than that, after 7 days of storage (4ºC it was observed an increase of the k-value for thesaccharin and sorbitol samples, while for the control sample the consistency index has a 85% decrease. After 7 days of storage the sweetened samples maintained the same viscoelastic behavior.The study was performed in order to collect scientific evidences on the possibility to obtain probiotic dairy products sweetened with alternative sweeteners.

  7. Effects of solid-state fermentation with two filamentous fungi on the total phenolic contents, flavonoids, antioxidant activities and lipid fractions of plum fruit (Prunus domestica L.) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Socaciu, Carmen

    2016-10-15

    Evolutions of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities during solid-state fermentation (SSF) of plum pomaces (from the juice industry) and brandy distillery wastes with Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oligosporus were investigated. The effect of fermentation time on the oil content and major lipid classes in the plum kernels was also studied. Results showed that total phenolic (TP) amounts increased by over 30% for SSF with Rhizopus oligosporus and by >21% for SSF with A. niger. The total flavonoid contents presented similar tendencies to those of the TPs. The free radical scavenging activities of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis showed that quercetin-3-glucoside was the major phenolic compound in both fermented plum by-products. The results also demonstrated that SSF not only helped to achieve higher lipid recovery from plum kernels, but also resulted in oils with better quality attributes (high sterol ester and n-3 PUFA-rich polar lipid contents).

  8. Effects of solid-state fermentation with two filamentous fungi on the total phenolic contents, flavonoids, antioxidant activities and lipid fractions of plum fruit (Prunus domestica L.) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Socaciu, Carmen

    2016-10-15

    Evolutions of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities during solid-state fermentation (SSF) of plum pomaces (from the juice industry) and brandy distillery wastes with Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oligosporus were investigated. The effect of fermentation time on the oil content and major lipid classes in the plum kernels was also studied. Results showed that total phenolic (TP) amounts increased by over 30% for SSF with Rhizopus oligosporus and by >21% for SSF with A. niger. The total flavonoid contents presented similar tendencies to those of the TPs. The free radical scavenging activities of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis showed that quercetin-3-glucoside was the major phenolic compound in both fermented plum by-products. The results also demonstrated that SSF not only helped to achieve higher lipid recovery from plum kernels, but also resulted in oils with better quality attributes (high sterol ester and n-3 PUFA-rich polar lipid contents). PMID:27173530

  9. The association between farming activities, precipitation, and the risk of acute gastrointestinal illness in rural municipalities of Quebec, Canada: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselin Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing livestock density and animal manure spreading, along with climate factors such as heavy rainfall, may increase the risk of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI. In this study we evaluated the association between farming activities, precipitation and AGI. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey of randomly selected residents (n = 7006 of 54 rural municipalities in Quebec, Canada, was conducted between April 2007 and April 2008. AGI symptoms and several risk factors were investigated using a phone questionnaire. We calculated the monthly prevalence of AGI, and used multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for several demographic and risk factors, to evaluate the associations between AGI and both intensive farming activities and cumulative weekly precipitation. Cumulative precipitation over each week, from the first to sixth week prior to the onset of AGI, was analyzed to account for both the delayed effect of precipitation on AGI, and the incubation period of causal pathogens. Cumulative precipitation was treated as a four-category variable: high (≥90th percentile, moderate (50th to th percentile, low (10th to th percentile, and very low (th percentile precipitation. Results The overall monthly prevalence of AGI was 5.6% (95% CI 5.0%-6.1%, peaking in winter and spring, and in children 0-4 years old. Living in a territory with intensive farming was negatively associated with AGI: adjusted odds ratio (OR = 0.70 (95% CI 0.51-0.96. Compared to low precipitation periods, high precipitation periods in the fall (September, October, November increased the risk of AGI three weeks later (OR = 2.20; 95% CI 1.09-4.44 while very low precipitation periods in the summer (June, July, August increased the risk of AGI four weeks later (OR = 2.19; 95% CI 1.02-4.71. Further analysis supports the role of water source on the risk of AGI. Conclusions AGI poses a significant burden in Quebec rural municipalities with a peak in winter

  10. Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia annua L. extracts in vitro and the effect of an aqueous extract and artemisinin in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no effective natural alternative control for gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants, with Haemonchus contortus being the most economically important GIN. Despite frequent reports of multidrug-resistant GIN, there is no new commercial anthelmintic to substitute failing ones. Alt...

  11. Protein modification by fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkholt, Helle Vibeke; Jørgensen, P.B.; Sørensen, Anne Dorthe;

    1998-01-01

    The effect of fermentation on components of potential significance for the allergenicity of pea was analyzed. Pea flour was fermented with three lactic acid bacteria, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus raffinolactis, and Lactobacillus plantarum, and two fungi, Rhizopus microsporus, var...

  12. [Gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moctezuma-Velázquez, Carlos; Aguirre-Valadez, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Diet is considered an important triggering factor for gastrointestinal symptoms whose physiopathology includes not only measurable, inflammatory reactions, but also functional disorders, where no organic effects may be measured or demonstrated. Moreover, the prevalence of the perceived intolerance to certain foods ranges from 20-25% (within the general population) to 50-70% in diseases like irritable bowel syndrome. This intolerance has been observed particularly after the consumption of milk and dairy products, which are frequently considered as causative of gastrointestinal symptoms, thus limiting their ingestion. However, this behavior reduces the dietary sources of calcium and consequently may lead to malnutrition and bone decalcification, amongst other complications. The true dairy intolerance (intestinal lactase deficiency) explains most of the symptoms ensuing their consumption, but the frequency of such alteration on the different gastrointestinal diseases has not been determined. This review focuses on the most frequent gastrointestinal diseases and the existing evidence regarding the alterations and symptoms related to the consumption of milk or dairy products. PMID:27603892

  13. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  14. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Tamime

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  15. Antimicrobial Activity and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Three Isolates of Lactic Acid Bacteria From Fermented Fish Product, Budu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liasi, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB from the fermented food product, Budu, were identified as genus lactobacillus (Lactobacillus casei LA17, Lactobacillus plantarum LA22 and L. paracasei LA02, and the highest population was Lb. paracasei LA02. The antibacterial agent produced by the isolates inhibited the growth of a range of gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Antimicrobial sensitivity test to 18 different types of antibiotic were evaluated using the disc diffusion method. Inhibition zone diameter was measured and calculated from the means of five determinations and expressed in terms of resistance or susceptibility. All the LAB isolates were resistant to colestin sulphate, streptomycin, amikacin, norfloxacin, nalidixic acid, mecillinam, sulphanethoxazole/ trimethoprim, kanamycin, neomycin, bacitracin and gentamycin but susceptible to erythromycin, penicillin G, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ampicillin and nitrofurantion.

  16. Haemochromatosis and gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagergren, Katarina; Wahlin, Karl; Mattsson, Fredrik; Alderson, Derek; Lagergren, Jesper

    2016-10-15

    Iron overload in patients with haemochromatosis is a strong risk factor for liver cancer, but its influence on other gastrointestinal cancer risk is unclear. The aim was to assess the relative risk of luminal gastrointestinal cancer among patients diagnosed with haemochromatosis. This population-based, nationwide Swedish cohort study included patients with haemochromatosis in Sweden in 1965-2013. The incidence of gastrointestinal cancers was assessed through the Swedish Cancer Registry. The measure of relative risk was the standardised incidence ratio (SIR) with 95% confidence interval (CI), that is, the ratio of the observed number of gastrointestinal cancers in the haemochromatosis cohort divided by the expected number of such cancers, calculated from the entire corresponding background population of Sweden. Among 6,849 patients in the haemochromatosis cohort with up to 48 years of follow-up, the SIRs were 3-fold increased for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SIR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.3-6.6; n = 7) and 40% increased for colon adenocarcinoma (SIR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.9; n = 54). No associations were found between haemochromatosis and the risk of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus (SIR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.0-2.5; n = 1), stomach (SIR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.3-1.4; n = 8), small bowel (SIR = 1.2, 95% CI 0.0-6.7; n = 1) or rectum (SIR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.6-1.6; n = 21). These findings indicate that haemochromatosis increases the risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma, but might not influence the risk of other types of luminal gastrointestinal cancer. These findings should encourage further research examining the role of iron overload in cancer aetiology. PMID:27300578

  17. Consumption of Breads Containing In Situ-Produced Arabinoxylan Oligosaccharides Alters Gastrointestinal Effects in Healthy Volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, Bram; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Broekaert, Willem F.; Francois, Isabelle; Lescroart, Olivier; Trogh, Isabel; Arnaut, Filip; Welling, Gjalt W.; Wijffels, Jan; Delcour, Jan A.; Verbeke, Kristin; Courtin, Christophe M.

    2012-01-01

    Arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) are studied as food compounds with prebiotic potential. Here, the impact of consumption of breads with in situ-produced AXOS on intestinal fermentation and overall gastrointestinal characteristics was evaluated in a completely randomized, double-blind, controlled

  18. Fermented milk for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle...... interventions, such as fermented milk, would be of great importance....

  19. Ingestion of a novel galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide-arabinoxylan (GGMO-AX) complex affected growth performance and fermentative and immunological characteristics of broiler chicks challenged with Salmonella typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermentable carbohydrates may enhance the ability of the gastrointestinal tract to defend against a pathogenic infection. We hypothesized that a galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide-arabinoxylan (GGMO-AX) complex would positively impact immune status and prevent colonization and shedding in Salmonell...

  20. Effects of radiation upon gastrointestinal motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mary F Otterson

    2007-01-01

    Whether due to therapeutic or belligerent exposure, the gastrointestinal effects of irradiation produce symptoms dreaded by a majority of the population. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal cramping are hallmarks of the prodromal phase of radiation sickness, occurring hours to days following radiation exposure. The prodromal phase is distinct from acute radiation sickness in that the absorptive, secretory and anatomic changes associated with radiation damage are not easily identifiable. It is during this phase of radiation sickness that gastrointestinal motility significantly changes. In addition, there is evidence that motor activity of the gut contributes to some of the acute and chronic effects of radiation.

  1. Recombinant erythropoietin for the anaemia of patients with advanced Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours (GIST receiving imatinib: an active agent only in non progressive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffaud Florence

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recombinant erythropoietin for the anaemia of patients with advanced Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours (GIST receiving imatinib : an active agent only in non progressive patients. Background Imatinib is a standard treatment for advanced/metastatic GIST and in adjuvant setting. Anaemia is frequently observed in patients with advanced GIST, and is one of the most frequent side effects of imatinib with grade 3–4 anaemia in 10% of patients. Whether EPO treatment is useful in the management of GIST patients receiving imatinib treatment is unknown. Methods A retrospective study of EPO treatment in GIST patients receiving imatinib was undertaken in 4 centres. Thirty four patients received EPO treatment among the 319 GIST patients treated with imatinib in clinical trials or with compassionate use between 2001 and 2003. The efficacy of EPO on the anaemia of patients with GIST treated with imatinib was analyzed. Results There were 18 males and 16 females with a median age of 59 years. Median WHO-PS was 1. Primary tumour sites were mainly gastric (32% and small bowel (29%. Sites of metastases were mainly liver (82% and peritoneum (79%. The median delay between the initiation of imatinib treatment and EPO was 58 days (range 0–553. Median haemoglobin (Hb level prior to EPO was 9 g/dL (range 6,9-11,8 and 11,7 g/dL (range 6,8-14,4 after 2 months. An increase of more than 2 g/dL was observed in 18 (53% of patients. None of the 7 patients who progressed (PD under imatinib treatment (400 mg/day experienced HB response, as compared to 66% (18/27 of the remaining patients (PR + SD (p = 0,002. Primary tumour site, liver metastases, peritoneal metastases, age, gender did not correlate with HB response to EPO. Response to EPO was observed in 2/11 patients receiving high-dose imatinib (800 mg/day vs 16/23 of others. Using logistic regression, only PD before EPO treatment was retained as a predictive factor for EPO response. Conclusion EPO enables to

  2. 染料木素抑制大鼠离体胃肠平滑肌收缩活动的研究%Inhibitory effects of genistein on contractile activity of isolated gastrointestinal smooth muscle in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长兴; 李红芳; 张立雪; 豆兴成; 田治峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of genistein(Gen)on contractile activity of gastrointestinal smooth muscle of rat and explore its underlying mechanisms.Methods Gastrointestinal smooth muscle strips were taken out from rat.Each isolated muscle strip was put in a tissue chamber which contains 5 mL krebs solution and the motility of muscle strips was recorded simulta-neously.At the same time the CaCl2 concentration-response curves were done.Results Genistein reduced the resting tension of gas-trointestinal smooth muscle strips and decreased mean contractile amplitude of gastrointestinal smooth muscle strips,which were dose-dependent.Phentolamine,l-NG-nitroarginine,glibenclamide,SQ22536 partially blocked the inhibition of puerarin on the con-tractile activity of the rat gastric body.Genistein(1.00μmol/L)had no significant effect on calcium-dependent contraction,while genistein(50.00μmol/L)markedly prevented contractile effects of CaCl2 on body of stomach.Conclusion Genistein has inhibitory action on the isolated gastrointestinal smooth muscle strips of rats.%目的:观察染料木素对大鼠离体胃肠平滑肌收缩活动的影响,并探讨其作用机制。方法取大鼠胃肠平滑肌条安置在恒温灌流肌槽中,记录其收缩活动,同时做CaCl2的量效曲线。结果染料木素能降低胃肠平滑肌条的张力,减小其收缩波平均振幅。酚妥拉明、左旋-NG-硝基精氨酸、格列本脲、SQ22536可部分阻断染料木素对大鼠离体胃肠收缩活动的抑制作用。1.00 mol/L的染料木素对CaCl2的量效曲线无影响,50.0 mol/L染料木素使 CaCl2的量效曲线右移。结论染料木素对大鼠胃肠平滑肌条收缩活动具有抑制作用。

  3. [Zinc and gastrointestinal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashimura, Yasuki; Takagi, Tomohisa; Naito, Yuji

    2016-07-01

    Zinc, an essential trace element, affects immune responses, skin metabolism, hormone composition, and some sensory function, so that the deficiency presents various symptoms such as immunodeficiency and taste obstacle. Further, the zinc deficiency also considers as a risk of various diseases. Recent reports demonstrated that -20% of the Japanese population was marginally zinc deficiency, and over 25% of the global population is at high risk of zinc deficiency. In gastrointestinal disorders, zinc plays an important role in the healing of mucosal and epithelial damage. In fact, polaprezinc, a chelate compound of zinc and L-carnosine, has been used for the treatment of gastric ulcer and gastritis. We describe here the therapeutic effect of zinc on gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:27455800

  4. Radiology illustrated. Gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-02-01

    Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  5. 米曲霉发酵大米中抗氧化物质对酪氨酸酶的抑制作用%Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity of Antioxidants in Fermented Rice by Aspergillus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金一琼; 赖富饶; 陈周潭; Anupam GIRI; 吴晖

    2012-01-01

    本实验采用两种不同米曲霉菌种(Aspergillus soji,A.orgzae)在35℃和湿度>90%的条件下对大米进行固态发酵6d,比较发酵大米在发酵过程中活性物质的金属螯合、多酚氧化酶抑制、氧自由基吸收能力及总酚含量的变化,A.orgzae发酵的大米在金属螯合、多酚氧化酶抑制和氧自由基吸收能力上优于A.soji,两者在总酚含量上没有较大差别,且在发酵第4d时大米的上述四项活性都趋于稳定,故选取A.orgzae发酵4d的大米探讨其所含活性物质对酪氨酸酶的抑制作用.采用Lineweaver-Burk双倒数法探讨A.orgzae发酵大米中活性物质对蘑菇酪氨酸酶催化L-多巴氧化的抑制作用并推测其抑制机理.同时,虾血淋巴和虾黑变的抑制实验也证明了米曲霉发酵大米对酪氨酸酶的有效抑制作用.%Two Aspergillus strains (Aspergillus soji, A. Orgzae) were used in this study for 6-day solid-state fermentation of rice at35℃ and humidity >90%. The metal chelating, polyphenol oxidase inhibitory activity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and total phenolic contents of fermented rice during fermentation were analyzed. The rice fermented by A. Orgzae had higher metal chelating, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) inhibitory activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) than that fermented by A. Soji. In terms of total phenol content, a similar fermentative effect was observed for both of the strains. In addition, these four properties of fermented rice tended to be stable at the fourth day of fermentation. Therefore, rice fermented by A. Orgzae for four days was selected for the evaluation on anti-tyrosinase activity. Lineweaver-Burk Plot was adopted to investigate the inhibitory effects of bioacn've compounds in fermented rice by A. Orgzae on the oxidation of L-DOPA catalyzed by mushroom tyrosinase (M-PPO). The potential mechanism of the anti-ryrosinase activity was estimated based on the results of Lineweaver-Burk Plot

  6. Does Hypothyroidism Affect Gastrointestinal Motility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yaylali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gastrointestinal motility and serum thyroid hormone levels are closely related. Our aim was to analyze whether there is a disorder in esophagogastric motor functions as a result of hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods. The study group included 30 females (mean age ± SE 45.17 ± 2.07 years with primary hypothyroidism and 10 healthy females (mean age ± SE 39.40 ± 3.95 years. All cases underwent esophagogastric endoscopy and scintigraphy. For esophageal scintigraphy, dynamic imaging of esophagus motility protocol, and for gastric emptying scintigraphy, anterior static gastric images were acquired. Results. The mean esophageal transit time (52.56 ± 4.07 sec for patients; 24.30 ± 5.88 sec for controls; P=.02 and gastric emptying time (49.06 ± 4.29 min for the hypothyroid group; 30.4 ± 4.74 min for the control group; P=.01 were markedly increased in cases of hypothyroidism. Conclusion. Hypothyroidism prominently reduces esophageal and gastric motor activity and can cause gastrointestinal dysfunction.

  7. Comparative study of the effects of solid-state fermentation with three filamentous fungi on the total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of subfractions from oats (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shengbao; Wang, Ou; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Songjie; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping; Gao, Fengyi; Zhang, Di; Liu, Jia; Cheng, Qian

    2012-01-11

    The aim of present work was to investigate the effect of solid-state fermentation with filamentous fungi (Aspergillus oryzae var. effuses, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus niger) on total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of four subfractions of oat, namely, n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol, and water, and compare them to their corresponding subfractions of unfermented oat. The TPC and total flavonoids increased dramatically, especially in EA subfractions (p < 0.05). The levels of antioxidant activity of subfractions were also significantly enhanced (p < 0.05). The highest antioxidant activities were also found in the EA subfractions. The polyphenols in EA were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography at 280 nm. Most polyphenols were increased remarkably, especially ferulic and caffeic acids. There was a clear correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activity. In conclusion, fungi fermentation is a potential bioprocess for increasing the TPC, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of oat-based food.

  8. Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Aledavood; Mohammad Reza Ghavam Nasiri; Bahram Memar; Soodabeh Shahidsales; Hamid Reza Raziee; Kamran Ghafarzadegan; Samira Mohtashami

    2012-01-01

    Background: Extranodal lymphoma may arise anywhere outside lymph nodes mostly in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract as non-Hodgkin′s disease. We reviewed the clinicopathological features and treatment results of patients with primary GI lymphoma. Materials and Methods : A total number of 30 cases with primary GI lymphoma were included in this study. Patients referred to the Radiation Oncology Department of Omid Hospital (Mashhad, Iran) during a 5-year period (2006-11). Clinical, paraclinical, an...

  9. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development.

  10. The gastrointestinal endocrine system

    OpenAIRE

    Track, Norman S.

    1980-01-01

    Gastrointestinal endocrinology is the study of the hormonal regulation of digestion. A number of characterized polypeptide hormones have been localized in specific gastroenteropancreatic endocrine cells. The fact that some of these hormones are also found in nerve and brain cells has given rise to the concept of a gut-brain axis. The functional capacities of these endocrine cells are determined by their anatomic location; the luminal exposure of gastroenteric endocrine cells represents an add...

  11. Lower gastrointestinal endoscopies results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bozdağ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Endoscopic examinations have great potential in early diagnosis of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas with reducing to colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. We aimed to evaluate for diagnostic purposeful lower gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures in the second step state hospital retrospectively Methods: Between June 2010 and June 2013, we evaluated 278 patients with rectal bleeding, constipation and abdominal pain detected by lower gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures retrospectively. Results: The mean age of the patients was 54.8 ± 16.8 (15-90 year, respectively. 172 (61.9% of the patients were male and 106 (38.1% of the patients were female. 116 (41.7% of the patients was performed rectosigmoidoscopy and 162 (58.3% of the patients was performed colonoscopy. 51(18.3% of our patients were normal. 10 (3.6% of patients had colorectal cancer, 11(3.9% of patients had inflammatory bowel disease, 8 (2.9% of patients had parasitosis, 31(11.1% of patients had colorectal polyps, 12 (4.3% , in patients had diverticular disease, 2 (0.7% patients had rectal ulcer, 25 (9% patients had anal fissure and 159 (57.2% of the patients had hemorrhoidal disease. Conclusion: Lower gastrointestinal endoscopy is a method been the gold standard with a low complication rate and that can be easily applied in the evaluation to pathology of colorectal and anal canal. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (4: 580-582

  12. Kinetics of wheat straw solid-state fermentation with Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus - lignin and polysaccharide alteration and production of related enzymatic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valmaseda, M.; Martinez, M.J.; Martinez, A.T. (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain). Centro des Investigaciones Biologicas)

    1991-09-01

    The kinetics of straw solid-state fermentation (SSF) with Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus was investigated to characterize the delignification processes by these white-rot fungi. Two sucessive phases could be defined during straw transformation, characterized by changes in respiratory activity, changes in lignin and polysaccharide content and composition, increase in in-vitro digestibility, and enzymatic activities produced by the fungi. Lignin composition was analysed after CuO alkaline degradation, and decreases in syringyl/guaiacyl and syringyl/p-hydroxyphenyl ratios and cinnamic acid content were observed during the fungal treatment. An increase in the phenolic acid yield, revealing fungal degradation of sidechains in lignin, was produced by P. ostreatus. The highest xylanase level was produced by P. ostreatus, and exocellulase activity was nearly absent from straw treated with this fungus. Laccase activity was found in straw treated with both fungi, but lignin peroxidase was only detected during the initial phase of straw transformation with T. versicolor. High levels of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-producing acryl-alcohol oxidase occurred throughout the straw SSF with P. ostreatus. (orig.).

  13. Optimization of the solid-state fermentation and properties of a polysaccharide from Paecilomyces cicadae (Miquel Samson and its antioxidant activities in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyong Ren

    Full Text Available The culture conditions for the yield of a polysaccharide (PCPS produced by Paecilomyces cicadae (Miquel Samson on solid-state fermentation were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM. Plackett-Burman design (PBD was applied to screen out significant factors, followed by the paths of steepest ascent to move to the nearest region of maximum response. Then Box-Behnken design (BBD was conducted to optimize the final levels of the culture conditions. After analyzing the regression equation and the response surface contour plots, relative humidity 56.07%, inoculum 13.51 mL/100 g and temperature 27.09°C were found to be the optimal key parameters for PCPS production. The maximum predicted yield of PCPS was 10.76 mg/g under the optimized conditions. The resulting PCPS (FPCPS generated at optimal conditions was purified by chromatography column and found to be composed of mannose (43.2%, rhamnose (32.1%, xylose (14.5% and arabinose (10.2%. Based on the size exclusion chromatography combined with multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS analysis, FPCPS adopted a Gaussian coil conformation in 0.1 M NaNO3 solution with 3.75 × 10(6 g/mol of the weight-average molar mass (Mw and 41.1 nm of the root-mean square radius (Rg(2z (1/2. Furthermore, both of the polysaccharides were revealed to have strong antioxidant activities by evaluating in DPPH radical, superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radical assay. These data suggest the polysaccharides of Paecilomyces cicadae (Miquel Samson produced by solid-state fermentation could be explored as potential natural antioxidants.

  14. Fermentation characteristics in stirred-tank reactor of exopolysaccharides with hypolipidemic activity produced by Pleurotus geesteranus 5#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAO DUOBIN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the hypolipidemic effect of exopolysaccharides (EPS from Pleurotus geesteranus 5# fermenting liquor by the optimal culture conditions in a 5-L stirred-tank reactor was investigated. The hypolipidemic effect of the polysaccharide, investigated in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice, decreased plasma glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations by 17.1 %, 18.8 % and 12.0 %, respectively. The results of the present investigation strongly demonstrate the potential of this polysaccharide to prevent hyperglycemia in the experimental animals. Under optimal culture conditions, the maximum concentrations of mycelial and EPS were 22.63 g/L after 7 d cultivation and 11.09 g/L after 10 d, respectively. Furthermore, the morphological parameters (i.e. mean diameter, circularity, roughness and compactness of the pellets and the broth viscosity were characterized. It was proved that compactness of the pellet morphology (R2=0.963, p<0.01 was significantly and positively determined with mycelial biomass. Moreover, mean diameter (R2=93.3, p<0.01 and broth viscosity (R2=0.950, p<0.01 were significantly and positively determined with EPS content.

  15. Human in vivo study of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the sympathetic activity after 8 weeks daily intake of fermented milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Ibsen, Hans; Linneberg, Allan;

    2010-01-01

    Milk fermented by lactic acid bacteria is suggested to have antihypertensive effect in humans. In vitro and animal studies have established an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor effect of peptides in fermented milk. However, other modes of action must be considered, because until today...

  16. The Effect of Fermentation Conditions on the Antioxidant Activity of Strawberry Wine%发酵条件对草莓果酒抗氧化性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋慧; 马利华; 陈学红; 刘金婷

    2016-01-01

    Taking strawberry as the raw material,this paper examines the effect of the clearance rate of the DPPH on the initial sugar,yeast inoculation,fermentation temperature and fermentation time in order to determine the optimal fermentation conditions of strawberry wine.The experiment results show that the best antioxidant properties of fermentation conditions are as follows:incipient sugar degree of 1 6%,yeast inoculation amount of 0.2%,fermentation temperature of 21 ℃,fermentation time of 8 days.Under this optimal condition,more than half of the clearance rate were raised and the hydroxyl radical and the DPPH were 17.6%,16.94%.The anti-oxidative activity of the strawberry wine was improved.%以草莓为原料,考察初始糖度、酵母接种量、发酵温度、发酵时间等发酵条件对草莓果酒清除DPP H 自由基的影响,并确定草莓果酒最佳的发酵条件.实验结果表明:草莓果酒的最佳抗氧化性能的发酵条件是初始糖度16%、酵母接种量0.2%、温度21℃、发酵时间8 d,且该条件下草莓果酒的DPPH 自由基半数清除率、羟基自由基半数清除率比发酵前分别升高了17.67%、16.94%,发酵后草莓果酒的抗氧化能力得到提高.

  17. Lactose uptake rate measurements by 14C-labelled lactose reveals promotional activity of porous cellulose in whey fermentation by kefir yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfinopoulos, Aristidis; Soupioni, Magdalini; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Tsaousi, Konstantina; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2012-10-15

    Lactose uptake rate by kefir yeast, immobilized on tubular cellulose and gluten pellets during fermentation of lactose and whey, was monitored using (14)C-labelled lactose. Results illustrated that, in all cases, lactose uptake rate was strongly correlated with fermentation rate and the fermentation's kinetic parameters were improved by kefir yeast entrapped in tubular cellulose. As a result, twofold faster fermentations were achieved in comparison with kefir yeast immobilized on gluten. This is probably due to cluster and hydrogen bonds formation between cellulose and inhibitors, such as Ca(++) and generated lactic acid, by which they leave the liquid medium. The findings, regarding the promotional effect of cellulose, seem promising for application in industrial whey fermentations. PMID:23442646

  18. Effect of ultrasonic extraction conditions on antioxidative and immunomodulatory activities of a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide originated from fermented soybean curd residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Min; Yang, Yingnan; Hu, Xuansheng; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-07-15

    A crude Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLPL) was extracted from fermented soybean curd residue by ultrasonic assisted extraction. The optimal extraction conditions were 30 min at 80 °C with 80 W and water to solid ratio of 10, and with this method 115.47 ± 2.95 mg/g of GLPL yield was obtained. Additionally, the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of GLPL were investigated. The results showed that GLPL exhibited strong antioxidant effects, which included scavenging activities against DPPH radicals, hydrogen oxide and ABTS radicals with IC50 values of 0.23, 0.48 and 0.69 mg/mL, respectively. For immunomodulatory activities, GLPL was shown to strongly stimulate the proliferation of macrophages (158.02 ± 13.12%), the production of nitric oxide and phagocytosis (21.16 ± 1.65 μM), and, at 40.00 μg/mL, protected macrophage from Doxorubicin (DOX) (0.16 ± 0.003).

  19. Optimization of Liquid Fermentation Medium for Production of Inonotus sanghuang (Higher Basidiomycetes) Mycelia and Evaluation of their Mycochemical Contents and Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xue-Mei; Dai, Yu-Cheng; Song, Ai-Rong; Xu, Kun; Ng, Lean Teik

    2015-01-01

    Inonotus sanghuang, an authentic "Sanghuang" mushroom used in traditional Chinese medicine, is known to possess important pharmacological activities. In this study, we aimed to optimize the liquid fermentation medium for I. sanghuang mycelial production and to determine the effects of two-stage cultivation (shake and static) on the yield of total flavonoids, total phenolics, and polysaccharides, as well as the antioxidant activities of I. sanghuang mycelial extracts (ISME). Under an optimized medium composition (38.96 g/L of corn flour, 4.15 g/L of yeast extract, 20.55 g/L of bran and pH 6.39), the predicted and experimental optimal mycelial biomasses were 17.60 g/L and 18.33±0.86 g/L, respectively. The results of two-stage cultivation showed that contents of total flavonoids and total phenolics in mycelia increased by 37.92% and 77.27%, respectively. However, irregular polysaccharide contents were noted throughout the experimental period. Antioxidant assays showed that ISME possessed good free-radical scavenging activity, which is mainly contributed by polyphenolic-type metabolites. PMID:26559702

  20. Degradation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural during yeast fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akıllıoglu, Halise Gül; Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Gökmen, Vural

    2011-12-01

    5-Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) may occur in malt in high quantities depending on roasting conditions. However, the HMF content of different types of beers is relatively low, indicating its potential for degradation during fermentation. This study investigates the degradation kinetics of HMF in wort during fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results indicated that HMF decreased exponentially as fermentation progressed. The first-order degradation rate of HMF was 0.693 × 10(-2) and 1.397 × 10(-2)min(-1) for wort and sweet wort, respectively, indicating that sugar enhances the activity of yeasts. In wort, HMF was converted into hydroxymethyl furfuryl alcohol by yeasts with a high yield (79-84% conversion). Glucose and fructose were utilised more rapidly by the yeasts in dark roasted malt than in pale malt (pyeast cells, and presence of sugars in the fermentation medium increases this activity. PMID:22010851

  1. Neuropathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jackie D Wood

    2007-01-01

    The investigative evidence and emerging concepts in neurogastroenterology implicate dysfunctions at the levels of the enteric and central nervous systems as underlying causes of the prominent symptoms of many of the functional gastrointestinal disorders.Neurogastroenterological research aims for improved understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of the digestive subsystems from which the arrays of functional symptoms emerge. The key subsystems for defecation-related symptoms and visceral hypersensitivity are the intestinal secretory glands, the musculature and the nervous system that controls and integrates their activity. Abdominal pain and discomfort arising from these systems adds the dimension of sensory neurophysiology. This review details current concepts for the underlying pathophysiology in terms of the physiology of intestinal secretion, motility, nervous control, sensing function, immuno-neural communication and the brain-gut axis.

  2. Embolization for gastrointestinal hemorrhages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, S.C.; Goerich, J.; Rilinger, N.; Aschoff, A.J.; Vogel, J.; Brambs, H.J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Ulm (Germany); Siech, M. [Dept. of Abdominal Surgery, University of Ulm (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    Retrospective evaluation of interventional embolization therapy in the treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage over a long-term observation period from 1989 to 1997. Included in the study were 35 patients (age range 18-89 years) with gastrointestinal bleeding (GI) referred for radiological intervention either primarily or following unsuccessful endoscopy or surgery. Sources of GI bleeding included gastric and duodenal ulcers (n = 7), diverticula (n = 3), erosion of the intestinal wall secondary to malignancy (n = 6), vascular malformations (n = 4), and hemorrhoids (n = 2), as well as from postoperative (n = 6), posttraumatic (n = 2), postinflammatory (n = 4) or unknown (n = 1) causes. Ethibloc (12 cases) or metal coils (14 cases) were predominantly used as embolisates. In addition, combinations of tissue adhesive and gelfoam particles and of coils and Ethibloc were used (six cases). Finally, polyvinyl alcohol particles, a coated stent, and an arterial wire dissection were utilized in one case each. Bleeding was stopped completely in 29 of 35 cases (83 %). In one case (3 %) the source of bleeding was recognized but the corresponding vessel could not be catheterized. In five other cases (14 %) there was partial success with reduced, though still persistent, bleeding. The rate of complications was 14 %, including four instances of intestinal ischemia with fatal outcome in the first years, and, later, one partial infarction of the spleen without serious consequences. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage can be controlled in a high percentage of patients, including the seriously ill and those who had previously undergone surgery, with the use of minimally invasive interventional techniques. The availability of minicoils instead of fluid embolization agents has reduced the risk of serious complications. (orig.)

  3. BUTANOL PRODUCTION BY FERMENTATION OF RENEWABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    OpenAIRE

    Raganati, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The study carried out during the present Ph.D. program aimed at investigating the Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) production process by fermentation. The work was carried out at the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale of the University of Naples ‘Federico II’. The activities were articulated according to three paths: i) the characterization of the ABE fermentation process as regards kinetics and yields using different renewable resources (lignocellul...

  4. Isolation, Identification, and Biotransformation of Teadenol A from Solid State Fermentation of Pu-erh Tea and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-qin Su

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Post-fermented Pu-erh tea (PFPT has several health benefits, however, little is known about the bioactive compounds. In this study, a PFPT compound was isolated by column chromatography and identified as Teadenol A by spectroscopic data analyses, including mass spectrometry and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Teadenol A in tea leaves was biotransformed by Aspergillus niger and A. tamari at 28 °C for 14 d at concentrations ranging from 9.85 ± 1.17 to 12.93 ± 0.38 mg/g. Additionally, the compound was detected in 22 commercial PFPTs at concentrations ranging from 0.17 ± 0.1 to 8.15 ± 0.1 mg/g. Teadenol A promoted the secretion of adiponectin and inhibited the expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B. Antioxidant assays (e.g., 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, hydrogen donating ability, and superoxide anion radical scavenging capacity revealed that Teadenol A has antioxidant properties. Therefore, Teadenol A is an important bio-active component of PFPT.

  5. Improvement of medium chain fatty acid content and antimicrobial activity of coconut oil via solid-state fermentation using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoramnia, Anahita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ajdari, Zahra; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER) method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs) considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion) and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO), respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  6. Improvement of Medium Chain Fatty Acid Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil via Solid-State Fermentation Using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Khoramnia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO, respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  7. Chronological development of element concentrations in grapes during growth and ripeness and during fermentation of must determined by instrumental neutron-activation analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chronological development of element concentrations during growth and ripeness of grapes described in the literature has only been concerned with the macro elements Mg, K, and Ca. Concentrations of trace elements in must are only described as a snapshot at the end of the ripeness. Therefore, the motivation for the present work was to accompany the growth and the ripening process of grapes successively by systematically determining element concentrations in grapes of Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon by neutron-activation analyses. While for a number of elements, the concentrations in the grapes increased as a function of grape development (e.g., Na, K, Rb, Al), other concentrations decreased (e.g., Mg, Ca, Mn). These decreases are not only to be attributed to a dilution by an increasing uptake of water during growth, but also by an active transport of the cations out of the berries. Furthermore, the interest focused on the influence of mineral substances on the process of fermentation and on the uptake of trace elements by the yeasts. (orig.)

  8. Contribution of endogenous plant myrosinase to the antimicrobial activity of deodorized mustard against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fermented dry sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Roniele Peixoto; Wu, Chen; Holley, Richard Alan

    2014-10-17

    This work investigated the antimicrobial activity of residual endogenous plant myrosinase in Oriental and yellow mustard powders and a deoiled meal (which contained more glucosinolate than unextracted mustard powder of each type of mustard), against Escherichia coli O15:H7 during dry-fermented sausage ripening. When small amounts of "hot" mustard powder or meal containing endogenous plant myrosinase were added to fully-deodorized powders and a meal of the same type, pathogen reduction rates were enhanced. The higher glucosinolate level in the deoiled mustard meal enabled the use of 50% less mustard in dry sausage to achieve the mandatory ≥5logCFU/g reduction of E. coli O157:H7. The myrosinase-like activity present in E. coli O157:H7 contributed to glucosinolate hydrolysis in sausages with fully-deodorized, deoiled mustard meal, although the period necessary for a 5log pathogen reduction was 14d longer. Yellow mustard derivatives were more potently antimicrobial than Oriental mustard.

  9. Zymogram profiling of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities allows Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces species differentiation and correlates to their fermentation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Matallana, Emilia

    2013-05-01

    Aerobic organisms have devised several enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses to deal with reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by cellular metabolism. To combat such stress, cells induce ROS scavenging enzymes such as catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase. In the present research, we have used a double staining technique of SOD and catalase enzymes in the same polyacrylamide gel to analyze the different antioxidant enzymatic activities and protein isoforms present in Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeast species. Moreover, we used a technique to differentially detect Sod1p and Sod2p on gel by immersion in NaCN, which specifically inhibits the Sod1p isoform. We observed unique SOD and catalase zymogram profiles for all the analyzed yeasts and we propose this technique as a new approach for Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeast strains differentiation. In addition, we observed functional correlations between SOD and catalase enzyme activities, accumulation of essential metabolites, such as glutathione and trehalose, and the fermentative performance of different yeasts strains with industrial relevance. PMID:23354444

  10. Chronological development of element concentrations in grapes during growth and ripeness and during fermentation of must determined by instrumental neutron-activation analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feige, Markus; Hampel, Gabriele; Kratz, Jens Volker; Wiehl, Norbert [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernchemie; Koenig, Helmut [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie und Weinforschung; Wagner, Andreas [Weingut Wagner, Essenheim (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The chronological development of element concentrations during growth and ripeness of grapes described in the literature has only been concerned with the macro elements Mg, K, and Ca. Concentrations of trace elements in must are only described as a snapshot at the end of the ripeness. Therefore, the motivation for the present work was to accompany the growth and the ripening process of grapes successively by systematically determining element concentrations in grapes of Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon by neutron-activation analyses. While for a number of elements, the concentrations in the grapes increased as a function of grape development (e.g., Na, K, Rb, Al), other concentrations decreased (e.g., Mg, Ca, Mn). These decreases are not only to be attributed to a dilution by an increasing uptake of water during growth, but also by an active transport of the cations out of the berries. Furthermore, the interest focused on the influence of mineral substances on the process of fermentation and on the uptake of trace elements by the yeasts. (orig.)

  11. Systemic availability of the active metabolite hydroxy-fasudil after administration of fasudil to different sites of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderling, Peter H; Karara, Adel H; Tao, Ben; Pawula, Maria; Wilding, Ian; Lu, Ming

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the gastrointestinal absorption of fasudil, a novel Rho kinase inhibitor for the treatment of stable angina, at different sites using remote-controlled capsules and assessed the feasibility of developing an extended-release formulation. Ten healthy male volunteers were enrolled, and 8 subjects completed this single-dose, open-label, randomized, 5-way crossover study. Forty milligrams of fasudil HCl was administered as solution to the distal ileum and ascending colon, as powder to the ascending colon, and orally as an immediate-release tablet and solution. All treatments were well-tolerated and no serious adverse events were observed. The mean systemic availabilities of M3 relative to the oral solution were 1.04 (distal ileum, solution), 1.14 (ascending colon, solution), 1.27 (ascending colon, powder) and 1.04 (oral tablet), indicating similar systemic availability of M3 after administration of fasudil HCl to different gastrointestinal sites. The results suggest that development of a once-a-day extended-release formulation for fasudil HCl should be readily achievable. PMID:17192498

  12. Production, characterization and anticancer activity of Candida bombicola sophorolipids by means of solid state fermentation of sunflower oil cake and soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad, M. M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of sophorolipids by Candida bombicola NRRL Y- 17069 grown in a mixture of sunflower oil cake and crude soybean oil as economic substrates with different fermentation techniques was studied. The highest yield (49.5 g·100 g−1 substrates was obtained from solid state fermentation after employing a new concept for extraction by methanol (E I followed by ethyl acetate (E II, then partially purified with hexane (E III. The course of time of fermentation was also studied, and E I extracted of the 12th day showed the minimum surface tension (45 mN·m−1 at a critical micelle dilution (CMD of 10% concentration. The produced sophorolipids were characterized and confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The anticancer activity of the produced compounds was assessed against MCF-7, HepG2, A549, HCT116 cancer cell lines and the results revealed that E III and E IV (a mixture of E I & E III act as promising anticancer agents in HepG2 and A549 by inhibiting urokinase and histone deacetylase activities.Se estudió la producción de soforolípidos por Candida bombicola NRRL Y- 17069 cultiva con diferentes técnicas de fermentación en una mezcla de torta de girasol y aceite de soja crudo, como sustratos económicos. El rendimiento más alto (49,5 g·100 g−1 de sustrato se obtuvo por fermentación en estado sólido después de extraer con metanol (IE seguido de acetato de etilo (EII, y de purificación parcial con hexano (EIII. También se estudió el tiempo de fermentación, considerando que el extracto IE de 12 días mostró una tensión superficial mínima (45 mN·m−1 a una dilución micelar crítica (CMD de concentración 10 %. Los soforolípidos producidos se caracterizaron y se confirmaron mediante espectroscopia FTIR y RMN de 1H. La actividad anticancerígena de los compuestos producidos se evaluó en células MCF-7, HepG2, A549, líneas celulares de cáncer de HCT116 y los resultados revelaron que EIII y EIV (una mezcla de EI y EIII

  13. Neonatal gastrointestinal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Padma [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital and University of Melbourne, Flemington Road, Parkville, Melbourne, Vic. 3052 (Australia)]. E-mail: padma.rao@rch.org.au

    2006-11-15

    Radiological imaging is an important part of the evaluation and management of neonates with suspected anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical presentation is often non-specific, commonly with abdominal distension and vomiting for which the underlying cause may or may not be clinically apparent. In a proportion of patients, the clinical assessment alone may suffice in providing the diagnosis and no further imaging is necessary. The reader must have an understanding of the normal radiographic appearances of the gastrointestinal tract in neonates and appreciate normal variants and differences to adults. In certain cases, the abdominal radiograph alone is diagnostic. In others, sonography and contrast studies are useful adjunct investigations and the indications for CT and MRI are few, but specific. Appropriate radiological investigation will help to establish the diagnosis and guide surgical intervention whilst also avoiding unnecessary radiation. Some of the conditions require transfer to specialist paediatric institutions for care. Thus, in some circumstances it is appropriate for imaging to be delayed and performed at the specialist centre with early referral often essential for the continued well being of the child.

  14. Invited review: Fermented milk as antihypertensive functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Barrientos, L M; Hernández-Mendoza, A; Torres-Llanez, M J; González-Córdova, A F; Vallejo-Córdoba, B

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decade, interest has risen in fermented dairy foods that promote health and could prevent diseases such as hypertension. This biological effect has mainly been attributed to bioactive peptides encrypted within dairy proteins that can be released during fermentation with specific lactic acid bacteria or during gastrointestinal digestion. The most studied bioactive peptides derived from dairy proteins are antihypertensive peptides; however, a need exists to review the different studies dealing with the evaluation of antihypertensive fermented milk before a health claim may be associated with the product. Thus, the objective of this overview was to present available information related to the evaluation of fermented milk containing antihypertensive peptides by in vitro and in vivo studies, which are required before a fermented functional dairy product may be introduced to the market. Although commercial fermented milks with antihypertensive effects exist, these are scarce and most are based on Lactobacillus helveticus. Thus, a great opportunity is available for the development of functional dairy products with new lactic acid bacteria that support heart health through blood pressure- and heart rate-lowering effects. Hence, the consumer may be willing to pay a premium for foods with important functional benefits. PMID:26923047

  15. Influence of extracellular pH on growth, viability, cell size, acidification activity, and intracellular pH of Lactococcus lactis in batch fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gunda; Johansen, Claus Lindvald; Marten, Gunvor; Wilmes, Jacqueline; Jespersen, Lene; Arneborg, Nils

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of three extracellular pH (pHex) values (i.e., 5.5, 6.5, and 7.5) on the growth, viability, cell size, acidification activity in milk, and intracellular pH (pHi) of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DGCC1212 during pH-controlled batch fermentations. A universal parameter (e.g., linked to pHi) for the description or prediction of viability, specific acidification activity, or growth behavior at a given pHex was not identified. We found viability as determined by flow cytometry to remain high during all growth phases and irrespectively of the pH set point. Furthermore, regardless of the pHex, the acidification activity per cell decreased over time which seemed to be linked to cell shrinkage. Flow cytometric pHi determination demonstrated an increase of the averaged pHi level for higher pH set points, while the pH gradient (pHi-pHex) and the extent of pHi heterogeneity decreased. Cells maintained positive pH gradients at a low pHex of 5.5 and even during substrate limitation at the more widely used pHex 6.5. Moreover, the strain proved able to grow despite small negative or even absent pH gradients at a high pHex of 7.5. The larger pHi heterogeneity at pHex 5.5 and 6.5 was associated with more stressful conditions resulting, e.g., from higher concentrations of non-dissociated lactic acid, while the low pHi heterogeneity at pHex 7.5 most probably corresponded to lower concentrations of non-dissociated lactic acid which facilitated the cells to reach the highest maximum active cell counts of the three pH set points. PMID:27020293

  16. The effect of temperature and time on the quality of natural fermented marula (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. Caffra) juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwilepo-van Hal, P.; Bille, P.G.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of fermentation on the retention of vitamin C, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in the naturally fermented marula juice. The fermentation conditions have been varied: temperature ranged between 20 and 40 °C and fermentation time from 1 to 8 days. Marula juic

  17. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds, vegeta

  18. Colour Evaluation, Bioactive Compound Content, Phenolic Acid Profiles and in Vitro Biological Activity of Passerina del Frusinate White Wines: Influence of Pre-Fermentative Skin Contact Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Carbone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Passerina del Frusinate is an autochthonous wine grape variety, which grows in the Lazio region that is currently being evaluated by local wine producers. In this study, colour properties (CIELab coordinates, bioactive compounds (total polyphenols and flavan-3-ols, HPLC-DAD phenolic acid profiles and in vitro biological activity of monovarietal Passerina del Frusinate white wines and the effect of different maceration times (0, 18 and 24 h were evaluated based on these parameters. Results highlighted statistically significant differences for almost all analysed parameters due to a strong influence of the pre-fermentative skin contact time. The flavan content of macerated wines was six times higher than that of the control, while total polyphenols were 1.5 times higher. According to their phytochemical content, macerated wines showed the highest antiradical capacity tested by means of DPPH• and ABTS+• assays. Besides, prolonged maceration resulted in a reduction of CIELab coordinates as well as of the content of phenolic substances and antiradical capacity. Among the phenolic acids analysed, the most abundant were vanillic acid and caffeic acid; the latter proved to be the most susceptible to degradation as a result of prolonged maceration. Passerina del Frusinate appears as a phenol-rich white wine with a strong antioxidant potential similar to that of red wines.

  19. Colour Evaluation, Bioactive Compound Content, Phenolic Acid Profiles and in Vitro Biological Activity of Passerina del Frusinate White Wines: Influence of Pre-Fermentative Skin Contact Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Katya; Fiordiponti, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Passerina del Frusinate is an autochthonous wine grape variety, which grows in the Lazio region that is currently being evaluated by local wine producers. In this study, colour properties (CIELab coordinates), bioactive compounds (total polyphenols and flavan-3-ols), HPLC-DAD phenolic acid profiles and in vitro biological activity of monovarietal Passerina del Frusinate white wines and the effect of different maceration times (0, 18 and 24 h) were evaluated based on these parameters. Results highlighted statistically significant differences for almost all analysed parameters due to a strong influence of the pre-fermentative skin contact time. The flavan content of macerated wines was six times higher than that of the control, while total polyphenols were 1.5 times higher. According to their phytochemical content, macerated wines showed the highest antiradical capacity tested by means of DPPH(•) and ABTS(+•) assays. Besides, prolonged maceration resulted in a reduction of CIELab coordinates as well as of the content of phenolic substances and antiradical capacity. Among the phenolic acids analysed, the most abundant were vanillic acid and caffeic acid; the latter proved to be the most susceptible to degradation as a result of prolonged maceration. Passerina del Frusinate appears as a phenol-rich white wine with a strong antioxidant potential similar to that of red wines. PMID:27455227

  20. Radionuclide detection of lower gastrointestinal bleeding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective review of two years' experience with radionuclide screening to detect lower gastrointestinal bleeding sites was conducted at New York's Montefiore Medical Center. Of 82 studies performed in 63 patients, 13 identified active bleeding sites. Only three of eight angiograms obtained in these 13 patients were positive. Thirteen contrast angiograms were performed in the group of 50 patients with negative radionuclide studies of which ten were negative and one was equivocal. The results of this study suggest that the Tc-99m sulfur colloid study for active lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is an effective screening procedure. Positive studies help determine which vessel to catheterize selectively if an angiogram is to be performed. If vascular ectasis is still suspected following a negative radionuclide study, contrast angiography can be more efficaciously performed on a nonemergent basis

  1. Biotechnology of olive fermentation of ‘Galega' Portuguese variety

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Manuela; Brito, Dulce; Catulo, Luís; Leitão, Fausto; Gomes, Lucília; Silva, Sandra; Vilas-Boas, Luís; Peito, Amália; Fernandes, Isabel; Gordo, Francisca; Peres, Cidália

    2004-01-01

    ‘Galega' is the main Portuguese olive variety providing the greatest percentage of table olive production from homemade and industrial methods. In this work a better understanding of the fermentation involved in both methods is intended. Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constitute the microflora acting in olive fermentation, with Pichia membranaefaciens being the dominant yeast specie present throughout the process. LAB develop their activity mainly along the second fermentation stage ...

  2. Traditional fermented food and beverages for improved livelihoods

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia, Danilo; Marshall, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    "This booklet is intended to heighten awareness about the potential of fermented foods and beverages as a viable enterprise that can contribute to small-scale farmers' income, building on, and in full respect of, important social and cultural factors. It also looks at how fermented food and beverages contribute to food security through preservation and improved nutritional quality. It highlights the opportunities and challenges associated with small-scale fermentation activities, as well as m...

  3. Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... privileges for flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy. Privileging in flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy should be based on demonstration of competency in these techniques. Surgical Simulation: The Value of Individualization Surgical simulation ...

  4. Estrogen and gastrointestinal malignancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, A M

    2012-02-01

    The concept that E2 exerts an effect on the gastrointestinal tract is not new and its actions on intestinal mucosa have been investigated for at least three decades. An attempt to consolidate results of these investigations generates more questions than answers, thus suggesting that many unexplored avenues remain and that the full capabilities of this steroid hormone are far from understood. Evidence of its role in esophageal, gastric and gallbladder cancers is confusing and often equivocal. The most compelling evidence regards the protective role conferred by estrogen (or perhaps ERbeta) against the development and proliferation of colon cancer. Not only has the effect been described but also many mechanisms of action have been explored. It is likely that, along with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, hormonal manipulation will play an integral role in colon cancer management in the very near future.

  5. Obesity and Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Fujimoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity in the Japanese population has been increasing dramatically in step with the Westernization of lifestyles and food ways. Our study demonstrated significant associations between obesity and a number of gastrointestinal disorders in a large sample population in Japan. We demonstrated that reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia were strongly related to obesity (BMI > 25 in the Japanese. In particular, obesity with young male was a high risk for these diseases. On the other hand, it has been reported that obesity is also associated with Barrett’s esophagus and colorectal adenoma; however, obesity was not a risk factor for these diseases in our study. The difference of ethnicity of our subjects may partly explain why we found no data to implicate obesity as a risk factor for Barrett’s esophagus. Arterial sclerosis associated with advanced age and hyperglycemia was accompanied by an increased risk of colorectal adenoma.

  6. Solid Substrate Fermentation of Cassava Peel for Poultry Feed Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassava peel which is not used during cassava starch extraction is one of potential resources for animal feed. However, cassava peel has low level protein content, high level crude fiber, and high level of toxic cyanogenic compound. These problems limit the utilization of cassava peel as feed. Solid substrate fermentation using mold may be a solution process to increase its nutritional value and decrease toxic level of cassava peel. In this paper, matters that related with cassava peel fermentation process are subsequently described, namely: (i problems of cassava peel; (ii biodegradation and detoxification process; (iii solid state fermentation methods on cassava peel; (iv nutritional quality of fermented cassava peel; and (v application of fermented cassava peel in poultry feed. The fermented cassava peel application is compared with those of cassava root and waste (onggok. Addition of nitrogen inorganic in the fermentation process increases the mold growth and protein content of the product, while fiber and cyanogenic contents are decreased due to mold degradation activity. The fermentation process may be carried out using only the cassava peel as the substrate or mixed with wheat flour, using indigenous microbes, Aspergillus niger or a white rot fungus, Panus tigrinus as inoculum. As well as fermented cassava root and waste, fermented cassava peel can be used to substitute maize as poultry feed, although it is reported that the optimum substitution in broiler ration is only 10%.

  7. Campylobacter and Salmonella control in broilers and the role of fermented feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heres, L.

    2004-01-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are undesirable pathogens on poultry. Therefore the effect of fermented feed on the colonization in the gastro-intestinal tract of the chicken, the introduction of both bacteria in a chicken flocks, and the transmission between chickens was studied. Broilers that were fe

  8. Stimulatory effect of different lignocellulosic materials for phenolic compound production and antioxidant activity from Inonotus obliquus in submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linghui; Xu, Xiangqun

    2013-04-01

    White-rot fungus Inonotus obliquus grown in submerged culture produces antioxidative phenolic compounds. In this study, addition of lignocellulosic materials into the liquid culture increased the production and antioxidant activity of extra- and intra-cellular phenolic compounds (EPC and IPC, respectively). The production of EPC and IPC was significantly enhanced by wheat straw (by 151.2 and 45.3 %), sugarcane bagasse (by 106.9 and 26.1 %), and rice straw (by 67.6 and 38.9 %). Both of the EPC and IPC extracts from the three substrates showed a higher hydroxyl and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity than those from the control medium. The highly active polyphenols such as tea catechins of epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and phelligridin G in the EPC extracts increased by 113.1, 75.0, and 86.3 % in the sugarcane bagasse medium. Davallialactone and inoscavin B in the EPC extracts were generated in large amounts in the lignocellulose media but not found in the control medium. The IPC extract from the wheat straw medium had the highest production of EGCG and ECG (17.6 and 18.1 mg/l). The different enhancement among the materials was attributed to the content and degradation rate of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The different antioxidant activity of the EPC and IPC extracts was related to their phenolic compositions. PMID:23408232

  9. Rumen microorganisms and fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Castillo-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rumen consists of a complex ecosystem where nutrients consumed by ruminants are digested by fermentation process, which is executed by diverse microorganisms such as bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. A symbiotic relationship is found among different groups of microorganisms due to the diverse nature of these microbial species and their adaptability and interactions also coexist. The ruminant provides the necessary environment for the establishment of such microorganisms, while the microorganisms obtain energy from the host animal from microbial fermentation end products. Within the ruminal ecosystem, the microorganisms coexist in a reduced environment and pH remains close to neutral. Rumen microorganisms are involved in the fermentation of substrates contained in thedietof the animals (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. However, the fermentation process is not 100% effective because there are energy losses mainly in the form of methane gas (CH4, which is a problem for the environment since it is a greenhouse gas. In order to improve the efficiency of ruminant production systems, nutritional strategies that aim to manipulate ruminal fermentation using additives in the diet such as monensin, tallow, buffers, nitrogen compounds, probiotics, and others have been used. These additives allow changing the ruminal fermentation process in ways that produce better growth efficiency while decreasing energy loss. The purpose of this review is to contribute to a better understanding of the fermentation processes taking place in the rumen, providing information that can be applied in the development of new nutritional strategies for the improvement of the digestion process to achieve maximum production.

  10. ADAM Proteases and Gastrointestinal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer C; Rustagi, Shelly; Dempsey, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are a family of cell surface proteases that regulate diverse cellular functions, including cell adhesion, migration, cellular signaling, and proteolysis. Proteolytically active ADAMs are responsible for ectodomain shedding of membrane-associated proteins. ADAMs rapidly modulate key cell signaling pathways in response to changes in the extracellular environment (e.g., inflammation) and play a central role in coordinating intercellular communication within the local microenvironment. ADAM10 and ADAM17 are the most studied members of the ADAM family in the gastrointestinal tract. ADAMs regulate many cellular processes associated with intestinal development, cell fate specification, and the maintenance of intestinal stem cell/progenitor populations. Several signaling pathway molecules that undergo ectodomain shedding by ADAMs [e.g., ligands and receptors from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ErbB and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) receptor (TNFR) families] help drive and control intestinal inflammation and injury/repair responses. Dysregulation of these processes through aberrant ADAM expression or sustained ADAM activity is linked to chronic inflammation, inflammation-associated cancer, and tumorigenesis.

  11. ADAM Proteases and Gastrointestinal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer C.; Rustagi, Shelly; Dempsey, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are a family of cell surface proteases that regulate diverse cellular functions, including cell adhesion, migration, cellular signaling, and proteolysis. Proteolytically active ADAMs are responsible for ectodomain shedding of membrane-associated proteins. ADAMs rapidly modulate key cell signaling pathways in response to changes in the extracellular environment (e.g., inflammation) and play a central role in coordinating intercellular communication within the local microenvironment. ADAM10 and ADAM17 are the most studied members of the ADAM family in the gastrointestinal tract. ADAMs regulate many cellular processes associated with intestinal development, cell fate specification, and the maintenance of intestinal stem cell/progenitor populations. Several signaling pathway molecules that undergo ectodomain shedding by ADAMs [e.g., ligands and receptors from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ErbB and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) receptor (TNFR) families] help drive and control intestinal inflammation and injury/repair responses. Dysregulation of these processes through aberrant ADAM expression or sustained ADAM activity is linked to chronic inflammation, inflammation-associated cancer, and tumorigenesis. PMID:26667078

  12. ADAM Proteases and Gastrointestinal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer C; Rustagi, Shelly; Dempsey, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are a family of cell surface proteases that regulate diverse cellular functions, including cell adhesion, migration, cellular signaling, and proteolysis. Proteolytically active ADAMs are responsible for ectodomain shedding of membrane-associated proteins. ADAMs rapidly modulate key cell signaling pathways in response to changes in the extracellular environment (e.g., inflammation) and play a central role in coordinating intercellular communication within the local microenvironment. ADAM10 and ADAM17 are the most studied members of the ADAM family in the gastrointestinal tract. ADAMs regulate many cellular processes associated with intestinal development, cell fate specification, and the maintenance of intestinal stem cell/progenitor populations. Several signaling pathway molecules that undergo ectodomain shedding by ADAMs [e.g., ligands and receptors from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/ErbB and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) receptor (TNFR) families] help drive and control intestinal inflammation and injury/repair responses. Dysregulation of these processes through aberrant ADAM expression or sustained ADAM activity is linked to chronic inflammation, inflammation-associated cancer, and tumorigenesis. PMID:26667078

  13. Investigation of Antimicrobial Activity and Statistical Optimization of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 Biosurfactant Production in Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhouha Ghribi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, several applications of biosurfactants with medical purposes have been reported. Biosurfactants are considered relevant molecules for applications in combating many diseases. However, their use is currently extremely limited due to their high cost in relation to that of chemical surfactants. Use of inexpensive substrates can drastically decrease its production cost. Here, twelve solid substrates were screened for the production of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant and the maximum yield was found with millet. A Plackett-Burman design was then used to evaluate the effects of five variables (temperature, moisture, initial pH, inoculum age, and inoculum size. Statistical analyses showed that temperature, inoculum age, and moisture content had significantly positive effect on SPB1 biosurfactant production. Their values were further optimized using a central composite design and a response surface methodology. The optimal conditions of temperature, inoculum age, and moisture content obtained under the conditions of study were 37°C, 14 h, and 88%, respectively. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of this compound was carried out against 11 bacteria and 8 fungi. The results demonstrated that this biosurfactant exhibited an important antimicrobial activity against microorganisms with multidrug-resistant profiles. Its activity was very effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumonia, and so forth.

  14. Ethanol by continuous fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    EtOH is produced by continuous fermentation of molasses. Thus, molasses diluted to 20/sup 0/ Brix was inoculated with bakers' yeast and fermented at 32/sup 0/. When the medium reached 4% EtOH, it was circulated through a centrifuge. The concentrated yeast was recycled to the fermentor and the supernatant was sent to a still. After distillation, the still residue was returned to the fermentor. When the initial charge was entirely fermented, 13 kg molasses of 40/sup 0/ Brix was added to the fermentor per hour, and the yield of EtOH was 1.7 kg/100 L-hour.

  15. Radionuclide localization of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors prospectively evaluated the usefulness of abdominal radionuclide scintigraphy using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red cells as a means of monitoring for intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding over a 24-hour period in both control and actively bleeding populations. Of 32 patients with documented hemorrhage, 29 had positive scintiscans (sensitivity, 91%; 9% false negatives). Of 18 nonbleeding patients, 17 had negative scintiscans (specificity, 95%; 5% false positives). 12 of 29 patients bled from 6 to 24 hours after the study was begun. Scintiscans were positive in patient with transfusion requirements of greater than or equal to 500 ml/24 hr. The authors conclude that abdominal scintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red cells is an effective method of detecting gastrointestinal bleeding

  16. Effect of Casein Hydrolyses, Ascorbic Acid, CaCl2, Ca (H2 PO42, NaCl and Tween 80 on ACE Inhibitory Activity in Fermented Goat Milk by Lactobacillus plantarum LP69

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Shu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE inhibitory peptides produced by Lactic acid bacteria during fermentation can lower hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of casein hydrolyses (0.50, 0.60, 0.70, 0.80 and 0.90%, respectively, ascorbic acid (0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.09%, respectively, CaCl2 (0.04, 0.05, 0.06, 0.07 and 0.08%, respectively, Ca (H2PO4 2 (0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.09%, respectively, NaCl (0.30, 0.60, 0.90, 1.20 and 1.50%, respectively and Tween 80 (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10%, respectively on ACE inhibitory peptides fermented from goat milk by Lactobacillus plantarum LP69 using single factor experiment. The results were as follows: The optimal concentration of casein hydrolyses, ascorbic acid, CaCl2, (CaH2PO4 2, NaCl and Tween 80 for ACE inhibitory activity was 0.70, 0.03, 0.08, 0.05, 0.90 and 0.04% in fermented goat milk by Lactobacillus plantarum LP69, respectively. The casein hydrolyses, ascorbic acid, CaCl2, Ca (H2PO4 2, NaCl and Tween 80 had a significant influence on ACE inhibitory activity in fermented milk and growth of Lactobacillus plantarum LP69, the results are beneficial for further screening main factors by using fractional factorial designs.

  17. Biological activities of the fermentation extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata isolated from Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurette dos Reis Vieira Fernandes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 endophytic fungi isolated from coffee (Coffea arabica L. were cultivated in vitro and their crude extracts tested. The screening was carried out using the agar diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The most effective isolate was Alternaria alternata, and subsequently, its extract was assayed. The total phenolic content was 3.44 μg GAE/mg of the crude extract. For the antibacterial and antifungal activity assays, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations (MBC and MFC were determined. The ranges of MIC values were 50-100 μg/mL for S. aureus and 400-800 μg/mL for E. coli. The extract did not show activity in the tested concentrations for C. albicans. The fungal crude extract was assayed for antioxidant activities. Its ability to scavenge DPPH radicals and antioxidant activity by β-carotene/linoleic acid system oxidation was not significant. In addition, antitumor activity was studied using the MTT assay. At a dilution of 400 μg/mL, the extract displayed a cytotoxic activity of approximately 50% towards HeLa cells in vitro. The results indicate that endophytic fungi could be a promising source of bioactive compounds and warrant further study.Total de 22 fungos endofíticos isolados de café (Coffea arabica L. foi cultivado in vitro e seus extratos testados. A triagem foi conduzida pelo método de difusão em agar contra bactérias Gram-positiva, Gram-negativa e uma levedura. O isolado mais efetivo foi Alternaria alternata e, subsequentemente, seu extrato foi analisado. O conteúdo de fenólicos totais do extrato bruto foi de 3,44 μg EAG/mg de extrato. Para os testes de atividade antimicrobiana, a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e concentração bactericida e fungicida mínima (CBM e CFM contra Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli e Candida albicans foram determinadas. Resultados da CIM variaram entre 50-100 μg/mL para

  18. Influence of Tarhana Herb (Echinophora sibthorpiana) on Fermentation of Tarhana, Turkish Traditional Fermented Food

    OpenAIRE

    Deghirmencioghlu, Nurcan; Göçmen, Duygu; Daghdelen, Ayhan; Daghdelen, Fatih

    2005-01-01

    Tarhana herb (Echinophora sibthorpiana) (TH) is used as a spice in tarhana. It has a pleasant flavour and stimulates some microorganisms. In this study, the fermentation activity of tarhana was investigated by monitoring the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast populations when TH was used as additive. It can be said that tarhana herb (Echinophora sibthorpiana) prevented the decrease in the counts of LAB and yeast below the initial number during tarhana fermentation.

  19. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues.

  20. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues. PMID:20610173

  1. Study on suitable condition on fermentation of pineapple wine with self-made active dry yeast%自制活性干酵母发酵菠萝果酒适宜条件探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲; 尚云青; 匡钰; 张美欣

    2013-01-01

    以自制菠萝果酒活性干酵母对菠萝果汁进行发酵生产菠萝果酒.采用单因素实验结合响应面法对菠萝果酒发酵工艺条件进行优化.选取初始糖度、发酵温度、发酵液pH、接种量为影响因子,以酒精度为响应值,在单因素实验的基础上,应用二次回归旋转组合设计来进行发酵条件的优化,运用SAS RSREG程序对各个实验点响应值进行回归分析.结果表明,温度33.7℃、pH5.6、初始糖度20.5%、接种量5 5%为最优发酵条件,在此条件下发酵的菠萝果酒的酒度为8.7%,且酒香纯正,果香浓郁.%Pineapple wine was produced through the fermentation of pineapple juice witch using self-made active dry yeast. Single factor test and response surface methodology were used to optimize the process condition on the fermentation.The optimization of fermentation condition used the initial brix,the fermentation temperature,the pH of fermentative liquid and the inoculums amount as impact factor.Alcohol was used as response. The quadratic regression rotational combinatorial design was applied on the basis of single factor test. The programme of SAS RSREG was used to performed regression analysis of different test point response. The results showed that temperature 33.7℃,pH5.6, initial sugar content 20.5% and inoculums amount 5.5% were the best fermentative condition, Under the best condition,the alcohol of the pineapple wine was 87%. The wine was pure and fruity.

  2. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Simonetti, Rosa G;

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  3. Antitumor Activities and Apoptosis-regulated Mechanisms of Fermented Wheat Germ Extract in the Transplantation Tumor Model of Human HT-29 Cells in Nude Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jia Yan; XIAO Xiang; DONG Ying; WU Jing; ZHOU Xing Hua

    2015-01-01

    Objective A subcutaneous transplantation tumor model of human HT-29 cells in nude mice was established to evaluate anticarcinogenic activities, and the apoptosis-regulated mechanism effect of aqueous extract of fermented wheat germ with Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 (LFWGE). Methods The HT-29 cells were transplanted via subcutaneous injection of 1×107 cells into the right flank of each nude mouse. Then, nude mice were treated for 30 d with LFWGE (high-dose 2 g/kg/d;low-dose 1 g/kg/d) and for 7 d with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, 25 mg/kg/d) by gavage and intraperitoneal injection, respectively. An inhibition of tumor growth was observed. Results Tumor volume and weights decreased significantly in both groups of nude mice treated with LFWGE. In addition, the cell apoptosis rate of the LFWGE group (2 g/kg/d, 60.1%±4.4%; 1 g/kg/d, 58.6%±6.9%) was significantly higher than that of the control group (11.5%±1.6%) and 5-FU group (32.1%±3.5%) as measured by the TUNEL assay. Moreover, the real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR and Western blot method further confirmed these enhancing apoptosis and growth inhibition effects. The involvement of LFWGE in inducing apoptosis was confirmed by the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3, and CyclinD1. Conclusion The results showed that LFWGE could induce subcutaneous transplantation tumor apoptosis in nude mice and could be as a natural nutrient supplements or chemopreventive agent in the treatment of human colon cancer.

  4. Fed-batch culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in sugar-cane blackstrap molasses: invertase activity of intact cells in ethanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echegaray, O.F.; Carvalho, J.C.M.; Fernandes, A.N.R.; Sato, S.; Aquarone, E.; Vitolo, M. [University of Sao Paulo, (Brazil). Department of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Technology

    2000-07-01

    Fed-batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were carried out in a 14 l fermenter (NBS, Microferm), containing sugar-cane blackstrap molasses supplemented with urea (0.5 g l{sup -1}) and penicillin V (500 ui/l), under the following conditions: 32({+-}1) deg C; pH 4.5 - 5.0; N = 200 min{sup -1}; inoculum and mash volume equal to 3.0 l and 7.0 l, respectively. The parameters varied were: filling time (T: 1, 2 or 3 h), time constant (K: 0, 0.8 or 1.6 h{sup -1}), total reducing sugar concentration in the feeding mash (S{sub m}) (170, 220 or 270 g l{sup -1}) and total amount of wet-pressed yeast in the inoculum (M{sub x0}') (800, 1300 or 1800 g). By applying the quadratic regression analysis the following equations were established: Y = 78.2 + 2.5X{sub 3} + 2.5(X{sub 3}){sup 2} - 3.3X{sub 4} - 0.89X{sub 1},X{sub 2} - 0.79X{sub 3},X{sub 4} and P{sub v} = 71.3 + 6.5X{sub 4} - 4.9X{sub 2},X{sub 4} for the ethanol yield (Y) and residual invertase activity (P{sub v}), respectively. The optimised ethanol and invertase formation was observed for high S{sub m} values under low M{sub x0}' - and high K. (author)

  5. Epigenetic mechanisms and gastrointestinal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review considers the hypothesis that nutrition during infancy affects developmental epigenetics in the gut, causing metabolic imprinting of gastrointestinal (GI) structure and function. Fundamentals of epigenetic gene regulation are reviewed, with an emphasis on the epigenetic mechanism of DNA ...

  6. Sleep Dysfunction and Gastrointestinal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanijow, Vikesh; Prakash, Pia; Emsellem, Helene A; Borum, Marie L; Doman, David B

    2015-12-01

    Sleep deprivation and impaired sleep quality have been associated with poor health outcomes. Many patients experience sleep disturbances, which can increase the risk of medical conditions such as hypertension, obesity, stroke, and heart disease as well as increase overall mortality. Recent studies have suggested that there is a strong association between sleep disturbances and gastrointestinal diseases. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6, have been associated with sleep dysfunction. Alterations in these cytokines have been seen in certain gastrointestinal diseases, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, liver disorders, and colorectal cancer. It is important for gastroenterologists to be aware of the relationship between sleep disorders and gastrointestinal illnesses to ensure good care for patients. This article reviews the current research on the interplay between sleep disorders, immune function, and gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:27134599

  7. Effects of Different Neutral Detergent Fiber/Starch Ratio Diets on Performance, Caecum Fermentation and Gastrointestinal Development of Growing Rabbits%不同中性洗涤纤维与淀粉比例饲粮对生长肉兔生产性能、盲肠发酵及胃肠道发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱岩丽; 李福昌; 王春阳; 王雪鹏

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different neutral detergent fiber (NDF) /starch ratio diets on performance,caecum fermentation and gastrointestinal development of growing rabbits.A total of 200 35-day-old weanling rabbits were randomly assigned to 4 groups with 50 replicates in each group,and they were fed diets with the ratios of NDF/starch were 2.3 (NDF,336 g/kg DM; starch,145 g/kg DM;group Ⅰ),1.9 (NDF,306 g/kg DM; starch,164 g/kg DM; group Ⅱ),1.4 (NDF,273 g/kg DM;starch,192 g/kg DM; group Ⅲ) and 1.0 (NDF,250 g/kg DM ; starch,250 g/kg DM ; group Ⅳ),respectively.The trial lasted for 7 days for adaptation,and 40 days for experiment.The results showed as follows:the ratio of NDF/starch had significant influences on average daily gain (ADG) and feed/gain (F/G) (P <0.05),but had no significant influence on average daily feed intake (ADFI) (P > 0.05).With the NDF level decreasing and starch level increasing,the ADG was firstly increased and then decreased,while the F/G had an opposite change,and the largest ADG (23.59 g/d) and the lowest F/G (2.93) were found in group Ⅱ.Average diarrhea day of trial rabbits was significantly decreased with the NDF level increasing (P < 0.01).The values of stomach weight (SW),small intestine weight (SIW),caecum weight (CW) and small intestine length (SIL) in group Ⅱ were all the largest (longest) among all groups,and the ratio of NDF/starch had a significant influences on SW and SIW (P < 0.05).The ratio of NDF/starch had a significant influence on propionic acid content in cecal digesta (P < 0.05),but had no significant influence on pH,ammonia nitrogen concentration,acetic acid content,butyric acid content and acetic acid/(propionic acid + butyric acid) in cecal digesta (P > 0.05).The propionic acid content in cecal digesta in groups Ⅱ and Ⅲ was significantly higher than that in groups Ⅰ and Ⅳ (P < 0.05).The ratio of NDF/starch had significant influence on duodenum villous height

  8. Primary pediatric gastrointestinal lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Bandyopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL of the gastrointestinal (GI tract is the most common extranodal lymphoma in pediatric age group. Yet, the overall incidence is very low. The rarity of the disease as well as variable clinical presentation prevents early detection when the possibility of cure exists. Materials and Methods: We studied six cases of primary GI NHL in pediatric age group with reference to their clinical presentation, anatomic distribution and histopathologic characteristics. Results: All were males except one. Intestinal obstruction was the presenting feature in 50%. Half the cases showed ileocaecal involvement, while large bowel was involved in 16%. Histology showed four cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, one case of Burkitt lymphoma, and one Burkitt-like lymphoma. Immunohistochemistry for Tdt, CD20, CD3, CD30, bcl2, bcl6 confirmed the morphological diagnosis. Conclusion: Pediatric GI lymphoma commonly involves the ileocaecal region and presents with intestinal obstruction. A higher prevalence of DLBCL is found compared to other series. A high proliferative index is useful in differentiating Burkitt-like lymphoma from DLBCL.

  9. Feline gastrointestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Yasushi; Hooda, Seema; Swanson, Kelly S; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2012-06-01

    The close relationship between gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota and its host has an impact on the health status of an animal that reaches beyond the GI tract. A balanced microbiome stimulates the immune system, aids in the competitive exclusion of transient pathogens and provides nutritional benefits to the host. With recent rapid advances in high-throughput sequencing technology, molecular approaches have become the routinely used tools for ecological studies of the feline microbiome, and have revealed a highly diverse and complex intestinal ecosystem in the feline GI tract. The major bacterial groups are similar to those found in other mammals, with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria constituting more than 99% of intestinal microbiota. Several nutritional studies have demonstrated that the feline microbiota can be modulated by the amount of soluble fibers (i.e., prebiotics) and macronutrients (i.e., protein content) in the diet. Initial clinical studies have suggested the presence of a dysbiosis in feline inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recently, metagenomic approaches have attempted to characterize the microbial gene pool. However, more studies are needed to describe the phylogenetic and functional changes in the intestinal microbiome in disease states and in response to environmental and dietary modulations. This paper reviews recent studies cataloging the microbial phylotypes in the GI tract of cats.

  10. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selikoff, I J

    1974-12-01

    Some 99,000 new cases of cancer of the colon are expected next year, an incidence rate higher than that for both cancer of the lung and cancer of the breast. Evidence from geographic pathology suggests that some environmental factors play a strong role in its etiology. Data obtained in the 1959 survey of one million people by the American Cancer Society and followed since, has failed to show correlation with any of the large number of factors listed. It is suggested that the etiology is one of multiple factors. The synergistic effect of exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking in the production of bronchogenic carcinoma is demonstrated by data on cohorts of insulation workers. There was also a modest increase in the number of deaths from gastrointestinal cancer in asbestos workers, but smoking did not seem to act in synergistic fashion at that site, except perhaps in the esophagus. Deaths from cancer occurred almost entirely after a period of 20 years or more from initial exposure. The death rate from cancer tended to increase with duration of exposure, but a distinct rise over the expected was seen in those who had been exposed less than one year to amosite dust. PMID:4470947

  11. [Acute gastrointestinal bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbach, Robert; Faiss, Siegbert; Cordruwisch, Wolfgang; Schrader, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding is a common major emergency (Internal medical or gastroenterological or medical), approximately 85 % of which occur in the upper GI tract. It is estimated that about a half of upper GI bleeds are caused by peptic ulcers. Upper GI bleeds are associated with more severe bleeding and poorer outcomes when compared to middle or lower GI bleeds. Prognostic determinants include bleeding intensity, patient age, comorbid conditions and the concomitant use of anticoagulants. A focused medical history can offer insight into the bleeding intensity, location and potential cause (along with early risk stratification). Initial measures should focus on rapid assessment and resuscitation of unstable patients. The oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) is the gold standard method for localizing the source of bleeding and for interventional therapy. Bleeding as a result of peptic ulcers is treated endoscopically with mechanical and / or thermal techniques in combination with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. When variceal bleeding is suspected, pre-interventional use of vasopressin analogues and antibiotic therapies are recommended. Endoscopically, the first line treatment of esophageal varices is endoscopic ligature therapy, whereas that for gastric varices is the use of Histoacryl injection sclerotherapy. When persistent and continued massive hemorrhage occurs in a patient with known or suspected aortic disease the possibility of an aorto-enteric fistula must be considered. PMID:27078246

  12. The level of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity strongly influences xylose fermentation and inhibitor sensitivity in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppsson, M.; Johansson, B.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal;

    2003-01-01

    Disruption of the ZWF1 gene encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) has been shown to reduce the xylitol yield and the xylose consumption in the xylose-utilizing recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain TMB3255. In the present investigation we have studied the influence of different...... consumption, respectively, compared with the ZWF1-disrupted strain. Both strains exhibited decreased xylitol yields (0.13 and 0.19 g/g xylose) and enhanced ethanol yields (0.36 and 0.34 g/g xylose) compared with the control strain TMB3001 (0.29 g xylitol/g xylose, 0.31 g ethanol/g xylose). Cytoplasmic...... transhydrogenase (TH) from Azotobacter vinelandii has previously been shown to transfer NADPH and NAD(+) into NADP(+) and NADH, and TH-overproduction resulted in lower xylitol yield and enhanced glycerol yield during xylose utilization. Strains with low G6PDH-activity grew slower in a lignocellulose hydrolysate...

  13. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John;

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous...

  14. Gastrointestinal function development and microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Di Mauro, Antonio; Neu, Josef; Riezzo, Giuseppe; Raimondi, Francesco; Martinelli, Domenico; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Indrio, Flavia

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the development of post-natal gastrointestinal functions of the host. Recent advances in our capability to identify microbes and their function offer exciting opportunities to evaluate the complex cross talk between microbiota, intestinal barrier, immune system and the gut-brain axis. This review summarizes these interactions in the early colonization of gastrointestinal tract with a major focus on the role of intestinal microbiota in the p...

  15. Foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kefeli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ingested foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract are a common event which can cause serious morbidity and mortality in the children and adult population. For this reason, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing these life threatening complications. In this study, we aimed to analyze the characteristics of the patients with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies that were treated in our department. Methods: Patients diagnosed with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies who were admitted to our hospital between February 2010 and August2013 were evaluated retrospectively. The data regarding their age, gender, clinical profile, type and localization of the esophageal foreign body, performed endoscopic procedure and initial symptoms of the patients were noted and analyzed statistically. Results: Thirty-eight patients with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal foreign body were included in this study. Of these patients, 21 were male and 17 were female. The youngest patient was 17 years old and the oldest patient was 79 years old. Most of the foreign bodies (%55.3 detected in the stomach. Food waste and metallic objects in 21 and 16 patients respectively. The most common complaint was dysphagia (%50. After endoscopic intervention three of the patients were directed to surgery. Conclusion: Early recognition and treatment of gastrointestinal foreign bodies is important as their complications are life threatening. The best method of removal of foreign bodies is controversial. Early management with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the most efficient and safe treatment method in current conditions.

  16. 益生菌固态发酵黑米糠抗氧化发酵条件研究%Solid-State Fermented Condition on Antioxidative Activities of Black Rice Bran by Probiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文辉

    2013-01-01

    Fresh black rice bran as experimental materials,solid-state fermented condition of black rice bran were studied by single and mixed probiotics. Conclusions show that the optimal probiotic combination were Bacillus natto and Lactobacillus brevis, inoculation ratio was 1∶1, means of inoculation was that Lactobacillus brevis continue fer-mented for two days after Bacillus natto fermented for three days. Experimental results for logarithmic value of the probiotics is 17.11. The half of total number of logarithmic value and DPPH·clearance rates of the probiotics as icri-terion, solid-state fermented condition on antioxidative activities of black rice bran were studied by single factor re-search and orthogonal test. Conclusions show that inoculated quantity was 8%, fermented temperature was 37℃, supplement water capacity was 0.28mL/g. Verific-ation experiment results were logarithmic value of the probiotics was 17.15, DPPH·clearance rates was 73%, composite score was 45.75. Further through the fermented and unfermented black rice bran DPPH·clearance rates experiments,conclusions show that the probiotics fermentation increased antiox-idant activity of black rice bran. The conclusions of this study show that Bacillus natto and Lactobacillus brevis mixed bacterial solid state fermentation black rice bran is a feasible way to develop high oxidation resistance black rice bran health food.%  以新鲜黑米糠为原料,通过单菌和混合菌发酵实验,确定了固态发酵黑米糠的最适菌株组合为纳豆芽孢杆菌和短乳杆菌,接种比例为1∶1,接种方式为先接入纳豆芽孢杆菌3d后接入短乳杆菌继续发酵2d,测得两菌株组合菌群数的对数值为17.11。设计单因素和正交实验,以菌群数的对数值和DPPH·清除率各占50%的综合评分为指标,确定纳豆芽孢杆菌和短乳杆菌固态发酵黑米糠的最优抗氧化发酵条件为:接种量8%,发酵温度37℃、加水量0.28mL/g。该条

  17. Characterization of anti-listerial lactic acid bacteria isolated from Thai fermented fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Anya; Embarek, Peter Karim Ben; Wedell-Neergaard, C.;

    1998-01-01

    be responsible for the rapid spontaneous fermentation of the products or that other yet-unknown factors ensure rapid fermentation. Overall anti-listerial lactic acid bacteria do occur in fermented fish products and the antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria indicates that they may be important...

  18. In situ prebiotics for weaning piglets: in vitro production and fermentation of potato galacto-rhamnogalacturonan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strube, Mikael Lenz; Ravn, Helle Christine; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Meyer, Anne Strunge; Boye, Mette

    2015-03-01

    Postweaning diarrhea (PWD) in pigs is a leading cause of economic loss in pork production worldwide. The current practice of using antibiotics and zinc to treat PWD is unsustainable due to the potential of antibiotic resistance and ecological disturbance, and novel methods are required. In this study, an in vitro model was used to test the possibility of producing prebiotic fiber in situ in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of the piglet and the prebiotic activity of the resulting fiber in the terminal ileum. Soluble fiber was successfully produced from potato pulp, an industrial waste product, with the minimal enzyme dose in a simulated upper GI tract model extracting 26.9% of the initial dry matter. The fiber was rich in galactose and galacturonic acid and was fermented at 2.5, 5, or 10 g/liter in a glucose-free medium inoculated with the gut contents of piglet terminal ileum. Fermentations of 5 g/liter inulin or 5 g/liter of a purified potato fiber were used as controls. The fibers showed high fermentability, evident by a dose-dependent drop in pH and an increase in the organic acid content, with lactate in particular being increased. Deep sequencing showed a significant increase in the numbers of Lactobacillus and Veillonella organisms and an insignificant increase in the numbers of Clostridium organisms as well as a decrease in the numbers of Streptococcus organisms. Multivariate analysis showed clustering of the treatment groups, with the group treated with purified potato fiber being clearly separated from the other groups, as the microbiota composition was 60% Lactobacillus and almost free of Clostridium. For animal studies, a dosage corresponding to the 5-g/liter treatment is suggested. PMID:25527557

  19. Production of enzymatically active recombinant full-length barley high pI alpha-glucosidase of glycoside family 31 by high cell-density fermentation of Pichia pastoris and affinity purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsted, Henrik; Kramhøft, Birte; Lok, F.;

    2006-01-01

    Recombinant barley high pI alpha-glucosidase was produced by high cell-density fermentation of Pichia pastoris expressing the cloned full-length gene. The gene was amplified from a genomic clone and exons (coding regions) were assembled by overlap PCR. The resulting cDNA was expressed under control...... of the alcohol oxidase 1 promoter using methanol induction of P. pastoris fermentation in a Biostat B 5 L reactor. Forty-two milligrams a-glucosidase was purified from 3.5 L culture in four steps applying an N-terminal hexa-histidine tag. The apparent molecular mass of the recombinant alpha-glucosidase was 100 k......Da compared to 92 kDa of the native barley enzyme. The secreted recombinant enzyme was highly stabile during the 5-day fermentation and had significantly superior specific activity of the enzyme purified previously from barley malt. The kinetic parameters K-m, V-max, and k(cat) were determined to 1.7 mM, 139...

  20. Potassium Channelopathies and Gastrointestinal Ulceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jaeyong; Lee, Seung Hun; Giebisch, Gerhard; Wang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Potassium channels and transporters maintain potassium homeostasis and play significant roles in several different biological actions via potassium ion regulation. In previous decades, the key revelations that potassium channels and transporters are involved in the production of gastric acid and the regulation of secretion in the stomach have been recognized. Drugs used to treat peptic ulceration are often potassium transporter inhibitors. It has also been reported that potassium channels are involved in ulcerative colitis. Direct toxicity to the intestines from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been associated with altered potassium channel activities. Several reports have indicated that the long-term use of the antianginal drug Nicorandil, an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener, increases the chances of ulceration and perforation from the oral to anal regions throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Several of these drug features provide further insights into the role of potassium channels in the occurrence of ulceration in the GI tract. The purpose of this review is to investigate whether potassium channelopathies are involved in the mechanisms responsible for ulceration that occurs throughout the GI tract. PMID:27784845

  1. RASAL1 expression and ras activity with gastrointestinal tumors: a review%RASAL1表达及ras活性与胃肠道肿瘤临床关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕成余; 谢洪虎; 樊红

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 20% of human tumors are associated with mutations of ras genes. Ras proteins control cellular signaling pathways responsible for cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis. Ras proteins belong to the large family of small GTPases, which are activated in response-to various extracellular stimuli. RASAL1, as a ras GTPase activating protein, inhibits ras activation. Regulation of ras and RASAL1 activities may lead the direction of target treatment of tumors. Detection of ras and RASAL1 activities can provide more relevant information about diagnosis and prognosis of gastrointestinal tumors. In this paper, we reviewed the structure, the biochemical properties of ras proteins, and the role of its mutations in tumors. We further discussed the inhibitive effects of RASAL1 on ras activities. Finally, we commented the correlation of ras and RASAL1 with gastrointestinal tumors.%大约有20%的人类肿瘤与ras的突变有关.ras蛋白调控细胞的一系列生物学行为,包括细胞增殖、分化、生存及凋亡等.ras蛋白属于小GTP结合蛋白,通过响应细胞外信号产生活性.RASAL1是一种ras GTP酶激活蛋白,可以抑制ras的活性.调节ras以及RASAL1的活性,可能是肿瘤靶向治疗的方向之一.检测ras以及RASAL1的活性有助于胃肠道肿瘤的早期诊断以及预后的判断.本文从ras的结构、功能及突变与肿瘤的关系,RASALl作为ras的效应分子抑制ras的活性,ras、RASAL1与胃肠道肿瘤的关系三方面来综述了RASAL1表达及ras活性与胃肠道肿瘤临床关系的研究进展.

  2. Abdominal ultrasonography of the pediatric gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Heather I; Gee, Michael S; Westra, Sjirk J; Nimkin, Katherine

    2016-07-28

    Ultrasound is an invaluable imaging modality in the evaluation of pediatric gastrointestinal pathology; it can provide real-time evaluation of the bowel without the need for sedation or intravenous contrast. Recent improvements in ultrasound technique can be utilized to improve detection of bowel pathology in children: Higher resolution probes, color Doppler, harmonic and panoramic imaging are excellent tools in this setting. Graded compression and cine clips provide dynamic information and oral and intravenous contrast agents aid in detection of bowel wall pathology. Ultrasound of the bowel in children is typically a targeted exam; common indications include evaluation for appendicitis, pyloric stenosis and intussusception. Bowel abnormalities that are detected prenatally can be evaluated after birth with ultrasound. Likewise, acquired conditions such as bowel hematoma, bowel infections and hernias can be detected with ultrasound. Rare bowel neoplasms, vascular disorders and foreign bodies may first be detected with sonography, as well. At some centers, comprehensive exams of the gastrointestinal tract are performed on children with inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease to evaluate for disease activity or to confirm the diagnosis. The goal of this article is to review up-to-date imaging techniques, normal sonographic anatomy, and characteristic sonographic features of common and uncommon disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract in children. PMID:27551336

  3. Imatinib treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lisandro F; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. GISTs are believed to originate from intersticial cells of Cajal (the pacemaker cells of the gastrointestinal tract) or related stem cells, and are characterized by KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) activating mutations. The use of imatinib has revolutionized the management of GIST and altered its natural history, substantially improving survival time and delaying disease progression in many patients. The success of imatinib in controlling advanced GIST led to interest in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant use of the drug. The neoadjuvant (preoperative) use of imatinib is recommended to facilitate resection and avoid mutilating surgery by decreasing tumour size, and adjuvant therapy is indicated for patients at high risk of recurrence. The molecular characterization (genotyping) of GISTs has become an essential part of the routine management of the disease as KIT and PDGFRA mutation status predicts the likelihood of achieving response to imatinib. However, the vast majority of patients who initially responded to imatinib will develop tumour progression (secondary resistance). Secondary resistance is often related to secondary KIT or PDGFRA mutations that interfere with drug binding. Multiple novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be potentially useful for the treatment of imatinib-resistant GISTs as they interfere with KIT and PDGFRA receptors or with the downstream-signalling proteins.

  4. HER-2 status in gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lisandro Ferreira; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2008-08-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) encodes for the transmembrane glycoprotein HER-2 that is involved in activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways that control cell growth and differentiation. HER-2 is overexpressed in approximately 20% of patients with breast cancer and has been associated with poorer prognosis. Since 1998, the anti-HER-2 antibody trastuzumab has been used for the treatment of patients with HER-2-positive breast cancers. However, little information is available about the relationship between HER-2 and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. This study's purpose was to determine the HER-2 status in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. We found that all 477 cases included in this study were negative (score 0) by immunohistochemistry using HercepTest, and no HER-2 gene amplification was detected in 71 cases submitted to fluorescence in situ hybridization. These results show that HER-2 may not have any role in gastrointestinal stromal tumor pathogenesis and that the neoplasm may not be suitable for treatment with trastuzumab.

  5. Dietary supplementation of different doses of NUTRIOSE®FB, a fermentable dextrin, alters the activity of faecal enzymes in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Wils, D.; Pasman, W.J.; Saniez, M.H.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: It is well documented that fermentation of carbohydrates that escape digestion exert several effects supposed to be beneficial for (colonic) health, including an increase in stool volume, a shorter intestinal transit time, production of short chain fatty acids and a decrease of colonic p

  6. Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish K Tiwari; Heather S Laird-Fick; Ramesh K Wali; Hemant K Roy

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms,thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses.Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions,therefore,is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy.In order to efficiently detect these lesions,systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed.However,most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example,serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma,and fecal occult blood test,for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures,such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes.Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool,the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can't be avoided.The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs.Moreover,only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies,and indeed needs surveillance.To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention,it's important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (riskstratification),and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts.We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies,and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them.

  7. Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Aledavood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extranodal lymphoma may arise anywhere outside lymph nodes mostly in the gastrointestinal (GI tract as non-Hodgkin′s disease. We reviewed the clinicopathological features and treatment results of patients with primary GI lymphoma. Materials and Methods : A total number of 30 cases with primary GI lymphoma were included in this study. Patients referred to the Radiation Oncology Department of Omid Hospital (Mashhad, Iran during a 5-year period (2006-11. Clinical, paraclinical, and radiological data was collected from medical records of the patients. Results: Out of the 30 patients with primary GI lymphoma in the study, 12 were female (40% and 18 were male (60% (male to female ratio: 3/2. B symptoms were present in 27 patients (90%. Antidiuretic hormone (LDH levels were elevated in 9 patients (32.1%. The most common primary site was stomach in 14 cases (46.7%. Other common sites included small intestine and colon each in 8 patients (26.7%. All patients had histopathologically proven non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma. The most common histologic subtype was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL in 16 patients (53.3%. In addition, 28 patients (93.3% received chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, prednisolone (CHOP regimen. The median course of chemotherapy was 6 cources. Moreover, 8 patients (26.7% received radiotherapy with cobalt 60. The median follow-up time was 26 months. The overall 5-year survival rate was 53% and the median survival time was 60 months. Conclusion : Primary GI lymphoma is commonly seen in stomach and small intestine and mostly is DLBCL or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma.

  8. Aldo-keto reductase 1B10 promotes development of cisplatin resistance in gastrointestinal cancer cells through down-regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Ayaka; Kezuka, Chihiro; Okumura, Naoko; Iguchi, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Ikuo; Soda, Midori; Endo, Satoshi; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Hara, Akira; Ikari, Akira

    2016-08-25

    Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum, CDDP) is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs that are used for treatment of patients with gastrointestinal cancer cells, but its continuous administration often evokes the development of chemoresistance. In this study, we investigated alterations in antioxidant molecules and functions using a newly established CDDP-resistant variant of gastric cancer MKN45 cells, and found that aldo-keto reductase 1B10 (AKR1B10) is significantly up-regulated with acquisition of the CDDP resistance. In the nonresistant MKN45 cells, the sensitivity to cytotoxic effect of CDDP was decreased and increased by overexpression and silencing of AKR1B10, respectively. In addition, the AKR1B10 overexpression markedly suppressed accumulation and cytotoxicity of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal that is produced during lipid peroxidation by CDDP treatment, suggesting that the enzyme acts as a crucial factor for facilitation of the CDDP resistance through inhibiting induction of oxidative stress by the drug. Transient exposure to CDDP and induction of the CDDP resistance decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) in MKN45 and colon cancer LoVo cells. Additionally, overexpression of PPARγ in the cells elevated the sensitivity to the CDDP toxicity, which was further augmented by concomitant treatment with a PPARγ ligand rosiglitazone. Intriguingly, overexpression of AKR1B10 in the cells resulted in a decrease in PPARγ expression, which was recovered by addition of an AKR1B10 inhibitor oleanolic acid, inferring that PPARγ is a downstream target of AKR1B10-dependent mechanism underlying the CDDP resistance. Combined treatment with the AKR1B10 inhibitor and PPARγ ligand elevated the CDDP sensitivity, which was almost the same level as that in the parental cells. These results suggest that combined treatment with the AKR1B10 inhibitor and PPARγ ligand is an effective adjuvant therapy for overcoming CDDP resistance of

  9. Effect of encapsulation of selected probiotic cell on survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasiah Ayama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of probiotic bacteria have been led to their increasing use in foods. Encapsulation has been investigated to improve their survival. In this study, the selection, encapsulation and viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB with probiotic properties in simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT condition were investigated. One hundred and fifty isolates of LAB were obtained from 30 samples of raw cow and goat milk and some fermented foods. Nine isolates could survive under GIT condition and only 3 isolates exhibited an antimicrobial activity against all food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Among them, 2 isolates (CM21 and CM53 exhibited bile salt hydrolase activity on glycocholate and glycodeoxycholate agar plates and were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. CM53 was selected for encapsulation using 1-3% alginate and 2% Hi-maize resistant starch by emulsion system. Viability and releasing ability of encapsulated CM53 in simulated GIT condition was increased in accordance to the alginate concentration and incubation time, respectively.

  10. Commercial Biomass Syngas Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Daniell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of gas fermentation for the production of low carbon biofuels such as ethanol or butanol from lignocellulosic biomass is an area currently undergoing intensive research and development, with the first commercial units expected to commence operation in the near future. In this process, biomass is first converted into carbon monoxide (CO and hydrogen (H2-rich synthesis gas (syngas via gasification, and subsequently fermented to hydrocarbons by acetogenic bacteria. Several studies have been performed over the last few years to optimise both biomass gasification and syngas fermentation with significant progress being reported in both areas. While challenges associated with the scale-up and operation of this novel process remain, this strategy offers numerous advantages compared with established fermentation and purely thermochemical approaches to biofuel production in terms of feedstock flexibility and production cost. In recent times, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology techniques have been applied to gas fermenting organisms, paving the way for gases to be used as the feedstock for the commercial production of increasingly energy dense fuels and more valuable chemicals.

  11. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  12. Composition and Metabolic Activities of the Bacterial Community in Shrimp Sauce at the Flavor-Forming Stage of Fermentation As Revealed by Metatranscriptome and 16S rRNA Gene Sequencings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Shan; Hu, Xiaoxi; Li, Mengru; Miao, Jianyin; Du, Jinghe; Wu, Rongli

    2016-03-30

    The bacterial community and the metabolic activities involved at the flavor-forming stage during the fermentation of shrimp sauce were investigated using metatranscriptome and 16S rRNA gene sequencings. Results showed that the abundance of Tetragenococcus was 95.1%. Tetragenococcus halophilus was identified in 520 of 588 transcripts annotated in the Nr database. Activation of the citrate cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, along with the absence of lactate dehydrogenase gene expression, in T. halophilus suggests that T. halophilus probably underwent aerobic metabolism during shrimp sauce fermentation. The metabolism of amino acids, production of peptidase, and degradation of limonene and pinene were very active in T. halophilus. Carnobacterium, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, and Clostridium were also metabolically active, although present in very small populations. Enterococcus, Abiotrophia, Streptococcus, and Lactobacillus were detected in metatranscriptome sequencing, but not in 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Many minor taxa showed no gene expression, suggesting that they were in dormant status. PMID:26978261

  13. Studies on Fermentation of Ice Nucleation-active Xanthomonas campestris IN-1%黄单胞冰核活性细菌发酵制备的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡卓炎; 何松; 孙福在; 赵廷昌; 钟士清

    2001-01-01

    The fermentation of ice nucleation-active bacteria (Xanthomonas campestris IN-1 )was studied in this paper. The results showed that succinate in the growth medium had the negative function to the ice nucleation activity of Xanthomonas campestris IN-1, which was not consistent to the literature. Glycerol, sucrose, lactose and sodium glutamate could promote the icenucleation activity and the cell growth. The optimum cultivation medium was presented as 1% of yeast extract, 1% of bacto-peptone, 0.05 % of magnesium sulfate, 1% of glycerol, 2 % of sucrose, 1% of lactose, 0.3 % of sodium glutamate, pH7.0. The optimum fermentation conditions were predicted as 72h of bacterial ages, 45h of fermentation time.%应用正交设计与均匀设计对黄单胞冰核活性细菌的发酵制备条件进行了初步研究。结果表明,琥自酸抑制了黄单胞茵生长与冰核活性的表达,甘油、蔗糖、乳糖、谷氨酸钠不同程度地促进了冰核活性和单胞菌的生长。较优培养基配方为酵母粉1%、大豆蛋白胨1%、MgSO4·7H2O 0.05%、甘油1%、蔗糖2%、乳糖1%、谷氨酸钠0.3%,pH7.0;较优发酵组合为细菌种龄72h,发酵时间45h。

  14. Studies on the Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Lactobacillus-fermented Broccoli Beverage%西兰花乳酸菌饮料的制备及其抗氧化作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董青青; 胡海杰; 肖文佳; 安兴娟; 姬阿美; 杜稳; 张同存; 罗学刚

    2015-01-01

    Using broccoli as main material,green-protecting condition,formulations,stability,fermentative strain and fermentation process of broccoli lactobacillus beverage were researched in this paper. The optimized technology was ultimately set up as after broccoli was stripped and sliced,Using 50% broccoli juice,10% orange juice,5% flavedo,6% sucrose,0.2% citric acid,0.25% salt and 0.2% CMC-Na as materials fermenting with lactobacillus plantarum for 4 hours at 30℃in anaerobic box. Broccoli lactobacillus beverage made by this technology has an unique flavor and nice trait. Additionally,broccoli has antioxidant activity,allows people to avoid free radical damage,reduce the incidence of cancer. the efficiency of antioxidant and antiradical of the Pre-fermentation and fermented broccoli was determined by the DPPH.%以西兰花为主要原料,通过对西兰花乳酸菌发酵饮料的原料护色方法、配方、稳定性、发酵菌种及发酵过程进行分析,最终优化建立了西兰花乳酸菌发酵制备工艺为:西兰花汁50%,橙汁10%,橙皮5%,蔗糖6%,柠檬酸0.2%,盐0.25%,CMC-Na为0.2%作为发酵原料,按照3%量接种植物乳杆菌后,在厌氧培养箱中30℃发酵4h。以此工艺生产的西兰花乳酸菌发酵饮料具有独特的风味和良好的性状。另外,西兰花具有抗氧化性,可以使人们避免受到自由基的伤害,降低发病几率。利用DPPH法对发酵前后西兰花的抗氧化、清除自由基能力进行了测定。西兰花汁发酵前对DPPH的清除率为67.09%,发酵后对DPPH的清除率为82.85%,结果表明发酵后比发酵前西兰花抗氧化能力明显增强。

  15. Lasiodiplodan, an exocellular (1→6)-β-D: -glucan from Lasiodiplodia theobromae MMPI: production on glucose, fermentation kinetics, rheology and anti-proliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves da Cunha, Mário A; Turmina, Janaína A; Ivanov, Raphael C; Barroso, Roney R; Marques, Patrícia T; Fonseca, Eveline A I; Fortes, Zuleica B; Dekker, Robert F H; Khaper, Neelam; Barbosa, Aneli M

    2012-08-01

    Lasiodiplodan, an exopolysaccharide of the (1→6)-β-D: -glucan type, is produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae MMPI when grown under submerged culture on glucose. The objective of this study was to evaluate lasiodiplodan production by examining the effects of carbon (glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose) and nitrogen sources (KNO(3), (NH(4))(2)SO(4), urea, yeast extract, peptone), its production in shake flasks compared to a stirred-tank bioreactor, and to study the rheology of lasiodiplodan, and lasiodiplodan's anti-proliferative effect on breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Although glucose (2.05 ± 0.05 g L(-1)), maltose (2.08 ± 0.04 g L(-1)) and yeast extract (2.46 ± 0.06 g L(-1)) produced the highest amounts of lasiodiplodan, urea as N source resulted in more lasiodiplodan per unit biomass than yeast extract (0.74 ± 0.006 vs. 0.22 ± 0.008 g g(-1)). A comparison of the fermentative parameters of L. theobromae MMPI in shake flasks and a stirred-tank bioreactor at 120 h on glucose as carbon source showed maximum lasiodiplodan production in agitated flasks (7.01 ± 0.07 g L(-1)) with a specific yield of 0.25 ± 0.57 g g(-1) and a volumetric productivity of 0.06 ± 0.001 g L(-1) h(-1). A factorial 2(2) statistical design developed to evaluate the effect of glucose concentration (20-60 g L(-1)) and impeller speed (100-200 rpm) on lasiodiplodan production in the bioreactor showed the highest production (6.32 g L(-1)) at 72 h. Lasiodiplodan presented pseudoplastic behaviour, and the apparent viscosity increased at 60°C in the presence of CaCl(2). Anti-proliferative activity of lasiodiplodan was demonstrated in MCF-7 cells, which was time- and dose-dependent with an IC(50) of 100 μg lasiodiplodan mL(-1). PMID:22399240

  16. Enzymatic and bacterial conversions during sourdough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gänzle, Michael G

    2014-02-01

    Enzymatic and microbial conversion of flour components during bread making determines bread quality. Metabolism of sourdough microbiota and the activity of cereal enzymes are interdependent. Acidification, oxygen consumption, and thiols accumulation by microbial metabolism modulate the activity of cereal enzymes. In turn, cereal enzymes provide substrates for bacterial growth. This review highlights the role of cereal enzymes and the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in conversion of carbohydrates, proteins, phenolic compounds and lipids. Heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria prevailing in wheat and rye sourdoughs preferentially metabolise sucrose and maltose; the latter is released by cereal enzymes during fermentation. Sucrose supports formation of acetate by heterofermentative lactobacilli, and the formation of exopolysaccharides. The release of maltose and glucose by cereal enzymes during fermentation determines the exopolysaccharide yield in sourdough fermentations. Proteolysis is dependent on cereal proteases. Peptidase activities of sourdough lactic acid bacteria determine the accumulation of (bioactive) peptides, amino acids, and amino acid metabolites in dough and bread. Enzymatic conversion and microbial metabolism of phenolic compounds is relevant in sorghum and millet containing high levels of phenolic compounds. The presence of phenolic compounds with antimicrobial activity in sorghum selects for fermentation microbiota that are resistant to the phenolic compounds.

  17. Enzymatic and bacterial conversions during sourdough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gänzle, Michael G

    2014-02-01

    Enzymatic and microbial conversion of flour components during bread making determines bread quality. Metabolism of sourdough microbiota and the activity of cereal enzymes are interdependent. Acidification, oxygen consumption, and thiols accumulation by microbial metabolism modulate the activity of cereal enzymes. In turn, cereal enzymes provide substrates for bacterial growth. This review highlights the role of cereal enzymes and the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in conversion of carbohydrates, proteins, phenolic compounds and lipids. Heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria prevailing in wheat and rye sourdoughs preferentially metabolise sucrose and maltose; the latter is released by cereal enzymes during fermentation. Sucrose supports formation of acetate by heterofermentative lactobacilli, and the formation of exopolysaccharides. The release of maltose and glucose by cereal enzymes during fermentation determines the exopolysaccharide yield in sourdough fermentations. Proteolysis is dependent on cereal proteases. Peptidase activities of sourdough lactic acid bacteria determine the accumulation of (bioactive) peptides, amino acids, and amino acid metabolites in dough and bread. Enzymatic conversion and microbial metabolism of phenolic compounds is relevant in sorghum and millet containing high levels of phenolic compounds. The presence of phenolic compounds with antimicrobial activity in sorghum selects for fermentation microbiota that are resistant to the phenolic compounds. PMID:24230468

  18. Fermentative biofuels production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The limited reserves and increasing prices of fossil carbohydrates, as well as the global warming due to their utilization, impose the finding of renewable energy sources. Because of this, since decades an increasing interest in production of alcohols, which can be used as a fuel additives or fuels for direct replacement in gasoline engines, is observed. Alcohols can be obtained chemically or as products of microbial metabolism of different species in fermentation of sugars or starchy materials. In the present review are summarized different fermentative pathways for production of all alcohols, which are or could be used as biofuels. The focus of the paper is on production limitations, strains development and economical perspectives. Key words: fermentation, biofuel, alcohols

  19. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, Robin [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Peyton, Brent M. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Apel, William A. [Idaho National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) low and medium-level radioactive waste sites contain mixtures of heavy metals, radionuclides and assorted organic materials. In addition, there are numerous sites around the world that are contaminated with a mixture of organic and inorganic contaminants. In most sites, over time, water infiltrates the wastes, and releases metals, radionuclides and other contaminants causing transport into the surrounding environment. We investigated the role of fermentative microorganisms in such sites that may control metal, radionuclide and organics migration from source zones. The project was initiated based on the following overarching hypothesis: Metals, radionuclides and other contaminants can be mobilized by infiltration of water into waste storage sites. Microbial communities of lignocellulose degrading and fermenting microorganisms present in the subsurface of contaminated DOE sites can significantly impact migration by directly reducing and immobilizing metals and radionuclides while degrading complex organic matter to low molecular weight organic compounds. These low molecular weight organic acids and alcohols can increase metal and radionuclide mobility by chelation (i.e., certain organic acids) or decrease mobility by stimulating respiratory metal reducing microorganisms. We demonstrated that fermentative organisms capable of affecting the fate of Cr6+, U6+ and trinitrotoluene can be isolated from organic-rich low level waste sites as well as from less organic rich subsurface environments. The mechanisms, pathways and extent of contaminant transformation depend on a variety of factors related to the type of organisms present, the aqueous chemistry as well as the geochemistry and mineralogy. This work provides observations and quantitative data across multiple scales that identify and predict the coupled effects of fermentative carbon and electron flow on the transport of radionuclides, heavy metals and organic contaminants in

  20. Improvement of Medium Chain Fatty Acid Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil via Solid-State Fermentation Using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum

    OpenAIRE

    Anahita Khoramnia; Afshin Ebrahimpour; Raheleh Ghanbari; Zahra Ajdari; Oi-Ming Lai

    2013-01-01

    Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER) method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs) considering total medium ...

  1. Nutritional support and gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, K

    1989-06-01

    The use of nutritional support in patients with acute gastrointestinal disease requires a thorough knowledge of the pathophysiology and nutritional alterations that are caused by the disease process. Although nutritional therapy of a patient with gastrointestinal disease is not curative of the underlying disease, it does provide essential support to the patient, which improves response to, and eventual recovery from, illness. Special considerations need to be made to avoid complicating the patient's condition by inappropriate use of nutritional support solutions, which can lead to abnormal liver function. PMID:2498848

  2. Hypothermia ameliorates gastrointestinal ischemic injury sustained in a porcine cardiac arrest model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yi; WANG Shuo; LI Chun-sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background During cardiac arrest,the gastrointestinal tract is sensitive to ischemia.Protection of the gastrointestinal tract is a critical factor in determining prognosis following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).This study seeks to determine the extent of gastrointestinal tract injury and the potential protective effect of inducing hypothermia following a porcine cardiac arrest model and CPR.Methods Ventricular fibrillation was induced by programmed electrical stimulation in 16 male domestic pigs (n=8 per group).Four minutes after ventricular fibrillation,CPR was performed.Pigs that successfully restored spontaneous circulation then received intravenous infusions of saline at either 4C or room temperature to produce hypothermic and control conditions respectively.Serum diamine oxidase and gastrointestinal adenosine triphosphate enzyme activity were determined and histopathology of the gastrointestinal tract was performed by light microscopy and electron microscopy.Results Significant injury of the gastrointestinal tract after CPR was found.Na+-K+ and Ca2+ adenosine triphosphate enzyme activity in the gastric tissue were significantly high in animals receiving hypothermia treatment compared to controls.Hypothermia also significantly reduced serum diamine oxidase after CPR compared to the control group.Moreover,severe injury sustained by the gastrointestinal tissue was significantly ameliorated under hypothermic conditions compared to controls.Conclusions Gastrointestinal injury and abnormal energy metabolism are strikingly evident following CPR.Hypothermia,which is induced by an infusion of 4C saline,can rapidly reduce internal body temperature,improve energy metabolism,and ameliorate injury to the gastrointestinal mucosa after CPR.

  3. Blackberry subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion affords protection against Ethyl Carbamate-induced cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Lingxia; Su, Hongming; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-12-01

    Ethyl Carbamate (EC) was detected in many fermented foods. Previous studies indicated that frequent exposure to ethyl carbamate may increase the risk to suffer from cancers. Blackberry is rich in polyphenols and possesses potent antioxidant activity. This study aims to investigate the protective effect of blackberry homogenates produced before (BH) and after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion (BD) on EC-induced toxicity in Caco-2 cells. Our results showed that blackberry homogenates after digestion (BD) was more effective than that before digestion (BH) in ameliorating EC-induced toxicity in Caco-2 cells. Further investigation revealed that BD remarkably attenuated EC-induced toxicity through restoring mitochondrial function, inhibiting glutathione depletion and decreasing overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Additionally, LC-MS result implied that the better protective capacity of BD may be related to the increased content of two anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-dioxalyglucoside). Overall, the present study may give implication to prevent EC-induced health problem. PMID:27374576

  4. All-trans retinoic acid inhibits KIT activity and induces apoptosis in gastrointestinal stromal tumor GIST-T1 cell line by affecting on the expression of survivin and Bax protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taguchi Takahiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imatinib, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been used as a standard first-line therapy for irresectable and metastasized gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST patients. Unfortunately, most patients responding to imatinib will eventually exhibit imatinib-resistance, the cause of which is not fully understood. The serious clinical problem of imatinib-resistance demands alternative therapeutic strategy. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA on GIST cell lines. Methods Cell proliferation was determined by trypan blue dye exclusion test. Western blot analysis was performed to test the expression of activated KIT, its downstream proteins, and apoptosis associated proteins. The cytotoxic interactions of imatinib with ATRA were evaluated using the isobologram of Steel and Peckham. Results and conclusion In this work, for the first time we have demonstrated that ATRA affected on cell proliferation of GIST-T1 and GIST-882 cell line through inhibition of cell growth in a dose dependent manner and induced apoptosis. High dose of ATRA induced morphologic change in GIST-T1 cells, rounded-up cells, and activated the caspase-3 protein. In further examination, we found that the ATRA-induced apoptosis in GIST-T1 cells was accompanied by the down-regulated expression of survivin and up-regulated expression of Bax protein. Moreover, ATRA suppressed the activity of KIT protein in GIST-T1 cells and its downstream signal, AKT activity, but not MAPK activity. We also have demonstrated that combination of ATRA with imatinib showed additive effect by isobologram, suggesting that the combination of ATRA and imatinib may be a novel potential therapeutic option for GIST treatment. Furthermore, the scracht assay result suggested that ATRA was a potential reagent to prevent the invasion or metastasis of GIST cells.

  5. Thiazolidinediones inhibit REG Iα gene transcription in gastrointestinal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REG (Regenerating gene) Iα protein functions as a growth factor for gastrointestinal cancer cells, and its mRNA expression is strongly associated with a poor prognosis in gastrointestinal cancer patients. We here demonstrated that PPARγ-agonist thiazolidinediones (TZDs) inhibited cell proliferation and REG Iα protein/mRNA expression in gastrointestinal cancer cells. TZDs inhibited the REG Iα gene promoter activity, via its cis-acting element which lacked PPAR response element and could not bind to PPARγ, in PPARγ-expressing gastrointestinal cancer cells. The inhibition was reversed by co-treatment with a specific PPARγ-antagonist GW9662. Although TZDs did not inhibit the REG Iα gene promoter activity in PPARγ-non-expressing cells, PPARγ overexpression in the cells recovered their inhibitory effect. Taken together, TZDs inhibit REG Iα gene transcription through a PPARγ-dependent pathway. The TZD-induced REG Iα mRNA reduction was abolished by cycloheximide, indicating the necessity of novel protein(s) synthesis. TZDs may therefore be a candidate for novel anti-cancer drugs for patients with gastrointestinal cancer expressing both REG Iα and PPARγ.

  6. Gastrointestinal anthrax: clinical experience in 5 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Maddah, Ghodratollah; ABDOLLAHI, ABBAS; Katebi, Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bacillus anthracis may usually cause three forms of anthrax: inhalation, gastrointestinal and cutaneous. The gastrointestinal (GI) anthrax develops after eating contaminated meat. Thus, in this paper were report 5 cases of intestinal anthrax.

  7. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastrointestinal motility disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Jae Gol [College of Medicine, Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-02-01

    Current scintigraphic tests of gastrointestinal motor function provides relevant pathophysiologic information, but their clinical utility is controversial. Many scintigraphic methods are developed to investigate gastrointestinal motility from oral cavity to colon. These are esophageal transit scintigraphy, oropharyngeal transit study, gastric emptying test, small bowel transit time measurement, colon transit study and gastroesopahgeal reflux scintigraphy. Scintigraphy of gastrointestinal tract is the most physiologic and noninvasive method to evaluate gastrointestinal motility disorders. Stomach emptying test is regarded as a gold standard in motility study. Gastrointestinal transit scintigraphy also has a certain role in assessment of drug effect to GI motility and changes after theraphy of motility disorders. Scintigraphy provides noninvasive and quantitative assessment of physiological transit throughout the gastrointestinal tract, and it is extremely useful for diagnosing gastrointestinal motor dysfunction. This article reviews the current procedures, indications, significance and guidelines for gastrointestinal motility measurements by scintigraphy.

  8. Production of Functional High-protein Beverage Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Korean Traditional Fermented Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Hee; Shin, Il-Seung; Hong, Sung-Moon; Kim, Cheol-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manufacture functional high protein fermented beverage, using whey protein concentrate (WPC) and Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 isolated from kimchi, and to evaluate the physicochemical, functional, and sensory properties of the resulting product. The fermented whey beverage (FWB) was formulated with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC 80), skim milk powder, and sucrose; and fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 as single, or mixed with Lactococcus lactis R704, a commercial starter culture. The pH, titratable acidity, and viable cell counts during fermentation and storage were evaluated. It was found that the mixed culture showed faster acid development than the single culture. The resulting FWB had high protein (9%) and low fat content (0.2%). Increased viscosity, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were observed after fermentation. A viable cell count of 10(9) CFU/mL in FWB was achieved within 10 h fermentation, and it remained throughout storage at 15℃ for 28 d. Sensory analysis was also conducted, and compared to that of a commercial protein drink. The sensory scores of FWB were similar to those of the commercial protein drink in most attributes, except sourness. The sourness was highly related with the high lactic acid content produced during fermentation. The results showed that WPC and vegetable origin lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi might be used for the development of a high protein fermented beverage, with improved functionality and organoleptic properties. PMID:26761827

  9. New technologies in gastrointestinal research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asbjφrn Mohr Drewes; Hans Gregersen

    2009-01-01

    This issue presents different new techniques aiming to increase our understanding of the gastrointestinal system and to improve treatment. The technologies cover selected methods to evoke and assess gut pain, new methods for imaging and physiological measurements, histochemistry, pharmacological modelling etc. There is no doubt that the methods will revolutionize the diagnostic approach in near future.

  10. 响应面优化低温β-半乳糖苷酶菌株发酵条件%Response surface optimization of fermentation condition for a strain producing cold-active β-galactosidase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔爱萍; 迟乃玉; 张庆芳

    2013-01-01

    为研究菌株CD5最佳发酵条件,采用响应面法对筛选自黄海海域的菌株CD6(Raoultella terrigena)产低温β-半乳糖苷酶发酵条件进行优化,确定最佳发酵条件组合为:发酵时间46h、发酵温度21.6℃、初始pH9.1、接种量3%、装液量20%、转速130 r/min.在此发酵条件下,软件分析预测酶活最大值9.70 U/mL,实验实际酶活为9.67 U/mL,与模型预测值基本吻合.由于在乳制品加工过程中为了保证质量,较多操作工艺及其贮藏运输都是在低温下进行,本研究CD6菌株发酵产酶可用于生产低乳糖奶品.%To study the optimum fermentation conditions of strain CD6 (Raoultella terrigena) collected from Huanghai, the response surface method was used to optimize fermentation conditions of CD6. The optimal fermentation conditions were fermentation time 46 h, temperature 21. 6 ℃, initial pH 9. 1, inoculum 3% , broth content 20% , and rotation speed 130 r/tnin. Under this condition, the actual enzyme activity was up to 9. 67 U/mL, matching well to model prediction value of enzyme activity 9. 70 U/mL. Since dairy processing and storage are at low temperature, the enzyme produced by strain CD6 can be used in the production of low lactose milk.

  11. Characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Gastrointestinal Tract of Cemani Chicken and Their Potential Use as Probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Jannah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to screen and characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from gastrointestinal (GI tract of Cemani chicken, one of Indonesian local chicken and to investigate their potential use as probiotics. LAB were isolated from GI tract using MRSA and GYPA media and incubated anaerobically. Selected LAB were determined their probiotic properties with several assays. Identification of selected LAB was based on 16S rDNA sequences, morphological and biochemical characteristics. Ninety five bacteria were isolated and characterized as lactic acid bacteria (Gram positive, catalase negative, non sporeforming and acid producing. Twenty four isolates of LAB demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli JCM 1649 and Salmonella enteritidis B2586, and three selected isolates, i.e. CCM011, CSP004, and CVM002 showed the highest inhibition activity. The isolates had characters of high cell surface hydrophobicity and inter-isolate coaggregation ability of LAB, high survival at low pH, high phytase and protease activity (but no amylase and lipase activity, weak coaggregation with pathogen and no resistance to the examined antibiotics. The isolates were identified based on sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene as Lactobacillus salivarius, however, each isolate had different profiles of sugar fermentation. Therefore the three LAB isolates had potential application as probiotics for chicken.

  12. 用灵芝发酵人参水煎液的工艺优化及其产物的抗疲劳活性研究%Optimization of fermentation process of ginseng water decoction with Ganoderma lucidum strain and antifatigue activity of the fermentation product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 李磊; 昝立峰; 包海鹰

    2012-01-01

    The basal culture medium and ginseng water decoction medium were screened for Ganoderma lucidum fermentation, and antifatigue activity of G. Lucidum-fetmented ginseng water decoction was studied. The ingredients of optimum basal medium for G. Lucidum was glucose 5%, corn steep liquor 0.3%, soybean cake powder 1%, molasses 0.6%, MgSO4 0.075% and KH2PO40.15%. The red ginseng water decoction medium with concentration of 40g/L was the optimum medium for the fermentation. The optimal fermentation period was 58-62h. Under these optimal conditions, the dry weight of the mycelium biomass reached 7.0233g/L, and the content of extracellular crude polysaccharide (ECP) was 0.3167g/L. As compared with the control group, in either case of low dose (P<0.05) and high dose (P0.01) of red ginseng-G. Lucidum fermentation product could significantly prolong the mice's swimming depletion time and dramatically reduce the contents of blood lactic acid (BLA). Thus, the red ginseng-G lucidum fermentation product showed obvious antifatigue effects.%以灵芝为发酵菌株,对其发酵所采用的基础培养基和人参水煎液培养基分别进行筛选,并对人参水煎液的灵芝升罐发酵工艺及其发酵产物的抗疲劳活性进行了研究,结果表明灵芝最适基础培养基为葡萄糖5%,玉米浆0.3%,豆饼粉1%,糖蜜0.6%,MgSO4 0.075%,KH2PO4 0.15%;最适人参水煎液培养基为红参水煎液,浓度为40g/L;灵芝在红参水煎液中升罐发酵的最佳条件为:发酵周期58--62h.在此优化条件下,菌丝体干重达到7.0233g/L,胞外粗多糖含量达到0.3167g/L.人参的灵芝发酵产物的高、低剂量能明显延长小鼠游泳耗竭时间,并且降低游泳休息后小鼠的血乳酸含量,其中低剂量与空白组有显著性差异(P<0.05),高剂量与空白组有极显著性差异(P<0.01).说明红参水煎液的灵芝发酵产物具有显著的抗疲劳作用.

  13. Genome sequence of Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548, an anaerobic bacterium from the phylum Lentisphaerae, isolated from the human gastro-intestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Passel, Mark W.J. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Kant, Ravi [University of Helsinki; Palva, Airi [University of Helsinki; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Davenport, Karen W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Sims, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Richardson, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; De Vos, Willem M. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Smidt, Hauke [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Zoetendal, Erwin G. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands

    2011-01-01

    Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548 represents the first cultured representative from the novel phylum Lentisphaerae, a deep-branching bacterial lineage. Few cultured bacteria from this phylum are known, and V. vadensis therefore represents an important organism for evolutionary studies. V. vadensis is a strictly anaerobic sugar-fermenting isolate from the human gastro-intestinal tract.

  14. 蛹虫草菌株发酵液和菌丝提取物的抑菌活性初探%Studies on Antibacterial Activities of Fermentation Broth and Mycelia Extraction of Cordyceps militaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩燕峰; 张延威; 董旋; 黄玉; 梁宗琦

    2012-01-01

    Fermentation broth and mycelia extraction of Cordyceps militaris in different fermentative days were explored for their antibacterial activities. For the three methods to test the antibacterial effect, the results showed that filter paper method was the best, followed by flower mud column, the worst was sponge column. The inhibition effect of mycelia extraction on both bacteria was stronger than that of fermentation broth; and the inhibition effect of both materials on Escherichia coli was stronger than that on Staphylococcus caireus.%研究蛹虫草(Cordyceps militaris)的发酵液和菌丝提取物的抑菌效果,为蛹虫草抑菌活性物质的开发利用提供基础资料.采用滤纸柱、海绵柱和花泥柱3种方法检测其抑菌效果,结果表明蛹虫草发酵液及菌丝提取物对大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli和金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)均有一定抑制作用,其中菌丝提取物抑菌作用较强;对大肠杆菌的抑制强于对金黄色葡萄球菌的抑制.抑菌效果检测方法以滤纸柱法检测效果较好,花泥柱法次之,海绵柱法较差.

  15. FECAL CALPROTECTIN AND GASTROINTESTINAL (GI) PERMEABILITY CORRELATE WITH DISEASE ACTIVITY INDEX, AND HISTOLOGIC, ENDOSCOPIC, AND RADIOLOGIC FINDINGS IN CHILDREN WITH CROHN DISEASE (CD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal calprotectin and permeability are noninvasive measures of GI inflammation and damage, respectively. However, there are scant data as to the possible association between the tests and CD disease activity in children. We hypothesized that levels of fecal calprotectin and permeability would corre...

  16. Evaluation of the intestinal absorption of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol by an in vitro gastrointestinal model, and the binding efficacy of activated carbon and other adsorbent materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avantaggiato, G.; Havenaar, R.; Visconti, A.

    2004-01-01

    In vitro screening of 14 adsorbent materials, including some commercial products used to detoxify Fusarium-mycotoxins, were tested in the pH range of 3-8 for deoxynivalenol (DON)- and nivalenol (NIV)-binding ability. Only activated carbon showed to be effective with binding capacities of 35.1 μmol a

  17. Influence of ionizing radiation on gastrointestinal peptide levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of the gut to ionising radiation may induce gastrointestinal damage and dysfunction. Early effects such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, anorexia may be observed within the first 24 h after irradiation. Such symptoms are seen even with doses as low as 1 Gy. later effects and the onset of the gastrointestinal syndrome are seen at higher doses (10 Gy) and include gastric emptying inhibition, intestinal hemorrhages, disturbances in water and electrolytes balance and septicemia. The severity of which depends on the nature, dose and dose rate received. The mechanism underlying these changes was unclear; it has long been known that exposure to ionising radiation affects intestinal morphology usually because of inhibition of mitotic activity at the level of the crypt enterocyst. The various physiological functions of the gastrointestinal tract are controlled by a wide variety of agents as neurotransmitters, neuropeptides. Radiation induces alterations in hormonal release and response. The present study carried out in the rat focuses on Gastrin Releasing Peptide (GRP), a gastrointestinal neuropeptide present in the central nervous system and in the gut endocrine cells were released into blood. The GRP controls food intake, pancreatic enzyme secretions, gastric emptying, intestinal motility and cellular proliferation. The aim was to investigate the effects of gamma and neutron/gamma on plasma and gastrointestinal tissue levels of GRP

  18. Gastrointestinal symptoms in a Japanese population: A health diary study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuharu Tokuda; Osamu Takahashi; Sachiko Ohde; Masaaki Shakudo; Haruo Yanai; Takuro Shimbo; Shunichi Fukuhara; Shigeaki Hinohara; Tsuguya Fukui

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms and the nature of consequent utilization of health care services in a Japanese population.METHODS: Usin g self-report, we conducted a prospective cohort study of a nationally representative sample of the Japanese population over a one-month period to determine the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms of all kinds and resultant health care utilization. Both information on visits to physicians and use of complementary and alternative medicine therapies were collected.RESULTS: From a total of 3568 in the recruitment sample, 3477 participants completed a health diary (response rate 97%). The data of 112 participants with baseline active gastrointestinal diseases were excluded from the analysis, leaving 3365 participants in the study.The incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms was 25% and the mean number of symptomatic episodes was 0.66 ina month. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, constipation and dyspepsia were the most frequent symptoms.Female gender, younger age, and low baseline quality of life were risk factors for developing these symptoms. The participants were more likely to treat themselves, using dietary, complementary or alternative medicines, than to visit physicians, except in the case of vomiting.CONCLUSION: Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in the Japanese population, with an incidence of 25%.Abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, constipation and dyspepsia are the most frequent symptoms. Risk factors for developing these symptoms include female gender,younger age, and low baseline quality of life.

  19. Role of mast cells in gastrointestinal mucosal defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penissi, Alicia B; Rudolph, María I; Piezzi, Ramón S

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this review, based on studies from our laboratory as well as from others, is to summarize salient features of mast cell immunobiology and to describe their associations with gastrointestinal mucosal defense. Gastrointestinal mast cells are involved in many pathologic effects, such as food hypersensitivity. On the other hand, they also play a protective role in defense against parasitic and microbial infections. Thus, they have both positive and negative effects, but presently the mechanisms that control the balance of these various effects are poorly known. It has been suggested that stabilization of mast cells may be a key mechanism to protect the gastrointestinal tract from injury. Few molecules are known to possess both mast cell stabilizing and gastrointestinal cytoprotective activity. These include zinc compounds, sodium cromoglycate, FPL 52694, ketotifen, aloe vera, certain flavonoids such as quercetin, some sulfated proteoglycans such as chondroitin sulfate and dehydroleucodine. Dehydroleucodine, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Artemisia douglasiana Besser, exhibits anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal cytoprotective action. The lactone stimulates mucus production, and inhibits histamine and serotonin release from intestinal mast cells. The lactone could act as a selective mast cell stabilizer by releasing cytoprotective factors and inhibiting pro-inflammatory mast cell mediators. PMID:14510234

  20. Prokinetic Effect of Polyherbal Formulation on Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Srinivasan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available PHF, a polyherbal formulation, consist of seven known herbs namely, Aegle marmelos, Elettaria cardamomum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Citrus aurantifolia, Rosa damascene, Cissus quadrangularis and Saccharum officinarum. The PHF was evaluated for acute toxicity, gastrointestinal motility and gastric emptying rate in mice and rats. Based on acute toxicity study, the PHF was considered as safe and 3 dose (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg levels were employed for further pharmacological studies. The gastrointestinal prokinetics effect of PHF in various dose levels (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg., p.o was studied by charcoal meal gastrointestinal transit and laxative effect in mice. The gastric emptying rate of PHF in rat was studied by disappearance of phenol red from stomach. The results illustrate that PHF at 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly (p< 0.001 enhanced the gastrointestinal transit. PHF at 400 mg/kg (p< 0.01 significantly enhanced the purging index, which is the measure of laxative activity. PHF at 200 mg/kg (p< 0.05 less significantly enhanced the purging index. In gastric emptying rate, PHF dose dependently increased the gastric emptying. From the above findings, PHF may be used as gastrointestinal prokinetics and to improve the intestinal motility.

  1. Influence of ionizing radiation on gastrointestinal peptide levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysocki, J.; Esposito, V.; Linard, C. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1997-03-01

    Exposure of the gut to ionising radiation may induce gastrointestinal damage and dysfunction. Early effects such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, anorexia may be observed within the first 24 h after irradiation. Such symptoms are seen even with doses as low as 1 Gy. later effects and the onset of the gastrointestinal syndrome are seen at higher doses (10 Gy) and include gastric emptying inhibition, intestinal hemorrhages, disturbances in water and electrolytes balance and septicemia. The severity of which depends on the nature, dose and dose rate received. The mechanism underlying these changes was unclear; it has long been known that exposure to ionising radiation affects intestinal morphology usually because of inhibition of mitotic activity at the level of the crypt enterocyst. The various physiological functions of the gastrointestinal tract are controlled by a wide variety of agents as neurotransmitters, neuropeptides. Radiation induces alterations in hormonal release and response. The present study carried out in the rat focuses on Gastrin Releasing Peptide (GRP), a gastrointestinal neuropeptide present in the central nervous system and in the gut endocrine cells were released into blood. The GRP controls food intake, pancreatic enzyme secretions, gastric emptying, intestinal motility and cellular proliferation. The aim was to investigate the effects of gamma and neutron/gamma on plasma and gastrointestinal tissue levels of GRP

  2. Role of polyamines in gastrointestinal mucosal growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xiang Bian; Jian Hua Wang

    2000-01-01

    The polyamines [putrescine (PU), spermidine (SPD) and spermine (SPM)] are ubiquitous polycationiccompounds found in all prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, are essentially involved in a variety of regulatorysteps during normal, adaptive, and malignant cell proliferation. Nearly four decades investigation about thepolyamines contributed to the synthesis and decomposition of polyamines and the active and passive enzymeswhich regulate them at different levels. This review focuses on the sources and homeostasis of intracellularpolyamines, the transport and role of the polyamines in the growth of the gastrointestinal mucosa and theirpossible mechanism. We tried to point out the gaps remaining in the story and give a working hypothesis forthe role of polyamines in gastrointestinal mucosal growth. We propose in the hypothesis that polyamine is a“key”to unlock the “door”of cell proliferation. How many “doors” between the “polyamine key” and the“real start” of proliferation? The polyamine might be the only key for cell proliferation. Another possibilityis that polyamine is the first key and its “unlocking-effect” resulting in getting another key for the next doorin the proliferation chain, for example, proto-oncogenes. To decide whether polyamine is an intermediatestep or just only one step of cell proliferation, the possible way is to keep polyamine to be a stimulus and finda way to deprive the function of proto-oncogene protein (or other possible gene expression product) to checkthe effect on the cell proliferation. Another important question is how polyamine can trigger the synthesis ofDNA in virtual. Arabinose operon model may give us some ideas to investigate about that. And furthermore,it is necessary to pay attention to the relationship between polyamine and other cell proliferation regulator,like growth factor, chalone, cAMP, cGMP, etc. Further studies are needed to investigate the mechanism ofpolyamine acted on the gastrointestinal mucosal

  3. Fermentation properties and potential prebiotic activity of Bimuno® galacto-oligosaccharide (65 % galacto-oligosaccharide content) on in vitro gut microbiota parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Roberta; Swann, Jonathan R; Vulevic, Jelena; Gibson, Glenn R; Costabile, Adele

    2016-08-01

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides have the ability to generate important changes in the gut microbiota composition that may confer health benefits to the host. Reducing the impurities in prebiotic mixtures could expand their applications in food industries and improve their selectivity and prebiotic effect on the potential beneficial bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. This study aimed to determine the in vitro potential fermentation properties of a 65 % galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) content Bimuno® GOS (B-GOS) on gut microbiota composition and their metabolites. Fermentation of 65 % B-GOS was compared with 52 % B-GOS in pH- and volume-controlled dose-response anaerobic batch culture experiments. In total, three different doses (1, 0·5 and 0·33 g equivalent to 0·1, 0·05 and 0·033 g/l) were tested. Changes in the gut microbiota during a time course were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridisation, whereas small molecular weight metabolomics profiles and SCFA were determined by 1H-NMR analysis and GC, respectively. The 65 % B-GOS showed positive modulation of the microbiota composition during the first 8 h of fermentation with all doses. Administration of the specific doses of B-GOS induced a significant increase in acetate as the major SCFA synthesised compared with propionate and butyrate concentrations, but there were no significant differences between substrates. The 65 % B-GOS in syrup format seems to have, in all the analysis, an efficient prebiotic effect. However, the applicability of such changes remains to be shown in an in vivo trial. PMID:27267934

  4. Influenza and SARS-coronavirus activating proteases TMPRSS2 and HAT are expressed at multiple sites in human respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Bertram

    Full Text Available The type II transmembrane serine proteases TMPRSS2 and HAT activate influenza viruses and the SARS-coronavirus (TMPRSS2 in cell culture and may play an important role in viral spread and pathogenesis in the infected host. However, it is at present largely unclear to what extent these proteases are expressed in viral target cells in human tissues. Here, we show that both HAT and TMPRSS2 are coexpressed with 2,6-linked sialic acids, the major receptor determinant of human influenza viruses, throughout the human respiratory tract. Similarly, coexpression of ACE2, the SARS-coronavirus receptor, and TMPRSS2 was frequently found in the upper and lower aerodigestive tract, with the exception of the vocal folds, epiglottis and trachea. Finally, activation of influenza virus was conserved between human, avian and porcine TMPRSS2, suggesting that this protease might activate influenza virus in reservoir-, intermediate- and human hosts. In sum, our results show that TMPRSS2 and HAT are expressed by important influenza and SARS-coronavirus target cells and could thus support viral spread in the human host.

  5. Current Understanding of the Role of PPARγ in Gastrointestinal Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have indicated that PPARγ plays multiple roles such as in inflammation, cell cycle control, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis, thus PPARγ contributes to the homeostasis. Many in vitro studies have showed that ligand-induced activation of PPARγ possess antitumor effect in many cancers including CRC. However, the role of PPARγ in gastrointestinal cancers, especially in colorectal cancer, is rather controversial. Nevertheless, some recent studies with the positive results on the possible application of PPARγ ligands, such as Bezafibrate or Rosiglitazone in gastrointestinal cancers, have suggested a potential usefulness of PPARγ agonists in cancer prevention and therapy. In this review, the authors discuss the recent developments in the role of PPARγ in gastrointestinal cancers.

  6. Scintigraphic detection of gastrointestinal bleeding: a review of current methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experience with radionuclide imaging has provided the clinician with several techniques to noninvasively detect and locate sources of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. These tests can be rapidly performed and often in an ICU setting. One method used Tc-99m sulfur colloid which, in an animal model, has been shown to detect acute bleeding at rates as low as 0.1 ml/min. However, because the tracer remains in the blood for a short period of time, it may be suboptimal for identifying patients with intermittent bleeding. Tc-99m red cells is a tracer that remains within the blood and permits detection of both acute and intermittent bleeding. With tagged red cells, sites of bleeding from both the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract can be found. Both of these techniques can provide important information in the patient with suspected active gastrointestinal bleeding and aid the clinician in more effective management including the use of invasive diagnostic and therapeutic techniques

  7. Compositional and gastrointestinal prokinetic studies of Pugionium (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoyu; Li, Cong; Zhang, Chunxiao; Chen, Bang; Hui, Lang; Shen, Yehua

    2015-11-01

    Pugionium cornutum (L.) Gaertn. (PCG) is a desert plant with edible and medicinal value. The contents of proximate composition, amino acids and vitamins of fresh and pickled PCG were analyzed. PCG is rich in dietary fiber, protein and vitamins. PCG is a dietary source of potassium and calcium, with low levels of fat and sugar. PCG contains all the 18 hydrolyzed amino acids. Pickled PCG protein is a high quality protein. A large quantity of vitamins are lost during the pickling process. The type and number of mice dejections, gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion were investigated using the water extract of fresh and pickled PCG (WEFP and WEPP) to determine their gastrointestinal prokinetic efficacy. The low-dose WEFP and WEPP promoted the gastrointestinal dynamics and the WEFP and WEPP promoted gastrointestinal activity and act as nonviolent drugs. The results indicate that PCG has great potential as a new functional food source. PMID:25976823

  8. Increased flavour diversity of Chardonnay wines by spontaneous fermentation and co-fermentation with Hanseniaspora vineae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, K; Boido, E; Fariña, L; Gioia, O; Gomez, M E; Barquet, M; Gaggero, C; Dellacassa, E; Carrau, F

    2013-12-01

    Discovery, characterisation and use of novel yeast strains for winemaking is increasingly regarded as a way for improving quality and to provide variation, including subtle characteristic differences in fine wines. The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of a native apiculate strain, selected from grapes, Hanseniaspora vineae (H. vineae) 02/5A. Fermentations were done in triplicate, working with 225 L oak barrels, using a Chardonnay grape must. Three yeast fermentation strategies were compared: conventional inoculation with a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, ALG 804, sequential inoculation with H. vineae and then strain ALG 804 and spontaneous fermentation. Yeast strain identification was performed during fermentation, in which the apiculate strain was found to be active, until 9% of alcohol in volume, for the co-fermentation and the spontaneous fermentation was completed by three native S. cerevisiae strains. Basic winemaking parameters and some key chemical analysis, such as concentration of glycerol, biogenic amines, organic acids, and aroma compounds were analysed. Sensory analysis was done using a trained panel and further evaluated with professional winemakers. Sequential inoculation with H. vineae followed by S. cerevisiae resulted in relatively dry wines, with increased aroma and flavour diversity compared with wines resulting from inoculation with S. cerevisiae alone. Wines produced from sequential inoculations were considered, by a winemaker's panel, to have an increased palate length and body. Characteristics of wines derived from sequential inoculation could be explained due to significant increases in glycerol and acetyl and ethyl ester flavour compounds and relative decreases in alcohols and fatty acids. Aroma sensory analysis of wine character and flavour, attributed to winemaking using H. vineae, indicated a significant increase in fruit intensity described as banana, pear, apple, citric fruits and guava. GC analysis of the

  9. Wild Raspberry Subjected to Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion Improves the Protective Capacity against Ethyl Carbamate-Induced Oxidative Damage in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Lingxia; Li, Ya; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC), a probable human carcinogen, occurs widely in many fermented foods. Previous studies indicated that EC-induced cytotoxicity was associated with oxidative stress. Wild raspberries are rich in polyphenolic compounds, which possess potent antioxidant activity. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of wild raspberry extracts produced before (RE) and after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion (RD) on EC-induced oxidative damage in Caco-2 cells. Our primary data showed that ethyl carbamate could result in cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in Caco-2 cells and raspberry extract after digestion (RD) may be more effective than that before digestion (RE) in attenuating toxicity caused by ethyl carbamate. Further investigation by fluorescence microscope revealed that RD may significantly ameliorate EC-induced oxidative damage by scavenging the overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), maintaining mitochondrial function and preventing glutathione (GSH) depletion. In addition, HPLC-ESI-MS results showed that the contents of identified polyphenolic compounds (esculin, kaempferol O-hexoside, and pelargonidin O-hexoside) were remarkably increased after digestion, which might be related to the better protective effect of RD. Overall, our results demonstrated that raspberry extract undergoing simulated gastrointestinal digestion may improve the protective effect against EC-induced oxidative damage in Caco-2 cells.

  10. Wheat bran affects the site of fermentation of resistant starch and luminal indexes related to colon cancer risk: a study in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Govers, M; Gannon, N; Dunshea, F; Gibson, P.; J. Muir

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Recent studies suggest that resistant starch (effective in producing butyrate and lowering possibly toxic ammonia) is rapidly fermented in the proximal colon; the distal colon especially would, however, benefit from these properties of resistant starch.
AIMS—To determine whether wheat bran (a rich source of insoluble non-starch polysaccharides), known to hasten gastrointestinal transit, could carry resistant starch through to the distal colon and thus shift its site of fermentation...

  11. Changes of Enzyme Activity on Tobacco Leaves and Application on Tobacoo Fermentation%烟叶主要生物酶活性变化规律及其在烟叶发酵中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏; 王毅; 马永凯; 季秀玲; 魏云林

    2009-01-01

    烟叶中的生物酶在烟叶的生长及发酵过程中起着重要作用.他们能够促进烟叶内部有机物质的分解与转化,调整烟叶中各种化学成分的比例,提高烟叶中香气成分的形成和积累,从而提高烟叶的综合品质.综述了烟叶生长、加工过程中淀粉酶、蛋白酶、多酚氧化酶的活性变化规律,以及外加生物酶在烟叶发酵中的应用现状.%Enzymes in tobacco played an important role in tobacoo growth and post fermentation. They could promote the decomposition and transformation of the organic matters in tobacco leaves, adjust the ratio of a variety of chemical components and increase the formation and accumulation of the aroma components. As a result, the quality of tobacco leaves could be improved to a large extent. The change rules of amylase, protease and polyphenoloxidase activity in tobacoo growth and processing, and the application of external enzymes in the tobacco fermentation were summarized in this article.

  12. Effect of Gastrointestinal Protease Digestion on Bioactivity of Marine Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ida-Johanne; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Ossum, Carlo Gunnar;

    2014-01-01

    Focus in nutritional science has turned towards components in, or added to, foods that may possess health beneficial activities beyond the classical nutritional value, namely functional food. Bioactive peptides are examples of such components. In vitro studies on bioactivities have mainly been...... executed without concerning subsequent digestion after intake and the aim of this work was hence to investigate how the in vitro antioxidative, antihypertensive and caspase activating activities of peptides are affected by digestion with gastrointestinal (GI) proteases. Five different fish protein...

  13. Gastrointestinal manifestations of food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jaime Liou; Aceves, Seema S

    2011-04-01

    The rates of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders appear to be increasing. The most common of these is eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) which is a clinicopathologic condition consisting of characteristic symptoms and endoscopic features accompanied by a pan-esophageal, acid resistant epithelial eosinophilia of greater than equal to 15 per high power field. Typical symptoms include dysphagia and abdominal pain. Typical endoscopic features include pallor, plaques, furrows, concentric rings. Complications include food impactions and strictures. EoE resolution with food elimination diets provides evidence that EoE is a food-antigen driven process. In vitro and microarray studies have identified specific immunologic factors underlying EoE pathogenesis. Other gastrointestinal manifestations of food intolerances/allergy include food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome.

  14. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    , paracrine, spermiocrine secretion etc.), so the same peptide may act as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor, or a fertility factor. The molecular targets of each bioactive peptide are specific G-protein coupled receptors expressed in the cell membranes of different target cells......Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization...

  15. Gastrointestinal lesions associated with spondyloarthropathies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ambrogio Orlando; Sara Renna; Giovanni Perricone; Mario Cottone

    2009-01-01

    Subclinical gut inflammation has been described in up to two-thirds of patients with spondyloarthropathies (SpA). Arthritis represents an extra-intestinal manifestation of several gastrointestinal diseases,including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Whipple's disease, Behcet's disease, celiac disease, intestinal bypass surgery, parasitic infections of the gut and pseudomembranous colitis. Moreover about twothirds of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug users demonstrate intestinal inflammation. Arthritis may manifest as a peripheral or axial arthritis. The spondyloarthropathy family consists of the following entities:ankylosing spondylitis, undifferentiated spondyloar thr i t is, react ive ar thr i t is, psor iat i c arthritis, spondyloarthritis associated with IBD,juvenile onset spondyloarthritis. This topic reviews the major gastrointestinal manifestations that can occur in patients with SpA and in nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs users.

  16. The Gastrointestinal Aspects of Halitosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kinberg, Sivan; Stein, Miki; Zion, Nataly; Shaoul, Ron

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Halitosis is a common human condition for which the exact pathophysiological mechanism is unclear. It has been attributed mainly to oral pathologies. Halitosis resulting from gastrointestinal disorders is considered to be extremely rare. However, halitosis has often been reported among the symptoms related to Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroesophageal reflux disease.OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively review the experience with children and young adults presenting with halitosis...

  17. Upper gastrointestinal physiology and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldum, Helge L; Kleveland, Per M; Fossmark, Reidar

    2015-06-01

    Nordic research on physiology and pathophysiology of the upper gastrointestinal tract has flourished during the last 50 years. Swedish surgeons and physiologists were in the frontline of research on the regulation of gastric acid secretion. This research finally led to the development of omeprazole, the first proton pump inhibitor. When Swedish physiologists developed methods allowing the assessment of acid secretion in isolated oxyntic glands and isolated parietal cells, the understanding of mechanisms by which gastric acid secretion is regulated took a great step forward. Similarly, in Trondheim, Norway, the acid producing isolated rat stomach model combined with a sensitive and specific method for determination of histamine made it possible to evaluate this regulation qualitatively as well as quantitatively. In Lund, Sweden, the identification of the enterochromaffin-like cell as the cell taking part in the regulation of acid secretion by producing and releasing histamine was of fundamental importance both physiologically and clinically. Jorpes and Mutt established a center at Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm for the purification of gastrointestinal hormones in the 1960s, and Danes followed up this work by excelling in the field of determination and assessment of biological role of gastrointestinal hormones. A Finnish group was for a long period in the forefront of research on gastritis, and the authors' own studies on the classification of gastric cancer and the role of gastrin in the development of gastric neoplasia are of importance. It can, accordingly, be concluded that Nordic researchers have been central in the research on area of the upper gastrointestinal physiology and diseases. PMID:25857514

  18. Gastrointestinal manifestations of endocrine disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christina Maser; Arnbjorn Toset; Sanziana Roman

    2006-01-01

    The hormonal interactions among the systems throughout the body are not fully understood; many vague clinical symptoms may in fact be manifestations of underlying endocrine diseases. The aim of the following review is to discuss gastrointestinal manifestations of surgically correctable endocrine diseases, focusing on abnormalities of thyroid function, cancer and finally autoimmune diseases. We also review manifestations of pancreatic endocrine tumors, and multiple endocrine neoplasia.

  19. Never events in gastrointestinal nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, C. L.

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal diseases and disorders frequently require interventions that can lead to serious consequences for patients when an organization has not put in place the correct systems and processes to prevent incidents from happening, procedures have not been followed (generally due to poor observation), or when an individual disregards protocol (generally due to lack of judgment). It has been identified that over 400,000 patients suffer potentially preventable harmful events each year (Ems...

  20. Softening and Mineral Content of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Leaves During the Fermentation to Produce Ntoba mbodi

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mokemiabeka; J. Dhellot; S.C. Kobawila; P. Diakabana; R.N. Ntietie Loukombo; A.G. Nyanga-Koumou; D. Louembe

    2011-01-01

    The aim of study is to investigate the softening of cassava leaves during the fermentation of Ntoba mbodi and the mineral content of cassava leaves fermented and unfermented. The softening of cassava leaves is a characteristic of fermentation to produce Ntoba mbodi. It is due to an enzymatic process. The activity of cellulase and polygalacturonase enzymes, very weak at the beginning of fermentation, increases sharply in 24 h and decreases thereafter. The pectinesterase and pectin lyase activi...

  1. Rare gastrointestinal lymphomas: the endoscopicinvestigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal lymphomas represent up to 10% ofgastrointestinal malignancies and about one third of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The most prominent histologies aremucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and diffuselarge B-cell lymphoma. However, the gastrointestinaltract can be the site of rarer lymphoma subtypes as aprimary or secondary localization. Due to their rarity andthe multifaceted histology, an endoscopic classificationhas not been validated yet. This review aims to analyzethe endoscopic presentation of rare gastrointestinallymphomas from disease diagnosis to follow-up,according to the involved site and lymphoma subtype.Existing, new and emerging endoscopic technologieshave been examined. In particular, we investigated thediagnostic, prognostic and follow-up endoscopic featuresof T-cell and natural killer lymphomas, lymphomatouspolyposis and mantle cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma,plasma cell related disease, gastrointestinal lymphomasin immunodeficiency and Hodgkin's lymphoma ofthe gastrointestinal tract. Contrarily to more frequentgastrointestinal lymphomas, data about rare lymphomasare mostly extracted from case series and casereports. Due to the data paucity, a synergism betweengastroenterologists and hematologists is required in order to better manage the disease. Indeed, clinicaland prognostic features are different from nodal andextranodal or the bone marrow (in case of plasma celldisease) counterpart. Therefore, the approach shouldbe based on the knowledge of the peculiar behavior andnatural history of disease.

  2. Short-chain fatty acid fermentation products of the gut microbiome: implications in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Derrick F. MacFabe

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests potential, but unproven, links between dietary, metabolic, infective, and gastrointestinal factors and the behavioral exacerbations and remissions of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Propionic acid (PPA) and its related short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are fermentation products of ASD-associated bacteria (Clostridia, Bacteriodetes, Desulfovibrio). SCFAs represent a group of compounds derived from the host microbiome that are plausibly linked to ASDs and can induce wid...

  3. Methanogens, Methane and Gastrointestinal Motility

    OpenAIRE

    Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Chang, Christopher; Pimentel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic fermentation of the undigested polysaccharide fraction of carbohydrates produces hydrogen in the intestine which is the substrate for methane production by intestinal methanogens. Hydrogen and methane are excreted in the flatus and in breath giving the opportunity to indirectly measure their production using breath testing. Although methane is detected in 30%-50% of the healthy adult population worldwide, its production has been epidemiologically and clinically associated with const...

  4. Effect of soy-fortification method on the fermentation characteristics and nutritional quality of fermented maize meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plahar, W A; Nti, C A; Annan, N T

    1997-01-01

    Studies were conducted to develop an appropriate household/small-scale enterprise level technique for the production of soy-fortified fermented maize dough (or meal) by comparing different treatments, processing methods and fortification levels. The effects of fortification method of the Ghanaian traditional fermented maize dough with raw or heat-treated whole soybeans and full-fat soyflour at 0%, 10% and 20% replacement levels, on the rate of fermentation and product quality were investigated. Sensory characteristics, trypsin inhibitor activity, amino acid pattern, proximate composition and hot paste viscosity were used as the indices of quality. Addition of whole soybeans to maize before milling and fermentation reduced the fermentation time by 60% while increasing the protein content by 24% and 70% respectively for 10% and 20% levels of fortification. A significant improvement was also achieved in the amino acids pattern of the fortified dough. However, raw whole soybeans imparted an undesirable color and beany flavor and an appreciable concentration of trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) to the dough. Boiling soybeans for 20 min before incorporation into the maize for milling and fermentation was found necessary for desirable flavor and low levels of TIA. Little or no changes in the pasting viscosity characteristics occurred in samples containing boiled soybeans, while the usual method of fortifying maize meal with soy flour was found to severely depress the pasting viscosity characteristics and drastically reduced the acidity of the fermented dough. Based on the findings of the study, the most appropriate technique for the production of soy-fortified high protein fermented maize dough has been suggested to involve incorporation of boiled whole soybeans in soaked maize before milling and fermentation for improved sensory characteristics, enhanced nutritive value and optimal functional properties. PMID:9650729

  5. Fermentation and Hydrogen Metabolism Affect Uranium Reduction by Clostridia

    OpenAIRE

    Weimin Gao; Francis, Arokiasamy J.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, it has been shown that not only is uranium reduction under fermentation condition common among clostridia species, but also the strains differed in the extent of their capability and the pH of the culture significantly affected uranium(VI) reduction. In this study, using HPLC and GC techniques, metabolic properties of those clostridial strains active in uranium reduction under fermentation conditions have been characterized and their effects on capability variance of uranium reduc...

  6. Molecular characterization of lactobacilli isolated from fermented idli batter

    OpenAIRE

    Perumal Jayaprabha Agaliya; Kadirvelu Jeevaratnam

    2013-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are non pathogenic organism widely distributed in nature typically involved in a large number of spontaneous food fermentation. The purpose of this study was to characterize the bacteriocinogenic lactobacilli from fermented idli batter which can find application in biopreservation and biomedicine. Eight most promising lactobacilli were chosen from twenty two isolates based on their spectrum of activity against other lactic acid bacteria and pathogens. The eight lactobacil...

  7. Selection of potential microorganism for sago starch fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    RUTH MELLIAWATI; ROHMATUSSOLIHAT; FERRA OCTAVINA

    2006-01-01

    Fermentation process of sago starch for the production of bioproduct requires potential microorganism that have ability to hydrolyze sago starch. The purpose of this research was to get the potential of amylolytic microorganisms for their capability of amyloglucosidase activity and to know the sugar strains of the fermentation result. Eleven amylolytic microorganisms (9 strains of mold and 2 strains of yeast) were obtained from the collection Research Centre for Biotechnology – Indonesian Ins...

  8. Mast cells and gastrointestinal dysmotility in the cystic fibrosis mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C De Lisle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF has many effects on the gastrointestinal tract and a common problem in this disease is poor nutrition. In the CF mouse there is an innate immune response with a large influx of mast cells into the muscularis externa of the small intestine and gastrointestinal dysmotility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of mast cells in gastrointestinal dysmotility using the CF mouse (Cftr(tm1UNC, Cftr knockout. METHODOLOGY: Wild type (WT and CF mice were treated for 3 weeks with mast cell stabilizing drugs (ketotifen, cromolyn, doxantrazole or were treated acutely with a mast cell activator (compound 48/80. Gastrointestinal transit was measured using gavage of a fluorescent tracer. RESULTS: In CF mice gastric emptying at 20 min post-gavage did not differ from WT, but was significantly less than in WT at 90 min post-gavage. Gastric emptying was significantly increased in WT mice by doxantrazole, but none of the mast cell stabilizers had any significant effect on gastric emptying in CF mice. Mast cell activation significantly enhanced gastric emptying in WT mice but not in CF mice. Small intestinal transit was significantly less in CF mice as compared to WT. Of the mast cell stabilizers, only doxantrazole significantly affected small intestinal transit in WT mice and none had any effect in CF mice. Mast cell activation resulted in a small but significant increase in small intestinal transit in CF mice but not WT mice. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that mast cells are not involved in gastrointestinal dysmotility but their activation can stimulate small intestinal transit in cystic fibrosis.

  9. Phytochemistry and gastrointestinal benefits of the medicinal spice, Capsicum annuum L. (Chilli): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Amal K; Banerji, Pratim

    2016-06-01

    Dietary spices and their active constituents provide various beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal system by variety of mechanisms such as influence of gastric emptying, stimulation of gastrointestinal defense and absorption, stimulation of salivary, intestinal, hepatic, and pancreatic secretions. Capsicum annuum (Solanaceae), commonly known as chilli, is a medicinal spice used in various Indian traditional systems of medicine and it has been acknowledged to treat various health ailments. Therapeutic potential of chilli and capsaicin were well documented; however, they act as double-edged sword in many physiological circumstances. In traditional medicine chilli has been used against various gastrointestinal complains such as dyspepsia, loss of appetite, gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric ulcer, and so on. In chilli, more than 200 constituents have been identified and some of its active constituents play numerous beneficial roles in various gastrointestinal disorders such as stimulation of digestion and gastromucosal defense, reduction of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, inhibition of gastrointestinal pathogens, ulceration and cancers, regulation of gastrointestinal secretions and absorptions. However, further studies are warranted to determine the dose ceiling limit of chilli and its active constituents for their utilization as gastroprotective agents. This review summarizes the phytochemistry and various gastrointestinal benefits of chilli and its various active constituents. PMID:26756096

  10. Construction from a single parent of baker's yeast strains with high freeze tolerance and fermentative activity in both lean and sweet doughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S; Ouchi, K

    1994-10-01

    From a freeze-tolerant baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), 2,333 spore clones were obtained. To improve the leavening ability in lean dough of the parent strain, we selected 555 of the high-maltose-fermentative spore clones by using a method in which a soft agar solution containing maltose and bromocresol purple was overlaid on yeast colonies. By measuring the gassing power in the dough, we selected 66 spore clones with a good leavening ability in lean dough and a total of 694 hybrids were constructed by crossing them. Among these hybrids, we obtained 50 novel freeze-tolerant strains with good leavening ability in all lean, regular, and sweet doughs comparable to that of commercial baker's yeast. Hybrids with improved leavening ability or freeze tolerance compared with the parent yeast and commercial baker's yeasts were also obtained. These results suggest that hybridization between spore clones derived from a single parent strain is effective for improving the properties of baker's yeasts.

  11. Anthelmintic activity of Melia azedarach fruits in lambs naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes / Atividade anti-helmíntica do fruto da Melia azedarach em cordeiros naturalmente infectados com nematódeos gastrintestinais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Guzzo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of Melia azedarach grounded dry fruits, in lambs naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Twenty four (24 mixed-breed Ile de France x Corriedale, male lambs, aged 3 month, were separeted into three (3 groups of eight (8 animals: the first group was medicated with 5mg.Kg-1 of albendazole orally, in a single dose, the second group was medicated with 2g.Kg-1 of Melia azedarach fruits orally, in a single dose, and the third group remained untreated, as control. The results showed that the group that presented the best efficacy was the one treated with albendazole (51.96%, followed by the group treated with Melia azedarach fruits that presented 33.21% of efficacy.Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a atividade anti-helmíntica dos frutos secos e moídos da planta Melia azedarach, em cordeiros naturalmente infectados com nematódeos gastrintestinais. Utilizou-se 24 cordeiros, com 90 dias de idade, machos, mestiços Ile de France x Corridale, os quais foram divididos em 3 grupos de oito animais cada, sendo: grupo 1, medicado com 5mg.Kg-1 em dose única, de albendazole pela via oral (V.O; grupo 2, com 2g.Kg-1 (V.O, em dose única, do fruto do cinamomo (Melia azedarach e o grupo 3, controle, não recebeu nenhum tipo de tratamento. Os resultados encontrados demonstraram que o grupo tratado com albendazole foi o que apresentou melhor eficácia 51.96%, seguido do grupo tratado com frutos de cinamomo o qual apresentou eficácia de 33.21%.

  12. 具有除草活性的小麦根腐病菌发酵条件优化%Optimization of fermentation conditions of Bipolaris sorokiniana with herbicidal activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏松红; 张丽莹; 王黎; 张景远; 李斐

    2012-01-01

    The fermentation conditions of Bipolaris sorokiniana were optimized in order to increase the productivity of the herbicidal substance. Fermentation conditions were optimized using the single factor and orthogonal design method. Optimization of fermentation conditions showed that Czapek's was the optimal culture medium for producing herbicidal substance; the best carbon source was glucose, the best nitrogen source was NH4CI, and the best inorganic salts were KC1, K2HPO4, MgSO4 · 7H2O and FeSO4. The best composition of cultural medium was as followed: 2.0% glucose, 0.25% NH4Cl, 0.05% KCl, 0.025% K2HPO4, 0.025% MgSO4 · 7H2O and 0.000 5% FeSO4. The culture conditions increasing the productivity of the herbicidal substance were as followed: the initial pH7.0, the rotating speed 130 r/min, the temperature 28 °C , the culture time 5 d, the medium capacity 120 mL/ 250 mL, and the inoculation rate 6%. The fermented product showed thermal and light stability, and it was also stable under weak acidic and neutral environments. The herbicidal activity of B. Sorokiniana was increased by optimization of fermentation conditions.%通过单因子试验和正交试验对小麦根腐病菌菌株进行了发酵条件优化,以提高其活性物质的产量.结果表明:最适合小麦根腐病菌产毒的培养基是察氏培养基;该培养基的最佳碳源为葡萄糖,氮源为氯化铵,无机盐为氯化钾、磷酸氢二钾、硫酸镁和硫酸亚铁;发酵培养基各组分的最佳配比为:葡萄糖2.0%,氯化铵0.25%,氯化钾0.05%,磷酸氢二钾0.025%,硫酸镁0.025%,硫酸亚铁0.000 5%;有利于提高菌株活性物质产量的培养条件为初始pH7.0,转速为130 r/min,温度为28℃,培养时间为5d,装液量为120mL/250mL,接种量为6%.小麦根腐病菌菌株发酵产物具有良好的热稳定性和光稳定性,在弱酸性及中性条件下较稳定.发酵条件优化后提高了小麦根腐病菌的除草活性.

  13. Nutraceuticals for protection and healing of gastrointestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, M; Vitaglione, P; Sellitto, S; D'Argenio, G

    2012-01-01

    Natural medicinal products have been used for millennia for the treatment of several ailments. Although many have been superseded by conventional pharmaceutical approaches, there is currently a resurgence in the interest in natural products by the general public and the use of complementary and alternative medicine is increasing rapidly in developed countries. Also, pharmaceutical industries are more and more interested in examining their potential as sources of novel medicinal compounds which may act as growth factor or show immunomodulatory or anti-microbial activity. The subgroup of natural bioactive compounds that bridge the gap between food products and drugs are termed nutraceuticals or functional foods. In contrast with most standard medicinal compounds, nutraceuticals are generally used to prevent rather than to treat disease. Many of the claims for such products are supported by very limited scientific evidence. However, there has recently been a great interest at evaluating the mechanism by which natural products exert their beneficial effects in the gastrointestinal tract. In particular, a major area of interest is for the use of biologically active chemical components of plants, i.e. phytochemicals, in a number of gastrointestinal disorders. While the major focus of phytochemical research has been on cancer prevention, several products of plant origin are being used and/or under study for a variety of other gastrointestinal problems. In this review we discuss the scientific evidence supporting the potential use of nutraceuticals as agents capable to prevent or accelerate healing of gastrointestinal mucosal damage, with a focus on polyphenol extracts obtained from apple.

  14. Endocrine orchestration of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and hypothalamic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, T; Quintieri, A M; Amodio, N; Cerra, M C

    2011-01-01

    The richly structured neuroendocrine control of the heart in health and disease requires, in addition to the autonomic nervous outflow, the essential contribute of various and often interacting humoral peptides (e.g. natriuretic peptides, Chromogranin-A-derived fragments, etc). In many cases, these molecules also influence the activity of other organ systems, including the gastrointestinal apparatus, in which they control mucosal function as well as motility and secretion. Interestingly, by acting centrally, some of these peptides also regulate satiety and appetite, thus forming an interesting link between cardiac and gastrointestinal function, and the feeding pattern. Prolonged inhibition and/or activation of these peptide pathways frequently results in severe and long-lasting dysfunctions, including cardiovascular diseases associated to alimentary disorders (e.g. obesity). Notably, their multifarious actions and mutual interactions make them excellent candidates for long-term resetting of both cardiac, gastrointestinal and nutrition homeostasis. Here we will provide only few examples taken from the quickly evolving scenario, with the purpose to provide indications concerning the complex circuits generated by multilevel signalling peptides, which contributes to orchestrate the association between cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and alimentary functions. This will highlight not only the complexity of the cardiovascular and GI regulatory networks, but also aspects of integration between feeding stimulating peptides and the other neuroendocrine systems affecting the heart and the GI tract.

  15. Heme oxygenase-1 system and gastrointestinal inflammation:A short review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Zhu; Wen-Guo Fan; Dong-Pei Li; Hsiangfu Kung; Marie CM Lin

    2011-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) system catalyzes heme to biologically active products:carbon monoxide,bili-verdin/bilirubin and free iron.It is involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis and many physiological and pathophysiological processes.A growing body of evidence indicates that HO-1 activation may play an important protective role in acute and chronic inflammation of gastrointestinal tract.This review focuses on the current understanding of the physiological significance of HO-1 induction and its possible roles inthe gastrointestinal inflammation studied to date.The ability to upregulate HO-1 by pharmacological means or using gene therapy may offer therapeutic strategies for gastrointestinal inflammation in the future.

  16. Viability of microflora pf market fermented milk products in simulated conditions of gastric and duodenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ziarno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The non-probiotic lactic acid bacteria have only rarely been used in in vitro or in vivo studies, because they are not considered to exert health benefits. To exert the beneficial effect in human organism, LAB needs to meet some criteria, for example the viability in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT. The aim of this work was to determine the viability of microflora of chosen market non-probiotic fermented milk products in simulated gastric and duodenal fluids. Material and methods. Ten market non-probiotic fermented milk products bought in Warsaw were used in this study. Ten grams of each product have been suspended in simulated gastric fluid, and then the mixture has been transferred into simulated duodenal fluid. Immediately after bacteria inoculums addition and at the end of the experiment, the number of lactobacilli and lactococci was measured. Results. The number of lactococci or streptococci decreased by 0.1-0.3 log cycle after 3 h in gastric mixture. Only in one yoghurt the population of streptococci decreased by 0.9 log cycle. The population of lactobacilli did not change in condition of simulated gastric fluid. The significant reduction of lactobacilli, lactococci and streptococci population was observed after the transfer of mixture into simulated duodenal fluid and incubation in this condition for 5 h. After the end of experiments in every studied sample the number of microflora remained at the level above 6 log CFU/mL. Conclusions. The results indicate that the condition simulating gastric fluid is not a menace to viability of lactic acid bacteria, if they are protected by milk products. The significant reduction of bacteria number in simulated duodenal fluid was probably caused by cell shock to intensive pH change of environment and loss of protective barrier caused by digestive enzymes activity.

  17. Biohydrogen production from soluble condensed molasses fermentation using anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lay, Chyi-How; Lin, Chiu-Yue [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724 (China); Wu, Jou-Hsien; Hsiao, Chin-Lang [Department of Water Resource Engineering, Feng Chia University (China); Chang, Jui-Jen [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University (China); Chen, Chin-Chao [Environmental Resources Laboratory, Department of Landscape Architecture, Chungchou Institute of Technology (China)

    2010-12-15

    Using anaerobic micro-organisms to convert organic waste to produce hydrogen gas gives the benefits of energy recovery and environmental protection. The objective of this study was to develop a biohydrogen production technology from food wastewater focusing on hydrogen production efficiency and micro-flora community at different hydraulic retention times. Soluble condensed molasses fermentation (CMS) was used as the substrate because it is sacchariferous and ideal for hydrogen production. CMS contains nutrient components that are necessary for bacterial growth: microbial protein, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins and coenzymes. The seed sludge was obtained from the waste activated sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant in Central Taiwan. This seed sludge was rich in Clostridium sp. A CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor) lab-scale hydrogen fermentor (working volume, 4.0 L) was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3-24 h with an influent CMS concentration of 40 g COD/L. The results showed that the peak hydrogen production rate of 390 mmol H{sub 2}/L-d occurred at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 320 g COD/L-d at a HRT of 3 h. The peak hydrogen yield was obtained at an OLR of 80 g COD/L-d at a HRT of 12 h. At HRT 8 h, all hydrogenase mRNA detected were from Clostridium acetobutylicum-like and Clostridium pasteurianum-like hydrogen-producing bacteria by RT-PCR analysis. RNA based hydrogenase gene and 16S rRNA gene analysis suggests that Clostridium exists in the fermentative hydrogen-producing system and might be the dominant hydrogen-producing bacteria at tested HRTs (except 3 h). The hydrogen production feedstock from CMS is lower than that of sucrose and starch because CMS is a waste and has zero cost, requiring no added nutrients. Therefore, producing hydrogen from food wastewater is a more commercially feasible bioprocess. (author)

  18. Tissue Staining (Chromoscopy) of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Fennerty, M. Brian

    1999-01-01

    Tissue staining, or chomoscopy, is used as an adjunctive technique during gastrointestinal endoscopy. Chemical agents are applied to the gastrointestinal mucosal surface to identify specific epithelia or to enhance the mucosal surface characteristics of the gastrointestinal epithelium. This aids in the recognition of subtle lesions (ie, polyps) or allows directed targeting of biopsies (ie, sprue or Barrett’s esophagus) to increase the yield of endoscopic diagnostic accuracy. The four endoscop...

  19. Human papillomavirus and gastrointestinal cancer: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchi, Dania; Stracci, Fabrizio; Buonora, Nicola; Masanotti, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Exposure to HPV is very common, and an estimated 65%-100% of sexually active adults are exposed to HPV in their lifetime. The majority of HPV infections are asymptomatic, but there is a 10% chance that individuals will develop a persistent infection and have an increased risk of developing a carcinoma. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has found that the following cancer sites have a strong causal relationship with HPV: cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx, including the base of the tongue and the tonsils. However, studies of the aetiological role of HPV in colorectal and esophageal malignancies have conflicting results. The aim of this review was to organize recent evidence and issues about the association between HPV infection and gastrointestinal tumours with a focus on esophageal, colorectal and anal cancers. The ultimate goal was to highlight possible implications for prognosis and prevention. PMID:27672265

  20. Exploiting novel molecular targets in gastrointestinal cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Novel molecular targets are being discovered as we learn more about the aberrant processes underlying various cancers. Efforts to translate this knowledge are starting to impact on the care of patients with gastrointestinal cancers. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway and angiogenesis have been targeted successfully in colorectal cancer with cetuximab, panitunumab and bevacizumab. Similarly, EGFR-targeting with erlotinib yielded significant survival benefit in pancreatic cancer when combined with gemcitabine. The multi-targeting approach with sorafenib has made it the first agent to achieve significant survival benefit in hepatocellular carcinoma. Efforts to exploit the dysregulated Akt/mTOR pathway in GI cancer therapy are ongoing. These molecular targets can be disrupted by various approaches, including the use of monoclonal antibody to intercept extracellular ligands and disrupt receptor-ligand binding, and small molecule inhibitors that interrupt the activation of intracellular kinases.

  1. Probiotic attributes of indigenous Lactobacillus spp. isolated from traditional fermented foods and beverages of north-western Himalayas using in vitro screening and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Anila; Angmo, Kunzes; Monika; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2016-05-01

    The present research was designed to explore indigenous probiotic Lactic acid bacteria from traditional fermented foods and beverages of North-western Himalayas for their probiotic potential. It was achieved through a step-by step approach focused on the technological characterization, evaluation of the probiotic traits and adherence ability. Fifty one LAB isolates from traditional fermented foods and beverages were initially screened for their technological properties and among them twenty isolates were selected. These isolates were further characterized and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus brevis (7 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (5), Lactobacillus paracasei (2), Lactobacillus buchneri (1), Lactobacillus plantarum (1) and Lactobacillus sp. (3). Identified isolates were evaluated by in vitro methods including survival in gastrointestinal tract, antibiotic susceptibility, antimicrobial activity, cell surface characteristics, exopolysacharride production and haemolytic activity. The results of these experiments were used as input data for Principal Component Analysis; thus, to select the most promising probiotic isolates. Three isolates (L. brevis PLA2, L. paracasei PLA8 and L. brevis PLA16) were found to be most technological relevant and promising probiotic candidates in comparison to commercial probiotic strains. L. brevis PLA2 was selected as best isolate with probiotic potential by in vitro adherence to the human intestinal HT-29 cell line. PMID:27407213

  2. Lactobacillus acidophilus (strain LB) from the resident adult human gastrointestinal microflora exerts activity against brush border damage promoted by a diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli in human enterocyte-like cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liévin-Le Moal, V; Amsellem, R; Servin, A.L.; Coconnier, M-H

    2002-01-01

    Background and aims: The normal gastrointestinal microflora exerts a barrier effect against enteropathogens. The aim of this study was to examine whether lactobacilli, a minor genus of the resident gut microflora, exerts a protective effect against the cellular injuries promoted by the diarrhoeagenic Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC) C1845 strain in human intestinal cells.

  3. Starmerella bombicola influences the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase level during mixed wine fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanovic Vesna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of a multistarter fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts has been proposed to simulate natural must fermentation and to confer greater complexity and specificity to wine. In this context, the combined use of S. cerevisiae and immobilized Starmerella bombicola cells (formerly Candida stellata was assayed to enhance glycerol concentration, reduce ethanol content and to improve the analytical composition of wine. In order to investigate yeast metabolic interaction during controlled mixed fermentation and to evaluate the influence of S. bombicola on S. cerevisiae, the gene expression and enzymatic activity of two key enzymes of the alcoholic fermentation pathway such as pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc1 and alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1 were studied. Results The presence of S. bombicola immobilized cells in a mixed fermentation trial confirmed an increase in fermentation rate, a combined consumption of glucose and fructose, an increase in glycerol and a reduction in the production of ethanol as well as a modification in the fermentation of by products. The alcoholic fermentation of S. cerevisiae was also influenced by S. bombicola immobilized cells. Indeed, Pdc1 activity in mixed fermentation was lower than that exhibited in pure culture while Adh1 activity showed an opposite behavior. The expression of both PDC1 and ADH1 genes was highly induced at the initial phase of fermentation. The expression level of PDC1 at the end of fermentation was much higher in pure culture while ADH1 level was similar in both pure and mixed fermentations. Conclusion In mixed fermentation, S. bombicola immobilized cells greatly affected the fermentation behavior of S. cerevisiae and the analytical composition of wine. The influence of S. bombicola on S. cerevisiae was not limited to a simple additive contribution. Indeed, its presence caused metabolic modifications during S. cerevisiae fermentation

  4. Starmerella bombicola influences the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase level during mixed wine fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of a multistarter fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts has been proposed to simulate natural must fermentation and to confer greater complexity and specificity to wine. In this context, the combined use of S. cerevisiae and immobilized Starmerella bombicola cells (formerly Candida stellata) was assayed to enhance glycerol concentration, reduce ethanol content and to improve the analytical composition of wine. In order to investigate yeast metabolic interaction during controlled mixed fermentation and to evaluate the influence of S. bombicola on S. cerevisiae, the gene expression and enzymatic activity of two key enzymes of the alcoholic fermentation pathway such as pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc1) and alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1) were studied. Results The presence of S. bombicola immobilized cells in a mixed fermentation trial confirmed an increase in fermentation rate, a combined consumption of glucose and fructose, an increase in glycerol and a reduction in the production of ethanol as well as a modification in the fermentation of by products. The alcoholic fermentation of S. cerevisiae was also influenced by S. bombicola immobilized cells. Indeed, Pdc1 activity in mixed fermentation was lower than that exhibited in pure culture while Adh1 activity showed an opposite behavior. The expression of both PDC1 and ADH1 genes was highly induced at the initial phase of fermentation. The expression level of PDC1 at the end of fermentation was much higher in pure culture while ADH1 level was similar in both pure and mixed fermentations. Conclusion In mixed fermentation, S. bombicola immobilized cells greatly affected the fermentation behavior of S. cerevisiae and the analytical composition of wine. The influence of S. bombicola on S. cerevisiae was not limited to a simple additive contribution. Indeed, its presence caused metabolic modifications during S. cerevisiae fermentation causing variation in the gene

  5. Antimicrobial Activity and Stability of Fermentation Liquid from Actinomycete H50 Strain%放线菌H50发酵液抑菌活性及其稳定性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄剑; 李天华; 崔艺久; 白洪志; 韩梅

    2012-01-01

    The strain of H50 was isolated from the soil in the lab.By identification, the strain was regarded as streptomyces. taking 12 epiphyte,3 bacteria as object, by means of mycelium growth rate and cup-plate method, the antimicrobial activity ot bioassay was studied. The stability of the fermentation broths in different conditions was measured. The antimicrobial tests showed that the inhibition rate of all the 12 strains were considerable and 6 of them reached 50%.It showed strongest inhibition efitvt against Bacillus subtills (12.3 mm).Organize method tests showed that inhibition rate of fermentation broths of the strain H50 to Sclerotinia sclerotiomm and Botrytis cinerea was 98.3% and 94.9% , respectively. Through the research of stability of the fermentation broths of actinomycete strain H50 to heat, acid, alkali and light we found that it had a stable activity to heat.acid and UV,but unstable to alkali.Antimierobial spectrum of actinomycete strain H50 was wide. Antimicrobial activity of the fermentation broths was stable and worth to be developed.%将沈阳农业大学微生物研究室分离的1株放线菌H50[链霉菌属(Streptomyces)]分别以植物病原菌真菌12株、细菌3株为供试菌,采用菌丝生长速率法和管碟法测定H50发酵液的抑菌活性以及发酵液的稳定性.发酵液的抑菌活性测定结果表明:H50发酵液对12株供试病原真菌均具有不同程度抑制作用,对其中6种病原真菌菌丝生长抑制率达50%以上,对油菜菌核病菌和黄瓜灰霉病菌的抑制率分别为98.3%和94.9%;H50发酵液对3种供试病原细菌中的枯草芽孢杆菌的抑制作用最强,抑菌圈直径为12.3mm.发酵液的稳定性检测结果表明:发酵液在80℃处理后抑菌活性开始下降,发酵液在pH值4.0~8.0条件下抑菌活性稳定,可见该菌株的代谢产物具有广谱抑菌活性和较强的热、酸、紫外光稳定性,具有潜在的开发价值.

  6. Gastrointestinal helminths in migratory Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Rewatkar

    Full Text Available Survey of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in camel migrated from U.P., M.P., and Rajasthan at Nagpur region was carried out in early summer, 2008. Total 28 samples (12 males and 16 females were collected from different places of Nagpur region. They revealed parasites as Trichuris sp.(50%, Strongyloides sp.(32.14%, Trichostrongylus sp.(10.71%, Nematodirus sp.(10.71%, Haemonchus sp.(14.28%, Eurytrema sp.(21.42% ,Eimeria sp.(25%, Entamoeba sp.(17.85% and Balantidium sp.(7.14%.All were found positive for mixed helminthic infection. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 258-258

  7. Multicentric malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla Shailaja; Singh Sanjeet; Pujani Mukta

    2009-01-01

    Malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a rare type of sarcoma that is found in the digestive system, most often in the wall of the stomach. Multiple GISTs are extremely rare and usually associated with type 1 neurofibromatosis and familial GIST. We report here a case of a 70-year-old woman who reported pain in the abdomen, loss of appetite, and weight loss for six months. Ultrasound examination showed a small bowel mass along with multiple peritoneal deposits and a mass within th...

  8. Changes to the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This article explores changes in the ageing gastrointestinal tract, including: » Diminished sense of taste and smell. » Shrinking of the maxillary and mandibular bones in the jaw. » Slowing of oesophageal peristalsis giving a feeling that something is 'stuck in the throat'. » Relaxation of the lower sphincter leading to gastro-oesophageal reflux. » Reduction in gastric bicarbonate and prostaglandin in mucus increasing susceptibility to stomach ulcers. » Changes in villi in the small intestine reducing the area for absorption. » Overpopulation of bacteria in the small intestine leading to decreased absorption of folic acid and minerals. PMID:27573953

  9. Hydrogen Production by Thermophilic Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niel, van E.W.J.; Willquist, K.; Zeidan, A.A.; Vrije, de T.; Mars, A.E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the many ways hydrogen can be produced, this chapter focuses on biological hydrogen production by thermophilic bacteria and archaea in dark fermentations. The thermophiles are held as promising candidates for a cost-effective fermentation process, because of their relatively high yields and broad

  10. China's Fermentation Industry Develops Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Output increases steadily The main products of China's fermen-tation industry include amino acid,organic acid, enzyme preparation,yeast, starch and starch sugar, spe-cial functional fermented products,etc. Monosodium glutamate is themain product of amino acid, and cit-ric acid is the main product of or-ganic acid.

  11. Process Calorimetry on Solid-state Fermentation of Vinegar Wastes in Bioreactor with Air Pressure Pulsation

    OpenAIRE

    Jian, Liu; Yang, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) of vinegar wastes saves environmental resources and helps to recover valuable material for lignocellulose purposes. The development of solid-state fermentation technology is very important for the production of cellulase and ultimately for utilization of natural cellulose. However, inadequate dissipation of heat generated by biological activities has prevented solid-state fermentation from large-scale applications. The thermal pattern of internal heat generat...

  12. The Microbiota and Health Promoting Characteristics of the Fermented Beverage Kefir

    OpenAIRE

    Bourrie, Benjamin C. T.; Willing, Benjamin P.; Cotter, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Kefir is a complex fermented dairy product created through the symbiotic fermentation of milk by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts contained within an exopolysaccharide and protein complex called a kefir grain. As with other fermented dairy products, kefir has been associated with a range of health benefits such as cholesterol metabolism and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, antimicrobial activity, tumor suppression, increased speed of wound healing, and modulation of the immune s...

  13. Acupuncture treatment in gastrointestinal diseases: A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonius Schneider; Konrad Streitberger; Stefanie Joos

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the evidence for effectiveness of acupuncture (AC) treatment in gastrointestinal diseases. A systematic review of the Medline-cited literature for clinical trials was performed up to May 2006. Controlled trials assessing acupuncture point stimulation for patients with gastrointestinal diseases were considered for inclusion. The search identified 18 relevant trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Two irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) trials, 1 Crohn's disease and 1 colitis ulcerosa trial had a robust random controlled trial (RCT) design. In regard to other gastrointestinal disorders, study quality was poor. In all trials, quality of life (QoL) improved significantly independently from the kind of acupuncture, real or sham. Real AC was significantly superior to sham acupuncture with regard to disease activity scores in the Crohn and Colitis trials. Efficacy of acupuncture related to QoL in IBS may be explained by unspecific effects.This is the same for QoL in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), whereas specific acupuncture effects may be found in clinical scores. Further trials for IBDs and in particular for all other gastrointestinal disorders would be necessary to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture treatment. However, it must be discussed on what terms patients benefit when this harmless and obviously powerful therapy with regard to QoL is demystified by further placebo controlled trials.

  14. The propionic acids. Gastrointestinal toxicity in various species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, G A; Purmalis, A; VanderMeer, D A; Denlinger, R H

    1988-01-01

    The propionic acids represent the largest chemical class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAID). Several of them are widely used, both in the United States and internationally. This paper discusses observations made on fenoprofen, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen and naproxen. Of these compounds, three are racemates; the fourth, naproxen, is an enantiomer. As a group, the propionic acids, along with most members of the other classes of NSAID, produce gastrointestinal damage in most species. These lesions vary from erythema, hemorrhage and erosion to ulceration and peritonitis. As might be expected, the degree of gastrointestinal intolerance depends on many factors: the individual compound, the dose-level, the duration of the period of drug administration, and the pharmacokinetics and metabolism in a given species. For example, in our experience the rat is less tolerant of NSAID than is the monkey, and the dog is less tolerant than the rat. Gastrointestinal lesions have been seen following both parenteral and oral administration; these findings suggest that factors other than local irritation play a role in the development of lesions. Most NSAID inhibit prostaglandin cyclo-oxygenase activity, which results in a prostaglandin deficiency at the tissue level. The administration of relevant exogenous prostaglandins, such as 16,16-dimethyl PGE2, has been shown to inhibit the gastrointestinal toxicity accompanying the administration of several NSAID, including some of the propionic acids.

  15. Effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-09-01

    An integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed to solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid fermentation process. Extraction wastewater was treated by anaerobic digestion and then recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation to eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Acetic acid as an intermediate product of methane fermentation was present in anaerobic digestion effluent. In this study, the effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated and results showed that lower concentration of acetic acid could promote Aspergillus niger growth and citric acid production. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining was used to quantify the activity of A. niger cells, and the results suggested that when acetic acid concentration was above 8 mM at initial pH 4.5, the morphology of A. niger became uneven and the part of the cells' activity was significantly reduced, thereby resulting in deceasing of citric acid production. Effects of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation, as influenced by initial pH and cell number in inocula, were also examined. The result indicated that inhibition by acetic acid increased as initial pH declined and was rarely influenced by cell number in inocula.

  16. The influence of kombucha fermentation with different substrates on digestive enzyme activity%不同底物的红茶菌发酵液对消化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸥; 李涛; 吴薇; 籍保平

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article was to study the indexes and emzyme activity such as lipase and a-amylase of Kombucha tea(KT) fermented by Gluconacetobacter sp.A4 (G. sp. A4) whose substrates were black tea(Group A), lotus leaf(Group H), lotus leaf and hawthorn fruit (Group S), lotus leaf and cassia seed (Group J), as well as traditional KT fermented by mixed tea fungus. The results indicated that Group S had the most sufficient fermention, Group A took the second place. Group A generated the most DSL. KTs showed inhibition to lipase and a-amylase, Group A had the strongest inhibition on lipase and Group H took the second place, Group J had the strongest inhibition on (a-amylase and Group A took the second place. Kombucha fermentation with different substrates displayed inhibition on digesitive enzyme activity, this result provided evidence for the mechanism of anti-obesity and functional beverage development.%对从红茶菌中分离出的菌株(Gluconacetobacter sp.A4)进行研究,分别以红茶、荷叶、荷叶与山楂、荷叶与决明子为底物进行发酵,以传统红茶菌混合发酵为对照,通过对其产物D-葡萄糖二酸-1,4-内酯含量等指标的测定来评价发酵效果,同时研究了不同底物红茶菌发酵液对消化酶活性的影响。结果表明:在30℃、发酵8 d的情况下,以荷叶山楂A4发酵液发酵最为充分,其次为红茶A4发酵液。红茶A4发酵液的D-葡萄糖二酸-1,4-内酯(DSL)生成量最高。各发酵液对脂肪酶的抑制作用以红茶A4发酵液抑制作用最强,荷叶A4发酵液次之;对α-淀粉酶的抑制作用,以荷叶决明子A4发酵液的抑制率最高,红茶A4发酵液次之。不同红茶菌发酵液对消化酶的活性具有抑制作用,为其减肥机理的研究以及功能饮料的开发奠定基础。

  17. Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

  18. Lactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of fermenting cellobiose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Oh, Eun Joong; Pathanibul, Panchalee; Turner, Timothy L; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-09-20

    Lactose is an inevitable byproduct of the dairy industry. In addition to cheese manufacturing, the growing Greek yogurt industry generates excess acid whey, which contains lactose. Therefore, rapid and efficient conversion of lactose to fuels and chemicals would be useful for recycling the otherwise harmful acid whey. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a popular metabolic engineering host, cannot natively utilize lactose. However, we discovered that an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (EJ2) capable of fermenting cellobiose can also ferment lactose. This finding suggests that a cellobiose transporter (CDT-1) can transport lactose and a β-glucosidase (GH1-1) can hydrolyze lactose by acting as a β-galactosidase. While the lactose fermentation by the EJ2 strain was much slower than the cellobiose fermentation, a faster lactose-fermenting strain (EJ2e8) was obtained through serial subcultures on lactose. The EJ2e8 strain fermented lactose with a consumption rate of 2.16g/Lh. The improved lactose fermentation by the EJ2e8 strain was due to the increased copy number of cdt-1 and gh1-1 genes. Looking ahead, the EJ2e8 strain could be exploited for the production of other non-ethanol fuels and chemicals from lactose through further metabolic engineering. PMID:27457698

  19. (1)H NMR-based metabolomic approach for understanding the fermentation behaviors of wine yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hong-Seok; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Kim, Ki Myong; Kim, Eun-Young; van den Berg, Frans; Park, Won-Mok; Lee, Cherl-Ho; Hong, Young-Shick

    2009-02-01

    (1)H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis was used for the first time to investigate metabolic changes in musts during alcoholic fermentation and wines during aging. Three Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains (RC-212, KIV-1116, and KUBY-501) were also evaluated for their impacts on the metabolic changes in must and wine. Pattern recognition (PR) methods, including PCA, PLS-DA, and OPLS-DA scores plots, showed clear differences for metabolites among musts or wines for each fermentation stage up to 6 months. Metabolites responsible for the differentiation were identified as valine, 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), pyruvate, succinate, proline, citrate, glycerol, malate, tartarate, glucose, N-methylnicotinic acid (NMNA), and polyphenol compounds. PCA scores plots showed continuous movements away from days 1 to 8 in all musts for all yeast strains, indicating continuous and active fermentation. During alcoholic fermentation, the highest levels of 2,3-BD, succinate, and glycerol were found in musts with the KIV-1116 strain, which showed the fastest fermentation or highest fermentative activity of the three strains, whereas the KUBY-501 strain showed the slowest fermentative activity. This study highlights the applicability of NMR-based metabolomics for monitoring wine fermentation and evaluating the fermentative characteristics of yeast strains.

  20. Utilization of cassava waste through fermentation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 400 isolates of molds were screened for raw starch digesting enzymes and aspergillus J8 ad Rhizopus N37 were selected for further investigations. Crude enzymes obtained from wheat bran was higher than from rice bran. Crude enzymes from Aspergillus is active at pH 4.0, whereas that from Rhizopus is active at pH 5.0. Aspergillus J8 gave higher yield of silage fermentation. Selection of yeast strain was accomplished, it was found that Saccharomyces cerevisiae SC90, the local commercial strain (non-flocculent) performed best in fermentation of cassava mash. Another strain AM12, a flocculent fusant strain derived from fusion between flocculent strain and sake brewing strain was comparable to that of commercial strain at normal temperature but performed better at higher temperature up to 40 deg C. It is unlikely that fuel alcohol produced from raw cassava will be able to compete with petroleum fuel at this moment. However, silage fermentation to increase nutritional quality of the silage through selected strains of microorganisms has a good prospect to pursue. (author)